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THE DOCTRINE AND LITERATURE OF THE KABALAH

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SEP HI ROT 1C SCHEME.
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THE

DOCTRINE AND LITERATURE
OF

THE KABALAH

BY

ARTHUR EDWARD WAITE
AUTHOR OF
THE LIFE OF LOUIS CLAUDE DE SAINT-MARTIN, THE UNKNOWNPHILOSOPHER," AND TRANSLATOR OF THE WORKS OF
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. IV. 7 14 IV. THE DOCTRINE OF THE UNMANIFEST GOD THE DOCTRINE OF THE TEN EMANATION* THE DOCTRINE OF THE FOUR WORLDS THE DOCTRINE OF THE COUNTENANCES THE INSTRUMENTS OF CREATION THE PATHS OF WISDOM THE DOCTRINE OF PNEUMATOLOGY. III. I. III. 30 36 44 53 59 65 74 . 22 BOOK II THE DOCTRINAL CONTENT OF THE KABALAH. VI. II. I POST-CHRISTIAN LITERATURE OF THE INTRODUCTORY i II.CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE ix. V... VII. THE OCCULT STANDPOINT THE KABALAH AND THE TALMUD DIVISIONS OF THE KABALAH. I.. BOOK JEWS.

DATE AND DOCTRINE OF THE BOOK OF FORMATION .. III.. IV. 103 115 122 THE AGE OF ZOHARIC TRADITION ALLEGED SOURCES OF KABALISTIC DOCTRINE CONNECTIONS OF THE KABALAH INFLUENCE OF THE KABALAH ON JEWRY V.. 174 BOOK V THE WRITTEN WORD OF KABALISM SECOND PERIOD. : II. VI. THE BOOK OF FORMATION CONNECTIONS AND DEPENDENCIES OF THE BOOK OF III. ISLAMIC VII. 229 234 THE ILLUSTRIOUS BOOK .. V.. THE BOOK OF SPLENDOUR ITS CONTENT AND THE BOOK OF CONCEALMENT THE GREATER HOLY SYNOD THE LESSER HOLY SYNOD THE DISCOURSE OF THE AGED MAN : DIVISIONS 187 . PACE I. . VI. MODERN CRITICISM OF THE BOOK OF SPLENDOUR THE DATE AND AUTHORSHIP OF THE BOOK OF SPLEN DOUR IV.212 217 226 .. III. I.vi (ontenl0 BOOK III SOURCE AND AUTHORITY OF THE KABALAH. EARLY KABALISTIC LITERATURE 152 167 II. FORMATION . 136 144 BOOK IV : THE WRITTEN WORD OF KABALISM FIRST PERIOD.. 89 95 II. I..

I 344 . CORNELIUS AGRIPPA I. vii PAGE VII. INTRODUCTORY RAYMOND LULLY III. ICUS DE MlRANDOLA IV. 260 270 271 LESSER SECTIONS OF THE BOOK OF SPLENDOUR (a) (b) (r) : (d) (&amp.. HIDDEN THINGS OF THE LAW SECRET COMMENTARY .. I. THE THE THE THE FAITHFUL SHEPHERD 246 256 ..r) THE THE THE THE THE ADDITIONS COMMENTARY ON RUTH MANSIONS OR ABODES SECRET OF SECRETS DISCOURSE OF THE YOUNG :. VIII. THE BOOK OF PURIFYING FIRE THE MYSTERIES OF LOVE MINOR LITERATURE OF KABALISM 314 319 BOOK VII SOME CHRISTIAN STUDENTS OF THE KABALAH.r) 287 MOSES OF CORDOVA ISAAC DE LORIA 288 292 303 NAPTHALI HIRTZ (d) (e) ABRAHAM COHEN R...... 273 274 276 MAN .. EXPOSITORS OF THE BOOK OF SPLENDOUR (a) (b) (&amp. .. IRIRA 306 307 308 ISAACHAR BEN NAPHTALI II. .lt. THE ANCIENT AND LATER SUPPLEMENTS . .Contents . 323 325 331 II. 277 XI..lt. 280 BOOK VI : THE WRITTEN WORD OF KABALISM THIRD PERIOD. IV.. III. X. IX.

428 433 BOOK VIII THE KABALAH AND OTHER CHANNELS OF ESOTERIC TRADITION.. ELIPHAS LEVI XVII. . 396 Two ACADEMIC (a) (b) CRITICS .. 479 483 .. THE KABALAH AND MODERN THEOSOPHY 425 .. II. .. 349 353 . 386 389 394 XIV. . S.. ... PARACELSUS VI. HENRY MORE XL THOMAS VAUGHAN XII. Qfcntitnfo PAGE V. THE KABALAH AND ESOTERIC CHRISTIANITY XX. JOHN REUCHLIN WILLIAM POSTEL .. I. III.. IV. THE ROSICRUCIANS IX. THOMAS BURNET XV.. SAINT-MARTIN XVI. VI. V. 357 VIII...viii. KNORR VON ROSENROTH RALPH CUDWORTH 364 366 370 375 380 XIII... ROBERT FLUDD X.. VII.J XIX. THE THE THE THE THE THE KABALAH AND MAGIC KABALAH AND ALCHEMY 438 449 461 KABALAH AND ASTROLOGY KABALAH AND FREEMASONRY KABALAH AND THE TAROT KABALAH AND MYSTICISM 470 . 408 414 417 421 THE MODERN SCHOOL OF FRENCH KABALISM PAPUS STANISLAS DE GUAITA (f) LEON MEURIN. XVIII.

while Kabalism involved. or that this claim has. that it a high claim. Nor will it be needful to state that the literature called Kabalistic rose up the Jews during the Christian centuries which succeeded their dispersal and the destruction of their among Holy City. for all that symbolism and ceremonial which broadly strange tissue of made up the magic of the Middle Ages. ventional practices and beliefs which we term super- . will require to be told that the Kabalah is a form of esoteric philosophy. outward form. entered into the thought of Europe. which are is direct. the Kabalah is. repellent in focus all as regards its . the Kabalah is with humanity distorted out of and we correspondence with the simple must grind our intellectual lenses with exceeding care if we would bring it into perspective. of importance it connects with literatures which are greater than : itself of the history of part philosophy. obscure and in many ways The Bible is senses. It offers a strong contrast to the sacred scriptures of Israel.PREFACE FEW to the class of students for educated persons. and with pregnant issues of history. been admitted by persons who are makes for itself entitled to our consideration. beautiful and simple. From whatever point of view it may be approached. however. and certainly none belonging which this work is more especially designed. It is speaking. and as such it once It is responsible. from time to time. at a later period it sought to transform alchemy it tinctured many of those con .

behind alchemy. in which special regard has been also paid and requirements of English readers in other words. and the guise in which we know If them is therefore chiefly a Kabalistic guise. for I my own in personal to requirements and must add. by the hypothesis of through this seemingly impassable literature that the road to the secret lies. while the scope of the enterprise much exceeds the one or two attempts mostly in foreign tongues which have been made to simplify the study of the Kabalah. with few exceptions. in this case there is assumed in the reader. unacquainted with the lan in which Kabalistic literature The exceedingly abstruse. fairness my readers and in gratitude to early labourers in this obscure field of research. A comprehensive account of the Kabalah. has been. taken. available heretofore. it is main bibliographical and establish its but seeking to connections with other forms of occult phil historical. and has been presented by some of its expositors after a highly subject is technical fashion . is the design of the to the limitations present work. Bartolocci. we might dare to suppose for a moment that behind magic. because. of those guages. . preface stition generically.x. dead and living. in the its some of defenders. in It is first the result of an inquiry under the . and hence all technicalities no knowledge have been avoided. instance. behind astrology there is any mystery of secret and real knowledge. then it is entitled to peculiar respect. that the abounding diffi culties of the Hebrew and Aramaic originals have been simplified by recourse to the vast storehouses of Rabbinical lore entombed for some centuries in such Latin collections as those of Buxtorf. osophy and to determine its influence and importance from more than one standpoint.

and collated with the L.gt. The Greater Holy Holy Assembly. to be found These and other resources have been in these. Ginsburg. on the whole. hostile in long out of Unveiled&quot.* which is critical rather than descriptive. the The Kabbalah Unveiled.y S. which its &quot. The f : . London. strengthened subsequently by a considerable range of among modern writers in England. 1887. The Commentary and partly the work of ilu- uolh. has been preceded in England by only two books dealing directly with the subject one is the It . a very large proportion of the materials necessary for an intelligent familiarity with Jewish esoteric tradition are. Translated into Hindi. &quot.&quot. 8vo.gt.&quot. . S. indicates the lines of the conclusions to which the writer leans himself. . 8vo. I). and Rosenroth . London. but time to contain to require in all is believed at the is same likely that the ordinary student order to appreciate at their proper worth the various claims preferred on behalf of the Kabalah by those who take it seriously at this day. and. It is necessary to add that it has been written by a tranalists scendentalist and chiefly for the use of transcendentin offering materials for their judgment. is partly that of Rosenroth.uburg. indeed.The Kabbalah.JkeCace Pistorius xi. L. Gi. . moreover. MacGregor Mathers.:!&amp. Kabbalah The other is the print. have concerned themselves with the subject.. and commentary. The Book of Concealed Mystery 2. h 3. and seeks to enforce some of them. I . MacGregor Mathers. it also . directly and indirectly. embraces therefore only * &quot. and is. Lcs&amp. France and Germany who.! is It has been. of Mr. I5y C.er from the Latin version ol Knon original Chaldee and Hebrew Text. containing the following books of Zohar I. tendency. The work has there reading fore the learner s advantage of being without pretence it and without ambition. slight but not inconsiderable essay of Dr. in largely translation addition to other limitations. 1865.

foremost five comprised within a few pages.&quot.x. under two heads The Sepher Yetzirah. The Zohar proper is a commentary on the books of Moses. despite The works containing the esoteric tradition of Israel. There are also supplements and additions which must be considered to some extent separate from the original collection. commentaries. are connected certain important developments and commentaries. D as distinguished in the : from the exoteric tradition its embodied a. and for the curious in paths of literature which the elder Israeli. the German historian. Connected with the Book of Formation are &quot. its among which are those of Rabbi Azariel Ben Menahem and Saadya Gaon. &quot. Graetz. be held to occupy. is for the student of philosophy and history. &quot. The comprehensive account purpose. and may. a small portion of an extensive literature. fall. furthermore. and arising therefrom. by no means deficient in importance for those who are not transcendentalists. or Book of Formation. b. They fall under two heads : i.* but a number of distinct treatises are connected with or embedded therein. Talmud and dependencies.&quot. correctness. The Zohar. . &quot. The treatise itself is Rabbi Abraham Ben Dior. not altogether unworthily. a vacant place from which present fulfils a distinct there a wide prospect. it is hoped. or Splendour. forebore to enter. some of which are included in the Kabbala Denudata of Rosenroth. seems uncertain as to It is alternative. Those which deal with the subject-matter of least is its conventional description its * This at . the bias of his birthright. but does not offer an really a theosophic medley connected with the Pen tateuch. With the Zohar.

preface xiii. an attempt at such previously in three books contain a formal tabulation has not been made The first the English language. as it almost without a history. 15. the work.. sometimes confused with the Zohar.&quot. entirely unknown. Those which 2. of course. Emanations.&quot. and as it is perhaps the Emanations Book The down among &quot. Mathers mentions the of God. of &quot. and importance. the work of later Kabalists whose dates can be fixed with more or Such Zoharistic writings have been less certainty. expound and extend the doctrines of Pneumatology which are established in These commentaries are. Book &quot.&quot. .&quot. Sephiroth i. Mr.) most important sections of the . V. occupies a peculiar position.&quot.f Some classifications of the Kabalah also include and give prominence to c. and are designed to elucidate certain of its most obscure treatises.. a historical and critical survey of the entire subject. p. Kabbalah of Unvcik-d.Book of the Revolutions of Souls. the Zohar.. t Thus in the &quot. Whatever is their authority for no warrant classics &quot. or Puri fying Fire. while that of dependencies is Purifying Fire&quot. : The Sepher or &quot.e. among the Zohar. d. and VI. Elohim.&quot. or &quot. with only Kabalistic treatise which deals directly its authorship Its date is doubtful and alchemy. A treatise entitled ^sk Metzarcph. short but comprehensive account of all A found the works which have been mentioned above in will be Books IV. the more properly set of the Sepher Yetzirah.The and the &quot.House &quot.&quot. of Numerations. there placing these works among the the great of is Kabalah. (Introduction. the &quot.

and has thus esteemed the apparatus of Gematria and Notaricon as no than the less important mysterious philosophy of the unconditioned Soph.xv. except in the modern of a school of transcendentalism. like itself. its connections with previous theosophies. On this point there has never been any real difference of sentiment. showing the philosophical system embodied in the Kabalah. devoid proper entire criterion subject of judgment. To of its historical who may approach the work from the and bibliographical standpoint the presence leading motive and its appeal to a single class those of students may require some explanation. been suggested that since the appearance of Dr. and the evidences is for its antiquity. The design of this book is to exhibit a consensus of opinion among all those authorities who are most in vogue with occultists as to what is of value in the Jewish esoteric traditions and as to what is waste substance. to explain the fundamental mysteries of the universe. and Zoharistic in summed up Ain The eighth book deals briefly with other channels through which the esoteric tradition is believed to have been perpetuated in the West and their con nection with the channel of Kabalism. and regarding the from a new standpoint. and collects for the time the opinions of the chief Christian scholars whose names have been connected with Kabalism. which. the method by which it was developed. The seventh book devoted to the Christian first students of the Kabalah. has been disposed to accept everything indiscriminately as part of the genuine tradition. It has. Ginsburg s destructive criticism there has been no . designed. I believe.

but not work immediately. tradition from an early not manifestly the period of human history. to draw from Now. interest among English scholars in the subject of the that is Kabalah. Ginsburg s criticism. in the absence of much it the is literature by which of of is One obliged to speak these occult thinkers under the generic is designation students. and been as little is quite true that there has its subsequently to mainly on account of Dr. . in itself deserve either ridicule or contempt it is that which believes in the perpetuation of a secret religious. as in other identified ungenerously with the meaner capacities that follow it. within Among mere scholars of to say. thought here.ih-cfacc xv. theosophical. or. There has been always. also forms intellectually any date prior to a more respectable and considerable body than the academical reader might be disposed to imagine acquaintance with represented. and this is an unwarrantable consequence study of religions undertaken philosophically. and an unpopular subject is classed according to the waste and drift which has collected about it. a certain class of thinkers for whom the claims made by and on behalf of the Kabalah have possessed great interest and importance. the region scholastic horizon for special research which has only a there was no interest which calls mention at the period it which preceded that publication. speaking exactly. and this class is now much It larger than at 1865. Cudworth and the Cambridge Platonists. more correctly. or. since the days of Thomas Vaughan. is A who have little proscribed mode of cases. But the class to which I have adverted does not . though the phrase somewhat inexact and has been used to describe persons title to earnest consideration.

but it has been further represented I to be the channel of such a It is tradition as have just mentioned. when he remarks on the astonishing unanimity of mystics in all ages. unlike in everything except those principles which constitute mysticism. From be is its have sought to disabuse. and yet not holding those principles as a sect clings to never be a sect. while it on the historical side alone that it connects with any traditions of the past. nature the foundation of Mysticism cannot by those whom I in occult science or in occult philosophy. but it is true as a that to occultists. the occult philosophy of Jewry.* * The reason is indicated by Schopenhauer. therefore not merely reasonable to suppose. popular or achromatic. so far I trust that I shall be justified. If I have had in the course of the inquiry to reduce certain illusions to their proper place in the realm of the fantastic. interests are accidental . more is especially if I have contracted the sphere of what its called Mysticism within proper dimensions.xv. but from the occult standpoint. as I have said. not. its tenets. as well as to some other connected questions which need reconsideration at the hands of those who hold them. for they are not and can . an inquiry like the present must appeal. their interest is vital. To determine the claims of the Kabalah as a department and inspiring centre of occult philosophy is to deter mine that which is of most real moment regarding it. and to recur with so much frequency to the belief in a secret doctrine of religion. It is for this reason that I have been led to consider the Kabalah. as an occultist in the accepted sense. the Kabalah is not only. as regards my intention. and to them almost exclusively. indeed. Other fact. it is not only one of the chief sources from which occult science and philosophy have drawn in the western world.

and as such it cannot biblio It is also exhaustively with all the issues. as well as from the who of those in the main non-critical believers still have the cause of the Kabalah at heart. I could as the note-book of my inquiry to be regarded rather been Finally. or to dismiss I all the interests at stake. the primal come and the Messianic dream of Jewry. I claim. press at The manuscript was completed the end of had year following the greater part 1898. which were destroyed in a fire at the printer and in the wholly . including is inclined in an intolerant spirit. been set up and a number of the sheets machined. There has been no interest which is I have felt myself compelled to defend. The exhaustive graphical rather would have to be made in study of the Kabalah demand connection with that of comparative religion. and furthermore. wish under any circumstances.xv the course - the general inquiry I have Kabalistic endeavoured to elucidate the most curious of the soul. performed in a spirit of impartiality. should add that the history of this book has been chequered and somewhat for unfortunate. the life of the world state destiny. impossible. I than philosophical. that I have considered honestly sympathetically those which the bias of modern scholarship to overlook. s. the work has a student methodised. its origin and teachings on the subject of man. and this side is per stake haps the only on which it leans towards at perfection. and it therefore free from the animus of extreme hostile unreasoned assumptions criticism. can make no claim and I to which ing qualifications a space for its development which would have been. to In of should add that this study is mainly concerned deal with the documents.

while is my own. Karppe s study is designed and the philosopher. and to influence upon other channels of esoteric tradition in Europe. thus occurred was considerable in still and was increased further through the suspension of the publishing house by which it was to be issued. primarily at least. and during the resetting of the entire work. led intended.xv. On the other hand. and satisfaction that there are note with which. Ibn Gebirol. Maimonides. working thus the same conclusion. The delay which itself. Aben Ezra. the scheme of my own of necessity to pass lightly over pre-Zoharic theosophy. the occult student. for the scholar many debated points on independently. for The Jewish mysticism which the Zohar is very fully but of the influence exercised by presented by him.. as already explained. over Saadyah. Karppe and be mentioned the common recognition of the heterogeneous nature of the Zohar. the points of Among myself may agreement between Dr. that work and of its after history he has nothing to up to and preceded tell us. because treatise has led me they did not affect materially the occult thought of Europe. Dr. &c. of the and to give prominence its to Kabalistic literature in its later phases. which approaches the subject at from a standpoint entirely different to my own. Karppe has have resulted published in Paris his elaborate Etude sur et la les Origines Nature du Zoliar. which has . but is the same time a valuable contribution to our I knowledge of Jewish theosophy. In the interval which has elapsed during the course of those fresh negotiations which in its production under the auspices of the Theosophical Publishing Society. S. to the Christian students subject. we have reached Dr. Judah Ha Levi.

which has . or of any other such priestcrafts antithesis as the may have outside possibility to do derived in the past. laid on the other hand. think. subsequent to the appearance of the Zohar. in the development of the Kabalistic and typically Zoharic doctrines concerning God and the universe. unacknowledged doctrine depository of Christian of the absence in the Sepher Yetzirah of any also distinctive considerable pantheism or emanationism. but because I cannot find that it I qualified writer. to any one school of thought outside Jewry of the rapid deterioration of the Kabalah. more especially concerning It creation ex nihilo. Dr. of the undue prominence which has been given to the commentaries on the Zohar and the false impressions of the preconception which have been the result . which governed the mind of most Christian students of the literature. by which they were led to regard it as an . justified me in me in Jewish character of justified terming it a medley of the specifically Zoharic mysticism. whether of mysticism whole work. And to has been challenged by any must. There is similarity. Karppe too much stress on his distinction between the early Jewish mysticism and that of the Zoharic period. I for.xx. into a thaumaturgic system . both of thought and treatment. of course. nor less Ain Soph and would be easy to multiply these easy to furnish numerous points of divergence. denying that it is referable exclusively . has. as a mystic. monotheism for the initiate and of many deities for the vulgar. instances. not because such a distinction is either non-existent or unimportant in itself. but it is more in the present place than . conception the of take exception or is the expressed Mysticism implied not a throughout double doctrine.

though explicitly. such as the mission of Sabbatai Zevi. have been already exceeded. a statement. refer to this point and register the bare fact that the personally I appeal will join issue with Dr. or of historical criticism. mention two only certain developments of pneumatology and eschatology which are representative of subsidiary yet not : the doctrinal or systematic : part let us say. as for example. to which. but Dr. the late date of the Bahir is taken for granted. whether it be a matter of simple definition.xx. I have only had occasion to refer in passing. The student will also notice a tendency in certain instances to pass over questions of criticism as if there had never been regarding them commentary of Hay Gaon a dispute : on the one hand the is made use of as . when he observes that the doctrine of ecstacy is almost unknown which to Jewish theosophy. work which. the hells of Kabalism certain historical consequences. this not To exception may be added certain points of critical importance. as regards the original intention. the author himself abundantly. personally. . Criticism may not have said its last word on either subject. and the Zoharists. however. modifies at a later stage of his study. students to whom such as that mysticism is a reprisal of faith against science. necessitated the omission of a number of I will unimportant matters. Karpe as to all that follows from his con ception. The have limits of the present Karppe ignores the criticism. the Neo-Pietists But in each case these omissions are without real consequence for the occult student. on the other. if no scholar had challenged its authenticity and.

but it has a living interest only for those who believe (a) That a secret religious tradition has been perpetuated from the early . B Many persons. The occult estimate of the Talmud (a). Such persons are here termed occult students. The purpose value of the of the present book first is to show that whatever be the second is (h) imperfect investigation has placed the in a false position. within certain limits. an exegetical interest for ordinary students. and the divisions of the Kabalah are distinguished to make clear the issues and to correct some other misconceptions. Tin. princes the sacred oracles of ancient Israel upon cannot be dismissed as unimportant. From the period of the exile &quot. I. Hebrew literature has developed in many of the chief centres of Europe. and (b) That Kabalistic literature has been one of its vehicles. view cited as a case in point. INTRODUCTORY &quot. The literature of Kabalism has a philosophical. construction of the exile placed by the of the dispersal of the Jews after the destruction of Jerusalem by Vespasian down even to our own times.BOOK I POST-CHRISTIAN LITERATURE OF THE JEWS ARGUMENT historical and. to discover that so far would be astonished back as the . but outside the scattered remnant of the children of the covenant it has remained largely unknown. not otherwise ill-formed. ages of history.

Julius Bartolocci.2 ^Ihe Jtortrine anb |pteratxtre of the Jiabalah end of the seventeenth century there were nearly four thousand works* written in the Hebrew tongue which were individually known and quoted by one authority on rabbinical bibliography. of strange shrines and sanctuaries shining weirdly far away through the darkness of our . the German biblio its variety. of the Reformed Order is of St. Lowy. in things secular as in things sacred.&quot. Subject-Index by the Rev. t conceivable department of lectual activity human Almost every learning and intel represented in this literature. 1678-1692. auctore D. There is no need to add that it its extent and its difficulties make a formidable subject of approach. 4 vols. J For one of the accessible collections which give some idea of Catalogue of Hebraica and Judaica in the With a Corporation of the City of London. Bernard. see the &quot. * in men who are born into the modern It is perhaps unnecessary to say that they were for the most part MS. Moritz Steinschneider. . an extremely curious and in some respects a profound literature. work is printed from right to left. ordine alphabetico Hebraice Latiue digestis. The Roma. still It its is.. an undiscovered country. 1891.56 foreign does it seem to that which enlightens most world. Julio Bartoloccio de Cellerio. + Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica. Library of the grapher of rabbinical literature.! which. awaiting mystery. De et scriptoribus et scriptis rabbinicis. has the seal of the It is otherwise sanctity of Israel upon all its leaves. A. is the most important contribution to our knowledge which has been made during this century. The work of Dr. namely. Columbus indeed. London. . which translation has done little to make known. which is represented incompletely enough even in the great and authoritative text-books of Hebrew history. a land full of wealth and ignorance with a light which might well be a reflection of the Shekinah. after the Hebrew manner.

and of Bryant s &quot. t The responsibility in Kenealy. seemingly on the slender ground that one branch of Kabalistic literature also deals largely equally fanciful suggestion with this subject. for all that we can tell. C. 613. As to the true is no room for uncertainty. of which term there is more than one expla nation suggested by the makers of romance in etymology. This Hebrew theosophy. i. period of (iodfn-y Higgins. has exercised a peculiar fascination on many great minds of Christendom. who thus connected with the Jewish personification of Wisdom under a female aspect. p. be as numerous as its Jewish disciples. s Introduction to the Apocalypse of Adam-Oannes. and frequently as an authority by occult writers.$oet-(hti$tian 31 iterature of the Jctoe 3 so to speak. even at the storehouse of present day. Within way and measure is known to some of us. made available by the certain it must be admitted that it it chiefly because has been fathers of bibliographical erudition. Another makes the term an analogue of Cybele.t the mythological is Queen of Heaven. of the author of sequels are quoted Its philology is of the its &quot. and in a this literature there is. Edward Vaughan Book of God &quot. .&quot. for this &quot. the report of which has been amongst us for several centuries. may.Ancient Mythology. and it possesses that simplicity which is so often the seal of truth in things of language as it has been said to be in derivation there Mr. See Kencnly &quot. another and stranger literature included.&quot. whose anonymous this case rests with the late &quot. the word has been derived from the name of the Hindoo teacher Kapila. W. for such it is. Heckethorn in the all view has made himself responsible recently new and enlarged edition of his very unequal work.* to whom a philosophy of numbers is ascribed. Ages.&quot. Nimrod &quot. 83. It is called the Kabalah. and its Gentile students. the Latin-writing scholars of the past. For example. p. Secret Societies of See vol.

a name which will be familiar to the readers of the Astrologer Gaffarel. its the nature and pre-existence of the angels union with matter and its metempsychosis . (Third edition. 1872. .&quot. Kabbalah.f then claims to be the light of a knowledge J preserved among the chosen people. it were not true in fact that it occurs form among a few old writers on magic. the offices and ministries of good and evil soul. are sacred and traditional they include. On this point see the worthless article. wisdom See Kabbalah. the Messiah. s. the meaning which appears on the surface The Kabalah secret &quot. 543. . Perth. H. and in this form it is supposed to be put veiled that is is to say.&quot. 1864. .v. Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology. the .Encyclopaedia Perthensis&quot. as might be expected. &quot. the process of celestial economy the scheme of Providence in regard to man the communications of God in revelation and to the Deity . observes the word is written also as Gabella. and the subjects with which it is concerned. a nonsensical corruption. the mystery of sin and * its penalties . signifying Kitto s Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature. creation . is.&quot. this See &quot. into writing. just in his church . not the true sense. his that The &quot. the initials of these words gave another title. &quot.) The recipients of this knowledge were termed Mekkubalim. indeed.v. t Encyc. London. which and would not be worth noting in this iv. London. titles ascribed to it was ChKMH NSThRH. The word comes from to receive. s. if of course.&quot. the most pro found mysteries of God and the emanations of the divine subjects . that is. a Hebrew literature root which signifies Kabalah in the equals reception. Blunt s Grace.* The knowledge embodied this title which passes under have been transmitted orally purports to to from generation The literature as it exists is the tradition generation. 544. in T. t We shall see afterwards that a certain amount of caution. view must be received with One secret of the .gtfdrine anb literature ot the gabalah those of Nature and Art.

and upon the proper understanding of that Written It is Word which is referred to a divine origin both in Christendom and Jewry. has been Mjineiime-.&quot.* set forth in in The Kabalah.It is apparent from the many similarities in this Cabbalistic philosophy to the doctrines in the New Testament and early Patristic literature that both of the latter most probably have had a common germ and as in origin in the esoteric teachings of the &quot. PP. 1888. which are in most cases Christian doctrines. Philadelphia. &amp.00t-(hri0tiau iL iter. The Philosophical Writings of Writings. sen Doctrina vol. by Kabbala Dtnudata. i.B. the problems of Christian faith but its Christian ex pounders have held that special way. Israel a word. Isrru-lites. Apparatus in Librum Sa/iat. pars secunda. Hebmornm Ttanscendtntalis Metaphysica.. it may be expected therefore obvious that in a general sense to cast light of some kind upon . as well more open and exoteric teachings of the Hebrew Holy Isaac Mycr. Solomon Ben Ychudah Ibn Gebirol.&quot. LL. that the it New does this also in a more Testament and the writings of the early fathers of the church did not only derive from the inspired memorials of the first covenant.iturc of the Jctus 5 kingdom and It is his glory to be revealed the state of the soul after death and the resurrection of the dead. but from the construction placed on those memorials by this esoteric tradition. f According to the literature which embodies it. the The letter of St. but these are the heads of the instruction as I find in them epistle an excerpt from a Latin the collection of Baron von Rosenroth. Jerome to Paulinus. regarded as a case in point. able in needless to say that by a literature so consider its capacity there are many other subjects embraced. p.lt. .3-5- t &quot. 8vo.. is the hidden thought of upon the doctrines of the Jewish religion. . which dwells consecutively upon the mysteries contained in all the books of the Old and New Testaments. the tradition in question originated with * ft God himself. 7.

of fixing imposture on an esoteric literature because its attribution is mytho logical * . 243. See Book of God. and from these in due course in it an especial manner by Solomon. &quot. p. it should be remembered that we are dealing. Antiquity&quot. the appeal made by the alchemists to the sages of antiquity. knowledge. connects this myth with the not the imposture of Ceremonial Magic sometimes referred to under this name. When he lapsed from that pure condition he lost this precious deposit. We should beware. and many other fictions which deserve to be classed as monstrous. 273 et seq.Jtortrine anb JDittratxtre ot the Jiabalah whom tion to it angelical world was communicated to chosen ministers in the and it was imparted by divine revela . Kenealy s mythical notice of a Book of the Wisdom of Adam. recall the fabulous origins ascribed to institu tions like Freemasonry. Compare E. and was possessed It was not com mitted to writing until after the destruction of the second temple. p. passed onward to David.&quot. It was handed down through Noah to Moses. of A course. (London.* genealogy of this kind will. See also ibid. John Notes on the Scientific and Religious Mysteries of Yarker.. it takes occasionally the guise of a book delivered to Adam. but it was subsequently restored to him in order that he might return towards perfection. in his &quot. but presumably the ancient legendary Midrash. Book of and reproduced under various forms by debased Kabalism. afterwards developed by Eleazar of Worms pre-Zoharic Razael. V. An old Jewish tradition tells us that this volume was brought by the Angel Razael. .. p. 21).&quot. It is to Abraham and thence derived the concealed sense of the Mosaic Pentateuch. which is supposed to signify the support of a secret &quot. received in an ecstasy and full of mysteries and signs expressive of the most profound knowledge. Naturally enough. The legend has many variations and has been loosely reproduced by many inexact writers. &quot.&quot. however. for a rabbinical account of a staff given to Adam. 1872. Adam in his unfallen state. the secret of which was entrusted by the law-giver to the seventy elders. Mr.

for must ever remain a matter of curious and is unrewarded research. has. proved so unintelligible upon its surface that.irak or &quot. complexities and confusions do is f not necessarily point to the existence a double sense. t Obscurities. so classics informs us. it believing that whom it on the other. It is in one sense he purpose of later literature this inquiry to determine whether the is of the reception entitled to be included in the condemnation of the Divine Rabbi. on the one hand. II. with a body genealogy of its of symbolism. but yet written after a concealed manner. . it has been considered merely meaningless jargon. found pleasure in sealed to uninitiated persons. but the state ment probably the explanation of a commentator. while a few who pretend to have penetrated to its real sense have. and the may be is itself an evasion.jtoet-Chrisliau literature of the Jetos 7 by the hypothesis. indeed.! it is to be expected that to the its literary methods It will offer difficulties ordinary student. Hook of Formation. though not perhaps wanting * The Sepher Yet. between the possible fact of its existence at a remote have period and the growth of legend about it. Moreover.&quot. an oral tradition exaggerau-n and we must distinguish therefore antiquity. THE OCCULT STANDPOINT the Kabalah claims to be a tradition long As reduced received in secret by one generation from another and one of its at length into writing. the testimony of Christ Himself as to the existence of a tradition in Israel. peculiarly liable to the We and we have also His judg ment upon its value.* because of the bad state of the affairs of Israel.

however. good method no system render its faith the cipher it must follow a certain and conceal a definite sense. for represent to any writer. that no cipher writing devised by human in genuity is ingenuity. is There are cryptic philosophies and con cealed metaphysics. secrets to the searchlight of analysis. There is also of symbolism and no form of philosophical however complex. . It has a perfectly simple surface meaning . even as there is cryptic writing. it . which will not sur speculation. view suggests that more patience and greater pains were needed the second. of in . and yet it is not cryptic in the sense of cipher-writing. its This also is its great difficulty patience.nt anb ^itwatww of the giabalah The first some gleams of unexpected suggestion. however curious in its vided always that the symbolism the speculation involutions. to the distinction which must subsist which is of necessity between the sense of a cipher unmistakable from the moment that it is disengaged and the construction of a speculative hypothesis which in its minor issues may always be open to debate.* * In regard to occult philosophies best example of a really cryptic literature is it is usual The that concerned with Alchemy. subject. incapable of solution but the assumption. but if they possess a meaning. that the faculty for pains . the concealment is the significance of certain conventional words and recipes. pro is systematic and that methodised. and this appears unwarranted only is Specialists in cryptography assure us. may say what the word Vitriol. while cryptography must disclose nearly impossible to secret to skill and is example. also by human supposes course. a kind of peculiar election which is possible taking to the few. if it be not the ordinary substance passing under that name. and we have even higher warrant in the testimony of reason itself. it cannot escape ulti mately the penetration of the patient and skilled critic.

in fact. * and since la science est nne noblesse qui oblige. after spending some years among strange pathways of human ingenuity. numerical mysticism runs through all departments of occultism. so will its mystery. they do not possess. as cipher writing will surrender secret to analysis. if accessible. t here to the unravelling of the fust sense . Or alternately. for example. which is the master-key to all occult philosophy also disclose cryptography.* without conventional initiation. About the second point is In most cases this mystery I refer is merely the difficulty of the single MUM. two considerations on the once arrest attention. There are. For my own part. it might be regarded as a labour-saving apparatus which. . I know cer a tainly that the occult sciences do constitute methodised system which is singularly inwrought. in the case that they are methodised. even though an imagi native reader may transfigure the statement and inter pret too liberally the narrow concession which I have it is here * made to sincerity. surface of a question like the present which will at The first is whether the occult philosophies are not inherently unmeaning. till 9 which in its legitimate meaning its is the key is sup but just true . % In the sense that.$oet-Chnetiitn giterature of the Jctus to say that they are unintelligible plied. I must bear testimony to this fact. and unable therefore to disclose what. whether the mystery which they cover is not out of all proportion to the enormous intellectual cost of un ravelling it. though supposing the exist ence of a royal road of this kind. however. the existence of any other a matter of conjecture. it would not be prudent to set aside.f Of these two points one at least must be determined according to individual predilection.

&quot. yet in none of these books do we possess a complete whence it follows that prior to Moses oral tradition was alone charged with transmitting the secret of initiation. Bertet owed his inspiration and frequently his language to Eliphas Levi. In the is pursuit finished. it is occult science and philo sophy. p. 1861. 51). as the majority are concerned. We find on every page of the five books of Moses Kabalistic expressions which proclaim that everything must be taken in a figurative sense.io ^lu Jbftrine anb fjDiterature difficult to indicate . at least.of the Siabalah extremely even a personal opinion. because it offers to all those who may be disposed to concern themselves with one important department of occult philosophy an intelligible state ment of the issues which will save most of them the need of personal research. The labour involved by their exhaustive study repays those who undertake of it only in a few cases. The importance of the written tradition of Kabalism can be regarded only from two standpoints. gives the position . There is that which it may possess for the sacred scriptures of the Jewish and Christian religions and in for the exoteric doctrines which more or less derive from these. occult it knowledge Campaspe never But is precisely for this reason that an inquiry like the present may be held to deserve a welcome. . &quot. .* cluded Under this first head may be also its significance. . Adolphe Bertet. if any. treatise of initiation. so far. From the occult standpoint this is of more consequence than from that of ordinary exegesis. So it knowledge is its own reward. for the science of parative thought. I suppose that be worth its cost. in his Apocalypse du bienheureux Jean devoilte (Paris. theology and for the history of Besides such obvious and unquestioned it com human grounds upon which * is entitled to consideration.nay far as research should be ruled out of the sphere of operation possessed by this truism. but if any department of . very clearly.

ture of the secret sciences is pursued by many persons from many motives.* and that concerns. modern it who sur in his le Essai sur le symbolisme antique de / Orient. be regarded as occult students. the It has. magical this (e) and efficacious language. idols. here it is necessary to determine what is meant and The study of the large litera involved by occultism. the disguise of many . veils according to legend. de Briere. titular distinctions which are not of a As I believes in the existence of a effect is understand him. but even then it had taken no definite shape. * The . assumed. nor religion is the not confined to one country or interior sense of any single in or of any single cycle literature to the best aspects of this belief are. does the attempted practice of any of the secret sciences in itself constitute a claim to that title. as might be expected. and chiefly of theology (2) . sciences. exclusive patrimony of the priesthood (c) The existence among all eastern priests of a common idiom of high antiquity. the true student of occultism knowledge which in occult science it handed down from remote ages. indeed. In a very large number of cases such practices suggest flattering kind. prindpalemctit symbolisme Egyptian (Paris. which passed as a theurgic. but few of these can. of its aspects was developed in a remarkable manner by M. origin for all religions (b) The existence of sacerdotal sciences as the . emblematic (/) The existence of the sacred language and hiero : = glyphic writing among all peoples possessing sacerdotal sciences. for various reasons. way of union its between man and God.float-Christian literature of the Jetoe there is 1 1 another warrant in the interest which it And possesses for the seeker after occult knowledge. . Nor. the Phoenicians and Chaldeans for example. quite can scarcely be said to have existed prior to the end of the One eighteenth century. of the texts. it it is people. in the proper sense of the term. maintained: (a) A common . broadly speaking. figures of gods (i) Imitation of words hieroglyphs Imitation of thoughts = images. (tl) The reproduction of language by hieroglyphics which were also theurgic and magical A dual sacerdotal method of expressing the principles of priestly . 1847).

1896. for example. schools. has translated a small portion and has prefixed an introduction which As regards the Christian religion. confided. there is not a single work which does not break down at once in the hands of the most temperate criticism.12 ^he |30ctrine anb ^itttninu of the there all exclusion * of all others. one most important this is From Kabalah and standpoint the true message of the not exegetical or historical it is not of . . London. systems. indeed. and it redeems the whole circle of occult science from the charge of vanity. more advanced &quot. is among of its occult philosophies. indeed. it among through behind the conventional occultism of nations.deposition the of all science has been I. are traces of its existence in religions . we take. Given tion this standpoint. or on that of evidence which If is without much title to serious consideration. invisible celestial Church. and should not. Mr.&quot. in truth. and is It is. .a Mathers. see Eckartshausen concerning school.&quot. and yet to concede the posi impossible for ordinary criticism. Letter to which The C/ond upon Translated by Isabel de Steiger. in England.&quot. Kabalistic literature is in describably momentous. because has been occupied either on the warrant of a knowledge which cannot be made public. or interpretations spiritual it is of a living kind. very difficult to defend. Kabalistic literature vehicles. This is. the only vital point of view from which the subject can be regarded. the expository literature of Kabalism which has been written from the occult standpoint in any modern language. heretofore it therefore idle to proclaim. of the Zohar. be expected by those who hold it intelli is gently. or &quot. * &quot. all is times. all Magic and the transcendental physics of Alchemy. the Sanctuary.

In America. a term borrowed from modern in the last analysis. Tradition de f Occident. while he leaves on mind of his readers an indistinct impression that Dr. Ginsburg. I to chal propose only to determine ground for believing that the Kabalah has been a channel of such tradition. I do not know that in any true sense of the term the position has a single defender. is not only one of its supporters. Paris. that a secret doctrine has been transmitted from antiquity it . is forced on crucial points to assume many things that are required for his hypothesis. 1892. but gives credit to the most fabulous side of Kabalistic legend.t In Germany.1f{thodiqitc. It is not my purpose either to question 01 maintain the general fact alleged. and if this view must be abandoned. is not entirely Secrete t La Kabbale. who errs on the side of hostility. and one which.* In France the real questions at issue are scarcely skirted in the otherwise careful tabulation attempted by Papus. &amp. . to place those who are is whether there willing to follow me in possession of a method of regarding intelligible it which will make its existence at least without taking anything for granted and without appealing to any source of knowledge which is not fully in evidence. would be scandalous as a reasonable person lenge the possibility.lt.}J09t-(Ehnstian giterature of the 3feto0 13 the takes the whole claim for granted. antiquity cealed diffusion of a Wisdom theosophy. whose erudition entitles him to our respect. namely. Isaac Myer. which exhausts everything. and general hut -con Religion. factory to the my^tir. * He assumes in fact the existence. 8vo. Res nine&quot.

ad nostram catatem deducta.. here applied. like those of Bartolocci and Wolf. to use a its two canons were fixed somewhat conventional phrase. among the Jews five centuries before our era. the author Cabak in the Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIX e Siecle (Pierre In reality the Kabalah originated Larousse). as. and in the main among the sect of the Karaites. be distinguished from the multifarious productions of its scholars and literati which it was the object of rabbinical bibliographies. THE KABALAH AND THE TALMUD The post-Christian literature which is of authority in Israel must. cujuscumque vel ab aliis conversa sunt. 4to. it was elaborated silently. 4 vols. iii. Leipsic and Hamburg. The inspiration here is Franck. The latter is a larger as it is also an older growth. sire notitia tum auctorum Hebraicorum turn scriptortim. Hebraa. of course. In order to understand the place occupied by the Kabalah it is necessary to say something of that great known to every and authoritative collection which is&quot. at which periods. Its starting-point has been placed by a moderate criticism shortly before the birth of Christ. f and. it cannot be shown conclusively that Kabalistic litera ture. although there are evidences in abundance of a more esoteric doctrine. for example. in the fourth and sixth centuries. antiquity to the Kabalah. 1715. shortly. &quot. but did not attain its definite development till the period of Philo and the schools of Alexandria. t There are critics outside occult circles who ascribe a similar of the article s. one as the Talmud. . qua vel Hebraice primum exarata. the sources of the Talmud are said to be is the customs and regulations practised * by the authori- Bibliotheca (ftatis..v. t. A. had as yet co me into existence. 1867. Formed of the mixture of oriental ideas and Mosaism at the epoch of the captivity.* to resume in brief.D. according to the restricted sense in which the term Put &quot. Paris.&quot.14 ^ke Jlortrine ani literature of the Jiabaiah III.

rival He endeavoured to destroy In this all Mishuayoth. 204.lui: He was the third patriarch of the Western Jews. Tosephtoth.ur. tions. extraneous. having converted the Kmperor Marcus Aurclius.\\ also outsiders.iy London. and there can. By Michael York. terms * KnglMi Translation. in the sense of thing-. notes of academical which received subsequently many additeachings.gt. by whom In this they were methodised short comments of his added. a considerable pro portion of these was engarnered Prince. xvi. (b] The Baraitkoth. a term namely. xv. And extravagances. be no in doubt that the materials embodied are far the literature forms. pp.had little schedules or scrolls of parchment. pp. : of the Jcwi-h Go-men Davidis. in which they set down all the tradi &quot.D.&quot. See 1.&amp. own being also way the collection occasionally received the impression of his peculiar views. 1883.. II. L. t In the Halichol Ohim it is said that Jewish teacher.. from which other authorities differed.* claimed that this source goes back to the period of Esdras. sentences. i. Talmud. \ by Rabbi Judah the carefully. : IIi&amp.lt. and a legend says that. 205.&quot. Xution. For an old account of thi.iyoth. Leyden.-. statutes.The Babylonian Vol. he compiled the Mishna at the command of that Trince. or repetition. older than their earliest collected These materials were certain signifying repetitions Mishn-. see David (ian/. or additions. but some of them were preserved in secret and came to light after his death. their masters crcl. A. Imer ] . sire Chronologia Sacra II ft Pi of liana. 1896. New tions. way we have (a) The Mishna. and scrolls BO from and that these forth which they learned were called the v&amp. . decision.! . Rodkinson.gt.go0t-(hri0tian gitcrature of the Jetos ties 15 civil in their It is administration of religious and affairs.. or secondary matter. at least.&quot. 8vo. 1644.f About the year 220. lali-. being the metho called dised selection of Rabbi Judah.

By of the Simeon ben Jochai is represented as Gemara was more meritorious than asserting that the study that of the Mishna or But here a later the sacred Scriptures. (c] and thus arose The Gemara i. Johanon Ben Eliezer. by which the original collection is said in the course of time to have been almost extinguished. four times larger than that of Jerusalem. has obtained the wider application because the Gemara always accompanies the Mishna. J It and was begun in the fifth and completed in the sixth century. the &quot.. and belongs to the end of school the fourth century. with the Mishna. The proportion of the Babylonian Gemara to the original Mishna is about eleven to one. but even subsequently to this period additional material was gathered into it. forms the Jerusalem Talmud.oTItr Jpactrinc &amp. Mishna being the same rabbis. Ashi and R. It is much exceedingly important that we should under stand the position which is occupied by the great collections of the Talmud in respect of the literature which is termed technically the Kabalah.lt. Babylonian rabbis. with the Mishna. in each. R. conclusions or completion. predilection has perhaps t but it Strictly speaking. * name.e. Their rival claims were ultimately harmonised by later rabbis. sheltered itself under an earlier name. of which there are two versions. as have has suggested many errors of comparison. forms the Talmud of Babylon.f or instruction. . In the I first place. from a word signifying to teach.1 6 &quot. the text being essential to the note. technical or conventional. The Gemara collected by especially by Rabhina.&quot. the term Talmud applies only to the Gemara. Jose. The Gemara the collected of representing by Jerusalem Tiberias and R.mt) |tt*rature of the applied by the followers of Rabbi Judah to the rival Mishnayoth. this said.* The union of the Gemara and the MisJina forms the Talmud.

Paris. the Sephirotic system. pp. for the French ecclesiastic Morin. primarily a philosophical system. as &quot.&quot. The Talmud not.&quot. See Farrar the &quot. For example. it is the construction placed on the jurisprudence. + Hence all the conspicuous philosophical doctrines of the Kabalah have no place therein. 522. with which we be concerned later on.son between the Talmud Kabalah as is The Talmud and Freemasonry and late Western Occultism. possible to institute a compari. corpus juris in which the law has not s It been differentiated from of Christ. but it became the asylum of some between C . There is no question as to the age and the great authority of the one.hall : as the oral traditions ultimately embodied in the Mishna. cannot be traced in the Talmud./. | it is mentary. To place it by the arbitrary In older Jewish literature. because both by tradition. almost divergent. 1660. ecclesiastical and Israel. and the theory of emanation which it involves.&quot. at least. It is sociology. 406.&quot. if we assume is the equal is still antiquity of both. Consult M beta History of the Jewish Nation. 521. . proceeding on the principle that the Jews It has been described as yet &quot.. p.* But to say that the is Talmud is Kabalistic in the sense of the Zohar The cycles are distinct and extremely misleading. iii. American Encyclopedia. 758.. Moreover.. cf old not metaphysics. the name (Kabalah) is applied to body of received religious doctrine with the exception of Pentateuch. t I do not mean that there has never been a question.Life is illustrated edition. the whole the well cannot be believed in anything relating to the age of their literature. hv and com by authority political. thus including the prophets and Hagiographa. a edition. morality and religion. the nature of the tradition generically different. not mysticism. p. endeavoured to refer the Mishna to the beginning of the sixth century and the Gemaras to some two hundred years foter.Exercitntionfs Hil lidf. third &amp.gt. even though it has admitted metaphysics and has accretions which can be termed mystical.float-fchrietian ^literature of the Jctoe 17 is the hypothesis of both literatures is the Talmud Kabalah even as the Zohar are a reception Kabalah.t while some cen turies of inquiry have not as yet determined the claims of the other.

viii.&quot. p. and its nature does not really transpire. place in the of philosophy.&quot. t the Encyclopedic Paris. French and Spanish Jews at the Talmudic he it the Law . but a field of work and of development. to make a metempsychosis foolish and de M. Talmud records occasionally that there were conversations betwen the opinion that such a tradition existence. . 8. philosophical speculations. In the immense collections which have come down to us from fifth the allegorical or sixth centuries of the Christian era. and in the Mcrcavah. but under ihe standard of the Craft all occult science of the eighteenth century found not only a refuge. the existence of the speculative part is shown in these books solely by the reference to the mysteries contained in Bercshith. . the evolution of &quot. they concern. it does not report the utterances. informed and accomplished defender of the existence of Kabalistic tradition in La Talmudic times. so-called. f The Zohar gave to Israel the splendid impulsion of the ideal it gave life .v. the exoteric portion. first chapter S. the equivalent of an admirable distinction between the two literatures in his observations upon the compara tive position of the period of the promulgation of the Zohar. 4to. but it was referred to doctors of Israel thereon. Cabbale. or Vision of Ezekiel.&quot. in the other * it was the high grades. &amp. Paris. and destiny of souls. negative divine subsistence. was known as regards the fact of its While the only enigmatically. there is no trace of If we find reminiscences of the Kabalah. into positive being. it brought the mystic traditions. in the Talmud as in interpretations of the Bible. vol. Isidore Loe b* offers us ceiving classification. philosophy it created a wide horizon . circumscribed by the circle of had no horizon and no future it had no tells us. or the of Genesis. 1848. Supreme Crown. It should be added that the Talmudic references to the Work go of the Creation and the far to verify the Work of the Chariot would. so to speak. s. The way of entrance in the one case was the Haggadic morality. if collated. Munk : The author was an Philosophic chcz lesjuifs.1 8 ^he Jtodrine attb $tteratttre of tltc Jiabalah use of a conventional term in the same category as the literature which discusses the mysteries of the &quot. La Grande &quot.gt. Freemasonry is not Occult Science. or angelology . . the emana tion of the Sephiroth and the is origin. Israel was.

as a fact. collection of miscellaneous utterances touching on every possible it &quot. was collected during the second century of the Christian era by Rabbi Jehudah Hakadosh Hanassi that is. construction in the deliberations of a Common Law the Holy Synod in the collections of State Trials.120.. &quot. 12.&quot. and a theory of transmutation in Con what has been done actually veyancing. and Haggada : &quot. 8vo. and that we are to look possesses wrong below that it its literal sense. Ilalakha free interpretation.Soet-CChristian literature of the Jetuo exiled 19 Jew . 351. by Anatole Leruy-Beaulieu. norma.&quot. Second edition. result of the confusion in question is The place a first to construction upon Talmudic literature. who. it a double meaning. of the Haggadic legends may possess an inner meaning. as believed of the Kabalah proper.Mysteries See also Waite 1897.&quot. As Ilalakha is rule. t La Clef des Grands Mysteres. literal sense that one is driven out of mere generosity to = suppose that Compare p. Israel subject. Some History of the Jewish Nation. misstated so much. to affirm that. into correspondence with the thought of it the world communicated the Eternal. London. legend.* It would be as reasonable has been well pointed out to admit a metaphysical of England. 1861. et seq. pp. 136. among the Nations. 1 of Magic. f He lays down that the first &quot. . The Ilalakha : alone is law. a grandiose presentation of the Talmudic system which does grave outrage to good sense.a meant something which does not appear on its surface. &quot. they are allegorical stories. 8vo. so Haggada is 24. in the case of the Talmud by the one Kabalistic ex positor whose influence with occult students in France and England is so paramount as to have been con this is Yet sidered almost beyond appeal. Talmud. p. the history of the salting of Leviathan is so absurd in it. the only truly Kabalistic one. p. Judah Edersheim divides Talmudic traditionalism into two portions = the legislative enactments of the Fathers. To we owe Eliphas Levi. that is. Paris.

metaphysical or mystical. for the first thing which prudence would have towards suggested would be to hide the real feelings of Talmudic Jews I * Christians. wrote it within and without. &quot. much less exclusively. and so forth. the seeds which must not be sown together earth. 1656) supposed a second sense in the Talmud. or. 1702) and Galatinus (De Arcanis Catholics It was not. This supposition is idle than the other. many histories in the Talmud which must construed literally. except on the thin ground that in the notion of the Supreme it Crown is and of universal contained that of the fructifying principle Any attribution could production.&quot. the meats which are prohibited on these. the days of no attempt to justify The the attribution which connects it with Chokmah. but was a concealment prompted not less by the necessities of a persecuting time. of which the fact. be accredited after The second book fasting concerns the festivals of Israel. they belong merely to the domain of allegory. but. chiefly. agricultural. as who had obviously not read &quot. There is should note that. who composed his the most holy and the prince book according to all the rules of supreme initiation. it. long prior to Eliphas Levi. and these are not dissembled in the Talmud. There not be of course. It is by no means Levi. this fashion. . Adrianus Relandus (Analecta Rabbinica. He &quot.&quot. first concerns tithes. third book concerns marriage and divorce. in the and so forth. as in the case previously cited. represents. the beasts which it is unlawful to in the pair. however. as Ezekiel and St. and he indicated its transcendental sense by the sacred letters and numbers corresponding to Bereshith of the first six Sephiroth?* This asserted Sephirotic correspondence has no place in The Mishna comprises six sections. the fruits which must not be gathered till the trees have passed their third year. the threads which must not be interwoven. Veritatis. are. Nor has any special correspondence with Kether. John have the it.20 ^he Jtoctrine anb |Citerature oi the &quot.

. Some traditional commentary on the legislative part of the Mosaic Thorah.&quot.&quot. corresponds with Chesed or Mercy. but as it looks better under the attribution of Justice. p.exists in a book proscribed by the the Jewish Talmud. it Eliphas LeVi says that the Middle of Israel through is superior to any code of Ages and accounts all its for the preservation persecutions. which. Richard Simon draws attention to this error. the Sephirotic system is re versed accordingly. It is procedures of this kind which have made occult criticism deservedly a * byword among scholars. 85). an occult opuscuhtm observes that the key occult writers. which treats. observes that the terms Kabalah and Massorah are applied to one science by the Jews.! The exegesis thus inaugurated loses nothing in the hands of later For example. &quot. which will alone manifest their interior open the revelations of the Christian Scriptures and sense. . pp. jfetos 21 words of Levi. As a matter of is The sixth book treats of purifications. which Levi terms &quot.&quot. saying that &quot. is the criticism &quot.Jost-Chrietian gitcrature of the &quot. lias presumed to treat the subject of the Kabalah in the absence of elementary knowledge.the most hidden * secrets of life and the morality which directs it. makes appeal. general civil and criminal actions. to The fifth book. Thus. according to false fact. Christian Church Nizida. (new edition. penalties. is allotted Mercy by holy. author of the Societies of all Ages and Countries&quot. London. in his eighth prolegomena to the Polyglot Bible. The fourth jurisdiction. this transposition. it According to the natural order of the Sephiroth. he tells us that the literal Kabalah is called the Mishna (vol. the French transcendentalist. by Second edition. W. Heckethorn. book deals with civil contracts. So also Walton. that this it The Astral Light. I. C. it is more particularly consecrated to women and the fundamental basis of the family. which is not the work of occultists deserves the Secret Mr. 50. of consoling beliefs and things which creates a completely it.&quot. 1897). &c. 2 vols. 1892. as we have seen. It is just to add work is not regarded as of consequence by the circle to which See &quot. im it pression concerning dedicated to votive offerings. t same condemnation. 51.&quot.

&quot. . Hebrew text. makes an exceedingly proper distinction when he affirms that the Kabalah and the Zohar allow a &quot. under the Law deals with everyday life and humanity that the one starts from a spiritual &quot.&quot. but governed by very different sentiments of scholarship. Compare W. unlike the transcendental aspect attributed to the Massorah * &quot.&quot. &quot. Amsterdam. is the criticism of the p. The Blazing 1872. while the Talmud &quot. 1685. point of view. Histoirc Critique du Vieux Testament. but they are of method rather than material. The Massorah the openly delivered by the Rabbi Kabalah is that that which was which was secretly and mysteriously received by the disciple. I2mo.&quot. .22 ^he gtortritu auii ipterattire ot iht giabalah Talmud has its correspondences with the Kabalah. p. 498. Greene. It is highly desirable to study it in connection with the Zohar. DIVISIONS OF THE KABALAH our subject it Before we can proceed with will be necessary to remove some further false impressions which. 29.&quot. B.&quot. Isaac Myer. and having. but that the other is eminently practical in both its starting-point of perception and end. Gebirol. observance of the Law in all its * IV. Philosophy of Ibn Star. Another writer. in the face of ignorance. also occultist. 35. that they are purely speculative say philosophy. Mr. want and natural waywardness of the masses. &quot. The Massorah is in every respect is the converse of the Kabalah. p. but it is a consummate act of ignorance to confound and to regard them as written upon the The same principle and with the same an objects. . contemplating a spiritual finality as regards the Law and its explanation. &quot. He means to great margin to speculative thought.&quot. strict nothing but the details in view.

float-Christian gitmiturc of the

Jf etos

23

the Talmud, are not errors peculiar to occult writers, and have consequently a wider sphere of operation.

and applications of the tradition which is supposed to have been perpetuated For most popular writers, for almost all in Israel.

They concern

the

nature

encyclopaedias which have not had recourse to a specialist, the Kabalistic art is simply the use of sacred

names
above

in the
all

evocation of

spirits,* or

it is it

that at least
in

and more than
of reference
while
it

all.f

We
still

find

standard
of

sources

like

the

great
in

dictionary

many slipshod accounts which pass from book to book, without any attempt at verification on the part of those who reproduce them. It illustrates the importance which
Calmet,*
is

obtains

everywhere attributed to magic, for
all

in

the last

analysis

occult science

and

all

its

oral traditions

by the popular mind into a commerce with the denizens of the unseen world. I have done
are resolved
full justice

elsewhere

to the

enormous influence exer

cised

by the belief in this commerce, so that the vulgar In a higher sense instinct is not entirely at fault.
all

than that of ceremonial magic the ends of
science are assuredly in the unseen,
*

occult
to the

and as

Le Triple Vocabulaire Infernal (Paris, Frinellan What is termed the Kabalah is the art of commercing 30 with elementary spirits." united with astrology, and to t Sometimes, however, it is

Compare
"

:

n.d.

),

p.

:

cl<>.->ely

speak of

L

considered equivalent to speaking of Kabalistic matters. Such, apparently, was the notion of D^meunier, Esprit des Usages et des coutumes des different reuplcs> font. ii. lib.
this

occult science

is

1

\\.

London, 1776.
"

Dictionary of the
s

Bible."

For convenience of reference,

consult C. Taylor
"

London, 1823, vol. i. s. v. Cabbala. The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts," part i. c. i. p. 5 et seq. London, 1898, 410. It must be admitted that th-_- term Kabalah was applied early in its history to some form of theurgic practice.
translation,

24

^he

jportrine anb literature of the

gabalah

processes of evocation I have said already that they are largely Kabalistic processes.* They are, however,
either late
esoteric

and corrupt derivatives which are not the tradition, but applications, and hence acci dents thereof; or, if we must admit that there were

magical practices involving a conventional procedure and a formal ritual prevalent among the Hebrews at

a remote

period,-)-

which were also handed down, and

are therefore entitled to be classed, in a sense, as

Kabalah, then that reception must be distinguished very carefully from the Kabalah with which we are
here concerned. J

Formation

"

The tradition of the and the Book of Splendour
"

"

Book of
is

"

not of

magic but of philosophy. It has not been incorrectly described, though by an unknown writer, in the fol

The Kabalah claims to be that spon lowing terms taneous philosophy which man, quoad man, naturally
"

:

affirms

affirm so long as

now, always has affirmed, and always will man is man. The worlds confessed
to
his

by the Kabalah are worlds known upon which man has set the seal of
worlds related to
*

man, worlds

own

nature,
is

man and

of

which man

the

Refer to preface. t It is to these practices that I suppose Richard Simon alludes, when he says that "the ancient Jewish doctors brought many super This author can be hardly stitious sciences from Chaldea," p. 93.
regarded as an authority on Kabalistic questions
confess (op.
to
cit.,
; indeed, he seems to pp. 116, 117) that he had not thought it worth while time over "the ancient allegorical books of the Jews," such

as the

expend Zohar and the Bahir.

The

opposite

is

who

"

says

:

From

this source all

held by an American writer, T. K. Hosmer, Jewry was overrun with demonology,

The Jews in Ancient, thaumaturgy, and other strange fancies." Mediceval and Modern Times, London, 1890, pp. 222, 223. Speaking generally, it is most in consonance with the facts to regard the magic
which Europe received Kabalism.
at

Jewish hands as a debased application of

Jost-Chriotian
authentic form.

Jgiterattire of the

Jttos

25

which

is

There is nothing in the Kabalah not found also in the nature of man." *
it

As we have found Kabalah of the Talmud
also, or at

in

expedient to set aside the order to clear the issues, so

least

till

a later stage of our inquiry,

we

must ignore the Kabalah of magic. We are dealing with an attempted explanation of the universe, which is something entirely distinct from all formulae of
evocation.

names

theurgic and talismanic use of divine and the doctrine of efficacious words belongs

The

to a distinct category,

and

is

liable to

be encountered

everywhere

in

later on, there

Jewish Theosophy. As will be seen is no question as to the antiquity of

these notions.

another error the subject-matter of the secret tradition is confused with certain exegetical methods

By

by which a scriptural authority is found for it. These methods obtained very widely, and there is no doubt
that

many

of their

most curious

results contributed to

swell the

volume of the

tradition,

but the method

which deals with material, and may even occasionally supply it, must be held distinct therefrom. They
were, however, a

matter of tradition, and as such

are Kabalah, but they are not the doctrinal Kabalah, and in the attempt to methodise our subject these
also
*

must be held as embodying things distinctf
W.
B.

Greene

"

:

The Blazing

Star,"

specific teaching of the chief storehouse of

It follows from the p. 57. Kabalism, the Zohar, that

apart from the

human

to finite existences,

whence,

form, permanence and organisation are impossible also, it is the form in which God com

municates Himself.
real.

into two parts, symbolical and teaches the secret sense of Scripture and the thirteen rules by which the observance of the Law is expounded Kabalistically,

t P.

J.

Hershon divides the Kabalah

The

first

i.e,

Gcmatria, Notaricon,

T/wnumh,

&c.

The

real

Kabalah he -ub-

26

Qht
It

ilcrtrine anb |ptetature

% ihe

glabakh

follows from the above

discriminations that

there are, broadly speaking, four separate groups or species of tradition in Israel which, by virtue of the

meaning of words, are
1.

entitled to rank as

Kabalah

*
:

The

administrative tradition of the Talmud,

the authoritative regulations as to the laws, customs, ceremonies and civil life of the Jewish nation. The
literature of this tradition
is

of great historical value,

but

it

has

little

2.

The

place in philosophy. magical tradition of the Hebrews, very

important to the history of occult science, very obscure in its history, very much exaggerated by those who
write about

possessing little literature prior to the fourteenth century of the Christian era, by which time
it,

it

had
3.

lost

most

of its antique

elements." t

Certain

exegetical

and

other

traditional

and practical; the one is concerned with the emanations and worlds of Kabalism, the nature and names of God, the celestial hierarchy and its influence on the lower world, the mysteries of
divides into theoretical
creation

and so

forth

;

the other deals with the mystical properties of

divine and angelic

names and the wonders performed with these. "Talmudic Miscellany," London, 1880. * Dr. Wynn Westcott, in his work on "Numbers, their Occult Power and Mystic Virtue," observes (p. 11) that the word Kabalah "includes the Hebrew Doctrines of Cosmogony and Theology as well The first he terms the Dogmatic and the as the Science of Numbers." second the Literal Kabalah. The Kabalistic Science of numbers is
included in Gematria.

t The indefectible title of magic to a place in Jewish Kabalah is enforced by all modern occultists, who have helped very much to confuse the issues in question. So far back as the end of the seventeenth and the philo century the distinction between the magical tradition sophical or doctrinal was recognised by R. Simon (Histoire Critique

du Vieux Testament. Amsterdam, 1685, 4to), who said: "There is is more dangerous and forms part of It is a mere illusion, the that which is commonly called Magic.
another sort of Kabalah which
prepossession of certain persons (p. 374). by means of
it."

who

believe they can perform miracles

$00t-Chnstiau gitcrature

of the Jeto0

27

methods by which a secret sense was extracted from
the letter of

Holy

Scripture.

Very
these

curious results

were

sometimes

obtained

which appear so childish
day.*
a.

solemn follies by and ridiculous at the present

They comprise

:

Gematria, by which the letters of a word were converted into numbers, and the arithmetical value

was used
b.

to explain its internal sense.

Notaricon, by which each letter of a word was taken as the initial of another word, or, conversely, the
initial letters

of an entire sentence were

combined
light

to

form a word, which word was held to throw
the sentence.
c.

on

Themurah, that

is,

the transposition of letters
these methods
literature
;

in a

given word or sentence.
It is

obvious that the
to

field of

is

not

confined

one language or one

their

application to the plays of Shakespeare might produce
results

which would exceed even the pretensions of
Cryptogram."

the
find

"

Great

It is

a

little

humiliating to

an important subject and a fascinating literature connected with such diversions, but we shall see later

on that the peculiar views of the Hebrews upon the
divine character of their language invested

them with
our inquiry

a certain speciousness, while, for the is fortunately not concerned with

rest,

them.

These
or prac-

methods are sometimes termed the
*

artificial

The

Kabalistic

method of interpreting
books
to

the sense of the sacred

vain and

scripture, "which reduces ridiculous suUletie-., the

mysteries contained in letters, in numbers, and in the dismemberment of certain words," was supposed by Simon to have passed from the school of Platonism to that of the Je\\ s, chiefly in Europe. There is no ground for this view. He adds (op. cit., p. 374) that this "specu
lative

Kabalah

"

was, in his

own

day,

still

highly esteemed by the Jews

of the

Levant."

28
tical

c&kt

^odnnt

anb

JDiteratiire of the

Jiabalah

Kabalah.*

Hebrew
some

Their antiquity, like that of the vowel-points, is a debated question. By

critics their traces

have been discerned even
point, however,

in

Holy
is

Scripture, t

One
is

which should

be especially noted

that recourse to these

methods
in the

met with comparatively seldom
4.

in the Zohar.

The

philosophical tradition,
"
"

embodied
"

"

Sepher Yetzirah and the Zohar cycles. To this only, in the interests of clearness, should the con
ventional term Kabalah be applied, and
it is

this

which

is

really signified by every well-informed writer who uses it. It is divided by the Kabalists themselves into
a.
b.

The Doctrine The Doctrine

of Creation,
of the Chariot
i.e.,

the chariot

of Ezekiel s vision. J

These divisions are concerned respectively with the natural and the transcendental world, and are sometimes termed collectively the theoretical Kabalah.
For They assumed sometimes the most extravagant forms. example, the middle letter of any sacred book was written in an unusual position or of an unusual size, and was regarded as possessing a deep spiritual meaning. See "The Bible Handbook," by Joseph
Angus, D.D.
,

*

1860,

p.

499.

"The

modes by which the Kabalah

educes the secret meaning veiled under the words of the Hebrew scriptures are manifold, extending to every peculiarity of the text. Even in what we should regard as critical marks or as errors or fancies
of

some

transcriber, as

when a

inverted or in any

way

letter is written too large or too small, is distinguished, an occult intent was presumed."

American Encyclopedia, iii. 521, 522. t The Chaldaic paraphrase of Jonathan ben Ouziel has recourse
occasionally to a species of transliteration

when
in

dealing with certain

obscure scriptural names.

+ Both these divisions are mentioned

the

Mishna by name

(Chagiga, xi. 2), and are said to be secret doctrine, but the Afaassc Bereshith and the Maassc Mercabah there referred to are not a written
tradition, nor does that of the written

The Zohar
tions,

identifies the
see.

Kabalah necessarily represent it. Mercabah with the Sephiroth or Ten Emana

which

$o0t-(Ehriatiau ^literature of the Jetoe

29

It is this which gave to Israel the intellectual horizon which was impossible to the Talmudic Jew, and it is this also which gave the Children of the Exile a place

in

Western philosophy.
it is

When we

hear that the

Kabalah once fascinated some of the great minds of
Christendom, be applied.*
to this only that the statement can
It is this, finally,

which

it is

the purpose

of the present inquiry to elucidate.-)-

It

should be

added that outside the cycle of the Zohar there is a large Jewish theosophical and mystical literature, of which the Sepher Yetzirah is an instance. It was
which led up to the Zohar, and was embraced But whether it was Kabalistic in the sense thereby.
this

of the latter
*

is

one of the disputes of scholarship.

Drach distinguishes three uses of the term Kabalah for which It is frequently applied by the Talmud to (i) authority can be cited the books of the Old Testament outside the Pentateuch ; (2) The
:

rabbins apply especially the
tradition."

it

to

the legal or talmudic tradition
esoteric,

;

(3)

It

signifies

"mystic,

acroamatic

portion
la

of

the

oral

De f Harmonic

entrc

F Eglist

et

Synagogue.

Par U

Chevalier P. L. B. Drach, 2 vols., Paris, 1844. f I must not pass over the division of the Kabalah proposed by Dr. Pa pus in one of his latest publications, though I regard it, critically

The Kabalah is, in his opinion, attributable to speaking, as fantastic. Moses, and the written word of Scripture is therefore naturally a part of the tradition. have thus (a) The written word ; () The oral

We

:

word

intermediate portion, being rules insuring the preservation of the text, i.e. Massorah. The last is the body of the oral tradition ; the Mishna and Gemara are its life ; the Sepher Yetzirah and the
;

(f)

An

Zohar arc

thesis so clear as

Unfortunately Dr. 1 apus has not made his he does usually, and he seems to assume some of the most important points at issue. See Traitt Eltmtntaire de Science
its

spirit.

Occulte, 50 edition, Paris, 1898.

BOOK

II

THE DOCTRINAL CONTENT OF THE KABALAH
ARGUMENT
(a)

The fundamental The Philosophy
way
Worlds

doctrines of the Kabalah are of the Absolute
;

shown

to

be

:

;

() The

evolution

of the

universe by into Four

of emanation

(c)

The

distinction of the

emanation

The subsidiary issuing one from another. doctrines connected with these are: (i) The contrast between

God

in Himself and God as revealed to His people ; (2) The Sacramental nature of the conventional symbols of the human Logos (3) Certain ways and methods by which knowledge and
; ;

wisdom are attainable (4) A complex system of pneumatology. These subjects are regarded from the occult standpoint, but a
sufficient

warrant

is

not found for the view that they represent an

occult doctrine of Absolute Religion.

I.

THE UNMANIFEST GOD

THE

conventional division of Kabalistic doctrines into

transcendental and physical, though valuable for pur poses of tabulation, must not be held to signify that
there
is

a clear line of demarcation in virtue of which

the literature branches off into divergent paths, much less that the Kabalah offers a natural history of the
universe.
Its physics, so far as
it

can be said to have

any, are transcendental physics.

separation
*

between
is

God,

Man
is

Admitting of no and Nature,* the
is

That

to say, the mystic

communication

permanent, but

the pantheistic doctrine of identity

of quite foreign to the position

Kabalism.

The

pcctrinal Content of the JjUtmlah

31

science which explains

them
it is

is

likewise one,

and the

best

manner

of studying
It

to follow its

view as to

the eternal order.
it is

begins in that Absolute which

the purpose of all fundamental wisdom to make known or communicate to man it attempts to exhibit
;

the transition from the Absolute to the related, from the noumenal to the phenomenal, and to establish a

chain of correspondence between the infinite and the finite. It is, however, more than a philosophical

attempt to bridge over the gulf which separates the
timeless from the temporal
it
;

that

is

the side on which

The
also

connects with philosophy, as commonly understood. intermediaries of the transition are the ladder of

ascent
it

by which man returns to the Divine hence is more than an explanation of the universe
;
;

it is,

speaking correctly, a sum of religion, and as it is founded, no matter how, on those Scriptures which Jew and Christian have recognised equally as the

peculiar revelation of God, the text-book of true re

we shall see readily what depth and mystery are sought to be infused by the Kabalah into the
ligion,

Bible.
critics

We
who
;

shall

also agree with those discerning

of theosophy

it as, strictly speaking, a system the application of the wisdom of Israel to the unsearchable mystery of God, and it
it

describe
is

begins, as
it

we might have
is

is

unsearchable, that
that

expected, by confessing that beyond our best conceptions

of

all

most
is

divine, as

illusions,

there

the

beyond so many veridic unknown and unknowable God.*
it

According to the Zohar,
there
is

in

this

principle,

for

it

is impossible to know that \\hidi never stoops to our ignorance and
II->ly

i.-,

above even wisdom.

See

"The

Letter

Synod,"
. .

when
.

treating,

for example, of the Capttt quod tton est comprehenditur Sapientia nee intellects.

caf>ut

quod n.:

Kabbalce Denudata Tomit*

Secitndus, p. 528.

32

y&he |B0rtriiu zwb giteratute ot the
in the mystic

Even

communication possible between the divine and man, which is an old doctrine of Jewish
mysticism, long anterior to the Zohar, at least in its present form, the essence escapes our apprehension. can, indeed, know God, but not as He is in Him

We

self, our knowledge being made possible through the manifestation of the Deity, and this takes place after two manners by the mediation of the Law of

Nature, that

is

to say, in the physical universe;

and

by

the

Law

of Grace,

which

is

the manifestation of
It will

God

in his relation with the souls of his elect.

be seen that both these methods are sacramental, and the sacramental system is the form of all mysticism.

For the Kabalistic Jew the Law and the Covenant were signs or mysteries capable of a plurality of inter pretations, while the whole outward world was omen and metaphrasis. It is therefore to be expected that in the written word we must look for another mean It was ing than is conveyed by the outward sense.
also a part of Jewish mental bias to look for an inward
significance

which was opposed

to the external,

and

strikes unfailingly the

modern observer

as strained

and unnatural.
In
the
eternity

manifestations which

I

which preceded either of the have mentioned, the Deity was
after a

withdrawn into Himself and subsisted

manner

which entirely transcends the conception of human The names which are ascribed to the faculties.*
* The tract entitled the Faithful Shepherd," which forms part of the Zohar, says, on the authority of R. Simeon ben Jochai, that before God created the archetypal idea which underlies the form of the world, He was alone, without form or similitude, and hence there could be no
"

cognition of him.

(Rayah Mehemnah,
73).

in the

Cremona

edition of the
to

Zohar,

pt.

ii.

col.

There was, of course, no intelligence

1. Zohar. and the most Ancient of all the Ancients. that prior to the creation of any image.:. Liber Occultationis. but it also includes. i.. but the idea which underlies the confusion the supposed period of God sion of the human mind. but this describes only the eternity of His subsistence. 42 /.. by the separate signifi cance of the word Ain. Book of Concealment. D . the Divine Tetragram. according to Maimonides.* He is the Ancient One. which. and this registers only the inconceivable nature of His infinite mode. He is the Hidden of all the Hidden Ones.. \&quot. is His dwelling is the place which not a place. p. they are the conventions of the philosophical hypo thesis they are terms which serve to indicate that . Earlier mysticism speaks of God being alone with his Name. p. 348. or more is literally. example. 5.&quot. but God alone. seti ii. prior to manifestation. He is A in Soph. God was In tin. vol. K abbala Denudata.J According to the &quot. is is nameless. /.. but this concerns . the abstract competition of nothingness. prior to the alone. God. ii. Mystcrii. Kabbala Demtdata. i. t Apparatus in Lib rum Sohar pars priina. letter or any point. Mantua.state it is forbidden to represent Him by any image or under any form whatsoever. or by any production the world. in * s is thai eternal rest is now beyond the We comprehen are unable to conceive a state or period which the world was not. formless and resembling of nothing. even as He beyond reach. c.The Doctrinal Content Deity of the Jtobahih 33 in this abyssal condition are not names which present either the condition or the Divine Nature . It is said. Zoharic teaching specifically affirms for this point. preceded the whole creation. locus There impiety in at first sight gut _non a touch of atheistical this attempt to describe God as the comprehend Him. even by His Holy Name. a phrase only His concealment which Rosenroth renders fine carensft the unlimited or infinite. 81. The state of the interrogative pronoun Who? is ascribed by the Zohar to this Supreme.

f intellectual or potentiality of is all .&quot. intellectual difficulties. i. nevertheless.e. i. not wanting in similar rather. + Hcene \Yronski.The Human Intellect. who argues that in its proper definition the Absolute becomes knowable. uncon ditioned. he establishes absolute philosophy work entitled Apodictique. Moses of Cordova belonged to the more modern school of Kabalists. though there sense in which God may be said to Paradise of Pomegranates. t See. Moses of Cordova. J it is not accurate to say that it the subsistent principle which underlies the ob jective state termed existence. Our idea of the Absolute belongs. London. but it is really a philosophical subtlety which seeks. 1868. and there is nothing which can comprehend Him. by given in the R.* which says that the Cause of Causes is called Ain Soph because His excellence is without bound. and in the absence thereof every this principle. be seen that the Kabalistic conception is one which is familiar to later forms of transcendental philosophy under the name of the Absolute. * Pardes Rimmonim. iii. because existence is a condition of the is finite a true and real and the created. Tract c. affirms that the reality of the Absolute is the first principle of reason. to that region of our consciousness which Herbert Spencer terms indefinite and escaping formulation. however.34 Ihe Jloxtrine anb literature of the in the Non-Ens dwelling Non Est. . treatise entitled existence. Dr. to attain The key is Pardes Rimmonim. abstract being. or. whose mathematical transcendentalism is of high authority with French occultists. it symbolises our is recognition of that which exceeds our In this Absolute resides the essence intelligence. Noah Porter: &quot. in the last analysis. as in assertion made by reason would be valueless. by successively stripping off every attribute pertaining to manifest some idea of unmanifest. and his treatise is exegetical and not authoritative in Kabalism. a term It will which. On on his an indispensable condition..

According to Moses of Cordova. Beth c. (lod i. / vol. even be one of like who mode or attribute His own but woe still unto him .e.- immanent in all that In- currency to the absurd description of thU Mate negative existence. . i. &quot. above all number. It will be obvious that personal God Non-Ens or N ordinary notions of a are destroyed or transcended by this on. which.&quot. overstand and subtend the visible world. and yet is tratiMX-ivU-nt to all. above Wisdom. whose elements are earthly.- negative. strictly speaking. The book entitled Faithful Shepherd makes God more if be if it like says unto any : whatever.&quot. Pneumatica Kabbalistica.* Ain Soph whence it is the subsistent state is follows that there of Deity itself. Elohim.. except in so far as He manifests Himself when exercising * According to the Zohar. House ii. 187. is.The Doctrinal (Content of the gabalah 35 encompass. &quot. unity without out sex. ! Woe he make Him unto the sons of men.f from the Kabalistic standpoint a manifested state of the Divine Nature. and this is certainly not the visible world. with &quot. one of its first emanations. or the See Kabbala Dtnttdata. . in comparison to it. as we shall see. t Occultists should l)cw. p. . J artis Tractatus i. It is also with simple.&quot.Ego of the Kabalists it is absolutely all . that c and not Unconditioned must be represented created or emanated. Quoted Dissertatio i. Where this manifestation occurs will be indicated in the next section. and it inaccurate to make therefore.thi. ! &quot. in i. any multiplication.uc of giving further H &quot. of the Gods. use of the masculine pronouns in is reference thereto. however.J the angels are neither simple nor without multiplica tion &quot. and so are consumed and perish There can be no conception attained of Him. So far back as 1867 Herbert Spencer established clearly in Principles&quot.

He is comparable only to the it sea. as transcendency with which Ain it is also doubtful whether the and elaborated antithesis of anthropo morphism thus created was not as much a convention of the human mind as that which it sought to replace. so that thereby we may begin to the dimensions of the sea itself/ It compute remains for is me to state that the doctrine of litera Ain Soph ture. as. it was stripped of result all to which reference that the inevitable attribution of absolute reality to that which had been realism should have produced as a intellectual something which was outside It is com prehension. conception. some great reservoir. methodical . not found in the earliest Kabalistic and appears to have been first developed by the commentators on the Sepher Yetzirah and in the school of Isaac the Blind. the next concern of the Kabalah is the mode of the manifestation of that withdrawn and inconceivable nature. II. wherein example.36 Ihe gortrttte attb literature of the Jiabalah dominion by and through some attribute. Having attained its ultimate and fundamental conception of the Deity by the process of elimination has been made already. Abstracted from this there can be no attribute. perhaps open to question whether this fact justified the Soph was invested. for in the earth. its bed fashions for itself a certain concavity. or ideal of filling Him. THE DOCTRINE OF THE TEN EMANATIONS Having thus postulated the existence of the Absolute and the Unconditioned.

however. and to describe it. whose stature and measurements were not beyond the ingenuity of rab binical calculations. and the anthropomorphic Lord of Israel.* two problems which called least for the exercise of his further ingenuity as regards the latens Deit. but. but so far common problem of all philosophy in the unconditioned. not on the ground of that which is wholly . it may be inferred. He had and further a problem peculiar to his own inheritance and this was to establish another bond of connection between the absolute transcendency of all Ain Soph. however. the ground for the exaltation of the conception at the expense of so at human mind by which it had been devised Now. having is only the man for its mouthpiece. and we shall see later on that he did.gJoctnnnl ouimt of the gabalah 37 The the intellectual difficulty was. He had to account between this this bond of connection of the Godhead and the visible abyss for the universe. apart from limitation. mentioned with sufficient fulness and most of whose members are and frequency in the sacred writings for any devout student to possess a clear notion of the body of God. namely. did he please. because outside our knowledge is for us as nothing Ayin. we are con first cerned only with the culty of conceiving why problem. I say superadded by convention * God unmanifest had been The Zohar says that it is called nonentity. the Jew was confronted by laboriously. in a book dedicated to the question.is of Ain Soph. outside all all human measurement. with considerable precision. which begins and ends election.&quot. isolated from relationship. &quot. For the moment. the diffi the abyssal state in which sufficient from eternity to Himself should at any period have had another mode superadded to it.

mani through an emanation in which it was immanent. to which . &quot. symbol of Ain Soph.&quot. despite the &quot. in the beginning was 56. and in the latent subsistence of Soph to this initial Am it would appear an inconsequence to assume that there was either willj or consciousness possible. however. t % Philosophy of Ibn p.&quot.* extension produces it. solution offered by differ materially from that which word. nothing.&quot. but it power Kabalism does not to all numbers. i. traditional or otherwise. It ment of the Divine Will. 266.Philosophy of Ibn Myer Ego rather than the . says Cremona King. and. Ego. &quot. anachronism. &quot. the move says has been always given. by a common and almost inevitable Soph. the terms &quot. no terminology the non est of itself it is suitable. &quot. Myers. The is. comprehension it must be regarded as the nonAll that is in man depends from it. the will of the The Zohar. Both. circle is.&quot. however. in fact.&quot. The non is like the cipher of the nothing gives . the Unknown fested itself Absolute.. .! We are dealing here with a system of speculative philosophy. eternity antecedent operation of the Divine Will. are attributed to A in warning of the Zohar already quoted : Woe unto him who * shall compare Him with any mode or The &quot. a Kabalistic Gebirol. it must not be supposed to be free from the disabilities of other philosophies or from the crudities of its particular The Kabalistic hypothesis supposes an period. fol.&quot.Exceeding expressly that edition. in a In this. it transcends what we conceive by but it transcends consciousness and individual. and its so also it is not possible to add to is ens dwelling in decimal system . above all number. yet as to which it was transcendental.38 ^he Jtorttitt* anfo fCiteratuve of the giabalah based on the notion of sufficiency it is not a reason able term to make use of in such a relation. personal : Gebirol.

The &quot. pt. termine without good pleasure. Thus a treatise Royal Valley. that will beneplacitutn is beneplacitnm^ or carats. ii. possible worlds. tcin. 691. t Kal-lala Av/W//-/. The exegetical on whom could He bestow it ? Gates of Light. i. For the King is not given without the people.&quot. 1. . not even Moses himself. says : Blessed be His Holy Name ! Before anything was. by His simple will. end or accounted for the Hence the motive by which the universe is is the same motive which communic mercy of God to them that fear Him. partis /&amp.gt.. 73. that the exertion of the Divine Will in the production of the emanations is a path so secret that no it. ii. according to to the Zohar. time. 28 In the multitude of the people is the King s And it is the nature of the Supreme Good honour. DC Mundo Infinite prim o t p.&quot.t &quot. He.Jpoctrinal Content of the JBabalah attribute. col. treatises like the &quot. edition. f&amp. or the that. entitled &quot.riffia.. . torn. if the world were not. indicate literature. like the conversion of man from the condition of a merely * material creature. Apparatus in Librum Sohar pars pp. can understand At the same and limit.t creatur- . proposed to Himself to fashion the worlds. (Kayah Me/termin). as it is written in Proverbs xiv. by an operation Cremona of the Zohar. Now.. Seeing then that the transition of the Divine Being from the state of the mm ens was accomplished.&quot. this the best of all is. 39 later even with one of his own.gt. by Rabbi Naphthali Hirtz. 692. : ness to dispense good. in some respects. t /Cabbala Dcnndata. 152. nnJits.* The commentators on the Zohar either do not recognise or are content to ignore the difficulty. after which is it will be unnecessary to say that optimism fundamental characteristic of Kabalism.

f &quot.&quot. It should be added that Nachmanides was one of the few p. but not. for the non ens dwelling in the unconditioned state wherein is neither time nor placet all. there seems to me no doubt that its system does not answer to what is commonly understood by pantheism. we must. Solomon Munk (Dictionnaire de la Conversation] says that the Kabalah issued from the amalgamation of oriental pantheism with the religion of the Hebrews. a certain sense in not escaped even on the hypothesis of creation.&quot. but some-Thing unknown to man.40 ^hc itortriite sub gDtoature of tit* Ibbalah mystery of the will. When. an absolute negative or void. of necessity involved. which that notion is and further there is a higher sense of pantheism from which no spiritual But as regards Jewish mysticism. The No-Thing is not. therefore. and should be noted in this connection that at least one scholar of . It must be allowed any case that the Kabalah re pudiates implicitly the axiom ex nihilo nihil fit. in an elementary in treatise. is almost always. philosophers could wish to escape. 378. though it has often a God was all for the Kabalist. In this plenitudine divine plenitude pre-existing eternally was the sub stance of all the worlds. There is. % In it we shall see that this statement is subject to a reservation regarding the most ancient document of the Kabalah. Myer Philosophy of Ibn Gebirol. and this leads us to the word which I have already mentioned in In specifying what advertently. emanation. we have next to ascertain some thing of the nature of this process. : Kabalists who maintained Book IV. 2. while there is always some doubt in what way it made use of the term emanation. and yet the theosophic Jew no more than the orthodox theologian would admit that God was one with the material world. namely. creation ex nihilo. &quot. which therefore came forth ista Ex from God. set aside too subtle inquiries into the sense in which terms were used. think. as he is for the pantheistic aspect. emanation.* followed from the motion of the Divine I will.! * Hence the When it is Kabalistic system is one of said that emanation is not In which the idea of pantheism think. I of course. Christian. we can accept this only by supposing that the pantheism in question had suffered a peculiar alteration. is the fulness which contains the omnia fiunt. however.

and the rejection of the axiom already mentioned is perhaps little more than a play upon words. Philosophy of Ibn Gebirol. in the first which were thus produced. view. p. in his work on the Canticle of Canticles. terms them &quot.&quot. so in the other He may is be said the to tion of have produced numbers. are used somewhat indiscrimi &quot. and in the Zohar itself they appear as divine emanated essences. 266. * and does not regard the See Joel. authority Kabalah (fit has rejected the general as a system of emanation.. We must not be so crude as to emana Am . which followed the operation of the Divine quence will was the manifestation in a or unfolding of the Divine attributes word. there is much in the literature which would tempt us to endorse this view. for it rests also on the identity of of thought and existence. nately by the Kabalist&amp. 7.f follow it at any length .* or otherwise the doctrine Divine Immanence. But is not necessary to enough for the present it is purpose to say that the term emanation is more in harmony with the doctrine of the Kabalah than is that of creation. We are not. attributes. suppose that the mere arithmetical numerals are here it intended was powers. .* and instance the Sephiroth. formation signifying distinct ideas. the terms emanation.&quot. and the decade Soph.ohar. t Azariel. principles. creation.Socirinal Content of the gabalah its 41 only foundation. after due allowance has been made it for the confusion and ob scurity of the originals. : to say. virtues. however. vitalities. Philosophic Religieusc Isaac Myer is t That and such like.gt. forces. all above number. concerned as yet with the The first conse evolution of the physical universe. as they are termed. the transition of Deity from the As in the one He was latent to the active state.measures and organs.

in which the idea of circularity is involved. Severity. are not concerned here with We its sentation. III. MALKUTH. X. The names I. otherwise Gedulah. the Foundation. 1851. Supreme Crown. have supported this view. Intelligence or Understanding. Wisdom. IV. or with more than its elementary symbolism. knowledge. profound meanings are attached a science indeed. TlPHERETH. Victory. CHOKMAH. II. Mercy. and one which is full of complexity. but it is not one of the Sephiroth* To these ten emanations or numerations various . in a though A term derived from a word signifying for &quot. Beauty. Magni KETHER. is a symbol of the Sephiroth. refers the term to the Hebrew word signifying sapphire. the ficence or Benignity. IX. the Greek The emanations are regarded as Kabbala. JESOD.42 ^ht Jtortrine anb gDitmtur* oi the glabalah belong solely to the world of Deity. the study of the Kabalistic system of the Sephiroth constitutes by itself.to number. and there is : Sephira. author of the &quot. CHESED. BlNAH. Leipsic. The singular is Power and attributes as they no doubt that these vessels were usually considered spherical. The conjunction of Chokmah and Binah pro duced a quasi-emanation called Daath. the Kingdom. which would fill exhaustive pre volumes. on account of its brightness and Other rabbinical authorities purity. . V.Gates of Light&quot. NETZACH. are concerned. which stone. late Kabalists offer other etymologies.&quot. Splendour. VI. which are assigned to them are . GEBURAH. See Jellinek Beitrdge zur Geschichte der receptacles of developed. VIII. See especially the treatise Beth Elohim con The cerning father. HOD. cr^cupat vessels. the Divine example. VII. * We as.

and of its general value we have had a typical instance in Talmudic exegesis. but Take. But while that of all we reject con jectures for which no warrant is produced we must be careful not to fall into the opposite error. by academical It is critic. was not the sole purpose of the Sephirotic system. the conception of ircdly not removed. for example. Beyond a certain point may it there it is not reasonable to literature . suppose a double meaning theory of in any the many-sided allegories does credit only to the ingenuity of the critic. to codify little irradiated : . I doubt the occultist really concerns himself with the discovery of a concealed sense in the Kabalah. and this explanation some warrant for concluding that outside only the province of fantasy. which has been confused by the obscurity of its style and its subject.vlhf Hoctvinalontent it of thf gabalah 43 to is word. which it but with what was offer is intended to explain. affirmed by hostile writers. conceal for the benefit of a circle of the claim of occult science. doctrines of emanation. a point which is sometimes missed by the merely example.* The initial purpose of the Sephirotic system was is undoubtedly to provide intermediaries between the It Deity and the material world. for study of modern occult literature. \\hich is and transcendentalised by his methods. The inner meaning of the Kabalah is its proper and single sense. It is a sufficient exercise of After an exhaustive * much whether his patience perhaps a and harmonise the outward sen^e. Ain Soph he certainly does not look for any notion more withdrawn than that of divine latency therein. not with what may have been designed initiates. To bridge the gulf between the finite and the infinite. and to effect a correspondence by stages between the incon ceivable purity of the Divine Nature and the uncleanness attributed to matter by all the old theosophies.

The Supreme Crown t symbolically speaking. by a mysterious operation. with the mystery of Divine Evolu The tion. is concentration of this thought depicted in Kether. s. manifestation. the first translator of the as Sepher Yetzirah. with the indubitably regarded the Ten Numerations Sephiroth of more evolved Kabalism. activity . the non-Ego pure became Ego. contributed to the third edition of Kitto s &quot. Ginsburg. It is name . it is said that the J In the treatise entitled the of Kether is applied to the first Sephira. the Uncreated Will moved outward. in III. but is above chal lenge that the germ of the Sephirotic scheme must be sought in the Sepher Yetzirah. in a condition in the state of humanly inconceivable. The ten numerations the Sephiroth.&quot.of the Dr. t fact. From that unsearchable condition which is above consciousness.* that as the earliest Kabalistic litera ture does not contain the doctrine of it Am Soph. Kabbalah. which is however. because even as the crown encircles the head so does Kether encircle every Sephira. which is also the Divine Will its The in primordial is. the base or sphere * More especially in his article. abstract thought. By the first manifestation the Ain Soph passed from latency subsisting into still. &quot.44 ^he ilcdrine sub literature .&quot. so also it wants that of the Sephiroth. and it seems quite impossible to maintain the contrary opinion. have indicated. and subsequently three manifestations or relations of Deity were estab lished. THE DOCTRINE OF THE FOUR WORLDS as I Sephirotic system was concerned first of all. f William Postel.v. of that treatise are.Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature. identical Gates of Light.

These points are cited only to show the chameleon character of the signifies Malkitth. i^ termed the throne of mercy. to say. Tiphereth is also called the receives the influence of the thirty-two paths of 10.&quot. Direction. The authority &quot. Napthali . Throntis. which is and is to come.gt. is applied to several of the Sephiroth. as it were. t cognition. that is Lastly. regarded as a sphere. MoiaK and Dogma of the t I owe this statement to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Tiphcreth that of mercy. the Divine Vestment. a point which will be dealt with later on. which encompasses all things. that this is it The later Kabalists explain wherein because Ketlier has no vessel or receptacle Hence also it is may be contained. that Sephiroth are infinite.&quot. p. extension of the symbolism Kethcr is also regarded as the Throne of the Ancient of the veil of Days. festation of the gabalah 45 By the second mani the abstract thought entered into or de the relationship of time. throne of glory when Bk. it established a relation with Nature its By is a slight development produced the universe. the infinite of however..&quot. from &quot. wisdom. Grand Commander of the Southern Jurisdiction of the U. 483. B. Book of Formation. so that it could be veloped now regarded as that which was. * l\falknlh time&amp. the world of &quot. is not stated. properties of all the the infinite of beginning.T. i. it i. which is. affirms beyond all The the &quot.///(/// The term Throne Thus Someit is a. and the circumference is infinity.S. Kabbala Apparatus in Libnim Sohar. Ain Soph is further represented as the central point of Kether.gt. because is /&amp.A. symbolism. t t ata.&quot.at of Malkuth. because it See is the seat of Tip/ureth.The Royal Valley. the infinite of ending. compiled by Albert Tike.The Doctrinal Content of the Divine Consciousness. the throne of judgment. the infinite of good. by R. This statement involves the view that the Sephiroth were emanated as a series of concentric circles. I believe. vol. The same name is The term applied to Malkuth^ throne taken simply and Dinah which is the v. &quot.s a seat under the supernal dilections. it is. ho\ve\er. but Ilirtz.* and as the Divine Consciousness the subsistent state.

impersonations contained unmanifested within all and Itself. the the North. A in Soph had of full consciousness and the grades appreciation. can be referred only to Kether. which unity is concentrated always in Ain Soph.J it things the of the universe. the Sephirotk. f This appears paradoxical. themselves. notwithstanding. with * and the Wisdom lowest of the for which Solomon was which connects magnified belongs to an inferior order.Tales of the Genii.&quot.j* Kether contains is which all itself is . a unity of the ten Sephirofh m It must.&quot. for the highest of it. par. contained by nothing. to egg in which reposes the germ borrow the symbolism of another it system. is hence. the truly celestial Wisdom. . and Kether is. a phial. the infinite at the West. i. Readers remember the Universal Solvent which a diverting incident to the &quot. ^he gtortrhu anb ICitoature ot the gabalah infinite the infinite in elevation. c.&quot. in a special sense. In particular contains the remaining The Sephiroth. That of Chokmah is. which are the sum of all things. the infinite in depth. perhaps. prior to their actual existence. as a faithful King He ages. The second Sephira of a middle is Wisdom. the infinite at the South. so transcendent quality. but seemingly all. but just as Fichte and Carl du Prel have maintained that the human ego is not wholly embraced in selfconsciousness. yet could be contained in in one of the &quot. that no creature can attain It was concealed from Moses. and the is infinite at Lord alone governs of all above all . be admitted that this idea is contained implicitly in the Zoharic statement that Ain Soph is the beginning and end of all degrees % There &quot. According Royal Valley.The in the creation.&quot. the Spirit of the Living God. as Isaac de Acco observes in his treatise on Enlightenment of the Eyes. Word of God circulates in all.46 evil. so Kether is presumably the vessel of the Divine Con sciousness in the sense that will it receives an influx therefrom. the at the East. 4. The Sephira Sepher Yetzirah.* from the height of His throne in the ages As the vessel of the Divine Consciousness.

consist and reside and are contained Hinah. highest Scphira with which spondence. Chokmah cally represented Dinah. by which God con certain in All things. is symboli by the same fundamental authority as the moisture of the Breath of the It is the Spirit. it Dinah is Emanation. a metaphysical introduction to the Kabalah* vol. by the Spirit of love and compassion. 2 Also Book vi. Gedulah or Chesed. as Chokmah is that of revelation. species by species. however. them clou awards. pt.fortrinal Content of the gtabalah 47 &quot. the fourth emanation. in that the universe distinct opposition to some of the later Kabalists. The mystery root of all roots and the foundation of all foundations is by it communicated to man. but it contains man at can establish corre the same time one which was also concealed from Moses. described by the Book of Formation as the Breath of the Spirit of God. is * Chesed Symbolically speaking. who could otherwise have no knowledge of the antecedent states of the Divine Nature. It God. . is the warmth or fire contained within the moisture breathed forth expresses the eternal connecting with life and vitality. especially Isaac de Loria.* Magnificence or Mercy. Intelligence or Understanding. Kabbala Dfnudata. not because anything was wanting to the Divine completeness. which projects them and send. in a and most abstruse manner.* therefore the Scphira stituted the world. i of this work. according to the commentary of Isaac de Loria. t See Liber Drushim. which is. It is the base of the in beneplacituin tcrmine carens mentioned the last section and supposes It Divine Agent. is &quot. into the several worlds of Fabrication. but out of the fulness of goodwill.. implicitly the free will of the follows from this as a consequence was made or emanated. Formation and hence represented as a great reservoir or o is the source of prophetic inspiration. i. Creation.

t to the Netzach. Libnun Sohar. et seq. Judgment and is the heart of the pillar of benignity. Hod. and all the worlds are in fulness and completeness. ment. Justice. p. for the Providence Divine goodness itself looks forth upon all creatures.. victory signified in Netzach. Judicial It is the supernal tribunal before which or Fear. There are three rays diffused from the splendour of is When Benignity. Hod.f Jesod. sixth Sephira. is the storehouse of the seat of and vitality. multiplication and force. In combination termed the armies of Jehovah. is. s. . of wars and victories.* This Sephira is also termed Eternity. . Mantua. Gloria. s.z. the Sephiroth the they shine and are diffused over whole world is filled with joy and perfection. for which reason these Sephiroth are also termed the Armies of the Eternal. But the Divine Benignity manifested by the the seventh Sephira. the all forces. the place to this emanation. i. the Basis or Foundation. Decus. or Beauty. iii.e. and of the treasury of benefits.Jesod. Tiphereth. Sephira nothing can subsist. Adorn eighth Sephira. Fundament :t in t \. known also as Pachad. all ninth life Sephira. Apparatus Ibid. signifies Glory. p. 589 et seq. % Kabbala Denudata. Apparatus. Kabbala 268 Superatio. * and the nourishment of in the worlds. 296 a. and thence issue all the forces of the universe. i. Splendour.e.v.v. All the salutations The and praises contained in the Psalter of David belong It is the place of praise. the in a and sense. 439 et seq. Beauty and Victory. According Zohar Netzach and Hod correspond to extension. p. the conjunction of Mercy it summarises the Divine goodness . Zohar.48 Ihe The ifljctrine fifth an* ^iterate* ot tht gabalah is Geburah. with Netzach it is ment.} Denudata. signifying Judg Power.v. s.

The the emanation symbolises Abstract to Thought. Judgment Beauty. and is. emanation. interpretation. Kingdom. first using the Sephiroth as its media. .Doctrinal Content of the Jiabalah 49 Malkutii is the tenth Scphira. includes the principles of construction and symbolises the abstract dimensions of matter. In their junc tion with Tiphereth they represent all ethical life and perfection. depth and their double polarity. which a very reasonable aspect Ain Soph. length. mani fests through the efflux of the spiritual and material universe. association assuming The second consciousness out the emanation of abstract ideas in the intellect. &quot. will now add is. but has Kabalists. The third emanation is Mind receiving the impression of the abstract ideas. is which association Wisdom. conjectural. the Unknowable and Absolute. They correspond to the Soul of the Hence it is said that the tenth Sefihira the place of the manifestation of Deity. The second triad of Sephiroth. breadth. that is. Chesed and Geburah are the centripetal and centrifugal energies between the poles of the dimensions.* To the this brief authority I general description. Living. &quot.&quot. In the Lesser Holy Synod it is termed the Mother of all the &quot. which rests on reproduces the words of the the heads of an occult of course. is the Shtkinah. the final manifestation. therefore. Royalty. signifying Dominion. or develop ment of the Divine Nature taking place in the Divine World. These three constitute the Spirit of the World. manifest represents Absolute wardly. that point at which the more It is external orders make and contact with the supernal. and Mercy.

by Jesod all vessels and worlds being upheld. and the course of their efflux is the history subsistence. in Chesed He took the character of Great and Benignant. . or that God in order to create had to pass outward from his eternal Sephiroth are the symbolism of the attributes. it is arbitrary to the point of fantastic. and not the natura naturata. as we shall see.&quot. while in Malkuth He applied to Himself the title of King. . represents the Concrete. Intelligent in Binah. t So Wisdom in Tiphereth of Beautiful. * xiii. in Netzach of Overcoming. They answer to the idea of World. Nature. in Hod of our Glorious Author. in Geburah of Rigourous. however. they are neither concerned as yet with any material evolution. and is the energy and execu tive power of the Abstract Intellect* The important point to remember as regards is although their wording is open occasionally to another significance. energy and signify productive principle. or Malkuth. that. in Jesod of our Support. of two mediate worlds. f Now. it is said by the later Kabalists that God called Himself Chokmah. in The Summarised from Isaac Myer also s &quot. but it seems outside any anthropomorphic all human the Its point of view is that correspondences. The tenth Sephira. Philosophy of Ibn Gebirol. the natura naturans. between which and the Divine there was the intervention. both tabulations but solely with that development of the Divine Prin ciples which found its ultimation at last on the material plane. it must be confessed that the distinction seems absolute between the Sephirotic system and conception of Deity. is the last consequence in the visible world development of the attributes of God.50 ^he 50rtriite anfo fUtterahtr* of iht Jiabalah The third triad is dynamic its Sephiroth the Deity as universal potentiality.

e.&quot. world. proceeded a second world. unity vol. Man from the Myer Philosophy of Ibn Gebirol. that of Creation. but be understood in the usual accepta tion of that term. resident in the Archetypal World. as I infer.* of the lubalah 51 is This course or sequence the subject of much discussion among Kabalistic generally held that the Sephiroth were contained originally one within the other. t Introductio in Lit. that is. archetypal and primordial. I the &quot. unlikely as it may was collected together under the notion of a heavenly man. p. : of the Zohar. 418. of the effectuating energies of the Supreme Will. &quot. . The Sephirotic forces were carried forward in Brink this and by highest * It prolonged emanation was the world of of the arch- finite intelligence. i. CkokinaJi enclosed last. Binah. The That I! intelligible is. It is writers.The Doctrinal Content of the Divine evolution. Vallis Rcgia. termed Atziluth. It was similarly collected under the notion of a supreme world. p. they expanded in circular shape ten circles under the mystery of the ten Sepkirotk and between spaces. in fact. a consequence of the superior world. J of which Adam Kadmon special manner this From sole occupant!) This in a termed the World of Emanations. Adam Kadmon. while Binah contained the seven by a successive efflux. for Briah also came forth or was emanated. ii. produced by points. the World of Deity. to Sephirotic decade.. It was.&quot. See A abba/a Dontdata. The entire emanation. namely. Kether enclosed all those below it.f them ten seem. 152 tt scq. technically that is in this sense that the ten Sephiroth are said to form a strict among themselves and also with Ain Soph. called Briak. having also its is was the not. Originated &quot.&quot. rum Sohar.

called shells or Cortices by the Kabalists.* Broadly speaking. according to the &quot. limits the emanation which begins in Thus. or to down as beneath criticism.Book of the ten Sephiroth are the infinite of evil as well as of good. produced. Kabalah may be regarded physical order * : as corresponding in the We Formation. however. again. the Four Worlds of the purpose . there is not a taint of the material in this abode of incorporeal It is otherwise with the World of Action. . the region of matter and also the dwelling of the demons. that the permeate the four systems. the abode of the angelic choirs.&quot. Though further removed from Supreme Perfection. It remains to say that we have the distinct authority of the Zohar for regarding the demons as products of the will of God and designed for a specific but this point may be reserved for further consideration at a later stage.52 ^he Stortrine anb Jtterature vt the angels. but they deteriorate as they proceed further from Soph and the corruption of the infernal world. But the Sephirotic prolongation was continued into a third world. in order to explain the imperfections found in the world-craft of a perfect author the is deterioration of his infinite energy not disdained as a resource. fourth product of the tenfold emanation. the formless Am region and the seven hells of Kabalism of are the extreme Kether. set it It is easy to criticise such a system. the dis ability is common to the dreams of all emanationists. have already seen that. It Sephiroth should be observed. In common many other systems of emanation this material world is regarded as the gross purgations of the upper with regions. or formation. but. Assta/i. the beings. that of Yetzirah.

(d) ASSIAH. one or two respects. it will be symbolism superfluous to say. to the world of the four elements. and of established for a distinct purpose. Covenant. man and God. at the basis of the conception.The Doctrinal (a) (Content of the JUbalah 53 ATZILUTH. to the Primum Mobile. to the planetary chain. IV. on Jewish nation. by referring the souls of the just to It should be added Briah.&quot. Nazir. as of the First it is God s providence regarding the recorded in the sacred literature There are many respects. . It is from first is the commentators on the met with in the Book of &quot. (c) YETZIRAH. The doctrine of the Four Worlds was developed between the period of the Sepher Yetzirah and that of the promulgation of the Zohar. Its a product of the school of Isaac This treatise is ascribed to R. Thus. This vindication is founded. which the Blind. THE DOCTRINE OF THE COUNTENANCES are also depicted in a single this leads us to another order The Four Worlds Sephirotic scheme. (2) Moral. and it received many latter increments work. Jacob distribution of the in Four Worlds differs as. the archangelic world. astronomy is to the sphere of the Zodiac. from the above tabulation for example. that the Zohar also recognises a distribution of the Sephiroth into Three Worlds (i) Intelligible. Emanation. (3) Natural. the vindication of the relationship between namely. () BRIAH.

The Lesser Holy Synod. xxii. this notion of the which we are now dealing. Ain Soph.&quot. Godhead of Am Now. Body of See &quot. p. Isaac and Jacob had SopJi to be harmonised with the exalted or at least recondite and the Sephirotic system. union the whole universe is found to and by be in falls this joy. enters but still by manifestation into a quasi-knowable unsearchable and transcendent state in the is supernal triad of the Sephiroth. Kabbala Denudata. as being essentially unknowable relation and outside the region of correspondence and ship. however.. who is also In the alternative symbolism with sole denizen. through Israel to the world at large the union of the divine potency with Zion incorporates all things together. .54 ^he t&Qtinnt anfo fpterature of the giabalah is however. so in wrath no longer rejoice found the universe . such. those which are delineated in the dealings between Jehovah and Jewry.* Again. the that &quot. in which nation. We its regarded as the abode of Adam Kadmon. and the conception of the God of Abraham.&quot. it not at all peculiar to that and there are indeed traces of a very liberal and almost Catholic doctrine in the books which form The Chosen People is the channel by the Kabalah. Therefore. which all grace and favour are communicated from above. The relations of God man are. but the gifts of the Divine Mercy derive .. this triad taken to represent the entire Sephirotic system of have seen that this world is the Atzilutic world. it is said that a certain light from supernal which is blesses the whole world. * II. the latens Deitas. so that they are as one body. all the worlds and are with fulfilled with all perfection.

an extent that they may be regarded and annulled in the last disposi expatiate here on the symbolism. From Macro- through the SepJiira Wisdom. will remember what followed the sudden veiling of the eyes of Seeva. is a God described by the Kabalists in terms which are in tentionally the reverse of the salient characteristics abstract thought of the ascribed to the Old Testament Deity. corresponding to the self-consciousness and Supreme Being. c. the feminine ttinah. however. are also the As Ain Soph the Closed Eye of the Unknown is Darkness. and readers of Southey s &quot.The Doctrinal Content of the gUbalah 55 God By is replaced in by that of a Vast Countenance. who must be regarded.gt. 14. us modes of the manifestation of Macroprosopus.! In Vast Countenance the eye this Vast Countenance there while all is neither wrath nor judgment. i.f for the subsistence of the universe and all its worlds depends upon the light which shines therefrom.Curse of Kehama&quot. t The of Concealment.Book Anf&amp. Understanding^ there is * Called Arik &quot. operate in wrath and judgment which check by the world and in humanity are held in the mercy and longanimity of Macro- prosoptts to such as counterbalanced tion. v. the antithesis of anthropomorphic Deity it is shadowed is forth. These are the Supernal Father and the Supernal Mother. to which reference must be made again. so in the open aud never closes.&quot. and the qualities ascribed to antithesis of the embodied Jehovah. same notion is found in Indian mythology. lower conformation. devoid of all this head. and through the third SepJiira.* resident Kether and termed the Macroprosopus. under the aspect of a masculine potency.in in the Zohar and its dependencies. prosopus. . It is sufficient to note that the first Sephirotic emana There is no need to tion.

so is Tiphereth in Briah to the Lesser Countenance. It not. 312. As longanimity is the characteristic that of swiftness to wrath of Macroprosopus. The mediation Deity. therefore. even as they are not in Ain Soph. t Apparatus in Libruni Sohar. . % Eliphas Levi. is But as Kether specially in world the of Atzilutli attributed Vast Countenance. J it is which God con and its said in a sense to verify Conversely. and the sole point which we are concerned in establishing here is that Micro prosopus is is the mediator between God and Man. so is &quot.* or Micro- and configuration bodily possessing extended through the six emanations from Chesed Jesod inclusive. Macroprosopus. but this is view not entirely borne out by Kabalistic literature. i. parvam faciem habens. 69. in the Christian sense of mediation. as regarded from above. Paris. &quot. it repre sents in a general manner what is designed to be enforced by the symbolism. Kabbala Demidata. so that Called Zair Anpin in the Zohar. the worlds of Creation and Formation. Making due allowance for all inexactitude. It to embraces. for wrath. s.56 Ihe Jlortrme the attb literature ot the Jiabalah emanated prosopus. the inferior being. the construction of the Divine Nature. cito These comparative qualities are typified by length and shortness of face. * vol. however. vengeance and judg ment tive are not in the Vast Countenance. Lesser Countenance. In the natural order is the human conception of descends and may be even to inform. Microprosopus is regarded by modern occultism as the shadow or irasccns^ reflection of the superior manifestation. p. that of intercession. Le Livre des Splendeurs. p.v. 1894. the two the to inferior triads of the Sephtroth. to is communica it or sacramental.

c. because its real vowels are unknown. above all these things. The word &quot. More accurately. says Maimonidcs. I Name which am that the am. but they are neces of In a word. HE. The ness I affirmation of self-existence is and self-conscious signifies. and estate comprehending it is Divine capable of Providence leading humanity by an administration suited to humanity. It is so much is of God as man by his constitution . : History of Israel.goctrinal QTontent of the Jtobalah 57 knowledge and It is its power may be derived to mankind.&quot. by the way of kindness and severity. The attributions.that in the Hebrew language. M. f It is See Renan first &quot. Adonai. is Himself God in reward and punishment. he omits or substitutes * ADNI. Maimonides. Friedlander i. 7\it\j^rammafon t in the way it was pronounced. namely.t When the Israelite comes to altogether. : &quot. never uttered and therefore re incomprehensible as mysterious garded this and unpronounceable. the to three letters belong to the supernal Sephiroth the inferior seven. name in the Bible. &quot. conveyed the meaning of absolute existence. HE. vary. by the way of contest and prize.The Guide of the Perplexed of (March. so that the limited may receive a certain measure of the boundless. the illustration of the falling apple. AHIH. 228. it JOD.&quot. 61) p. part i. however. vi. it is so sary to His froward children. much of the Principle of Newton as would be under stood in a village school. while world of Atziluth generally embraces the name. vol. the Lord.&quot. and the fourth . That Divine this is evinced further the significance of the symbolism is by the Sephirotic allotment of certain Names which made in the occur continually in the Bible. unpronounceable. note to c. of which we have but a slight knowledge now. the adjustment of the infinite being to finite possibilities. VAU.It is possible.&quot.* and this is referred to Kefher.

Four Worlds and the two Countenances is curiously and though in its elements it is exceedingly simple.lt. fully recognised by every Kabalist as abounding in that book which he re garded as more Divine than any. between them registers the inadequacy of all human conceptions of the Uivinity. there fact is the third the world of is Assiah^ the fourth world. The is relation between Macroprosopus and Microprosopus of the philosophical hypothesis the correspondence between the absolute as it is and The disparity the absolute as conceived by man. the doctrine of the involved. or Yetzirah. so the second triad elaborations it is comprehends Briah and Formation.* and it is. therefore. the organ of nuptial intercourse. are the Names of the Lesser Countenance. or the Kingdom. to the symbolism of the Vast Countenance. &quot. or rather of that lesser Divine Manifestation which alone communicates with man. how the place called Zion and Jerusalem. Like the Sephirotic system.&quot. . But AL and its derivatives. to the God who is not as man is. Jehovah. Now. As in the single Sephirotic scheme with which we have been dealing here the first triad of emanations is held to represent the world of Atziluth.58 &amp. is. which sense would follow that the visible creation is the Spouse locus of God. those lesser names of which the contents can be grasped by the human mind and can therefore be uttered.3Ihe Stortrine an& literature ot the gabalah which we render Jehovah belongs. or the Lord of Hosts. The sanctorum. with in Microprosopus associated the symbol of a Bride. who is in it Malkuth. ever. * the sanctity Laurence Oliphant quoted these and similar passages to prove and mysticism with which the notion of sexual conjunction. in its highly technical. contained in Malkuth.

as he said. however. Appendix I. was invested. approach its We have seen that the World of Briah is that of Creation. office of Israel is The The ment into &quot. * This London. Kabalistic litera ture deserves to of A in . of R.\ we have seen also that their use and the act itself. Book to Conceal and its supplements. and he had probably never translation of the &quot. Religion.Doctrinal Content of the gabalah therefore.occultation See &quot. V. must now. is a further development of the Talmudic doctrine that Zion not only the centre of the earth but the starting point of the universe. Judas Ha Levi. in 59 is Israel only that the communication hence the dispensa the divine to the world and men. but whatever reservations inferred from Kabalistic writers may be on the axiom ex niJdlo nihil fit. We fantastic portions. Mathers scries. But his opinion of the Kabalah was derived only from Mr. The doctrine may be classed with Platonic con ceptions SepHirotic system will not suffer by with any other dream of emanation and comparison may even challenge all the motive which underlies the .fundamental . tracts introduced the Zohar its it was unknown the Sepher Yetzirah or early commentators. is t According to Myer. 1888. so far.Scientific heard of the controversial history of the Zohar. the metaphysics of the two Countenances is singularly profound and may be regarded as the chief glory of the Kabalah. doctrine of the Countenances in is the subject of of special development the &quot. from the earliest times. being . THE INSTRUMENTS OF CREATION It must be confessed that. SopJi be called philosophical. the speculative or metaphysical Kabalah is an attempt to harmonise Hebrew monotheism with the &quot. Consult also the Kuzari.* tion of received.&quot. &quot.

the JOD. the world of Briak was not that in which anything material was formed. be reduced to a single name. VAU. which I have had occasion to mention previously. or otherwise brought into actual being . it is said that the entire universe proceeds from this name.&quot. perhaps. all power in a name . According imparted to them form and weight by combining and transforming them in divers manners. Aleph with all Sepher Yetzirah. Gebirol. namely.eures. Paris. . ii. Sepher Yetzirah.&quot. Cf. 1895. doctrine to an axiom : this name gives all knowledge Compare E liphas Levi. par. that of Panurgic force and intelligence.lt. Guide of the Perplexed. c.All knowledge is in a word.The principle of ancient &quot. God with the letter the Talmudic teaching He and the t And thus the comprehension of according to the Kabalists.&quot. Beth with rest. which became formative in Yetzirah. the instruments. which are the origin not only of all languages but of all creatures. Ma. 4. more properly speaking.&quot.* all and all with Beth of and so of the were Some in this hundreds permutations obtained manner. the matrices of the material world. emanated. HE. HE. it was rather the Elohistic world. Now the materials used and shaped. because that which they called Nothing evasively was the plenitude in which the All lay latent Further. that of Tetragrammation. p.-). Hebrew God the rest and all the rest with Aleph . As these permutations can. but did not produce matter except in the fourth world. the intelligence of this Clefs name is the Science of Abraham and Solomon. or.60 ^he Jtortrine anb SJtterature of the J of the term Creation does not at all correspond to the sense of Christian cosmology. are said by the Kabalists to have been the letters of the to the alphabet. the axiom quoted above.Philosophy of Ibn philosophy. that the present world was created by world to come with the letter /0&amp. This was also the design of 230. by the hypothesis. . Maimonides * in his &quot. who reduces the &quot.

however. . head. the and breast. belly Besides the Three Mothers there are seven frigid double letters Beth (i=B). the Earth of Water. distinguished as the Three Mothers and correspond ing to Air. Kaph k = K).\Thc Doctrinal Content of the glabalah 61 reader will discern at once the nature of the device. they are Alcpk (^). which compose the Divine Mem (ft) and Shin (^). correspondences are : the . The heavens are formed of Fire. which may be methodised by a simple process : The world came forth from God But the name of God is niPP 5 : Therefore the world came forth from The fundamental letters of the Book of Forma tion are not. year. Water and is Fire. was a manifestation of its essence and. Ghimel (: = G). hut it must be added that for the Kabalistic Jew the true name of God. These Book of = P). as indeed of any existence. Th). those Name . inseparable therefrom. Their torrid. (B Resh (^ = R) and in seven signs stand the Formation for : * It will be unnecessary to point out that this is a logical non scquitur. as such. Pe (-7 Tau Q-\ = T. and the Air of the in mediate Spirit. Daleth = 0). the and temperate seasons in man.

the two kidneys. the seven days of creation and the gates . When the seven double letters had been shaped by the Deity. By means of the feet. nostrils and mouth. twelve simple in having the following : correspondences man and world the twelve simples there were of the zodiac.62 ^Ehe gtodrine mtfc IDiteratut* of tlie JUbalah : Their correspondences in the universe are East Depth North South in the centre West Height and the Holy Palace. eyes.e.e. must leave my readers to decide how this . the liver. He combined and created . the bladder and the I arteries.. There the are.. ears.. finally. the gall. the two hands. the spleen. fixed ing all and sustain things. the colon. the twelve months created the signs and the twelve directors of man i.e. therewith the planets in the heaven the days in the year i. in man i. letters.

more than mere symbols . and do not fail to cite the scriptural statement that God made everything by weight. As a rule. for example. . the Sepher Yetzirah may be regarded as a commentary on this declaration. whether they understood by those letters the symbols of arcane powers. Alfred Edersheim seems to speak in this sense in hi-. and the There are those. When really they affirmed. The letters are. third. The sense is therefore true ex hypothesi a literal and arcane manner. of course.A. London. &quot. not see in what manner fable of the elephant it is superior to the familiar tortoise.vlhc Jlortrinal Content of the gabalah 63 bizarre system is to be interpreted. M. revised by the Rev. A. I think that the Kabalists. I have used the White. they what they stated but if it be asked . critics It has been occult regarded by one or two who have no leanings as a serious attempt to devise a philosophical * but for myself I must confess that I do cosmology . that the world was made by means meant of the letters of the alphabet. who remember. therefore. who discern in it a secret meaning. Indeed.&quot. and if they did not say all that they meant the unexpressed residuum was along the lines of the sense expressed. 408. in The warrant of the hypothesis must be sought in the Talmudic system. it must be answered that they did.History of the Jewish Nation after the Destruction of Jerusalem. which believed that the body of the sacred text was divine like the sense which was * Dr. H. meant that which they said. posthumous edition. how ever. that the letters of the Hebrew alphabet stand also for numerals. however. they are vessels or manifestations of the concealed powers. number and measure. like other makers of philosophy. 1896. See p.

. an inner spirit.gt. &quot. as already seen. vessels of singular election. In a word.* For the mystical Jew. from which it was an easy transition to life suppose that such channels of spiritual grace and must have fulfilled some exalted office in the itself.64 its ^he soul. The Massorah compiled from MSS.Tiberias&quot. ing. Buxtorf s work entitled &quot. and special considerations on the mystic sense of the sacred characters. man himself. jjirrtritu anfc literature of the Jiabalah like which soul had. 646. D. alphabetically and lexically arranged. the correct subdivisions of the books. 3 vols London.. pretend Compare Molitor that its s Philosophy of &quot. the true pronunciation of uncertain words. who discerned strange abysses of mystery in the smallest peculiarities of the Tkorah&amp. to the care and preservation of which the traditional science of the Massorah was devoted. It was hence the criticism of the Hebrew text. 1880-85. and the alphabet of that language was a derivation from the noumenal world. 4to) deals with the Massorah.&quot. has been published by C. Ginsburg. 1620. Thus it taught the true rules as to reading The Massorah was concerned with reading of doubtful passages. that which was openly delivered by the rabbins in contradiction to that which was supposed to have been communicated secretly. See Mission des Juifs. and he came to regard this handful of conventional hieroglyphs as so the or instruments by which the divine wisdom was communicated to man. the highest of all. the and writing the Thorah. the letters of the alphabet were the of materials the textual body. Tradition. shaping of the universe * the body of the text. namely. (Basilise. there was a weird fascina tion in the fact that all the wonders and sanctities of Law and the Prophets resulted from the diverse combinations of twenty-two letters. Occultists exoteric formulae were designed to conceal every trace of a secret sense in the Thorah. p. the concealed mean Now.&quot. for him they ceased to be conventions a divine revela many sacraments . It was also. instru ments of Deity. and so forth. who follows Fabre d Olivet in La Langue Hebrdiquc Restitute. tion required a divine language to express it. by Saint-Yves d Alveydre.

a dependency of this fundamental treatise. It was intimately connected with the idea of the pre-existence follows. In the Faithful Chokinah is called the hi-hi-t of all paths.-\ These are the the ten paths of the Sepher Yetzirah. eye of the vulture beheld 602. &quot. t They are referred to the Scphirah Chokinah and are teniu-d occult channels. while the latter affirmation is not incapable of being regarded in a philosophical manner by the help of the Kabalistic doctrine of correspondences. : The same treatise connects with Chokinah the words in The bird hath not known the path. xxviii. Job.. THE PATHS OF WISDOM In the Latin collection of Pistorius the marrow of philosophical Kabalism is presented in the form of certain terse propositions or dogmas.a he Doctrinal Content of the gabalah 65 is it This doctrine of the instruments of creation the oldest part of Kabalistic literature. and to say that the world was created by the inscription of letters in the air was. which. namely. 601. Sephiroth and the letters of the doctrine concerning Hebrew The them is They are the extremely interesting theses of ims de Mirundola. in one sense. Shepherd racing and including all that are beneath it. at once hidden and revealed. * i. eml. improved very much as it developed. which will be found in Book vii. of the Thorah.* according to one of which the ways of eternity are thirty-two Vice ceternitatis sunt triginta dno. neither hath tin7 &quot. ^ Kabbala Denndata. VI. i. . Apparatus. only another manner of saying that it was created by the Thorah. for which the Thorah of Moses would be only the mundane type of the Eternal and Divine Law. and the influx of all J &quot. but of much more recent date. ! therefrom. alphabet.

essence. the most Kabalism province of this work to offer translations to the student. premising only that it has is been translated more than once into English. and indeed available in a number of European languages. to is man from above by means it of these and very interesting because of shows that had a philosophical part to the human mind. the light which imparts understanding of the beginning which is without beginning.It is the mother of Faith. the Supreme Crown. but as in the present instance it would be difficult to summarise the tabulation more briefly. and was not practical application It is outside the merely a speculative system. Kabalists as the Second Splendour. termed the Creation of Faith. of the Supreme Unity. The second path is called the Illuminating Intelli It is the Crown of Creation and the splendour gence. to because a boundary receive the emanations of the higher to it. and this also is the First No created being can attain to its Splendour.66 ^Ite Jportrine anb literature of the jiabalah and without even an imputed authorship. The Receiving fourth path is called the it Arresting arises like or Intelligence. I shall give it in extenso. It tabulates the special graces and illuminations which may be communicated channels. It is to which it is most near in exalted above every head and is proximity. intelligences which are sent down Herefrom all . Its roots are -p^N. distinguished by The third path is called the Sanctifying Intelli gence and is the foundation of Primordial Wisdom. which indeed emanates there from. The first path is called the It Admirable is Intelli gence.

II &quot. : The Receptacular and from essences .the K cther. Westcott.) for it establishes their unity It | The * Dr. It causes that influence to flow into all the reservoirs of the Ibid. and is emanate all the spiritual they emanate one from the it Hebrew text of Rittangelius. &quot. Vetzirah.The Doctrinal Content spiritual virtues itself of the gabalah 67 emanate by the way of subtlety.&quot. The eighth path is called the Perfect and Absolute Intelligence. which emanates from the Supreme Crown.J affluence to those blessed men who The seventh path gence. Cohesive. Sephcr t Or. with the most exalted other by the power of the primordial emanation. The preparation of principles The roots to which it adheres are in the depths of the Sphere Magnificence. this rendering . p. makes fourth path is named Measuring. purifies the numerations.proves and corrects the designing of their representations &quot. or so-called because it contains all the virtues holy powers. &quot.* The fifth path is called the Radical Intelligence. Ibid. . &quot. p. 28. prevents and stays the fracture of their images. emanates therefrom. &quot.&quot. it is because more akin than any other emanates from the to the Supreme of Unity and depths the Primordial Wisdom. According to Westcott Ibid. f path is called the Intelligence of Influence.. Westcott. because the flux of the emana Mediating tions is The sixth multiplied therein. because it is called the Hidden Intelli pours out a brilliant splendour on all intellectual virtues which are beheld with the eyes of the spirit and by the ecstasy of faith. from the very substance of which it emanates.e. It communicates are united with this it. Blessings with which these themselves arc united. primordial depths of Chokmah&quot.it is the means of the primordial Or. following the &quot. 29. i. ninth path is called the Purified Intelligence.

Ibid. It is said to be the source of vision in those apparitions.&quot. The lights and emanates the power of the principle of eleventh path is called the Fiery Intelli the veil placed before the dispositions forms. &quot. Who soever possesses this path is in the enjoyment of great dignity . Or || &quot.* tenth path is called the Resplendent Intelli because it is exalted above every head and gence. The &quot. path is called the Constituting in the Intelligence. and this is a special dignity given to it that it may be able to stand before Ibid. of Transparency. manifests truth to every spirit.j The Light. &quot. because it constitutes creation fifteenth * without Or.f The gence. the founda tion of holiness.68 ^he J)xrd. it enlightens the fire of all has its seat in Binah .It Ibid. . is the consummation of the truth of individual spiritual things. Countenances.tine anb ^toature of the Jwbalah division to preserve them from destruction and by their union with itself.&quot. who behold The thirteenth path is called the Inductive Intel It is the substance of glory. twelfth path is called the Intelligence of the because it is the image of magnificence. Causes a supply of influence to emanate from the Prince of f &quot. disposes their unity with which they are combined diminution or division.] The fourteenth path is called the Illuminating | Intelligence. the face of the Cause of Causes. Ibid. % Westcott gives an entirely different version of that curtain which is : It is the essence placed close to the order of the disposition. It is the institutor of arcana. It is to possess it is to be face to face with the Cause of Causes. Ibid.&quot. and it ligence of Unity. and order of the superior and inferior causes.

/^ */.vlhe Jloctriual Content of the gabalah 69 darkness of the world. thereof. it According darkness cloud and to the philo is itself that 9). Westcott adds: Westcott gives &quot. The fulness The it which receives derives from the highest benediction glory. seventeenth path is called the Disposing It disposes the devout to Intelligence. 30.&quot.&quot. the influences by its benediction existing things. the delight of glory. the Conciliating Intelligence.It called the foundation of excellence in things. each individually. * sophers. Ibid. and all who it seek. the envelope The sixteenth path is called the Triumphant and Eternal Intelligence.&quot. &quot. nineteenth path is called the Intelligence of the Secret or of all spiritual activities. p. The twenty-first path is called the It Rewarding receives Intelligence of those divine influence.. for It twentieth path is called the Intelligence of prepares all created beings. mentioned by Scripture (Job xxxviii. perseverance The and thus prepares them to receive the is Holy Spirit. J and called the Intelligence or thence are drawn the arcana in 1 the concealed meanings which repose the shadow thereof. t Westcott adds the state of higher influx of : &quot.&quot. is called the Faithful It constitutes the substance of creations in pure is darkness. the demonstration of the existence of the primordial glory.f The House . Ibid. By the greatness of is whose abundance the Ibid. eighteenth path of Influence. good things upon created beings increased. The twenty-second path * &quot. . the paradise of pleasure prepared for the just. and the supreme The Will.

&quot. is the Exciting Intelligence. p. twenty-third path is called the Stable Intelli It is the source of consistency in all the twenty-fourth path is called the Imaginative It is the ground of Intelligence. . until they pass to those dwell under the shadow thereof. and all literal rendering reads. and it is so called because through it is consummated and perfected the nature of every existent being under the orb of the sun. because the first tempta by which God tests the devout. because spiritual virtues are deposited therein. by it spiritual virtues are dwellers on earth are merely under its shadow. similarity in the likeness of beings after its aspects. is The * twenty-ninth path called the Corporeal Westcott s increased.} The twenty-eighth path Intelligence.&quot. in the is called the Natural whereby the nature of everything found is orb of the sun completed and perfected. for thence is is the Active created the spirit of every is creature of the supreme orb.70 ^he gtortrine an!b gpiterahtre of the Intelligence. numerations.. in perfection. The who are created to its agreement The tion twenty-fifth path is called the Intelligence it is of Temptation or Trial. f The twenty-seventh path Intelligence. All the changing things which are renewed by the creation of Ibid. is The reneweth twenty-sixth path for called the Renewing be He! Intelligence. all thereby is God blessed which capable of renovation in the called creation of the world. t the &quot.&quot.&quot. 31. and the activity. % The twenty-seventh path This path Westcott s is omitted both in the text of Rittangelius and in version. Ibid. &quot. the motion. world. that to say. to which they are subject. Ibid.* and augment who The gence.

1&amp. Man is the Kabalistic balance. for thence astrologers.&quot. Greene. Kabalktir -L. by the judgment of the stars and the heavenly signs.vLhc Jloctvinal vlToutcut of the ^iabalah 71 informs every body which is incor porated under all orbs. and it is the growth thereof. wherein the name hlohim i-.* The thirty-second path it is called the Assisting Intelligence.&quot.The Ula/ing Star. t &quot. it fi-11.n of (iod or the Astral Light. of Genesis. may be expected. into superstitious uses and became a kind of theo^ophic divination. but to exhibit the intellectual quotation was necessary profit believed to follow still from the study of Kabalism. + &quot. It is needless to say that the Sepher Clef des Grand My stercs. or the light between the horns of Baphomet. and concurs therein. \Y. | to Kliphas Levi. . thirty-first path is called the Perpetual Intel ? Why is it so called Because it rules the movement of the sun and the moon according each to to their in its constitution and causes gravitate respective orb. La the moon silver.&quot. However. as such. The thirtieth path is called the Collective Intelli Intelligence . ba-. Yetzirah and its developments have nothing to do with alchemy.. their science according to the The ligence. The sun mentioned in the paragraph represents gold. it gence. with its two poles and equili brated centre.It is the magic lamp. 234. with their divisions. according to Mr. which represents the &quot. The modern at accent of this tabulation will occur its once to the reader. p. and the planets correspond to the other metals. 51.! and embracing. and in more that it was the last resource the understanding of methodised.ed on the first chapter mentioned thirty-two time*. derive their speculations and the perfection of motions of the stars. p. corresponds to the Hebrew letter Shin (Sh). because directs all the operations of the seven planets. this verse contains the secret of the The rca-on assigned is that path thirty-one According great work of alchemy.gt. the entire attributed to * man circle human knowledge. a.

of the Hebrew word consonants fifty. after long toil. must perhaps be sought Koll. It is and all is universal observes. . by According Sepher Yetzirah * itself. and. and thus constitutes a kind of scholastic introduction to the paths of Chokmah or of Wisdom. the third Understanding. 132. ascending from Nature to Deity. fol. and because an to it. f Kircher. no intention to methodise the human after his impossible manner I of Raymond Lully and Ars Magna it Sciendi. as Eliphas Levi possible departments of to represent the whole encyclopaedia. the thirty-two paths are deductive like the which starts from the notion of God and proceeds thence to natural phenomena. in spite of the exalted themes which are included in the scheme. which of the which are equivalent to the The number consultation of this chapter was accompanied by prayers extracted in from the divine name suitable ceremonies. as Kircher observes. Sephira. classifications There science is.* by which the holy men of God may. long experience of divine things and long meditation thereon. a word may be added a somewhat conventional piece of concerning Kabalistic classification. according to Kircher. an attempt to sketch the outlines of to embrace. La Kabbah^ p. question. occult importance has been attributed though in the absence of any real warrant. to Papus. while the fifty gates are established on the inductive principle. . penetrate to the concealed centres. have something of a ghostly however. entitled the Fifty Gates of referable to Binah. knowledge and At the present day such aspect. acquired by the external way. concerns only intellectual knowledge.72 ^he Doctrine anfc fCiterature ot the For the sake of completeness. science. infer also that. QLdipus sEgyptiacus Rome. t principle of the enumeration in the The signifies symbolism and All. 1623.

one would think a little superfluously. that of A in supermundane and archetypal Soph. It is transcending human said that Moses did not attain to this. in reference to which it may be observed that the addition of the feminine letter that in a sense their H=5 of to the word KL=5O the gives KLH = the Bride Microprosopns. unseen by motal eye.The Light. so &quot. Gates of knowledge connects with the mystery of universal generation. t By R. * They are called gates. intellectual and nature of man. and.&quot. All created it explains. and some stress seems to be laid on this point. gates.* It would serve no purpose to enumerate them all categorically introduction to the Paths of we have . the Hyle or Chaos. .vThc godvinal Content of the Jlabalah 73 The Gates as of Understanding. they begin with the first matter. have come out of these things. to the world. The scheme of the Gates of Understanding is late in Kabalism it is found in the treatise entitled . Joseph Gikatilla ben Abraham. afterwards to the heaven of psychic the planets. because Ibid. the fiftieth. gate. considered as an Wisdom. finally. that of the fixed stars and the primum mobile. as it is obvious that what is beyond all finite capacity must have ueen beyond the law-giver of Israel. no one can attain to the paths unless he enters by these. which diverge. are essential to the seen. thence to organic life and the physical. proceed through the various elements of ancient science to the theory of composite substances. from Chokmah. intelligence. f which is full of references to the mystery of the word Koll (KL). higher knowledge approached by these. then to the nine orders of the angelical world. Lesser Countenance.

i. growth Pre-existence and the is also worth noting. essences according perhaps. the Church. with considerable truth. in and material worlds.74 &quot. THE DOCTRINE OF PNEUMATOLOGY We have now ascertained the heads of Kabalistic as to the essential nature of God. subdivision of the spiritual nature are found in the Talmud.e. and brings us back to that place called mystically Zion and Jerusalem. It may be its said. the favourite and certainly the most recurring subject of the Zohar. and there is very little in the first commentators on that treatise. VII. in which the divine is communicated to man. the extension of the powers and archetypal. the from the divine unmanifest into the mani instruction transition festation of divinity. It is by little gleams of suggestion of this kind that the barren science of Gematria is illuminated occasionally. formative hypothesis of scendental and natural science. that the book and connections . but the Sepher Yetzirah has nothing to tell us on the subject. and it is this also which was brief outline the doctrine destined to receive fuller development than any other The history of its in the later literature of Kabalism. Ecclesia Israel. the Kabalistic creation and the doctrine of tran It remains for us to of spiritual present to Jewish theosophy. as stated in the fourth section of this book.Ihc Itortrirte anb JCitoture of the whence follows the whole mystery of spiritual genera tion in man. This is. attributes thus developed through the creative.. for KLH connects with KNSTL.

par. the most ancient portion of The as latter cycle may be of regarded. It with which remains.&quot. that the fascinating hypothesis we are here dealing is in the main a late growth. influence on has at all times exercised the greatest occultists. Franck it states that is it is not Kabalism and hints that it full of distorted rabbinical reveries. iv.-. in the Book of Concealment. the liidu and the left. as from the left an animal &quot. has superseded that of the Zohar itself. because it has been by Rosenroth.&quot. however. but may be doubted whether there is any real canon of criticism. but the commentaries at least are sufficiently discursive to have included it in their scheme if they had anything to say upon the subject. * the inferior (in soul. so far as can be judged from the Zohar. and the following slight sketch contains the general elements of the subject. &quot. The distinction between a holy intelligence is and an animal soul in man * is found. and. the chief source pneumatology in Kabalism proper. . broadly speaking. As from the right side he has a holy mind. chiefly. Man (therefore) is constituted from the two side.Jlortrinal Content of the gabalafi 75 were concerned rather with the physical forces which produced the universe. made true available in Latin perhaps. The indications contained therein became a vast and ponderous system in the schools of This system Isaac de Loria and Moses of Cordova. 7-9. form.Book of Concealment.&quot. into this world) him) two spirits. is. &quot. its which. is that of of the emanation of creative These When forces are the Elohim. therefore. and Uriah is there are found man descends (namely. that forces. according to the supernal form. The later speculations are in any case founded on the Zohar. The extension of the left side was the consequence of the Fall. We have seen that the world of Briah Creation so-called. c.

Angel of the Presence. the sources of which must be referred to Talmudic times descending scale . NGHR = . and hence Metatron said to be a boy-angel. describes Metatron as a species of Demiourgos. by the divine world. the Lord. Franck also regards him as a divine hypostasis. the name Metatron signifies the * Shekinah . so to speak. for they were the forms assumed by the Divinity. however. as regards the more especially. f When written with a Jod (MITTRVN). Apparatus. Gabriel. Raphael. but they were also Adni. it is that of the lesser or secondary gods. much less that Michael. when regarded in the assumed. too involved to admit of such clear identifica In a general way it may perhaps be affirmed that the intelligent forces of the Briatic world. corresponding to Ketker. are usually : enumerated as follows I. 528. i. are deities according to the Kabalah. also called Boy. according to vale of Kabalism. The archangels sion of the of Briah. Thus.* The system is much tions. &quot. Of the hierarchy of spiritual beings outside humanity we meet with various classifications by different Kabalistic writers. may be as the Elohim. the three men who appeared to Abraham Mamre to announce the destruction cities impending over the of the plain were three archangels.76 ^Ihe Jtortrine anb literature ot iht gabalah . Kabbala Denudata. It would not be exact to say that the archangels are Elohim.-\ Isidore Loeb. It is also called the world of archangels. without that letter it signifies the angel who is the is legate ofShekinah&quot. World- Prince. corresponding to the exten Sephiroth in that world. but. therefore the Elohistic world in other words. Metatron and so forth. METATRON. Acher. later authorities do not even hesitate to contradict Zoharic statements. following presumably the heterodox opinions of the Talmudic R.

GABRIEL. to VII. Divine Hod.lt. of God. The world of Yetzirah or Formation said to be are divided into nine choirs. MICHAEL. who pseudo-Dionysius. that unlike Christian angelology. HANIEL. corresponding to ChokmaJi. sponding Contemplation to BriaJi. corresponding to V.ohar represents the divine inferior to man and most certainly to the souls of the just. Justice Chcscd. SANDALPHON. Messias. III. corresponding Tiphereth. Physician. TSAPHKIEL. : that of the /. corresponding to Jesod. the second of phase Metatron. 68 / &amp. See the Mantua edition. Like unto God. corresponding tc IX. the Herald of Deity. Grace Netzach.Doctrinal Content of the gabalah II. Man-God. .* Those who attribute a high antiquity to the Kabalistic tradition say that Dionysius * drew It should he noted. iii. who is regarded as the is sole inhabitant of that world. of God. corresponding to VI. As the Sephirotic forces of the Atziluthic world are represented as resumed under the likeness of a man. Severity GeburaJi. so those of Briah are resumed under the form of a second Adam.&amp. of God. RAPHAEL. Adam Kadmon. 77 RATZIEL. whose scheme has become part of Christianity. however.gt. of God. which are very nearly identical with the hierarchy of that of the angels. X. corre IV. TSADKIEL. corresponding to VIII. SAMAEL. corresponding to Malkuth. as Adam Kadmon is of Atziluth.^ether . which ascend higher and attain a superior rank.

in the form extant literature. and the Kabalah both others pretend that derive from Neoplatonism. perhaps. III. CHERUBIM. V. represent. also mentioned in corresponding to Chokmah and the Cherubim. or Gods. MELACHIM. corresponding to Kether and to the Christian Seraphim. Ezekiel. corresponding to Briah and the Thrones. Dionysius. SERAPHIM. VI.78 ^he Jtortriiu anb HDiterature of the giabalah Israel from the oral doctrine of Dionysius . correspond ing to Jesod. or animals of Ezekiel and the Apocalypse. the holy living creatures. II. the Seat of the Sons. the point of contact between Hellenism and Israel unmodified by Christianity. According to the most usual attribution the choirs : of Yetzirah are as follows I. may be taken to represent the point of contact between Hellenism and Jewry after The Kabalah may modification by Christianity. BENI-ELOHIM. or Sons of God. corresponding to Netzach and the VIII. CHAIOTH HA KADOSH. OPHANIM. or Brilliant Ones. ARALIM. or Kings. and the Angels. . corresponding to Tiphereth and the Virtues. HASHMALIM. correspond ing to Geburah and the Powers. corresponding to Hod and the Archangels. ELOHIM. the Foundation. VII. to Chesed and the Dominations. or Wheels. but at a of its much longer distance. but Greek and Hebrew thought had joined hands before the date of the Areopagite. or Flaming Serpents. Principalities. IX. corresponding IV. or Mighty Ones.

! : They are usually enumerated as follows I.* It contains the orders of retrograde spirits corresponding by inversion to the angels of Yetzirah evil spirits. t But there are also of shells and demons. man in the iiKeness of die in a angels word. the unfallen Adam of Genesis. Yetzirah represented by the Malkuth of the Yetziratic world. and the arch-fiends corresponding after the same manner to the archangels of the Briatic world. information on Kabalistic demonology. Satan and Moloch are said to be the arch-demons. or. This is properly the title The of the averse Scphira corresponding to Kethcr. Fall. partly owing to the obscure classifications of the Zohar and the contra dictions of later Kabalists. THAUMIEL. or men. cortex is CATHARIEL. said to be two-headed and so named. 1885. beatified souls of just John in the Apocalypse. CHAIGIDIEL. the that into Adam descended at the abode of the the Shells. a term connecting with the significance of placenta. see Die Hauptlehren und ihr vcrhaltniss zu Christcnthutn. because they pretend to be equal to the Supreme Crown. II. is The world which of Assiah. corresponding to Malkuth and the great multitude of the redeemed seen by St. according to the supple ments of the Zohar. These orders are also summarised of a third in the notion Adam. according to other authori* For some Ihrc Kabbala. many material correspondences which are not . the doubles of God. Envelopes and Cortices of the Kabalah.goctrinal Content of the gUbalaK 79 The Sephirotic tenth order required is to in complete the the attribution found ISHIM. Innshruch. but the attributions are hope lessly confused throughout. or of matter.

The Dukes of Esau are work. in the sense of an This averse impediment to the heavenly influx. the God. but . V. however. hides the face of mercy. to Chokmak. Isaac VI. according to de Loria. According to the Zoharic Supplements the cortex all of seems to be AzARIEL.8o 3lht Scdrtne an& literature of the gabalah ties. of course. The Dukes concealment Esau of are also connected with this number. by the same said to be the arch-demon. meaning that this averse Sephirah. late The is cortex is UsiEL. very late. This explanation is. unlike Binah. Beelzebuth. This or burning. to the grimoires and to some late demonologists of the Latin church. because. ments of the Zohar hirsute it is In the Supple termed SHEIRIEL. this averse correspondence of the TipheretJi strives with supernal Geburah. diarism. TOGARINI. from the body to of Esau. the averse correspondence of Chesed. SATHARIEL. The . or GOG SHEKLAH. instead of to the averse of correspondence LUCIFUGE is Chokmah. or Intelligence. GOLAB. IV. with that of obstruction. this is referred this number. wranglers. in late The arch-demon is ASTAROTH Kabalism. and so again III. obviously not a Kabalistic term it is known. The arch-demon is is said to be ADAM of BELIAL. GAMCHICOTH. disturber things. is m the sense of incen the averse correspondence of Geburali and the antithesis of the Seraphim or Fiery Serpents. The arch-demon of Kabalism ASMODEUS. which cleave to illusory or material appearances in opposition to those of reality and wisdom. Its cortices are Sephira corresponds the OGHIEL or GHOGIEL.

t the demon of impurity. tions signifies the generation classifica OGIEL. the averse correspondence of Netzach. VII. referring its young. The Sephirotic attributions are obscure and incomplete. though is in a better sense we may presume that this title applicable to natural humanity as a whole. which places further develops this idea. THEUNIEL GAMALIEL. however. supernal Hod. who is to some extent the averse Adam Kadmon. the or embroilment. in averse corre spondence with Jesod. SAMAEL. says the Zohar. The cortices are the THEUMIEL and the arch-demon is BAAL CHANAN. G . and the arch-fiend is LlLlTH. which of the higher order. according to late Kabalism. the averse correspondence of MALKUTH. however. LlLlTH * is. according to another tabulation. to the idea that this bird drives out dispersing raven. In Zoharistic doctrine. VIII. with whom later Kabalism connects NAHEMA. the obscene. seems to be the cortex mentioned the Zoharic Supplements. X. the chief per sonalities ofAssta/i are SAMAEL. according to the Supplements of the and ADRAMELEK is the name ZOHAR. According t ^ to the Zohar she brings is A a strygc who in slays infants.Mhc gortrinal Content of the gabalah 81 is cortices are called ZOMIEL and the arch-demon BELPHEGOR. which other the attribute to averse correspondence in of Clused. after succubus who forth spirits and demons various con nection with men. IX. assigned to the arch-demon by late writers. and his bride LlLlTH. HARAB SERAP. corresponding to The cortices are Victory.

part of which is postZoharic. Abraham Cohen ii.&quot. was held by the Jews in later times in general connection with that of the resurrection of the body * Hence the true &quot. ii. 1 8. or See Beth Elohim. prudence. Denudata. c. not found in the most ancient portions of of The psychological doctrine concerning the nature man is of greater interest. et seq. Morals and Dogma. or can of the philosophical doctrine.82 ^hc in |30rtrine mtfo Ipterature of the I but a general so is it way it is said that as in the Holy said Kingdom in that of iniquity. i. . Paris. by R. reversed.e. t R. A.&quot. name of Satan is said to be that of 102. not because it is of any inherent importance. c. for The Talmuds abound with legendary they are as much a storehouse history and teaching on of folk-lore as of juris It has been even proposed that the mediaeval notion of vampirism is to be traced to Talmudic fables concerning stryges.* as in the circum is cision so also in the uncircumcision.. 395..f have given space to this portion of the pneu matic hypothesis of Kabalism. &quot. 188 % this subject. &quot. J added that the doctrine of the celestial is and infernal hierarchy the Zohar. p. It is now a matter of knowledge that the belief in the soul s immortality. Irira.. Brierre de Boismont. p. Pike. the serpent. be regarded otherwise than as a disfigurement but because we shall have later on to give account of the connection between the Kabalah and ceremonial magic. which. Tract I. YHVH No. See Des Hallucinations.&quot. Pneumatica Kabbalistica. 1852. Simeon ben Jochai in Tikkunim. Kabbala p. Second ed. Part 3. which is not found in the Pentateuch or the prophets. SAMAEL is to be the uncircumcised and is his bride the prepuce. and the doctrine of angels and demons is necessary to the It should be understanding of this connection. Supplements. I it adds significantly.

after allowing for pre-existence. thougli recog nising five divisions of the soul having names familiar to Kabalism.t Broadly &quot. conceive it Occultists. . as that Israel article believe that there will it the nations. n !&amp. shows very little trace of Platonism.The its speaking. the Kabalistic hypothesis immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body Talmud as tenets of the Synagogue. which they did accordingly. about which there can be no The certainty.a resurrection of the dead. in the oral way. by which they were perpetuated period it was. in that philosophical aspect which discern we find in Greek influence and even those who Kabalism must admit early that pneumatology. and the particular date or circumstances are a minor question. Leiningen s Lcclenlehre der Qabalah. M. . 1896. l. student t For a good summary of Kabalistic pneumatology the German may consult. as taught by the Talmud.le-e. accurate.&quot. at the time when among &quot. impossible that the learned rabbins of Alexandria should not have been acquainted with the great speculation of a future In one way or another it was inevitable that the life. Leipsic.KMM. doctrine. 17.Text Book I. all who the wisdom should have known nothing be impossible that he of doctrines which were to known to all Egypt.e Hi-.gt. name!&quot. does not possess.&quot.. Leroy-Beaulieu. Philo. and they hold accordingly that he communicated them secretly to a circle of initiation. London. p. figure in the &quot. firmly U.Doctrinal Content of the Jiabulah 83 and appears freely in the Talmuds. is it comparatively of a simple kind . 1887. Kreidlandei. inter alia. for example. This i. not quite concerns the resurrection only.the Creator. Others incline to the notion that were acquired they In the Graeco. 4 th ed. of course.Egyptian by the Jews in Babylon.I shall &quot. They form the thirteenth and last article in the profession of faith of Maimonides.* remember that Moses was learned in of the Egyptians.&quot.l of the Jewish Kdigi. Jews should have acquired it.

according to the Zohar. Kabbala Titulus xiii. however. which is the physical There thus a Neshamah The whole together is. where the &quot. Isachar ben Napthali in Geneseos. of Nephesh.the principle. for which matter was a vile reality. 91. is more the animal soul rather than the physical exactly. soul and are spirit. Crowe s translation of Kerner s &quot. identifies Nephesh with Psyche. These divisions the animal . because matter has no existance essentially. in reality far more complicated. 589. the Anima vivens of the Zoharic Supplements. doctrine nowhere in Kabalism. which is the principle of the whole.modern science. The German Kabalist. also from the same work that the natural man is part. includes the material body under the Nephesh applied to the There can be no question that this division. The La Kabbale. NepJiesh . Ruach and physical body. non nisi Psychem .84 ^he gtortriiu anb $ittr*h* of the Jabalah divides man into body. Nephesh body. He regards also as Apparatus. given in the magnetic condition reads like a inferior is simplified Kabalism. f Papus states that Nephesh. It may be gathered the living man in this world. Carl de Leiningen. is or. Neskama/i. In the first place. || i. and a Nephesh of Nephesh. 125. life. No. e dictis Cum homo nascitur. &quot. pp. Demidata. however. view has the countenance of the Sepher Yetzirah by which the term is human body as long as it is alive. Rosenroth. R. Compare Mrs. 92. in a communication addressed to the Munich Psychological Society. revelation &quot.&quot.&quot. 22.J complete in this one division. nature. Synopsis Libri Sohar. it the vegetative soul and the plastic part of the soul. Neshamah are practically identical with the body. The true * The most universal and natural of all extant classifications. . Seeress of Prevost. f the rational nature. there is a Ruach of Nephesh. The Kabalah also holds that the higher rules the lower. and that it depends upon || himself to attain or receive the others. pp. text will explain further in what sense Nephesh is and is not the But Papus also admits that Nephesh. it contains also the triad. Ruach and the seat of individuality. The system is. 126.* and thus the triad reigns in things below as in those which are above.&quot. not the I find this material body. and will of &quot.

adds another principle termed Jcchidah. The Sephirotic is.\- et prccterea nee spirit it nicntcni cmn an fern dcinde inctdit in ria rirtiitutn. s divine knot which l&amp.lt.K happily the soul Institutiones eternity of His kingdom.lt. : m * with Compare Tauler Saviour in &quot. But its immediate connections in Israel are with the Ten Degrees of contemplation described in the Babylonian Talmud. It is signifies which connected with the NesJiamah by an invisible thread. in the collection of Surius. 1548. and with the later ritual of the Pardes. coresponding to Atziluth. or spiritual individuality. eidcni super additur Spiritns ct Mcns. and the supernal part n&amp. xxxix. and it never exalted abode in the archetypal world. and of which the Neshamah is only a shadow reflected. however. Neshamah are also said to be the The doctrine of the four worlds is suggests. and the aspiration of the lower to the higher opens the path of ecstasy. . This is called Tsure. attribution of the triple triad so/am cucipit./. The junction of Neshamah with JecJiidaJi.* The doctrine of the Mystic Marriage in Christian transcendentalism has analogies with some developments of this speculation. quits its Prototype. that there a still more exalted part of man. namely. which may to some extent be held to life draws at once from Zohar i. are for those who deserve to do the work of the Master. NesJiamah corre&quot. 60 et Mantua.lt.in&amp. Ruach Assiah. that se&amp. to Yetzirah and Nephesh to The junction of RuacJi with the natural is man constitutes a state to which the term CJiiah given by the both Kabalists. c. above and from below. Cologne. It is a part of Kaljalistic teaching that the path of ecstasy is nt entirely the the closed to man even in this follow from another doctrine. or rational principle..&quot. Divina.gt. and the true Neshamah. Ckiah and highest triad. life.vlhc Soctrinal Content of the JUbalah 85 Ruach. In the hands of the later Kabalists Zoharic pneumatology became still more involved.&quot. ponds to Briah.

the Ancient Man. on deriving from a remote past.&quot. a misapprehension peculiar. the goings and Discourse of returnings of souls and spirits. moreover.&quot.We now know that the doctrine of regeneration was secretly taught among the Jews in the Mysteries. and the operation of the ten Sephiroth is elaborated in each of the ten divisions. taken per se. are it nearly all of consequence to add that the aspects under which they are presented do not increase that occultists.Yoga or Transforma that &quot. See &quot.&quot. &quot. See Old Truths in a New Light. by no means appears Ain Soph which higher level than * will in placing it on a other theory of the Absolute any . and that of the murderer into water. taken up by the school of Isaac de Loria. Later writers introduced the idea of transmigration. were created together. is but necessary to consequence. obvious. Valley.&quot. 370. Flagg is correct when he states Gnostics and Kabalists held that perfection was arrived at by means of successive reincarnations.86 Ihe Jtortrine aab literature ot the it is of course. or Sacred Kabalah. though not methodised in the was. It should be added that the Zohar teaches the pre-existence and foreknowledge of the soul* but the revolutions of Kabalism are not precisely what modern occultism understands by reincarnation. but have been regarded as full of innovations. while the presumption that they are part their surface. however. New York and London. the regeneration in question being the transformations and mysterious trials. There is nothing in the doctrine of of a tradition delivered from generation to generation. W. still less what Christian mysticism understands by regeneration.f The works of Isaac de Loria treat very largely of this subject.the tion.&quot. I believe. p. J It will be seen that the doctrines of the Kabalah. T. 1898. . It is not Zohar. t They are &quot. Thus the treatise entitled The &quot. It necessary to enter into these refinements. J In a general sense Mr. to the late Lady Caithness.&quot. described in the Zoharic &quot. warrant us All souls. Royal says that the soul of a slanderer is transmigrated into a silent stone.

is to not assisted by supposing stages between them. in a word. human the . UK. Speaking generally. at most a degree better than any other system of emanation. to the material. and occultists in particular abandoned the orthodox in faith. who most strenuously and even outside its divine derivation. and no such theory can be accepted as a satisfactory attempt At the epochs when these to explain the universe. belongs to a period of It is This kind of compromise thought which has utterly passed away. inheritance of human speculation needs neither revelation nor oral tradition to perpetuate The is doctrine of the Sephiroth. fection the imperfect order of the physical and moral world. theories were possible they were serious and excellent in their intention. and importance. in its funda all mental nature is .Kabalah . all final causation. from eternal to temporal. occultists. and up to that point their interest is permanent for the history of revive them at the present day difficulties human is beside thought. To all reason. is not much need to who have bridge that gulf. who are also very proud of this fact. from God. common it.Doctrinal Content of the gabalah there is 87 much in its modern presentation by some defend its antiquity. are less in very resolute as to its need than others of such an is accommodation. is not dispensed with by recourse to evolution. on the other hand. with Just as the necessity of the which it involves. same with the doctrine of the two Countenances was admirable the for its it time as an eirenicon between God of the philosophers but at the present day there and the God of old Israel. which helps to place it philosophical it consideration the it . so the transition from infinite to from absolute per finite.

the content of the Kabalah does not possess the momentous character occultism.p odtinz anb literature of the $abalah an attempt to give depth and significance to a form of religious faith which occultism has. Apparatus . much in favour with a certain school of but. and the doctrine of the is contained by implication in that of the Instruments of Creation. to those who take ceremonial magic words. agreed to set aside. taken altogether. Its pneumatology virtue in is important seriously.* It may be mentioned in conclusion that the reader who has a knowledge of Hebrew will do well to consult the curious diagrams The next little as well as the Latin text of the rare fourth part of Rosenroth s in Librum Sohar. which has been ascribed to it by those whose beliefs have invested it with something of interest living stage of our inquiry is to determine as far as possible its claims to antiquity. at least in its literal aspects.

I. it has its antecedents everywhere. sui generis. DATE AND DOCTRINE OF THE OF FORMATION&quot. as tradition affirms. its its given sphere of influence has been Christian rather than Jewish. There is no solid evidence to support the theory that R. is There the The attempts to refer the Kabalah in a direct manner to some prior philosophical system must be largely set aside .BOOK III SOURCE AND AUTHORITY OF THE KABALAH ARGUMENJ The two criticism. to Talmudic times. chief cycles of Kabalistic literature. At the same time. direction. in its literature.BOOK WE its now in possession of the most important elements of Kabalistic doctrine and the chief heads of philosophical instruction. &quot. There is much. It has scholastic connections. very must be set . by their materials. but its analogies with other systems are referable to a natural similarity between independent conclusions on fundamental problems of being. the belief of occult students that these works represent a tradition dating from an early period of history has also little to support it. &quot. more some of which much. in spite of destructive are referable. Moses de Leon wrote the Zohar at the end of the thirteenth century. The Kabalah is overlooked. are &quot. Antecedent Jewish influence through the school of Aristobulus and Philo must not be but also it must not be exaggerated. and it has its Mohammedan corre If there be any preponderance in a spondences. no reason why the Book of Formation should not be work of R. Akiba.

i. because. a satisfactory classification. by in evidence that can be produced in the open day. namely. it will be convenient to accept (i) the literature as divisible into four classes The that Book of Formation work which preceded Zohar (3) The Zohar . in Jewry is about 1290. namely. (2) A dogmatic or positive part. Kabbah. quent thereto. as we shall see later on. Dictionnaire de la Themurah A symbolical portion. s.e. Sephirotic doctrine and so forth. and this. A. which is. This collection that * Solomon Munk. regarding the literature which contains the doctrines summarised by the preceding sections as possessing an authentic character. . in fact. is explained by the fact that the chief collection of its archives itself till was unknown.e.90 ^Ihe Jlrrrtritu anii SJiteratttr* at iht gtabalah aside altogether from consideration in a work which would exceed its purpose if it entered into abstruse and technical matters. 4 concerned with the hypothesis of spiritual essences. on which refer to Book I. human souls and their transmigration .. at least generally.D. (2) The commentaries on the public appearance of the itself (4) The writings subse . . or the doctrines themselves as part of a tradition perpetuated in Israel from very early times. mystical Gematria. although it is highly important to the right understanding of the does not involve the points with which we First among these are concerned at the inception.* report of an esoteric tradition in Israel did not begin to circulate through Christendom till the The fourteenth century. it points is whether and how far we are warranted. while some has been postponed till a later stage of our study. but there is no need to criticise it here. Notaricon. one of the highest French classification in the (1) y authorities on Kabalism.. A . tabulates the following Conversation. For &quot. i.v. angels. subject. (3) speculative and It is not metaphysical part. this purpose &quot. calculations. demons.

in other words. but there was no consequence attached to it for Christen ground was known. to at so far back as the middle of the ninth century. as some modern criticism has loosely supposed. The work of Creation the Sepher Yetzirah for believing. &quot. conviction of the unity of So also (iin-Onir^ It professes to be a monologue of the fifth patriarch. p. of nothing flagrantly impro bable in this attribution.a is properly monologue on the God.&quot. and tradition has ascribed its formal authorship to Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph. K. but the work itself does not pretend to have been reduced to writing till after the destruction of Jerusalem. who was himself the pupil successor. Edersheim. Joshua ben Chananja. observes that part of Abraham.* to have been the view universally centuries represented the patriarch as adopted by the Jewish learning which accepted the document.lt. the legend In the twelfth century. as we have least one Christian student dom. The Sepher Yetzirah is supposed to embody a tradition handed down from the time of Abraham. &quot. and there is no doubt that the uncritical spirit of several its author. of &quot. Judah Ha Levi stereotyped quickly. and he is the reputed author of another work dealing with the mysteries of the Hebrew alpha* it Dr. though it reaches us late in Akiba was a mystic with whose notions the history. That he received and he transmitted it was undoubtedly held.&amp. There is scheme of the Sepher Yetzirah was in complete accordance. is.Sourre anb JUthoritp of the gabalah 91 which that is termed by Kabalists the work of the Chariot. This does not seem. as he was also once the opponent. however.Abraham our of patriarchal derivation became . chapter mentions &quot. but the Of course. he ultimately arrives at the 3rd. the Zohar. the of R. ed. in which. by tinthat is around him.the Book of the Creation which belongs to our father Abraham. does nothing of the sort. 407. Rabban Gamaliel.&quot. contemplation of says that it all History of the Jewish Nation.&quot. father.

History of the Jewish Nation. which. An earlier edition iv. Encyclopedia Bri- . 4 vols. Nahum He promulgated.J Nor is the date essentially disagreeable to a is moderate criticism it . Venice in 1546. in If the sense not intended. of the See Bartolocci. admit the existence of a secret tradition in Israel. shall not we we need if to question that Akiba was initiated therein . Nicolas admits the date necessary but not the authorship it suggests. it being the letters Buxtorf says that allegorically explained.&quot. fol. on the ground that Akiba was a rigid and head-strong doctor of the Law and not likely to indulge in speculative This estimate. 274. but Franck is possibly more influenced by his belief in the earlier origin of the work. f great. we admit the existence of the Sepher Yetzirah in the second century. Rabbinica. to.92 ^he grrrtrine anb HJtteratur* ot the Jubalah bet* and exaggerated the In his interpretation of Scripture he followed principles of Hillel the Great and of Giso.&quot. gave every sentence. has also lucubrations. the authority of Franck. M. 1618-19. Akiba. was printed at Cracovia See Bibliotheca Hebraa Alphabet appeared f Edersheim. we can imagine no more probable author for that work. at &quot. at least. &quot. Schiller-Szinessy expressly says that the &quot. word and particle in the Bible had its use His literary labours were also very and meaning.both book no doubt belongs to Akiba. Quite independently of occult prepossessions it has been argued that the language of the Sepher Yetzirah is a Hebrew wholly analogous to that of the || Mishnah. merely unestablished for want of exact evidence. J Curiously enough. in substance and form. in 1597. Dr.&quot. Subsequent generations were so impressed by his marvellous knowledge of divine things that he was asserted to have discovered much of which even Moses was is ignorant. Basilia. p. or. with which it is difficult to agree. with a Commentarius Prolixus. indubitably true. 87 et seq. on the ground that the Talmud reproaches Akiba for his incommensurate notions of God. * It is || called the alphabet of R. for to the weight of his authority the doctrine that him is attributed the arrangement and redaction of the Halakha. La Kabbah.

1833. It seems certain that St. notions of the Deity.* mony of to fix not possible from any internal testi the work as belonging to the later period. Paris. Cursus Completes seq. over created S. p. Paris. London. 1494. aaurante J.i^e* short of demonstration. &amp. effects here nothing with his hands. while the fact. in virtue of which they should preside things. . Agobaid chaws from the In the second Description of the Body of God. Migne. v.v. Omnia. fuifs. and confined to de fudaicis Agobatdi In the first. zirah earlier. including organs of seeing. contributed to the ninth volume of the Dictionnaire de la Conversation * &quot. s. when there is tolerable reason to infer that It is it was known by St. Munk also takes this view in the article s. 9th ed. and that Franck characterises the attempt of modern scholarship to tannica.. &quot.&amp. for literature travelled slowly in those We is mentioned must remember also that a Sepher Yetin both Talmuds in connection with the doctrine that heaven and earth were created by a mysterious combination of letters. on the ground lhat they believe Him to be possessed of a bodily form. et de la The English Lecture. . for obviously its first any book may be far older than the date quotation. hearing. s 590 et seq.v.? (. passage to to it is said &quot.&quot. . .Li4gduncnsisEpiscopi. . if established.lt. Midrashim. t. Histoire des is . and before the beginning of the worl-1 have received diverse offices./&amp. reader may consult Taylor s translation of Basnage p.&quot. 1708. P. speaking and so forth also that they note only one difference between the body of God and that of man who is in His imnge. .anb JUthoritg of the Jiabalah 93 which begins only with the ninth century. and wrote against trials by ordeal and other See the Abbe Migne s Dictionnaire dcs superstitions of his period. Patrologia 1851. 78^ . 32.. because God in two short the Epistola S.gt. Agobard was Archbishop of Lyons.lt. Sciences Occultes. 1493. namely. vol. that the fingers are inflexible. the Jews are branded for their gross Suftrstitionibus. falls t The evidence pavs. Despite he figures among the persecutors of Jewry. that it was known in France in or about the year 85of would create a presumption that it was in existence much days. History of the Jews.Agobardi. i. Agobard. a term derived from a root signifying to seek out or to question. they believe the letters of their alphabet have existed from everlasting. this apparent enlightenment See Basnage. col.&quot. having distinct members and lineaments. pp. Kabbah. : Further.

writing was possessed by Abraham every probability is against it and every authority is agreed on this But the Sepher Yetzirah contains. Have we any ground captivity.* not place the work in Talmudic times. * Akiba. that in Chaldea. by implica point. Paris. found at an early period It is Akkadia and so forth. and we have no warrant for supposing that the art of . and we it know is that this belief is very old in humanity. maintaining that these references demonstrate the existence of a work reserved to a few and that this work is identical with the Sepher Yetzirah as we have it. 1843. The doctrine under notice gives prominence to the sacred and divine character of the Hebrew alphabet.94 ^he IPottrine anb $titrftittxt ot the Jiabalah distinguish two works under an identical title as do If. La Kabbale.75 et Se1- now . tion at least. P. the doctrine of an occult power and sanctity inherent in certain divine names. it afflicting to modern as it intelligence. We have next to distinguish between the date which may be surmised for the treatise and that which must perhaps be attributed to the teaching embodied therein. we may concede that it came into existence within a founded in measurable distance of the stormy period in which the great Talmudic canons were forcibly closed. but belongs to those countries with which Israel was in contact. we gross ignorance. the Alphabet Mishna itself were dreamed of. Occultism has On this fact Franck insists very strongly. for believing that the is doctrine of the Sepher Yetzirah older than the affirms ? Egyptian as its legend This question must be answered by an emphatic negative. however. and reason to think that it became part of of the religious baggage of the Hebrew people long before or the the Sepher Yetzirah. we have is of great antiquity.

f I ought not. MODERN CRITICISM OF THE BOOK OF SPLENDOUR The commentaries on the Sepher Yetzirah which preceded the publication of the Zohar * make no claim And so also. attached itself to this doctrine. while the others are various grasp the Name. it would seem.&quot. a mysterious explanation of the Bible drawn from the letters of the text and a meta physical theory which connects God with the world through a series As regards its date. 65 et seq. the interesting col Letters from a Mystic of the Present Day. in post. has the less pronounced form of Christian mysticism. . Second edition. perhaps. we have no evidence to show is that the doctrine of the Instruments of Creation prior to the date of the treatise much . torn. 1889. he agrees that it is one of emanations of divinity. attirms that it has nothing in with the Kabalah.* and we must therefore. .Christian times. of the numerous Midrashim produced by the Talmudic period.We seem to have to learn the various names of God before we can The Name grasps us. one of the latest common editors of the Sepher Yetzirah. perhaps even from the period of the Babylonian captivity. as the Talmud itself indicates. ii.e. by an lection entitled modern anonymous writer. outer courts through which we come into the Sanctuary or Name of God us. &quot. On the other hand. II. for example. which develops it it can therefore be placed has no history previously. and only in Talmudic i. L? Esprit des (hoses.. 205-207. London.ourcc ant) JUthoritg of the glabalah 95 allow. in that name we find pasture wherever our outer life may take Compare Saint-Martin. &quot. to occultists that the most ancient document of Kabalismf does embody something of tradition from the past. See. pp. to omit that Mayer Lambert. It should be added that the Sepher Yetzirah is part of a considerable literature of an occult or mystical com plexion covering the period between the closing of the Talmudic Canon and the first report of the Zohar. by which he understand:.&quot.

may. or.96 ^[Ehe jjpfljctrme zmfo literature ot the giabalah for on antiquity. these are the vital questions: criticism is (i) Chief among Whether modern right in its ascribing period. Those who loathed the yoke which Abraham ben David Ha Levi. on a priori grounds. The Sepher before was known and accepted docu mentary criticism can be well said to have been born. Aben Ezra welcome * and Moses Maimonides would it have placed on the neck of Jewry. We Yetzirah shall get very little help from the insight of contemporary Israel as to either point. and may therefore be reserved in writers in like con sideration in their proper place later on. Moses Shem Whether we have (2) of its doctrine was in and much earlier period.&quot. it was and Pythagoras. proceed at once to the absorbing problems We connected with the Book of Splendour. It is the fact . accorded . 12. at the time of the To first determine these Roman Emperor Antoninus. Its two systems is best shown by this fact. as its legend states. p. evidence that some at least to R. and so also when the Zohar was promulgated it was among it a mixed audience who either took or rejected of Aristotle. therefore. traces of Kabalism prior to that event may The alleged of known dates also manner be left till we deal with the documents consecutively. opponents were almost universally Jewish Aristotelians in accord with the philosophy of Plato likely esoteric doctrine. the Zohar to the thirteenth century as Tob de Leon existence at a as its author. and indeed emanated from the same sources. a glad * all that great section of contrariety of the Jewry which was The : Myer says who opposed more most &quot. points we shall do well to glance which has of all at the history of the criticism befallen this vast document. the Aryan and Chaldean the ancient secret learning of the Israelites because Philosophy of Ibn Gebirol.

and things for which there is Described little evidence as if there were Throughout this overwhelming testimony. Arabic. . he turns the Zohar a notorious whereas the ip&amp. Some of its Sephirotic . s the corn- only which is of value light of Book iii.m the inaccurate .. 70. any real acquaintance with the Kabalah. but it harmonized with their transcendental aspirations. Munk in 1859. knowledge by a monk of exalted erudition and of eccentricity equally great. forgery. Mr. part of his history we find continually things uncertain in the language of certitude. * &quot. it was hated the Aristotelians by because not till it did not consort with their methods. London. History of Krt-una&amp. a strong and informed as that of in Germany. In the influence exercised by the Kabalah upon certain minds of Christendom. to Graetzf quote only one instance. &quot.oniy. 66. 1885. Myer explanation may be read in the When the Saracens became the patrons of philosophy the attention paid both by Arabians and Christians to the writings of Aristotle excited the emulation of the Jews. understood. developments. Thus. for Creek was ii at this period little ii. H .e pronounced on all Jews who should instruct their sons in the Grecian learning continued in their philosophical course reading Aristotle in I It-brew translations made ln&amp. 5. notwithstanding the ancient cur. on the other hand.&quot. the Sepher Yetzirah must be distinguished from the Zohar. The former has had no influence it was indeed introduced to our .anb JUthoritu of th* glabalah 97 addicted to astrology and magic took it into their heart of hearts: it was neither astrology nor magic. etz of &quot.&quot. ( iould. hostility. about which he writes savagely and with the indiscrimination which we connect with a savage. who. is more I see no stiong than it is well informed. . On the other hand. Franck in 1843. chief notoriety concerning it scarcely two authorities can is that after eight centuries of criticism be found to agree in their estimate. or.* recent times that we have It is any intelligent defence on the part of Jewish thinkers Konitz in 1815.gt. David Luria in 1857.gt.&quot. but it was not till the sixteenth century and it found no sphere of operation.gt. 67 see also 69. .

century made the grave.* Thus. Of course. the existing state of scholarship to have challenged one might have openea an abyss beneath the other. The fourteenth excusable. and again was not a period when documentary criticism was pursued with any keenness. Zohar. and that Jewish superstition is much more clearly proved from them than are the mysteries of our books and their connections) because they religion. and &quot. the claim of the Zohar for They accepted In much the same reason that they were persuaded of the antiquity of Homer.&quot. put the Jews so clearly in the wrong. . from time immemorial. the discovery exclusively evangelical that there had existed in Israel. For all Christian students the Kabalah was substantially the Zohar. the office attributed to it was almost that is to say. but they can bear no comparison with the appeal made mentaries of Rabbi with a certain audience by the larger cycle. Histoire Critiqi4t du Vieux Testament. as we shall see subsequently. met among a few men of learning.. but yet mistake of supposing that most people wrote the books attributed to them. the antiquity of was not at that time challenged in it Christendom. as it was alleged. by their own showing. the Kabalistic found them more favourable to the Christian religion than the recent commentaries of the Rabbins. But they failed to consider that these same allegorical books are filled with an infinitude of ridiculous fables. and. as time went on. a secret doctrine contain analogies and even identities which appeared to with funda mental dogmas of Christianity. 371.98 l^he gcrtrme attb HJiterattir* of the JUbalah Abraham and Rabbi Azariel. matter. p. William Postel has imposed on several theologians in this having pretended to find Christianity in the books of the Richard Simon. and could well have included all ancient literature in a common * uncertainty. Some Christians have also esteemed them (i.e. . that their conver sion the tradition was deemed inevitable.

but again from uncritical and predeter its mined motives. after their own manner.anb JUthorihi of the Jab.gt. a high place must be accorded to Petrus Galatinus and his DC Arcanis Cat/ioliue Veritatis contra Jmlo-ornin pcrfidiain.&quot. I.vi. who saw no good in the Ghetto.iri&amp.ilah 99 the evangelical instrument proved to be of no effect. but even then it was scarcely on critical grounds. t . or at least the disability. By a similar sentiment intolerable to the it rejected has seemed literature modern taste that any occult should possess a real claim on attention. A romantic criticism inspired by Eliphas Le&quot. P. and immortal works have been the fruits of this union. It was offensive to the dignity of the Latin Church to suppose that there was a rival tradition. the spirit has fructified the soul . * It is there- Among writers who did not permit themselves to be deceived by the alleged instrument of conversion.. some sceptical voices were raised. John.* Zohar were The Christians who rejected the it like the Jews who rejected the latter because they were Aristotelians. validity began to be challenged. &c. Essias des Sciences Mauditcs. first published in 1518. impenitence of the erudition of Toledo. Nouvcllc The /ohur has wedded the Gospel edition. full of illumination and wisdom. The Kabalah became Catholic in the school of St. I must The some cases they seem. Au Seuil du Mystere. Consult Stanislas de Guaita. . of early students has been amply atoned for in the spirit which has governed the later critics of the Kabalah. t The connection between Christianity and the Xohar still finds an occasional expositor in occult circles. even at the inception of the enthusiasm.f final and only the lost thief in the credulity. preserved unknown to the church in house of Israel. . So also. to have prejudged the question much as that confess that in laborious it in the bibliographer Julius Bartolocci prejudged seventeenth century. i-orri^t 1890. &quot. the former because they were Christians.

&quot.TOO ^he Jtortriru anb Jpterature xrf the jiabalah fore said out of hand that the Kabalah. as everybody is well aware. for they may be said to betray themselves. These. as the case may be. the race of Rowleyites still had a few survivals. often at every point. were forgeries pure and simple. is fairly paralleled oy that of many occult documents. for we find the editor describing their characteristics in terms cation than he was concerned with is which have a wider appli at the moment. Key of Solomon Mage. Abramelin the Sacred Magic of and yet they possess at this and the &quot. represented a forgery of the thirteenth century. It is not necessary add they possessed their believers. fabrications which possess over which a mass of forgery . among which. true Rowleyite.&quot. is We must endeavour comprehend precisely what is involved in this standpoint. There are some literary fabrications which do not need a high degree of scholarship to expose them. and their disguise is so entirely spurious it that can be peeled to off without any that difficulty. There are again some a certain basis in fact. as typical instances. The position of the Rowley MSS. A not open to conviction. and the statement obtains in the case of all pertina cious defenders of spurious literary productions. enthusiasts for the good faith of their claims to a high antiquity or a Hebrew origin. to by the Zohar. and not further back than the days of the Bell edition of Chatterton. There are no works which betray themselves more transparently and abundantly than the &quot. day their believers. he says. we may select the handbooks of Ceremonial Magic. sufficient In the to department of belles lettres it is mention the so-called Rowley poems.

&amp. They have scarcely resemblance to the Arabic originals. In this case the epic of Fingal. but it is perhaps the nearest suspected that the Ettrick Shepherd supplied a his proportion of the collection craft.lt. for which there was indubitably a nucleus of floating Gaelic tradition which was wrought into his imposition by McPherson. but such originals exist. The result may deceive for a moment even sound scholarship. but time. In occult literature we have several signal examples of this suspected writing which has not been found out to the satisfaction of the impartial mind. at the determination of their claims. or else are so skilfully constructed that the balance of probability is poised pretty equally concerning them. by it own skill in verseitself and criticism. I do and not it is know whether there is any good instance fabrication. . &quot. Wallace was fatal to the possibility of writings Perhaps the to Latin alchemical attributed Geber may be any regarded as typical this instances in occult literature of form of fraud. there are certain works which may or may so much genuine ment not be fabrications. of this kind of alleged is Hogg s Jacobite Relics of Scotland approach to a parallel. in belles lettres &quot. is though has not concerned fairly very seriously. is only a matter of &quot. its full exposure &quot. Finally. but they either incorporate material belonging to the depart of literature which they pretend to represent. almost impossible to arrive. by impartial methods.ourre anb JVxithoritu of the $abalah 101 has been arranged. One ready instance in point is found in the poems of Ossian. That collection undoubtedly contains a large proportion of genuine material. perhaps divided on the question.

we are here concerned Destructive criticism has maintained that foremost work was forged by a single writer. therefore. the hostile critic nature of his indictment. There is. at the end of the thirteenth century. as we shall see. The fact that this inquiry has been undertaken will indicate that. and is generally the sufficient work of writers who have is not paid regard to the possible existence of much of the traditional doctrine which summarised in the Zohar at a period preceding its appearance by some Kabalistic literature centuries. We its admit. are held by others to represent occult traditions of con siderable antiquity. class. as in the Zohar. spurious literature belongs to the most accountable class.102 ^he Iptfrtrtrte atvb literature xrf the giabalah For example. and all I do not think that the case has been decided for works. there sincerity is . and the presumptive evidence strong. It falls into line readily. that belongs to a suspected but how we are to regard impeachment is a different question. But the most renowned of time as regards some of these all the instances is the Kabalah its that with which itself. and regards its motive. but the theory of the fabrication of the Zohar by Moses shoulders de Leon puts an almost impossible burden on the of that questionable personage. in my own usually opinion. is not at all There is very good proof of late writing. no positive evidence on this point which is worth naming. of indif ferent claims to our intellectual consideration. Where there are complex workings of the human mind. a few of the Hermetic books. as As must change the regards its material. which are usually classed by scholars as productions of the Alexandrian period. and therefore post-Christian.

/uive et u&amp. it is not exclusively an made by modern criticism from allusions to events found here and there in the work .&quot. as anterior to the seventh century. and Munk were either influenced by Gebirol or by sources Ibid. Melanges de Philo In spite of this. but doctrine more or less familiar or following from familiar doctrine. are not the inventions of an impostor. at least in its present form. sophic. p. . THE DATE AND AUTHORSHIP OF THE BOOK OF SPLENDOUR accounts for the Zohar on the The theory which ground that it was written by Moses de Leon in the latter half of the thirteenth century does not depend merely on internal evidence inference late . did not consider the Zohar. but that ancient documents were including Midrashim which are not now extant. pp. who maintains that the Zohar and its connections. common to both. 275 et sf. 276. III. Aral ./. and that in its was neither wholly old nor entirely new. Paris. &quot. that is. age of the various Targumim and will have to be including the Zohar.&quot.ed by the editor. it is * This is very nearly the position of Solomon Munk. but rather that the Kabnlistic develop ments which it represents took place in the thirteenth century. now in in course of recognition outside places the academic this which rule general opinion.gt.-.gource usually present. 1859. that it evidence tends to show that final state it grew. Schiller-Szinessy the best evidence all when he observes that almost that the latest critics have said concerning the Midrashim. 277. evidence on the subject. the various tracts and fragments which enter into the compilation. Of Dr. its atvb JUthorihj of the is gabalah 103 The Kabalah to is much too singular in mechanism far So as there be referable to a solitary author. unsaid. offers &quot.* These occult facts are circles.

transpired without being sought for.gt.c inference from the fact that he dedicated several other works to co religionists who were his patrons. and I have sketched fully and frankly At not be accused of any bias in the matter. or Book of Genealogies. or that the original MS. because it is accepted by all accept the account of the Zohar given in the Sephir The has an air of fable.lt. to whom he dedicated his It is merely an works. Although who is no evidence. from which R.* that it had never been heard of previously. may be such highly probable that in the absence of any testimony the same point would have been it reached independently. the same time it is my purpose to show that the may indictment breaks down first altogether. Yuhasin&amp. Moses the Abraham ben Samuel * Zakut. by R. and hence the case against the work is based both on external and internal grounds. Moses claimed to have drawn has never come to light. who belongs critics I have called this a fact. or there It abouts.104 ^he ipoxtritu an ^ $*iM5*tee r&amp. and Moses de Leon must have employed a There very large staff of copyists in order to transcribe it frequently. of all Let us dispose evidence. he could not have slow a process. as alleged. It is based upon evidence which claims to be contemporary. that he employed any one but if he worked made large sums.&quot. with the appearance of the Zohar itself. It is not therefore at it first sight a weak that I case. however. It has been suggested alternatively that he profited much by the patronage of the wealthy Jews. &amp. but the fact remains that not the discovery of modern criticism at all is it .&quot. a work entitled Sepher to Yuhasin. . but as to this there is no conclusive evidence. it seems to me that the statement Zohar is a very large work.gt. .f the not a presumption arising only from the fact that the Spanish Jew who is suspected of the splendid imposture lived by transcribing copies of it. by so single-handed. of the alleged external In at the year 1566 there appeared in Hebrew Constantinople &quot.

which so elaborately defends the Zohar. to the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella. The explanation became subsequently assured that the Zohar was not a sordid forgery.D. as some modern have seem almost incredible that in this work. to the truth as regards the written it and oral that embodies the sayings of R. as he embodied some of its principles in one of * his own treatises. yet such at first sight is the case. The most biassed of a Jew That is to say. contains the deep secrets of the the concealed tradition in Israel that it that it . the second half of the thirteenth century. of the period of the Emperor Antoninus. public namely.cSource anb JUthorittj of the gabalah Its 105 second half of the fifteenth century. and as such it has been accepted by those who impeach the Kabalah. When the edict of 1 1 expulsion was published he retired into Portugal and was appointed His work embraces the Royal Historiographer by King Kmanuel. but he taught at Saragossn. obvious that Zakut must not be classed therefore among critics those who opposed attempted. a narrative should appear which represents it as an imposture devised from mercenary motives by Moses de Leon.* point of view with regard to the Zohar is that the splendour of that work is truly an illumination of the world . Law and is of conformed law . is found in the fact that the person whose adventures it relates is . It will the Zohar. and the proof that its missing conclusion is really to the credit of the Zohar. in reality simple the narrative in question is a fragment. and exculpatory as to the transcriber of that work. Simeon ben Jochai. . . entire period between the creation of the world and the year 1500 A. but is really it disciples and that. work did not become the It is of his after the death of Nachmanides. finally. of Salamanca. under whose name till it appears.

case. but They undertook a journey together with Moses de Leon died at Arevolo on this the way. % The reference seaboard.106 &amp. where he would exhibit it to object. he made a journey into Spain.* a disciple of laid claim to the Nachmanides.. attb Ipteratuu of the gabala&amp. own In fashion. we may a visionary.. is probably to Tarragona. f but that the ship which bore it was driven by the wind to AragoniaJ or to Catalonia. of the Zohar. Italy.lt. His companion proceeded to Avila. one of the Jewish refugees from that city. admits the force of this The narrative is concerned with the adventures of Isaac de Acco. home in Avila.t modern fact. who performance of miracles letters by a trans position of the system which he pretended that he had learned from the angels. therefore. in about 1293. either he was at Novara. He there learned by report that the erudite Moses Nachmanides was said to have transmitted the book to his son in Catalonia from Palestine. and that it was at his Isaac. being very anxious to see them. Independently. as Aragon has no So far the account represents Moses de Leon as acting with perfect sincerity in the matter.lt. and the precious volume came into the hands of Moses de Leon. and seems to have suffered imprisonment f It is for a time. and.e.&ht Jtortnne critics. and there * Isaac was I. . was curious that the disciple should first learn that his master in possession of such a treasure by a floating rumour from a great distance. when he heard that a Spanish Rabbin was in possession of the original Zohar MSS. who declared upon oath that he was in possession of the MS. he after his Hebrew according to a was a Kabalist suspect. Dr. besieged by the Sultan of Egypt in 1291. Acre. At Valladolid Isaac de Acco made the acquaintance of the latter. Graetz. and.

* Acco left Avila and proceeded to Talavera. Moses. offering for the maiden the hand of his son and a substantial dowry if they would produce the The women had been left original MS. no money lie did not employ transcriber*. of Corfu. namely. .. and the account of Isaac breaks off abruptly in the middle of a sentence describing some testimony which &quot. named Joseph. to spend. in reply to his inquiries. and whatever price he may have obtained work he could not have multiplied assiduous. By one of these. If idle. where he met with R. Isaac de His quest having thus who. as he had himself proved conclusively. but he next had recourse to a wealthy Rabbin of Avila. failed. but neglected his wife and daughter. in poor circumstances. named Jacob. affirmed that the genuine Zohar was in the hands of Moses de Leon. They. while as for the Zohar he had made it up out of his own How far Isaac was impressed by this state ment does not appear explicitly. he was informed that Moses de Leon had been a spendthrift who derived great profit from his writings.anb JUthoritn of the JUbalah 107 prosecuted his inquiries among the relatives of the deceased. of the Zohar. who communicated with the widow and daughter of head. who had testified by heaven and earth that the book Hence many. The nature of the proof does not appear. he received at Toledo as to an ancient Rabbin. Joseph Hallevy. such MS. concurred in affirming that there was no however. the son of a Kabalist named Todros. by David Rafon. and there was every reason to they would comply gladly. he could have had no time for squandering if for copies of the . that the dead man had composed the work suppose that out of his own head and written it with his own hand.

Paris? It is numbered 771. moreover.&quot. Assuming which was that the narrative is truthful. the evidence set aside as insufficient it by the one person who has recorded cannot be accepted by impartial criticism unenforced by other considerations. but I do not conceive that it is necessary to discuss this possibility. xiv.. who have regarded Moses de Leon as nothing Those more than a transcriber have had to reckon as they could with certain damaging references to late events which this document there is. Further. . account in the Sepher Yuhasin is not proved that Moses de Leon wrote out of his own head. anno 1452.* Zakut himself it mentions an opinion that he did write under the guidance of the Writing Name. which copy is still preserved in the Giinglung Library. and most persons who have taken part have been led into more or in the controversy less contradiction. that he was even connected with it as transcriber.io8 ^HThe Joctrine attb JJiteratxtre of the Zohar. son of copy of the Moreh. the Zohar it is &quot. no proof. speaking still under correction.&quot. of author * * I which *. t Outside I am Who this name and place. for to confuse the issues.e. transcribed a Maimonides. for whom Samuel. and by the course which he subsequently took Isaac de Acco must have concluded to abide by these. the Yuhasin is the one authority by which we can fix so important a date as the death of Moses de Leon. The state of the case as it stands is confused. i. by angelic revela tion. R. Simeon ben Jochai is the have passed over purposely in this brief account several minor details which have awakened suspicion it is as to the honesty of the narrative. according to Friedlander s preface to the third volume of his version of was the Rabbi of Isaac. So far therefore as the concerned. so far as aware. p. The to two solemn testimonies point the authenticity of is that it unnecessary closes with the Zohar.

written it in Aramaic. Histoire dts /ut/s.(Source jwft JVuthoritj) of the $ab. Behai ben -ph Ibn Hakuda. see Basnage. there are no pointed Hebrew MSS. adopts the theory of Levita. their reception by the Karaite Jews a proof of their antiquity. subject to the modification that they were introduced by the Karaite.lt. London. and that Jewish learning was then centred at I.Uah 109 are found in the Zohar. which he ascribed Jews of Tiberias about the beginning of the sixth century. prior to the tenth L t R. and their explanations are those who regard the tran often quite worthless scriber as the concealed author have had to meet as .////////. quotes or borrows from a book entitled Duties of the Heart.&quot. torn. iii. David Lcvi.gt. part i. in whereas at the period to which is ascribed Aramaic was the vernacular.J its (4) It quotes authorities posterior to (5) It is alleged period. The internal evidence against the Zohar : may be reduced under the following heads (i) It refers to the vowel points which are alleged to have been invented in post-Talmudic times.lt. however. (3) It mentions two kinds of phylacteries. * of the to the first Elias Levita. t For a general description of the 7 Jo&amp. R.&quot. was one to affirm the late institution of the points. on the other hand. Ginsburg.t about the middle of the eleventh century. /&amp. p. Unfortunately. because they were century.* the &quot. a German Jew of the sixteenth century. professed enemies to tradition and innovation. c. iii. Their explana tions also are of little value and are for the most part merely ingenious assumptions. 752 et ss&amp. &amp. at makes the end of the sixth century. &quot./ t . Babylon (see David Levi Lingua Safra. reply to this : 1785). they might the extreme difficulty of supposing that such a collection was the production of one individual.gt. written by a Jew of (2) It Saragossa. which fact is supposed to prove the late origin of the entire work. In it has been advanced that at the period the schools of Jucbea had been closed. Mocha. and that individual Moses de Leon. while Hebrew was made use of religious writings. or Tephilim.

this is point Christian existence the one thing. prior to the . Duties of the Heart it &quot. which might be shown and pointed at by the hand. and there is no question (1) .f the $abalah These are met by defenders of the : in the following way points are not the invention of times posterior to the Talmud the proof is that they are mentioned in the Talmud. obviously re producing current legend. close of the sixth century is another. and must be left to those who affirm it its existence in Talmudic times. Bab. Eruvin. of the Talmud.gt. and This is also the testimony of the Zohar. from Talmudic references. p. which. Levi Basnage. are not vowel-points. . 763. rule given to Talmud they are Moses on Mount of said to have Sinai. op. certainly a work its of the eleventh century.no 1lu Zohar Jtortriiu anb literature difficulties x&amp. and. and are to be understood Though belonging is still to an early period of the controversy. is f See David Levi. Babylonian Talmud mention who made says that in several places of the of the distinction of the accents. consequently they must be visible marks or both of the vowel points and accents.. moreover. or borrowing from the traditional storehouse * Bab. under the name Treatise Nedareem. but is advanced that author himself borrowed from the is Zohar in an early form. of St. Megillah. The commentary that the vowel signs Jerome on Jeremiah is positive proof were not in existence in his day. Berocoth.t that is. ?. in particular. also Bab. the existence of which traceable. torn.J (2) is The treatise on the &quot. figures. refers the invention to the eleventh century. of the accents of the law. The vowel that this work In the is long anterior to the thirteenth century. and all that is required of this objection in the present case to destroy the validity to the genuine character of the Zohar. &quot. s defence worth reading. ii.* been a pre- The system with the exception of a very few cases occurring in the Penta teuch.

or whether it originated in earlier Talmudic times. Splendour Of Light. The The question is whether this difference of opinion occurred in the eleventh century and later. after Daniel xii. school is met by represent form as the growth of several present which is provably true of most early Hebrew its Amoraim literature. died at the close of the twelfth century. (4) The citation by the Zohar of late authorities belonging to the ing it in centuries. The Midrash is a symbolical 1844. but is much weakened by supporters when they attempt to argue that had the Zohar been forged by Moses de Leon he would * According to Jellinek the great classic of the Kabalah has passed under three names (a) Midrash of the Kabbi Simeon Ben Jochai (b] Midrash: Let there be Light! (c) Zohar. Certain state set ments and inferences therefrom defenders of the Zohar in are tiie forth by support of second view. (3) It is existence of two kinds of phylacteries arose through a difference of rabbinical opinion as to the Scriptural passages to be used on them. but the use of two kinds of phylacteries before the tenth century has not been clearly demonstrated. canonical or not. 3. is it is which we are here concerned the question at issue. : . The it indirect strength of this its view is considerable. narrative or account. who wrote a commentary of repute upon the Book of Formation. the pretended instructor of Nicholas Flamel in the secrets of alchemy.&amp.lt. so assumption. Die Kabbala.e.* It is was a contemporary of Rabbi Abraham. i. .. oder die Religions philosophic der Hebraei von Franc k.ourcc anb JUthovitn of the JUbalah m of the Midrash of Rabbi also said that the author Simeon Ben Jochai. Leipsic. As it is obvious that the objection with equivalent to begging fairly met by the opposite unserious and may be dismissed. but this mysterious personage.

which are mystical. Britannica. he was more * likely to have Compare at the article s.) (c) scribe of That supposing the antiquity of the Zohar.gt. the Simeon Ben Jochai was undoubtedly the Rabbi Abbah that it mentions.&quot. MS. For it to be otherwise sible. . Midrashim by Dr. have carefully avoided the citation of The history of literary impostures points wholly in the opposite direction. if of the Zohar. is How the late authorities came to is impos be included a distinct matter. that the recorder was the son of R. Abbah. he in the it is recorded to have it said : be written in Jerusalem idiom not.Encyclopaedia Talmudic Cambridge. and he as a Babylonian must have been thoroughly conversant with Aramaic. Simeon. been composed after that time and before the Renaissance.&quot. and finished at the latest It is impossible that it should have in the sixth or the seventh century. but this may be regarded as a subtlety. That the common language is used to increase the symbolism.The Zohar Schiller-Szinessy.D. A. t (^) That supposing the Zohar to be a forgery pro duced by Moses de Leon. but if anything Zoharic was committed to writing in the second century there would be good ground for accepting the express statement of the &quot.. and the objection demonstrates quite clearly that the work as we have it is later than its latest authority.3Ehc gtodrin* anb $it*ratu of the jiabalah later authorities. is genuine. but Hebrew The value of an objection to the Zohar founded on its use of Aramaic is here exhibited by the express statement of a Jewish litterateur in the thirteenth century. (5) When If it Isaac de Acco set out is on his quest for the original &quot.ii2 &amp. (7&amp. by its defenders : (a) That Aramaic is the language of the Targums. Lesser Holy Synod&quot.* It is argued furthermore. in the ninth edition of the &quot.v. as both language and contents clearly show. Reader in was begun in Palestine late in the second or early in the third century. &quot.&quot.lt. t There is no evidence for the editorship of R.

shoulders of I I . if not absolutely of all reference to Christianity. has been well urged that latter it if contemporary with the Talmud. the Afidrashim or the et also sees traces in the Gneonurn but an incorrect and most corrupt mixture of all. But the strength of the case is in favour of the Zohar also the strength of the chief It does quote later authorities. Franck is in many cases the best and certainly the most lucid expositor. p. seem to possess as much force as they did originally in 1843. pp. under the catch- On the entire question compare Munk.ourrc anli JUthoritw of the JUtwlah is 113 written it in Hebrew. even at the present day. and some points of the argument from the dialect in which the work is written. Munk Zohar of unfamiliarity with the language used. 104. objection against it. as to which. on this hypothesis. had not produced a single work capable of serving him as a model ? La Kabbale&amp.&amp. however. the Talmuds. of the Chaldaic paraphrase of Onkelos and Jonathan.question raised by reputed forger. which the language of his other books.lt. 280. The absence of Christian influence. of the Targums. but this may exhibit that it grew like the Talmudic writings and several of the canonical It Hebrew it. The two tabulations have by no means exhausted the difficulties or the counter- From evidence. Melanges de Philosophic.The Aramean dialect of the Zohar is Arabe. Franck in 1843 remains still pertinent and still unanswered lu could Moses de Leon at the beginning of the fourteenth century treat matters of the most elevated order in an idiom which the most distinguished scholars had been for so long content merely to under stand and which. books. Juive &quot. \\y this a double and altogether intolerable burden seems placed on the t : its On this subject tin. not that of Daniel and Ezra. the is ought to have mentioned and it replied that * does. the absence also of Aristotelian influence. not.* these objections and these answers the conclusion must be that the internal evidence general for the late origin of the bulk of the Zohar as it stands is not of any real force. 281.gt. M.

ii4 ^he of gtortrine mib literature ot the its word late Learning. and this is sufficient to account for previous authorities. old as regards its materials.* I have noted that he was unlikelv. writer terms him an inferior Kabalist. and it seems admitted on all sides From these works Jellinek that his original books are poor in quality. but possibilities of this kind can only be determined by the event. while in the shaping of those materials and the impressing of that form the individual who multiplied the copies may any silence of have had a hand. at the best.t Dr. Many great books by persons who were antecedently improbable. has extracted passages which are parallel to others in the Zohar and * some critics have thence concluded an identity of the authors. name. but unfamiliar less or more in its form. t And by those who accept this view it is considered that he interfered only to disfigure it. because he was intellectually and morally unfit. that One of these is the Moses de Leon was an unlikely person argument to have written such a work as the Zohar. There is no doubt that the Zohar was to some extent sprung upon the Jewish people at the period of its publication. The manner of its was not unmixed it was the kind of reception reception which would be given to a work which was have been accomplished . but by the title of the Secret titles which have been men It would exceed the province of an elementary work to pursue the subject further. and hence unlikely to conceal his hand in the composition The same of any. we know Moses de Leon only through the testimony of a hostile relative. The minute considerations are of course highly tech nical. and after all. In any other branch of research such parallels would be held to prove nothing. Schiller-Szinessy shows that he was proud of the authorship of his books. and there are some on both sides which it is wise to abstain from pressing. . but this argument also must not be pressed too far. and by other tioned in this section.

. but in many and openly. 1742. iv. c.. figure Others. following Bartolocci (Bibliotheca Rabbinica. Graetz is raised in favour of the school of Abraham ben David of Beaucaire.lt. . 1776.//// . 1775. Jfi ssia ii.k. &amp.W/. the most important being that the Zohar contains the precise. ii. accomplice. employing Moses as their publisher. . in any case.* The most favoured delinquent is. orthodox doctrine concerning the Messiah and His divine and human nature. 781 t. orthnioxam dtSec vol..\\.s considerable work. and. v.r ft TalmuJn. and this not in one place or mys teriously. t At the opposite extreme was Christianus Schojttgenius in lii. THE AGE OF ZOHARIC TRADITION It must not be supposed that the field of criticism by a hypothesis of unmixed fraud. but occasionally he appears as the tool of other conspirators. fudtcomm Dqgmatuam 2 v. H. because he is reported to have circulated the Zohar. represents Moses de Leon as in possession of several exemplars which he amplified.utti&amp..^docens R. or that this hypothesis has always fastened upon the is entirely occupied same person.f Landauer. Simfonem filium Jochai.ic. There are eight heads to the argument. p. Dresden and Leip.in Theologian /////&amp.lt. impensir^ Rahlnnicorunt Leetionum I. argue that the true author was as an like Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia. this Meanwhile is extreme opinion * in all its varieties balanced by tenth Basnage is inclined to refer the original Zohar to the century./r. Thus. while the voice of Dr.gt. that Kabalism owed some thing of development and of impulse./nam ct 1733. Moses de Leon. Samuel Cohen maintains that the Zoharic writings were composed by a convocation of converted Rabbins. Abraham ben David of Posquiere and Isaac the Blind are also favoured names.anb JUthorittj of the Jlabal. Hnnr Hcbmif. to is whom it indubitable. convened for the purpose in a Spanish monastery.ibtr Sfcundns.-ligionrm fuissc Christ ianam.h 115 IV. of course. auftornn /. R. Histoire dcs t. t. and thus the Church itself seems to M. 82).

and one can scarcely conjecture by what principle he was guided in his estimate of Moses de It is the height of exaggeration. It may be suspected. criticism gulfs in evidence by is fantastic On the other hand. therefore. will Its typical representative is Graetz. . for example.n6 Ihe Jtoctritu anfc Kpttenttttre ot the Jiatmiah counterviews which also denaturalise the literature. not less stupid. there off the crass which rules a literature by a single stroke of the it pen into the region of forgery and imposture. remember. the book of Daniel till fresh archaeo always in disgrace. this document is older than the Ritual of the Dead. the account in the Yuhasin Leon. conclude that &quot. and is far less engaging. . than the opposed excess. logical discoveries cast It is truly it into the pit it which it had dug. this only. The and collapse of its claim to antiquity. &quot. all whose imagi nation can bridge suppositions. as rules off all occult It or hallucination. is psychology into that of imposture does not matter that this criticism It proved Troy town to be solar mythos till Troy town was excavated it undermined.* The importance of much upon the date possible claims of its the Zohar does not depend so of its documents as on the tradition. or whatever land is for them the well-spring These of all truth and all truly sacred knowledge. and. accepting at once the fairy-tale attribution of the Book of Formation to the patriarch. in that respect. as it believed. that Abraham was in Egypt. * transcendentalised till it almost exceeds recognition. with reason that on both sides there is an error of enthusiasm : there are the children of intelligence who doctrine of Judea a mere transcript from look to find the secret that of Egypt. is It is useless to reason with those whose confidence not shaken in the face of impossibilities.

or exegetical interest. in the history of Zoharic criticism we find that the old students not only accepted the claim of the tradition and were disposed to understand the genealogy more or less literally. historical. . however. of course.anb Jlnthorihj of the JUbalah reduce it 117 to the full rank of imposture. did not make this saving distinction. but that further they to antiquity. unfavour either. for example. In the light of fuller knowledge it seem to have been admitted in be thought that the claim has lapsed. and the closest approximation to truth is found Now. who accepted and defended its antiquity. usually in the mean of extreme views. predisposes them to the defence of In such a case. or remains only as a pious belief prevailing among an uncritical will minority. Upon able to any hypothesis of antiquity. It is clear that Rabbins. We are therefore more concerned in ascertaining the state in which modern criticism has left the content of the Zohar than The early is presented to us. an indis is criminate rejection not much less superficial than an unenquiring acquiescence in a non-proven claim. but it degree from that which must attach to a will differ in kind rather than tradition which interlinks with the far past. The history of debated questions of this kind teaches another lesson. a few persons being always found whose mental bias exploded views. because this would days when scholarship was insufficiently equipped for the determination of such a question. the surface of the history of Kabalistic criticism the first presumption is. the speculations. and in many instances modern hostility does not make it the form in which it students of the work. sion. of mediaeval or later if we waive the dishonesty of a false preten will have at most some literary.

the statement that the chief Kabalistic author was Simeon ben Jochai.* on the simple authority of the Later scholars. 1887). literature. as it is its Talmud a residuum of teaching concerning angels and demons may be abundantly found in the . however. that there are elements of old doctrine in the Zohar their exact antiquity it is. in for s no solid incline to this view. particularly the Gnostics. compilation. &quot. Church Dictionary&quot. but is quite sufficient to invest them with considerable it interest. London. There is more warrant for the second than the first view. having the found something to countenance the modern origin of documents. for this is also found in the Zohar. I the case as closed. Valentinians and Basilidians. If we fail entirely here we may regard Now. (fourteenth edition. . * Some modern ecclesiastical historians. if All this. need to be told. Like the Sepher Yetzirah. highly speculative. we have Dean Hook A most of the heretics in the primitive Christian Church fell into the vain conceits of the Kabalah. on the other hand. Talmudic literature. I here to the Yetziratic notions concerning the virtue of Divine Names. also is an inheritance from Babylon. some of may refer even be referable to the period of Esdras. King s Gnostics&quot. as curious. part of it is the worth less. that a careful believe all and unbiassed comparison of the evidence will lead us to conclude . in part. as readers of Matter will not s Histoire du Gnosticisnie and of &quot.n8 ^he Jtortrine mib $ititatttrt of the JUbalah regarded the books which contain both as belonging to certain dates and produced by certain writers with out much suspicion. the worthless part of the Zohar. this The reference to something which deserves to be antiquity from the date of publication will regarded apart explain what I mean by the moderate and middle view as in which the truth must be sought. and also that Thus. With reason. have frequently overlooked the possible antiquity of their tradition.

the strange As regards form its most the Book of Concealment. outside bare even of seats ? .&quot. but probably it is entirely improbable that any conspicuous portion could have existed in writing till after the sixth flower of the is Zohar. follow the learned author of the article on the Midrashim the nucleus of the its in the author in the work is same sense Kncyclop.&quot. t I that he gave the this possibility mention impulse to its composition. because Dr.inessy has not first stated his reasons why it is impossible that it should have been later than the seventh century. that there was a great body of secret doctrine which became revealed gradually. while the growth of most of it is much later and subsequent to the latest date perhaps which It is can be ascribed to the Sepher Yetzirah. we shall be led not to the conclusion of the occultist. ancient part century. namely. Sdiiller-S/.edia Britannica. used as a synagogue. are copies of the Zohar likely to be found in a it Jerusalem and so poor that is small room. and subject to the conclusive-lie^ of those \Ve may -peculate what Dr. Zangwill did he read in the epilogue to the &quot.. we may &quot. OS. but that there was a kernel of tradition which Israel. who says that of Mishnic times and that K. Johanan was of the Palestine Talmud. at length the growth put forth.Children of the Ghetto.&quot.(Source anb JUithoritn of the Jiabalah 119 regard to the Scriptural exegesis which constitutes so large a portion of it. and follow them through the large mystical literature which intervened between those works and the Zohar as we now have it.* hints If we and references found of take the obscure but ample in the Talmuds to the existence a mystic tradition.&quot. which it is Spanish Jew casually remarked that the Zohar was &quot.t * In other word&amp. S/im-v-y would think of Mr.gt. not without something of transformation and of suddenness. was planted in the secret heart of till which many watered and fostered.forged by a in the thirteenth century. By the way. Simeon was that R. we shall not offend possibility by supposing that some of it may be a transmission from Talmudic times.

Dictionary which argues that the variety of style and the disjointed character of its contents show that the Zohar is the growth of ages. by its defenders that it is the subject of reference in several texts both of the the Midrash of Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmud under the name of Simeon ben Jochai. that the legend which attributes its origin to R.)&quot. as Sepher Yetzirah. The existence of a Mysteries of Simeon ben Jochai before the middle of the eleventh century and possibly entitled the &quot. the Ain Soph doctrine to be part of the s of Doctrinal and Historical &quot. as we.&quot. Simeon ben Jochai seems to have made an unfortunate choice. s. Graetz. much earlier.&quot.* This is the most that can be urged. 1877). and this is sufficient to prove that no one person wrote it out of his own head. and the parallels between Talmudic sayings attributed to this Rabbi have been exhaustively compared with the Zohar. regards it as certain that the philosophical speculations which compose the Kabalah generally began to form during the century which preceded the Christian era. and under the seal of secresy. imparted to a few only. and there is some evidence for believing that he did not investigate the hidden meaning of Scripture. for It this great authority of the Talmud represents a reaction against the mystical tendencies of R. but they were oral. is acknowledged by Dr.xi. with a view to exhibit their identity. Unfortunately. Blunt s work indicates no real acquaintance with the Kabalah and its criticism.i2o ^Ihc jpactrine ani literature ot the Jiabalah advanced. Nicholas in Lichtenberger s t. have seen. . work &quot. Akiba. * An interesting article by Encyclopedic des Sciences Religieuses. the article is not trustworthy. M. t Compare Blunt Theology. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that early written and oral materials entered into the composition of the work as we now possess it. Cabak (Paris. it representing. does.v. but He is described by a rather its rational principles. on the other hand. must be confessed. Unfortunately.

who claimed knowledge but wrote frequently in the same distracted strain.S0urce unb Jtnthoriti] of the liabalah 121 modern writer as col d. namely. of the Kabalah is lost in the night of time. that the Zohar is not the work of Moses de Leon. \$me Edition. although embodies is the entire content of Kabalistic doctrine. Simeon s period. it is difficult to reject its leading and central figure. Is it of India or of Egypt ? We do not know but it is certain that to Egyptians and Indians it was alike known. Desbarrolles.! which occultists While we leave them once more in full possession of the alleged virtue inherent in divine names.&quot. Paris.d. .gt. so far as this article is f Take. One asks vainly whether its lir&amp. It was completed in the eighth century. At the same time.t revelation divine or the product of inspiration. n. then the region of the \\a&amp. Pythagoras returned with it into (Greece after his . not the sole nor the earliest storehouse of that doctrine. and perhaps with some elements of legend concerning angels and demons. for example.&amp. * The author of the article &quot.* If we turn now for a moment to the standpoint of modern occultism we shall see that so far we have no warrant for connecting the chief cycle of Kabalistic literature with the high antiquity to incline.Cabala&quot. Desbarrolles knew nothing of the Kabalah. The evidence adduced for concerned. and we have next whether the antiquity of the tradition given in the second book is to philosophical be inferred from its points of contact and corre to consider spondence with other theosophical systems which have prevailed in the past. exclusive and stoical. in Herzog s Real Encycklopddie takes a middle view. though its doctrines are referable to him. travels in the East. M. But the Zohar. the following typical instance of the &quot. this view seems inconclusive. we are forced to take all that remains a considerable distance it into the Christian era. Les Mysttrcs de la A/aiti. if we accept the existence of a genuine tradition which became incorporated in the Zohar. light.gt. but he reflected his friend Levi.lt.The origin exaggerations which have found currency on this subject. nor is it of R.

Sepher Yetzirah. according to Hebrew tradition. It has been shown to be derived from Akkadia. Translated from the Hebrew. from India. seems therefore to have in Israel. It is in Egyptian science. &quot. Wynn Westcott. within the limits of the centuries. cannot say whether the Sepher Yetzirah is much anterior to the ninth century. from ancient Egypt. from China. t One of the exponents of the English school of Kabalism states that. Geschichte derjuden. the doctrines of the oldest portions of the Zohar are antecedent to the second Temple. This is the view which obtains most widely among occultists. At this point the difficulties begin to because the range of research is exceedingly multiply. says Stanislas de Guaita.carried from &quot. must proceed step by step and shall do well to begin successive first by a general survey of the subject. and it has been covered in every direction by We generations of hardy speculators.122 ^Ihe Jtortrme anb fpteratnre ot the gabalah V. ALLEGED SOURCES OF KABALISTIC DOCTRINE We are now with regard to our subject and to affirm that able to reach a specific conclusion many of the materials collected in the Zohar are earlier than the period of their promulgation. W. 1893. The doctrine of the Kabalah has been referred for its origin to almost every philosophic and religious system of antiquity. London. .&quot. | from Platonism and Neo* Jewish But we can say that one of the most pronounced opponents of See Graetz. large. and its points of correspondence of all with each have been carefully tabulated. t been an esoteric tradition Whether it existed prior to Christianity itself is the next concern of our inquiry. theosophy assigns it to early Gnostic times.* Christian We But both works are there in connection with Talmudic times and. Second edition.

the Great (Zohar). be drawn from all this Christian rival evidence is that it is them specifically and not derived from any one of exclusively. who wrote.&quot.). indeed almost to Talmudic times. v. of course. t I (Somnium Sapionis.Mie. that we must the source of that sacred tradition transmitted from generation to generation.Symbols of Pythagoras&quot. that Ain Soph. &c. 183. . 184.aub JUthoritn of the $ubaluh 123 Platonism.cx-rn Israel. London. down to the disciples this master. merely an assumption of the vital point at * Even the so-called &quot. not excluding the scholastic philosophy of Christian Europe during the Middle Ages. of course.gt.f Ain Soph is that final concept of the Deity which is Mit/raim by Moses at the exodus of the Sons of di-. The subsequent developments possess a complexion derived from many sources. ilectanea Hermetica. vol. by W. I think. Included in other attempts of the kind in all the first class are the doctrine of the Ten Emanations. have been approximated edited to Kabalistic teaching. that the Kabalah . distinguish the fundamental part of the Kabalah from its developments. when engaged on and perhaps insoluble problems of the universe. i&amp. We must. by the oral of Simeon ben Jochai. of the Macrvprosopus and the MicroprosopuS) some of which may go far back in of the history of post-Christian Jewish literature. among the Jews way. 1894. refer here to the Kabalistic schools of Isaac de Loria and Moses of Cordova. at the dictation of the second century of the Christian era.-. is largely an outcome of main such unaided research that its results are in the sui generis. from the categories of Aristotle. about An Settil du nth. from early Gnosticism. My Book of the Light The last statement is. tends independently to reach conclusions that are similar and may even wear sometimes an aspect of literal identity . but rather that the certain fundamental human mind. but that they offer points of contact with ages and nations. \Vynn Westcott. pp.* The most philosophical conclusion which can.

they are the kind of speculative doctrine which one might Given the times have expected a priori. are late at least the history of human speculation. They are an attempt in to distinguish in between God as He is Himself and His relation with His children. betweed absolute purity and that material world which. As might be expected. at which the mind The doctrine of the always arrives. is in either case Sephiroth is. But the ultimate point of theosophic speculation possible to the human mind. whether or Jewish literature. as such. it is not necessary to suppose that was the derived exile from Babylonian initiations during seventy years. When we remember of all the persistence of tradition that which has always characterised the most persistent races. Yet they have some points of As regards each and all. contact. natural results of legitimate intellectual and the circumstances. in to always prosopns early in be regarded the as one or other way. seems unclean. a very intelligible form of another widespread device of the world s thought when it seeks to bridge the gulf between finite and infinite. when we remember dispensation the Jew of have the Christian may be said to .124 Ihe ilodrine anb literature of the JUbalah all reached by metaphysics it . The Macrolate in and Microprosopus. the first point to be fixed firmly in the mind is that they are the inquiry. in its turn. offer the least connection with any external system. of regarded reasonably as a unfinished exile of the Christian it more product of the centuries. they are the most characteristic of Jewry and. or from Greek speculation at Alexandria it may be .

Scmrtt aub JUthorittj of the jftabalah 125 lived in the remembrance of believe that we can an well atmosphere of mind was at work continually.lt. from which conventional initiation. when he suggests a direct communication of doctrine from the religion of Zoroasterf to Kabalism which must be referred to the period of the cxile. as occult writers suppose. We have no ground for affirming with Basnage* that old Egypt is the true nursery of the Kabalah. 19. J and elsewhere throughout the compilation. is Hook vii. pp. and some others also who have no such bias towards the mysterious to intervene in apology for their opinion.Chaldean Oraclesof/ edited by s The true value of such parallels libUhop Meurin :id&amp. though it is quite possible that Israel brought some thing from the Nile valley which does not appear in Pentateuch. t For some tables indicating the harmony and identity of the Chaldean philosophy with the Hebrew Kabalah. United States Southern Jurisdiction.J That the Jews derived * L. out of which he never stepped. Nor are we justified in agreeing with the illustrious Grand Master of the Ancient and the Accepted Rite of Freemasonry. Charleston. see the &quot.&quot.&amp. c. he was encompassed by legend on which his fervid his literature. sho\\n by such frenzied developments Synn^o^ue dc Satan. like all his thought. Morals and Dogma. &quot. was not profoundly tinctured by this his intellectual environment. iii. and it would be unreasonable to suppose that all his glory passed away. \iv. Histoire . 267. 8-n. Compare Matter. 266. &quot. But it is a wide and an unwarrantable step from the belief in such a natural and inevitable operation to a belief that Jewish tradition must or may be referred to any distinctive source in the it was perpetuated by some past.lt. 5641. \\hich will be noticed in . pp. A. 1895.M.m.

and still possesses. &quot. A La Recherche des Destines. a vast body of traditional lore. Mutation. Also Eugene Nus. Y-King. 3. ever urgent. possibly the may have is received increment theorists and colouring. revue philosophique des Hautes Etudes. is the source of that which was in Israel.* is mere commonplace on which there is no call to insist. Tao-see. as it is some analogies with Kabatendency of the doctrine.f or a mere word. of so-called secret teaching. is neither surprising nor significant of anything except the irresistible the human mind in all to reflect after much same manner. 94) and Oliver s et seq. and if occultists will be so unphilosophical as to term this Kabalah. esoteric religious tradition which listic has. Jfin et la Numeration. after their great body of Haggada final scattering. More fantastic have imagined that not only but that it there a Chinese Kabalah. in That the great unknown empire. Such Critique du * Gnosticisime.&quot. Paris. &quot. ever recurring. upon mysteries that are every where the same. Tao-lctorn. xxxvii. see L? Initiation. Paris.. 1892. f For some information concerning this work and its Kabalistic analogies. No.Analysis of Ancient History of Initiation (p. which again were more or less the same as those which subsequently flourished in Greece. Dec. 1897. lands and times. there is as little need to dispute &quot.v.&quot.i26 ^Itt Jlortrine arrb literature of the something from Babylon I have already noted. 79 Mythology (vol. p. In conformity with which Bryant s &quot. and amidst their chequered experience under Persian domination. who refers the Gnostic systems to the Zendavesta and the Kabalah. i. p. 266 et seq.similar to those of India. contains an said. possessed. which all things from alchemy to the art of printing seem to have germinated.} would have us believe that there were mysteries in China &quot. . S. with them about the improper and confusing use of That the book called Yi-King. &quot.

nian Discoveries. 1898. power of the Mongol rulers of Chaldea. Frea with Aima. April.il&amp. which stands it need of no formal perpetuation. and and not Supreme refer here to sacramental to natural religion so-called. Anpin. God accumulated through In the natural is the ages of initia order. which.gt. We may him everywhere his in mind that the process was everywhere natural and informal.gt.&quot. that the Jew received everywhere and always retained the form. form only a passing episode in the story of Asiatic civilisation. extending over sonic three centuries at most. not arbitrary and conventional. which dates back probably earlier than the time of the Pyramids. reception. readily and reasonably. . which was native and days of its original. Thor with the . Edinburgh Review. as the heart and mind of humanity.Source anb ^nthoritg of the gabalah 127 analogies do not prove. the existence of a Wisdom-Religion.yl&amp. the * I Lesser Countenance.&quot. and bear Passing over the regions of wild surmise in which Odin the Norse God becomes identified with the Kabalistic Abba.* is inborn yet race in And the in undoubted existence of the Mongolian Mesopotamia almost at the dawn of history may suggest that the Semite drew something from Mongolian Chaldea even in the days of Abraham. alxnit the time of Abraham.! as afterwards the certain Jew of Babylon may have had a Confucianism in its contact with earliest admit. in the greatest rulers. may be presumed to mean the secret science of the reintegration of the soul in tion. provided that we leave own intellectual initiative.The eighteenth dynasty in Egypt. the truly fundamental in religion the common ground of all. as occultists would have us believe. if they will suffer the interpretation. and the victories of the great f &quot. li. and from which Kgypt borrowed much &quot. was far more extensive than that of thecontemporary rulers of Thebes and of the Delta.

may acknow We born Jew. Amelineau There is nearer the truth when he the speaks of a systems.that &quot. the date affixed to the preface.f They taught are the same and they are also different. . and the in the schools of difference represents the growth of the native intellectual thought of Israel. 1887. Par M. E.&quot. AmtHineau.&quot.&quot. affirms that the Druids were true children of the Magi. from the true sources of the 103. J Essai sur le Gnosticisme Egyptien. Second London. who believed MusJe that &quot. its We principles and traditions are similar to those Babylon and Tiberias. devised ledge also that Marcus. scs developpements et son origine Egyptienne. Morals and Dogma. &quot. &quot. like later Jewish mysticism. is to say. Paris. J coincident are development analogies in of two and nature * Pike. p.Gnosticism. xiv. as of the national heritage to the system something which he produced. published in Annales du Guiniet. sprang from the contact of Judaism with the religious speculations of the farther East.&quot. t 1897. Compare Edersheim.128 ^he Jlortrine anb literature oi the JUbalah Being discerned behind the northern mythology with Ain Soph\ passing over spondences into also certain Druidic corre which the it might be unwise to enter. &quot. under the various its proper development impulsions which it received between the period of Gnosticism and the period of the promulgation of the Zohar. but written so far back as 1882.The Gnostics and their Remains. whose initiation came from Egypt and Chaldea.a though there are striking analogies between them. Yet Gnosticism is not Kabalism. may concur cordially with King when he argues that whatever the date of the Zohar in its present form. M. edition. primitive Kabalah.* as before regarding we may take much same view the alleged Gnostic connections of the Kabalah.&quot. and something of common source is attributable to both. torn. following no doubt some unnamed authority.

we should shape our work of art or interpretation with out drawing needlessly from things remote.lt. The fusion of all which is a characteristic of the present day. when John the Baptist made desert. all in the Dead the old philosophical and religious other. of Persia. makers of verse says the poet. King says that the doctrines arcit and that he does not seem to speak with a phy.&quot. with the establishment in Asia and Africa of colonies. but it is easy to evidence. the nearest. artists or occultists. between its Sophia is the most valuable document for the Gnosticism and the Kabalah. Mr. but glass is glass and a pebble is a pebble. many After the intermingling of different nations. C. systems has its parallel in witnessed the rise epoch of the past which of Christianity.Source anb Jtuthorihj of the Jiabalah 129 appearance between glass and rock-crystal. the doctrines of Greece. all systems were approxi mating toward each inclined the minds of general lassitude toward the quietude of that A amalgamation of doctrines for which the expeditions of Alexander and the more peaceful occurrences that followed. The prototype of Yetziratic and Zoharic theosophy is close to our hand in Jewry. and.&amp. At the time that &quot. of Egypt. exhibits the leading principles of the Kabalah. which resulted from the wars of Alexander in three-quarters Grecian of the globe.* back and lies unphilosophical because unneedful to go far far off when the explanation of given facts near in time and place. and of India met and intermingled every where. or Kabalistic commentators. That is best which lies It is &quot. W. near the shores of the his appearance Sea. but first-hand knowledge of . had prepared the way. All the barriers that had formerly kept the * The Pistis analogic exaggerate identical.

a Ibid. p. yielded to that eclecticism which prevailed among masters. &quot.* National ambition. Arthur who has much argued a process in the Buddhistic origin of Christianity. After this .. has discovered in the Zohar not only the Trinity of Philo.&quot. and though it was impossible. Greek of the Alexandria to some extent Hellenised the Hebrew religion that he might if the better Judaise philosophy of Hellas. cannot reasonably have been without an effect upon the literature of later ages in Jewry . the nearest approach. to Kabalistic theosophy There is no need as regards its source in Jewry.&quot. Modern Mystics and Modern Magic. having regard to their environment. their most Greeks peoples.&quot. p. Lillie. and the movement and mode of thought which in this he represents. least in From this fusion there arose not in time and place at form and subject. but the Trinity of Buddhism. he says that is &quot. Madame Blavatsky and her Theosophy. thus showing that he side the Zohar. 194. p. book of Magic. not aware of the existence of Kabalistic books out Finally. a century before had received a similar vocation. who elementary study to refer to Aristobulus. the and Romans.&quot. 14. it was their object to tinge other systems and not to modify their own. to show that the ethnic philosophers owed everything Philo the to the divine doctrine of Palestine. traditions of Rome and Athens then the The Jews exclusive of all and Egyptians.&quot.was one ot the secret books of the Essenes.f * &quot. however. the latter hastened to learn the . rather than eclecticism influenced the Jews. 13.130 ^he Jtor trine anb |iteraittte oi the JUhalah nations and while the apart were thrown down of the West readily connected their faith with people those of the East. and he holds that the Kabalah &quot. t I should observe here that Mr. Morals and Dogma. &quot. 247. that they should not be largely tinctured. Philo. p.&quot. He also says that it was written is down from tradition by one Moses de it Leon.

1651.tub JUthoritn of the gabalah 131 though the history of that influence and the mode of its transmission cannot be traced conclusively. and this out of developed by the commentators on the Sepher Yetzirah prior to the appearance of the Zohar. Venice.Soun:f . was the Scphiroth. the case much stronger. We must not. however. very easy to set it down to but the fact remains that the &quot. whose three of Hell.Kingdom principles. one of which to do with the three &quot. some of Aristotle.lt.&amp. whom connect the Kabalah with and so we have works like Burgondo s Podromus Scientiarum Artinmve liberalinm ad ipsos Peripat cticce Scholce et Kabbah So also et doctrinat pnrissimos fontes revoeatus. Book of Formation is essentially fact lifts and it charac altogether the category of Platonic succession. influence. which forms the third part of Rosenroth s Apparatus in Libntm Sohar. Frankfort. as regards the literature which makes contact with these.&quot. earlier period Thomas Campanella in his De Scnsu at an Kerum Magia. Abraham Cohen Irira. Greek &quot. also was Jacob Bohme. 1620. the Porta Ccvhnim of R. teristically Hebrew. fall into the error of supposing that the Kabalah is Platonism derived through Philo and the Jewish school of Alexandria. joined Neoplatonism and Kabalism in his attempt to explain the universe. saying regards nothing of the later literature. . When we find in the Sepher Yetzirah the alphabetical symbols of the Logos made it use of by is God in the formation of the universe. &quot. taken up by Christian writers. see Buddhism in Christendom. have something supernal For similar speculations.&quot.* Philo we So shall not be surprised to find that St. or that it is Jewish tradition modified by Philoism. Paul was a Kabalist. was written expressly to exhibit the correspondences between Kabalistic Later on the same theme was dogmas and the Platonic philosophy. * For example. which had recourse consciously and openly is to Greek sources. Yet we know where to look for the explanation of its As regards the doctrine points of contact. Ibid. and as the Zohar itself.

.* in all of which we are enumerating express * points is of Kabalistic doctrine. may be taken to the Philo affirms absolute transcendency of God so does Zoharic Philo regards the divine nature as in doctrine. the and the so. 401^. does the Zohar. theory of natural magic is contained in this maxim. purpose the visible world as the gate of the world regards literally . heaven. he believes in the possibility of an immediate contemplation of God. Mundus Subterraneus. Kabalism denounces those who would attempt to describe God as He is in Himself even by the attributes of s descriptions the latens Deltas compare negative of the Kabalah. The whole . Philo mystically according to Philo Kabalistic exegesis. and one natural in the narrower &quot. that things seen are a counterpart of things unseen. Philo regards the scriptural Deity as anthropomorphic. us say. These There a twofold correspondence in Kabalism between superior : and inferior things one transcendental. which stand for the whole literature. Philo God are given Him all . and allegorises the descriptions.&quot. ii. Two Countenances. .132 ^he Jlxrrtrirte anfo literature of the Jiabalah insists on the antithesis infinite between God and finite . sense of the term. in the existence of an archetypal world. so does unseen. all Kabalism agrees. being that of phenomena with their archetypes in the noumenal world. Philo says that no name can be which all He manifests. the let material world. itself escaping definition and in itself without quality . anthropomorphisms. designed to explain the same Philo . attributions and manifesta tions of Deity therein compare the doctrine of the upon . being that which is summed up in the axiom There is no herb on earth to which a certain star does not correspond in the : See Kircher. Scripture interprets his as it a veil so or regards does the the letter of Zohar.

Which yearns for the fruitage forbidden. The golden pomegranates of Eden.] all We acknowledge with the poet how truly and the legend is &quot. however much distorted in strange glasses of vision. much less but that which produced Philo. The frenzy and fire of the brain. its and much nearer to ourselves at times in spirit than we should ever it suspect from its form. Kabalistic of teaching pre-existed in we have further the Spontaneity. To quiet its fever and pain. Faithful &quot. Yet we may suspect on philosophical grounds. it is But more than tion. of Kabalistic apparatus. the sentiments and aspirations of humanity have ever a the vehicle and under through ground. in this longings find expression. and of Philo as explicit testimony to the existence of a mystic doctrine in Jewry. When the &quot. the lore A part Of the hunger and thirst of the heart. not indeed Philo of necessity. too consecu tive. we see that our own yearnings and own manner. independent specula a veil which does not conceal essential individuality. for however concealed behind the veil of symbolism. initiation.anb JUthoriiji ot the $abalnh analogies are too numerous. common many colourings of art and covers and tinctured by many fantastic artifice._ all. subsequent influences.&quot. allj remain unimpeded and are all necessary to explain the existence of the Zohar and its connections. too close. after their book of the words of the exile. Shepherd of the Zohar puts . but its source is Philo exclusively. wearing its tradition like hardy. to leave any room for doubt that the heads Jewry.

that though we write Mercy in our hearts but read Law and its inflexible order in all it around every us.i34 ^he Jtortrine anb Jpterature of the ghbalah these words into the Israel: &quot. we side.In mouth of in the the Father of universal is this world my Name written YHVH shall and read Adonai. . Herein is the justification of the ways of that herein the pious conviction of the heart that in the great day of the Lord believing there shall be no scandal to His children that in . not in the beard of Microprosopus or in the number of worlds suspended from the hair on the cranium of Arikh Anpin. and it is by the ring of such utterances of to-day is that the true believer electrically that the made conscious Holy Synods were composed of men who are our brethren. io6a. it is written. and. so that Mercy be from the * we see that at the beginning of century we might have expressed the longing. furthermore. but the voice of the Rabbis of the Zohar expressing the language of the heart of Israel needs no Temurah to expound its meaning.&quot. God to man and spite of the darkness of our ways we have held rightly that He is light. but will world to come the same be read as all sides. or that shall is one day know that Law is that order under which the Divine Charity It is is manifested. the hope. fol. part ii. in messages like this that the abiding beauty and significance of the Kabalah are contained. * Cremona edition. do not know our modern terms could have represented it better. but it is still that which I we all desire to express. the faith. Mercy on the highest expression of the Law. may be pastimes fit only Gematria and Metathesis for children. for which differently twentieth this symbol stands.

the Zohar hands late period admittedly. no argument. which were necessary to the plays So the formulation of the Zohar According to the Zohar itself.* They are a As. so also it forbids us to suppose that Kabalistic doctrines are the work of any single mind. which to fill. but he wrote also the Moyen de Parvenir.Faust&quot. So also Beroalde de Verville wrote books on alchemy which are despised even by alchemists. without any necessity of evidence. One feels instinctively. but it is not necessary o attach any serious import to this statement. it if all is masterpieces are antecedently improb true also that they are impossible without antecedents. it .&quot. and the second part of the Sorrows of Werther A in Soph and is like the void between &quot. at a assumed its present shape it however. or more precisely. &quot. Galatea did sum of not make Don Quixote impossible. and places the theory of aboriginal tradition among fables. That his other works are Cervantes wrote many and &quot. nine includes under the title of the authors combined for the production of the work. is worthless romances before inferior all &quot. Malkuth. The &quot. it was the purpose of the Sephiroth But able. it may credibly have taken part of at the of this Spanish Jew. that these things are not and cannot be the unaided work of Moses de Leon. which &quot. after the chivalry. growth and a result. There are certain dull old histories known to literati of Shakespeare. &quot. &quot. to a tract Faithful Shepherd. Every magnum opus is antecedently and the intellectual distance between improbable.o\\ut anb JUthoriiji of the ghtbalah 135 As this view disposes implicitly of the claim to a divine authorship.

They occupy a middle position between the script of a shorthand reporter and imaginary conversations like those of W. VI. the Jew is an anthro- mind that . Book of Formation. and it is not to be supposed for a moment that more authenticity resides in the dramatis persona. of the Holy Synod than in I do not mean those of the Turba Philosophorum. that of the &quot. both oral and written. we must bear exotics adjust themselves to their environment. a point beyond which the not pass. Agobard . that such names are entirely pretexts.&quot. There reasonable critic will St. no less considerable than &quot. of course. &quot. not without certain changes even in the most persistent types. for they may possess an honest basis in legend. but they are not literal or historical. the Book of Occultation bears all the marks of antiquity. Simeon Ben Jochai we are on ground. ISLAMIC CONNECTIONS OF THE KABALAH When in the Jew of the Exile sought a consolation philosophy. compounded of his traditions. his longings. Landor. his specula tions. Now. and thus produced the higher part of his Kabalism. S. the memories of in his election all and its glory. purely traditional with R. parts of which were no doubt incorporated without any change in their formulation.136 Ihe Doctrine anfc literature ot the Jiabalah must have been preceded by much raw material. external receptions. For example. So far as it goes we on safe ground with the meagre testimony of are is.

puting or defending the opinion that Israel possessed a tradition handed may have down by the oral way from early times. for the simple reason that . The nothing but he assumed much. and the Jew of Spain offered contrasts to both. Having made a reasonable allowance for spontaneity in Jewish thought. first That was in Spain. so he lost in in things physical. Jew of Salerno differed from that of France.. is propose indicate literature naturally. of which we have enough evidence to warrant the presumption that it existed but not enough to determine what it actually was. from the ninth century and onward ? differed considerably from that which surrounded Western Europe. and having noted its observed connections and correspondences in distant times and places. Now. it seems fitting that we should look Without dis now to that which lay the nearest. elucidated by the features of partial birthplace. Without attempting to add another hypothesis to the I scores extant as to to the that origin this of Kabalism. we find that in all countries he has been modified sufficiently to as As guarantee his survival. let us begin by considering where the Kabalistic books to circulate.Source anb JUthoritij of the gabalah 137 pological exotic in because his countries of the world and just persistence is so enormous that it is all explained by a special law of Providence. the intellectual order. Garden of Paradise. its if partially. but a species of oasis them in other countries of Spain was for Israel not indeed a in the great wilderness of the Exile. what began was the environment of the Jews in the Peninsula at the period in question let It us say. in matters of daily life.

Islamic mysticism is almost coincident with the mission of the For example. &quot.. Avicebron is a case in point.* . much Jew was not then under Christian The he of Spain enjoyed comparative immunity . had received the influence of many developments from many sources and under many minds. &quot. possessed even political influence ally to high political he rose occasion not surprising. is referred to the time of Ali.&quot. t The translation of the Talmud into Arabic by R. with R. is the best evidence which can be cited on this point. j. centre of Jewish is power. There is ground for supposing that the nucleus in Christian times is first heard of in Palestine. .} questions of priority and preponderance may here of no importance. famous for the great Islamic prophet. and were equivalents of their therefore. &quot. that a literature accepted as the speculations or teachings of the learned among the Moslems. King of Cordova.138 Ihe of gjortrint atrb it pteratuw ot the gabalah rule.who reacted on the Moslem doctors. which indeed follows from * its connection. the Ghoolat sect.Secret Societies of the Middle Ages. 31. 29. Simeon So also the necessities of the Christian princes in Spain till the thirteenth century led them usually to protect the Jews. London. be passed over. Joseph. of its which we have evidence as to existence in Talmudic times. It Spain became and philosophy. pp. See extravagance of its doctrines. because they are have concluded already that the Zohar the mystic thought of preceding centuries presents in Israel under a certain aspect of transformation. during the reign of Haschem II. Thence Jewish treatises passed into France and Italy under the Arabian authors names. There can be no doubt whatever that the erudition of Mohammedanism The exercised an influence in their turn on the Rabbins. We The traditional knowledge. 1846. disciple of Moses the sack-clothed. once admitted.

Pant heist ica. Tholuck Sufismus Sive Theosophia Persarum Also De Ortu Cabbala. Berlin. everything points to Spain and the South of France Ben Jochai. There is evidence to show that such influence was at its work outside the Zohar and existence in prior it perhaps to possesses. The analogies are interesting enough and the Orientalist who first specified them had everything to justify him at his period. the operation of the Divine Will at the beginning of creation. We are concerned only with a question of complexion and of tincture. . and that it is developments of not unreasonable to suppose the final has been affected by the prevailing tone of mystic thought in one or both of these places. the emanation of the world. and have other criteria by in work Islam. the form that now It was then most probably a part of the very large In post-Zoharic mysticism. Hamburg.* As it may not be uninteresting to cite a few : * See F. or would regard all Kabalism as referable This was the to Islamic mysticism for at its sole source. passim. 1831. &c.ource anb JUthorih) of the Jmbalah 139 But despite the legend which represents the Zohar as sent from Palestine by Nachmanides.v. it may be traced more fully In no case does it justify the now plainly. plus the Greek influence hypothesis of Tholuck. 1837. and in the commentaries on the Zohar which are the work of Spanish Jews. D. which to judge the true significance of the points of doctrinal resemblance between Sufi and Kabalist concerning the latent state of Deity. A. and merely a reproduction or echo of Arabian theosophy. c. as the chief scenes of it the Kabalah. exploded criticism which would make the Zohar influence of Avicebron.

from 1414 to 1492. there flourished a Sufi poet named Nuruddin Abdur- rahmann. &quot. one of many concerning which we possess impregnable testimony. the adapting. created of all The First Intelligence. It may at once be admitted that if we are to accept the method and admit the quality of evidence which has satisfied heretofore the several authorities who have referrred Kabalism to definite sources in philo sophy and this religion. . About the middle of the fifteenth century. the following lines occur Absal. but it gives a point of departure backwards for tracing a possible con nection between the mystical sects of Moham itself medanism and the mystical sects of Israel. the poems in this collection is entitled &quot. of which the last Sole agent is in this our Universe. or.&quot. chosen this instance because it proves nothing of circulation on account of its lateness. we are at liberty to infer from passage that somewhere about the year 1450 a away from Spain as Herat. let us take a fact. : The Incomprehensible Creator. among whose works the Seven Thrones is most famous. was with slight variations of a verbal kind. where the author unfolds his meaning. Salomon and a mystic story of earthly and heavenly love. more exactly. known as Jami of Herat.140 ^he Jtortrin* anb ttet*ittre of the Jubalah cases in point derived from other sources. One of &quot. Sufic poet. First of a chain Of Ten Intelligences. Active Intelligence so called. first when this world He did create. so far Sephirotic doctrine of the Kabalah a century before the Book of Formation and the Zohar came into I have through the medium of print. In the epilogue to this poem.

&quot. which has been described as a very early attempt on the With this let &quot.. is a Abad. Guadix romance called * The Life of Hai Ebn Yokdan.gt. or actually in the year iioo a noted Arabian A. we have the production of ten primary intelligences. was born in 1 1 at 86.a nil Authority ot iht ^abalah 141 us compare for a moment the doctrine developed in the Celestial Desatir. Bahram. iii.&quot. &quot. Abu Bakr Ibn Al-Tufail. mathematician and Sufi philosopher. the second the who created in turn the &quot. From Jupiter . or the Sun of Nahid. part of the ancient Persians to form a cosmological theory. who is identified with Abraham. personality are * His very nature and nothing beside Him.&quot.f . Intellect &quot. vols. . the My knowledge is confined to the translation by Mirza Mohamed Hadi which appeared in successive issues the Platonist. intellect next lower heaven named these proceeded the &quot. and through him Asham. .Intellect of the heaven of Kanian&quot. . again. Here. of . . or Venus of Zir. &quot.D.&amp. Who can dare to know it but He (Himself)? The entity and the oneness and the revelation addressed to the great prophet &quot. Spain. or the Moon. or Saturn of Harnnizd.lt. and iv.him &quot. &amp.* The Desatir. recalling the Sephirotic tions. and called Prime and of First Reason. or Mars of Khurshad. or Fames/tarn. or Mercury and of Mah.&quot. intellect. it should be observed. Let us now take another At the beginning of the twelfth century. poet. From this Being proceeded by free creation whose name is Baluiaui. step. &quot.&quot. The nature of God cannot be known. emana which themselves have planetary attributions. and he died at Morocco His chief work is a species of philosophical in &quot.&quot. . physician.

as contemporary also its mainly may be gathered from proposed * See the Life of Improvement of Human Reason exhibited in the Hai Ebn Yokdhan. Arabick by Simon Ockley. Being Being of that nor yet but was like the itself. and compre hending all that Moon.&quot. which expand over opaque bodies and appear to proceed from the eye. . The Divine Essence is like the rays of the material sun. which is subject to generation and corruption. which nor was the body. anything different from them both image of the sun as it appears in a well-polished mirror. . though they are only reflected from its surface. (c) of the sphere of the fixed Saturn and so with the rest in The immaterial essence stars.&quot. Being dwelling &quot. We find also substantially : (a) The Ain Soph of the that One True One. which is neither one nor the other. find &quot.&quot.elf-taught \vc In this curious narrative Ibn Al-Tufail using a form of comparison \vhich occurs almost verbatim in the Kabalistic books.M. One True One.142 ^he ~j&Qttnnt nnb literature ot the Philosopher. A.in Kabalists under the (b) name of of The reflection that the is highest sphere in a and free beyond from which there no matter. None and yet none were contained within the sphere of the of the material essences were identical is different. Newly translated from the original London. . ^. (d) The Sphere of harmony with the scheme of the Desatir^ ending at this world. by Abu Jaafar Ebn Tophail. Pantheistic.&quot. 1711. either as regards the rest with the One True One. not the sphere . . &quot. Written in Arabick above 500 years ago. and yet not distinct from them.* or in comparison The doctrine of the Divine Absorption is the is is very essence of Sufism and Sufism It with Mohammedanism itself.

with which the author seems unacquainted. G. Kairite Jew of the period allows its that his brethren followed the doctrines of this sect. Such devices belong to a scheme of criticism which has fittingly If passed away. a sect of scholastic Arabs. others to a Gnostic origin. connections early we know anything concerning the of Sufism it is that they are Neoplatonic. and was even by the most inflexible of the sects in Jewry all that of the Kairites. but it may be gathered from what it tells us of Sufic commentaries on the Koran that . and that the Gnostics of the early Shiite sects were attracted to it because of these connections. with the Motozales. On this point the reader may consult with of Islamic mysticism in &quot. or that the Sufi drew from the rabbin. but the question does not concern us.f * : But to name Neoplatonism and Gnos- t Munk La Philosophic chez Us Jnifs. tradition. 10. was felt outside the confessed Kabalists. 1893.nub JVuthoritn of the $abulah object. it is by no means designed to indicate that the mystic sects of Mohammedanism are responsible for the peculiar scheme of the Kabalah. for the significant fact is that this form of Islamic mysticism was one of the environments of the Kabalistic Jews to whom we are The influence of this environment indebted for part at least of the Zohar. and they even assumed name. Browne. 143 Some refer it to India. It advantage an Year Amon^ the makes no references to Kabalism. The proof is indeed one might say their fusion. Once more. or Literalists. p. and were thus as Talmud as to the who set no store by much opposed to the Zoharic writings. The purpose of this section should not be mis construed. who rejected innovations in the primeval doctrine of Israel.* A their analogies.&quot. admirable account Persians. A by E. London.

VII. and the theory of ecstasy in Israel. .144 ^he is Jlortrine anfc |pt*ratur ot the Jiabnlah ticism to cite analogies of Kabalism. Christian or occult certainly no these. the silent depths of the non-existent.&quot. p. and so typical of the Ain Soph doctrine. and their literatures have no real like ness . which never departs from Atziluth. Browne s philosophy in Persia were adaptations either of Aristotle or Plato. but between the metaphysics of the Divine of Islam. We find not only the unmanifest state of Deity. student of the although Pantheistic. but the attempt to explain why the contingent world (compare the Liber Drushim} was evolved from the use of which term is &quot. Sufism has been referred to a To woman who say that died at Jerusalem in the first century of the Hegira is to say that Sufism began to live and move in an atmosphere of Jewish say that Spain was the forcing-house of the Kabalists is to say that the mystic doctors of Jewry brushed arms with those of tradition. Kabalistic emanationism was saved from Pantheism by the doctrine of divine immanence. it seems reasonable to suppose that there was not only the connecting link of the analogy between all mystics but a bond even in history. Love and the mystical absorption its and between the Kabalistic return of the soul to God or union with the transcendent principle. 129 for Mr. and to theistic and emanationist . See opinion that the early schools of Mohammedan were also the scholasticism of Islam. To deny that there was any consequence of such contact is to deny nature. have many points of contact with later Kabalism. Sufism was Pan Islam. INFLUENCE OF THE KABALAH ON JEWRY There is perhaps no one at the present day.

who had passed school of initiation with which I am through every acquainted and knowledge. a . evidence as he is in all lands. and that the Jew is in most of them. 7. sideration to the late Sir Richard secret societies. story Temple p. &quot. with due con Burton and his posthumous treatise. Dr. through others which are outside assured occultism my He in me that the all most among students whom profound he had met student of was a Jew I think of Poland.lt. the Gypsy and Kl sacrifice.The Jew. &quot. Hay Trumbull. But it is quite certain that the of the &quot. /. Jtuthoritji of the JUbahih 145 who is in a position to say exactly what kind of profit accrued to the mind of Jewry from the promulgation. 1890. l. while as regards all such external signs of activity 1 Sec is &quot. adyta though they are not closed to the Jew. l. From one point of view such an inquiry may be held to strike and philosophy. Apoendiv. adduced by Apion concerning the Greek captive found in tinat Jersualem hy Antiochus. ii./. London. Paris. and one of those subjects which do not I remember a con readily occur to the occultist. sang chez Us Juifs de tons les temps. and.ccn omitted hy the editor on grounds that Cf. are not in any sense possessed by the Jew.lam. 321.* much better described by the famous passage in Coningsby than by a somewhat vexatious criticism pivoted on a monstrous charge. since we know that there are initiations./u th&amp.-. 1898. London. H. versation which I once had with a priest of the for the rest it at the root of all occult science is Anglican Church. Let us make the most of this statement./. Desporti may be conjectured.&quot.lt. .Source anb subject. The charge human /.The Blood Covenant. concerned as he is in all in his long experience interests.&quot. let us say. Cf.gt. 1887. of the Zohar. its I&amp. Readers of Josephus will remember the curious Mysore &amp. of Burton s death. Contra Apioncni.

which &quot. pp.146 ^he Ilortrine anb literature of the Jlabalah by current literature of occultism. . In the time of Judas Jews. so far as it is possible to ascertain. and they are those pre cisely which did their best to wreck Jewry and of is which Jewry Abraham The history of of Sabattai Zevi and the founder Abulafia. and the inspirer also of R. this t Mr. What is much more important. the influence is as are manifested that. supreme sources of Kabalism is connected with the bogus or at least the frenzied mission of Bar Cochba. the name signifies &quot. we care to believe that Rabbi Akiba was the author of which case one of the Book of Formation. the head and crown of Kabalism.pious ones. of the Chassidim. When that false Messiah had been finally silenced by the sword. his disciple.&quot. Zangwill in his &quot. s These are Scaliger of mythical elements. full Edersheim. or perhaps his instigator.-f- It was perhaps the it last instance activity before ceased to exercise it any if powerful influence. Knights of the Temple.&quot.&quot. &quot.&quot. is now ashamed. still holds the Zohar in high esteem. We it can certain enthusiasms which partially responsible. 345. it was the strict History of the Jewish Nation. Simeon ben Jochai.Dreamers of the Ghetto&quot. was barbarously martyred * I.. which warrant us in saying that the Kabalah gave spurious Messiahs to of its Israel. and with in this also began. 40. has brought notion recently to the knowledge of the external world. Order of the The accounts of the original Chassidim are party among the Jews. the &quot. the its new order of the mysterious Baal Shem. any bibliography will show us how little he has done in this respect.e. however. The sect has its chief hold among Russian and Galician 61. said to have Maccabseus. Kabalah has exercised only a very subsidiary upon point to the Children of the for Exile. is still representatives in a number of Jewish communities and Israel among the Nations.* are typical cases in point.

splendid spectrum&quot. there field is very good ground for thinking that its Christian rather than the Jewish mind.Soura aiib Jtnthoritu of Iht gabalah 147 unhappy rebellion. sul&amp. If a literature be judged by its influence. in cmnp. But perhaps he follows here the principle he has borrowed from Spiim/a. It has been an influence exercised by an occult claim upon the students and the acceptors of occult claims. shed its and further over every ghetto. To begin at a late date What gave the Kabalah of the Zohar to the Latin reading scholars of Europe ? The magnum opus of Rosenroth.* . we Jewry en masse. /angwill is not of this opinion. the Polish distiller.gt.&quot.to see things specie fttrnitatis. for his share in the So far as its operation was intellectual. Israel of Podolia. who established the New Saints and had a recipe for miracles by means of the IIP me A .&quot. that of the Kabalah may has been small it has encouraged false enthusiasm. but it has been much more of one kind than another. &quot.gt. of if the conversion And * now. sweep backward to the very of It has given also a few obscure sects to Jewry.&amp. dazzling rays further . knowledge of Kabalistic mysteries was alleged to have imparted superhuman power to chief Rabbi of Prague to Lobele. and to his contemporary. Jacob Franck. t Mr. &quot. Kabalistic influence on Christendom has been of two kinds. What impelled Rosenroth? The &quot. I wish the same principle had inspired him to lay less stress on the exact date of the Zohar.lt. of whose followers the so-called Christian Jews of Poland are still a small survival .f was the having And established one useful point there is an opportunity here of making another. which antedated immediately the mission of The Zohar the Book of Illumination.&amp.M-d he says the thirteenth : century printed now for the first time. and has been the warrant for direct imposture. Referring to the period Sftbbttftl Zevi. Tetragrammaton. But it has been much more the influence of possible missionary material on the missionary enterprise of the Christian Church.

what prompted the unostentatious scrivener of old Paris to make precious metals by occult arts when his wants were few and his trade sufficient for a * M. in fact. Essai sur la transmission de la science antique an Moyen Age. La Chimie au AZoyen Age. Suppose. and for what did he renounce the world ? To wrest. that modern fantasy. What prompted evangelise of Picus de Mirandola. filled the fiery the Papal Court with the rumour and the wonder of the Jewish tradition ? The fact that he also regarded it as a certain mystic the princes of the Exile might be brought to the gates of the Eternal City and the Ghetto might be transformed into a way by which baptistry. and suppose that Raymond Lully was really. from reluctant Nature the elusive mastery of The Nature. as it has been said that he was. lastly. but school of treatises falsely ascribed to him may say we know that they are the products of the forgery which produced the spurious of Geber. The work Raymond Lully was apostolical and missionary. really initiated by the Book of Abraham so that Kabalism connects integrally with alchemy. as it has been said. Nicholas Flamel was the Jew. what was the life-long labour of that amazing seneschal of Majorca. But was it the attainment of religion is the behind all religions? Nothing of the of sort. and it closed with martyrdom at Bugia.&quot.&quot.* and that this was by no means the ambition Raymond Lully. that &quot. the first Christian student of the Kabalah. the Great Palingenesis of alchemy? Hermetic Yes. in a feverish attempt to Mahound. almost coincident. Berthelot. with the appearance of the Zohar.148 ^he itortrin* aitb ICttsrature of the gabalah beginning of the Christian interest in Kabalism. tome premier. passim* . that he energy &quot.

missionary witness his bequests. inspired any form of official religion. \Vcill is rEvangile. the most unaided of all metaphysics.&quot. the Moses of M. ii. 92. except the Trinity.* Now. .. 91. does for the not by missionary zeal for and their literature. Moses de Leon. i.e.Christian Talmud. le Talmud et The statement sounds perilous. as a class. They are not. not to be taken seriously. real or fabulous. wholly. Alexander Weill.The Talmud is itself the most violent adversary of Moses. Christianity is son and Weill. ! What the darkness! One that writer in modern times has even gone so far as to maintain &quot. it stands. What darkness to be felt in the void in strange lights flashing In such a state Spanish Jew or Spanish Mystic of the Latin Church. for the spirit conversion of the heathen. it is only in virtue of some that the esoteric tradition to it immense misapprehension of the Jews can religion behind all religions. which is IMat.Source zmb ^uthoritn of the glabalah 149 also had the Why. as manifest more than sufficient respect On great orthodoxies of Christendom. i-ucs its details. falls be supposed offer them the What does offer them almost infinitely short. Compare ibid. from the Talmud.mic. but M. At its highest a bizarre but truly strenuous attempt to unriddle the universe. &quot. the systcma mundi excogitated in a darkened synagogue with the praying-shawl drawn over the eyes.&quot. with all brother of the doctrine. modest man? he The out inference is that the prove were handled wisely according to the lights given in the Holy Synods. One paradox enables us to judge another. I do not need to say that there are very few occultists who would take interest in the Christianised if it of Jewry to Kabalah was imported that Jewry might be any Kabalah regarded from this point of view. Moist. the other hand. ii.

notaricon. exile of Babylon of the Thebaid. find it necessary to include in their scheme of Kabalism the sorry literature of the Grimoires. Hence even writers. pp. but with the occult as is understood by occultism.* or. on And at it lowest. or recluse communication of the this is frenzy. the astrology of the processes of Gaffarel. again. what sombre trifling unredeemed by the saving sense of triviality. as the author terms it.magical MSS. Lelievre undertook to defend in \i\sjTistification des Sciences Divinatoires (Paris. 1847). 10. the paper tubes of Eliphas metathesis. gematria^ . . works t Observe also the developments which these subjects received in like the Caballa Anagrammatica of Ranutius Longelus. that that side upon which makes contact no longer with it the infinite. than by the magic garters of the Key of Solomon. we do not find much trace the kind of Kabalah which A. the virtues of Agla and Ararita It is for conjuring heaven and earth.&quot. finite of all things finite.150 if ^h* Jlodrine anb Ipteratttre ot the Jiabalah or St. like Papus in France. John of the Cross. the arcana of the extended name. where the &quot. 16. But to say is more than to say. here that occultism illustrates how it receives it only what it can give and how that the interest of the occultist less comes to pass is in the Kabalah inspired by the occult theorems of the Zohar &quot.&quot. its you will. 26. must enjoy a certain infinite.J And they and he have nothing to tell us of the Zohar. Raymond And Lully . But we do not or in * find the Grimoires in Picus de Mirandola. Placentice* 1654 ars mirabilis indeed. especially. the last &quot. the physiognomy of the section Yithroh. the identification and as a serious branch of Kabalism. who have exceptional claims on our consideration. the star messages of the Hebrew Levi planisphere. reference to Molitor makes the author of the for Philosophy of Tradition of the clavicufa apparently responsible &quot. La Kabbale.

the mystic side of of the soul to God. For example. all these in Agrippa. by which it was conceived that the soul might effect such reunion even in this life.Source ani) ^Uthoritii of the gabalah 151 The Lexicon of magic in the Kabbala Dcnndata. . the return path of ecstasy already mentioned. and that Kabalism. who wrote as a young man of things that he had heard and read.. of course. the present work is the first published in England which has any reference to the highest principle of the human soul in Kabalism and the side which instrument of unification with the Divine. making a very dignified retractation of it We all in his book of great excellence upon vanity. by a of do find acrostics. nor does it tell us after what manner the childcraft extended name is compounded. out of three verses in Exodus. but it is precisely this mystic side of which this we see no is effect in Jewry. There remains. and it is also neglected by modern occultism. of Rosenroth does not include the occult wonders of Agla.

are enumerated briefly to indicate that there was a gradual growth of the tradition and ancient to correct exaggerated notions concerning it. work appeared between the eleventh and I.&quot. This is the case with the Sepher Yetzirah itself .BOOK IV THE WRITTEN WORD OF KABALISM: FIRST PERIOD ARGUMENT The traces of Kabalistic literature outside the to the publication of the Sepher Yetzirah. but there is no doubt that or that it all was the elements of these works pretend to embody an occult tradition. oral tradition which subsequently received development from the commentators on the Sepher Yetzirah. EARLY KABALISTIC LITERATURE beyond controversy that there was a great body of mystic speculation and doctrine grown up in IT is Jewry. and prior Zohar. as well as from the Zohar. from the The attention of early Kabalists expositors of Zoharic mysteries. later still.Book of Formation. . and numerous elucidations of that thirteenth centuries. of which the roots are to be found in the Talmud. There are several treatises which connect with Kabalism. It is this transcendentalism which led ultimately to the Zohar. and. was concentrated on the &quot. but are not regarded by modern scholarship as Kabalistic in the technical sense. while it is connected occasionally with brilliant and even with some great names.

&lorb of iuttmliem it 153 and should scholarship forbid us to confer on distinctive denomination of Kabalism. Supposing the Sephir Yetzirah in its present form to be later than the second century. not now extant. as some occult writers have pretended. whatever the date was of high authority. are that. but the modest conclusions of the previous book are a sufficient warrant for supposing that there are traces of Kabalism. they suppose must have to exercised some influence. and it is fair assuming such memorials. of supposing line of Kabalists that there was an unbroken from the second to the twelfth century. be. We was held was of the kind which creates must beware. its evolution The title of this section is to some extent tentative or speculative. for that which was of mysticism in Israel between the period of the Talmud and the period of the promulgation of the Zohar is that which in the course of became the Kabalah and the Zohar.lt.* we the must defer to scholarship. and possessing some literary remains. indeed essential to the natural history of the later work that literature. little doubt that the Kabalah was the of the Bereshith and Mercabah mysteries mentioned in the Talmud.reception&quot. and the veneration which it literature. So in also the it. prior to the promulgation of the It is Zohar.clritttn &amp. it should have had to the its antecedents in most acceptable view According these were certain Midrashim which. ascribed to Sepher Yetzirah. though with the mental reserva tion that if the question be more than of words it is at most one of stages of growth. I think. outside the Sepher Yetzirah. for the most part. however. * There can &quot. or that this was the view always taken by Kabalistic j .

while the antithesis of &quot. &quot. by * Not to be confused with a work mentioned by Bartolocci under the name of R. is critics Temples. or development of the various Scriptural places in which The dates of the divine members are mentioned. almost as much as in the Bible. and thus by implication denies the claim of the Sepher Yetzirah to be included in its literature. in which they placed the Jews in the South of France and in Catalonia.154 ^he Jtortritte anb literature ot the Jrabalah as its we must regard prototype a work already mentioned under the title of the Alphabet of Akiba. as indeed there is no question. must be sought in the anthropomorphic Schiur Komah &quot. The Book of Occupation. Graetz. words. as we have seen.* which.&quot. given in these Haggadic productions. t By the difficulty. in other Description of the Body of God. of comparative antiquity.&quot.&quot. He is followed. Eliezer and dealing with the measurements of the earthly temple.. as to its date.&quot. y i. modern all not regarded by as Kabalistic.e. known also as their the in &quot. who may be taken to represent all in hostility to that is most acrid and uncompromising Jewish mysticism. .f In accordance with the exigencies of his stand point. in the tenth century. Connected with these are the Greater and the Lesser Palace. the these fragmentary works are conjectural. and who were driven to contrive this system whereby they could explain the gross descriptions of the Deity and of the plains of heaven. It may indeed be affirmed that one spirit informed the chief works of mystical complexion which preceded the Zohar. &quot. but it is allowed that in were instrumental calling the Kabalah into existence. The Measure of the Height. Dr. says Ginsburg.&quot. common Delineation of the Heavenly with the others. fixes the origin of Kabalism. but there can be no doubt. one of the most important sections of the Zohar.&quot. who believed in them &quot.

more illustrous than either. third edition. and this land of refuge. 1864. and the history of for Israel became one of hazardous bitter struggle existence. . Spain also was a nursing-land of Kabalistic for their literature. by Israel. and in the internecine struggle of Christians and West the Moslems in Spain ensured a breathing space to the Children of the Prior to that period. Montpellicr in France and Salerno Jewish schools.* but is it is indispensable to not open to question that the work the Kabalah. livre 4. and the intellectual lamp of Israel shone forth ultimately clearly and steadily during the Moslem domination of Spain.v. for at this epoch the integral quickening of the Arabian mind was followed by that of Israelf and for a in was sometimes a lull eclipsed thereby. The tenth century is. under the tolerant and enlightened sway of the Spanish Khalifs. rii. became almost as dear to his heart as the Land in of Promise. p. Kabbalah 1503 et se&amp. s. and onward. torn. however./. but that of Seville was. perhaps. v.&quot. the terror and peril of the time rather than inherent necessity. from the sixth century Exile.lt. Histoire dcsjtrifs.(bdrittcu SBorb of Xlabalism 155 Ginsburg. there was a hiatus in the literature of The canons of the Talmud were closed. an important period in Jewish history and Jewish letters. . or that it is an and fundamental part thereof. t Basnage. which country from that period till the shelter was found under Persian beginning of the thirteenth century was like a second Palestine to the Jew. Italy were famous and the traces of the esoteric tradition * Kitto s &quot. c. There was academies moment in persecution the the East flourished. Cyclopaedia. A certain dominion.

i. a contemporary of Simeon ben Jochai. God subsisting prior to the creation of the world alone Name . connects on the one hand with the Sepher Yetzirah. Midrash Conen.156 ^he JBottrine artb literature at the liabalah. Paradise. the creation of the world by means of ten words. which represents the Thorah as the foundation of the universe. in the first place. produce bibliographical materials at our command can scarely be regarded as extensive. serving mainly to correct false and highly a and indeed the coloured impressions regarding the claims of Kabalistic tradition. of the archetype of the earthly temple subsequently. &quot. prior Thorah or Law.e. and on the other with Eliezer. son of Jose. as a Kabalistic doctor and the author of a treatise on the thirty-two qualities of the to the Law. The chief names of the period with which we are now concerned are I.. . The antiquity of this work is doubtful. century something may France and earlier be gleaned from Southern still from Hay Gaon who flourished in the eleventh century.* There is neither space nor occasion here to list. with his Ineffable We have. &quot. on the borders of the Caspian Sea. as presented in the Pirke. &quot. Hell and the Temple of Jerusalem. next. together with the Throne of Glory. With this work may be connected the ancient . * It is a matter of con- Outside the dates and authorship ascribed by the old Kabalists Sepher Yetzirah and the Zohar there are other treatises attributed to the early days of the Exile. the creation. a Babylonian. the to the visible world. though in the twelfth &quot. between the epoch which produced the Book of Formation and that of the Book of Splendour must be sought chiefly therein. Thus tradition regards Eliezer Hagabite. : mystic system. Rabbi whose Zoharic teaching. the Name of the Messiah.

&quot. Saadiah. on the Sepher Yetzirah preserved in the Bodleian Library and only printed recently in France. embodies under the Height. ! Cader. of the the of the otherwise called Description of the Body of God. note of Kabalism. The Gaon R. Islnnael. But Pherruts Schibbur* the neighbourhood Nachmanidesf has preserved his observations on the the Heavenly Temples. head of the in academy of of Babylon. which shows the Kabalistic leanings of Shereerah and creates the to the anthropomorphism of these early works which has been mentioned already as a key antithesis &quot. IV. II. was perhaps more distinguished for the violence with which he wrote against the Christians than for his Kabalistic knowledge. Shereerah.J it &quot. son and successor of Shereerah as the head of the Babylonian School of Schibbur. t In his commentary on the Thorah.&quot. as \\ shall see in the third section of this book.gt. was the author of a commentary L&amp. apparently the doctor of that name sentences are sometimes quoted in the Talmud.God he exclaims.CLUiitcn (iBorb of gUbalism jecturc earlier 157 later whether these works are slightly or than the Sepher Yetzirah. should speak of the Creator as if he had This Rabbi was bodily members and dimensions despoiled of his wealth and hanged by order of &quot. Khalif of the race of the Abassides. Delineation of or more correctly on the title fragments which &quot. head of the Persian Academy of Sora. in its Or of Pumbaditha according including Graetz. that man &quot. Hay. which * will to be dealt with some authorities. .&quot. forbid. III. is also credited with a commentary on the Sepher Yetzirah.&quot.Proportion &quot. The Gaon R. $ Attributed to K. The Gaon R.

387. has been included in the chain of Kabalism.158 3&ht |B0. or the credulity of the times. VIII..lt. which was printed at Venice. % He See died about the year 970. t Abu-Yussuf Chasdai ben Isaac Ibn Shaprut. The interpretation of dreams was one of the daily occupations of the Jewish academies. of man as a microcosm and a sufficient to peculiar theory of mystic contemplation. the Avicebron and respects. and their skill exhibited therein. He possessed enormous influence and became subse quently the head of the academy of Pumbaditha in He died in 1038. especially Power. Kabalistic and otherwise. ii. &quot. R. the great orthodox apologist of the twelfth century. many Kabalistic references.&quot.* on the have be entitled &quot. Essays on the Writings of Ibn Ezra. * one of the Bartolocci. Solomon scholastic ben Yehudah in all Gebirol. Chasdaif was a Prince of the Exile and He was temporal head of the Jews in Cordova. VII. said to connect the school of Hay Gaon Ibn with that of Gebirol. /.&amp. Outside his alleged commentary Book of Formation his voluminous works &quot. Abraham ben David or Ben Dior Ha Levi. was a contemporary of the famous Nagrila. R.&quot. Hay is attributed a treatise on this art. the neighbourhood of Bagdad. V. Moses Ibn Jacob ben Ezra. in the Transactions of the Society of Hebrew Literature. .cttitt.e anb Dit*rature of the proper place. Bibliotheca Rabbinica. that It will mention among these the doctrine of correspondences.?.J VI. often purchased toleration and respect for To Rab the Rabbis at the hands of the Khalifs. a focus of intellectual and literary interest. The Voice of God in its &quot. He is also a political minister under two Khalifs.

who connects with Gebirol . Leipsic. Chaiim. Graetz has a good account of Il&amp.f * who wrote on the Tetragrammaton and Basnage quotes Skinner s letters and Usher in support of this view. Abraham ben David. was of Granada. and flourished His work &quot.* He wrote upon the the the mystic attributes of numbers in connection therewith. to have turned Kabalist at but in an advanced age any case connects with mysticism. t See dfs Frankcl. The names of Juda Hallevi. entitled the Garden of Aromatics&quot. Basnage says that he Kabalah. Judenthumsi p. the earlier part of the twelfth century. shows &quot. chiefly on the authority of R.n Ezra. hut he and they are in some contusion as to important date* in Kabalistic history and literature. /. though he knew its weakness. and was acquainted at least with the existence of the twofold mystic tradition distinguished as that of the Creation and that of the Chariot (&) R. of R. traces of the doctrine of Gebirol. account of Abulafia.gt. Divine Name and IX. Azariel. (d) R. vol. a disciple of Maimonides. of Valladolid. . Abraham Abulafia. 1856. because he did not wish to be embroiled with contemporary writers.vct/ has also a long 27.gt. . that he was in dis agreement with did not reject doctor. but his it appears by Commentary on Isaiah this &quot.SBrittm SBorb of Jhibalism greatest 159 Jews of in his time. famous commentator on the Sepher Yetzirah (c) Shem Tob Ibn Falaquera. . i&amp. of Jacob Nazir. of Solomon Jarki. who is reported. designed to ridicule the mental condition to which he refers the Knbalah. the younger. IVeisscmchaft (ii. bring us to the thirteenth century and to the period of (a) Maimonides. but it unnecessary to say that his analogies with Kabalism are not mentioned. Monat shrift \.. who has some work entitled references to the Sepher Yetzirah in his Kusari.

of What. that he exhibits some may be Christian tendencies. for example. already quoted.lt. which is the Waters. but they often proceed on a misconception. is more likely to lead an unpractised student astray than the treatise Abraham ben David Ha It is called by the mere fact of its title ? Seder a Ha Kabalah. They to include also the Fount of Living of three.The Church and the per doctrine. he had a strong of all Aristotelian leaven.&quot. however. and though I have termed its author a great orthodox apologist. the The Seder Ha Kabalah claim vindicates authority orthodox cession under the two It heads and all universality. it is productions. The occasion of his book was a Castile Sadducean heresy prevalent in and represented by the work which maintained to and Leon. and Messianic was a quixotic enthusiast.&amp. but his works have not been published. and the Tsemach David. Graetz extends the number of works t It twenty . such as Ghedalia on the Chain of the Kabalah.* theoretical He a endeavoured to combine the and practical schools. or community of doctrine embraces the among petuation * the synagogues the Jewish entire history of of the Mosaic &quot. . that the true synagogue of of was the suc be found among the Sadducees. j- As fact. but he adventurer opinions noted. Bartolocci knew only was the prototype of several later works.lt. to whose It it is unnecessary to give weight.2Ehe gmrtrittt anb literature of the jtabalah the Mysteries of the Law. Those who defend the authenticity of Kabalistic tradition find writers and something to their purpose in all these personalities. Levi. of Abu Alphrag. the Order the least mystical of the Tradition. famous in connection with the Zohar.160 &amp. the Yuhasin of Zakut. of which there his is a Latin version in the Vatican.

M .&quot. The enlighten ment and culture were incontrovertibly on the side of the former.* The work forth. Abraham ben David occasion Ha Levi is perhaps greater than was the it divided The Jews were among themselves upon many questions. &quot. The great distinction of the time for the purpose of our own inquiry was between the Jews who had adopted Aristotelian principles and the Jews who opposed the innovation. the fascination of mystic thought. The evidence. Rabbi Abraham and his Sepher exercised a large influence his con . and some of those who assert that the Zuhar incorporated traditions belonging to centuries arc content to rest their case on the writings of this poet and philosopher. the has it many Aristotelian has been asserted that Maimonides has much to connect him with Avicebron. howis in a On the one hand.gt.binica t i.from Moses to Moses there was no one like unto Moses. very confused state. 18 et scq. Magua Bibliothcca i. Ral&amp. Maimonides. while. The rival school was to some extent represented preceding by Avicebron. temporary. went. in a all that we connect with the ideal of rabbinical word. of called which which Sadducean pretensions were certainly not the most important. There were great names on both sides. however. into the opposite scale. who survived him by almost a quarter of a century. system of Avicebron traces on the other hand.Slrittcu tradition &amp. was described by the enthusiasts of his period as race.DQor& of gahaiiem of 161 named in the title.&quot. the elect of the human and by a play upon his name it was said of him that &quot.lt. . though he was not acquainted with his works. p. Israel.

with Isaac Myer. pp. many indications of his sympathy with the In a general sense.&quot. speculative Kabalah. or rather borrows. that Maimonides mentions a lost tradition. Munk traces Aristotelian influences. Abraham Ibn Wakkar of Toledo. See Melanges. 278. Melanges. Munk that the Zohar quotes. .The Guide of the Perplexed. entitled offers &quot. from . however. and Isaac the Blind. (3) Of the universe as an organic whole. On the contrary. 114. xviii. xvii. with his disciples Azariel and Ezra. Among the Kabalistic corre in spondences of Maimonides are (i) His recognition of a secret sense Scripture .162 ^he Jtortrine nnb literature of the Jlabalah further. whom one section of modern criticism attributes the invention of the Kabalah. p. the great masterpiece of the Talmud ic Jew of Cordova. . xvi. 279. however. See the English translation of Steinschneider. Who follows Graetz literally.). He establishes (a) That where Buxtorf supposes the Talmud (Tract Rosh Hashanah] to allow the same authority to the Kabalah as to the text of Moses.as. for example. (2) Of the inaccessible nature of God . The student should also consult an interesting Notice sur la Cabale des Httreux. U t In which. 278. Kabalistic interests of this school are outside all is . at the beginning of the fourteenth century^ while those who accepted the Zohar belonged to that school which connects with Avicebron.-f. prefixed by the Chevalier Drach to the second volume of his work already cited on the Harmony between &quot.* those who wished to introduce Aristotelian principles into Jewish philosophy belonged to that school which subsequently opposed the Zohar. that Maimonides was acquainted with the Zohar. prized the Sepher Yetzirah. p. ii. the reference is really to the spiritual power of the Synagogue and (b) that the alleged mention of the mystic Kabalah by Maimonides is a misconception It is ( Harmonic. the Church and the Synagogue. however. whose superior claim debate * it The favoured by Ginsburg.&quot. certain. however. there is more perhaps to be said for the conjecture of S. among whom was Rabbi Abraham ben to David of Posquiere. and one of There does not seem. Maimonides. &c. the slightest ground for supposing.

and a short account of this author may be appended as a conclusion to this section. was produced within made with regard not be discouraged at finding that writers like Isaac Myer have much enhanced the investigate the claim to Avicebron. but as.vl he aariitcn SI orb of gabalism 163 treatise the most important commentaries on that it. sufficient to perhaps even to warrant the inclusion of Gebirol among the precursors of Zoharic Kabalism. this tincture was received sometimes without much consciousness of its origin. and even of the universal existent soul of knowledge attributed to the pre- man by like to is all Jewish mysticism. however. is true. influences were occasionally Arabian sources which were in reality the referable only to Spanish Jews living under the protection of the Khalifate during the Moslem domination of the peninsula. and not so forth. on the one hand. At that period when the influence of Arabian imagination was infused of Western Europe. into the romantic literature scholastic theology were receiving thought. Sephirotic correspondences and The latter are to be expected at the middle of the eleventh century. and in this case the former are wanting. so. of the between God and the emanation of the world. the doctrines of the Inaccessible God. There remains. Yetziratic references. When we we must real strength of his Kabalistic connections. the tincture philosophy and of Arabian referred to on the other. let meet with mystic of the a distinct trace of typical Zoharic us say that of the Countenances. interest us. it We find. of the intermediaries universe. case in point was A . in a But what we should eleventh century doctrine.

on him their own condemnation while he said have exercised an influence upon the mystics of the Middle Ages. whose identity with Solomon ben Yehudah Ibn Gebirol. century. the By both greatest classes of his admirers he celebrated as greatest his was respectively philosopher and the But the poet of . of the Albertus Magnus. Thomas of Aquin and Duns Scotus. was early first demonstrated by present &quot. The hostile school of Zoharic criticism has not done sufficient credit to Munk for his interesting discovery. a later period he was unknown to he was unknown also to the encyclo and on the paedic learning of Picus de Mirandola Maimonides . He wrote philosophy in Arabic and poetry the in Hebrew . like nominalists entailed is denounced him to realists Duns Scotus . treatise. thirteenth century. became widely diffused St. all cited and it is said to sum the philosophy of the it . * Melanges de Philosophic Juive et Arabe. but he is not a persona grata on account of his theory that the Zohar was founded on genuine ancient Midrashim. at . When the school of Averrocs arose he was unknown among it . . According to Renan.* Life. Munk His in in the chief part of the century. Avicebron preceded the school of Arabian philosophy which arose in Spain. in but his metaphysics were not Christian scholastics repute among them . the Jews valued his poetry. he was proscribed by the University Paris at of the period of the publication of the Zohar on the ground that he favoured Aristotle.164 Ihe Jtoctrtne ant) ^iUratnre erf the gabalah the once renowned Avicebron. a Jew of Cordova. ideas.&quot. time. entitled the Fountain of the a Latin twelfth version ascribed to middle . and adopted his philosophical knew nothing whatever of his verses.

towards the end of his the a hymn celebrating only one and creation. which was mainly the working of miracles by the use of the Divine Names. as the Sepher Yetzirah certainly speculative as contrasted with the so-called practical Kabalah. true God. The The is first &quot. He was patronised by Nagdilah i. and he seems to have been acquainted In the indubitably with the Book of Formation. the reputed forger of the Zohar. and it is thought that through him the sacred tradition of the Hebrews was communicated the Zohar and its to Avicebron at a period when still connections were in course certain. Saragossa. Samuel-ha-Levi ben Josef Ibn Nagrela a Prince of the Exile. second * book is and twenty-second section of is the There some confusion here. is affirmed to be the earliest known exhibition of the secrets of the speculative Kabalah. among other supports. composed &quot. and the marvels of Zoharic tradition His The existence of the some centuries previous to the time of Moses de Leon.&quot. in any case. and he died at Valencia in 1070.&quot. &quot.&quot.* life. .Crown of the Kingdom.e. second.. more and the Fountain of Life especially in the of formation. who was also Prime Minister of Spain under the Kalifate of Habus. on the writings of this Spanish Jew. &quot. that and the system incorporated in these books may be found in his writings. has been rested. Nagdilah was the centre and mainspring of Jewish learning in that country. It seems some of the conceptions &quot.(Ltlritten SHorb of gabnlim 165 threshold of the Reformation his memory may be said to have perished at the pyre of Giordano Bruno. Avicebron was born about the year 1021 at he was educated in the University of Malaga .

i66
"

^lu

Jiodrtn* anb literature of the jiabaiah
"

Fountain of Life
hath

this

passage occurs
the
the

"

:

Hence
of
the
of

it

been

said

that

construction

world

was

accomplished
letters
in

by
air,"

inscription
is

numbers and
the
in

the

which

fundamental
question.
arises

notion
table

of

the

obviously Kabalistic work
Paths,

The

of the Thirty-Two

which
the

out of the Book of
his

Formation, was
later

theme of one of

poems.

Whether the

Kabalists derived from Avicebron or both

from a

common

source cannot be conclusively determined, but having regard to the Jewish indifference for his
philosophical writings, and to the probable existence of a vast mass of floating esoteric tradition, there can

be no doubt as to the direction
points.*

in

which probability
the

The connection between Avicebron and
Kabalah
of the
"

is

not sufficiently explicit upon the
Life
"

surface

Fountain of

to

have attracted the
;

attention of critics like Ernest
critics

Renan

while Kabalistic

the system which it develops to the ten Sephiroth^ others suppose it to be based on the
refer

ten categories of Aristotle, a pantheism analogous to that of the early realists. On the one hand," says
"

application of Peripatetic principles to doctrine alarmed the theologians on the other hand, his concessions to orthodoxy concerning
"

Renan, Mosaic

his

;

the creation and the free will of the Creator did not
satisfy the

extreme Peripatetic Jews." Of his alleged Kabalistic connections Renan was either unaware, as

already suggested, or they were ignored by him.
*

Graetz takes the

opposite

view,

saying

that

the

borrowed many principles from Ibn Gebirol. reasoning on the subject.

He, of course,

offers

Kabalah no

Hhe

(Slrttteu oBorfo of

gabaliem
"

167

An
Life
"

Fountain of impartial examination of the makes the pantheism of Avicebron less apparent
Kabalistic correspondences.

than

his

So

far

from

identifying the universe with

God,

it

establishes

no

uncertain contrast between them.

the abyss, and to make it being from the other, he supposes nine intermediaries,

In order to bridge conceivable that one derived

plus the Divine Will,
Existing,

who

is

through which the Absolutely attached to its above number," is
"

"

corporeal

universe."

The

analogies which this con

self-evident ception offers to Yetziratic doctrine are

and do not need enforcing, and yet our impartial judgment must pronounce the philosophy of Avicebron
to be of
at least
after

Greek rather than Jewish complexion. It is clear that the Fons Vita, which is a dialogue

the

manner

of Plato,

is

tinctured

deeply by
three chief
:

Hellenic thought.

Modern

scholarship has recognised
to Zoharic

schools which led up

Kabalism

(a)

that

of Isaac the Blind, to which belongs Azariel with his celebrated commentary on the Sepher Yetzirah
;

which is largely of (b) that of Eliezar of Worms, the theurgic order; and (c) that of Abulafia, which to some extent united the preceding and made use
of the theurgic formulae combined with contemplation to achieve union with God.

II.

THE BOOK OF FORMATION

In developing the Kabalistic doctrine of the Instruments of Creation, in describing the Paths of

Wisdom and

in

attempting to determine the date

1

68 ^Ihe gortritu anb literature of the Jiabalah

of the

Book of Formation
as
to

in

connection with our

authority of the Kabalah, we have nearly exhausted the subject of the tiny treatise which is regarded by most scholars and by
investigation
It every occultist as the nucleus of all Kabalism. is difficult, however, to omit it in giving an account of the documents, and it will perhaps be best to begin

the

this

brief bibliographical

notice

by a summary of

the

points which
it.

have been determined previously
attributes
it
it

concerning

The legend which

to the patriarch

Abraham, who transmitted whom it was perpetuated of Jerusalem," committed
that

orally to his sons,

by

in
it

turn

till

finally

to

sages writing, so

the

"

the tradition might not perish even when the chosen people seemed themselves on the eve of
perishing
interesting
this,

we have

seen,
in

is

legend.

It

is

and

period a tract

when we
it

respectable way. first hear of the existence of such
old,

its

At the

was possibly already

and most old

books have myths designed to explain them.

Those
honest

who

take the

myths

historically

convert

legend into something approaching farce.

We

must

be content therefore to say that the Sepher Yetzirah is first mentioned probably in the ninth century
there
in
is

;

some reason
Talmud, but

to
it

suppose that
is

it

is

quoted
it

the

not wholly certain;*

* The treatise Sanhedrim contains the following passage: "By means of combining the letters of the ineffable names as recorded in SPR ITsIRH (/ .*, the sealing names enumerated in the first chapter, being permutations of IHV), Rava once created a man and sent him to Rav Zeira. The man being unable to reply when spoken to, the Rabbi
said to him,

Thou

art

a creature of the
:

company

(initiated

in

the

mysteries of necromancy)

return to thy

dust."

The

(Saritten

SRorb of JUbalism
first

169
literature

may have

antedated

its

citation

in

by a generation, a century, or an age. Let us realise that we do not know, and that those who judge the question dogmatically on either side deserve to be
classed as intemperate.

Let us now look a
itself.

little

more

closely at the

work

It is

concerned with the

divided into five chapters, the first being office of the Sephiroth in creation

and the remaining four with what have been termed
the Instruments
alphabet.
It

namely, the
after

letters of the

Hebrew
these

was

the

revelation

of

mysteries to
tion of

Abraham

that he received the manifesta

God and
to

that the covenant

was

instituted.

"

According original, God bound the twenty-two letters on the tongue of the patriarch and discovered to him all their secrets.*
the expression of the
"

The symbolism

of

the

Book

of

Formation

having been sufficiently considered in the second part of our inquiry, there are only two points which One is the absolute dis require to be noted here.
tinctness

between
whether

God

creation,f
*

and the instruments of numbers or letters, which is

t

Sepher Yetdrah, chap. vi. Hence Mr. C. G. Harrison
is
"

pantheism
argue that,
cendental
Lois
et

involved
It

is in error when he implies that the Sephirotic system, and thence proceeds to takes no account of the element of illusion which is

in

necessarily implied

in

the

theophanic

doctrine."

Universe,"

London, 1894, pp. 86,
</

87.

Cf.

See "The Trans Alexander \\Yill,

My stores de
1896.
forty

la Crsation confermts

Paris,

The

writer refers to a

work under

la Science la plus Absolue. a similar title which he

issued

Hebrew MS. by
from
Weill
all

years previously, purporting to be the translation of a a master of Kabalah. "This writing distinguished rabbinical and philosophical treatises by proclaiming the identity
i>

of the Creator with His creatures, based on the text of Genesis
is

itself."

pretends to separate the frauds and contra dictions which Esdras and his assistants introduced into the Pentateuch
a fantasiast

who

1

70

^hc

Jlortrtue aufc JJiterature ot the

established

from
is

all

by this early Kabalistic work. Separated number and transcending all expression, He
as

represented

a

faithful

king

sojourning in

eternity and ruling the Sephiroth

for ever

from His

holy seat. The second point concerns the emanation of the Sephiroth, to which, in preference to their
creation, all later

Kabalism

inclines.

There
to

is

little

on the face of the Book of Formation
this

countenance

view

;

they

appear

as

the

instruments

and

servants of the

King
"

of

Ages, informed by whose
returning,
It
fall
is

word they go
that their end

forth

and

prostrate in

adoration before the
is

Throne."*

said,

however,

joined principle of emanation is contained implicitly in this have no reason for rejecting a con statement.

flame

is

joined to their beginning, as the to the firebrand, and perhaps the

We

struction which has been adopted invariably, but
just to

it

is

draw attention

to the fact that the

first

work

which mentions the Sephiroth leaves

this point in while it certainly depicts God as the active obscurity, architect of the universe, who graved, sculptured and

builded.

Sephira is described as the Spirit of the the blessed and again blessed name of Living God, God living eternally. Voice, Spirit and Word these
first

The

are the
Spirit
;

Holy

Spirit.

Two

is

the Breathing of the

the twenty-two tetters depend herefrom and each one of them is Spirit THREE is the moisture
from the
et

real

work

of Moses.

Cf. the
i.

same author

s

Motse,

le

Talmud

fEvangile.

last

According to Franck, the word of the system developed by the Sepher Yetzirah is the
Paris,

1875, torn.

p. 99.

substitution of absolute unity for every species of dualism.
P-

La

Kabbale,

159*

Sepher Yetzirah, chap.

i.

QBrittcu SLlorb of Jlabaliem

171

herewith God comes from the Breath and engraved the first lifeless and void sculptured He built TOHU, the line which circles snakematter. like about the world, and BoHU, the concealed rocks

which

;

imbedded

in

the

abyss
Spirit,

This triad of the

whence the waters issue. the Breath and the Water
formed of
the Fire

corresponds to the conception subsequently
the Atzilutic or archetypal world.

FOUR
;

is

which comes forth from the Water
sculptured the
Celestial

with this

God

Throne of Honour, the Ophanim or the four Wheels, the Holy Animals
/>.,

living creatures and the other serving Spirits. their dominion He established His habitation.

W ithin
r

This

numeration seems to contain
of Briah and
worlds.
It

in itself the

conceptions

Yetzirah, the archangelic

and angelic

should be remembered, however, that the Book of Formation is concerned only with the sphere

of

operation tabulated subsequently as the third world of Kabalism. As each Sephira was supposed to contain all the Sephiroth, so there was a superincession of the four worlds which were
each.
all

contained

in

The arrangement

of the Sepher Yetzirah does

not exhibit this clearly, but the numerations from five to ten inclusive must be held to represent As^iah.

FIVE is the seal with which God sealed the Height when He contemplated it above Him. He sealed it with the name IEV. Six is the seal with which He sealed the depth when He contemplated it beneath Him. He sealed it with the name IVE. SEVEN is the seal with which He sealed the East when He con templated it before Him. He sealed it with the name EIV. EIGHT is the seal with which He sealed the West when He contemplated it behind Him. He

172

^he
it

gocttine aub literature ot the giabalah

name VEI. NINE is the seal with which He sealed the South when He contemplated it on His right. He sealed it with the name VIE.
sealed

with the

TEN

is

the seal with which

He

sealed the North

when He contemplated it on His left. He sealed it with the name EVI. The ten numerations are finally
classed together under

the one

title

of

"

Ineffable

Spirits of God." The sealing names are combinations of three letters, successively transposed, which enter into the name Tetragrammaton.

The Sepher Yetzirah was published
in

at

Mantua
had

1592, but the
it

Latin translation

of

Postel
edition

preceded

by ten years.*

The Mantua

was

accompanied by
is

five commentaries.-]-

Another Latin
;

version will be found in the collection of Pistorius

it

ascribed to Reuchlinus and Riccius.
edition

In

1642 a
in

further

was

published

at

Amsterdam
It

Hebrew and Latin by by Meyer at Leipsic in
tion

Rittangelius.
1830, with a

was issued
transla

German

and

notes,

and

at Frankfort, 1849, with a

German

translation

and commentary, J by L. Goldschmidt

*

The

full

title

of this

curious
sive

little

volume

is

ABRAHAMI

Formationis Mundi, Patribus quidem Abrahami tempora pr&cedentibus revelattis, sed ab ipso etiam Abrahamo expositus Isaaco, et per Profetarum manus posteritati conservatuS) ipsis autum 72 Mosis auditoribus in secundo divince veritatis
loco,

PATRIARCHS LIBER JEZIRAH,

hoc est in ratione, quo* est posterior authoritate, habitus.
et

Vertebat
et

ex Hebrtfis

commentariis illustrabat I55 1

?

&d Babylonis ruinam
Restitutus.

corrupti mundifinem,
1552.

GULIELMUS POSTELLUS,

Parisiis,

t It also contained two recensions of the text, the differences between which are regarded by some authorities as considerable and by others as unimportant variants. t The "American Encyclopedia," iii. 521, 522, mentions the

Amsterdam
connect
it

edition of 1642, with a Latin translation, but does not with Rittangelius.

The
In 1887

(iMdtten eilorb of ^abalism

173

which

Papus made a French translation to he added the Thirty-two Paths of Wisdom
Dr.
Intelligence.
this

and the Fifty Gates of
teristic

With charac
was superseded
for

sincerity he admits that

by Mayer Lambert in 1891. The one question which now remains
sideration
is

con

how we
its

are to account for the importance
to such a

attributed

by occultism

work as the Sepher

Yetzirah.

Do

defenders believe that the
all

com
all
all

bination of Aleph with

the other letters and
all

the rest with Aleph, Beth with

the others and

the rest with Beth, &c., &c., actually produced the universe ? That seems an insupportable assumption.

Do
hold

they regard the
that

letters as

symbols of forces and

Sepher Yetzirah teaches that the universe originates in the orderly combination of
the
?

certain forces

That

is

reasonable enough, but

it

is

a commonplace which seems scarcely worth stating and certainly does not require a secret tradition to
secure
it.

But do they consider that the
occult
forces,

letters

represent
character,

of

a

fixed,

determinable

and that

initiation
will

into the real

meaning
nature,

of Kabalistic

tradition

discover

their

explaining thus the secret behind the arbitrary doctrine of a virtue inherent in words and letters ?

This might indeed be valuable, but I have never met with an occultist who took such a view, or

had

anything

to

substantiate

it

if

he

did.

In

the absence of any light on this point we can only conclude that it is the arbitrary doctrine in question which accounts for the interest taken in the Sepher

Yetzirah

;

but the truly occult student, as

I

have

defined him at the outset of this inquiry, can only

174

^he

Jlactrine anb literature of the

gabalah

be scandalised at the childish nature of Yetziratic
tabulations.

III.

CONNECTIONS AND DEPENDENCIES OF THE BOOK OF FORMATION
Were
Moses de Leon did
is

that

there evidence to warrant us in believing actually, as his hostile

reported to have affirmed, write the Zohar bodily "out of his own head," there would still be substantial evidence that the Kabalistic system which
relative
it

contains was

not his invention.

The

existence

Sepher Yetzirah is part of this evidence, which appears, however, more fully and more strongly in the commentaries and developments of that work.
of the

We

have seen
at

printed

already that when it came to be Mantua, the Book of Formation was

by five such connections, which at same time do not exhaust the list that might be given in a full bibliography. The best known
accompanied
the

Com unquestionably the Sepher Sephiroth, or mentary on the Ten Sephiroth by way of Questions
"

is

and

Answers,"

the work of R. Azariel ben

Menahem

;

that of Rabbi

Abraham
from

most important

has been regarded as the an occult standpoint, while
is

the earliest in point of time Gaon in the tenth century.

the work of Saadya

Another, which

has

been attributed to Hay Gaon in the early part of the eleventh century, would rank next in antiquity,
but
it

has

been
are

Commentaries

as usually rejected spurious. also attributed to R, Moses

(LOritten i&lorb of iinb.iliom

175

Botrel,* R.

Moses ben Nahmann, R. Abraham ben

Levi the younger and R. Eliezer. With the exception of the one last mentioned they are

David

Ha

all

prior

to to

the

period

when Moses de Leon
at

is

supposed they have been used to is of form rather than that work
"

have been

work on the Zohar, and show that the novelty of
material."

Saadya Gaon was commentary published in Hebrew at Mantua together with the Sepher Yetzirah,+ but it was written originally in

The

of

R.

Arabic,
Library.

and a copy
this

is

preserved

in

the
for

Bodleian

After remaining in

MS.

over eight

hundred years

printed at Paris, in 1892. In the introduction prefixed to his version, M. Lambert observes that Saadya Gaon appears as

Arabic original was at length together with a French translation,

a theosophist in his commentary, which is equivalent to saying that the first expository treatise on the

Sepher Yetzirah possesses a Kabalistic complexion,

though the author
rationalistic writer.

is

It

frequently regarded as a purely must be confessed, however, that

Saadya

offers little

connection with Zoharic doctrine.

We

have noted that the Sephiroth of the Sepher Yetzirah show scarcely any trace of an emanational

For Saadya Gaon there between God and the world, but
system.
air
air

is

one intermediary
is

this

and not the transcendental numerations.

the physical In this

everywhere present, and it penetrates all bodies, even the most compact. Of the doctrine It is, of Ain Soph there is also no real trace.
is
*

God

He

describes the Kakilah as a most pure and holy philosophy,

but exhibits no acquaintance with the Zohar. + Bartolocci, iv. 267.

. Unfortunately. and he we have seen. and as in man as to the latter and that they some approximate idea be obtained the soul is all-powerful. so by the Divine Reason. concupiscence and anger. recognised.* exceedingly begins by following Plato in the recognition of three classification On faculties reason. on * Despite his hostility to reincarnation as understood by the Kabalah he accepts the pre-existence of souls and teaches that the resurrection of the body will take place when all souls destined for earthly life have passed through it. on the one hand. so the world. interest. account of reason the soul is called Neshamah. Kabalism. in a sense. One of these illustrations tells us that God is the life of the world as the soul is the life of the body. for he recognises its five aspects and calls them by their conventional names. other. which makes no reference to pneumatology. though he rejects metempsychosis. Saadya Gaon devotes a certain space to the consideration of the soul in man and here. occur. no inherent though it is valuable as a historical document.176 ^Elte gJortrine aitb IJiteratttr* ot the Jiabalah however. clumsy. which as his names. but. and this we may be indeed warranted as a whole. has in saying that the work. and as is God the rational faculty the Divine Power is directed man is the guide of life. that on the may may be shown forth by means of figures and comparisons. Unlike the Sepher Yetzirah. Above elementary and commonplace form of natural theology the commentary never soars. in He is also its omnipotent in Supreme Reason. that we cannot have an adequate notion of the Divinity or His correspondences with the world. he connects with Zoharic . in is the Talmud. however.

name AIIIH. and concealment of all things in such a manner that no distinction can be established between them.vlhc &amp. The two (living) refer to the vitality of the soul and Jechidali (unique).l&amp.* As it is with the names of God and the angels. any occult The names the Deity are descriptive of His In the operations.Llrittcn &amp.-&amp.I&amp. Supreme Name. when ordaining the covenant of circumcision He is called El Shaddai . there is a reference to the ten categories namely. tin. AM UK WHO iii. which signifies I AM. The n. in like manner. N . The names is doctrine concerning and angelic also the subject of some references which are important to our inquiry because they establish the fact that Saadya Gaon did not ascribe to them of the angels vary according to the events which they are commissioned to accomplish. I AM. represents God on the point of manifesting all * The Zohar teaches that indicates the unification WHO H I . which vary according to or lesser their brilliance. &c. including II lli. Mantua.lt.mir ASLR All IK. on Zohar the occasion manifestation of the Cosmos. that name assumed by Him.gt. or is AShK AHI1I. When explaining the object of the Sepher Yetzirah as representing the manner in which created things come into being.lt. those referred to virtue. so is with . Chaiah it is Nephesh. it with those of the qualities stars. name to th- Jehovah or A Deity.lt. I On the other hand the IS.Uorb of is ^abalism called 177 account of concupiscence it on account of anger other names. and. quantity.lt. He is the I AM in connection the wonders of the ten plagues and He is Jah when producing the great miracle of the Red Sea. quality. 65^. and called Ruach. refer. work of the creation He terms Himself Elohim . their namely. their greater hot or cold natures. and to the fact that divine no other creature resembles it. substance.

Un analogy.1 78 ^he Doctrine nub Jitcrarure at the place. it is vocalised Aleph is the first sound pronounced z&amp. it is relation. Lastly. to which so much . Mem precedes Shin in seems past conjecture. Gaon needs only account of its to be mentioned in passing on disputed authenticity.&quot. these are to be regarded as referring passivity.Book increases by representing that it deals with the of Concealment. About the commentary there is ascribed to Hay Gaon Isaac considerable confusion. position. the are also forced to correspond in ten commandments an arbitrary manner.gt.. activity. powers. in his analysis of the Hebrew alphabet. and clear that Aristotelian philosopher. but may be admitted general way he had more distinct Kabalistic connections than Saadya. the commentator seeks to account for its sequence. a that Other works it attributed to him are not above in suspicion. to the numerations of the Sepher Yetzirah. that against adultery answers to the category of position. middle of the mouth and Shin is vocalised in the fortunately for the the alphabet. at the back of the tongue. and indeed the design of the speculation Mem on the lips. For example. There are no historic notices and no traces whatsoever of the former tract before the appearance of the Zohar. The work of Hay in which it was first made known. The con demned commentary of the deals largely with the mysteries Tetragrammaton and gives perhaps for the first time the curious quadrilateral method of writing it by means of letters and circles. instead of that of Formation. Saadya Gaon understood the latter as an With these categories. if ga time. for the act itself is a position and a contact.. which Myer &quot.

. the subject of Ha Kabalah. D.lt. ijiii Abrahamo patriarchs Abraham F. 1642.(The ofcirittcn &amp.* was afterwards of attributed by occult The commentary Abraham ben David bitterly. c.Ainstelodatni. Abraham is not given by Rittangelius. Abraham. who reproduces la its diagram with section (Dogme de Haute Magic. i. likewise in Latin and Hebrew.f the younger of that name and a con temporary of Maimonides.2 . Ritufl de la Haute Magie.gt. whom he attacked is Ha also included in the Mantua edition of the Book of Formation.\ and its rarity. Dior) super 32 Sctnitis Sapientiic Translatus et Notis illustratus a Joanne Stephana The thirty-two Rittangelio. should be added that the entire commentary of R. also in both language. additions which I regard as fanciful dealing with the * reality of his own &quot. including the Zohar and its Supplements. we have the Sepher Vctzirah itself. on the many vailing in occult circles. Then comes the explanation of Rittangelius... Ben + I. La where the Hebrew passage Clef des Grands Afystercs. with the editor s commentary. but he has used evidently the edition By El iphas Levi above all. una (Hebrew and Latin) cu/n commentario Rabbi . each followed immediately by the commentary of R. completely unintelligible.iber Jesirah adscritntitr. Cf.e. 23. Eliphas Levi.^ I. and is. cited is 33&amp. and elsewhere (La Science des Esprit s) illustrates these additions by a Kabalistic document which I think also is one of his specimens of invention. t Bartolocci. contradictory myths pre who cites a passage from his treatise as a proof of the authenticity and of the Magnum discovery makes a great deal of mystery concerning it Opns. who. which sometimes extends to many pages. who is content with presenting that part only which is devoted to the Paths of Wisdom. After the Paths. and was used largely by Rittangelius in that of Amsterdam. 1642+ Theintensest confusion prevails with regard to the personality of the author. Levi.!&orb of Jtobalism 179 importance writers. Kabalah). 15. &quot. Paths referred to at the beginning of the Sepher Yetzirah are given in Latin and Hebrew. PP.. is identified with frequently the writer of the Seder other.1. on the one hand. 12.&quot. in Latin and Hebrew. quoting many authorities. (i.

and the than but offers a connecting link between R late Kabalism of Isaac de Loria. of the Cause of Causes which assumed the final shape in which it is presented by the Zohar.wb |itcntture of the gabalah is of Rittangelius. There is the peculiar distinction between upper and lower Sephiroth which is not only characteristic of the Zoharic period.* this.i8o ihe Ipoctritu &amp. which again Abraham from Kether.&quot. For the rest. and it appears to be something more concealed and latent than the Soph. the conception of Am Sut/tma. however. Abraham. . Saadya Gaon can we have agreed to scarcely be termed Kabalistic set aside another which abounds in Kabalistic material because . &quot. on the ground that the accident or Corona &quot. God. its have been challenged in the date and attribution work of R. which attainable in almost perfectly well library. and it is indeed to the school which he represents that Graetz and others have referred the authorship of the Book of Splendour. Non Ens is made from the essence nor the Res from the Non Res or Non Ens&quot. being void of all hended by any It has not distinction and all mode of existence. there are Zoharic elements which admit of no question. Abraham But more there is the doctrine of the Unknowable is not appre one outside Itself. known and any national We have admitted that the commentary of . thus occasioning an insoluble not difficulty as to the emanation of the manifest universe. described in Soph of our commentator is terms which are almost identical with the A in * There is no doubt that the ten Sephiroth were an evolved system in the time of the Yetziratic commentator. Crown of Creation. the is distinguished by R.lt.

and the paths of wisdom are contained therein.The Zoharic &amp. The memorial in question was addressed to the nation of Israel dispersed by the wrath of God in France. There are also traces of all the peculiar angelical system which was destined to receive so much elaborate extension from the com mentators on the Book of Splendour. moreover. teaching.&quot. place and time. and it is very difficult to decide how far this can be regarded as sole knowledge concerning authentic. there no ground here to discuss their respective claims. Jew* who belongs to the literature of The testament of this mysterious personage which legend represents as a success. but after the universal mode. it is the form of all the letters. &quot. testament. Levite. is Belonging as they do to alchemy. by one who styled himself priest. prince. astrologer and The description which constitutes our philosopher.&quot. This title is used by Bartolocci in his bibliography numerous writers who cannot be more closely identified. * to describe . it may be noted that a peculiar importance is attributed to the letter AlcpJi . the Before dismissing this commentary we may note connection of its author with that alleged the Abraham alchemy.lt. Neither It. that it is given in another of Nicholas Flamel. that which incomprehensible in its the reason being that number is an acci dent belonging to the world of extension. Among minor Zoharic correspondences.&torb of Jubalism nor 181 &quot. transformed Nicholas Flamel from a simple scrivener into a seeker after the Great Work a search.lt.33ritteu &amp. unity plurality can be attributed to to because unity cannot be is ascribed essence.

* but others say He that his teacher was R. son of Rabad. became in turn the instructor of R. Moses Nach- manides.D. on the Levi hypothesis. in Hebrew commentator. 1190 to circa 1210.1 82 ^he it is Jlodrine anb Jiterature of the glabalah well to say that the attempt but made by Eliphas LeVi to identify the Abraham of Flamel with the commentator on the Sepher Yetzirah not only insti tutes a connection between alchemy and Kabalism which is unwarrantable in itself but has no colourable evidence to cite in trace its own support. and there are no * A. He taught the doctrine of still metempsy great chosis and a few fragments of his writings are extant. and it was but it perhaps less recondite motives which actuated himHe connects with the Kabalistic system which was expounded by the school of Gerona. t And brought. learning were frequently wanderers. the influence of his . as Graetz admits. who tradition. and the book which he mentions could scarcely have existed in Jewry. Abraham to the Kabalist belongs the Flamel was two hundred years later.f also belongs to the chain of Yetziratic He secret is said to have travelled much in search of was an age when men of wisdom. Jehuda. According to some authorities he was a pupil of Isaac the Blind. correctly Its assigned to the commentary of author was born at Valladolid in or about the year 1160. a literary and philosophical work the first place among the dependencies of the Sepher Yetzirah As seems Azariel. as there is no the whatever of any alchemical meaning twelfth century. reputation to bear upon its fortunes. for such a space of time without something transpiring concerning it.

broadly taken. was very little known in the West at the period in question. but he added the result of his own reflections. as Kabalism. literati followed various schools. Azariel s com mentary has been the subject of high praise. and the secret influence attributed to the Stagirite has perhaps been The votaries of the so-called wisdom were a small it is minority. is of importance to The teachings our inquiry earliest shows that the Sephirotic notion in its development could not really have been that .The Explanation of the Ten Sephiroth by of Questions and Answers must have helped to way shape the metaphysical speculations of the Kabalah and may well enough have originated more than it him. since principles it had to be conformed to the disciples espoused by the of Aristotle. &quot. of Azariel aroused the opposition of the Aristotelian Jews. Many works have been attributed to grounds for some have remained in MS. some derived. it of the categories. which is not in As the Scpher Yetzirah. The Jewish exaggerated. and it is thought by Isaac Myer that the logical form of his commentary was a concession to this school of thought. of which are lost and &quot. regards both matter and form.The &Uitteu &lorb real of Jtobalism 183 supposing that he acquired know ledge elsewhere. the fact. needless to say. and it has express views on the emanation of the Sephiroth. It contains the doctrine of Ain Soph. Whatever its motive. though it appears in the later Platonism. which are said to be contained in Ain Soph and of no effect when separated. Their emanation was possible because it must be within the omnipotence of the Deity to .

or the which is veiled the comparison intended being probably that of a luminous mist. &quot. in 1194 at Gironne. or pink. Law&quot. they would be left as shells. is yellow. Malkuth. Light. Kabalism. red. Chesed white and Geburah red Chokmah .&quot. and among Garden of his many other works that called the and another on the Secrets of the Thorah? Delight. Moses ben Nahman. white. The is finite . student both of but he was afterwards an its speculative and practical parts. or colourless Tiphereth. &quot.&quot. things the essence and the real principle Thought of the Supreme Being empty that were withdrawn. for example. purple . * Kether light &quot. and this is true not only of the visible if world but of the intermediaries between creation. Netsach is is Tiphereth is white. is like the in Concealed darkness. with the Kabalah he is or Nachmanides. * According sapphire. clear . his With philosophical attributing. Binah is sky-blue. was born Before he made acquaintance had a prejudice enthusiastic said to have against it. because Binah is the great sea of Kabalism. whitish-red and Hod reddish- white. all the combination is of the previous while Malkuth like the light which reflects Azariel also countenances the Sephirotic of the human body which is found in later division colours. and both by his writings and influence contributed His Kabalistic &quot. Jesod triad. tion of the Explana was completed in 1268. God and the speculations the Kabalist mingles something from the fantastic region. certain symbolic colours to the Sephiroth.1 84 ^he Jloxtritte anb gDihrature ot the Jiabalah assume a of all limit. its much to development. : Kether. to the Zohar the colour attributions are as follows . black.

vii. His works. t. cited by Mirandola his thesis against the astrologers. Kabalistic. Histoire dcs fuifs. 1543). Eliezer seems to have been the work of a German Jew of Germesheim. he treated it with grave consideration. p. but at what precise time is not known. appended to the Mantua edition of that work. Samuel. in A Treatise on the Soul.&quot.f author of the &quot. the &quot.&quot. like the Treasure of Life. Lord. (5) * A exercising the fear of God of II. The commentary on the Sepher Yetzirah which passes under the name of R. These are not professedly .o he SHritten Sllorb of Jpabalism 185 are his full of native theosophical speculations. which are wholly Kabalistic. Kalulah. He left where he died. 1859. Vestment of the Lord. exhorting life them to repentance and amendment (3) of (Venice. book of Faith and Confidence another on and yet another on the Pomegranate. See also . (4) An explanation commentary on the Sepher Yetzirah. one of the That he was the greatest Kabalists of his period.The Vestment printed- the &quot. Treasure of the Lord. but this has never been The Guide of Sinners. or the mystical As regards the practical part of the epistle on the thing desired. as some authorities have stated. including its arts of necromancy. Aaron of Psalm cxlv. are of (2) (i) &quot. Bartolocci. v. the evocation of evil spirits and the methods of their control. the &quot.&quot. Garden of Pleasure&quot.&quot. vii. t Basnage. a His other works include an epistle on the use of matrimony in a work on the nature of man from the text . The author flourished before and after the middle of the fourteenth century. a mistake. is. apparently at a great age. as Basnage has indicated. Commentaries on the Sepher Yetzirah are ascribed to R. instructor of Moses Nachmanides.* land to settle in Palestine. (mentioned in the text above).&quot. for he belongs to a later date. however. c. \Var^ . 19.

* under the of &quot. . Florence. Judas Levi . * Bartolocci.186 Uhe Jlodmie anb JDitn-ature of the title Jabalah &quot. 15. + Edited by M.f Sabbatai Book of the Points Donolo . Barzillai. 1880. Edited by M. Castelli. t Ibid.J Juda ben . R. Halbertstamm. i. 1885. the Great. Berlin. and Isaac the Blind.

it has consider supplementary matter belonging to a later it period and an extensive connected literature . which appeared in his Dizionario The writer follows Morin as to the late storico dcgli Autori Ebrti. The Sepher Ha Zohar. I. on the other hand. date of the work. established by means of copious quotations. . and the dependencies are all available to the student by means of Latin translations.BOOK V THE WRITTEN WORD OF KABALISM : SECOND PERIOD ARGUMENT The divisions of the Zohar are set forth in successive sections so as to furnish a clear and comprehensive notion of the materials in Its doctrinal content is corporated by this composite work.* The consequence. able is large in itself. be referred to an analysis of the Zohar by the Abbe* de Rossi. however. has not been translated into Latin nor into any European language. especially * The Italian reader may. THE BOOK OF SPLENDOUR CONTENT AND DIVISIONS cycle of : ITS THE manageable Sepher Yetzirah lies within a most important its compass. selected with special reference to its importance from an occult standpoint.

the second volume . has been very unfortunate. and early together after the uncritical section prominence manner of the period in a later is given to some personal undue discussions and correspondence between the Editor and Henry More. gives no adequate idea of the work which it is meant to elucidate. though not inexcusable. p. the content work and. in which expositors are bundled . vol. the apparatus in the form of a lexicon which most of the late first is volume. but all would have been beyond its price had a clearer genius governed it is. With all its defects the it Kabbala Denudata remains of real value. to the comparative importance of its various divisions. Part of this must be undoubtedly attributed to the ambitious design of Rosenroth s great collection. * As the class of persons who Outside esoteric students the case of Basnage may be mentioned as that of a well-informed writer. by attempting to cover much too wide a field. 775) the Book of Con first part of the work. He terms (Livre iii. It attributes an exaggerated. firstly. includes an enormous treatise on the doctrine of the Revolutions of Souls by a Kabalist of the seventeenth century. cealment the preface to the Kabbala Denudata. and seems to regard it as comprised In a word. he had not read the simply in that and the two Synods. the English platonist finally. has a -methodical appearance. yet whose know ledge of the Zohar does not even extend so far as it might have been taken by Rosenroth. arrange are most ment. ii.i88 to ^he gortrhw anb esoteric literature rrf the gabalah students. secondly. The Kabbala Denudata. importance to three tracts introduced into the body of the Zohar and to late commentary on these fills it . though little more than a chaos.* in Great to confusion has of obtained the regard. whose history of the Jewish people from the time of Jesus Christ to his own date the beginning of the eighteenth century is memorable in several respects. .

&quot. &quot. many might France sources of information. of course.Book of Concealment&quot.- w///////r-i/jf Erudition and adds thnt he has carefully collated is the Hebrew texts. . question is confined only to the tracts rendered into Latin by Rosenroth. as the fundamental of the whole Zohar.-. no trace of the scli-laiship imputed to it poorly and the commentary i.ears Latin and the other versions. as I have stated in my Chateau. proper. much point of Latin Christianity. and to accept a little tract known as the part &quot. The Zohar * . The \\.rk produced. tract as entitled to the next There are. to name two only but it has endured notwithstanding. and the latest instance is found in the latest work published by Dr.. Chateau. Le Zohar Traduction fran^aise et Conuncntaire M. and the developments of that highest consideration.lt. in the of the alleged tradition. of slight value. and they furnish no real notion of the scope of that work. H. that There the bibliographical appendix states the only complete translation of the Zohar is that of M. The bibliographical annotation accredit^ the translator with d&amp. for the most part not of an occult kind. the life from the stand is New Testament not the exclusive foundation of the Church but an event in her development. the it l&amp. by which this false impression have been corrected the work of Franck in and that of Ginsburg in England.gt.* whereas the enterprise in Papus. I should add that from the occult standpoint only an accident of the Kabalah the Zohar itself is an accident as. and these have been available for years in the English version of Mathers.irittm ofclorli of Jpatulism 189 concerned with the subject have been content to follow the lead of Rosenroth. its The Book of Occultation and Zoharistic commentaries are only accidents of the Zohar. II.

the attractive spiritual explanation of Scripture passages. . mind. in the vowel points and accents. by quotation in understand. but upon the diverse doctrines of this theosophy. the great and small face. the luminous mirror. and to indicate its I general scope shall deserve my depart from my general rule of confining quotations from modern authors to foot notes and summarise the admirable observations of well of readers if &quot. of human relationship. Simeon ben Jochai. appealing the descriptions of to the hearts and wants of men the Deity and the Sephirtth under the tender forms . which it the short and pathetic prayers inserted the religious anecdotes . as indicated in the forms and ornaments of the Hebrew alphabet.190 &quot. Ginsburg : The Zohar does not (apparently) dilates pro pound a regular Kabalistic system. . after what manner a position to the literature * It is in this respect that the Zohar suggests analogies with Arabian Sufism. mother. made the Zohar a welcome text-book who. matron. &c. and Moses. comprehensible to the finite bride. the higher earth. purports to be a commentary on the Penta I teuch. which it gives on every page.. R. author. in the narratives of the Bible and in the traditional and its national stories. The long conversations between records therein . for the students of the Kabalah. in the Divine Names and the letters of which they are composed. the vivid descriptions of Divine Love.(Ehe Bortrtne ztub JJiterriture of the Jiabalah preface. by lose themselves its Deity. primeval man.* could in rapturous this embraces with We are placed firstly.&quot. such as father. the higher heaven. white head.

We is already can understand. it has passed away. difficulties without resolving Far more truly philosophical is the doctrine of the Countenances. day and better means of excusing the anthropomorphisms of the Bible. approximate or . secondly. no attempt to excuse them has any connection. as noted.The &amp. well illustrated in the fascinating and terrible histories of Messianic enthusiasm and illusion. for the rest. Kabalistic notion of therewith. which itself of the that is seems to connect magnetically with everything unsound in faith and unreasonable in doctrine. so far as all effect is concerned.gt. how much know system there to correct in the occult theory which has fixed upon the Zohar as embodying the ledge of a religion behind all traditional religions. with the ground which occult philosophy assumes to cover. That God immanent in the material world is a simpler and more rational hypothesis than to establish intermediaries between finite and infinite. is No responds less readily to . At the present we have other remote. like the Shekinah from the Holy Place.l\lrittcn &iorb of Jtabalism 191 of Kabalism affected the fervid imagination of the Jew and the kind of influence which it had on him. much which create innumerable any. but. which I have described already as the chief glory of Kabalism. in were he really acquainted I The the philosophical doctrines which early sections have sketched previous book do certainly connect superficially with occult philosophy. and. what involved in such a less conception no person could be full disposed than the occultist to accept the religion. is is The connection that neither in the present instance can only show of serious account in the last analysis.

or Lesser Synod.* I.e.. i. vol. fragments only. the are (/) Midrash Ruth. (. on the ground that they do not * Kabbala Demidata. (Jt] (z ) Tosephthoth. or Greater Synod. properly so called. or Commentary on There Scriptural book of that name. (c) (d) (e) The Idrah Kabbah. 8. ii. (k) i. .192 ^he jpo-ctriue is anb ^ittmimt of the The Zohar what artificial divided by Rosenroth. after a some manner. the Discourse One in section or Story of the Ancient Mishpatim. (/) Palaces. (/) Midrash Hannelam. or Secret of Secrets. p. Rayah Mehenmah. the Ha or of Brightness. or the Haikluth. sometimes called Book Bahir. all its additions this is not of unmanageable dimensions. From tracts this account are omitted the following and fragments. (g) Sepher Illustrious Renowned Book. Mansions. Sabah D MisJipatim. or Mysteries of the Thorah. Addenda. Sithrai Thorah. (a) They The Apart from (b) text of the Zohar. The internal parts are those which are com are : bined together in one scheme.. or Book of Con cealment.) Raze Derazin. the Law. The IdraJi Zuta. Faithful Shepherd.e. or Additions. into internal and external parts. or the Secret Com mentary. The Sepher Dzenioutha. or Abodes.

See. or Explanation of the Thorah. or the discourse beginning. the external to the earlier editions. g.. the Cremona all Mantua edition (1558-60).j\ and . : parts are those superadded These are (a) Tikkunim H Zohar.f. containing the printed editions. or Supplements of the y called also the Ancient Supplements. later additions. tabulation are also wanting in the The Great Zohar.// in edition.TThc oEritteu SHorb of Subaltern 193 appear in the Mantua * : edition of circa 1558. The Greater Zohar being that of Cremona. known as the Little Zohar (a) Midrash Hazeeth. by ISarachiel ben Korba pre served in the Libr. Blunt s Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology makes a ludicrous confusion over this point. The ground on which appears the first these portions are set aside insufficient. (b) (V) Pekoodah. (f) Mathanithan. Mantua Zohar. (e) Come and Hibboorah Kadmad. or Primary Assembly . This has four parts. the representing the Greater /. to distinguish them from further Book of Splendour.Ms and the Lesser as the Book of Concealment. and (b) Zohar Chadash in matters omitted the New Zohar. or Commentary on the Song of Solomon. or the Discourse of the Youth. Yenookah. or Traditional Receptions. commentary is Hebrew translation in MS. contains the treatises enumerated in I both the above lists. as the sections e.har on * U Genc. (d) Maamar To Hasee.iry of Oppcnhcimcr.f As understood by Rosenroth. O . am not aware that any superior authority resides in the II.

p. or Exposition of the Canticle of Canticles appertaining to the Zohar. (c) Zohar Chamah. * or ii. or being an elucidation of difficulties in the Zoharistic Mantuan edition. Zohar Aike. follows the Mantua (d) Pardes Rimmonim. .194 ^ht Jtoctrine (1) an ^ $itcratnre of the text of the Zohar is The itself. Kabbala Denudata. the Way of being various readings in the Zohar arranged according to the (b) Binah Amri. tabulations are contained every In the above thing of the Zohar that has will come down its to us. (4) tions. vocabulary. an explana of numerous texts in the Zohar and tion Tikkunim. Words of Understanding. that Truth. scattered through which in the original (2) Midrask Hannelam. being a short commentary which or Splendours of the Sun. edition. the supplement of the tract of which appears Tikkunim Chadashim^ or New Supple ments. (e) Mequr Chokmah. or Exposition of Lamenta appertaining to the Zohar. or Garden of Pome granates. Fount of Wisdom. authenticity did For the better comprehension Rosenroth recommends : of the cycle (a) Sepher Deruk Ameth. by R. is. part work. (3) Zohar Shir Hashirim. Moses of Cordova. 9.* It be unnecessary to say that not increase with its bulk.

with the disciples by whom he was surrounded and seen. for the Biblical quotations in the Zohar and Tikkunim.v. having occasionally at times to a a touch of nature to indicate and condescending even episode. its less distorted by monstrous symbolism. or the Vision of the Priest. in the first place. indicate that the Least* a just al.-cribing viM. and to which Christian students of Kabalism have given so much prominence. It is. tales of wonder. greater part of which appears (g) Kabbala Denmiata. or vol.. far more natural and comprehensible. . fables and apologues are sometimes elucidating a knotty point of Scripture. and further acknowledges his indebtedness to two other un printed Loria.vThc e&rittcu fiHorb ot gabaliem 195 forming a continuation or new part of the of Truth. sometimes de. Chaiim Vital. (h) Pathach Ainitn.gt. Rabelaisian does not betray much trace hun. whether the destruction of animal life at the Deluge may narrated in it. as we have to work that is porated therewith. MUetinMi recounting and narrating the death of man. Zar Zahab. as. sinned. is not a be judged by the same standard as the purely allegorical portions which have been incor of these. used largely in the apparatus of Rosenroth. the conversations of Simeon ben Jochai with the prophets by whom he was visited. for example.* Finally. works. with each other.n&amp. a Crown of Gold. a Kabalistic commentary on the whole Law and a treatise entitled Chesed Abraham. ii. Rosenroth also highly recommends and largely reproduces the vast manuscript treatises of Isaac de compiled by R. the in the Kohen. (f) Way Marah a synoptic work.hxd rabbinical histories. part i. it kinship with humanity. or Gate of the Eyes. The Zohar proper.

loosely supposed the most part. its body. the body which is within it and the soul which is within the body. The governing is pretation or treatment principle of its inter the existence of several senses in the written word. it says. who vested in a comely garment. which has nothing in harmony with the simple sense of Scripture. &quot. It to enlarge Kabalistic exegesis. Some of the commandments may be body. There are those a &quot. this upon would serve no purpose which applies to all fact. and it is understood and passed over that it is a forced. as a whole. especially in Lc Sorcier de Meudon. . of modern We on have the seen that in a certain it manner a somewhat occasional and informal is commentary Pentateuch. The Law has also [than either]. namely. which are compared by the Zohar to the garment.* is To determine important from whether the work. but see no farther.&quot. These are differently enumerated. and the ordinary * Following the lead of Eliphas Levi. I shall now standpoint give a short synopsis of its doctrine on several vital questions of religion and philosophy. arbitrary commentary. and take the garment for the behold how man is something more precious the soul. but they are reducible broadly under three heads. by those is who would and do scendentalism in likewise discern a latent trans- Pantagruelism. and there seems no reason why they should not be extended indefinitely. whereas there is called the body of the Law.196 ^Iu Itortrine anb ffiteatnre of the $abalalt of that inner of its meaning which for entire content. the occultism. unwise.

also an This passage illustrates what added depth and the instance of intellectual rabbins of the Kxile who humility of the great confessed to a sense in Scripture which exceeded their loving penetration. the servants of the Great King. it would be possible to equal. Simple recitals and common words suggested only the human lawgiver if those only were the sum of the Thorah.* the coming time to con which breathes in I mean by the which the Kabalah significance reads into the Bible. ex hypothesi.&quot. 152^. the Word of God issued in a mystery. but no doubt it is the divine sense of the Word which gives knowledge of the Word Itself. signifies . the narrations of the Law. which is the foundation of all and the true Law.f and it is. The extracted sense was too often a ridiculous illusion. of course. Isaac Myer supposes that the higher soul of the Thorah God Himself. t Mr. * Zohar. all the symposiums of synods. perhaps even to excel . who dwell on the heights of Sinai and concern themselves only with the soul. the just and wise man in the world The necessity of the manifold sense followed from the insufficiency of the letter. Others more instructed clothe this do not give heed which it covers. t mean. part I iii. Mantua edition.}: so that after all subtleties of exegesis.. fol.cjthitteu (udorb of recitals JUbalism garments 197 mingled therein are the which body. perceiving not that which they hide.e. I think. and the key of this mystery was the reward of to come. to the vestment but to the body And there are the Wise. i. These shall be ready in template the soul of that soul the Law. Simple folk observe only these garments.

&quot. centuries.198 it. 149^. As the possibilities it by such a method are say that infinite. and it may be in this sense that the original s Zohar is said to have been a camel load.&quot. Law of in of Truth. That original minds of Kabalistic rabbins. Israel which was the true Law. the faithful witness God. It gives glimpses only. Laban. Hagar.* And hence the transcendental meaning. could not be &quot. was a latency in the it was never written As the concealed Zohar establishes the necessity of the meaning on the insufficiency of the outward. the Balaam and Balaam s ass. besides a general latent meaning. Had the Jew never come in contact with culture outside Judea he would never have conceived the tradition. . It led of course into extravagance the second sense became in its turn inadequate and one more concealed was inferred. we have evidence for deciding the value of the claim which it elsewhere makes to a full high antiquity for its interpretation. the sayings of Esau. was supposed. and it postponed rationalistic for criticism some . arid as the sense of such insufficiency is indubitably a late event in the history of sacred documents. or not unfold in the Zohar does consecutive form either the allegorical or mystical meaning. the kind of culture which helped * him to the sense Mantua edition. fol. So also. the Perfect Law. is suggested unnecessary to a that these senses were never methodised. ^he gtortrme anb |iteratuu of the of Moreover. there was that more particular triple significance attributed to each several word. but with pen. to save from scepticism. and &quot.

is paralleled. not continue one night his dignity. hut the growth and the increase was in the mind of Jewry. viii. 4. They answered Him.&lrittcu a21orb of Jfiabaliem 199 of insufficiency is not to be looked for in Egypt or in Babylon.gt.gt. He called before Him many&quot. saying unto them. us see next the kind of light know that.* Having established let the general principle of Zoharic exegesis. going forth as one guilty. What is man that Thou rememberest him ? J He said unto them. and the pleasing anachronism. t&amp. had created man. my will will to create man. so that his wisdom When Rlohim be greater than your wisdom. saying to the Holy One.lt. there came Uzza and Azael. They answered. upon the creation of man. . * We have an * latonism.&amp. It was the It does not follow that the Kabalah is consequence of a contact. in We the first place. that the breath of life passed The over him and that he became a living soul. phrases which Milton puts into the mouth of Lucifer. It is my will to man. ! the Holy One extended His finger and burned Thereafter He summoned other hosts into create His presence.lt. in Man Then them. N. he was made of the dust of the earth. But 4 this man shall shall be in our image. when man had fallen into sin. % Quoting \\. but in the Hellenised thought of Rome. t The reference by which the angels are made to quote David before the creation of man. Zohar is able to tell us what transpired before this event One It is entered into the will of the Holy to create man. if Poe may be trusted. which it cast upon the letter of Scripture and. according to Genesis.vlhe &amp. by the Aristotelian I i-&amp. xlix. 12. : When the it hosts of superior angels and said unto them.

from the is heavenly Chaiah. many its origin from the Life Divine. other passages in the Zohar which The are explanatory of the creation of man.200 ^hc JJ-oxtrine anfc Ipterature oi ihz whom Thou He Thee. tongue is sufficiently but it in is which the superior good sense of the hierarchy punished by burning and expulsion. And connection there a suggestive and beautiful thought. breath of life is said to be the holy soul which has of course. ye would have done worse than he has. the holy no longer any intercourse with him. and the Holy Shekinah rests upon him. he is the wellbeloved of his Master. Behold this son of man how he hath sinned before If ye had been in them. But when he turns aside from this keepers watch He is the symbol soul has path the Shekinah abandons him. . . like case. 2o8a.* has must be confessed that an this ridiculous fable neither inward sense nor an outward light. and evil spirit from the side of the mighty * [Samael] Zohar. edition of Zolkiew. even from heaven. accusation against Thee. hast made. There are. What then did the Holy One ? He cast them answered down from It their sacred station. his and thus man started natural on life mundane course with a sanctified (Nephes/i) communicated in this &quot. speaks with the of seraphs in comparison with this history. How many ! and encompass him on all sides of goodness both above and below. iii. We the know fall that Latin Christianity has a legend of some misty manner with the scheme it of the angels which connects that event in of redemption childish. So long as that holy soul communicates with the son of man.

however. not face to face &quot.* We six &quot. part fol. Adam and Eve were created side by side.SBrittcu (ftlorb ot gabalism 201 there is down from put in action a spirit which goes up and in the world.J There are again obscure references to the original physical condition of humanity. does not.-)- and is man was worthy to created on the sixth day because he on this throne. as des The Throne of Glory is in the Briatic world. 19. resting only in those places which of the sanctity has withdrawn. and sphere. which Cremona t it is most interesting within its own that of mythology and not certainly is ii. . . appear that the awakening of this desire was the real cause of the lapse from perfection.&quot. to the serpent represented the imaginative faculty. Cremona Ibid.&quot. The Kabalah and offer a the mysticism which led up to it It is of the nuptial state. learn also Throne sit of Glory had steps. true that in the fragments of the Bahir the sin of very high ideal Eve is presented as sexual. x. part fol. The prototype of Solomon s throne. According to Maimonides. Ex I. but if this is to be under stood literally it was one of monstrous intercourse. but there is nothing of any real occult significance . 26a. that is. 25&amp.. and thus the child that man is corrupted. there was It desire of the female towards the male. it is the suggestion that is suggestive occasionally with never wanting in fable and mythos.j.&quot. ii. cribed in Kings fol. Enough has been quoted show that there is a curious theosophic lore in the Zohar concerning the creation of man. ed.lt. ed. however. not a seemingly.. Hypothcsi. a notion quite discordant with rabbinical views upon the sanctity and symbolism of sexual intercourse. 2ia.

fol. said that &quot. nor can the latter show that it really came prevailed in by it through an oral succession from early times. tree I03&amp. part i. is allegorical and ii. as in it its con nections. 229^. 126*. . the parallel mythos of Talmudic times. moves with man Cf. As often happens in the Zohar. this it is legend many on the one hand.the \Ncshamoth\ of but * J away the higher souls The tree of the trespass which sounds fantastic . was banished from Paradise.* for which Jehovah Elohim after wards substituted the garment of skin.. There is no need to mention that Eastern mythologies . Mantua Edition.&quot. by the desire of the things The death seems to be spiritual.&quot. further We may Adam take the inquiry a step and ascertain what the Zohar teaches con prior to his &quot. The good deeds which the son of man accomplishes in this world draw from the Light of Glory above. J Cremona ed. Cf. insists upon the fact that was the serpent . cerning the state of told fall. thus indicating that the fall was followed by a change of physical condition. which represents good deeds as creating good angels. 280. but this to some extent soul and the lapse was a lapse of the below it. better than the fable itself. the Fol.lt.202 xjlhe Doctrine sub fEifcratur* of the gabalah of mystic religion. the special inheritance of the not. and he prepares for himself a garment against the day when he shall enter that world and appear before the Holy Blessed One.. Kabalah. t Ibid. Samae who brought death serpent is into the world allegorical. for it is serpent takes all flesh.&quot. fol.f The l Fall of man in the Zohar. We are that he was clothed in the garment of the Upper Splendour. there is is a poetical inference from the fable which &quot. Ibid.

^.IThc (idrittcu c&orb at |iabalism 203 the through his pilgrimage. who. is said: He give His angels charge over thee. strive after perfection the evil spirit is he restrained. connected with the doctrines of the Fall Closely of man and original sin is that of the Messiah.* follows from this statement that the child in is it delivered over to iniquity an especial manner. which passage the New Testament applies in a special manner &quot. than shall explained. to the left. dealing with other sections of the Zohar we shall have occasion to refer again to the mythos of the Fall and If shall observe that it is further involved by sin. to keep thee in all thy ways. one on the right hand and one on the and the evil left. fol. the introduction of monstrous elements. as it does not receive the good angel until reaches the age of puberty. and then both unite to It secure him in all his ways. to Christ. When does a man the day that he is made clean. we turn find now that to the it mystery of original intensified 11. so that the right rules the left. it we shall is rather &quot. even the good to the right and these are the two spirits If which are appointed ever to remain by man. Then he joins himself with both spirits. . The Zohar explains it as follows : When man comes moment .&quot.&quot. . forsakes man from the day that he is born into the world. become clean ? At the age of thirteen years. into the world there appears in him at that the evil spirit which This evil spirit never always arraigns him. But the good spirit comes to the man from . eternal banishment Adam of also was the cause of In his descendants. In Psalm xci. * Ibid.

Israel. Ibid. again. . 127^.204 for Ihe gtortrine nub $ti*tfttare of the Jabalah Jew and Christian alike. Eden behold sinners in Israel their Lord. for the sense of he must receive his retribu tion afterwards. If He had not thus Messiah repairs.J: More curious and more significant is the &quot. as is 5]. to which the &quot. that spirit the Messiah pre-existent.. [Is. children of Israel abode in the Holy Land. no man would be able to endure them. In is common souls.&quot. was the of the King Messiah which brooded over the waters at the creation. taken upon Himself the punishments for the trans gressions of the law. 95^. f Ibid. fol.&quot. part i. As it does not appear that Jews or Gentiles really escape the consequences of their mis* Cremona ed. He lifts up His He was wounded voice and weeps. worship and sacrifice. is a deliverer and an find in atonement. they averted from the world all pain and suffering [? in punishment for trespass] by their prayers. yet so long only as man remains in the world.f Children in our transgressions We read.* He governs both above and below. fol. gladdening the heart of idolatrous nations. part ii. and there invokes upon Himself all the tribulations of Israel. When they inform Him of the afflictions of Israel in exile.Whilst the passage which follows immediately. and of &quot. of a Palace of Wicked the Garden of Eden. and recalls a host of much that we all the Zohar of Talmudic speculations on the same with It subject. who reflect not that they for may know it written. but a judgment on When the souls in the Garden of the just suffering for their Master they return and inform the Messiah. but now this is per formed by the Messiah. liii.

It will be a time of woe and salvation. to suppose that such the Messianic doctrine. edition. scheme of * Zohar. and that medleys are not in correspondence I must be content to refer briefly to a at all points. fol. He again reveal a Himself and wage war against the whole world. however. Edinburgh. at come forth from the which time the Messiah shall Garden of Eden and appear in the first is Galilee. and Vincent II. which stir Thence He shall up war against the whole world. this notion of vicarious atonement the fantastic order.* idle or. Hilj.n s &quot.vnLeipsic. he who is persistent in the faith shall attain the joy of the King. very long passage which has been the subject of much controversy as to the date of the Zohar and is concerned with the appearance of the Messiah.&quot. &c. t For very feld s full information on the whole subject. see A. There will be He must reveal himself.gt. quite of Elsewhere.Jewish and Christian Miiah. therefore. signs in the heavens. it is said that the righteous are the sacrifice and the atonement that the Zohar is of the world. and then a pillar of fire extending from heaven to earth shall become visible to all men. 7.&quot. Stant&amp. after which the Messiah will be many invisible for twelve months and up at the expiration of that period will be taken into heaven to receive will the Crown of It is the Kingdom. . 1885. and of special affliction for Israel. We must remember a medley. which was destruction in the in Holy Land and province to suffer the first. After this tribulation further distress shall follow from the combination of nations and kings. but &quot. stars warring against the star of the East. ii.The cBritten eBorb of giabalism is 205 deeds.f speaking Amsterdam generally. MessiasJutLrorunti 1869.

Kabalistic scriptural can have the slightest occult importance it is essentially a Jewish scheme. counterpart on high and is the inferior part is set over it in the upper world all When dependent on influenced. connection with other occult systems. actually is. supposing the exclusive claim of Jewry to the divine election. in a word. the spiritual it. &quot. From the first this doctrine the art of talismanic magic is logical consequence. that which is is also affected. What has its &quot. of Jewish yearning and because Jewry is part of humanity. soever is found on earth. in its transcendental speculations on the identity of subject and object in God and perhaps even in the mystic experience into of the soul. and the last source to which we has can look for confirmation of the romantic notion that a transcendental doctrine of absolute religion been perpetuated from the it far past.&quot. says the Zohar. priceless memorial. a thesaurus doctrines. . is in contact at a thousand points with the aspiration Jewish visionary Jewish and yearning of the whole heart of the world. but it it.&quot. and not infre quently with matters which are beyond the range of its theosophical points of that which is understood by occultism. for example. . it is a loses all its significance in the attempt to misplace it Because of it is has. It enters a good deal that strange doctrine of correspondences which we meet everywhere in the domain which is embraced in the higher understanding of the It might be described indeed as term Magic. which. Understood as theosophy. extended mystery of correspondence. because are united. although Jewish. course. with the things of mysticism.206 ^oEhe Bodrine anii literature of the Ipabalah interpretation. as. aspirations.

vTlu SHritteu lorb of &quot. Quod supaius inferius est sicut cst sic u t quod have been formulated along the supcrius. &quot. fol.i. The peculiar philosophical system of the Kabalah of course receives a very full development in its chief literary memorial. which in turn produces the Word. Mion.* This is. but all is one. primordial manifestation of the unknown God was the production of a luminous point.lt. i. but we are sufficiently acquainted with the heads of this system to make extensive quotation superfluous. Cremona.&amp. ii. is The the Divine Consciousness therefore the &quot.. and the diffusion of this Spirit brings forth a Voice. which is the beginning of all things. Cf. The which is Kether.har. so it is above. identical with the pseudo-Hermetic of that which maxim. and the likeness is below is in the sea [regarded as the mirror of the inferior heaven]. according to the Sepher Yctzirah. quod infer ins et quod which may even linos of the Zohar. A- it is in nil tiling below.lt.&quot.lt. &c. for it says expressly that this was the light which Elohim created before everything..i part fol. thus forming the superior * 7. He produced a concealed light from which all the manifested lights were afterwards radiated. 131^. part is itself c&amp. for is the Zohar a philosophy of all the Word. When FJ him willed make the world. fol. . and it seems certain that hereby the Zohar understands the Ego. In its union with the Spirit f it is called Binah. ubali-?m is 207 is Elsewhere it is said : That which is above in the likeness of that which below. f)a. matter of the to manifested universe. The nucleus of the luminous point is Thought. gi&amp. of course. t Kether the Spirit. parl i.&quot.* In this Thought light of first the forms of things were evolved.l.

The expansion of thought produces spirit. t Cremona i. This is the significance of the Scriptural is statement that Jehovah one.. the world is &quot. part i. * As soon as man appeared ed.&quot. but the thought. fol. but unrealised in the as primordial condition.* we have elsewhere seen. Mantua. prior to beginning was existence which any this will. in the the will of the King. or from which It the is other worlds as were subsequently emanated. and this the sacred prises name all of Jehovah. which next assumes the title of intelligence. 30.&quot. humanity. this the Shekinah. in which state the thought is no longer self-centred.&quot.a disguised is man. It is the perfection of faith in all things and the absolute form of all. Zohar. also is the Mercabah or chariot. the understanding and word are one alone. 24^. It is the summary and the most exalted term of creation. .f came With into being through this will is emanation from connected the notion of thought the principle of all things. 56.. 246^. and prior to its manifestation no form could subsist. fol. and &quot. 98^.J suggestive and also the most recurrent teachings is the importance and universality of man in the scheme of things. said also. all was Ibid. one and his Name is Among the most as for the poet. while the thought itself bound up with Ain Soph and is never separated therefrom. that &quot. For the Zohar.208 ^he IBoxtnn* anb literature of the giabalah Atziluth^ world. The spirit in the course of its development produces a voice or the is word. and contained within itself. all that interests a celestial man It was the at form of man that God assumed This is the beginning of his manifestation. The form of man com that is in heaven or on earth.&quot.

and as all condition of his development while with a Catholic comprehensiveness which has no parallel in . 144.At the time when the Holy Blessed One desired to create the world . ijj.. grief and * when her time- unwillingness.vLhe u&ntten SQorb of Siabalism 209 completed. 91^. highest degree of creation The . the The soul originates in Supreme Intelligence.. &quot. Zohar. fol. the absorp tion and the eternal nuptials which await him. spiritual man is the in him it was completed and he comprises everything. ii. the souls which should be given after wards to the children of men. So also in his threefold nature a faithful image of that which passes on high. as it is the the latens Deitas into manifestation. P . so the problem of evil in the universe is solved in his interest.&quot. t Ibid. part fol. i. and all the servitors that are on There is high. from man s pre-existence in the archetypal world to the beatific vision.* even a certain withdrawn and inconceivable sense in which man through Sephirotic mediation brings things exist and subsist for man. I42a. . ii. 43^. and the souls of the just are above all the powers he is Supreme Wisdom. ii. . Mantua edition.f It is also stated all He formed expressly that the soul enters the body has come with protestations. both of the world above and the world Even those physical parts which he puts aside ultimately are conformed to the secrets of the below. The pneumatology of developed the in the Zohar the connections of that more fully work than in is commentary proper. 1910. sacred is any scheme of human existence regarded by the Zohar with an optimism strange literature the in its profundity. 42 . n^ iii. 4ya . iii.

according to the Zohar. is the restitution of the As this its proper soul. indefinitely. * t Ibid.f be added that souls are created in pairs.. 280. for &quot. which. La Kabbah. Compare.210 It is ^he Sortrine nub ffijiterahtre of the equally clear that it acquires nothing by the experience. in this life It and and even may they may depart from an unclean person. unless it be the dignity of an ordeal all that which has been withstood successfully. for example. but these pairs do not invariably into the world. There are. part i. Ibid. it combines with things precious others that are of little value and not a few that are indescribably foolish. where the very opposite teaching is ascribed to the Zohar. 236. fol. physical body together with resurrection p. can take place only in Palestine the bones of Israel in exile will be transported thither. again after the manner of a medley. gross absurdities in the pneumatological portions. but I may observe in conclusion that. come at the same time In the excerpts which have been now given the Zohar appears at its best. however. but there are various abiding places destinies for the higher spiritual principles. which follows from the the whole Thorah* Talmudic doctrine that they were acquainted with Their proper end is the return into Deity.. part iii. 376. fol. Franck. souls learn in this world they knew already before they came into the world. When the soul enters the body of the infant it cannot find room and has to await the growth of its envelope in considerable dis Points of this kind might be multiplied comfort. as there is no need to say. They extend to all departments of the doctrine and obtain especially concerning the resur rection of the dead. .

produced rich. both in the process underwent a species of transmutation. And to confess this is to confess out of hand that the Zohar has still a message for the mystic. Book it of Formation head &quot. But.lt. are able to Yetzirah ends agree with Franck that the Sepher where the Zohar commences. from the not at of in the pre-Zoharic as Midrashim the was fault regarding Kabalism. and source of incorporated the latter. at least.. magnified. and the Thorali is the Whether or not we archetype of all the worlds. certain that the instinct of the early students singled who rest the &quot. flights this mystic thought of and aspiration theosophy which are unknown to Gebirol and Ibn Ezra. and as I venture to think the process. the expression of the Thorah. something in more of strange and There are.sea-change&quot. bolism. in conclusion.$Iorb of gUbaliem 211 may Yetzirah into be added that the Zohar took the Sepher its heart of hearts. earlier it almost letters transformed its sym the The Hebrew tract which figure in as the instruments of creation are for the ciphers or vestures of the written law. dwelt upon it. Perhaps all that is of value therein would be contained within a few leaves . and are more direct and strong in their appeal to the inner con great sciousness of book man in this dawn of the twentieth century than in the famous commentary of Azariel or in the School of Isaac the Blind. so both were in of the poet. and that they are the exact it is complements of each other. like that &quot. as there was an occultism and mysticism in Israel prior to the Sepher Raziel and to the Zohar.TTht SBritteu It &amp. extended.

on the contrary.&quot. From the silence of on the subject of the Zohar proper it might be judged that they do not regard it as of great occult importance . Mathers. edition. which is almost as is * &quot. it should be bound in pure gold. that Cremona for which. as has been given by occult writers. though used by Rosenroth his references. which. was regarded by him as inferior to the simultaneous or slightly prior edition of Mantua. The latter he terms invariably occultists Codex correctus. edited begins at fol. is is regarded as the root it of the highest occult importance it and foundation of the Zohar. as said of the choicest poems of Coleridge. the beginning of In the Sulzbach the great cycle entitled the Zohar. not far to seek. they occasionally seem to suppose. to Book is of Conceal which so much prominence not. it another or refer readers to the pagination of previous codices. is but there is a simpler explanation. . II. Kabbalah Unveiled. and also as the most ancient portion of that collection. The Book of &quot. Most editions are either paged in correspondence with one by Rosenroth. Concealment. THE BOOK OF CONCEALMENT the The Sepher Dzenioutha. i?6b and ends at fol. 14. though small in .212 ^ht JJxrctnitt anb literature of the gabalah but. therefore. Lublinensis follows the of Among the early codices edition. ij$b of the second volume.&quot.* generally understood. its dimensions. p. ment or of Occultation. as seen.

Simeon reported to have been composed for twelve years in a . 2. See second Cotnmentarius in Emek HammeUih part. The Glory of God is to conceal the word. Myers. } Libro of the et seq. . xxv. . This Countenance. or Modesty by Isaac Myers. Le&quot. God issued His concealment. But he also supposes nn allusion to the cirmni stances under which the cave. the image of the Father of all things.\ The work chapter deals with the development of the Vast Countenance. when equilibrium had first established in the universe of unbalanced forces. or the Crown.TTIu (Uttritten (SQorb of gUbitliem 213 it is provably correct. t Rabbi Loria says that it refers to things which are secret and should be kept secretly. The Hebrew term which is rendered Mystery. during the concealment of R. the been Macroprosopus. the When mani from Ancient of Days appeared. the Countenance was fested. lingula exauiinis.* a It has been said further that in few pages. equilibrium obtained. Qabbalah.&quot. the Book of Concealment and the Book of Formation are the fountain heads of all Kabalism. for occultists. p. p. p. preface. Concealment. vol. is given as Concealed Mystery by Mathers. and compares Prov. The tionis. but with theogony comprised developments more numerous than the Talmud. p. 2nd ed. Livre des Sfilendcurs.&quot. work is namely. to the is compared by the Zoharistic commentators tongue of a balance. 97. Mysteries of Magic. /&amp. This symbolism of the balance depicting the harmony of the universal order * &quot. ii. 47 .gt. For Sepher Deznioutha Rosen roth gives Liber Occultais concerned with the manifestation of the Divine Being as the term of His concealment in the eternity which preceded manifestation.vi. without pretending that the version is actually literal.. which is referred to Kether. Gtntralis Methodicns Kabbala Denudata. t Eliphas &quot. ii. . 118.f In a a word.

and it is said to be the body of Macroprosopus. which is no place. p. all dignities is is But the dignity of the beard of the Countenance. * standing destruction. down ! divided into thirteen portions. Abba and Aima. is secret in secret. which. f Ie. which all. of the Ancient One are as two doors whence the Spirit goes forth over all things. referring to the SephirothVJ\$&Qm and Understanding. and the hair of the head is like fine wool hanging in the The eyes are ever open. in its own the libration of the words.f descending even unto it is MicroprosopuS) and flowing lips free. which no man knoweth. having man for its object. as far as the heart. and the source of this notion must be sought in the Bcreshith Rabbah. For Wisdom is on the right upon the side of Benignity . says the text. but not only also the Wisdom and the Father and Understanding. Compare also the teaching of the pre-Zoharic Midrash Conen. in the abyss of Deity.&quot.. also the ornament of as It covers Macroprosopus Sephiroth with a vestment. who receiveth their kisses From all the thirteen portions there descend as influence many drops of purest balm. is the book describing balance.214 is ^he Jl-oxtritte anb Ipterattire of iht Jabalah the key-note of the treatise. 48. The Countenance. and the Crown is the tongue in the centre which abideth above them. The meaning of the symbolism is that the equilibrium between Justice and Mercy must be assumed before the universe. according to which the Grace of God prevents the opposing forces out of which the world was created from mutual &quot. The balance is suspended in the place &quot. that is to say. Ibid. but leaving the is Blessed he. could become possible. and in the of do all things exist and all are concealed.&quot. Under is on the left upon the side of severity .. . called here the Mother. and the nostrils equilibrium.* which are the sides of the balance.

is full which destroy difficult to continuity and make the sense extract it In addition to the manifestation of MacroprosopuS) shows how the Most Ancient &quot.ut they arc not really in contradiction. though small. whereas the God of manifested the Great Countenance it is only declared partially. . for fully.. It will be of seen. as of digressions have said. 4. Soph and the Tetra- grammaton ymbottsm. There are various aspects of the l&amp. &quot. is is still Macroprosopiis. i. where it is stated that . whence * perhaps inexact AHIH . which referred the is the first of the Tetragrammaton^ corresponds to the Sephira Wisdom. that is Deity.gt. although manifesting in the regarded as ever hidden and concealed.-//// is referred to Kether. and that the manifestation which Hebrew Jehovah is in a sense a reflected God. Compare Bk. compass. to whom is name Tetragrammaton. whereas I am is that of the first Ancient* The letter I.&quot. antithesis in respect of Microprosopus. the supernal of H is to Under issue. The distinction between the two Countenances the profile and the reflection is is is the distinction of full face. the conception of the Crown.Written SUorb of JUbaliam 215 The I &quot. standing. has no other name than that which proclaims His self-existence. amid the intolerable refulgence of that great light the likeness of a head appears. by way of who life- both manifest and unmanifest When the giving influx rushes forth from the Ancient One. One expanded into Microprosopus. and referred to the letter V. Book of in its its Concealment. therefore. Crown. which Microprosoptis the corresponding to the six Sephiroth from Mercy to the primal connected with the Foundation inclusive. as representing the world of to Atziluth generally. ii.e.

his occultation by the transposition of the letters. but when that of Macroprosopus sheds down its light and influence they are found to be thirteen.vi next section. flowing down to the ears the eyes have a three-fold hue. taking place of the He in the archetypal world. claimed. and a three-fold flame in issues from the nine nostrils. considered itself. is for which also the same authorship sions of work. two works possessing the same authority however. and constituting exten The first of these will be the in the subject of * some consideration Le&quot. which are as the Book that of Concealment.216 to is ^he IBrurttine anfc $iterature of the speak of Microprosopus as a reflection. The beard.&quot. resplendent with shining light . The Book of Concealment is described in its closing words as the withdrawn and involved mystery blessed is he of the King. was unfolded all many rabbinical commentaries. as for knowing its paths some explanation shall its significance.* as rather a second manifestation. it is said that the manifestation Microprosopus is represented by the ordinary of the Tetragam. his It is the device of Eliphas and connects with method of interpretation. who cometh and goeth and of ways. in we see later on. From the sides Lesser Countenance . the public promulgation of the Zohar. Though the Ineffable Name also is referred to the Vast Coun of letters tenance. and as it is added that &quot. therein. depend black locks. . confessedly posterior to the period of There are. has portions. there is urgent need This.

The aiBritteu SBorb of ^abalism 217 III. delivered in a * Eliphas Levi. methodises a literary aspect. and the mutilations which it would appear to have older it much the appearance of those which follow undergone. THE GREATER HOLY SYNOD of Concealment has been simplified in the it The Book to the utmost preceding account.&quot. begins in narrative the ensuing dialogues in a manner which is perfectly It explicit and stands in need of few emendations. and itself contains of the &quot. but even with these it is in an exceedingly faulty The treatise now under consideration is in state. it quotes no rabbinical writers and has no references by which date may be obtained. two a characteristics which give document than immediately. These are its rudeness to develop and expound it.* The first point which otherwise calls for notice is that the Greater Sacred Synod claims Rabbi Simeon Ben Jochai as the author Book of Concealment. it It has. The first translator. I. It possesses almost form. deals. the discourses of this Master in Israel. most respects entirely different.a Clef des Grands Mysterts. with the barbarous symbolism of the admittedly repellent to preceding book and so far is modern taste. a fact which has been noted by at least one sympathetic critic who was himself an elegant and highly suggestive writer. as already said. supplies the gaps and jectural omissions thus occasioned by con words and passages placed within brackets. . and are designed. Rosenroth. however. is It may be now added a clue to its that anonymous . of course.

opened the conversation. Rabbi Josi. saying their for : R. They laid aside their garments . be put to death. Babylonian recension. Caesar. saying. Rabbi Jehuda. But R. R. own All these things have they instituted for sake. Rabbi Eleazar. and with them also R. shall be Cyprus) Shimeon. the son of Jacob. R. and bridges to collect from those who cross them. Rabbi Abba. Rabbi Chia. Jehudah. namely. Rabbi Isaac. who extols us.. They have established markets they have built bridges they . . harlots they have built baths for their tolls own enjoyment.e.218 field ^he Jlxrrtiitu anb fit*ratnre of the Jiabalah in beneath trees the presence of his disciples. shall Jehudah. where a miracle took place. Josi and R. Shimeon disparaged and his son then went out and hid themselves in the lecture-hall. the son of proselytes. exiled to Saphoris us. Jehudah. : be extolled Josi. Whereupon Josi was silent. which contains the narrative which I will here give in its substance : &quot. Shimeon ben Jochai answered. who said nothing. repeated this conversation. How beautiful are the works of this nation (the Romans). have opened bathing-houses. Their markets are gathering-places . belonging to the period which succeeded the destruction of Jerusalem. the son of proselytes. Jehudah was Jehudah. who has . his son. On a certain occasion R. but afterwards in a cave. Rabbi Chiskiah. Shimeon were sitting together. (i. shall and * it came to the ears of who proclaimed . a date-tree and a spring of water being raised up for them. the son of Rav. Rabbi These are historical names Josi and Rabbi Jisa. For an account of Rabbi Simeon himself we must have recourse to tract Sabbath of the Talmud.

&quot. i. for fear that sat covered with In this wise they spent twelve years in the cave. According to the tradition of the Kabalists the &quot. the conversation was about to begin a voice in When heard the air showed that the Supernal in Synod had the assembled heaven that to hearken. Macroprosopus.* The secret wisdom embodied in the Zohar is supposed to have been the fruit of the long seclusion enforced upon R. pp. and com in mentators add the souls of the just gathered round the speakers. The Talmud mentions expressly the learning obtained during this period. as also of Microafter the Lesser Countenance. was the first form in which the &quot. the conformations or Countenance. prosopus. prayer-time. studying and assuming their vestures only at the whole time. Book of Concealment it &quot. 57-59. the same might wear out. when Who will Elijah came to the opening. discourses of Greater Sacred Synod were recorded by Rabbi Abba and so also in the case of the Lesser Synod. but without specifying its kind. Paradise. Babylonian Talmud. and said : inform the son of Jochai that Caesar is dead and his decree is annulled? Hereupon they left the cave. and what manner the inferior depends from the superior. It must be said that the expounding and the extension * Rodkinson. was reduced to writing. The &quot. . vol.aSritten SSorb of gtobalism 219 and sand up to their necks. and the coming from their Holy Shekinah of the rest Divine Presence. The explanations and developments concern world the in its the void state before the manifestation of of that Supreme Countenance.&quot.&quot. Simeon by the Roman decree.

which err therein. by saying that he is blessed who has known and beheld the concealed words and does not the present. but have done nothing to elucidate and therefore to recommend it to our understanding. in order to kill time. or there would be no purpose in the present inquiry. this notion also occurs in the Talmud. and to the occult student. in the absence of initiation. the world void state. with characteristic crassness. it is impossible to attempt a tabulation of the singular typology with which the Greater Synod is concerned.220 ^Ihe Jtodrint anb Ipteratxtre of tht Jtabalalt neither are nor assume to be explanatory in the sense that they unfold the real significance of the symbolism. According to Basnage. may have shown us glimpses in one or two rare instances of the system on which the typology is constructed. subject Fortunately it has the esoteric other aspects which make it deserving of considera tion. like all treatises concerned with the mysteries of initiation. He diverted . to say. the treatise ends. It is a question which it hard to approach from the side of the literal sense. are considered under the symbolism of the kings who reigned in Edom before a king was that raised is up to rule over the children of Israel. is aspects of the literature are chiefly a of curious speculation. The unbalanced in its forces of the universe. that * when God was alone. As a fact. and it should be noted in this connection that the few modern writers on Kabalism who claim to speak magisterially and from within an occult circle of knowledge. where it is said. In an account like does not even pretend to be synoptic. before the emanation of Microprosopus* The Kabalah represents the present universe as preceded by others which passed away quickly.

represents the Ancient of Ancients creating light. p.GErittcu fi&orb of gabalism 221 At that time there was neither beginning nor end. Eliezer. He destroyed forth uccessive attempts at creation. such as that of matter. and partly into one of inordinate activity.* words. &quot. ii. and His aspect is as a face manifested. previous section. the description of Macroprosopus with the indications on the same subject contained in the for Concealment &quot. Histoire des Juifs. He is seated upon a throne of glittering brightness. For the rest. Understood as the essence of the light. 2Oa. Compare also the rirki of The R. The whiteness of his bald He may head is extended into forty thousand worlds. According to Rosenroth this signifies the fall of creatures partly into a state of rest. as in other with the authority of immense regards at least the literature of is Kabalism. according to which the basis of the existing universe is the This work is referred to repentance of God over His previous failures.White are His garments as snow. &quot. with cosmology as with also when the Greater &quot. dilated in a glass of vision. and the Edomite kings were without subsistence. by the transpositions of which the Law was recorded subse quently. by which Deity became experienced and at last produced the existing physical order. observes that the reference to the Law. such as that of the evil spirits. that subdue them. . Book of Compare. and from the Himself by the formation of divers worlds which with. example. to the letters of the alphabet. and producing the essence of the same inter who speaks knowledge. For other Zoharic references to this subject see * Zohar ii. an early period of the ninth century. 712. its not simplified by of Rabbi Simeon symbolism of this order is multiplication. t. in which case we are dealing not so much So the legends of souls. Synod preter. and the record is s discourses only the &quot. Mantua.

With regard to the Beard of the Vast otherwise the decoration of all decorations. The forehead extends into two hundred and seventy thousand lights of the lights For there is an Eden which of the supernal Eden. it is withdrawn in concealment. is uncovered. and the influence of this Wisdom passes through a channel below and issues by two and thirty paths. and the time of its uncovering is at the offering of evening prayer on the Sabbath. shine as a single eye. because the guardian The two eyes of the supernal Israel knows no sleep. which the benevolence of benevolences. and in just shall the shine in the world to come. ever smiling. and were that eye to close even for one moment the things which are could subsist no longer. neither men nor prophets nor . to all but the Ancient One.&quot. called superiors nor inferiors. which are known only is to the Ancient The parting of the hair described as a path shining into therefrom this two hundred and seventy worlds. neither Countenance.222 ^oEhe Jtortrine arib literature of the gabaiah light of the whiteness thereof shall the just receive four hundred worlds in the world to itself is said to come. the prayers of the Israelites are received. The eyes of the Vast Countenance differ from other eyes. hair of Macroprosopus radiates into four hundred ten worlds. and another path diffuses its light. having neither lids nor brows. concealed within the skull is The the Hidden Wisdom. ever glad. shines in and is Eden unknown . The and One. Hence is life. is When the forehead of Macroprosopus. The brain Vast Countenance extend into three hundred and seventy myriads of worlds. In the nose of Macroprosopus one of the it is called the and the other is the life of life. nostrils open eye.

represented powerful to the stern decrees of the judg &quot. the number of hairs in each lock and the number of worlds attributed to them. &quot. The conformations are of Micro- prosopus are disposed from the forms of the Vast Countenance. from the hair an emanation of splendour. and thence to numberless lower skulls. There is an emanation from the Greater towards the skull of the Lesser. When all is the Lesser Countenance gazes on the Greater. This ends the discourse concerning Macroprosopus. inferiors are restored in order. each lock of the hair of Microprosopus there are a thousand utterances his forehead is the inspection of . inspection. and From Countenance. from the these fall upon the Lesser the of brain of Microprosepus of in are emanations understanding. from the a spirit nostrils and cheeks gladness. from the eyes a radiance. from the forehead a benevolence. emanations emanations of knowledge . including the number of the locks in each portion. and when visited it is uncovered the sinners are with judgment. and the Lesser vaster for the time being. and the treatise of the the consideration to proceeds thence Lesser Countenance. thirteen are all subdue and to soften ments. For lesson of the . there all the spirit of life. Greater Synod Thirteen chapters of the are devoted to the consideration of this subject.TThe ftUritteu saints. Its SEorb of $abnli$m it 223 all have beheld forms it. and all together reflect the brilliance of the whiteness of this emanation towards the Ancient of Days. From the brain of Macroprosopus an influence descends. and His components on either side under a human expanded form. for is the truth of as truths. and wisdom.

are beautiful as those of the dove. what it conceals of the Lesser Countenance. ^The grrrtrine ani JJiterature ot the gabalalt &quot. and details minutely the con formations of its nine divisions. mercy on the grow sweet Israelites. is The when special seat of severity in Microprosopus the nose. for they are then illuminated by With one of those pathetic touches the good eye. except is the forehead of is the Vast Countenance uncovered. also the eyes of the Lesser when the lids are closed Countenance possess judgments subdue lids . the discourse appertaining to the beard of Microprosopus fills many chapters. But the eyes. and judgment goes forth therefrom. which soften occasionally lines for a moment it of Kabalistic symbolism. should be observed that the body of Micro is prosopus androgyne. is that wrath Greater Synod may dwell with So Microprosopus. is the unyielding said that two tears dwell in the eyes of the Lesser Countenance. and they mercy upon the chosen people. it will be obvious that it becomes still more . but not in the Ancient of Days.224 &quot. when mercy found in all things. the Israelites and the Gentiles have dominion over them. Ancient of Ancients. and to the Holy of in Holies. when He wills to have sends down these two tears issue therefrom in the great sea of wisdom. when they are open. what it permits to be manifested with observations on the descent of a holy and magnificent a general from the beard of Macroprosopus and description of the correspondences and oil differences of the It two adornments. full of strange scholia on various in the case of the As passages of Scripture. and as at this point the symbolism is concerned very largely with the sexual organs.

The sum is of the whole treatise &quot. in Q .SEritten (SBorb of Jlabaliem 225 discordant with modern feeling. $ xlv. Kabbala Denudata. things shall He is all know no hath known no is He was all He will be all things He things change He knoweth no change He . sen Synodus Magna. change. Microprosopus . and exceeds occasion ally what it is considered permissible to express in A modern symbologist has said that nature English. t. whence in Kabalist the body of man was for him there would be dealing exhaustively with its be unnecessary in a descriptive nothing repellent typology.&quot. &quot. par.&quot. 920. The student who desires to pursue the subject must be referred to the Latin version. veil expanded above. and the likeness if symbolism it is depict Him &quot. But it will summary to do more than allude to it. ii. we company died during the deliberations. the words of the original. and their souls were beheld by the remainder carried are told that three of the by angels behind the &quot. . the conclusion of the Greater Synod. 1138. . . is not ashamed of her emblems. At by way of similitude and analogy. par. in a letter contributed to the Spiritualist.* and there is no doubt that peculiarly for the sacred.f Thus God in manifestation not really separable from the God in in concealment. sectio xxxix. t Idra Rabba. The Kabalah is perhaps the first of all books which appeared in the * Gerald Massey on phallic symbols. J Amidst all its obscurity and uncouthness there are sublime touches in this treatise. J Ibid. of humanity. in be given in The Ancient of Ancients may .. all things are one .

La Kabbah. &quot. warning. nothing evil. the Lesser Holy Synod. The Synod as consists Franck summarises is the position follows : Nothing is absolutely evil. is termed by Rosenroth the Jochai.. THE LESSER HOLY SYNOD its Similar in most of characteristics to the &quot. more extended discourse which preceded it. not even the archangel of when his name and angelic nature will be p. for a time will come restored to him.&quot.&quot. The repay is the compensation of the everlasting In justice or the gratuity of the everlasting bounty.* Amidst the firebrands of the Papal Church. ment of God outrage for outrage. accursed for ever. hate for hate.of the western world reciting with no uncertain voice that God is altogether without mutation and vicissitude that wrath and judgment are of man on the alone. 217. a supple not exhaustively treated in subjects the Greater Assembly. the translator s words must be understood of the instruction it contains and not of * its setting. be judged&quot. IV. and showing also ye the higher significance of the not less divine promise. . placing &quot. lest thus a new construction divine this mean that God would repay the sinner in his own spirit.226 ^he Jtortritt-e anfc Jfiterature . I will Never for the true Kabalist could repay. or Idra Zuta. a sense the writers of the Zohar anticipated the most liberal conclusions of modern eschatology. it promulgated for the first time the real meaning of the forgiveness of sins.Judge not. As the master s death is Swan s song to of Simeon ben ment the recorded at the end of the treatise.

with the correspondences between them. but it sketches only the subject of the concealed Deity and deals at great length with the manifestation of the Lower Countenance. with the addition of Rabbi Isaac. concerning the three heads of Macroprosopus. Out of this doctrine of the sexes. &quot. et accedat ut copuletitr cum eo. but it gives some additional symbolism.The Sfclrittcn GEorfc of gabaliem 227 of the survivors from the former conclave. face to face. reveal those Shekinah sole sacred things in the presence of the which hitherto have been kept secret. as would indeed be expected. In both cases. is Rabbi Abba speaker. is. So also the when it is Synod. it repeats. Chokmah. which &quot. he is conscious of his he desires to enter without con approaching end fusion into the world to come and he designs to . one within the other and the other above &quot. at a later stage a very considerable other. the emanation or forming or forth Wisdom.&quot. instruction concerning reflection not deals close Microprosopus^ of the Greater &quot. that male and female . so comes the great Kabalistic much in advance of its time. who cleaveth to the side of the male until she is separated. is a time of grace . and extension of symbolism regarding the first manifesta tion of the Ancient One under the form of male the and female. example. with His androgyne nature and His union with the Bride. as. in whatever Christian century we may elect to place the literature. much of the preceding Synod for . and Simeon is the The discourse still concerns Macro- prosopus and Microprosopus. substantially and verbally. or Understanding.&quot. namely. appointed as scribe. that it Simeon begins by affirming . a of the supernal Sephiroth and Binah. in fact.

then are things made one body. kissed them. the holy of the holy ones. the Holy Name. But I. are but half the body. nor receive an eternal blessing. then are all things called the complete name. separated are but mutilated humanity. &quot. heard nothing. all When this Mother is united the worlds receive blessing and are to the King.&quot. for the completed by the beauty of the male. dust under his feet&quot. had been wrapped away from the world he lay upon his right side and a smile shone upon his face.&quot. Length of Days and &quot. And then the most Holy God sitteth on His throne. found in the joy of the universe. Rabbi when .228 ^he Jportrine anb literature ot the Jabalah or. . viii. that no blessing can rest on what is mutilated and defective. which further on are explained to signify Mercy and Justice. was taken away Rabbi Abba saw that day the holy light.* junction of the supernal male and female beauty of the female is The con is said to be in the place called Zion and Jerusalem. When the Bride is united to the all King in the excellence of the Sabbath.! About this point the discourse of Simeon ceases and Rabbi Abba. A it and yet another. passim. It up and taking his licked says Abba. the scribe. xxii. .&quot. mysticism literature. seu Synodus Minor. par. the son of Simeon. Eleazar. still in the act of writing and expecting that more should follow. that no divided being can &quot. rose hands. subsist for ever. the &quot. 746 et seq.&quot. as it expresses the idea. state The foundation in of this concerning the nuptial must be sought Talmudic t Ibid. * Idra Zuta. But afterwards a voice cried. He seeketh Life fire abode in the house the whole &quot.&quot. Life. is added that during &quot. Thee. Years of from .

of ^abaliom his 229 raised in obsequies the bier the air. in unto the nuptial joys of R. edition. It 94 . fol.Enter of the deceased saint fire was shone about it. of all the tracts in imbedded the Zohar. col.to are the the conclusion of c. THE DISCOURSE OF THE AGED MAN The prominence given by Rosen roth to the Book of Concealment and its sequels was not without its I warrant. in It will be seen that spite of a somewhat monstrous symbolism the Kabalistic narratives have at times the touch of nature which gives them kinship with this world of ours. &quot. Exodus. ii. Mantua.&quot. The fol. as they are certainly the most arresting. Now these man and Mishpat judgments 169. to which there are allusions at . or at least more to be sober. 94^. and &quot. (Historia de sene The quodam in Sabah signifies &quot. interest will appear by the short analyses which will first accompany is their tabulation. might almost say sensational. ancient judgment. Those which remain in to be examined will now be taken in the order in which they are placed the Kabbala Denudata. discourse occurs in the in the Cremona vol. while a voice cried. narrates a conversation between the prophet Elias and Rabbi Simeon ben Jochai on the subject of the ordeals and metempsy chosis of the soul. ii. V. ii.Written Qaorb. 43. xxi. The enumerated term is that entitled Sabah sectione D Mishputim Mishpatini). pt. Simeon. xxiv. vol. in the Sulzbach. and their inferior. referring to from the beginning of c.

to how many revolutions essential and mysterious are ordeals they (or their substances) . but the children of man do not know the ways of &quot. how souls turns about in them sling. be given in this place. of how He judges man every day in all time. the the the Holy One children spirits . or again before they descend how they go up to judgment after that they have departed from this world . subjected souls Blessed One how many naked . by the Holy and how many naked spirits enter the other world. Isaac de Loria elaborate doctrine concerning &quot. Revolutions of Souls is drawn from this discourse of Elias with the mystic light of Kabalism. are subjected to the law of transmigration]. itself And the children of not know. anima of Christian theology) ascend to be judged animce into this world. in order to disabuse any reasonable view of reincarnation is contained in the Kabalistic writings. how they know not (Neskamotk. shall He sling out. now is the . neither do they revolve like a stone which is cast from a sling. yet not through how many worlds revolve with the King s curtain them and how the world concealed wonders. the higher soul. A specimen of the original text may. shall have again to consider this doctrine in We occultists of the idea that connection with later Kabalism. however.230 ^he Jlarttine attb |pterature ot iht in some length the &quot. even And the souls of thine enemies as it is written : many men do comprehend. separated from many technicalities which would be burdensome to the beginner. the Bereshith section of the Zohar s proper. All souls go up with the revolutions or windings [that is. as out of the it is middle of a But while permitted to reveal.

a by some attribu Should he deserve more there (the appointed to him a rational spirit (Ritac/i) from the side of the Holy Living Creatures (Chaioth Ha to Kcther. : When is the child of man is born into this world life there appointed to the him animated (Nepkesh) side. commonly attributed which seems. from the side of the animals. but time to make known all (Ruachin. inconsistent with appointed to this tabulation). and how all the spirits go out from that great tree and from that mighty river which flows from Eden. assigned tions to Chokmah}. of the Zohar These mother. another order of angels. even the Daughter of Should he deserve yet more there is in the appointed to him an animal soul (Nrfhesh) * Zohar.. One &quot. Discourse of the Ancient &quot. Cremona ed. Kadosh. part ii. fol. whence come the according proper). of the present work with the necessary elucidations.* The Kabalistic division of the soul into five parts has been given in Book II.e. the lesser from below. is Auphanim. the clean the side of from Holy. Wheels Kabalistic order of angels. 450. the order of angels ascribed to Binah. and they are united as male and female.&quot. The basis of the doctrine is set forth as follows in the &quot. . side of the Thrones to Aralim. the anima or pysche) issue from the small tree. handmaid. Ruach. the Bereshith three are section the higher souls. is Should he still deserve more there him a higher spirit. however. the male servant and the the King.SEritten c^orb of Jtabalism 231 these mysteries. The higher spirit the lesser spirits comes from above. even from the (i.

Let everything that hath whence we have heard breath (i.e.e. He. whence it is written : 4 Ye are the children of the i). man to in Heh.. And have dominion over i. he shall rule over all the heavens and over all the Auphanim and Seraphim^ over the Hosts and Powers. Jod. is. above . which is the path of Atziluth. Vau.D. : Jah\ (i. in its full completeness. xiv. Heh. souls Gen. What is life? Jah (the Divine Name attributed to Chokmati]. from the side of supernal portions the Daughter. whence it is also written: He It is breathed into his nostrils the breath of of life.e. cl. attributed to Binah in And the same world).e. appointed from the side to him the of the Central Pillar (that Benignity. But if he J. of the sea (Gen. life. life (literally..V. the middle pillar of the Sephirotic Tree). the highest nature of the soul). And in it is *. i.D. Tetragrammaton JHVH) perfected..*. deserve still more there is appointed to him JDVD.232 ^he Doctrine anb Jpiterature of the Jiabalah is. And if he Lord your God (Deut. that all is. /echida. 7). all souls) praise the Lord (i. 6). and he is then said : He be in the it likeness is whence the fish also said : (simulacrum ) of his Lord.. Vau. attributed to Chokmah in the Atzilutic world) and of the Supernal Mother (Aimah. the letters of which are Jod. deserve even more there is appointed to him a higher spirit (Neskamah) from the side of Abbah (the supernal Father.. is If he deserve more. there spirit rational (Ruacti) of Atziluth. (Ps. ii. 28). and he is called the Son of the Holy Blessed One. and the the still same is called Daughter of the King.. the only one (Jechida is the quintessence. way of Atzilnth (that of the lowest essence of the soul).

as before indicated. xxi. This passage illustration is of it the discourse worth quoting not only as an in which it occurs. it whereas other these Kabalistic dicta really extend to ten. Perhaps we might reach it by supposing that the discourse of Elias really describes the development of mystic experiences in seven stages. means what does at modern theosophy when it affirms seven present day says. When discrepancies are harmonised we have the concealed sense of the Zohar as to the inner nature of man. in the communication of the divine to man. ii. Exod. When. In the present it will be seen that the animistic nature has a of man sevenfold aspect. of man deserves the Nephesh from the side of the daughter She shall not go out as Jcchida. therefore. this is to say * : the men-servants shall do&quot. from sight The is concealed sense of the Zohar. whichat first instance appears altogether delirious. * Zohar. as it states literally. . 94^. It is anything else than to . just the in principles man.SBritten SBort) o gabalism the child 233 and below. distinguish in certain it essences and it qualities therein as a word.* God in (meaning probably that he His house for ever. gives a clue to the probable meaning of occultists when they speak of a concealed sense but because in not to be supposed that when Kabalism divides and subdivides the soul it means the Zohar. serve 7). its vast simply the extraction of some method and confused mass. Brody ed. ending.

138. It is alleged on the one hand to be of higher antiquity than any Kabalistic book and hence of Yetzirah itself. 82. and a more facts does not. 112. treatise. are given in the Cremona 122. purporting to come from a work entitled Sepher Ha Bahir. col. III. 137. modest. Some complex questions are involved in the consideration of this work. this volume appeared at Berlin in interesting but A reprint of 1706. 176.241. Part 125. ascertainable respect for compel our any one of these opinions. under the same title.88. Part 301. edition of the Zohar at the places which here follow. indeterminate conclusion will perhaps be the . II.. 462. col. } 76. 130. which is thus known to us only by quotations. 185. Part 151.Illustris. and 333. 145 and 259. 86. and by implication also the fruit of the inventive faculty of Moses de Leon. or Liber. THE ILLUSTRIOUS BOOK Excerpts of considerable length. Between these extreme views there existence of an old is is placed that which considers the extant extracts unauthentic but believes in the Kabalistic lost. of Mantua. 104. 79. which was at that period a great stronghold of Jewry. but reappear in Rosenroth s Sulzbach edition and those of later date which are based thereon. In 1651 these excerpts were brought together into a volume and published at Amsterdam. which now An I examination of the think. I. included in the condemnation of the Zohar. col..Little Zohar&quot.234 ^he 5oxtrtne anfc iEiterature of the giabalah VI. superior importance to the Sepher on the other it is affirmed to be a manifest forgery. no. 127. They in are omitted in the so-called &quot.

lt.&quot.* but there it no evidence are no period. thus antedating the period at which hostile criticism places the public appearances of the Zohar. c&rittfu (33 orb of gabalism 235 In other words. which he to R.i president Martinism ascribes the Sepher Light in Bahir. In the &quot. the H&amp. that legend one aspect appears in the bibliography of Papus. there is evidence that prior to the the Sepher that Ha Bahir was in existence is promulgation of the Zohar. namely. Some notable sayings of Nechoniah are preserved in the Talmudic collections. who flourished during the half-century preceding the birth of Christ. Kabalah&quot. the high-priest.The safest to form. however. the master of R. * Because was denounced Graetz ascribes the forgery to Azariel himself. Ismaelis ben Eliezer. indicates no first-hand research. may be . the Darkness. and other works are also ascribed to him. and simply reproduces information of which Molitor is the of avowed the source. Such is the Kabalistic legend concerning the authorship of the work. which. and there means of knowing whether or not the extracts which occur in the Zohar represent in some sense the preceded it by a considerable original work. Methodised of all Summary renders &quot. be regretted that occult students have passed over the fragments of the Sepher Ha Bahir as they have passed over the Zohar proper. because It translation. same reason. and for the It is to it is not available by would have been interesting to know whether they would have accepted the Kabalistic Of legend which has gone abroad concerning it. Nechoniah ben Hakannah. on what grounds gathered from the general warrant of his Kabalistic criticism. namely () Letter on Mysteries or : Secrets concerning it as a forgery by Rabbi Meir ben Simon in the first half of the thirteenth century.

the Book of the Fragments is to of legate of the of the Temple. It is included among the Mishnayotk. The the &quot. embodying apocryphal narratives taken from the Talmud. in Manus quoting Cabbalistorum Gennanorum. question that it is a late imposture. It is in any case another forgery. concerning the mystery of the name of God. Henry King of Spain. which deals with the generation of Christ. found occult significance that it has been preserved that the Zoharistic among the hidden treasures of Israel. it Paulus de Latin Heredia dedicated Hispanus it translated into and Mendoza.f BartolocciJ and Budd0eus. pretension quotations do not It is said to be of such pro represent the original. Buxtorf. by pupils on entering or leaving the gymnasium. t Bibliotheca Hebrcea Rabbinica. a fact which shows that it is (c) A Kabalistic Prayer. ad Historiam Philosophic Htbroeorum. to be recited not Kabalistic in the proper sense of the term. says Wolf. It betrays the hand of a Christian. . (e) SepJier Haminchad. a work akin to the Bahir. and there can at least be no resurrection. but this also attributed to Ismael (Samuel) ben Eliezer. () Sepher Kanah. (V) Sepher Happeliah. incarnation and This epistle was addressed to his son.* Shem * Too.236 ^he IBortrine ani) JJtteratttre xrf the jtabalah the advent of Messiah. other aspect of Kabalistic legend concerning Illustrious Book may be used to colour the &quot. % Bibliotheca Introductio Magna Rabbinica. Bibliotheca Hebrcea. who is said to have embraced Christianity. His divinity.

It does not the book printed in Holland. observes Bahir of the Jews.Che oBritieu dftorb of Jiabahem story. recent times The first question raised of authenticity was in by Simon. the The impeachment of Zoharic excerpts naturally became part of the general charge against the Zohar itself. Zoharic and publication only that he might collected the not have of impeached the extracts had he been aware Bartolocci mentions a general that circumstance. .&quot. but in 2 37 relate the same the excerpts found the none of them challenge Zohar.* obvious that this is not yet been neither the . that the complete Zohar was origin* Histoire Critique du Vieux Testament. Massinger Elizabethan literature. It finds an almost exact parallel in the con sistent application of those principles which arc held to prove the Baconian authorship of the Shakespeare plays . we language of criticism nor of knowledge infer that Simon was unacquainted with the that the may fact Amsterdam extracts. Vatican collection. the theory which ascribed that work Moses de Leon was exceedingly comprehensive and made a clean sweep of everything included to therein. appear that this is the ancient : which is much more extended and has It is printed.&quot. speaking of &quot. receiving them explicitly as genuine. and as all serving equally well for Marlowe. that literature directly is or indirectly attributed to Bacon. opinion that manuscript copies of the Bahir were to be found ticularises in many Continental in the libraries and par one such MS. who. Legend says we have seen. while all likewise agree that the Bahir was regarded by Kabalists as their oldest document.

openly has been done tacitly or unconsciously by others. not. were the whole of still is now extant its no doubt the Jew of Leon would exclusive author. and that is all. the editor supplying not only the precise years but the months in which they were composed. Taking the case now under notice. Moses as whose has human. But. who may have played a little at writing out of his own head. Raymond Lully have list hundred in the first separate treatises the may be seen volume of an unfinished and impossible attempt to collect them into a folio edition. or even of R Abba. however. and reasonable as criticism regards the spendthrift Israelite a possible compiler and polisher &quot. because it regards the Zohar as the work of Simeon ben it Jochai. as a fact. What they say. the doctor illuminatus wrote only a low percentage out of all that gorgeous Raymond did.238 ^he Jtodrin* s anfo fit*rattt ot the Jlabalah it ally a camel load . criticism Kabalistic literature obtained a principle of critic ism which ought to be written in capitals at the head of most impeachments of the Zohar. Without seeking criticism. I do not know which the challenge of has been accompanied by an assigned authenticity of one instance in . written five have been said to . it may to determine what is compulsory in be observed that there is also no binding law to enforce serious consideration for a What Graetz did scholar who adopts that principle. namely that it is much vogue. Graetz. as list. lays down not compulsory for a hostile critic to be more careful in his arguments than those who plead in defence.&quot. the distinctive German of historian of Jewry. but because regards R. could not have been im possible to Moses.

. regarding the Zohar that itself as. if so ? It is for some determinate and material reason that one looks unauthentic. If the unauthentic nature follows from the fact falsely attributed. this cosmogony somewhere about the ninth century. that it is 1843. attributed to Nechonia ben Hakana. however.* Perhaps so and waits in vain. century. still . failing Zohar quotations with the given to the contrary. a gradual growth between the period and the date of to its publication. contemporary of Hillel the Elder and Herod the Great. : manifestly this pass for extracts from but why. affirm that they are the which the identity of the original must be accepted as a tolerable hypothesis.&quot. ou Paris. The reason if not far to seek from the Bahir. merely of purely Kabalistic but of typically Zoharic teaching prior to that date as this proves too much is . or that Placing they are older than the Sepher Yetzirah. is often cited. . &quot. la Philosophic Rcligieusc des Htbreux. they are set says The Sepher Ha Bahir. there seems * no objection considering Bahir a Adolphc Franck. because it was then almost indubitably quoted and it is not worth while to dispute as to first how long it antedates the reference made to it . IM Kabbale. because It is no reason has been quite another thing to work of Nechoniah. the excerpts involve the existence not genuine. then the Sepher Yetzirah belongs to the same category. Various fragments. rejected the Bahir. down as part of the imposture.SHritteu (iilorb of Jiabalism 239 it is simply part of the programme to get rid of anything which goes to show that the whole anyhow Zohar was not written at the end of the thirteenth reason . book. at least. for the imposture theory. One critic who espouses the antiquity He of the Zohar has.

a Kabalistic Jew of Jerusalem. This. When the extracts were inserted therein edition. absent from the Mantua which was simultaneous with that of the Cremona codex which contains them. There little so the latter have been exalted as the prototype and actual inspirer of the former work. who was a contemporary of Moses de Leon. we do not know . in his commentary on the Canticle of . surpassable &quot. they have no connection with Moses de Leon. a defender of the Zohar challenges the Bahir excerpts. As. Isaac Delates. on the silence of writers prior that date. In this case. but belonging to a younger generation. of course. Azariel. because R. like Minerva out of the head of Jupiter. though any case of little moment. however. in This view. on the one hand. is. it is possible that they were first added when the Zohar was prepared for press under the supervision of R.&quot. founds his that the Bahir was product the to thirteenth century. unanimity in hostile or indeed any Kabalistic criticism.oxtr:tne anb Ipt^raturs ot the Jabalah production of the formative age of the work which is made to quote it. to Wolf the first reference to the Bahir is made by R. the author of the great treatise seen. and especially of Moses Nachmanides. whom the publisher describes. Morinus. that unknown but highly learned Jew un in all the branches of knowledge required. is a mistake. and born. who has a left perhaps of the most sensible review of the subject. Shem Tob. about on the Sephirotic system. involves the existence of the Bahir prior to the alleged date about which the Zohar was produced out of the head of Moses de Leon. whose literary labours According belong to the period before and after 1250. as we have 1 160.240 ^he |p. ready made and opinion at one leap.

Facts.&quot. must have precedence of predilections. however. not under sometimes ascribed to Nachmanides. within) the clouds. And now men see not the light which is above (or Hence light in darkness. understand and sympathise with the Franck to accept the excerpts by which it is known to us. which is in the form of a is a dialogue between certain illuminated doctors. and. The proof is that the Italian Jew Recanati. but afterwards discovered them origin is in the BaJiir. And now men good equivalent of the Hebrew word. but the position of Wolf and Morinus is destroyed by the fact here recorded. according to the Authorised Version. &quot. 21 : see not the bright light which is in the clouds. between the date first mentioned and the The name Bahir &quot. used these quotations. The subject-matter of the book. inferred that they were from the Jerusalem Talmud. Durell s amended rendering.&quot. place is it. and it contains a very full exposition of the celebrated Shcmaliam- phoras. to which a Palestinian the lost treatise ascribed. quotes its own name but under that of Yerushalmi. By how much antedated Azariel we have no ground for conjecturing. contemporary of Moses de Leon. or according to Dr. is the mystery inherent in the divine names. is referred to Job xxxvii. which leaves the Bahir where we should be disposed to when the Sepher Yetzirah publication of the Zohar.vLhc SBritten oEorb of gUbalidin 241 Canticles. the Bahir. It belongs therefore to the least philosophical part of Kabalism.&quot. &quot. misled by the name. the expounded name of deity. and though the instinctive dislike of later history of the doctrine of divine and we can make an admirer K of the higher Kabalism names may well ashamed of . &c.

Discourse of the Ancient fifth Man. may rejoice in his inheritance. seven 7] measures . and they are called Neshamah because of the last five Sephiroth. O Lord. If a man is become glorious power. fol. The Neshamah has five names Nephesh.gt. or far older than that of the Sephiroth matters are also discussed. : good.. part i. it is said Thy right hand. and the two quotations which here follow exhibit a close connection between the Bahir the two Countenances.&quot.. concerns Jechidah. : * Neshamah.242 ^he portrine it attb fCttenthtre of the is the connection. xv. &quot. the word consists of three letters. including a single reference to Ain Soph. What does this mean It is like one of silver and one of unto a king having two treasures. n6b and nja. Beth]. Ruach. &quot. It is is written : The silver is it mine and the gold ? is mine. hath dashed in pieces the enemy. his left.gt. Dzain.. .19= 5 according to Kabalistic addition. Why do they call it. The first he put to gold. Chaiah and Jechidah! * Zohar. is Z H He B. He is has done said in : Thy O (Ex.&amp. . this letter [&amp. and the Beth [representing the 5 is the number of He] number 2] signifies Chokmah and Binah. (Ibid) What does this signify? Surely this is the gold. Some other and the soul. Lord. The Dzain Th.e. [i. but if not. Cremona ed. the It is principle of the The first human written : The silver is mine and the gold is mine. his right and the second to saying : This is prepared so that it is easy to spend it. saith the ? Lord of Hosts. represents the number the is Unity A Ch D V Unity = 4. gold Because three measures is are included in [That to say.. right hand. it 6). Hence it everything in an easy way. He.

yet one. Judah This is a real serpent. all creatures from him. R. from the North worship it is therefore the side of wrath and severity. by implication. connected by the Kabalists with the idea of the female. He said unto himself: Because her soul [?&amp. : them but his shadow and the serpent are Satan. all are When Samael and descended from heaven. the evil inclination. and of the female from female from the male and female sides of the Sephirotic This is why the serpent had recourse to tree]. Man. facing eastward in I .] There is no con And her. the persuasion has been because he came on The disciples .. he said unto Surely it is all one. Simeon. and he has been seen upon a serpent. to the pri mordial Adam. Compare the Peccatum Kabalistic thesis of Picus truncatio MalkutJi ab arbore The Neshamah of the male Sephirotico} comes from male. de Mirandola Ada fuit is can persuade her quickly. When they came to R. [The reference here is apparently to the Sephirotic tree and. iii. these attributions. Samael. the purpose of It is written : Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the said : field is That said : [the serpent] It is R. is the left side.). but coming to the woman with soft words he brought death to the whole world. says Myer. Surely with wiles he invoked curses on the world and fled despoiled the first tree which the Holy Blessed One created in the world. [The North. his shadow was seen. But the Tikhtne Ha ZoJnr terms Netzach and Hod sistency in the latera Aquilonis.gt.. riding on this serpent. &quot.TThc (Slrittfu SBorb of gUbalism of for 243 and The second excerpt concerns the Fall its quotation is of some importance this study. i. Isaac (Gen. Chavah.

firstly. secondly. : Adam sin before Him. xix. 17 : That which he hath given will He that pay him again. so that he shall be driven away from His his hosts. but it had an appearance even as a camel. . that the peculiar nature of the Fall is indicated by the alleged hidden sense of the term camel which represents Compare Cazotte s Diable Amoiircux. came into the world by the serpent.244 i&ht Bodritu anb literature of did the jfobalah asked : How he that ? He said unto them : l.] is revealed at last with the head of So he rode upon said the woman and ? unto her : came to it and Did not Elohim forbid thee to partake of garden She answered : We any of the trees in the have been forbidden is only the tree of knowledge which in the garden . intrigued with all the hosts above against his Master. to signify the mystery of death. and. the where impure demon that animal. commenting on Gen. and reward or recompense with ficance of this is The : signi developed in the Pekude section of the Zohar. The camel is here said she lighted off her camel. because the Holy Blessed One had said unto Adam Thou shalt have : He. \. in the sense of retribution. others. referred to in Prov. like sight? So he descended with all and he sought upon the earth a companion unto himself. The connecting idea is. [This curious comparison is based on L means camel when the fact that the Hebrew G M certain vowel points are added to these consonants. reward. Samae the wicked dominion over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the air [understood of the evil spirits and the Samae l asked How therefore can I make angels]. and when she saw Isaac.\\Q pudenda. 64 And Rebekah lifted up her eyes. xxiv. one.

because passage is of importance shows the kind of light which Kabalistic literature casts upon the first and as it greatest event in the spiritual history of is man presented by Scripture. shalt not die. yea. Then Holy Blessed One said unto her : Is it not enough that thou hast sinned but thou must also bring sin unto Adam ? Then answered she Lord of the world. did Samael the wicked one ? the tree cried out. story of the Fall is not elucidated of Literal or mystical. and commanded that he should years. have not died. neither touch it. fol. . Do and thou also Whereupon woman laid hold of the tree. have touched the touch the it. lest ye die. I and thou Then yet I Samael : Lo. if we die we shall and the we live we shall live together. she said Surely I shall now die. part i. the serpent induced me that I should sin before Thee. But if I will do thus . . Ye shall not partake thereof.(L\\c ftlrittnx fcttorb of gabalism 245 of that only did Elohim say. What. from the place of their holiness in heaven He cut the feet off the serpent and cursed him. So the Holy : Blessed One caused all three to come before Him and condemned death.. more than all beasts. Cremona ed. the by the addition in monstrous elements. and the occult student * Zohar. and beholding the : angel of death approach her. will cause him to eat with me. He said touched the tree. . so that die together. He also cast them with nine curses and with Samael and his followers down . then. .* lose his skin after seven I have said that this it to our subject. b.&quot. and the Holy Blessed one will form another woman and I will give her to Adam. 28a. tree.

and most other tracts which it embodies. Aaron. world that has come to pass already. who appeared to the great light of Kabalism and gave him many only instructions and revelations. the Zohar recurs occasionally that to the same anthropomorphic conceptions &quot. This indicates that in Solomon. are the Talmud. as well as of the and religious practices which obtained Rabinical injunctions in the course . Zohar itself. the Two in Countenances. and the witnesses included not Isaac. this it has occasionally it a that a example. It remains to say that William Postel is reported to I have rendered the Bahir into Latin. because six out of the seven portions of the primordial light which affirms is suggestive passage. Jacob. THE FAITHFUL SHEPHERD The Zoharistic treatise bearing this title records conversations between Simeon ben Jochai and Moses. if so. The chief Ginsburg says of this portion is to show the twofold and object allegorical import of the Mosaic commandments and found : prohibitions. Elias took part in the conference.246 ^he Jlortrine ftrci ^ittnthurt of the JUlmlah particular will feel that the Sepher in Ha Bahir exhibits Like the place neither depth nor dignity. can find no record that the translation was ever printed. but. the world to come For was produced by God for the creation of the universe are reserved as the portion of the just in the life which is beyond. VII. spite of the transcendental doctrine of A in Soph and Abraham. David and but God Himself.

534.. 5^ 57. Part col.&quot. 281.gt.346.209. 42. 122.. 214. 21 II. 187. 466. 343. 45^.. 79. which may be taken. 328 . 447. 431. &quot. 329. 460. 519. ings of just the one effected through the suffer men and the other by means of the Messiah. after him. 422. 147. 483. ate further the value of the occult standpoint its some moral . the &quot. col. When it other world. 165. 247 The extant are dispersed through following order: Part excerpts from these discourses the Cremona edition in the I. 461. 430.322. 433. 343. 104. 45. to follow from his conviction that much of of the Zohar is really attributable to the period Simeon ben Jochai and the disciples that came In either &quot. &amp. 32. 432. 26. 47. 468. Its views on vicarious atonement and on the Messiah of to come will enable us to appreci . 451. 332. As he gives no account of his suspicions. however. the later system of pneumatology which was developed by Isaac de Loria.235. 37 8 203. those of the Bahir. 434. Part III.214.404. 72. 126.277. 394. 429. 459. 144.233.Written SHorb of gabattem of time. 41*3. 247. 171. regards their Franck classes these excerpts along with authenticity. case. as in that instance so in this. but. 457.289.45. 339. 472.207. The discourse introduces two phases of vicarious foundation for atonement.400. 408. the righteous are afflicted by disease or sufferings in atonement for the sins of the is so ordered that all the sinners of their . Discourse of the that is Faithful Shepherd contains much important to our purpose. 1. col. teachings will illustrate its ethical position its references to the Shekinah will cast light on this curious feature of Kabalism will tions on angels and demons and its specula show the Zoharistic . I.

That is quite true. gives. was wounded for for our iniquities our transgressions.248 ^he Jtortdne anb literature of the giabalah generation may all obtain redemption. He was bruised the chastisement of our peace : was upon Him. which ensures It is healing in all the other members of the body. It is chastised by the blood being drawn from it. He afflicts a just the One man : willeth therein with pain and sickness and heals the rest through How is this shown ? It is written But He him. and is one of those instances wherein Jewish theosophy has forestalled modern it ideas. But if we take it the illustration which fantastic in character . in manner with the children of the world the members are in relation with each other even as those like . evil By every member these of the physical When are suffering through is some disease. so that the others may Which member? The arm. Cremona ed. one of them afflicted [i. stripes we are healed bruises 5). of one body. and with His (Isa. When the Holy Blessed of the body. part iii. ..e. ioia. are that is. the Kabalah recognises the of the it and fruitful doctrine solidarity of humanity. recovery will insured to us as we members healed. by the instrument of the leech] recover. we his shall see that is the affliction of a diseased rabbi does not as a fact benefit neighbour physically. and only on the most arbitrary hypothesis can we suppose that the patience with which he may suffer will reflect credit * Zohar. fol. By is his stripes..* Here.&quot. liii. How is this demonstrated? body. as by the [incisions] made in bleeding the arm. great it be said. health of the world.

it is said. 26). A man wrestled with him (Gen. 24). and in the end he will man such an one supplicate the righteous man to release for the righteous man. But when righteous into the is strong like Jacob. For the Holy Blessed One.dMrittcu 8$lorb of gUbaliem 249 on any one but himself. It would be barely reason able to dispute about such a position were it not necessary to show occultists the real messages of the Kabalah on points with which they are concerned. What did this shepherd ? i. that there is none like him in the earth* (Job him?&quot. the shepherd hurried with his sheep to a place of safety. chosen by the him Ibitf. So does the Holy Blessed One deal with a generation : He surrenders a power of the accuser for the salvation of the generation through him. One. But he (Satan) will be unable to prevail. save his generation through be illustrated by the parable of a may shepherd who beheld a wolf approaching to rend his sheep and destroy them. Hast thou considered my servant Job. even that which the flock was accustomed to it follow. and while the wolf was bearing away. seeing that the entire foundation was sinful. Now the modern students of occult philosophy every where reject with disdain the doctrine of vicarious atonement. is Holy Blessed for the evil one and bears the most too strong . the Vision of the Faithful Shepherd This is also exemplified in the history of Job. 8). he gave unto the wolf the strongest and stoutest bell-wether. and then returning rescued the bell wether from the wolf. xxxii. said unto Him. concerning which it is said in : &quot. Let us pass thence to the question of Messianic atonement. and how Satan appeared to accuse them. to This Being wise.

part ii. iool&amp. is something more than a literary failure. &quot. in it is. saying. over all the flock. fol.&quot.&quot. Theologians have.250 &he Iportriue anb Jpterature oi the Jiabalah cruel afflictions willingly for the redemption of his generation whence also he is held as their saviour. world [the intellectual luminaries of says the Job. and hence it is that he suffers here . .. in and childish. Cremona ed.&quot. to feed them in this world and to rule over them in the world to come. but the man whose sins are many. neither illuminating nor reassuring. At a certain time R.* parable which thus represents the Almighty flying from Satan as the shepherd flies from a wolf. too. and the Holy Blessed One constitutes him shepherd .gt. crass the problem of evil is therefore.. perhaps most accurate to say He. The ancient pillars of the Israel] differ. Hammarumnah met the prophet Elijah and said to that the righteous him : How is it to be understood man suffers while the wicked one has joy of his life? He answered. is God s minister. while his good deeds * Zohar. and in accordance with The clumsy and inadequate which the just man is at first compared to a bell wether and afterwards to the shepherd of the flock. I believe. found some trouble in locating the accuser of Job. who must have recourse to a stratagem in order to save his people- The Kabalah on fact. but in commentary on Job makes him most respects a match for the Almighty. and with the poet that the Zoharic it is &quot. The just man of few sins receives his punishment for these in this world. as to the nationality of One affirms that he was a righteous Gentile who was chastised for the atonement of the world. this place. same disquisition.

is identical with that accepted by some sections of Christian theology. the change mentioned in the * Zohar. by more mischievously. t Zohar.grotesqueness for a moment. a change of name and a change in their &quot. said that the pure Compare the Mantua man is in himself a true and that the just are the expiation of the universe. its not disfigured by methodised enormities There are times also in which it loses . 5). 98^. of deeds xvii. io6b. not only the sporadic good actions of those which.f the significance of this quotation in connection with the new name of the Apocalypse. eel. the new name received in confirmation. part ii. : shall be Abraham Here is a change of name.. for change necessary to sinners. actions. Such .&quot. evil A change he changed from his former actions to good The Christian mystic might develop actions.* In this instance the Kabalah offers an explanation it be. i). fol. it 6. The Kabalah of this kind. fol. Thus. sacrifice I. concerning the unhappy reference to Scripture illustrates an elemen tary spiritual truth. Cremona 8. are of slender value analogies. however.. receives recompense for 251 in the latter this world and hence has the joy of which. as. edition. though suggestive. And Neither shall thy name any more : be called Abram. Cremona ed. Here is a change of place. . xii. shallow though life. it is applied who are wicked habitually but their is all natural goodness can find reward only in this world. even as it was said unto Abraham : Get thee out of thy country (Gen. Those who are oppressed with sin need a change of place.{jBrittm flHorb of gabaliem are few. and by some not example. where is part ii. ordination and the monastic and conventual life.&quot. but thy name (Gen.

Come. &quot.&quot. in the river of fire (Dan. but simply to demonstrate that the Zohar.252 ^he ^Doctrine mtb JSMteratwre of the Zohar has indeed no special mystical importance . According to the Idra the principle of life and understanding.&quot.* important because it shows that has nothing better to offer us Jewish theosophy than the old Biblical instruction that sin brought This passage is &quot. separated from the body It has to cleanse itself to receive punishment. vii. where it is intelligible.. We have seen in the fragments of the Bahir that the scriptural history of the Fall of man is disfigured The rather than elucidated by Zoharic commentary. of the body in the present world and therein is its habitation for it is clothed therein ever. it concerns only the initial fact of spiritual life. does not improve on accepted religious instruction. It is not our purpose here to question that doctrine. 10). death into the world and all our woes. Upper or true Eden is fol. 79^. of the first sin are thus described in the consequences Faithful Shepherd. which for it other garments of conformity with the appearance . and there are prepared light. Let us now select an instance from one of those portions which are more peculiarly Kabalistic in their * Ibid. see ! Had Adam not sinned man would became have known not the taste of death before he ascended to the superior world. after is goes up above the earth. Through the sin of Adam the rational spirit (RuacJi) is which remains which in this world. but having sinned he acquainted with the taste of death before ascending to the world above. Zuta the . part iii. in it to the Garden of Eden.

It is is His body is otherwise in man. This may is be illustrated by the spiritual much the more interesting . the Shekinah the vestment Almighty. of His manifestation in His Church. and does . reason. assumes. SB orb of jftabulism 253 The air Zoharistic speculations on the Shekinah have an perhaps of mystic symbolism which would be in It naturally doctrinal wanting matters. however. God is one with His manifestation. and the to reject. aspect stands to the presented under a feminine stands to the Holy Blessed One as the body is soul. that is. but the soul is called is life. this is for these anis His Shekinah and beautiful. spiritual His image. But the discourse of the Faithful Shepherd adds that all are one. is by the hypothesis of the one with the veil He &quot. In this. iii.&quot. but the Scriptual reference is to Wisdom] is a tree of life to them that can lay hold upon Kabalism is her&quot. in merely the splendour The Faithful the Holy of Holies. Whence it is written She : [meaning the Shekinah. the mode which Zohar. affirms that the Holy Blessed One is con Shepherd cealed in the mysteries of the ThotMh and is known which shone or manifested by the commandments. The Shekinah of visible not. but Christ. of course.oHritttn subject. doctrine. commentary is upon the ordinary of the Shekinah to the other lights of creation relation is like that of the soul to the body. says the earth. The one &quot. Shekinah also is life. the other This is the ascetic notion which modern occultism has agreed But the Holy Blessed One is life. 18). death. there is is nothing of the profound . This a very it and poetic conception. and doctrine of Eucharist the bread the vestment of Christ. (Prov. but she for the said that divine manifestation &quot.&quot.

He He is the prophet. so is is Shekinah . so wise. image of the Holy Blessed One. As the interior He . The passage the continues : As He is humble. so that no difference subsists between is her the outward and Him the inward. and hence difference is removed the is between external and inner internal. which was given them. so is she glory. He. the diadem of . nature of YHVH concealed. whose whose outward splendour is the is. . is the crown. therefore He only named with the name of the Shekinah. is We accept literally and. as He is benevolent. as she all an outflow from Him. and we acknowledge gladly that the little people of Palestine. so nations of the world the truth . she the strength of all the as He is the truth. she his exterior Shekinah externally. us to something truer and profounder than the letter of the legend. his interior internally. gift It appreciate we feel that a depth is added to the sacred tales of may not at this day feel disposed to Jewry. is and as. so is she righteous is is she His intelligence as He His diadem. humility as . encompassed by the idolatrous nations. had truly something of the divine in the law &quot.254 TOe Jtoirtrine anb literature of the gabalah of the mystic to understand and one of those instances in which not need the it. physically the alleged manifestation in the Temple here the Zohar helps . . so to speak. so is she benevolence He is strong. . so is she as . . so is she Queen as He so is she wisdom as He is intelligent. is prophetess as ness as He is King. . so is she the righteous. Therefore the masters have decided part is that all those whose inward not like unto the outward semblance shall have no admission to the house of the doctrine. further.

. ij4/&amp.&quot. female aspect This shows a connection with the Shekinah. . as we have seen many times.&quot. Cremona ed. in read. Our quotations must to close with a few references the pneumatology concern.gt. l.. Not as I I am written [YHVH] am Malkuth. t Ibid. part Gebirol.Philosophy of Ibn p. with the difference of an added letter. is God s minister. The Kabalah. 341. is of the Faithful They the great Shepherd. hence the masters say. cerning first Samae or Satan. signifies the cohabiting this angel a glory. &quot. Zohar.* The connection between the Shekinah and the light of the alleged unity of God and the vestment which conceals Him. 106^. firstly. ii.(lntten cHorb of gabalism 255 Adonai .. and indeed Metatron. and his wife Lilith. fol. * Zohar. He his is form the garment of Shaddai. . but it is only in the sense of immanence. Cremona ed. part fol. Myer. Presence Angel Metatron. some information con The was once a servant of the Holy Blessed One and the second a maid of Matroncetha. who world.J Their ultimate destruction is is hinted. suggests the identity of the divine and the universe. io6A iii. According to some is that of a while others ascribe to boy. hands of the Holy Blessed One to strike the So she. secondly.f There is. is in some respects the very opposite of pantheism. as the supernal the sole occupant of the Briatic Adam is of that of Alz^uth. part fol. but meanwhile Lilith the devastation of the world and the lash in the guilty. iii. too.

to which his references are made. his grasp on the . 258. They traverse ground covered by other sections of the Zohar. man deviates from the Thcrah [or has a weak hold thereon]. when he so weakens his strength becomes small [thus changing the simple statement of Scrip What is meant by ture into a foolish platitude. : as the Cremona Part II. means. because that evil which is the left side rules over man and sets aside the Throne of f . in Thy this strength this means. col. let us take the following passage &quot. the Throne But when of Glory being on the right of God]. 250.] thy strength becomes [the initials small ? It means Ko-a h Then near to of words signifying the Throne of Glory]. 262.. 221. tensions of its exegesis. so that it cannot come man and cannot accuse him [the meaning seems be that when a man does not weaken in adversity.256 ^fte Jloxtrine anb literature ot the jiabalah VIII. THE HIDDEN THINGS OF THE LAW morsels of this work follows in The extant by Rosenroth Part I. such as the evolution of the Sephiroth. 10). his strength is like that of the right hand. the emanation of the primordial light and so forth. thy strength . : It is written. Ginsburg has discovered others in the Amsterdam edition. Dr. are located edition col. the evil is expelled. small if the day of (Prov.. If thou is faint adversity. In the day of adversity Thorah become languid. In a word. then the strength left is the strength of the hand. 370. xxiv. the contents show nothing which need detain As an example of the puerility and pre us long.

What seest thou ? [Jer. for they have only to remember that the Throne of Glory is a title of Tiphereth and of MalkutJi occasionally . said that the will of the King is discovered in three far it is colours. eye can perceive in its purity. this is written. and cannot be seen by the other eye except when that eye is shut so that it can see little. The li..&quot. i. fol. it Of u. i). xxxvii.lorb of giabftliam shall 257 On the whole. as in The clearness is colour seen blinking.The Glory.. however.lt. whence it is written. we most of us prefer that giving to conclude simply with Solomon way in the day of adversity is a Those sign of weakness.* ddlrittcu &amp. The third colour is that bright luminous mirror which cannot be looked into all. 890. and The Ibid. by the closing of the eyelids. did not see the will of God but a branch of an almond-tree]. and the colour thereof can be comprehended only by him who beholds the shining with eyes shut. with one eye shut.*. The prophet. of the light could not be endured otherwise. as in The second blinking]. except between the rolling of the eyes when the lids are altogether closed and move in their they sockets. There can then be seen in that rolling the at light of the luminous mirror. The first it is above and so but away that no distinguished (dimly) by contracting the range of vision [/.md of the Lord was upon * me (Exck. who prefer the Mysteries of the Thorah have full opportunities significance of for entering more deeply into the Solomon s homely aphorism. which it is is supposed by it Myer is to distinguish certain stages of mystic vision. In a more notable passage. because the seat of Tiphereth. part i. .

because he the side . i). the right side left The . 3). These are three stood by him angels. And the Lord appeared unto him [Abraham] in the plains of Mamre (Gen. of the us see what the Mysteries Thorah can tell us of the three angels who appeared to Abraham. xviii. in xviii. 2). And they were three like that above. part i. let As another example. red white is Michael. the spark of all sparks. the Shekinah revealed itself in And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament (Dan. as also all John of the Cross and offers the seers had Boehme. three is white. 22). and mystics.258 ^he Iportrinc ub JJitemture of the giatmlah xxxii. this is so. of all therein invisible and hidden. Surely colours. clothed in which came down to this world. concealed and is made known. because the rainbow is only seen in three colours [this point should interest these are three ethnologists]. No doubt the Kabalists had visions and means of inducing this it visions. and were seen appearance even as a child of man. three men (Gen. because he is and green. is enkindled by igniting a splendour. &quot. They shall shine with a light which these three colours.* hand of the Lord was upon me in the evening (Jbid. St. This shining Zohar. Hence it is written. .. ether. It is also written. And these three colours are those of the rainbow. the Gabriel. and the green is Raphael. fol. * seen and not beheld. because it is never seen otherwise than with them. That brilliant light which lights. clumsy process confuses cause and while no intelligible result. And lo. It is written. And is men red . that is. Cremona ed. but effect. 66a. xii. is hidden.

. And Jacob passed out from Beersheba. from the strength of judgment. Cremona ed. which is a is. and went toward Haran (Gen. And went toward Haran. but. supreme fountain of the day and hidden at all it And this is the only thing seen. not watching over himself. and it spread itself out to is many sides and into many is paths. is. from the lees of old wine. that 10). that is. pretends exceedingly perplexing. he was enticed by that harlot.(uLlriltm (IBorl) of Itabalism 259 light came out from the in enlightenment. is commentary. From mystery. the side of the harlot. and the female always comprised 8oA * Zohar. even the first serpent. the joins himself with the truth. may be appended : When man Thorah. fol. went out a spark which comprised male and female. but they are much any instance. wherein is colours are concealed.. . and upon which men are three angels clothed in the light of the Shekinah scarcely removes the diffi culties. that he requires proving in the same . It is written. xxviii. Adam went up. part i. and sinned with her [i. and more especially in that section which dissolves the mysteries in better than the Zohar of the Thorah by a process of multiplication. Lilith]. place where his father was put to the proof so shall he ascend perfect and shall return perfect. The explanations of Christian interpreters to say that the three may not be wholly satisfactory.e.* called by the name this The account to be a in Genesis. and YHVH. shown night. the strength of Isaac.&quot. The male called Samael. As a specimen of the demonology in the Sithrai Thorah one quotation &quot.

Cremona ed.260 in ^he . future punishments and rewards. so is male and female are merged one on the evil side. . which is the serpent. 260.&quot. 268. and occasionally happened that these contained stronger lines than much mythical excerpts it of his acknowledged versecraft. iportrine anb literature rf the Jlabalah it him as it is on the holy. The field which they cover is chiefly that of destiny of souls. 261. the following places Part L.. &quot. that Those who believe his for Moses de Leon wrote the Zohar out of head will account in a similar manner own the manifold fragments of unknown treatises which are found only in that work.&quot. fol. 370. extant fragments of this edition at work are found : in the Cremona col. 296. Samae * l. part i. 273. 265. 264. The interest attaches to the &quot. 86a. The called female of the harlot. 257. the whole world Book of of Kabalism has agreed to exalt the Concealment over all the other discourses attributed to Simeon ben Jochai. is IX. 276. THE SECRET COMMENTARY know that Scott provided headings to very We many chapters of his romances by pretended quota tions from old plays which existed only in his imagination. but for the purposes of our &quot. As we have seen. Of some of these it may also be said that they are more interesting than the Zohar proper. present inquiry it must be confessed that considerable Secret Commentary. 269. 272. in the other. the resurrection of the body and the doctrine the * Zohar.

We have learned in the said and Mathnuthah Kadmoah that because the higher soul [Neshamah] dwells in its perfection in the upper place [i. the perfect will enter therein. These come out of her. the Thorah. Cremona ed. for thou hast brought back the crown. * Occultists are accustomed to regard the re- assumption of the same physical body by the progressed and glorified spirit as an unphilosophical and material doctrine. not at all of that kind which we should expect it to meet with in the Zohar it . Simeon ben Jochai stood up and explained If in this world which is : body which is a fetid particle. Neshamah Acha also said This very soul and this very body the Holy Blessed One is prepared in the time to come to : establish in in eternal continuance. R. and we shall find more * Zohar. the Neshamah yet enters.e.. Thereupon R. in the time to come. Abbah : Ancient rose up upon his feet Rest and peace shall be thine. The connection of the soul with the body and the perfection which is to come : for both are the subjects of the following the passage &quot. R. attaining to perfect that which cannot be reached in this world. . when the body will be vanity. it has no desire towards it the body except to create from other similar souls [Neshamoth]. that is. but is there all the same. verily. into this in the fulness of its perfection. part i. R. Simeon ben Jochai. when all are made clean.fiBritteu Sttorb of 38abalim 261 concerning angels and demons. but she abides in her place. in the world above. but both will be the perfection of knowledge.&quot. fol.. prior to birth]. 760.

ascends to her superior place. Cremona ed. as written. R.. In like manner he created a garden of Eden above. as need scarcely * Zohar. is He created also a Gehennon on it written. above. soul] of thine enemies of the middle of this a sling be sling out as out Sam. t Ibid. same Rabbi two Edens and two places of per Blessed : only created a paradise on earth and a Gehennon on earth. And it is again The it is Spirit shall return unto God who gave (Eccles. body lies peacefully at is written. 22). it having deserved the it. in He shall enter into peace they shall rest their beds. as . What in uprightness. 29). rest in its bed. xxv.! In exceedingly interesting passage.&quot. Sam. 29). as it is written. as itself (Job x. the earth. it God 7). part i. 750. each Ivii.262 fully ^hc Jtortnne anb literature ot the liabalah developed in other passages. 2). R. . xii. fyb. (I.&quot. &quot. Isaac said mean? Walking The Neshamah goes it straight to the place prepared for in Paradise. as ii. and a Gehennon above. Isaac said : At that time when the Neshantah. And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden (Gen. fol. * In another part of his discourse the distinguishes dition &quot. one walking does this : in his uprightness (Isa. Before proceeding us see what happens to the soul at death. He created also the Gehennon And the soul \Nephesh animal them shall (I. as it is written. The Holy One 8). A land of darkness. xxv. But the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bundle of life with darkness the Lord thy written. let to these. but a garden of Eden above. He not created a garden of Eden on the earth below.

man shall no man see me and the live (Ex. There beheld the Shekinah. The Zohar unfortunately abounds in this kind of unreason. thi- just man longs for the hour when it shall depart . 20). Three the angels come with Shekinah to receive it is Neshiimah of the righteous. the day of judgment. for But then the Neshamah separates from the body. Hence And the Lord appeared unto him also in written. Isaac adds. point The next upon which we may seek is : infor mation from the occult commentary butive justice in the world to come &quot. three And he lift up his eyes men stood by him.vThe (iilritteu aHorb of JUbalivMu 263 be observed.&quot. even with his mouth. this Judah life said. who search the deeds which he has done. That Neskamah from the body. nor does any such consequence as a superior place of perdition follow from the text in Samuel. of the righteous man &quot. Then the Nashamah rejoices over her deeds [the higher soul is presented by the Kabalists under a feminine aspect] and because she has been so The soul of R.&quot. the citation from Job does not at all refer to any earthly Gchennon. When the Neshamnh sees this. and looked. that of retri R. Mamre : the plains of as he sat in the tent-door in the heat of xviii. xxiii. which burns even as an oven for the separation of the is. yea. and lo. and through whom he confesses. faithfully preserved. it parts from the body as far as the opening of the gullet it and there tarries until has confessed all things whatsoever which the body has committed with her in this world. The time of a man s departure the day of the great judgment. from is does not depart from this world until he has Hence it is written. the day (Gen. i).

Joseph said : At . Kabalah has no such processes.264 ^he fpoctritu itnb Ipteratnre of the from the this vain world so as to rejoice in the world of future. and the mere confusion occasioned by the mention of an oral statement. what is described in the passage above is almost identical with the Catholic notion of the particular judgment. best has no richer gift to offer us than a variation We upon It is. for it is written in that day. to point out that the apparition of the angels to Abraham in the plains of Mamre can by no natural process of exegesis bear the construction It is understood. that the placed on it. : R. xxv. According to this the Christian soul. if and their under standing shall be as great as with the eyes. as the soul of the Jewish Kabalist sees the glory of the find. The : joy of the soul * when dwelling in the body surpasses Zohar. perhaps. 9). 750. that time the just man shall attain full knowledge namely. the just shall know Him in their hearts. superfluous. fol.. that the Zohar at its presence. another quotation will afford us some vague notion of the future happiness of the righteous &quot. all that which the occultist has agreed to set aside as belonging to the letter and the convention. Having seen how the soul is judged. whatever sentence is about to be pronounced upon it. as to the Kabalist it is certainly useless.&quot. sees Christ. part i. Lo. .* Setting aside such grotesque details as the pausing of the soul in the gullet. this is our they had seen Him And it shall be said God (Isa. in the day when the Holy Blessed One shall rejoice over His works. of course. therefore. Cremona ed.

We fed. but afterwards I received the explanation through R. Abraham begat this (Jbid. What is this ? feast He answered him : When I came before those holy angels. by the good which is preserved for the just in the Hence it is written These are the : generations of Isaac. Abraham s This refers is to the NeshamaJi which * son (Gen. that is. because they cannot comprehend all. deserves such joy and Isaac. even the lords of learning. as 11). have and learned in one place.). even R. Now these are the foods. the same shall only rejoice in the reflection. What is the difference? Thus spake Simeon ben Jochai: Those of the just who deserve so much only. Yehudah said unto R. therefore. This is what is meant because they are both constant. Herb of 38abalism 265 knowing and and rejoicing in the Creator. This. comprehending splendour of the Shekinah. xxv. Eleazar. perfect in her elevation. and the same is the feast and this also is the partaking thereof. I knew only this which ye have heard. 19). the in soul brought forth R. xxiv. their world to come. We have been R. Eleazar said again. is to be understood by eating and drinking. rejoicing and cheerfulness the world. we have been in another. as it is written : They saw God and did eat and drink (Ex. who said The feast for the righteous in the coming time will be : thus.a he SBritten all. Whence have we this? From Moses. Lord for it is written: And he was : there with the forty days and forty nights he . And We. is Cheyah : This have we learned that there a feast which the Holy Blessed One will prepare for the righteous in the coming time. taught. have rejoiced. but the truly righteous shall be satiated till they attain the fulness of under standing.

and yet the point reached must much circumlocution in the rabbinical dis course is summed up in a single sentence by the Christian apostle. R.* thus it is eating and drinking. Isaac said in The one and is the other shall be fulfilled R. who says that it hath not entered into the heart of man to conceive what God hath prepared for those who love Him. * Zohar.&quot. for The humble shall hear and rejoice written : is (Ps.&quot. fol. . feast. xxxiv. mystical significance greater. this is It which is to And so. For what reason did he neither eat bread nor drink water? even the It was because he was fed is by another from above. Joseph said : the time which to come. xxxiv.266 ^olhe Jportvine ajib literature of the JUbalah did neither eat bread nor drink water (Ex. celestial splendour which And such shall be the feast of the just in the coming time. 28). Judah said : The feast of the just in the coming it time shall consist of rejoicing in his joy. Cremona ed. R. 80. part i. eternally shall they sing. Nor is the with so &quot. Hunnah said : All shall who trust in Thee. is We in have learned that wine which guarded and kept the grapes from the first six days signifies the ancient and mighty words which have not been revealed to man since the creation of the world. surely be acknowledged that in this very interesting passage the Zoharic doctrine is a great advance upon the monstrous allegory of the salted leviathan in the Talmud.. rejoice 2). but they will be to the righteous in the time made known come. Thereupon : R. though Isaac Myer has increased it by pointing out that the term wine the mysterious vitality and signifies Kabalistically &quot. yea.

O captive daughter of Zion (Isa.y represents that the Divine Compassion.gt. but does not seem to be everlasting. the opinions expressed Zohar are confused not conflicting. or secret.gt.&quot.gt.lt.&quot.gt. J other passages in the Secret refer to the resurrection of the dead : &quot. fol. l&amp. ordains the release of all in bondage therein. that they be no more an earthly Formerly they were created from the dust of the earth. quicken the dead and will awaken dust. .! As it to the duration of punishment. 13). &amp. touched by the sufferings in hell.vlhe (SHrittcu SOorb of Jabaliem 267 spiritual on its an opinion based investigation by notaricon. The Samuel speaking on the authority of R. Our rabbis is to come the Holy Blessed One will them from the habitation. arise &quot. 2). sifted But in that time they shall be ii. which hath no permanence. has charge of disembodied spirits]. and the same shall be unto them a lasting habitation. j&amp. according to the Talmud. who conducts them in the to Gehennon if for judgment&quot. part i. 7)..1.. Thus . It Though this also is taught here and there in the medley. 8ot&amp. Jacob into the hands of the souls of the wicked are given Commentary &quot. be added that a quotation furnished Jellinek from the Beth &amp. Cremona ed. dust . the Secret gives the following statement by R. Two Commentary R. . .. Philosophy of Ibn it-bin t Zohar. : angel Dumah [the Angel of Silence who. Isaac spake and said : (Song of Solomon have learned In the time which forth a smell : The mandrakes give vii. it is written : Shake thyself from the Hi. for wine = 70 =God energy of created things. as it is written And the Lord God formed man of the dust of : the ground (Gen. . may Hammadresh * 358.* As to the future condition of the wicked. from the dust of that building and shall stand a firm building.

R.268 Ihc gtortrin* anb JDittratttre of the They Israel. which are open and through which the Neshamoth shall descend into the bodies. shall stand firm. And at our gates are all manner of pleasant fruits.* Hence Christianity. much is better expressed by St. . as written : The mandrakes . yet deserve. * it is raised a spiritual body. Zohar. 80. through the probity of their actions.&quot. new and old Our gates/ that is. New them and for old. What a pleasant smell.&quot. meaning that body and soul are friends and companions to each other. Paul when he said : It sown a natural body.. the risen also that body in the which was &quot. Na hman said This word truly means Dudaim. that for from them many those whose souls have departed years and those which have left a few days past. these are the Neshamoth. 13). . R. give forth a smell. to enter the world to come. ? They give describes the rectitude of their does this mean deeds. &quot. Secret The theory of Commentary recalls &quot. fol. through which their Creator becomes * known and comprehended by their generation. for : the Dudaim [understood It as the love-apple] bring forth love in the world. it seems to follow indubitably that the Kabalistic world to come is the millennial earth of and hence the destiny of the righteous is substantially identical in the Zohar and in the Apocalypse. All manner of pleasant fruits is. the (Song of Solomon vii. part i. Isaac added Do not call it mandrakes [Dudaim} but friendship \Dodini\. Cremona ed. they shall rise up from under the earth and receive their Neshamoth in the land of diffuse over For at that time the Holy Blessed One shall them all kinds of odours from the garden it is of Eden. gates of heaven.

At a time which is known to me for I xviii. civ. but to remember only That the risen body transfigured is we learn from the following passage^ which also a specimen of Kabalistic angelology. even as it was formerly. the Holy Blessed One says : While the supernal the to the angel Dumah : Go and prepared to quicken proclaim to that body that I am it at the time when I shall raise up the just in the age which is to come. flesh. as it is written The : glory of the shall rejoice in Lord shall endure (Ps. xviii. * Ibid. shall I have pleasure ?] Even when I have decayed in the dust. 66. . 13. made wholly new. the Kabalah has nothing to offer us but that which Jew and Christian possess independently of any secret subjects. for ever : the Lord His works 31). But the body answers Shall I have pleasure when I have decayed? [Referring to Gen. and have : : dwelt in the earth where worms and moles have eaten my is . fol. . shall it be possible for me to be renewed ? Then Holy Blessed One says unto Neshamah : It therefore written And the Lord said unto Abraham the : .* \Ve all see. 269 The other passage is as follows Neshamah has its nourishment from splendour. We have not to consider here whether is this common that is it is doctrine insufficient. doctrine. 12 where Sarah says After I have waxed old. so held by occultists.c&lrittcn SBorb of gabalicm &quot. that it may be like unto the holy angels. shall bring back to thec that body. namely. And that day is set apart for me to rejoice with them. therefore. is 24).&quot. anything too hard for the Lord? (Gen. raising the dead. that on the most important of the destiny of the soul.

who is appointed to glorify the it body in Hence is written And Abraham is said unto his eldest servant (Ibid. Iportrine aitb |ptetaiure ot the giabalah it is His servant (Gen. that R. The Holy Blessed One hath given him dominion over all His hosts. to Metatron. Cremona ed. said R. the grave. Simeon.\ namely. must leave these interesting fragments at this Much as we may despise the imbecile theory point. for he the first of the creatures of Elohim. which would attribute them to the inventive genius We of Moses de Leon.. governing all that belongs to Him. the eldest of his house. but that the glory the soul must acquire her lustre. And we have learned.). said : When of his house (Ibid. * Beyond Zohar. Joseph said on the authority of Rab that all the hosts of the servant take delight and felicity in have learned also that the pureness of the soul. xxiv. 2). &quot. We the light of the soul in the world to come is greater than the light of the Throne and that the soul takes the light from the Throne. fol. afford it seems quite clear that they no support to the occult estimate of the Zohar. this The oldest servant means the servant of Elohim.&quot.j6b. . part i. X. Who : is this ? It is Metatron.* of The last statement seems to mean God is essential to the Godhead. THE LESSER SECTIONS OF THE BOOK OF SPLENDOUR We have now passed in review the chief tracts and fragments which constitute the Zohar.270 Ihe &quot.

238. II. the Ruachin] were . 83.. col.e. 117. 2.3Qorb of JUbaliem 271 these there are various lesser sections which may be fall noticed for the sake : of completeness. Part III. 87. Come and See &quot. 107. Some pieces Traditional Receptions. 163. THE ADDITIONS The small additional pieces which pass under the generic name of Tosephtha. namely. considerable im the portance.98. &quot. 367.82.The ollritten &amp.Additional Pieces&quot. or accessions. &quot. 86. Before the world was created [i. col. 203. 358. situated in the supernal Eden. 177. Other fragments which are peculiar to the edition and are therefore wanting in that of Mantua. additauienta. 259. 331. 487. 163. 184. 295. Cremona course of a Young Man . Excerpts from an Explanation of the Law 3. One portion of a treatise on the Secret of Secrets. all the spirits of the just the rational spirits. . from a commentary on Ruth 3 Excerpts from a work entitled Mansions or Abodes 4. I. 222. Some of these fragments arc to addressed secret more particularly proficients in the Perhaps the things of Kabalistic doctrine. 191. editioncs 2. . 265. 303. ! 4. &quot. 189. common . 274.lt. &quot. most curious of all concerns the Treasury of Souls &quot. 188.97. . 155.&quot. 120. 513 Part col. 1 50. 149. A. beginning entitled &quot. . 318. I. which are principes. two . not of to They under two heads a. 145. Certain fragments. 48. 176. The quaint history and dis b.. 441. 371. i. 426 . are scattered through the Cremona folio as follows : Part I.e. Excerpts from a Com a discourse mentary on the Song of Solomon . Excerpts namely.

the former things are things come I to pass. He then gathered them into a treasury in treasury * is the supernal garden of Eden. and whatever the time of their existence.e. highest place. but a coarser material * and ii. What all does this mean ? means. xlii. possessing they existed in Him characteristic individuality].]* [NeshamaK\ must be which are the other man. yea. treasury show forth by name. and this hath neither desire nor appetite. calling daily. even as Gehennon.e. iii. even in the the world. See also Mantua edition. God at the beginning of the present creation. or third principle of the Kabalists]. but cries out for ever : Behold. each in his likeness the divine thought. But when He formed then were they manifested. soul clothed these [i.. t Brody edition of the Zohar. garments garments. Burn souls till Burn ! the time they and come down to this world. . 9). 2Oa. appeared in their true forms Compare Zohar all before ii. in their own likenesses.&quot. save only to take and to purify them. thought. which hath neither desire nor souls lust. not the original vestments of unfallen envelope]. s joined to them by kisses of love. Through [not the supernal Adam of the Atziluthic world]. and that never filled. where it is said that all things creatures before they were associated with the universe. It all Give ! ! Give ! What does this mean ? And that treasury receives are clothed means. and new their do I declare It (Isa. 303^.272 ^hc jportritte anb literature of the Jiabalah in hidden before [i. 97. save only to accumulate souls therein [the word here used signifies the higher soul.* remaining before Him. which brought on the evil the sin of Adam Kadmon side to the world.. the in &quot. concerning the profound mysteries of that Palace of Love where who i in are assembled all the well-beloved souls of the Celestial King. Mantua.

24). Part I. the fourth according to one classifica referable to Chokmah life in the Sephirotic system]. nature [Nephesh} which is the higher life [i.D. 181. The few fragments 130. 124. col.* the holy Shekinah rests upon B. who died in A.. and him. designated for good above and below. And because this of the animal nature [Nephesh Chaiah~\ is holiness from above. but in a higher region. And come.e. 86. by another passage : : Let the earth bring forth the This means the animal living creature (Gen. Cliaiah is . so when the holy earth draws up through her. 30 1 a.(lilritteu i&iovb of glabalism 273 Adam did not take place on earth. 184. having He is many watchers protecting him on all sides. in see ! the true way. cleaveth unto him. * Ibid.&quot.. 530. The involution and confusion of Kabalistic this it From follows that the sin of psychology is well illustrated &quot. . b. which is indeed a recurrent legend of mysticism. meaning possibly the Nephesh of principle of the Kabalists tion. 174. 332. col. and he higher soul [Neshamah} is the friend of his Lord. and Part III. 243. 114. THE COMMENTARY ON RUTH of the unknown Midrask Ruth which occur in the Zohar will be found in the Cremona edition. Whensoever the child of man walketh when his mouth and tongue utter this forth holy words. ChaiaJi. is It should be noted that a Midrash Ruth the last master of the Tanaites. 61. Chaiah. It is written i. and is comprised in her. then is she called the higher soul [Neshamah].. attributed to Rab.

and yet another.274 ^he I ipcrrtrittt anb UJitenttee of the that this it and as printed. Bib. 438. These commentaries.&quot. were printed at Venice in 1545 and again in 1550. The term which signifies Mansion. region. and in an especial manner to Kether. col. with &quot. 116 et seq. videlicet. rendered Palaces by Rosenroth. in which Tiphereth is said to be concealed as in a palace.. Rab. for HIKL. Binah. under the above title. believe is work has never been is it possible that the source of these quotations. C. Temple or Palace. There is also extant an allegorical commentary* which has been twice printed. Part II. Lord.allegorical expositions of the Ancient Rabbins.. and col. * is the place in which HKL. on the authority of the Zohar proper. col 358 The mansions are seven in et seq. attributed to the fourth century. is the Palace of Tetragrammaton. THE MANSIONS OR ABODES to We have work anterior which there It is already made acquaintance with a the appearance of the Zohar in a methodical description of heaven. &c. because it is the same number as This name is attributed to H\iL. give account of the structure of Paradise and the infernal Their places in the Cremona edition will be found in Part I. Liber R^ith. . So also the name is Adonai [ADNI].=Palatium=6$. reconstituted and became the abode of the saints. that is. See Bartolocci.. termed in the original HIKLVTh. number and were the original habitations of the After the fall of man they were earthly Adam. applied to Malkuth. Palace. Canticus Canticorum. the Commentatio Allegorica super quinque parvos Libellos. . must not be confused with the excerpts which.

through whom they all exist and all One are taken away. It clothed in skins and others in like the worms which are found in the earth. one above the other. applied to all the the HIKLVTh = plural. some of them shells.&quot. while others creatures of whom some have are single visaged. humanity. Each heaven trembles with fear of its Lord. arranged after the same manner. are the branches of the Sephirotk in the inferior worlds. us The Zohar proper has also a good deal to &quot. In For they justified to reason.&quot. would serve no purpose to enlarge upon monstrous inventions of this kind. the Holy of Holies corresponds. Over all the Holy Blessed holds all in His power. so to speak. by some two. by counting the numbers of these case are names we see why the Kabalists said this. The concealed meaning which some occultists suppose them to possess is again evidently the plan upon which they are based. to the three supernals. The says palace of Rosenroth. tell concerning the seven heavens. There are also seven &quot. we have just seen that ADNI is the mansion of JHVH. These earths are disposed according to their names. &quot. purpose to say it. Kether includes the In In a sense also the term Scphiroth.&quot. but we do not see that it served any reasonable It is entertaining and curious.dht all. earths below. example. is (rittfu $lorb of $abalism that 275 seeing whole world of Atziluth. . and to understand them is to know the method by which they can be calculated neither out. is contained. They are are not the children of Adam . like the layers of an onion. They like are inhabited four faces. Palaces. and between them is the Garden of Eden and Gehenna.

but is not of much . less easy to characterise. The approximation of any individual to a given type depends upon his intellectual and &quot. nothing. purely arbitrary and conventional. however. he knew Four general types of the human countenance are dis tinguished. in a certain manner connects with the lower divisions of occult science. We have thus the leonine. subject. firstly. . which. is assuredly theosophical D. 134. &quot. The features of the face vary.&quot. but correspond ing to the living creature which had the likeness of a man. secondly. borrowed nothing. It may. THE SECRET in OF SECRETS is The treatise is single fragment which Part II. as might be expected. Lavater was something of a mystic. however. moral rank. and another. to the Secret of Secrets. Physiognomy. according &quot. and indeed. It treats. extant of this found of the Cremona edition. as probably he of the Zohar and its connections. of physiognomy. to have no connection whatsoever with any accepted principles to which this empirical art may be supposed to have attained. of the con beginning at col. but in the features which are mysteriously drawn within us. nection between the soul and the body. &quot. of which a sufficient idea tions has been conveyed by previous quota and. does not consist in the external lineaments. but fortunately for his is. be importance to our inquiry. and these are referred to the faces of the four living creatures in Ezekiel s vision.276 UIhe Jtodrine anb Jtjiteratxxre xjf the it Jiabalah but at the same time fantasia. no doubt. worth while to say that Kabalistic physiognomy proves. the bovine and the aquiline types.

comprised in a few columns. The Secret of Secrets &quot.. Part. the Supreme certain face. which he holds to be the plan or type upon which the body of the man is fashioned.&quot.flBritten SHorb of gabaliem 277 following the form which is impressed on the inward The spirit only produces all those face of the spirit. Gabriel Delanne. only that the features spirits and souls pass out of spirit Wisdom] they form which is afterwards possess a reflected in the M. perhaps. physiognomical peculiarities which are known to the wise. E. Eden [i. * the II. and it is through the When possess meaning.* is. would say that the Zoharic fragment here refers undoubtedly to the perisprit of the Kardec school of spiritism. They recur in the . 91 et preceding In the writings of the Gaon R. the latest and perhaps most accomplished writer on the French theory of reincarnation. unnecessary to say that the fragment does not disclose the rules which governed the sages in their discernment. THE DISCOURSE OF THE YOUNG MAN this The little history which has passed under name will be found in the Cremona edition of Zohar.. so that the Kabalah is not likely to be of much practical use to the few occultists who may be inclined to include physiognomy within the charmed circle of the secret wisdom. Shereerah and other literature the appearance of the Zohar we meet with notions of physiognomy and chiromancy of a parallel kind. pretends that every feature in a given countenance indicates to those who can read therein whether it is possible or not for the &quot. supplements of the Zohar. also It possessor to be initiated into divine mysteries.e.

wash their hands xxx. the childish account of an impossible rabbinical or certainly an extremely uninteresting prodigy. entering the tabernacle grace before meat (3) . the son of R. 21). However. delivering sundry discourses (i) On the symbolism of washing the hands. Hammnuna. So they shall some mystery. garmenls that they had not recited the requisite in honour of the unity of God. when the remarks were repeated to him. Moses de Leon. O Israel &quot. Aaron and when of the congregation On the Shekinah &quot. which follow shortly It is after the &quot. R. The Angel which redeemed me from lads&quot. bless (Gen. and the great light of Kabalism. his sons. One day two disciples of R. that and is. a function of because it is written. the utterance of Jacob. unamiable manner of prodigies. Book of Con cealment. (4) On On . but he declined to approach them. that they die not (Ex. The reason assigned by the narrative is that he discerned by the odour of their &quot. but living at the period in question with his widowed mother in a certain village. 16) cautious critic will not be prepared to deny that the invention of this history was beyond the genius of R. Simeon ben Jochai. The vinced the disciples of Simeon ben Jochai that such a precocious youth could not be the child of human parents. When her son returned from school she to the rabbis to receive their after the wished to present him blessing. coincided with this opinion. (2) . ! He did not. Judah. Isaac and R. the discourses con the xlviii. passed through this village on a journey and paid a visit to the widow. and on other matters. their feet. however. disdain to converse at the table.278 3&ht flortriut anfo literature 0! the seq. all evil. . . Hear.&quot.. namely.

he regarded the Mantua edition as Codex Rosenroth ingarnered all the tracts and he fragments embraced by that of Cremona when codex but it must be produced his own careful . in the believe. to the Cremona I These excerpts have not. regarded its document.(SHritten fillorb of gabalism 279 Our as a literary analysis of the Zohar. but there is a MS. has reached utmost limit. but no of its knowledge contents is possible by Let us take. a commentary on the Canticle of the passages from Canticles. been identified. which is peculiar. which it has remained may be . remembered that the Zohar had in all probability grown under the hands of transcribers and makers of three centuries. Vatican Library which is mentioned by Buxtorf . it is destroyed during that fiery epoch. many documents existing in Spain may have been Again. ths excerpts of the Zohar might The been catalogued critical unprinted literature of Jewry has by various bibliographers. glosses during the space. and this specimen of the matters not included recension must be held to serve in the Mantua the for whole. editio princeps. as we have seen. for example. We have no means of knowing how much of it was actually contained in The suspicion under the script of Moses de Leon. Though correctus. by which be justified. approaching between its first promulgation and the which elapsed it date when was first printed. recourse to bibliographies. libraries contain impossible to say that Continental no MSS. partly accounted for by works which frequent quotation of unknown considered fictitious but the Zohar was have been its edited prior to the persecution of the Jews inaugurated and by the atrocious edict of Ferdinand and Isabella.

Abraham ben Isaac Tze mach Levi. and thus we have two series of may Zoharic writings subsequent to the Book of Splendour and distinguished as its ancient and later supplements. commentaries. THE ANCIENT AND LATER SUPPLEMENTS in public of a in The sudden appearance either has or purports to for several centuries work which have remained concealment be expected to lead to the discovery or manufacture of continuations or con nections thereof. 100. namely. the physician. should of a course. of an unkown author. but I 29? I speak under know of no ground except in the idiosyncrasy of the author. such a work. predicates nothing but why be called commentary on the Song of Solomon MDRSh ChDzITh. a reference to Proverbs correction. Immanuel ben Solomon written towards the end of the fifteenth century. but that the editor of the Zohar quoted the alleged Tanaite treatise. as he tells us. and the documents with which we shall deal in this section the reader will do well to regard as without determined As Among later MS. The existence of . but a uniform tradition assigns it to a Tanaite commen tator circa A. and I am inclined to infer therefore that the same catchword would not have been used by two writers. Bartolocci mentions that of R. XI. Midrash Chazeeth* It is the work. * .280 ^he Itoctrine anb literature of the giabalah under the very same title.D. also in the Vatican. which is understood as xxii. productions of this kind multiply their authenticity does not tend to assume a stronger guise. and that of R.

the arbitary nature of which is obscured sometimes by an appearance of methodical precision. the feet to Later Kabalism recognises other corres Malkuth. itself the erect figure of humanity Tctragram superposed one upon the other. pondences. It was printed by Jacob ben 1557 under the editorship of Napthali at Mantua in Immanuele Cracovia. seventy different ways.* The apex of the head and brain is referred to Kether. and supposed of is it may word be well that some out of the in all the seventy ways interpreting rendered&quot. There are better things than this in the supple ments to the Zoharic books. Mantua. the heart to Binah. whence the practical magic of the West may have obtained later on its notion of divine and angelic names ruling those members. with eleven further added at the end. much -debated Genesis which be beginning&quot. that considerable importance and authority have been always ascribed by Kabalists to the Ancient Supplements. the back and breast are attributed to Tiphercth. and according to Franck they have been known as long as the Zohar itself. the legs to Netzach and Hod. di Benevento. and appeared again at Among ments we find the attribution of the notable matters in these Ancient Supple members of the to the human body Sephiroth. . They contain explanations of the term BRAShlTh by R. I Ub*li0m 281 should add. 424.QBritten QUorb of claims. the brain as a whole to Chokinah. Simeon ben Jochai after and hence the work is divided chapters into seventy chapters. the arms to Chesed and Geburah. however. the generative organs to Jesod. should * According to the Zohar exhibits the letters of the ii.

In Sephiroth. the Prayer of though it belongs only to the prefatory part.282 ^he gtotrine anb literature oi the giabalah as curious. That French school of occultism which veiled just beginning to recognise in the plays of Shakespeare a scheme of initiation has. the suffice. and let the dry land appear. his body remains even is dry land. &quot. arbitrary beyond all words. the beginning of the second preface. 2). And was without form. &quot. Thou hast produced ten forms which we call of all and Thou guidest by means of these the un known and invisible as well as the visible worlds. because the eyes of the soul were closed. and yet not without a certain grace of notion. sublime of all that is sublime. This must. . * Namely. suggestive as well A it single instance however. one alone art Thou. Hereafter this then is man gathered in from this world. and conception cannot attain Thee. Hath it opened its eyes ? And God is said : Let there be light. created.* Lord of the universe. of the most celebrated quotations from the Supplements is. And God said. Let the waters under the heaven be gathered unto one place. an influential mystic precedent in the biblical exegesis of the Zohar. and and darkness was upon the face of the deep (Gen. i. and written about the soul. Thou art the most but not according to number. it must be admitted. is In the beginning God from the soul when emerges taught void. One Ancient Elijah. however. of which the above passage seems to be a very neat instance. When the soul as * is removed from a man &quot. the most withdrawn things concealed. bosom of the earth its mother and is thereof.

for called. the Foundation of all foundations. but Thou art He third intermediate between them . veil These ten Sephiroth are developed dations. as . their Thyself and. thou art . whether above or below. and whether from above or below art guided Thyself by none. and Thou only givest If names them are informed force by and reality. But Thou hast the soul spreads it through the body. Thou hast provided the with garments which serve human souls as Sephirotk intermediate phases Thou hast muffled them in . and the are Thou Lord of all. so-called in comparison with the vestments surrounding them. and the totality corresponds to the members of the human form. bodies. . . there can be no unity. Thou do that the worlds might know Thee. Each which Sephira possesses angels determinate name. Thou didst emanate heaven and earth. Yet no one can conceive Thee in Thy that reality . . so that one is in successive gra another short and the long. all a prescribed name. . . permeated by Thy harmony remains undisturbed. Thou art wise. it shall be accounted unto him as if he dismembered Thy unity. they would be left like bodies devoid of souls. who guideth them. shouldst withdraw [from the vestments]. that which celestial is above and that which terrestrial hosts. Thou yet not with positive wisdom . Who soever shall depict them as separated. with the and All this didst . is below. after but Thou hast no Thee. Thou art the Lord of the worlds.SEritttu SBorb of gUbalism 283 them Thou dost presence. Thyself neither image nor form in all that is within or without. we know only art that apart from Thee. the Cause of all causes Thou dost water the Tree from that source which spreads life everywhere.

nor hast Thou a fixed place attributed to Thee. which in a manner are His attributes emanated. definitive intelligence.284 Ihe Jloctrme anb literature af iht Jiabalah intelligent. but not with a . fore a right or left side or any centre be named. sponding The distinction between God and His attributes. but perhaps in the last analysis it is rather childish than otherwise. .&quot. they are like unto a madman who should describe the King as the totality of his insignia. only the King of Kings. and hence between God and the Sephiroth. is disguised in a splendid garment so only that He may be known thereby. and thereby may impart to the dwellers on this earth a conception of His sacred nature. the Concealed of all the hidden. for it is obvious that even in our latent finite humanity there is a and unseen nature behind all its manifested * Supplement.&quot. the Cause of all causes. that they regard God as the totality of His . : Woe unto those whose hearts are so hardened. is insisted on elsewhere in the Supplements by the help of a striking illustration &quot.* This distinction has at first sight an appearance of considerable profundity. 21. it is only to exhibit Thy government of the entire universe actions. but not because by comparison with human any attribute can be really either to law or to imputed to Thee corre grace. Behold a king wears his insignia that he may be known through them. and verily. attributes whose eyes so blinded. so that yet all these things are man may conceive Thine omnipotence and may be shown how the universe is guided by means of severity and If there mercy.

and perhaps it will be unnecessary to say that occultists are for the most part unaware that these tracts are in existence. that the full publication of the Zohar is reserved for the end of time. t &quot. In the section on the bibliographical content of the Myer Rab Hay. no need to say that hostile critics make use of weak points in the Ancient Supplements as if there were no distinction between these and the Zohar proper.Hidden Commentary. though it has been termed the editio princeps. * Its history seems Compare the statement which rests on the authority of the Supplements. This enumeration conveys no idea of importance.&quot. Philosophy of Ibn Gebirol.o&ritteu cBorfc of Jlabalienn characteristics. nor am I acquainted with the existence of any printed copy beyond that of Cracow. 285 Man is not exhausted by any de is scription of his attributes. This appeared in 1703. a commentary on the Canticle of Canticles. I should add that they have not been translated. or subse quently to the Kabbala Denudata. is broadly em sequel to the certain additional supplements. nor with Isaac ciples of the Gaon of the Sages of Chirvan on the Caspian Sea. . p. it From what that the Ancient has been quoted above will be seen in Supplements are identical their teachings with the Zohar itself. and to insist that this true also of God seems scarcely necessary. 47. on the other hand. namely. and some affirm that the original work had existed from time immemorial at Fez in Africa. there any authority for supposing that it was brought thither by dis Book of Splendour we have seen what braced by the New Zohar.f There is. and another on the Book of Lamentations.&quot.* We is have no means of checking this statement. a &quot.

.286 ^he jp0ttitt. wrote a forged Zohar which may have deceived a few persons. but it was speedily unmasked.e Jtnb literature of the it entirely unknown. that later still Isaac ben Moses of Satanow. though make any otherwise of some literary repute. and would be preposterous to It may also be noted claim concerning it.

Gate of the Eyes. which is &quot. one on the Mysteries of Love. In the first are included the Words of Understanding. and one on the application of the Kabalah to Alchemy. in some independent treatises which connect with the Two works general tradition. are chosen for separate consideration. which is concerned with the Scriptural passages in the Zohar and Ancient Supplements . and the Zar Zahab. because of the importance of its design and the credit which it has obtained in the modern school of because of occultism. actually a Zoharic lexicon or vocabulary. EXPOSITORS OF THE BOOK OF SPLENDOUR works which are recommended by Rosenroth as assisting to a better comprehension of the Zohar fall under two heads namely. secondly. those which are designed to elucidate technical matters THE and those which may claim to be original expository treatises. the &quot.&quot.BOOK VI THE WRITTEN WORD OF KABALISM : THIRD PERIOD ARGUMENT The growth of Kabalistic literature is sketched. I. firstly. its general diffusion. The second section contains . in the commentaries on the Zohar and.&quot.

as they concern only.&quot. Franck says* that two Zoharic schools were founded about the same * La Kabbalc. and to developments to which that the names. the Zohar Priest. according to the dates fixed by modern scholarship. therefore sufficient. in the Except in so far as they have been utilised will Apparatus of Rosenroth.&quot. the Hebrew and Aramaic scholar who has a first-hand acquaintance with the To mention them in this place will be Zohar.Garden of Pomegranates. p. there was a lapse of two hundred and fifty years. the its of Truth. they be available to. and proper. literature may be largely regarded as a consequence of the Cremona and Mantua editions. with the sequel the of &quot.288 32Ehe |p citrine zm& literature of tlte giabalah &quot.Way the famous &quot. . is The scope of our too simple and elementary for the dis inquiry cussion of technical matters or the pretensions of word-books and other collections which deal with these. MOSES OF CORDOVA that the Zohar first Assuming in became known Spain towards the end of the thirteenth century. but more especially of that part which is concerned with spiritual essences. which are connected with these. and we may proceed at once to the consideration of the commentaries rise. A. the Outside these there are a few works which may be regarded as extensions or developments of Zoharic doctrine. illustrious work gave and in later Kabalism. Hence this before any literature followed from it.&quot.&quot. entitled the masterly digest of Vision &quot. 4.Fount of Wisdom.

24. assuming was mistaken and that Basnage error. for he was regarded greatest light by his fellow theosophists as the of Kabalism since Simeon ben Jocliai. date is of importance to the of in untouched need only this study.n Howe t&amp. the middle of the six teenth century.vlhc eilritttn SQort of Jgztbaliem 289 history Kabalism. t. livre vii. Joseph Gigatella. iv. but he travelled to Palestine. from Bethsaida. t. Bartolocci* and Basnagef agree in assigning Moses of Cordova to the fourteenth The earlier century. and the second by Isaac de Loria. and connects with the Sepher Yetxirah rather than the Zohar. for. was a writer on the Sephiroth. Here I say that Franck does not state his or indeed his reason for authority accepting the later period. though he refers to the Kabalistic Work of the Chariot reproduced his divine As his name indicates. c. but. 1942. namely. v. he sec-ins complain that R. . Franck says that he adhered to the of the original this real significance monuments of Kabalism. and it is conjectured that he was instrumental in founding the Academy of Sapeth in nine miles Upper it Galilee. who was of the time of Ferdinand and Isabella. In either case Moses of Cordova is the that first Bartolocci commentator on the Zohar. Moses of Cordova was a Spaniard. On the other hand. the first by Moses of Cordova. because certain side issues of documentary criticism^ time in Palestine. althnu-1. depend upon it. In either case he was one to of teachers and helped make illustrious. appears worthy of praise. * Inhliothcca Ma^na KaMnnica. p.lt. p. called the Kabalist and thaumaturge. Moses was uantin. j originality. I ULloirc tksjnifs.

of &quot. while it gives no idea of its contents. these are classified as four PRDS the P : . was fixed with peculiar in* Histoire des Juifs. v. 24. signifies the literal sense. vol. and the word by which it meanings described having four consonants. orchard. 13 : &quot. secret and concealed sense. the letters of the Tetragrammaton to the Sephiroth. their superincession and their union with Ain-Soph. Garden of Pomegranates is be well imagined. with its innumerable sentence. and S the &quot. Dwelling upon these involved meanings. R the mystic sense.* iv. after the manner of Kabalists. these are specimens here and there of the subject matter.&quot. it is the seeds. p. in opposition to the ascribed character of his nation. as may &quot. vii. Here. But as the heart of the Kabalist. 1. be the work by which he It authority in Kabalism. and the attempt made by Rosenroth to dismember it for the purpose of his Apparatus. c. the an obscure and difficult treatise. the names applied to the Sephiroth. is treasury of Scriptural is meanings. the unknown darkness. . is is known entitled is of the Garden Pomegranates (Pardes Rimmonivi\ referring to the versicle in the Canticle of Canticles. D the enigmatic sense. or paradise has deep lessons for all mysticism. primeval Tohu and Bohu. 1943. in a general sense.290 this Ihe goxtrine anb literature of the x may high &quot. plants are an orchard of pomegranates. Basnage he discovers whatsoever he pleases in that single The pomegranate.Thy a favourite object for symbolism. says that. creates The attribution of a lively image of its complexity. the mystic meaning of words deprived of their context. and the garden. the mystery of the Throne and the Shekinah.

ever recurring in his writings. holy. tentness on the eternal destinies of Garden of Pomegranates &quot. and the good and human being. not. yet might be seen if licence were given to the eye.ibntm Sohar pars . This phantom or is It is imago prepared for each man before he enters the world. t This fantasy rests on the authority of the X.. the absence of one or both of the higher divisions in many individuals. . chapter to the affirmed to be sent from the Lord. xxxi. iii./.f - Namely.The CAlrittcn fill orb of JRiibaliem 291 man and not on so his chief interest was the temporal concerns. chief divisions. its purpose in the world. There is therefore no need to that a say special tract in the &quot. and it comes to To those of another descends from the side of impurity. Tract -Mantua // edition. /. i. as if it were impossible to atone sufficiently for the silence of his sacred books. 100 et j.-.. visible.. translated in the Kabbala Denudata Apparatus in l. soul. The angels accompanying each tract also devotes a very curious evil simulacrum which presides at generation a phantasmal image of humanity which descends on the male head cum copula maritalis cxercetur inferius. the places to which they resort after death.* is dedicated to the it subject of the soul. and he grows in the likeness thereof./.r. the Sephiroth to which they are referred. its their one with another. the profit of its its creation. discussing the region from which emanates./. of course. and no pro creation can take place without its It is presence.v//. 107. its superiority over the relation angels. and hence the chosen must not mingle their people simulacrum with that of the religion it Gentile. With the Israelites this simulacrum is them from the Holy Place. union with matter.har.y. which states t is an emanation of the celestial form of each man.

have been unable to fulfil all the precepts of the Law. vii. 1. . says R. there be ways of the Supernal will King. been challenged. 2089. having published nothing though some suspected treatises are attributed himself. to him. v. it. B. and Franck bases thereon * his hostile judgment of Loria. what becomes away of his earlier works ? Though the sinner may perish. therefore. has not. falls man who they. to the seventeenth century* and referred by Basnage as aiready seen. he died by Franck. however. remain. Histoire desjuifs. R. Here was a poetic sentiment which had to be methodised and made literal inevitably by a late Kabalist. He at Sapheth or Separth. yet wanting something of his vestments. taken in their youth. When a has performed many good works finally from righteousness and is lost. God supply the deficiency from the good works of the impious one. However. p. and it is not necessary to say He is ignored by writers like Graetz. a just man walking in the If. The preference is given to those who. Moses. body Chafm The substantial authenticity of the great of his doctrines collected by his disciple. vol. 31. ISAAC DE LOR A i Of very that he this little is Kabalist Bartolocci and Basnage have to tell us. c. to that which preceded has been regarded as the greatest rabbinical doctor at his period in Germany.292 ^Sthe godrine anb literature of the gabalah Another curious speculation is founded on a text of the Zohar which says that the good works performed by a person in this world become for him vestments of price in the world to come. Vital.

c&lrittcu SHorb of gabali&m that he was. the Kabalists. Moses of Cordova. pars sefttnda. as we shall learn later book devoted to the Christian students of the Kabalah.. It is certain. ment. 28 et . p. The vast thesaurus which represents both seems never to have been printed. * t Ibid. may have de It is. i.e. fill some three hundred embodying quarto pages of close print. .. Kabbala Denudata. vol. where the excerpts. firstly.. secondly. Chaim. He is not a mere echo or and he makes good reading because he is a wild fantasiast. except in the in so far as it is Kabbala Denudata. impossible to say how scribe and disciple. so called. says Rosenroth. tradatus quartus. given whole treatises. forming the second volume : of the collection. a criticism which stultifies itself. . that Loria did innovate or extend. pars secunda. who was surprised. far his of course. veloped his developments and elaborated his fantasies. ii.vy. ness of doctrine. how this ever.t A commentary on the It is &quot. that he departed from Zoharic Kabalism to indulge in his own reveries. It occasioned an interesting corres pondence between Rosenroth and Henry More. as he expresses its it. but found much by the unexpected with which he on in the could sympathise. In the Pnrfatio i. 16. Rosenroth terms him the eagle of reflection.&quot.. I. ii. 3 et scq.Book of Conceal- forming the second tract collection. II. They include The first tract. of the Liber Drn shim* Book of Dissertations. like 293 on the ground. ad Lectorem. is and that also his title to interest. Apparatus . R. not original and. p. in the sixth volume in its of the not given absolute integrity cujus J maximum partcm infra cxliilhmus.

Den. for what reason were the worlds created and was their creation of necessity ? Assuredly from the period of the Angel of the Schools. and there is no doubt that Isaac de Loria would have diffused a great light of reasoning at Salamanca had he been a Christian Doctor instead of a Jewish Rabbi. The Ltber Drushtm is a metaphysical introduction to the Kabalah. of Louvain and the other seats of scholastic learning. ii. Itortrin* an& JCiteratnre ot the The &quot. p. almost the camel s load of portion of this tract seems to have been printed. recalling another subject treated in the collection.294 Ihe III. De percussione Sepulchri. namely. had already outwearied themselves.&quot. the halls of Salamanca.Book of the Revolutions of in Souls. late and early. as he tells us. His first point. Perhaps the Kabalists owed something of Christianity to the Scholastics.* forming the collection. or another under a similar title and attribution. and the of the Exile was encompassed on all sides by It the great debate of Christian speculation. which seems to have been even larger than in fact. together with De Precibus. in A namely. perhaps they drew both from centuries offers curious one another. the In the early so-called Areopagite points of contact with the system of Wisdom Sephirotic emanation in the angelical world. 234 et seq. . had echoed with this debate. would * Kab. which discusses a variety of subtle and abstruse questions much after the manner of the scholastic philosophy. partis tertia tractatus secundus pneumaticus. is one over which the Kabalists. of Padua. at Venice 1620.. first tract the fifth volume of the the Zohar itself the legend.

God * creation of the But after the could not be called by this name. His excellence and Tetra&rammaton signifies perpetual existence. .(utlritteu (yHorb of JBnbaliem 295 be interesting to discriminate the extent of the tincture and to ascertain whether the plummet of Kabalism sounded lower depths than the schoolmen. in his treatise De la rhilosophie Scholar! ique. Hareau Paris. So also the name of A. however. past. which ascribes to a name of the Deity an How very curious of is existence independent whose convention it is the intelligent creatures ! But we should probably find many parallel treacheries among scholastic rcasoncrs. l88o. and thereafter in the immutability of things. but I doubt whether the dimensions of the present volume would suffice for this one excursion.i\ or the Lord. in the condition of creation before the creation. present and future.lt. and Tetragrammaton would have been an empty that in name. with them. it could not have thus signified the continuity of existences in every instant of time.//. as The name regards either the works or the names. unless those works were brought from potentiality into act they could not have been termed perfect. and if there were no ministers //&amp. the treachery of this reasoning. worlds and the production of the He must ^o further. were there any one at hand to disinter them. and the of perhaps some quartos will student at find large among scholastic in fail illuminating is parallels Scholastics. Let me indicate therefore the answer of Isaac de Loria. involves the idea of ministers or servants. than B. His but His glory magnificence.* The answer all that God cannot perfection in the works and names of . all But is if the worlds had not been created.

296 ^he Jtodrine attb ^literature r&amp. of course. and exception. or.gt. involved all Kabalists in controversy. was produced by emanation therefrom. which has emanation. is authority for both views and also series of a which represents them as a homo- . to be expected on any side. I might add adequacy of their views. and that its concealed at a later epoch.f the Jhtbdah divine works from potentiality into accomplishment. and could have no aspect of novelty at It may be affirmed the late period of Isaac de^Loria. and not at an earlier. Do they region proceed from one another is in the simplicity of a in successive series. God has fulfilled His perfection in every operation of His powers. Before any is far from all understanding. for that matter. This is the solution foundation of the difficulty it which is offered by all official theology. or their emanation columns for ? There third. and the Kabalist in this instance passes speedily into the transcendental Sephiroth and the manner of their another question. as he tells us. in a general way that when the Kabalists touch the common ground their of speculation they seldom surpass epoch also in the profundity or subtlety. there thing was no time or beginning therein. exceeding com prehension and speculation. in all His names without any The next is why it point discussed by the Liber Drushini the world was created at the time and moment was. But it is not often and the not for long that works like the Liber Drushim confine themselves to it is common ground of the of speculation. though philo in sophical sufficiency was not. that The answer is that the supreme and most excellent Light is infinite.

readily to an analysis of contents. but pillars. distinguished and an external and of is internal vessel. while these into an ambient and an inward Light.&amp. herein following. both Zoharic tradition. The commentary on &quot. as regards the in each and as portion of the Divine Light contained are again regards the containing vessel. but he offers a solution on the authority of the Zohar. These questions.lt. says R. as it takes various paragraphs of the text and exposes their meaning consecutively. its leading theorems giving their proper rise to as much meaning as the the principles of disputation regarding any other speculative philosophy.Book of Concealment. they were disposed one over the other. Talmudic and last chapter.Ehe oBritteu (SHorb of Jiabalism 297 Isaac. is written somewhat on the It does not yield itself Incus a non lucendo principle. The existence many worlds prior to the Sephirotic emanations affirmed. In subsequent chapters the Sephiroth are con sidered under a dual aspect.&quot.&amp. several in classifications of the Sephiroth are considered the The study of the Liber Drushim may be occultists who have especially recommended to those been taught to regard the Kabalah as a doctrine of certitude. after that time in three central those of Mercy and Severity. with the column of which Kether is the summit and Malc/uit/i the base. The peculiar designation of the . that before the order of things was instituted. with the help of the Idra Rabba and the Idra Zuta. are centric circles. namely. whereas it is largely empirical. as might be expected.lt. namely. Finally. as we have seen. hard and difficult to resolve.

These instances of Loria s skill in developing . manifested in the thirty-two paths . namely. 2 With the lowly is wisdom. The second reference treatise is : &quot. or Wisdom. 2 glory of God to conceal a thing/ and Ibid.&quot. the of Kcther is A in Soph. and repre sented mystically by three heads signifying a. termed the Father and the and the female Severity.e. The male denotes Mercy. Binah.298 3&\u ilortritu anil Jpterature of the giabalah is the explained by Proverbs xxv. the balance symbol. is the Father. Thus on the one side Chokmah. On the authority of the Zohar. which indeed follows from the developments of the Lesser Holy Synod. who had no foundation in the Holy Ancient One. : the Unmanifested that it is Wisdom. which is so withdrawn as though it were not.&quot. the These are empty lights dispelled by source of lights concealed within the Mother. One Supreme Crown. the . The Father is perfect love and the Mother perfect The latter had seven sons.. the severity. Male and female are conformations of the Holy Ancient One. section Pekude. These principles are Mother. the right hand pillar of the Sephiroth. corresponding to Kether. and in the Hebrew Alphabet are referable to Jod and Nun. Edomite kings. the pillar on the left hand. which is the Holy Ancient and c. explains why it is termed both the Book of Conceal ment and that of Modesty. and on the other is the latens Deltas.It : &quot. which has this treatise so made famous in Kabalism. namely. i. while the Mother is the increment of Understanding. in contradiction to is that which b. the Head which neither knows nor is known. and C/wkmah. is explained to represent the Male and Female principles. xi.

that which was good being used for the material of the four Kabalistic worlds as they are now constituted. concerning the seven Edomitc kings who emanated of Concealment its scheme and &quot. The greatest importance has been attached space because the much involved. Supernal Father. &quot. evil. He that Book of Concealment.&quot. does not proceed beyond &quot. .Erittcn SBorb of gUbalism 299 the symbolism of the three supernal Sephiroth must suffice as a specimen of the whole commentary. has :\Licroprosopus. is The &quot. the it may be added. but it is also difficult to give account of it in a small for a Kabalistic develops is work. is no doubt a more fascinating treatise than an obscure as the Sepher exposition of so obscure a work Dzeniouthi. Supernal Mother. that may derive himself a certain influence and benedic In this manner tion from the depths of that source. which. It distinction will between Zoharic and treatise of Isaac its later is be therefore useful to see what really involved in the famous de Loria. and a separation was therefore made. the doctrine of the and passed away prior to the production of the present In these kings there was good as well as universe. who made no doctrine. Each its of these worlds. basis of Book expository synods. according to Isaac de Loria. the obscurities of Kabalism are at times redeemed by the simplicity of the lesson which from them. chapter of the concludes that the sum of the whole mystery is first man to in his prayers should of all fix his mind upon he the foundation foundations. even system which it to it by occultists like Eliphas Levi. is extracted The Book of the Revolutions of Souls &quot.

III. possibly to the world of unmanifest Deity which is beyond mah to Briah. individuality. five-fold Loria s system proceeds. division of four Each of the five divisions are again attributed as follows in the Sephirotic scheme : I.e. the medial spirit. some sponding to the Bride. i. or Nephesh of Assiah. and some again to the Microprospus in the world of Assiah. or Jechidah.. or Chaiah . K We added are now in a position to standpoint of Franck his when he observes appreciate the that Loria own reveries to Zoharic teaching.300 Ihe gortttne mib literature of the all Microprospus and Bride.e.. the Crown.. the vitalitas. Ruach and being referred to Yetzirah. Nephesh to Malkuth. some to the Father Supernal. however.e. i. some to Microprospus. the mem.. which Psyche mundus Psyche. Nesha Chiah to Atziluth. five-fold division There a similar distribution its through the three superior worlds. derived from the seven A like origin is attributed to souls. or Ruach of the in the Psyche factiva . The . Binah. Ruach to the Sephiroth of Microprosopus. IV. Bride. and the singularitas. some to the Supernal Mother. and Jechida. and they corre are disposed similarly in the four worlds. or Neshamah . in The totality of these souls constitutes in Psyche reference to the supernal per sonalities of that world has therefore five parts the : Assiah. or Nephesh of Assiah. Jechidah to ether. kings. Neshamah to the Mother. all belonging to the is Psyche factiva. the factivus . i. Chiah to the Father.e. upon a principles only. Atziluth. i. V. Chokmah. the II. the Kingdom.

in of of the Israelites distributed the in members his the protoplastic Adam. rejected cortices Belial. Israelites. the members of Adam foulness and venom of Liberation from the is the serpent by -eix uition separated fr and death only. Now who look souls those in of the are the nnica for terrain. parts shells The the recrements. of is It was after this fall that the nations the world were produced from the shells. of the connection the secret tiv. until all the nations of the is v- in nrld shall have . which does not seem to be the consistent doctrine of the Zohar. of Edomite kings are or which compose the averse Adam But when the protoplasts partook of the forbidden fruit.A! he CjQriltcn &amp. the spiedtics of the serpent.ditions is Kabalism and devotion the souls which their fixed. To put the are position tersely. their fall confounded the good with the evil of the cortices. This the doctrine which occultists accept by implication as they when they speak.llorb of $Ubalism 301 developments have All plastic at the same time been considerably contained in simplified in this digest. was formed. that of Adam with the male shells of Samael or evil Adam Belial. regarded the four worlds. for the serpent had commerce with Eve according to Isaac de Loria. We and the must elsewhere the origin of the the evil nations of the world.lt. between on later do speak. whereby the good the evil. some to &amp. these souls were at to all the proto the these Adam the time he head. corresponding and so with are the the others members. and mystical extension through the souls of the Gentiles in Belial. and that of Eve with the of his bride Lilith.lt.

word and deed. and the Israelites From (i) the time when the good and evil were thus confounded two things have been necessary That the good man should be separated from . and Adam obviously not under the law. failing which the revolu tions of the deficient soul will again be prolonged. when he is obliged the the precepts. The is the entrance of a soul into at least to fulfil body of a grown man. whose fulfilled. a nd the second by that of the affirmative.* i. . however. is subject to a certain mitigation.302 ^he Jpoctrine zmb JJiterature ot the jiabalah. This scheme to seems return to apply exclusively to the Israelites. by every soul. who must be thirty years old.. revolutions must therefore continue until the whole law has been in This law must also be studied each of its four senses. thought. into the body of an infant at birth to experience the pain and trial alternative condition prepared for that body. The status either (a] to fulfil . Because the soul in question embryonatus has something is entered tion or which was neglected in the preceding revolu (b) For the benefit of the man who is * The Jewish age of reason. the evil (2) That the portion of the good should be restored. The first is accomplished by the observation of the prohibitive precepts of the law. as the nations of the world can only be whence they came. evil been brought forth from the from the good kind. The scheme. as destined Belial is revolution proper is sometimes replaced by status Revolution is the entrance of a soul embryonatus.e. Both classes and in must be accomplished in all their number.

who gave. nor is it any scheme of reincarnation doctrine. and perhaps it is very interesting and very curious. be unreasonable to regard old tradition . fulfilment Revolution (2) of a neglected precept . but not more. Chai m owing something to the scribe. one body. at the present peculiar to any school of occultism In so far as it differs from the Zohar.SBrittfit oEorb of Jtabalism 33 For the impregnated. King. was made great use of by Rosenfirstly.e. which case the true spouse in the prior is perfect in justice (4) To receive who was not deserved by the soul Four souls may revolve in revolution. to justify and direct him. while the status cmbryomitns may associate three alien souls with a single man. entitled &quot. in the returning soul . described as a reverie. of the roth. it would day.&quot. written by R. all all having been involved all. in a compendium of one of its entire content the form hundred and . i. it as a fuller light of an yet fitly Vital out of the head of Isaac de Loria. C This German NAPTHALI Hn Kabalist belongs to the seven teenth century. in his fall since he included Such is the Kabalistic doctrine of revolution It is not pure Zoharic according to Isaac de Loria.. (3) For the leading of others into the right way. but again no more. but I find no biographical particulars His work.The Valley concerning him. occurs (i) For the cleansing of sin. The object of all revolutions and Kabalistic embryology is the return of the Israelites into the stature of the first Adam.

so the Royal Valley extends Kabalistic cosmology. Jlortrine anb literature ot the Jtabalah thirty Kabalistic Theses. % Ibid.* . as * i.e. is therefore included in the know these only. as we have seen. Its author belonged to the school of Isaac de Loria. and appears to have traversed a portion of the ground covered by the Lorian MSS. 1 50 et seq. in which are confused. partis secundce tractatus quartits^ p. 47 et seq. and this is symbolised by the death of the second Hadad. The greater part Royal Valley Kabbala Denudata. It follows.304 ^he &quot. Chai m Vital.f it which is concerned &quot. the emanation of the seven Edomite kings. the first six sections of the treatise. sectinad. The mundus prior of Kabalism. the eighth Edomite king. We extravagance.&quot.. the excerpts extending over several hundred pages. . same manner that these develop and exaggerate Zoharic pneumatic teaching. therefore. Then a new world shall suc ceed that of Neshamahy and this will be the Sabbath of grace. ii. which are concerned so by After largely with the doctrine of spiritual essences. J &quot. and the two Synods commentary on these works. the excerpts of Rosenroth. of R. Apparatus in Librum Sohar pars ii. thirdly. with the Book of Concealment as a that part of comprehension thereof . arranged with con the second place. The actual world is that of Ruach. is termed the world of Nephesh. designed as an introduction siderable perspicuity in to the Zohar &quot. but last all shall good and evil comes out of the evil and at good be good. but not with as much the &quot. 152 et seq. &quot. for the better all and. and it was destroyed with the souls belonging to it because evil prevailed therein. i. t Ibid. of the &quot. Kabbala Demidata. that the present order must pass away.

then that light in was in some measure compressed. it is fundamentally similar to that of Isaac de identical in its developments. the shells both good and evil.lt. i. was infinitely When it came into the Supreme Mind to will the fabrication of worlds. the issue of emanations light of the perfection and the emission as active powers. The dominion of this Neshamah is the king who shall reign over Israel. and thus a certain vacuum was left in mid-infinite. eiBrittfu &amp.&lorb of |iabali0m 305 Chron. From the fragments of the broken vessels originated the Four Worlds. Before the emanations issued forth and the things light which are were created. shall be entirely destroyed and burnt up.The recorded in I. 51. Royal all Valley&quot. God will establish a creation and will bring forth from His glorious light the mystery of the Xcs/immth of new His great name. The producing that space which is termed primeval air. the shells. regards Kcther as . so in potence the remaining .-t/i by a process of explosion through the excess of light which distended them. to this treatise that Kabalism owes the curious conception of the evolution of the Sephir&amp. and His name one.lt. begins &quot. In the day of this destruction the spirits of impurity.&quot. and in that day the Lord shall be one. aspects of His and attributes. This notion Loria. wherein emanations might be It is manifested. hypothesis of the creation of the world with the contraction of the Divine Presence. namely.SV/////W//. I will and becomes As is add only that the containing \Y &quot. 50. and myriads of souls. impossible to compress the scheme of the treatise within the limits that are here possible. the supreme extended. receding every direction from a particular central point.

pars terlia. t. House of God. The House of God rests on the utterances attributed to R.&quot. ABRAHAM COHEN IRIRA This Portuguese Jew was another follower of the school of de Loria. is This peculiar instruction also found in the Talmud. in his Gate of the Heavens.&quot. the already seen. Apparatus Ibid. who * \ is termed the mouthpiece of holiness and the Kabbala Dentidata. but tinctured with the Platonic philosophy. p.. chiefly Jochai. It is added that in the second world. therefore. ..306 ^he jpoxtrine anb literature ot the jiabalah &quot. as in man there exist the four elements in cisely potence but undistinguishable specifically. he sought to harmonise as with Kabalism &quot. . the Ancient of the Ancients.. ii. i. 1 partis tertice tractatus /. Pre that they were not distinguishable therefrom.&quot.&quot. that. of that work.f been given to Kabalistic psychology that it will be permissible to dismiss this writer in a few words. and the Ancient So much space has Supplements&quot. Kether became the Cause of Causes and We see. &quot. Simeon ben first dissertation in the &quot. so in this Crown there were all the remaining numerations. is and that the evil of the whole world the result of the failure of God. called that of the restoration. which &quot. 88 et seq.. &quot. but directly founded upon and citing at considerable length the pneumatological portions of the &quot. Faithful Shepherd.* we have His other treatise is Beth Elohim. D. containing three dissertations in exposition of the doctrines of Loria. the Pekude section in the Zohar. the first attempt at manifestation by the latens Deltas went utterly astray. according to the late school of Kabalism.

L.. Moses of Cordova concerning the connection of the angels with the celestial bodies. 1559. but it is simply a commentary or development. / MM* Unveiled.lt. and.gt. kablnlnh in p. S.&amp. et . ISSACIIAR BEN NAPTIIALI This expositor of Kabalism seems to have been a contemporary of Loria. was a German. &quot. or. the Vision of the Priest wa* printed at Cracovia in It is a &quot. The second dissertation treats of the different and the seven heavens. like him.lt.SBritteu uBorb of $abalim 307 angel of the Lord . Denndata. The House of God has been included unaccount among the books which constitute the Zohar. It examines also in a special chapter the opinion of R. tractalns primus. it recites the emanation of the the system of the hierarchy of evil spirits. MacGregor Mathers in the intro&quot. for It has been according found almost As duction to Ins example. ably by some occult writers* yet neither possessing importance in its own nor claiming any pretension to antiquity. fin p rima .. and of R. &amp. i. R. analysis of its contents.ivy. Mr. who are still termed cortices. and concerning their physical vest ments. of considerable sphere. . His chief work. or shells. each of which is sub-divided to the * entire /ohar. ii. more a methodised number Mosaic books. E.1 the synopsis of properly.&quot. while the third deals with elementary spirits and the nature of angelical orders the soul. . and of the ten sinister or impure numbers. develops concerning eleven classes of shells. distributed under a of titles. Isaac de Loria Sephiroth according to the received doctrine.l&amp.

as indicated. Magia Adamica that the learning of the Jews. 112. possessing distinct objects or less defined. though. . and are. and that Flamel s &quot. THE BOOK OF PURIFYING FIRE a When more given order of mystic symbolism. the best proof thereof. In this connection we shall.Magical Writings of Thomas London. E. do well to remember that Hermetic and Kabalistic philosophy are ascribed by the majority of authorities in occultism to a common alchemy * source.308 ^ht iloctrine anb gjiteratrm cf the JUbalah impossible to study. See A. which signifies Purifying an instance of the application of Kabalistic is. &quot.e. Vaughan.Book of Abraham affirms in his is the Jew&quot. those technical the beginning of the present section as outside the scope of the present inquiry. make use of it for the purposes of this and it is indeed designed only for the assistance of the scholar on a who may desire to consult the Zohar given subject.&quot. is and a sphere of application another order. Issachar mentioned at are of similar character. The other works of R. p. the sole instance of its kind. is superincession of typology somewhat dazing in its results. Kabalah. we may results from the analogy thus instituted to understand the method. The treatise jEsh Metzareph. and as so far I am aware. however. their Thus Thomas Vaughan (Eugenius Philalethes). Waite. this I applied to the purposes of expect to derive some curious if we can is get have already usually entitled Fire. was chemical. in fact. i. apparatus to the purposes of alchemy. 1888.* while the rabbicinical influence in is well illustrated by such legends as that 11.. see Book vii. treatises II.

and we are not a position to say whether or not it is concerned metallic with transmutation. No information is. which is the language of the and the Zohar. It was made use of so largely by Rosenroth in his Lexicon that practically the whole work is found rendered into Latin in the It was recon pages of the Kabbala Denudata* structed from this source in the early part of the eighteenth century by an occultist styling himself A Lover of Philalethes. Westcott has ever seen the original since Rosenroth. iv. which the existence of an recognises archetypal gold. is and it is needless seriously to say that there in no occult theo- chemistry. London. and are of considerable value. authority. given as to the s I make this statement on Dr. speaking. London. but we only by a single quotation. hut no one treatise collected t Aish Metzareph. however. and regards the metals generally as composite substances.SBritteu oEorb of gabalism 309 of Rabbi Abraham and title Flamel. work under the is of The Philosophical Stone attributed to Saadiah it know in by Moses Botrel. A Chymico. Wynn The preface Westcott. or Purifying Fire. 1894.Kabali*t ic from the Kabbala Denudata of Knorr von Rosenroth. vol.J and notes which accompany this edition appear under in was included the pseudonym of Sapere Aude. the great sophical storehouse. It is true that a &quot. allusions are be found the But these references are almost less than incidental. and was by him put into an English vesture. The Aramaic Talmud treatise on Purifying Fire is written in Chaldee. Collectanea Hcrmctica. f In the year 1894 this translation a series of Hermetic reprints under the editorship of Dr. 1714. &quot. to A in few alchemical Zohar. .

that it We may therefore conclude does not antedate Rosenroth by any considerable period. firstly. the art of Alchemy.&quot. number of writers.&quot. a Kabalistic alchemist. borrows processes from R. subsequent to the Garden of treatise Pomegranates by R. correct interest natures. what he terms * It is mentioned by Claverus in a treatise entitled &quot. Moses of Cordova.*)* and it refers to the forged Latin treatises of Geber. it contains expressions which are common to most of the Latin alchemists. whose date I have failed to discover.. to the promulgation of the Zohar. a possibly belonging century. mostly Kabalistic. which it to the middle of the sixteenth It also quotes. and may be placed conjecturally at the beginning of the seventeenth century. 72 et seq. It does not therefore possess the or importance which would attach to a chemico-Kabalistic treatise of the Zohar period. such as. p.&quot. In the supplement to his Mysteries. and I have not been able to find any evidence as to the authority ascribed to it. He gives an account of it designed to show that the Jews accommodated the also that the Kabalistic Sephiroth to Chrysopccia. mtfc literature of the Jiabalah and the gaps occurring in the recon struction have not been filled. Mordechai. There is no evidence available by which we can Chaldee fix with any degree of precision the period at which this treatise was composed. which it quotes frequently. and were by them derived He that is wise may from the Greeks. &quot. 1706.310 Ihe gloctune original. of course.Observations on the most useful things in the world. are classed under this t A name in the bibliography of Bartolocci. Key of the Great Eliphas Levi gives. i.* It is It is subsequent. Finally.e. &quot. He states Jews hold the sEsk Metzareph in such high esteem that they consider no Christian worthy of reading it. .

.IKzareph n of the Flamel. thirdly./.The ffiriiten eSlorb of gabaliem 311 the fragments of the ALsh Mctzareph. t Firstly. like every one else.y is is entirely ii.-)Before indicating. section. The the first section proves when examined not to be fragments of the ^Esh Metzarcpli.// du Jttif Abraham secondly. the hypothetical restitution of the original.mj. It should be observed that the fragments are designed to exhibit the difficulties and the weariness which his researches have spared to his readers. substantially to be found in Rosenroth and the English version. ./. in the . but a loose paraphrase which has a very slender correspondence with the original.* The methods of the brilliant French occultist are well illustrated in each case. being further fragments which he claims to have discovered .lt. anonymous. attributes the that Levi.lt. never Rabbi Abraham of the Flamel legend. . which reads. or he would not have so misplaced his he ingenuity. stir Its grands mystcres dt la philosophic itjnc. . Fragments ds /. the complements of its eight chapters. and included as such bibliography of Wolf. which is is The hypothetical reconstruction serves only to show saw the original which some have said is still extant./i reo.siti&amp. in the hypothetical treatise which connects it with the mystic book Mctzarf/&amp.gt. The sEsh in the l. thus investing it with an antiquity which is to work contradicted by its own references. Lastly. 1265.. title. and to illustrate the conscientious and serious nature of his studies. it is necessary to observe that the ssh Metzareph must be for the ordinary student only a curious memorial of the connections instituted See Rensfigncmcnts 405 ft se&amp.. The second similarly paraphrase. p. terming it one of the most important books of Hermetic science secondly. the heads of contents. . howerer its briefly.

312

^he

Doctrine an& Jittratttre of the
orders
its

between two
described by

of

mystic

symbolism.
"suggestive

It

is

latest

editor as

rather

than

explanatory,"

and he adds that
"

its

alchemical
that they

in such a processes are not set out could be carried out by a neophyte
;

way

do

so

would
at

discover
stage alchemical

that
or

any attempt to something vital was

missing
is

one
all

other."

The statement
and the ALsh

true of

literature,

Metzareph has the common difficulties of purely Hermetic books further complicated by the system of Gematria and the Sephirotic correspondences of
the metals.

On
is

the correspondences here indicated the treatise
it

mainly based, and
differ

is

in

this

sense that the
are
said
to

mysteries of
"

alchemical transmutation

superior mysteries Sephiroth of the material world are identical with those of the archetypal, and they are
Kabalah."

not

from

the

of

the

The

the

same

in the

mineral kingdom.

The

alchemical
all

root of the metals corresponds to Kether ;
originate therefrom, as

metals
all

the other Sephiroth are

emanations from the Crown.
cealed
to
;

The Crown
Lead
is

is

con

so also

is

the metallic root.

referred

immediately from Tin has Kether, as Saturn from the metallic root.

Chokmah)

which

proceeds

the place of Binah, Silver that of Chesed, and these three are the white metallic natures. Among the red,

Gold

is

in

correspondence with Geburah, Iron with
"

Tiphereth, and the hermaphroditic Brass with Netzach and Hod. Quicksilver is referred to Jesod, and the

true Medicine of Metals
tion will appear in

"

to

Malkuth.
little

The

attribu

some

cases a

conventional,

and

it

depends upon a curious use of Scriptural

Written
authority.

ffitorb

of

gabaliem
"If

3* 3

However, the writer adds:
in
all

any one
shall

hath placed these things contend with him, inasmuch as
the

another order,

I

not

one

truth."

In

systems tend to illustration of this, he gives
:

another attribution, as follows
"

The

three

Supernals,"

namely, Kether, Chokmah
"

and llinah are the three fountains of metallic things. that is, Mercury, is Kether, Salt The thick
"

water,"

is

Chokmah and Sulphur
the
"

is

Bi/ta/i"

These are the
This attribution,
Chesed,
to

three principles of the alchemists.

says

treatise,

is

for

known

reasons."

Jesod

Tiphereth correspond Netzach is Tin, Hod Silver, Gold and Iron is Lead, while Malkuth is the
;

Geburah

and

as

before
is

Copper,

"Metallic
"Field

Woman,"

the

"Luna

of the

Wise"

and the

into which the seeds of secret minerals ought to be
cast, that
is,

the

Water

of

Gold."

The

attribution in
"

either case has a concealed sense

which
should

no tongue
expla
there

may be

nations offered
fore be taken
is

permitted to utter." here and there
seriously, as, for

The

superficial

not

example, that Silver
its

referred to

Chesed

"

on account of

whiteness,

The Kamea or which denotes Mercy and Pity." are given in connec Magical Squares of the planets tion with each of the seven metals, but not always
correctly.

The
in

of the work peculiar genius

is

well illustrated
vision

the third chapter, where
is

Daniel

s

of the

beast with ten horns
the help of gcmatrin.

interpreted alchemically

by

314

^He

Jtoctrine anb literature of

tlte

gabalah

III.

THE MYSTERIES OF LOVE
sole

With the
Irira,

exception of

the succession of Kabalistic writers
in review

Abraham Cohen whom we

have thus passed

never descended to the

use of a vulgar tongue. To that exception we must now add the case of R. Juda, son of Isaac Abravanel, better known under the designation of Leo the

Hebrew.

I

must confess that there

is

no reason of

a necessary kind for his inclusion in an account of the chief documents of Kabalism he is exceedingly late, having been born in the kingdom of Castile
;

shortly

after
is

the

middle of the fifteenth century,
all

and

it

even stated that he broke away from

Jewish tradition by becoming a Christian. At the same time there are two points by which he is forced upon our notice in the first place, he is a favourite
;

subject of allusion with occult writers, and cannot therefore be overlooked in a work which deals
in expressly with the occult interest in Kabalism the second place, his dialogues on love have been
;

more popular than any Kabalistic
Italian

treatise.

According

to the best opinion, they were written originally in

appeared at Rome in the year were reprinted at Venice in 1541. 1535. They Then they were translated into Latin by Sarrazin,

and

first

being published, according to Wolf, in 1564 at Vienna. This version, which has been praised for
its

elegance,

was next included by
Cabalisticce

Pistorius in

his

famous

Artis

Scriptores,

Basle,

1587.
first

They were rendered
version,

twice into

Spanish, the

and

the

only

one

of

my

acquaintance,

SKrittcn (L&orb of jiabaliem

315

there being that of Juan Costa, in 1584. Lastly, have been at least three French translations, namely, Pontus de Thiard, 1580; the Seigneur du Pare

by Champerrois

;

and Alexander Weill, 1875.
he
wrote,
as
it

Though
from
his

is

said,

in

Italian,

Abravanel was Spanish by
native

birth, but was driven

Ferdinand and

country through This was Isabella.

the
in

edict

of

1492.

His

first refuge was Naples, where he entered the king s fell into service, but the king died and his realm hands of Charles VIII., after which the Spanish the became a wanderer. Some say that he

Jew again
and,

retired to Sicily, afterwards to Corfu
finally,

and

Ponilles,
in

to

Venice, where
that

he

died

1508.

Others

relate

he fixed his abode at Genoa,

and

honour for a practised medicine with the change, real or pretended, long period. As to in his religious opinions there is also serious con
there
fusion.

Basnage says that he was a man of a mild nature who mixed familiarly with Christians, but inveighed against them in his writings, especially Pistorius, on the priests and the Pope.*
against the other
represents him as a converted based on Jew.f He is the subject of high praise, in the bibliography of Bartolocci.J intimate knowledge,

hand,

It

must be confessed that the occult

interest

Leo the Hebrew is not of an intelligible kind, and it is past speculation why he was included by
in
*
///i/. iksjitifs, 1. vii. t. v. pp. 1898, 1899. t So also does Drach in his notice of the Kabalah in

HHarmonie

entre

? Eglise

et la

Synagogue.
Ral>lnni>a,

Hibliothtca

iii.

86.

There

is

no mention of his
"

Dialogues" conversion in the notice, but the original edition of the as u i nnlionc Hfl>rto ct di poi fatto Christiano. describes their aullu
i

316

Ihe

gto-ctrine

anb literature ot the gtabalah
ambitious and unfinished attempt We treatises of Kabalism.
the
essential

Pistorius

in

his

to engarner the signal

look

in

vain

for

doctrines of

the

Jewish theosophy, as
the

we have

learned

them from

Zohar

;

we

look in vain even for the reveries
;

of the school of Loria

we have

in their place the

elegant sentimentalism which characterised we are reminded literature at the period
;

Italian

now
of

of

Boccalini,

and
of
if

now

of

the

declamatory

Latin
the

exercises
dialogues,

Palingenius.

The machinery
;

they can be said to possess machinery,

belongs to classical
illustrations,

mythology

the allusions,

the

the
;

images are echoes of the Greek

and Latin poets
is

when
is

not Aristotle,

it

the philosophical authority Plato there is only one direct
;

reference to the
folio

Kabalah
a

in

the whole three hundred
in Pistorius,

pages which the dialogues occupy
it

and

is

then
of

slender

allusion

to

successive

renewals

the

world,

which suggests
"

that
"

the

author had
<

misconceived the
Concealment."

restoration

of the

Book

of

not one trace of
is

As against this there is Hebrew thought or influence there
;

nothing which would lead us to suspect a Jewish authorship except such negative evidence as the
similarly entire absence of
If the

any Christian

reference.

work can be
it

said to recall anything outside

the

unwise
is

literature

of the sixteenth

century in

Italy,

certain Sufic poets adapted to the under

standing of Venetian ladies in the days of the Doges.

And
It
is

here, indeed,

is

the true secret of

its

popularity.

not only so pleasing, so educated according to the lights of its period, so correct in its sentiment and

breathing so

little

but sentiment, so refined in

its

The i&lvittm SB orb

of

JUbaliem

317
it

amorous passion and so much above reproach, that
does
not
contain
a
single

recondite thought.
it

One

obscenity or a single of its French translators has

worth while to append a glossary of its thought difficult words, but it has no difficulties and its words
are simplicity
itself.

even at the present from the commonplaces reading, and it is redeemed
of sentiment by tender suggestions of shallow allegory. The Philo and Sophia of the dialogue are enough by
their

many passages which day may be called delightful
It

has

mere names to suggest transcendentalism to an occult student, and more than one criticism has
with the love of supposed it to be concerned wholly God. As a fact it discerns in all things the activity, the influence and the power of the master passion,

and another of the

popularity in the warm-blooded world of the South, is that however
secrets of
its

much

love

always

transcendentalised in the dialogues, it So also the philosophy of this love sexual.
is

is is

the doctrine of delectation and
the

felicity.

Delectation

is union with beloved, and the good and the beautiful are identified in words that recall the light

metaphysics of Cousin and the blessed

life
is

of Fichte.
it

The

general

definition

of love

that

is

a

all vivifying spirit which permeates the entire universe. bond uniting

the world, and a But the proper

definition

of the perfect love of man and woman is the concurrence of the loving with the beloved to this into the end, that the beloved shall be converted the partakers lover. When such love is equal between

described as the conversion of the one into the Below this human love there is not other being mere animals, but in only that which subsists among
it

is

3i8

^he

Doctrine

anfc fpterattire

x>

the

things insensible, in the first matter, in the elements and in the heavenly bodies, which are drawn one to

the other and

move

in regular

order by the harmonious
to be pre

impulse and interaction of
as

a reciprocal affection.

Even the knowledge of God seems
sented,

regards language and images, under a

sexual aspect.

God

is

loved in proportion as

He

is

known, and as He cannot be known entirely by men, nor His wisdom by the human race, so He cannot be
loved as he deserves, for such an exalted sentiment

transcends the power of our will. The mind, there fore, must be content to know God according to the measure of its possibility and not that of His
excellence.

The knowledge and

love

of

God

are

both necessary to beatitude, for He is the true intellectual agent with Whom consists felicity, which
is

in the

not to be found in the knowledge of all things, but One alone who is Himself all others. This

in the act cognoscitive of God, nor in the love which succeeds love, such knowledge, but in the copulation of the most
felicity

does not consist

which leads to

interior

and united divine knowledge,

for this is the

sovereign perfection of the created intellect, the last act and happy end in which it finds itself rather
divine than human.

Such copulative

felicity

with

God

cannot, however, be continuous during our present life, because our intellect is here joined to the matter
of our fragile body.

may be added that Leo Raymond Lully, accounts for the
It

the Hebrew, like
self-sufficiency of

the divine nature on the ground that the love, the lover and the beloved are all one in God that God
;

alone

is

the end of

all

love in the universe

;

and that

\T!u Qjllrittnx SBovb of gabaliem

319

His love towards His creatures

is

the stimulation

of a desire of good for their sake and not for His own. It may be inferred also that a transcendental

meaning
tions

is

as

that

not improbably contained in such specula of the sleep of love, of amorous

contemplation, of the graving of the image of the beloved in the thought of the lover, and of the ravish

ment of

this state.

IV.

MINOR LITERATURE OF KABALISM
We
have

now completed our study

of

all

Kabalistic writings to which any currency has been given in connection with the claims of occultism, but

we have by no means exhausted
been

the literature either
It

before or after the appearance of the Zohar.
classified in chronological order in

has
list

a special

by Bartolocci at the beginning of his great work, and those who desire to pursue the subject further will
there see
place.
It

how
is,

impossible it is to deal with in this moreover, outside the purpose of our

A few names, however, may just be mentioned which are to some extent typical of the minor literature of Kabalism.
inquiry.

When
find
at

historical horizon, in

was on the verge of the the reign of Alphonso X., we Toledo Rabbi Mevi, the son of Theodore,
the

Zohar

Prince

of

the

Levites

of of

Burgos.

Though
he

a

Kabalism, light opposed Nachmanides, thus showing that at a comparatively early period there was little unanimity among the
doctors of theosophy and the voices of tradition on

Kabalist

and

a

320

^hc

JBoxtriiu anfo jpiteratur* of the Jiabalah

the subject of theosophy or tradition.
entitled
"

His book

is

Before and

indicate that he

Behind," which is supposed to had approached the Kabalah from

every point of view.* Side by side with philosophical Kabalism the spurious practical part, the Ars Kabalistica, never

wanted
in

its

professors.

As

neither worse nor better

than the rest we

may

mention R. Chamai of Arragon,

One of his the early part of the fifteenth century. practical secrets was the determination of the sex of
an unborn child by placing the nuptial couch from
north to south, thus indicating respect for the majesty of God, which resided between east and west, and might suffer dishonour by marital intercourse taking
place in the

same

direction.
it

Such consideration,
without
its

was deemed, would not go

reward

in

the birth of male children.f

In the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, and a victim of their edict of expulsion, flourished Joseph and the Kabalist the divine Gikatella, called

Thaumaturge, who wrote on the attributes of God,
the Divine names, and the Sephiroth.% At the period of Picus de Mirandola Kabalists

abounded

in Italy,
in

many

of

whom

were refugees from
Picus
in

persecution

Spain and Portugal.

his

Apologia affirms that his demonstrations of Christian dogma in Jewish theosophy effected the conversion
of a Kabalist

named

Dattilius.

As

it

is

one of few

instances on record the sincerity of the change
*

may

Bartolocci,

Bibliotheca
v.

Magnet Rabbinica,

iv.

1

8

;

Basnage,

Histoire desjuifs,

t Bartolocci, Histoire desjuifs, J Ibid.
v.

1773Bibliotheca

Magna

Kabbinica,

ii.

840

:

Basnage,

v.

1895.

1899.

vihc $iritlen

&lorb

of

gabaliem

321

be allowed to pass unchallenged.*
that
is

Long

afterwards,

to say, in

1613,

Samuel Nachunias, a Jew of
at

Thessalonica, but

residing
"

Venice,

also

abjured

Judaism and wrote the Path of Faith." So also, about 1672, Mordekai Kerkos a treatise composed specially against the Kabalah, but it has not been
printed. Basnage hints that such an action at that period seemed scarcely less subversive in Israel than

to

embrace

Azael,

On the other hand, Judas Christianity. about the same period, contributed to the
tradition

literature of the

by

his

"

Thrones of the

a treatise dealing with the Fifty Gates of Understanding, while in Germany Nathan
David,"

House of

of Spire,
praise

better

known, however,

for

a

treatise

in

Holy Land, produced a Kabalistic on Deuteronomy iii. 13, under the title commentary of Mcgi ltn/i Hamncoth. In Holland, a few years previously, the famous Manasses composed his work
on the resurrection of the body, which connects with Jewish esoteric theology by its defence of metempsy chosis and Isaac About, a Brazilian settled in the
;

of

the

Low

Countries,

translated
Irira

the Porta

Ccelorum

of

Abraham Cohen
Hebrew.

from the original Spanish into

In the sixteenth century Paul Klhananan became a convert to Christianity, and in his Mysterium Navum sou-lit to prove from the Kahalah that Jesus of Na/arcth was the true Messiah. Petrus (ialatinus als, abjured so did Johannes Judai,m Kortius, who wrote on the mystical meanings of the Hebrew letters. Paul de Ik-iedi.i
;

convert of the fifteenth Bartolooci (iv. 420) mentions Louis century. Garret, a Frenchman of the si.xte. -nth century, who in his "Visions of God" defended the truth of the Catholic faith by means of the Kabalah.
Christianise

Mines are Aaron Martina, whose many works attempted to the Kabalah; kittangeliu.s, the editor of the Sepher Yetzirah, who turned Protestant and Prosper Ruggieri.
;

X

which do not pretend to represent a serious study.322 ^he of the glabalah Jtortrine anfo literature These meagre memoranda. may close with the name of Spinoza. though it must be confessed that the tincture which he exhibits is little more than the memory of early reading. . who also connects with Kabalism.

our mediaeval demonology and the Jew. as magic than is the Kabalah outward appearance.BOOK VII SOME CHRISTIAN STUDENTS OF THE KABALAH ARGUMENT The opinion of modern occultists that the Kabalah is a vehicle of the secret doctrine of absolute religion was never held by occultists in the past . hounded out of Spain by the iniquitous edict of also . That there was. there can be no doubt. and it is shown that his authority is unreliable. The modern opinion began with Eliphas Levi. INTRODUCTORY our inquiry has proceeded no system of would seem less connected with what is philosophy far as So known conventionally to all ever. cited successively to prove these points. We owe our mediaeval withchcraft chiefly to this source . by which I mean a connection permitting the philosophical doctrine to emerge as fairly distinct. we owe . Some minor misconceptions are corrected and some extrinsic points of interest are developed in the course of the sketches. how a systematic connection. even those who ascribed it to a Divine source were actuated only by the notion that it was a disguised Christianity. and in most cases their real interest was the conversion of the Jews The chief Christian students of the Kabalah are by its means. I.

more magician. that of magic abounds. become which drew the Christian students of the literature and made them seek to fathom the Kabalistic mystery was assuredly its philosophical. they cite among and to Kabalists many circle. within without the mystic who have no claim . in the past. nor did the^ look to the sanctuaries of Egypt for any light but that which perchance was carried into it by the descendants of Abraham. We are on the track here of another great misconception which prevails among the class of thinkers who have most reason to concern themselves with the claims of the Kabalah. Those who accepted and those who vindicated the authenticity of the secret tradition had never dreamed of the religion behind all religions. but not its thaumaturgic part. extermination. authorities. and that interfused with the older. be expected that the newer order of ideas should But the Sepher Yetzirah and the Zohar are not magic. appealing to Christian authorities as to great names supporting their view of the subject. traces of the philosophical tradition are While the nowhere met It was to with in antiquity. In the first place.324 ^he Jtoctritte jtnb JDitetature of the Ferdinand and Isabella. The occult writers make two Christian errors. When esoteric enumerating in the Israel alleged I branches of to tradition endeavoured distinguish that of magic from philosophy. left to the Inquisition for and its devildom another fuel for pretext the burning in a word. transcen dental indeed. occult writers as they have It is useless for and done their too easy disciples to continue. the tremendous The Jew was avenged in the legacy of sorcery.

some should no longer be mentioned.ome Christian the title . which it many looks well to engross on the deeds of a brief for the defence. that there substantial ground supposing that there were two distinct it persons bearing this name. as upon several other departments of the It is time to affirm that few knowledge. with a handful of recent writers. They are not biographical sketches. despite their imputed authority. Over and above these names. because. they have nothing of moment to tell us. must be for said. great and otherwise. bear witness only to the prevailing ignorance. and are my scheme. may be left on the otherwise vacated benches. they misconstrue title entirely the position of those whose itself may be beyond any challenge. or that was assumed for .lt. RAYMOND LULLY of The name cited as Lully has been usually that of a considerable authority on the Raymond secret Kabalah. and some. ascriptions It seem to possess less foundation in is fact. a bare residuum. which possess considerable whom I address. importance for those therefore an integral part of graphical notes. some belong only to a Quixotic attempt at discovering an eirenicon for Christendom and Jewry.Stubent0 of the gabalah 325 in the second place. II. some are not worth citing. first of all. &amp. points. and they are not biblio They are designed to exhibit that among the names commonly cited in connection with Kabalism. The purpose of the brief studies which follow is to demonstrate these facts.

* The dates attributed to some that he was separated from his predecessor &quot. s. a bizarre work entitled Le Satanisme la Afagie. 2 vols.&quot. See.v. edited by myself. described Raymond Lully and instrumentality as a popular legend. identifies the two personages by prolonging the the is life of the first through It elixir. Abbatis Westmonasteriensis^ Angli. which bears all the marks third of invention by its narrator. is. Alchymy. Huysman.&quot. Westminster. misconstruction on the subject of Raymond Lully. till the beginning of from his so the is seventeenth century^ but the works by which he distinguished prototype are certainly There is a possibly by two centuries. Ordints Benedictini. published in 1895. would show by more than a century. by Jules Bois. the last . being the third tract of the Tripus Aureus. % It was published at Frankfort in 1618.* was born during The second His legend. Reformatum et 1678 it reappeared in the Museum Hermeticum Amplificatum. pellet I suppose. and this much earlier. for example. and is known in English by a translation In London. of his works.f can trace. and all popular sources of information are misleading. 1893.326 (Ehc Ilortrtne anfo literature ot the jtnbalah a second time at a later date. Lully was that seneschal of Majorca whose legend I Lives of narrated some twelve years ago in the Alchemystical the first Philosophers. With material derived from Eliphas Levi. f Testamentum Cremeri. Eliphas Levi. compresses all the legends into one small of fable which. Raymond Lully was an alchemist enshrined in the deceitful memorial of a so-called Abbot far of I as was unknown. He half of the thirteenth century. but his namesake were never of of the great enough importance to impress the imagination of the The first was a philosophical reformer and a people. hoc est tres tractatus chymici sclectissimi. and a pyrotechnic et terminology from M. and modern legend. of that collection. The original Raymond &quot. Blackie s Popular Encyclopoedia. by Michael Maier. if accurate. but they are in a sad state of confusion.

therefore This or proselyte of the gate. and his works are evidence that he did not renounce the Christian faith. 762) . te infilitnn fidei catholics arnpliatorem eligam . million nobles. The second has been described. the Tfstatrientnm Norissimum. Lans honor et the last words of its theoretical division i. mi Carole dilecte. 790). Charles (Ideo. compendiums. .Stubent&amp. but on what grounds I am unable to state.lt. sapicnti* dilectissimum itt in nomine : . 707. p. on condition that he The king did not keep his promise. testaments and codicils of alchemy which are found in all the great collections of Hermetic treatises. The second Raymond Lully connects. . According to his legend he transmuted into gold sufficient base metal for the minting of six Edward.gome Christian Christian &amp.* It is to him must be attributed those keys. King assumed the Red of England.lt. adept escaped as he could from the extortion of further projections. the personality which would naturally connect with Kabalism. 7 rinitatis et ictettuc (Jnifatis. or that Kabalism became identified with alchemy. however. and a^ ain &c. 708) gloriaJesn (ibid.&amp. exclusively with alchemy. He was so far imbued with the apostolic spirit of his predecessor that his great ambition was to engage some Catholic monarch in another barren crusade for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre. the at the head of the 7*cstatncninm Kaymitndi Lullii (Mangetus: Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa. (ibid. as a is &quot. martyred ill-judged attempt at the propagation of the faith among the Mussulmen of Africa.3 of the for |Ubalnh an 327 evangelist. biographers. for the benefit of an The confusion of the two Raymonds is perhaps more excusable among occultists than for ordinary That alchemy connects with Kabalism.Jewish neophyte&quot. addressed to King Witness the address to the Deity i-i .lt. and the Cross.

having nothing to do with a Jewish or Gentile. which has been Kabalistico. as Eliphas Levi describes him.328 ^he Jlortriue anb yiteratur* of the Jtabalah treatise on Purifying Fire sufficiently testifies. alone is occult. a Kabalist. connects remotely with Kabalism. though he was not a proselyte of the gate. or particular application of the method of Lully. and the Ars Notoria of Raymond Lully has a verbal con Solomon. but the alchemist per se is not. but his system is a title mechanical introduction to the sciences. says that Lully was the first to reveal the name and existence of the .* * The name is beyond to be The work proves on examination It is fair to what qualification for say that Franck takes the opposite view. has. It is. nection. moreover. with this enchiridion of Jewry. exoteric or esoteric. untrue to say that Raymond Lully was one therefore. It tradition. The Notary Art of which Robert Turner first printed in English. It is and no more. In the is Ars Magna Sciendi and the Ars Notoria there as much occult significance as in the scholastic jest concerning chimcera bombinans in vacua. and there is no single word of Kabalism in the treatises of Raymond Lully the second. no mystical foundation. ignorantly included among his works. of the grand and sublime masters of transcendent science. the same with the treatise entitled De Auditu an opusculum Raymundimuu. doctor of Majorca does connect artificially with the esoteric tradition of the Jews. as we have seen. and its selection conjecture. and is con cerned wholly with an educational method. but with judgment may be gathered from the fact that he He accepts the attribution to Lully of the work mentioned above. and has no to the name. by the arbitrary use Hermetic The of certain words and methods.

And of these at the The present day. The that best that can be said for the it Ars Magna Cornelius Picus de is was that discoursed it Agrippa Mirandola.. but it is certain that he may perhaps be permissible to suppose that the artificial used by Kabalists to connect their opinions with the words of Scripture.. maxima is This extract Propter divino conscquvtivt dirina derived from the Opus Raymuti- dinmti already mentioned. in no small degree to the invention of the Great Art. refrain &quot. The passage on which Franck MVIU-.r rational! anitri r rationalis t . difficult determine how far Lully was it initiate of this mystic science I or the precise influence which exercised on from saying with a historian of philosophy (Tennemann) that he borrowed thence his belief in the identity of God and Nature (I think that Tennemann has here misconstrued his author). divinilns rereladf nnim. . his doctrine. may it pr&amp. &quot. but such captivities are among the weaknesses all subjects of great minds. . .. a veritable revelation addressed to the rational soul. and &quot.Christian ^Jtuiiente of the Jiabalah 329 a late offshoot of the great vacant pretentious system which enabled those who mastered it to dispute on with success. Dicitur idem t-st st -nndnni Hcbrctos ut receptio re r it at is aijnslr have contributed It is : h&amp. he &quot. Raymond Lully makes already a distim-tion between ancient and modern Kabalists.&quot. to depend for his general view is as follows doctrina Kablmla (/nod. for which there to is no ground in fact . prelates and princes to found schools for the study of languages so as to facilitate the conversion of Kabalah to Christian it Europe. Some great minds were captivated knowledge by it. worthy of remark that more than two centuries and a half before the existence of the rival schools of Loria and Cordova. such as the substitution of numbers or letters for ideas or words.rc . etiani Eat i^itur Kabbala habitus ex rectA ratione dirinaruni rcrum cognitirus. though perhaps without of any. had a very high idea of it. and upon by was tolerated by facts. at the verytime when some modern critics have sought to place the origin of the Kabalah. chief philosophical mission of the first Raymond his Lully was to protest against the school of Averroes chief practical work was the exhortation of . est de quod apparet quod scicntia vofari debct. considering it a divine science. neither possesses a consequence.an thinks that would be &quot.lt.lt.

It was only after his death that his system obtained for a time a certain vogue. some which. because it would have helped to accredit a system which began and ended described It was not. and for the space of there was a quiet and intelligible Lully in cultus of Raymond the Balearic Islands. and dwell. truly. or a . So also. on certain passages concerning the eternal subsistence of the lover and the beloved in God. as the gratefully do. and belong to a higher category. in conclusion. concerning contemplation in God quomodo omnis nostra perfectio sit in perfectione nostri Domini Dei and the deep things of divine union. uncom pleted collection of his Opera devout student will Onmia. in It was chaffer and noise Spanish enthusiast had a strain of the if the martyrologists have told it however. who has qualities which recommend him to our admiration which are wanting in the . as have no connection with Ars Magna they have none with occult science. of a third Lully. its had. The collapse of the process of his beatification is one of the great escapes of the Latin Church.330 ^he Jlortrine atxb JDiteratwe of the glabalah the heathen . centuries. its defenders. as it has been in words. When we turn over the vast. erroneously. like some other local sanctities. has become perhaps scarcely a memory. a it universal science. and it had time miraculous legend. I should add. so to speak. . we begin to discern the existence. that there are works by or attributed to the original his Raymond Lully which Sciendi. egregious a mockery for the modern under Even the martyrdom of this eccentric are folly of suicide. but there were few who heard or heeded him. synthesis its of knowledge tabulations standing.

par Gabriel Delanne p. + See in particular Etude sur Us Vies Successive* Mt inoirf prtsentd au Congrh Spiritc International de I. and that Picus de Mirandola Kabalised in a college of Babylon. Delanne would assure usj that he brought it with him at his birth.v. col. Catholic writers.lt. s. in though he invented the if Ars he Magna. contained only ridiculous Kabalistic These MSS. III. even transmuted metals.The Daimon of Son . of Esdras. M. ii. On the other hand. for. and the Doctor alchemisticus. 1 t See Manning brochure. London. 1874. affirm that he &quot. where Miiandola is a case in point. for are whom his studies was swindled by an impostor who sold him sixty bogus MSS.&amp. and on the warrant of his Kabalistic enthusiasm has accredited him with the possession of a familiar demon. have been enumerated and s * Mignc Dictionnaire des Sciences OccultVj. Gabriel Delanne. 308. .ondres (1898). 6l.* His was the demon of Socrates which within a late Cardinal of brought the limits natural Archbishop has and clerical orthodoxy. this it remains a ground of Crichton acquired his speculation enormous erudition. on the assurance that they had been composed by the order unsavoury. &quot. s t. PICUS DE MIRANDOLA Magical legend has availed itself of the name of Mirandola.ome Christian ^tubcnte of the Jbbalah 331 Doctor illuminatits. as with the music of Mozart and as with the mathematics of Pascal.f His marvellous precocity has furnished a thesis to the ingenuity of M. that it was Italian how an inheritance from a previous life.They feveries. .&quot.

difficulty derived from his studies in this respect. 1463. and again at Basle in 1600. published at Bologna The evidence though I have so far meet with an alleged original edition said to have been published at Rome in 1486. we are met at the outset with a only too common in such inquiries. and his monograph on the other places. Christian student of the Kabalah.332 Ihe gtottrme zmfc literature xrf the gabalah described by subject will Gaffarel. the is first important to know what he Now. and there is that which we find with another commentary. In the first place. and that is the nature of the We enthusiasm which prompted Picus de Mirandola. though curiously by the same is writer. there are two there is that absolutely different versions extant which we find in the collected editions of his works. who was born on February is it 24. of Mirandola by Peter Garzia. &c. Of the Kabalistic conclusions arrived at by Picus de Miran dola. reproduced in the collection of Pistorius with a voluminous commentary by Archangelus de Burgo Nuovo. Archangelus de Burgo Nuovo agri Placentini Apologia pro Ostensibly a reply to an impeachment : . in a little in 1564. in the are not concerned be found.* volume. among great bibliography of Wolf. and actually bearing this name. unfortunately. may accept either version without prejudice to the point which it is here designed to establish. and therefore in favour of the first version. But as We Mirandola. . failed to in the lifetime of the author. though he speaks of magic in terms which may be held to indicate that he possessed a * defensione doctrines Cabala. and true died mentally exhausted in 1494. with these nor yet with the apocryphal stories of their original authorship and eventual sale. both late and early.

There however. and in he mysteries acrostics. antiquity as a presumption that the Kabalah was superior to Latin Christianity the wisdom which he . on the assurance that the prophet Esdras had a hand in their production will disclose his probable views as to the antiquity ot Kabalistic literature. more than certain that On the other hand. He took it. We should not parts is &quot. and enthusiasm is at the period. it like a learned man as he was. we may suppose. might perhaps have discovered beheaded words and achroamatica in is. The only depart ment of occult science which he has treated at any length is astrology. at its word. did not regard after the vulgar manner. and the legend also indicates that he was persuaded it was a common weakness in men of easily learning . legend which represents The bibliographical him purchasing MSS. salient as therefore expect that he betook himself to the esoteric speculations of Jewry because he was attracted by the transcendental powers attributed to the Divine Names. and on its special subject takes much the same point of view. and as to this he devoted a long. in any real sense.&quot. to I compose talismans.lt. for his was a subtle and curious intelligence which found green spots or rather enchanted cities of mirage in many deserts of the mind.Stubeni0 of the Jpabztlah its 333 tolerant and open mind as to some of claims. he cannot be considered as. an occult philosopher. must not speak so confidently as to possible fascinations in the direction of Gematria and Themurah. no proof that he did. which its some of good reading Agrippa s Vanity of the Sciences.(Ehrietiau &amp. in savage and undermining criticism. it he did not regard this . because he intended or because he desired to evoke. and.

p. published them with a suggestive commentary. like Lully s. also gave justice to his genius they are much better than the quintessential Kabalism of Picus.. or at least of materials is which might be held to bear a Christian construction. I will here translate them for the I ought perhaps to premise that Eliphas LeVi translated some of them in his own loose fashion and reader. t Part II. The servus servorum Dei found other zeal for his ministry.334 ^he latrine in anfc fpttrature of the giabdah found the Kabalah was the . He Latin originals. but as they are neither Picus nor the Kabalah. iv. and the comet of the schools blazed itself out. several Jewish writers of the post-Zoharic period. c. I shall not To do have * recourse to them for the purposes of the The existence of Christian elements. but that which who would to he sought of establish was a via media between Jewry and Christendom. et seq. what purports to be the but these he has polished and pointed. in La Science des Esprits*\ ascribing them to the collection of Pistorius but without mentioning the name of Mirandola. as I believe it will be of interest alone remain to in the to his sixty show what Picus de Mirandola extracted from MSS. When he turned the head Pope Julius with the secret mysteries of the Thorah. 147. the enthusiasm which was communicated for a moment to the chair of Peter was. admitted by . The Kabalistic Conclusions tell that Rome had a strange dream of the fifteenth century.* wisdom of his Christian in doctrine when he hung up famous theses Rome and scholar offered to defray the expenses of every dispute with him. that of the evangelist. those theses included his Kabalistic Conclusions. evening They lie in a small compass and.

The sin of Adam was the separation of the kingdom from the other branches. Araltm. t Hence Lcvi infers that the sin of Adam was educational. Malachim. V. it is not to be denied that it combines also the quality of judgment* IV. I have given this literally without pretending that it ha^ much Levi reduces it to Magnus a^itilo fans est antmarurn. Although the ineffable name is the quality of clemency.omc Christian &amp. sacrifices the higher animals. judicium. and Elohitn. Seraphim. Tarsisim.* * As LeVi tersely utilises puts it it.lt. and their names are Cherubim. the souls of rational II. There are nine hierarchies. priest. .lt.&amp. III.tufoeut0 of the jiabalah 335 following version. explaining that souls enter this world to escape idleness. IsJiim. The great north wind is the fountain of all souls simply.f created the world evil. He to Schema miscricordiam dicit sed et denounce the doctrine of everlasting punishment. as other days are of some and not all. except by footnotes. meaning. : to As man and God the souls the priest of inferior things sacrifices of unreasoning animals. Ophamni. so Michael. Chasinalim. some references in the Kabalistic Conclusions I. with the tree of the knowledge of good and whereby the first man VI. God sinned.

f This is mangled by Levi. Factum fatuni quia fatum verbum est. and thence issuing. who seems to have misunderstood its For the night of the body he substitutes the night of death. thereof is placed the Great Adam. however.f IX. at first See. sixth. we must understand by heaven the green all line which encircles things. who XI. and is divided into the fourth. O Heaven. fifth. . Hear. if we understand thereby the Supreme Arbiter. Levi gives. * sight. meaning. Book of Kings. x. est Kether. J Conclusions 9. II signify. Paradise is more correctly said to be the whole in is And building than the tenth part. and note thereto. 10. A river is said to flow out from Eden and to be parted into four heads signifying that the third numeration proceeds from the second. Conclusion.* VIII. and tenth. It is true that all things depend on fate. 48. the centre Tiphereth.j XII. Souls descend from the third light to the fourth day. By the six days of Genesis we must understand the six extremities of the building proceeding from Brashith as the cedars come forth out of Lebanon. which does not. they enter the night of the body.&quot.33 6 ^he Jlortrine anfo literature of the Jiabalah VII. an admirable specimen of polishing. When Solomon in the said in his prayer. according to Levi. Levi renders this Calum seem to represent it. that the history of the earthly paradise is an allegory of truth on earth. as recorded &quot.

\\ The significance Portce jubilaitm sunt. explains the Jubilee as the joy of true and that explanation is feeble.rmina sun/ Tiphcreth et Malkuth. Moses is Le&quot. He who shall in know the mystery of the Gates of Understanding the Kabalah shall know also the mystery of the Great Jubilee. this being &quot.ome Christian &amp. the unicorn ).e.. . He who of shall know the meridional property in dextral co-ordination shall know why every journey Abraham was always to the south. they saw only one side of truth. i. the feminine letter of the Tetragram. of the Kabalah. knowledge. that the south is the rainy &quot. Before Moses all prophesied by the stag with one horn (i.tubn\tc of the gabalah 337 XIII.&amp. Levi substitutes Afas et f.vi adds that the unicorn is the bearing two horns.* XIV.f xv.lt. and gives a sentimental explanation which has no connection with || Kabalism. s * evaporates in He Le&quot. Unless the name of letter Pie had been added to the Abram. He Abraham sennit. or Beth and Tiphereth. J XVI. there is conjunction of Tiphereth exhibited mystically and Chienset (or ChcnecetK) Israel.e.lt. Abraham would not have begotten. namely.e. t Levi quarter.vi.. arc- always fruitful. says Le&quot.vi s shortened recension. Wheresoever the love of male and female mentioned the in is Scripture. represented ideal.* t Per addition em I..&quot.the doctrines of Abraham. XVII.

is formed from the second. and from the sixth. XXII. and bodies. the light of the mirror which shines not shall be like the light of the shining mirror.f xx. as David says. then his opposite could certainly have no existence. substitute God as % This apparently puzzled the commentator. Whosoever secret of know the quality which is the darkness shall know why the evil demons shall are more hurtful in the night than in the day. nevertheless. seventh. . from the true human and divine marriage of souls. human spirits Levi interprets by distinguishing the marriage of mere animals. is Granting that the co-ordination of the chariots manifold. Whosoever in the shall have intercourse with Tiphereth middle night shall flourish in every generation. third. the day shall When become as the night.} XXI. so he invented a which partly reproduces an apocryphal saying of Christ. or otherwise.* XIX. The letters of the name of the evil demon who is the prince of this world are the same as those of and he who the name of God Tetragrammaton knows how to effect their transposition can extract one from the other.338 ^ht JBortrine anb literature of the Jiabaiah XVIII. mystery of the Philaterios. in so far as concerns the so that one chariot fourth. fifth. and which * and these are the four philateria Van assumes. two chariots are prepared. could the former be said to exist. t Levi substitutes Damon est Deus itiversits and argues with characteristic logic that.

Pointed by Levi. Sile. /nt. Chesed Geburah form the or throne of the third letter of the Tetragrnm while Tiphereth. 536.&amp. repent is not to is meaning the According to Archangelus de Burgonuovo.///&amp..f applied) in the word (which signifies) He XXIV. Wisdom He created. recourse to the Son nor to the Holy Spirit. More than the be understood &quot.e. see Kabbala Diinaiata. Forgiveness is to be sought from the Father.\ it. wliich he translates. appear-.&quot.lt.vi substitutes : cxcelsi sunt aqua aitstralis /// /. and their leader. quality of penitence is not to (or said. .* are the philateria which the He final XXIII. Netzach.ome Christian &amp. offer t This original It is is the best rendering which I can Supra proprietatcni penitent id.gt. symbols of a superior and 535. To &quot.lt. Who maketh peace in his he signified the austral water and highest places.lt. as id cst in Chokmah. % Le&quot.?. the same as if were said : In He created. and ninth a second chariot made.&quot.lt. Binah. boreal fire. Chokmah.lt. in it the beginning &quot.Stubents of the is gabalah 339 eighth. concerning which things When Job said &quot. a commentary on the New Te&amp.&quot. Brashith is i. and these assumes. seat. the that he who seeks the forgiveness of sins must not have act. ignis septcn- trionalis et prtffccti eorttnt. that proof ottered is that which stands for dicens to the Holy Ghost. thi-. J xxv.&quot. The Kabalah et is n-t. ittcndtun vcrbo quite certain that its intention is not represented by Levi s substi tuted aphorism I\rnitcntia non est rcrlmm. The and word rendered dixit belongs to the Son. however. inferior chariot. Hod and Jesod constitute the chariot of the fourth letter. to say. For other classifications of the Sephiroth according to the is * That m& chariot.tam&amp. . : there must be nothing said further. This refers to certain sayings of Christ.non cst of the obscure di.///&amp.

. J XXIX. I do not think it was intended which exceeds the Kabalistic idea. No * angel with six wings is is ever transformed. Deiis mare. Meaning. wearing the likeness of humanity.* XXVII. Onkelos the Chaldean said &quot. Angeli apparcntium sunt volatiles cceli et ani/nanfia. the so first man to is the congregation all of is the the the sea.f XXVIII. By fifth the flying thing which was created on the day we must understand angels of this world.340 ^he gortrine ani literature of the XXVI.e. to say that birds are angels of the outer form. that there is is which equilibrated perfectly . sums the idea by writing fusti cupia. II as to Abraham and to Lot. . with or by the Eternals. not those seen in the interior state and in vision. + Levi gives. and final Tsade. he understood the Thirty-two Paths of Wisdom. save in the spirit. God.. || This in his t Levi shows given boldly by Levi as Via ceternitatis sunt triginta duo. As waters. and not those which do not appear. Levi reads Daniel. says Levi. which rivers run. Pe. xxx. but that the flying things created on the fifth day are symbols of the angels who have appeared to men. and annotation how God becomes man and man God after his familiar Voltairean fashion. but this is no change for the mind mere ingenuity. Mem. Tsade. which appear to men. : Buadmin &quot. must be referred of to the The name Kingdom of David. When i. composed of four letters. Divinity.

There are no letters in the entire Law which do not show twisting and in their forth the secrets of the ten numerations in their forms. the same understands the fitting attitude and posture of prayer. XXXII.lt. Circumcision was ordained for deliverance from the impure powers wandering round about. Hence circumcision was performed on the eighth day.} XXXVI. their deficiency and separations. their enclosed or crowning. Here et se dtpouillt pour tnonter. in his annotation he reasons that. in their comparative smallness and largeness. direction.vi + Uesprit se rtvttent pour dcsccndrc elsewhere in his writings. writes Levi. The final sin of Sodom was the separation of the branch. f xxxv.lt. t Abscond* facicm fiiam ft era. He who comprehends why Moses hid his face and why Ezechias turned his countenance to the wall. in their and superfluity. * Liters stint hieroglyphic in omnibus^ according to the shorter connecting the ! recension of L\i. as we cannot live under water. because it is above the universal XXXIII.Stubent6 of the JUbalah 341 XXXI. .&amp. conjunctions.ome Chrietiau &amp. so spirits without bodies are unable to exist in our atmosphere.* XXXIV. No spiritual things descending below can operate without a garment. and open form. praying shawl in his comment with the veil of Isis says Le&quot. bride.

Eliphas Levi overlooks this point and has recourse to a sentimental explanation. xxxix. so love is inferior to fear. which he defends from the Book of &quot.&quot. but he is not quite correct as to his facts. because his bones were virtues called Zadith. Domum Concealment. descending on the supernal earth. discernit proprieties. * Nasus t Naris . . we By the secret of the prayer before the daylight must understand the quality of piety. From stood fear. and the hosts of the supernal tree.34 2 ^he SJartnne zmb |iteratnr^ of the XXXVII. The distinction between new souls and old is developed at some length by Isaac de Loria. As inwardly fear is outwardly inferior to love. XL. and not Therefore Joseph was buried in the bones only in the body. we must have recourse to the House of Judgment. He takes occasion also to deny that reincarnation was taught by the best Kabalists. praised in Genesis for his quality of piety that all Whensoever we are ignorant of the quality whence the influx comes down upon the petition which we put up. and hence Levi s abridgment is Literally. albeit the preceding conclusion it may be under why Abraham was things we know by the were made from love. xxxvm.* XLL Every good soul is a new soul coming from the Eastf XLII.

being taken up into the supernal jubilee and setting his roots ab-jve the jubilee.lt. whereas that a complete soul i-. * may be said also this to mean The Levi ^ivcs Aniina plena superior! fonjnngiliir. it supernal shall put off from itself its its from earthly garment and shall be rooted out place and united with Divinity. .~ dilTei&amp. When within the its comprehend all that is and shall be joined with comprehension. which the the natural order preceded that of the heaven and earth. XLVI.t to the divine soul. That which is said by the Kabalist. .&quot.gt. iit aphorism. namely.f earth XLYIl. the soul shall soul. the reference f i^ undoubtedly &quot. and understands united with a superior soul. Post deos rex (errant.(Some Christian -Students of the JtabaUh I 343 XLIII. that the green line encircles the universe.ath. the In the beginning God created the heaven and that Moses signified the creation earth.&quot. XLIV. When men of prophecy by the prophesied spirit ceased. namely.gt. l. Therefore also Moses knew no sepulchre. the word &quot. i veiiioii Vi&amp. king of the earth is not manifested on the until the heavenly host is humbled in heaven. XLYIII.- -i an entirely &amp. I believe in of the intellectual and animal natures. A By &quot. which twice occurs in the text.* XLV. the wise Israel by the Daughter of the Voice.

this is not green. Amsterdam 1720. but Azariel. It should be line encompassing noted that Norrelius in his Phosphorus Orthodox*? Fidei. in his commentary on the Sepher Yetzirah. that it is the colour of light seen through a mist. as we have I assume that seen. Amen is the influence of numbers. and so also the number of the above series is occasionally extended to seventy. says. explains that the linea viridis is the new moon. Archangelus de Burgo-Nuovo. earlier Their source also uncertain like their meaning. an adhesion of the heart. translating from an elegy on R. verbose. despite the labours of their commentator. the Kabalists represent Kether as a green all the other Sephiroth. and with pre determined theological motives.f rival We have seen that a series of Kabalistic Conclusions has been referred to Picus. IV. though Zoharic observations on the rainbow seem to indicate that some Kabalists at least were colour-blind. I do not know his authority. a kind of mental signature. critics. Simeon ben Jochai. given in the Sepher Imre Binah.344 ^Itc ^octniu jwb |Dtteratute ot the jiabalah appropriately at the final conclusion which we draw from Porphyry. . 4. says Levi. The collection of Pistorius contains only those which have been cited. To develop any system from these and this aphorisms would difficulty has is appear occurred almost to impossible. who was himself a Christian Kabalist. but disputatious.* XLIX. CORNELIUS AGRIPPA of Picus de Mirandola took of another Christian The untimely death place * in the early childhood According to Levi. less the one gate which was not entered by Moses. t An affirmation of the mind. and they are possibly intended to connect with the Fifty Gates of Understanding.

It among is starting-point of Kabalistic the Latin-reading scholars of to needless say that his treatise enjoyed immense repute and authority. Agrippa is therefore of very great importance to our inquiry. he was far muiv learned in the occult philosophy of Greece and Rome than in that of the later Hebrews. We must remember. We the magical side of Kabalism. unfolds the philo forms of magic soon after the death of Agrippa. and this is so true that the forged Fourth Book. which was added to it all &quot. that which deals with the properties and the virtues of Divine Names and so forth. Mathematical Philosophy and Theology. however. is so much in consonance with the genuine work that it might well have been must therefore expect that by the same hand. Of . is much more fully developed than the cosmology of the Sepher Yetzirah or the Divine have also to remember Mysteries of the Zohar. are the knowledge Europe.Christian . by which I do for the evocation of spirits. We that. but professedly a magical not mean that it is a ritual it is it sophical principles upon which were supposed to proceed.&quot. and does provide a species of magical ritual. although Agrippa was the first writer who elucidated the Kabalistic system. considered under the three heads of Natural Philosophy.-Students of the Jiabahih Kabalist. born at It is to him that we owe the first of methodical description the whole Kabalistic system. He was sufficiently acquainted with Hebrew to be able to understand and expound the mysteries of the Divine Names and the Notancon connected therewith. that work. Cornelius 345 Cologne in 1486. entitled De Occulla Philosophia. and his three books. Agrippa of Nettersheim.

34 6 ^he Jtortnne anb literature of the Jiabalah the literature itself he gives no information from which we could infer his knowledge he does not . and I am inclined to think that his acquaintance with Kabalistic subjects was formed chiefly through the Conclusiones Cabalisticce of Mirandola. but creating correspondences with classical It should be noted.* this has remained the chief source of information occult students among devoted up is. for example. see Frederich Earth Die Cabbala des Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa : * von Nettersheim. mainly Kabalistic. as. t On the general question of Agrippa s connection with Kabalism. and ledge. which.&quot. demons and the souls of men. the in the third theology and doctrines. . important information to however. printer.&quot. It as the faults may have in rested with the is noticeable this connection that the doctrine of the occult virtues residing in words and names is expounded from the authority of the only in the scales of the twelve numbers. however. 1855. that the Kabalistic system is developed. to this day. Stuttgard. the mistakes without number in his lettering of the Divine Names but the latter point cannot be justly errors in his division of the would not have been &quot. appeared at Rome in the year of Agrippa s birth. both of which were then only accessible in manuscript.f The most book. mention the Sepher Yetzirah or the Zohar. as we have seen. concerning angels. but It is Platonists. . It should be added also that there are serious Hebrew alphabet which made by one who was acquainted with any authoritative source of know Book of Formation. that he preceded the chief Hellenising schools of later Kabalism. dealt with somewhat minutely in the second book. pressed.

and by making one names and letters in Scripture . exemplars of the Archetype. that its mysteries were wrested from the Holy Scriptures.&quot. he goes on to say. he supposes that there is no one so foolish as to believe it has any such powers. because much of has been already given. rhapsody of superstition.ilah 347 is mythology wherever identified possible.&quot. instruments. It would serve no purpose to repeat all it the points of the instruction. following a defined order. the Kabalistic which he had diligently and laboriously sought after. thing out of another dissolve the connections of the truth. as The ten Sephiroth or described vestments. allegory proving nothing. which concerned largely with the so-called practical Kabalah.&quot. its As to the alleged miracles wrought by practical operations. having an influence on all created things through high to low.the Kabalah of the Jews is nothing but a pernicious superstition their pleasure they gather.Stufocnt8 of the Jlab. Ain SopJi with the Night the of Orpheus and the Kabalistic are Samael with Typhon. What was done by the Jews for the literature of the Ancient Covenant was performed. he recorded his opinion &quot. My is object is to note rather than illustrate exhaustively the character of Agrippa s exposition. a play with &quot. was merely a &quot. and very slightly It with the more important philosophical literature.&quot. brought him no satisfaction.Some Christian &amp. In a word.lt. divide by which at and transfer words. for the Greek documents of Christianity by . Thus. and before his troubled life drew to that its disastrous close art. &quot. while the tables of commutations showing the extraction of angelical names would require elaborate diagrams..

synagogue and has come to teach us all would not have concealed it from His Church last times. in last is is analysis this argument proves too much. and if be not. later on attempted with the Latin characters. from its own and of If standpoint. the Christian cannot well there deny to Jehovah . the health the worship of God. : * if it conduce to the perfection of life. could not be better expressed Kabalistic art proceed from God. in heaven or on earth. but the one name . . Gnostics. while His mysteries of salvation are revealed in every tongue. for every tongue has the same power. it Divine Names or there If there be. who produced a Greek Kabalah.348 &he 5} 0r * ri ne an ^ 3Pitct*ttM ot the the Ophites. all even until these that the and this the more seeing Church knows things which are of God. as Rabanus. or if not exactly a subterfuge. the doctrine of the Great Name in Christianity is a sublety no less idle than the Tetraor the grammaton Schemahamphorash. a corruption of an older system. one at the present day can regard transpositions any and extractions seriously.&quot. Of in course. I do not know that a modern writer could have I do not think that put the position more clearly. as the Jews boast. wherein all things the are recapitulated and contained. if there be the same equal piety neither is there any name. and Valentinians. whereby we can work miracles. by which we can be saved. We know. There either a peculiar virtue not. surely that Spirit of Truth which men and has left their truth. Jesus. Agrippa adds another argument which also. as also to the truth of understanding. the monk. but the question is whether these things were not after all a subterfuge.

In patience instance to investigate the present we have remember that Para occult celsus occupies an exceptional position * among &quot. that. that mentioned.* of Kabalah. Philosophy of Ibn Gebirol. The Kabalistic Jews believed that they could dissect the name without losing the vital essence which informs The name it. for example. references and testimonials which seem defeat their at first sight to carry great weight. V. transposed.&quot. In this way we obtain lists of authori ties.0me Christian &amp. which are received by one writer from another without any inquiry or any attempt at verification.lt. in so far as names represent ideas. that is to be traced distinctly in the system of the great German Statements like these are themselves a kind adept. but it spells when it is nothing when lettered separately and nothing To say otherwise is to rave. We are given to under it stand. 171. by Isaac Myer. . PARACELSUS Among cited in the great names of occultism which are support of the influence exerted by the it Kabalah and the authority which of Paracelsus is possessed. and they erred therein.gtubent0 of the gabalah 349 are however. they are used without inspiration and without know ledge they are dead and inert. p.&amp. of Jesus spells grace and salvation to millions.lt. but they will bear no examination and they come sufficient into the hands of to a own purpose when student who has them. they moving powers of the intellectual world when . like other empty vehicles.

to say concerning it. it. or * wherever actually occurred. man who respected or quoted authorities very little to If he owed very little to tradition.&quot. p. he was not a . When himself with will which writers magic. what is understood commonly by his alchemical treatises literature. 77. erudition. of Kabalism. the publisher of the Zohar. They do nothing to elucidate what in is obscure in previous authorities. the birth of Theophrastus of Hohenheim. .ue of the Jiatmlah. would prove to be his own Kabalist. if And we come the the he Kabalah. we should expect has anything that it would be quite unlike anything that went to the known lines we should find that he Once more. he concerns his own alchemist. indeed. to amount ii. added also that any contributions which he offers are seldom helpful. have boasted that his library would not Gould s History of Freemasonry. and and &quot. and quite foreign : It must be Alterius non sit qui suus esse potest. there He is said. examination.first though no attempt to print forty years after it took place life till some his turbulent it closed so sadly at Strasburg. vol. to six folio volumes. and that he was.350 TUhe Jlcrttine anb |Citerat. to he was his own question of that magician. philosophers . &quot. on before him.* we take and shall compare them with in Hermetic we find that they are quite unlike fact. he has few correspondences enable him to be illustrated by other this on subject to : again. and they constitute new departures which are themselves much need of explanation. In every department of thought he illustrated his own maxim discover. Nearly two centuries elapsed between the death of Moses de Leon.

gt. I presume. Also De p. i. Opera Ontnia ii. //&amp. Lil&amp.. i/&amp.. or that Paracelsus. and old medical are scouted on the ground that they were unacquainted with either.StubenU ot the $abalah 351 can be no doubt was quite accessible in manuscript. c..lt. i.gt. ibid.gt. I. that he never acquired the language from which translated... t (. the refers in to the Paraselsic theory of state concerning disease.&amp.. it animals with the It is identified also Magic itself. however.. p.. p. point art is exposed more plainly.lt. could that it have made himself acquainted with its contents. Peste. t De DC D( Pestilitate. it is only which they contain.this the faculties of the astral body. //-..gt. 193. c. It seems fairly certain.f which.gt. had he chosen. 408. 405. As to this. ii.nis (iallitiS. p. Pestt. 9.Cabala&quot. / . iv. Tract. / /&amp. 371.*. p. vol. Lib. Vita Longa.. stars man and the the stars and all connects with contextual all ment centre that at operations of the stars in heart. when the Kabalistic said to have been built up on the basis of the is * DC Can sis e ( Online 1658.gt... Lib. Lil&amp. Kabalistic Magic seems to have signified some obscure operations with Subsequent]}. i..* The &quot.Somc (Christian &amp. . t7&amp. is in one place identified with Magical Astronomy.cncva. vol. of which indications given in forms a part* But from another place. 6..gt. vol. but his very little pains necessary to collect the few references on the subject own works show that he was at of this kind. i. 56. The study several of Magic and the Kabalah is enjoined times authorities on the physician. it had not been knowledge of the Kabalah would in any case be limited to what he could gather from authors who wrote in Latin or some current his and that tongue . b.. iii.. l&amp. //.

Lib. &quot.&quot.. i. from its author. p. zA. It has also been falsely and the is termed Galamala. Paracelsus and in this case no longer extant. having been transmitted to Chaldaeans &quot.. % De Vidneribus..ctriitt anb JJiterature ot the Jfobnlah doctrines appears explains after concerning the sacramental body. but it is concerned with the official elements of early science and with the alchemical elements. is evident that this term.gt.. viii. however. There is also a reference in one place to some books of the Caballa. that entitled &quot. by whom it was corrupted. ii. in all for the ages. in the cure of diseases is signacula connected with the Kabalah.J These meagre instances exhaust the three folio volumes which constitute the Geneva collection of the works of Paracelsus. 565. p. iii.* apparitions of a super The art of judging what is concealed by certain outward signs in a word. the lowest form Dt. Pars. the use of certain prayers and talismans. spectres. which forms part of a treatise on the plague.&quot. &c. in Chirurgia Magna. f Philosophia Sagax. and the Jews. for others.f i. ..&quot. 91 b. v. Natura ib. there is I should add. which the death of the corruptible. apparently the work of &quot. afterwards caballia &quot. vol. ib. natural character. Salt. Lib. Jews were exceedingly ignorant Finally. iii. vol.e. a short section Caballa. b. p. like in many was made use of its a sense which either differs is widely from * wonted meaning. of Ethnic origin. b. Sulphur and Mercury..352 ^he Jto. 101.. but the is not of moment it so far Kabalah is concerned. Lib.&amp. or Rertini. By the student of Paracelsus that loss it may as be regretted. ib. once called caballa. and visions. the theory of signatures is said to be the Kabalistic art.

if Lully had been a Kabalist. still and perhaps z less it The shape which by those of an academic kind. is a species of practical magic. we should care to associate therewith. as we have seen. body it activity of a secret society or a learned was not actuated by any occult interests. there will be no difficulty in regarding the subject of the present notice as the representative of a group. which group illustrates most effectively the standpoint and purpose of our inquiry as regards the Christian students of the Kabalah.&amp. JOHN REUCHLIN biogra- As these sketches are not constructed phically. it was not the . when it is not something quite fantastic and unimaginable. The missionary enthusiasm which may be said to have begun with Mirandola. assumed in its literature was . The Kabalah for Paracelsus. It was not a concerted movement . would have been already at fever heat in the doctor illumincitus of Majorca. VI. assumed almost the aspect of a movement between the period of Rcuchlin and that of Rosenroth. the spurious literature of clavicles and grimoires was fast flourished at a period multiplying.Some Christian tnbent0 ol the giabalah 353 of that meaning. which. It is false very difficult to judge Paracelsus. which ceased only in the earl). and here we shall do well to remember that the adept of Hohenheim when. and many statements have been made concerning him by But it is well to know that he was not a student of the Kabalah in any sense that friends and enemies.part of the eighteenth century.lt.

\ In order to receive initiation into this great tradition he has counselled us. Students 20. Tomus I. does not appear so strenuously in the work of Rosenroth as it does in the collection of Pistorius. f Dogme.. with the exception of the Porta Lucis. the alliance of the universal reason and the It Divine &quot. J &quot.354 ^he Iptfrtrhu anfc HJiteratee of the that of a deliberate and successive attempt to read Christian It dogma into the written word of Kabalism. by which the enthusiasm is represented. Reuchlin as in those of Archangelus de Burgo because in the impossible to survey the vast treatises. its impulse towards the Jewish absolute of as to the philosophy and religion. theologia: et philosophies Scriptorum. p. are justified in regarding Eliphas Levi as some extent the mouthpiece of modern occult it is to him more than to any one that thought . We have only to establish to their proper connection with Kabalism and show that it We to has been so far misconceived by occultists. Paris.&quot.f was he first who told us that truly dogmatic religions have issued from the Kabalah and return therein. recondita. fortunately not necessary. de la Haute Magic. Nor is it so strong in the writings of excesses. and that. 1861 . hoc est. that it has the keys all &quot. none of its treatises were written aware that a originally in lars. Word. Basiliae. p.&quot. 95. the present and the future. of the past.e part of Hebrew. to the &quot. 2me edition.* days of the Kabbala Denudata there more reason to hinder such intellectual was.&quot. and it is It is Nuovo. 502.Transcendental Magic.Mysteries of Magic. p.Hebrew writers in the collection of * Artis Cabalistica. such thought owes tradition &quot. extending in some cases to hundreds of folio pages. 1587. &quot. among other books. who know it is the collection of Pistorius will be Christian in authorship.&quot.&quot. perhaps. .&quot. to have recourse Pistorius. second Ibid. edition. Ibid.

t. the Divine and so of forth. . occultists have been taught storehouse of to regard the famous Basle folio as a genuine Jewish tradition. He also in is Word who germ of thought the Jew was all the right because the in dogmas could be found This type is the traditions Israel. and seems to regard the Kabalah as a note-book to the New Testament. His chief work treats of Celestial Agriculture.ixteenth century. If is well also to add that they are not the work of occultists or who is &quot.&quot. where he He was invited hack to Germany taught philosophy with great credit. v. 2059 et seq. No impression could well be more erroneous. by the Emperor Maximilian. believed that &quot. born Christian. The works engarnered by Pistorius are neither the Jewish tradition nor commentary of authority of persons thereon. laborious represented by Reuchlin. and his presence is fatal to Levi s LeVi recommended the standpoint. but also who by Archangelus de Burgo Nuovo. The Jew who had abjured Israel and directed his polemics against it. his life be found in Basnage.on\t (Christian gtnbents of the Jiabalah 355 Following this direction. The . Reuchlin toyed with Lutheranism . from the Kabalah. who does frequent outrage to good sense.f and moderate. ful politician. or Lutheran.* II. The writers are of three types I. for who believed that the in wrong continuing taught the doctrine of the Trinity. Christian to logical become a Kabalist for the Riccius thought it Kabalist to turn Christian. Archangelus was After his conversion this German repaired to Padua. diplomatist and He will also belongs to the . Jew was in the Judaism when the Kabalah in opposition to LeVi. Catholic doctrine. He is represented by Riccius. wholly derived : &quot. is learned. pp.&quot. man of the Some account of world. He belongs to the sixteenth century. &quot.

but. perhaps even of . Kabalistic connections worth reciting. III. I refer to Abravanel. reference. as a counterblast to the superstitions which a the Kabalah had promoted in Christendom . to the unfortunate budget of Agrippa and to the increasing grimoire literature. the Kabalah might as well be referred to the of Ovid. The his Kabalistic studies far of the editor began in boyhood. his it is of course permissible to regard sympathies with the attempted purgation of the Church in a spirit of clemency. conversion. who might be either The purely natural mystic Jew or Gentile.356 ^Iht Jtoctrint an!b $ittrature of the gabalah a Catholic prelate. so certitude into from leading him to the boasted their under escort he passed Protestantism. &quot. Dialogues have been and here it is enough to say that their citation annihilates Levi. whose Philosophy of Love is of special mention by Eliphas Levi as if it &quot. already dealt with. the only point at is in the was undertaken. Art &quot. was born a Jew and seems to have been included by Pistorius because of his supposed &quot. who has no even a name. The &quot. the subject were a text-book of Kabalism. among other reasons. Having registered the fact itself as an illustration of the quality of his progress towards the Absolute. and there of Levi. distinction of was conferred upon him the august figuring as one the Lutheran of the deputies charged to present Confession of Faith to the Diet of Augsbourg. As which he makes contact with occultism fact that his enterprise regards Pistorius himself. because a student of &quot. we may presume. and to Christianity does not seem whom He is represented by a writer who. as a fact.

as throughout all Germany.lt. same as witnesses of the standpoint of Christian students in the sixteenth century. that they were on the ground of natural infirmity.hr:0ttan ghtbents of the glabalah 357 to confess. seeing excusable that he was for long subjected to persecution. whose collection of Hebrew manuscripts. VII. great treasures of the Library of In the course of his life-long studies he attention to gave special the Zohar and to the theurgic side of the Jewish tradition. Widmanstadt. is one of the Munich. at least. the Verbo Mirifico contributions of Reuchlin to the right understanding of the secret The treatises remain all the tradition in Israel. because he had saved the books of Jewry from confiscation and burning In place of them. I must by no means leave notice brief and con inadequate connections without fessedly of Reuchlin of reference and to his a word his learned pupil. J. opportunity afforded. A.omt interest. or rather an occult. they burnt De and De Arte Cabbalistica. for the most part Kabalistic. fostered or by a monkish inquisitor. contains no evidence in support this of the occult hypothesis. WILLIAM POSTEL manner round the A name philosophical. . and they help to warrant us in affirming that the chief Latin collection of Kabalistic writers. outside the Kabbala Denudata. legend has in gathered an unaccountable of William Postel. &amp. and it is supplemented by a popular legend which has depicted this peaceable.

liv. by his was the son of a poor Normandy perseverance and self-denial he contrived to obtain an education. c. connected with the mystics the points * Histoire de la Magic. piety.&quot. and to a few later writers leading. Paris.* So upon Eliphas Levi. Ever full of resignation and sweetness. with s France who have accepted his him. The philosophical legend we owe almost exclusively to Eliphas Le&quot. and want at times but he compelled him to part with his books acquired all the known languages and all the sciences he discovered rare and valuable manu of his day . among which Postel included the the &quot. &quot. . The by redeeming point of Postel which he is his exalted . though perhaps somewhat monk in a vestment of thaumaturgic splendour. 4. among others the apocryphal Gospels and the . on the authority of his chief admirer. scripts. he worked crust like a labouring man to ensure himself a to his studies. Key of Things Kept World. appear to be impressed well-intended but too often inane is honestly by Postel writings. Secret from Foundation of the peasant . 1860. 347. Sepher Yetzirah he initiated himself into the mysteries of the transcendent Kabalah. v. the most learned man of his time. p.vi. for this supreme reason of all him to make far all it philosophies and all dogmas. of bread.358 ^Ehe ^ocinnt anfc |pt*ratttre of the puerile. and his frank admiration for this absolute truth. and became. whose undeniable influence modern occultism has done more than to anything position exaggerate the the true philosophical of Jewish secret is literature. . tempted known to the world. in and.&quot. and then returned Poverty accompanied him always.

La Kabbalc. the whole world. appears Tradition also refers to him or which \\ Latin translation of the Zohar.&amp. The seclusion.lt. : So far as I am in a which at least equals the text in position to judge of this translation. I refer to the Book of Creation. to my knowledge. as by the sentiment of intolerance.ome (Christian &amp. He adds &quot. Franck. About . he addressed inviting it a to benevolent bless unpractical epistle. As which contains some of its fundamental doctrine. The result of these errors of enthusiasm was that Postel was shut up in some convent. wli&quot. 16.f a species of J expounded its commentary to which I * Ibid. in any case. everything that was disapproved by superiors. &quot. p. 250. monument of the Kabalah . offered him the kind of advantages that he most needed. &quot. p. He also principles in shall recur shortly.* the Council of Trent. and even of mercy. translated into Latin the most ancient and.lt. having retracted.&quot. the most obscure.. His t Post el was the first. faithful in a general way. his is said. Franck sought vainly in the public libraries of Paris. towards a learned man unfitted for contact with the world. it must be confessed.Stubent0 of the Jhibalah 359 be regretted are his extravagance. his trans cendental devotion to a religious and homely nun of mature years.A. V. Postel connects with Kabalism by the great fact that he discovered and made known in the West that celebrated &quot. and he died it in peace. already seen.Book of Formation&quot. which seems but outside the purpose of a deliberative assembly considering doctrinal questions. and his belief that he underwent a to process of physical regeneration by the infusion of her To spiritual substance two years after her death. it obscurity. a course dictated possibly as much by a feeling of consideration. convened for the condemnation of the heresies connected with the Reformation.

000 francs. triadic unity . is said to have purchased a MS. it is is constituted by animus and anima . of Lyons.360 ^he Jlocttine aub Jpterature 0f the Jpabalah own Levi doctrine has also Zoharistic tradition. suggests that it may be the missing work of Postel.* The in particular excess of Postel was that he recognised the incarnation of this maternal spirit the person of the pious nun before mentioned. de la Magic. comprehended only by the reasoning heads the has not penetrated the hearts. Stanislas de Guaita. copy of a Latin version for 25. but does not indicate the whereabouts of the * Hist. 1890. Simeon b. then will it understand. and its its after Its likeness. mind by its heart by rectify the errors of the heart. c. tofore it Christianity has been here . made The human the union of two halves . p. and the its generosity must correct the egoistic barrenness of the head. man body it is image and dual. maternal genius of religion must instruct the sublime grandeurs of the spirit of charity will reason be conciliated with faith. The in Its is Trinity. . undertaken by modern adept. v. his interpretation begins. it mind and tenderness masculine so also in has two sexes the situated the head. le Baron Vitta.&quot. The in fulfilment of redemption must therefore be dual purity must humanity . who mentions the circumstance. and the feminine in the heart. &quot.&quot. because The men in . though is some points of contact with its summary by Eliphas like this all loose and inexact. M. but not till The Word has Word has become woman will the world be saved. Jochai). v. 4. liv. 348. literary and historical studies &quot. MS. explain and govern the sacred excesses of devotion. The French Biographic Universelle also ascribes a Latin version to Gui de Viterbi (s. indeed become man.

which appears That a future King of France reason. be sustained among Christians or propagated among infidels except by the lights of (2) wholly plausible. it would be imprudent here to From the period of its occurrence the mystic always termed himself Postellus Res ft tutus it is istic enter. but no lyrical element Latin of Postellus. as if. the furrows disappeared from his brow. terms this spiritual ardour a lyrical there is puerility and a celestial in the hallucination. being insufficient to represent him as a fool.ome &amp. that his Ibid. who took no illuminations and no enthusiasms seriously. of a nature so noble and so generous. (i) &quot.hri0tian twbent0 of the ^abalah 361 Eliphas Levi. reported that his white hair became again black. the whatever the source of Into the ques lady died making no sign. the hallucination.&quot. and that is the stupidity or bad faith of the frigid and sceptical judge unsympathetic historian than those con founded by Levi reduces the doctrines of Postel under two heads. . in the light of a juggler and charlatan. tion of their subsequent reunion after a manner which recalls the status embryonnatus of Kabal- Pneumatics. was destined to universal monarchy. Derisive biographers explain these marvels as derisive bio graphers might be expected.lt.* minds which presume to A less Jesus Christ. could not. it was necessary also to exhibit this man. and his cheeks reassumed the hues of youth. and &quot.&quot. established by the apostles.&amp.That the evangelical reign of them.it the eloquent unreason of enthusiastic hearts. Levi well observes. There is one thing more astounding than &quot. . and.lt.

because he believed in Kingdom come ! ! reason and justice on earth Postel was Alas. and that the monarchy. little it is mad &quot. to be strong and lasting. read. but they scarcely suggest leading. so that thenceforth the world shall hold but one belief and Jesus Christ there by one King. ! He wrote too true. I commentary must at least say that it should be described rather as absolute but as Franck a collection of separate notes. are almost impossible to and in the case of the Sepher Yetzirah the I printer has done his best to . ! in the Thy advent of His Kingdom. to whom we daily cry.&quot. and I cite this conclusion less on account of its essential merit than because it afforded LeVi the opportunity for a rejoinder of characteristic suggestiveness. must bind hearts by the conquests of the Mad. as they contain nothing of real importance. Mad. no one to be guided by the views which recommends it expresses. poor books at intervals which. Mad. one or both of these propositions led the biographer in question to infer that Postel was mad. for having dreamed that religion should govern minds by the supreme reason of its doctrine. noted are : Among Defence (a] the points which may be of the lawfulness and . no Frenchman who is true to his shall reign faith. and some of them are almost childish. However. for having believed public prosperity of peace &quot. must frankly admit. traditions to a would conceivably assign it otherwise than King of France.362 ^he gtoftritte anb |tttr*ittrt rrf the JUtbalah way must be prepared by the conquest of hearts and the convincing of minds. make the difficulties I have promised to speak of the which accompanies the translation. one law and one Given universal monarchy as a possibility of the future.

Christian &amp. it is not at all true that he had set aside or exceeded the accepted doctrinal views of his period. regarded as considerable for his period. seems on Of the whole the most soberly reasoned if.lt. unfortunately. it has no connections with the Kabalah. (e) The attribution of the angelic choirs to the Sephiroth. the doctrine of eternal damnation.Stubcnt0 of the Jgabalah . and hence to regard Postel as a very great adept of their mysteries. And this. : according to the mystical brings back the soul to mode of calculating. While it is quite true that he was excessively fanciful in his notions. as follows I + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. which are extrava gant in the philological as well as the conventional who are disposed to be influenced sense of that term. ten and not &quot. and justifies it in such a manner that no room is left for . Postel s original writings. nine. formation A and making. least some with good sense. for example. in the Sepher ten Yetzirah . (V) The of the belief in to spheres of the heavens (d) The recourse numerical mysticism to show why the Sephiroth are. as used antiquity . 1543. brings us back to the unit.&quot. in the words of the Sepher Yetzirah. the necessity of the number ten being shown the progression from the unit to the by quaternary. It is useful also for occultists by Levi. it has at . nor does he appear to have possessed a specific light on given points of teaching which can be He upheld. thus showing that Postel s study of the Kabalah was not confined to the one document which he is known to have translated. even as the external universe God . that entitled De Rationibus Spirit us Sancti Libri Duo. 363 necessity of the concealment of sacred things (b) pertinent and useful distinction between the terms creation.

xii. THE ROSICRUCIANS adventurous statements advanced mystic fraternity. and compare Clifford Harrison. Now this doctrine is not only intolerable to the occultist. it For the Postel makes void his scheme of the universe. is in a very unsatisfactory state. in See c. in spite of his Clavis Absconditorum a Constitutione Mundi. and had never dreamed of looking for a doctrine of absolute religion beyond the seat of Peter. Among many concerning this we are not infre quently told that it gave a great impetus to the study This assertion is so far from being of the Kabalah. and in spite of the panegyrics of Eliphas Levi.&quot. was a good and single-minded Christian. 49: &quot. In the place* the historical evidence for the existence of the order.* and any knowledge of another custody I have kind which of those may be still in existence is in the who do not commit themselves. The truth is that no statement first should be hazarded on either side. London. p. &quot. * It is open therefore to numerous singular constructions. . though it points to certain conclusions.364 ^hc Doctrine attb literature at the gtabalah the conjecture that he was not saying what he meant. VIII. Henry Pott. 1891. that one is tempted to rejoin that it short-lived curiosity gave no impetus to anything except a and a certain pleasant fantasia in romantic fiction. one of the most remarkable being that placed on it by Mrs. had no knowledge whatsoever of the so-called Book of Thoth.&quot. Francis Bacon and his Secret Society. who. but rest. London. founded in any accessible fact.There is every good reason to suppose that the founder of Inductive Philosophy was a Rosicrucian.&quot. especially.Notes on the Margins. 1897. &quot.

Dr. as if meaning a tradition of any kind. some semi Masonic. provided the limits of the pretension are clear. 1892. laying any claim to antiquity. for it is well known that there have been. have found invariably those which most assumed the complexion of assurance were only the contrary.Stubenta of the gabalah in 365 never met literature with an express statement designed to indicate knowledge and to represent On the authority which could bear investigation. The Rosicrucian Kabalah. . which England. who had no warrant title to nor even a sufficient for an estimable opinion by their acquaintance with the exoteric facts. p. I private impressions of persons conviction. Mr. not be a identified with the sympathy . Chicago. own Rosicrucian Kabalah. as in France. 203. There is no mischief in such adoption. Wynn Westcott.German philosophers and writers who each and all held up Freemasonry as a branch of their . several corporate societies. . The Columbus of Literature. as there - still are. C. I have therefore to say that there is no known student of the Kabalah. and published in its transactions. was the Divine Magia.&quot. W. and.&amp. I The few with great Rosicrucianism are names of the past which connect and at the same time \\ith to Kabalism Fraternity. More- common The term is sometimes used loosely in connection with the Rosicrucians. with the exception of one or two which have appeared think. Supreme . in America.lt. as in have indicated their occult interests and purposes by adopting the name. this has. whom it is possible to fix at all as the member of a Rosicrucian Fraternity. understood in this sense. F. some mystic. Thus.* with possibly one exception. Wigston speaks of &quot.ome Chrivtian . t In an interesting paper read before the Quatuor Coronati Lodge.f * except by ground of Such were Fludd and Vaughan. been the case.

366 ^Ihe Qotttint anb Jptevahir* of the glabalah few memorials which we possess of it. or rather a well-known expositor processes. of Kabalistic subjects. certain he initiation some and it who has been recently stated by a French occultist has access to some important sources of informa tion that the scattered groups of Rosicrucian societies were reorganised by Eliphas Levi. that is Eliphas received Levi. of . may have received initiation into a Rosicrucian order going back through the last century. more especially as I shall establish later on that Eliphas Levi. of the Kabalah. IX. the The possible exception I have mentioned. presumably about the year 1850. the one case in which a well-known student namely. describes Rosicrucianism presentation of Gnostic. of great intellectual ambition. He was also an experimental exalted spiritual faith. It seems of almost kind. those belonging to the eighteenth century. Hermetic and Neo- Platonic doctrines. Kabalistic. was not entitled to it by any profound or even tolerable acquaintance with the literature which contains the Kabalah. especially indicate that it was mainly engrossed by alchemical over. though he has obtained a great reputation among occultists as a Kabalist. ROBERT FLUDD The name of Robert Fludd stands high among the occult philosophers of England he was a man of wide learning. mean order. . But this solitary instance does not really save the situation. If we add to this that he scientist of no as a Magus of new the English Rosicrucian Society.

who espoused the same cause in Germany. See He was of i.Christian ^tnbente of the Jlabalah is 367 an accessible figure.* it not be difficult to understand the fascination which he has exercised on many who. when the I. and the modern occult writers that he But we do who pretend was a Rosicrucian are either misled or are is. . et seq.&quot. See Apologia Compendiaria. the only point with which we are here concerned. 1616. His connection with Kabalism to this there is no doubt of his proficiency. have never dared to stir the dust from his folios. however. forty years of age English Mystics. for he occupied himself a great deal with vast cosmological hypotheses. Fraternity of the Rose-Cross. &quot.&quot. tracts It is clear from the which he wrote not in defence of this order that he into its had then been initiated mysteries. Vol.Haunts the p. and as there is only a single mystery in his life. as there is ground for supposing was the case with his friend Michael Maier.The Unknown World. I have already had occasion in more than one work to account for this Kentish transcendentalist. for the rest. and that a short pilgrimage in Kent will lead us to the lovely country house in which he lived will and died. which were drawn to some extent from this * source.f Perhaps so much energy and devotion earned that reward in the end. No. 130. Leyden. not too remote in time. to which no one retrace I shall not need here to ground that has been travelled. t Perhaps the Valete Nostrique Memores estate of the Epilogus Autori ad Fratres de Rosea Cruce may create a different impression in the minds of some readers. not know. The one mystery is whether he did ultimately enter the is likely to bring light. in &quot. and as romancing.

an inordinate passion for the marvellous. he observes. sacred names and signacula. of demoniacal natures and of human souls. and the Compendious Apology. which leads him to dwell unduly on the thaumaturgic side of the Jewish secret knowledge. and expounding on philosophical grounds the arcana of the written law. both sublunary and celestial. that of Cosmology. compel angels and perform miracles. Moses worked . which he then published in reply to Libavius. which contemplates things Divine. Having given the usual legend of the tradition. its oral reception by Moses from God. The second division is entitled Mercavah. he divides into the Kabalah two parts. Joshua caused the sun to stand still. Elijah brought fire from heaven and demons. dealing with the forces operating in created things. and he adds that the magical powers of natural things. can future com mand entire Nature. a German Rosicrucian &quot. exhibits his it Kabalistic gives studies.368 HEhe gortrine atvb literature of the Jiabalah controversy first gave opportunity to his pen. concealed in their centre. and its perpetuation till the time of Esdras. I must add also that evidence of his besetting intellectual weakness. does not differ materially from the Natural Magic in which Solomon is recorded to have excelled. This division. It is sub-divided into Notaricon and Theomantica. Theomantica investigates the mysteries of the Divine Majesty. angelical powers. Those who are proficient therein foretell are invested with things. can be brought forth by this species of Kabalah. By this art his various signs and wonders. of sacred names and pentacles.&quot. wonderful powers. hostile critic. virtues Notaricon treats of the angelical and names.

.lt.topru Mctaphysica. 1617 and 1629.Somt Christian &amp. granted only to will be seen that if this classification presents not the exalted bizarre traditions of the Zohar. 2 vols. &quot.. suggestive rather arc and no philosophy implicit and than patent and elaborated. positive I think acquaintance with the proof that he had Zohar. Slight correspondences Scphirotli) and the Divine Names* attributed to them.StuDcnt0 of the it $abalah 369 and raised the dead to life. the and Hermetic although many other authorities are cited. It is is a gift of God. . But through His Holy Spirit. figures within a triangle in one of the illustrations. Frankfort. In the properties of discussing the numbersf writings. he recourse writings. The complementary treatise on the Microcosm recalls Kabalism in its doctrine of angels and demons. Cosmi So also some et later observa- . the diagram which accompanies the remarks shows that he misconstrued the totally Kabalistic scheme of emanation.///./. which the elect. may be traced in his other but they indicate no real knowledge. In the vast folios which followed the Compendious Apology the Kabalistic connections of Fludd s are &quot..lt..!//&amp. ignored if not unknown by writers like Rosenroth. sen Mtttorohgica Cosmica. 1626.gt. Jhystca atque Technica Historia. (/&amp. nothing is borrowed from the Kabalists.r/ AA . except indeed the which and Tetragrammaton. but the debased and superstitious apparatus of the Sepker RastelanA of later Kabalism. t Philosophia Sacra et vert Christiana. In his Cos deals mology of the its Macrocosmos* which and to with has metaphysical chiefly physical Platonic origin.

1629. X. f It may like be observed. 786. Ad. 10. toni. because his name belongs undeniably to the literature of English mysticism. p. but the term is used loosely and has certainly very to When little do with the Kabalah of Jewry. 2 vols. in conclusion. Livre c. While there can be no question critic.370 tions ^he glortriiu anb literature ot the glabalah concerning Mctatron and the positive and negative sides special of the Sephirotic Tree* suggest no to Father replying knowledge. t DC Sophice cum Moria : Certatniue. regrets their inclusion by Rosenroth on the ground that they are personal speculations which are not at all in harmony with Kabalistic teaching.. Frankfort. Let us begin there fore by * stating that he approached the subject as a Medic ina Catholtca^ sett Mysticutn Artis Medicandi Sacrarium. . Fludd defends what he terms his Kabalah. that the Kentish mystic was pre-eminently a Christian philosopher. J Histoire desjuifs. HENRY MORE Platonic philosopher is The Cambridge regarded by Basnage to the Kabbala Denudata as in some sense discovering the sentiment and spirit of Jewish theosophy. Mersenne. that the just view belongs to the later interesting because of his enthusiasm ness. iii. Franck La Kabbale. on the contrary. 1629. that of the esoteric tradition in Israel was approached by him from the Christian stand point. other subjects. 1631. ii. p. and.J as a great Kabalist and his contributions Franck.. More is and earnest His point of view is also of importance to our inquiry. 22.

Some

Christian gtirtcnt* of the JBabalah

3?I

Christian who desired the conversion of the Jews, who regarded the Kabalah as a fitting instrument to effect
it,

and not

in

Pagans.

He

the case of the Jews only, but even of came, therefore, to its study and eluci

dation not as an occultist, not as a seeker for an absolute doctrine of religion, nor even for a higher sense of Christianity, but like Picus and Postel and Reuchlin, or like his and editor

Rosenroth,
spirit

as

one

imbued

correspondent with an

*

evangelical

The

introduction of

More

to the

Kabalah was

brought about, as it has been supposed, by means of Isaac de Loria s Liber Drushim. There is no reason to believe that he undertook an independent study of the Zohar, and hence as his contributions to the
subject are
all
it

Denudata,

prior to the appearance of the follows that his
it

Kabbala was not acquaintance
its

exhaustive, nor was

perhaps very good of

kind.

At

the

same

time, his study of the Liber

Drushim

called forth a well-reasoned letter from his pen, addressed to Rosenroth,f in which the description of the Sephiroth under the form of spheres is condemned

as a fiction
to the

of the
is

later

rabbis and their relation

denary
is,

affirmed.

The

critical

position of

accompanied by a number of questions and considerations in development of the debated point and other difficulties,
*

however, conclusively established by the attribution of the Pythagorean denary to a Kabalistic origin. This letter was

the writer

And

desiring the Ecclesitp

cmolnmcntum,

as

the

same corre

spondence shows.
t Epistola adCompilatorem, Apparatus in secunda, p. 52, et sey. Kab. Den. t. i.

Librum Sokar, Par,

372
all

<&ht

Jlortrine anb HJiteratuu of the Jiabahih

which are duly printed by Rosenroth, to whom space seemed no object, together with his Arnica
responsio,
in

which

cites

the authority of

the

Zohar and an
his

support of
replied

the circular form of the

Sephirotk.*

More

with an
letter,

Ulterior Disquisitio
in

accompanying

which

he

announces

belief that he has

hit

upon
This

the

true
is

Kabalah of
in

the Jewish Bereshith.

epistle

English
entreats

and

quaintly

worded.

The

conclusion
"

Rosenroth to intimate to
this for

his readers

how

beneficiall

preparing of the Jews to may prove the difficultyes and obstacles receive Christianity, being cleared and removed by the right under
the

standing of their

own
it

Cabbala."

There
discussion,

is

no

need

to

follow

this

friendly

which,

must

be

confessed,

becomes

exceedingly tedious

More, however, contributed another thesis in exposition of the Vision of Ezekiel, i.e., the Kabalistic work of the
Chariot, together with a Kabalistic catechism and a
refutation of the doctrine that the material world
is

in the Ulterior Disquisitio.

not the product of creation ex nihilo, in which last the Platonist seems to have scarcely understood the Kabalah.

Of

all

these the most interesting

is

the Mercavcz

Expositio^

which contains nineteen postulates, fifty-two questions arising out of the text of Ezekiel and the replies thereto. It affirms, (a) That all souls, angelical

and human, with that of the Messiah included, were created at the beginning of the world ;f (&) That the
material world in
*

its

first

estate

was diaphanous, or

In Caput

ii.,

t For this there

Consideratio tertia^ ibid., p. 91. is Talmudic as well as Zoharic authority.

Some
lucid
;

Chrietian
it

tubent

of the gfobalah

373

(V)

That

had two chief elements, the Spirit
;

of Nature and the vehicle of the Holy Spirit (d) That it was divided into four parts, which are the four worlds of the Kabalists That all souls
at
first

enclosed

revolution in

were were subject to Atziluth, the other worlds (/) That souls which
;

(e)

in

but

;

the Divine decree has sent into Asst aA, but are free from willing sin, are sustained by Divine
virtue,
in

and

will assuredly return to Atziluth

;

(g)

That

Atziluth the souls and the angels are absorbed wholly in the Beatific but that in Briah Vision, they have a tendency to external That the soul of things (//) the Messiah in Atziluth made such progress in the Divine Love that it became united with the Eternal Word in a Hyper-Atzilutic or
;

and was thus constituted

Hypostatic manner, Chief of all souls and

four worlds, which took place at the beginning of the Briatic world, the special heritage of the Messiah. At this point the Christian Kabalist introduces the compact of the cross and
dis

King of the

solves

all

connection

with

the

scheme of Jewish
contains

theosophy.

The
references

Mercavce
to

Expositio

numerous
entitled

another

work

of

More,

Cabbalistica* which preceded his corre spondence with Roscnroth. It is a presentation of the

Conjectura

literal, philosophical and mystical, or divinely moral sense of the three initial It chapters of Genesis. was received, so the author assures us, neither from
*
"A of interpreting the Mind of Moses Conjectural according to a threefold Cabbala, viz., Literal, Philosophical, Mystical or Divinely Moral," London, 1662. The attempt was dedicated to
I>

Cudworth.

374

^he
nor

Pcrrtrtne anb HJiteratnr* of the

men

angels,

and

as

a

fact

the

"

"

illustrates the criticism of

Franck, for it in common with any ancient or modern Kabalah ever The literal section is a bald received in Jewry.

conjecture has very little

and

paraphrase of the scriptural account of the creation is of man. The fall Philosophic Cabala
"

"

established on the denary after the following fantastic

manner

:

The The The The The

Monad, Archetypal World First Matter = Duad, 2.
Habitable Order

=

i.

=

Triad,

3.

Making of the Starry Heavens = Tetrad, 4. Making of Fish and Fowls, or Union of the

Passive and Active Principle = Pentad, 5. The Making of Beasts and Cattle, but chiefly of

Man = Hexad,
In his
soul

6.

What becomes
appear.

of the rest of the denary does not

and

his

first estate Adam was wholly ethereal, was the ground which was blessed by
it

brought forth every pleasant tree and every goodly growth of the heavenly Father s own planting. The Tree of Life in the garden of

God, whereby

man s

soul

was the

essential will of
will of

God, while the
himself.

Tree of Knowledge was the

man

We

have here the keynote of the allegory, which is merely It may, how pleasing and altogether unsubstantial.
be noted that the sleep which fell upon Adam The was a lassitude of Divine contemplation. Moral Cabala recognises two principles in man, and flesh. It gives apparently a namely, spirit synopsis of the work of regeneration, depicting, firstly, the spiritual chaos, when man is under the
ever,
" "

Christian

<Stubfnt*

of the

gabalah

375

dominion of the

flesh

;

next,

the

dawning of the

heavenly principle, corresponding to the Fiat Lux, hut the analogy in most instances seems at once weak

and laboured.

For example, the fruit-bearing trees are good works, the manifestation of the sun is the love of God and our neighbour, and so forth. On
the whole,
it

may be concluded
is

that

More s connection

with the Kabalah
of

an amiable scholar, increment to either.

an interesting episode in the life real but it was without

XI.

THOMAS VAUGHAN

With the questionings, difficulties and tentative expositions of Henry More it will be useful to contrast what is said on the subject of Kabalism
by
his

contemporary Eugenius
It

Philalethcs,

other

wise

Thomas Vaughan.
students
of

will

not

be forgotten
in

by

the

byways

of

literature

the

seventeenth century that the two writers came into
pamphlets. When Vaughan began his philosophical labours by the publication of two tracts on the nature of man and on the universal
collision
in

Spirit

of

Nature,

More, who

was

after

all

more

Platonist than mystic, and had scant tolerance for

mystic
in

terminology,

published

some observations

concerning them, to
satires

which the Welsh mystic replied

The
but
I

with the polemical virulence of his period. dispute itself deserves nothing less than oblivion,

Thomas Vaughan

has been regarded, and not,

think,

thcosopher

with exaggeration, as the greatest mystic, and alchemist, with one exception in

376

^he

Jloxtrine anb literature of the Jtabalah

the last respect,* produced by his century in England and as he died nearly twenty-five years before the appearance of the Kabbala Denudata, the source and
;

extent of his Kabalistic knowledge will help us to fix the state of scholarship in England on the
subject

before

the

formation

of

the

group

of

Cambridge
confesses

Platonists.

Vaughan,
disciple

in his early

works,
the

himself

a

of Agrippa,

and

"Three Books of Occult Philosophy"! represent the general measure of his knowledge concerning the esoteric tradition of the Jews, while the opinion which he had formed thereon must be referred to

the

"

Retractation

"

of

his

master, that

admirable

work

Vanity of the Sciences and the excellence of the Word of God." I must not say
the
"

on

that he shows no independent reading he quotes on one occasion a passage in the Porta Lucis\ which is not to be found in Agrippa, and there are one
;

or
is

two other
content
to
If

instances,

but for the most part he

inspirer.

represent his model and his first my readers accept this judgment, they must interpret his own statement that he spent some
*

The

Philosopher,"

exception is Eirenseus Philalethes, that truly "Unknown with whom Eugenius has been so often identified, and

from whom of late years so often and carefully distinguished by myself and other writers, that it is unnecessary in this connection to say any
thing concerning him, except that his numerous works have no points of contact, at least explicitly, with Kabalism.

t Translated

into

English one

year after

the

appearance of

Vaughan

s

first

treatises.

% Concerning the restraint of the superior influences occasioned by the sin of Adam. Of which some are sufficiently erroneous, as, for example, in Magia Adamica, when he states that Malkuth is the invisible, I speak under correction, but I know of no archetypal moon. authority for the Lunar attribution of the tenth Sephira.

ome (Christian

<Stul)ent0

of tht $ab.ilah

377

years in the search and contemplation of the Kabalah reflectively and not bibliographically, which further
will

of

assist them to see how the Thomas Vaughan can offer

peculiar mysticism
distinct

points

of

contact with the

Zohar without that text-book of

Kabalism, then wholly untranslated, having been read

by the mystic.
find

In his discourse on the antiquity of magic we him alive, like the students who had preceded

him, to the distinction between the true and the false

Kabalah.

The

latter,

manner of his period, and wandering rabbis
distraction
"

described after the picturesque as the invention of dispersed
"

whose brains had more of
consists
in
it

than their

fortunes,"

alphabetical knacks, ends always where it begins and the vanities of
in

altogether the letter
are

grown

voluminous."

and physical

more ancient respect of the traditions of the Kabalah," Thomas
But
in
"

Vaughan
tradition

tells

us that he embraces

them

for so

many
the

sacred truths.*
in

He

recognises also a metaphysical

which

the

greatest
"

mystery

is

Here we find two symbolism of Jacob s Ladder. extremes Jacob is one, at the foot of the ladder, and God is the other, who stands above it, ewittens fornias
et inflitxus

in

Jacob,

sive

subjectum hominew.

The

rounds or steps in the ladder signify the middle With nature, by which Jacob is united to God."f
this

symbolism he contrasts the false grammatical which consists only in rotations of the Kabala alphabet and a metathesis of letters in the text, by
"
" "

Magical Writings of Thomas Waite, London, 1888, pp. 109, no.
"

*

Vaughan,"

edited by A.

E.

t Ibid.,

p.

HI.

37 8

^he

iportrine anb iEit^ratnre of the

which means the scripture hath suffered many racks and excoriations." The true Kabalah only uses the
letters for
artifice,

that

is,

with a view to conceal

ment.*

Of the

he gives an language, which

physical side of the genuine tradition unfinished presentation in alchemical
is,

however, transfigured, for
as a spiritual

Thomas

Vaughan regarded alchemy
science,

and physical

operations in the infinite as well as in the mineral kingdom. For him the Sephiroth are

having

its

ten secret principles, of which the
in
retrecesso

first

is

suo fontano, while
Spirit, the third
is

the

second

a spirit is the

Voice of that

another Spirit which

proceeds from the Spirit and the Voice, and the fourth is a certain water proceeding from the
"
"

and emanating Fire and Air. It will be of the Welsh mystic on the apparatus of Kabalism are not elucidating, and
third Spirit,
)

seen

that

the reflections

while recording the Sephirotic attributions of the Sepher Yetzirah are not fully in consonance there
with.

We
that
writers

be inclined, on the whole, to confess Vaughan s connection with the Kabalistic
shall
is

like his

communications with the brethren

of the Rosicrucian Order.
latter
"

He knew
translation

nothing of the
us
in

as to

their

persons,"

so he tells

his

preface to a

certain

rare

of the

Fama

and Confessio of the Fraternity, and it was merely by report and consideration on things heard at second

hand that he was aware of the mysticism in Jewry. As time went on and he outgrew the simple leadingstrings of Cornelius Agrippa, so he strayed

further

*

Ibid.

f

Ibid.,

i

io.

Christian

<Stubtnt0

of the

JUbaUh

379
lost

from Kabalistic

interests,

and though he never

the fascination betrayed
far

in his earlier

works, he passed

away over

the fields of spiritual alchemy, where no

When he published jEsh Mezareph could help him. Waters of the East," in 1655, he or the "Euphrates,
shows no longer any trace of the tradition in Israel. In Lumen de Lumim\ which appeared some four years
earlier, there

however, a few references to the constitutes an adumbration subject, and one indeed Kabalah as impressed on the curious of the Christian
are,

mind of the transcendental
which
"

it is

introduced

Fire-Soul,"

pretext by a speculation concerning the or informing spirit of the earth, which is
royalist.
is

The

described as an influence from the Almighty derived the mediation of the terra viventium. The

through

is said to be mediating being thus darkly described, the Kabalists the Second Person, and that which
"

style

the

Supernatural
:

East"
"

symbolism Vaughan adds
the sun
is

As

explain this the Natural Light of

To

manifested to us in the East, so the in the second Supernatural Light was first manifested the Beginning person, for he \sPrincipium alterations, of God, or the first manifestation of of the
first

ways
s

his

Father
this
all

From
comes
of

Light in the Supernatural generation. Terra Vii cntinm or Land of the Living The Kabalistic warrant Life or
Spirit."*

this

notion

is

the

axiom

:

Omnis am ma bona
in

amma
is

nova

filia

Orientis.^
is
is

The East

question

Chokmah, which ments, and Chokmah
*

contrary to
the

Kabalistic state

Son of God.

This also

is

and

1651, pp. 80-82. also cites the obscure eighth conclusion of Mirandola, Ibid., p. 83. is Binah, the Holy Ghost. says that the third light

Lumen De Lemine, London,

f

Vaughan

380

llu

iortrine

anfc $iterattt

x>f

t!u

$abalah

opposed to the Sephirotic attributions with which we
are familiar, but there
listic
is some trace in early writers of an attribution of the Three

Kaba-

Supernals

to Father, Son, Bride, with which the later rabbins are said to have tampered so as to elude its Christian
inferences. In either case Vaughan is interesting as a strange light of Christian mysticism and not as an expositor of the Kabalah.

XII.

KNORR VON ROSENROTH.

the occult standpoint it is, perhaps, more interesting to ascertain the motives which led the editor of the Kabbala Denudata to the consideration of Jewish theosophy than those of any other student of the subject. To Christian Knorr von

From

Rosenroth

the occultist owes nearly all his knowledge of the for the Zohar, bibliographical writers who

preceded

him give only meagre notices of the Kabalfstic wagnum opus, and it is not even mentioned by
Mirandola, Agrippa, or Postal. Now Rosenroth occupies a somewhat curious position which occultists for the most part have failed to remark, because they know very little about their chief illuminator in the mysticism of Israel. I to show that

propose

he

was actuated by the same missionary enthusiasm which characterised all the Christian
neophytes
preceded him,* but
* I

who

shall begin

by enumerating one

It was indeed, both before and after, the conventional raison detre of almost every work on the subject. See, for example, Beyers Cabbahsmus Judaico - Christianas Delectus Breviterqve Delineates Wittemberg, 1707.

divided his laborious existence tireless between a search after the secret of trans the muting Kabalah.* were still alive . 220 t See Prafatio Authoris. Rosenroth. by A. like Helmont.Stul)ent0 of the $abnlah 381 two points which indicate that he had occult Born in the year 1636. and rival that Robert Fludd. p. . but had not yet passed away mystery. Joachim Johann Valentin Andreae ^Egidius Guthmann. Real History of the 222. three persons to whom have attributed the invention of theories Junge. Kabalist like Helmont. the title of baron. Waite. especially pp.. . viii. Vaughan was a schoolboy . In his treatise De Vita Eterna. pounded and Mercurius van Helmont. Rosicrucians. which appears editions of the Introitus aptrtus ad Occlusum Regis Palatium. who long before had testified that he had seen and touched the philosopher s stone of a colour like saffron in powder.Lives Philosophers. the contemporary and glass .&quot. Eirenaeus Philalethes had just written his Introitus Apertus to show the adepts of alchemy that he was their brother and their peer . the English apologist of the Fraternity.f Sendivogius had exhausted in his projecting powder and was frontiers living seclusion.lt. was. in all c. heavy had christened but and shining like his son Mercurius friend of Rosenroth. K.J of Silesia John an aged man. 1888.&quot. and on the crowded title-page * &quot. was on the threshold Thomas of death. study metals and of the probably a chemist.omt Christian or &amp. London. Waite: of Alchctnjslicall &quot. 179. on the Baptist van Helmont. E. * A. . a German noble connections. he appears on the scene bearing of history shortly after out on the subject of public curiosity had died the Rosicrucian mystery.

forbear from wearying my readers. Lutheran. from his conception to his baptism. 33. de Lapide Philosophico. omnium religionum. The listici communes CabbaCompendium Libri CabbalisticoChymici. is explained In a according to the doctrines of the Kabalah. I have had occasion in the sixth book to give some justification that the Loci include account of this curious treatise. the motto of his correspondent Henry More was that also of Rosenroth May the glory of our &quot. Like his countryman Khunrath. sEsch Mezareph dicti. Introduction. 1860. we are told that he loved meditating on the Holy Scriptures and that he knew them by heart. p. is a dialogue on evangelical history. herein he was a German of citizen his period rather than of the eternal kingdom. .382 lite Ilortrin* aub literature of the Jhtbaiah of his great work. about which I will Explanation of the Apocalypse. We We have reason therefore to suppose that Rosenwith the alchemical zeal of his roth was infected friend. to our purpose More With this also we may connect a treatise entitled Messias jPurus. : * Histoire de la Magie. philosophis. as of the author of the Amphitheatrum.* is In a mystic matters of fact religion his peculiar bent determined by the that he wrote an &quot. Paris. and Eliphas Levi would have said of him.&quot. that he was more mystic than Hermetist. in which a Kabalistic catechumen proposes questions on the four Gospels and a Christian replies. however.&quot. may suspect. we find it described as Scriptum Theologis omnibus philologis. word. the second generation of an alchemical family. atque a philochymicis is quam utilissimum. he was a &quot. in which the life of Jesus Christ.

size Explicit i Foedfris. ad dogmata ad convtrsionem Judtcorun . but there is stress laid upon the pro on the translation of the languages..gt.&amp. he mentions the chief things which will assist their conversion. met with very rarely in extant en pic t . id cst Syncatabasis Hebraizans. They include of course the ordinary common places of piety and the ordinary devices of proselytism. God and his our writings In conformity with this he begins his enumeration of the reasons which justify the appearance of a Latin version of the Zohar* by affirming that at a period when the divisions of Christendom are traceable to diversity of philosophical opinions definitions it and metaphysical must be important to investigate a philosophical system which flourished during the age of Christ and his apostles. Tom.. the preface to the translation of the Zohar In he expressly founds his opinion that Kabalistic dogmas may be of Divine revelation on the ground of their sanctity in and sublimity. the utterance Zohar does not contain a single enumerating should against Christ.e. later He also notes that. t With thi* description the reader may compare a little which belongs to the Kabbala Denndala.lt. as well as explaining the books of the their great use Old and unlike New the Testaments. Finally. Christiana-..ome Christian ^tubenta of the Jlabalah Christ be the end of all 383 !&quot. Den.. Kn!&amp. and New Testament into those The disquisition is conventional enough. and from which fountain the sacred oracles have themselves drawn largely. after twenty -four reasons why the Jews enjoy toleration at Christian hands. though unfortunately it is AAtmlrati* Kabbala i.ibntm Sohar.! * motion of the study of Hebrew and Chaldaic. 3 et scq. Jewish writings. p. Pars i. iunJa. pro formanda hypothesis. St Apparatus in I.

Taken altogether the story of Christian Rosenroth has a touch of heroism and tragedy. and are worth mentioning for the benefit of students who may wish to pursue the subject. I think. and it is. ( i ) Phosphorus . secondly. but he longed very Jew to become a Lutheran. so at the close of his his he had the misfortune to see daughter depart from the reformed religion and embrace. sacrifices. volume. He did not wish the Christian to become a Kabalistic Kabalist. and as Rosenroth life failed in his public aim. because it indicates.* It is an addendum to the second proficient!s. over the publication of the Kabbala Denudata. and is in the form of a dialogue between a Kabalist and a Christian It has been translated philosopher. how little he looked to find in Kabalistic doctrine a deeper sense of Christian doctrines. how little he dreamed either of an esoteric Christianity or of a withdrawn WisdomReligion. much for the He is said to have endured great outside the vast labour involved. or indeed anything but their consecration in the eyes of Jewry. At a later date the same motives inspired two small treatises which are interesting in their way. quite recently into French. the project which was ever near to the heart of Rosenroth. firstly. a useful task to indicate the circumstances under which he gave it and the motives by which he was prompted. but there is no need to add that it entirely missed its aim it has enabled a few students to get a confused . notion of the Zohar. and. the faith of the Catholic Church. under the influence of her husband. separately paged. and with all its faults his gift to scholarship is one of permanent value.384 ^he it Jtoctrine sub Jpteratitre at the giabalah but is important. and it has in this it is way done immense that it service to occultists: ever brought a single Jew outside probability into the Church of Christ. by demonstrating that they were to be found in the Zohar.

chapter seeks to prove that the three supernal Scphircth v. Jmlris Stilus. seeming indeed to admit that there have been an admixture of late material with the ancient fragments of the Zohar. dialect. tj uam &quot. Simconum examinatur A . vi.gt. He evidently regarded the Book of Concealment as the oldest and most important of its treatises. eo facilius appnehcndtndum.I. 1736. Trinitatis Dh inam non pertinaciter oppupiandam.-f 35 and the fifth of the Lord God. .. showing the authority of the Zohar./td il&amp.two pages.gt. Simcom. more first lion fadandum Honorem Spiritus Sancti Keccntiorum Studio M. 18. (2) Lux in Tcnebris..e pncbet. Amstehdami.qua VtH ccleberrimi Christ inn i Schc-cllgenii Disscrtatio docfns Cmnpare . BB . and that he and his -son wrote the Zohar therein.. The (3) Diatribe Pkitobgic* dt K. and Deut. tis r:inciiur. in 5.Christian ^tubtnts of the gabalah I 385 should add that over the antiquity of Kabalistic doctrine and literature he was by no means credulous for his may period. and follows the Mantua edition of the Zohar. the chapter investigates Gen. Simeon studied the Kabalah in the cave. ex pervetuslo Libra Sohar 1 deprompia. A am tore Justo Martina pamphlet of twenty. The third a Domino pluit. &amp.-d .! reddita. . Nicolai Liithcns (witlh. and characters under which the . qua mine primum Latin.ame xix. . Simeon ben Jochai. but about the same period as the treatise of Norrelius). The .sixth xlviii. /- ilium Jochai Jteligiomon fui^c Christianum modiste et contrarium pot. genii in dcnissimis return dirinarnm tcncbris.. 10). place In the f two chapters there is Trinity the is an attempt to prove that th concealed in Leviticus xvi. and its superiority to the Talmud on the ground that it.j s hcd pre-Christian tlie Three Persons of the One Divin with I : interest.ut ct or date. suisque et A\ fohannis hempen Judao-Christiatti animadversionibus concimu c.&quot. Glwenero. author flow before Judah the Prince. 16). The prolegomena are concerned with the praise of R.vfilicata. iHfue ac Christianis speciminis loco edidit Andreas Norrtlius i/iti item commentaries Kemperianos si/is illustravit notis. The Hebrew Jerusalem Zohar Antiijuumjudieonini Monumentiini. ad mystcrhtm SS. The translated matter is chiefly from the Faithful Shepherd. The Talmud is quoted (p.Hit Jochai auctorc Libri Sa/i. ! : fourth chapter treats of the Lord C. to that R. or that part of it which is in the [ portions are referred to other authorships (p. 1720. 2^De Domino . Hildtsi*. ct Majcstatcm Christ i sine occoccat. and this is the only one which he was inclined to ascribe to the direct Orthodox* Fidei Veterum Cabbalistarum.. Sancta Trinitate et Afessia Deo ct sett Tcstimonia dc Sacro- Homine. if.

is now unknown. . Abba and some of the school which succeeded these masters.* Among of the &quot.&quot. learning and sapience. as it is. It must be confessed that Cudworth connects somewhat superficially with Kabalism. a mine of Platonism.True For the purposes of this notice I have used the original edition Intellectual System of the Universe. 1668. it is a deeply reasoned treatise of its period in . and turning over the leaves of the colossal folio one almost regrets that the difficulties of the seventeenth century disturb us no longer and that their solution no longer helps us. and more than this. perhaps the greatest theosophist of his age. some may have been the work of R. Divine Cabbala&quot. except Intellectual It is The honoured name among rare students. RALPH CUDWORTH of Ralph Cudworth. period its opposition to the atheism of that points are established victoriously. whose embroideries of threefold nature was a &quot. the &quot. or revelation. Of the rest. successively depraved for and adulterated it almost Cudworth disappears unities&quot. London. such &quot. of Proclus and the * among the particular later Platonists.386 the Hpcctrtne aub JJiterahtre of the giabalah authorship of R. need not The chief thesis of the Intellectual detain us long. is that behind all the tapestries and System pagan mythology there is the doctrine of monotheism. True System of the Universe&quot. though. is still a precious memory in English theological literature of the higher type. and that civilised man in reality has never worshipped but one God. &quot. XIII. and the connection. till &quot. Simeon ben Jochai.

either as thinking that the honour done to them redounded to the Supreme. the Halacoth of the Gnolath Maimonides. which at least serve to show citings Christian divine had attempted some glosses and the curious generally of Nations anciently. acknowledged One Supreme God of the whole world. at the song of the Psalmist described the idols of the Gentiles as silver and gold. at Pagan least the intelligent amongst them. which inferior Gods of their other the Pagans were supposed by these Hebrews to be chiefly of two kinds. &quot.&quot. the book Nitsaclwn references that this and of Rabbi Solomon. upon these two accounts. of Joseph Albo. the Tamid of Moses Albelda. Kimchi.that Hebrew Doctors and Rabbins have been of the Gods were but Creatures and Inferior which were worshipped by them Ministers. or else that they might be their Mediators and Intercessors.gome Chri0tn gtubents of the $abalah 387 the cloud of witnesses who are convened in support of this view are included the later Rabbinical writers. Angels and Stars or Spheres. His conclusion was &quot.&quot. Orators and Negotiators with Him. the latter of which the Jews as well as Pagans or to concluded to be animated and question fantastic. intellectual. The at the it present day is chiefly archaic for it but has its interest. and that all this persuasion. Ikkanm David the commentaries of R. serves illustrate the strange contrast which exists between the Hebrew mind at the period of Maimonides and &quot. that the in the exploration unknown world Hebrew literature.True Intellectual System of Cudworth published some sermons and . In addition to the the Universe&quot. the that far distant epoch when work of the hands of men.

the commentary on that work by Rabbi Obadiah. on the matter in they contained nothing bearing had occasion arisen. but it was because Zoharic writings are not quoted. and that the custom of the Christians in partaking of the Body and Blood Cross. by the in his of the thesis is the first summary of represented sufficiently by custom of the Jews That it was a chapter : and Heathens to feast upon things sacrificed. of Karaite Jews and so forth. t This translation appeared in 1733. in it no theory passing may just be remarked which reduces the Eucharist to a memorial or a banquet can be mystically acceptable. skill in its manage it The thesis is mentioned here because has recourse so frequently to the Rabbinical writers. is analogous thereto.f and yet into Latin again enlarged &quot. in the is of Christ once sacrificed upon the s Lord Supper.Discourse upon on the &quot. the law of Nature and the law of Grace. . and the most that his subject afforded was an opportunity to give further evidence of his unusual erudition. 1676. The rare MSS. with a confutation representing the consubstantial doctrine of Lutheran theology . It outside my province to but as a Christian Mystic alism is who pronounce upon holds that sacramentthat this view. the writings of Isaac Abravanel.True Notion of- the Lord s afterwards translated by Mosheim. * London.* the &quot. and it may religious be added of no inconsiderable ment. Cudworth was by no means a mystic. the scholiasts on Judges. to the glosses of Nachmanides.&quot. the Mishna. no doubt Ralph Cudworth hand .388 ^he ot the J)0rtrtne anii literature a discourse on Supper. Edward Felling The drift Sacrament.&quot.&quot.

0me Christian ^tubcute of the JUtmlah 389 would have given evidence of equal that cycle of Kabalistic literature. tditio sccunda (the best). some time master of the Charterhouse. familiarity with XIV. London 1728. had preceded it by a number years. while year. Papus describes devoted to the Kabalah. tout un grand chapitre. he gave no evidence of his interest in Platonic or Kabalistic subjects. Henry More was just in his fortieth It was probably to the last-named divine that he owed his slight knowledge of the subject which entitles him to mention in this place. concerned largely with scheme of creation. but the &quot.&amp. really sequel. it has been of When Burnet described by It Brewster is.lt. Rerum Archieologia: Philosophic^ sive Doctrina Antiqua de Originibus. in that work in the year 1677.Interpretation discussion of the mind of Moses&quot. The amicable between More and the editor of the Kabbala Denudata appeared.* interesting volume. . is bibliography of Dr. when Ralph Cudworth was master. THOMAS BURNET With the Cambridge school of Platonists the name of Thomas Burnet. as the it. dealing as it does Mosaic with the ancient doctrine concerning the origin of is its extension or In this things. as we have seen. written elegantly in Latin of the period. the of course. as a beautiful geological romance. published his Telluris Theoria Sacra. He entered Christ s College in 1654. and the more important work which followed it. connects by association rather than the similarity of intellectual pursuits. Libri duo.

it bears no evidence of original research.390 ^Eh* Itortrine anb gDibraturt of the Jiabalah already hinted. The debased the present day character of the Jewish tradition is indeed. the Kabalah. He differs. of imagination and in nugatory figments methods. to separate anything may remain uncorrupted in the Kabalah. to we divide the genuine from the spurious. admitted by those who most earnestly maintain its mystical and theosophical importance. though it did not altogether convince. says Burnet. as already seen. * we must adulterata. first of Fcedissime lieet b Neotericis corrupta et . or indeed of any first-hand knowledge. impressed the liberal mind of a bold and not unlearned thinker belonging to the next generation.* In Kabalists this abounds as we now possess it. by which other Kabalistic of he understood what understood all students natural also. he proceeds the at to a more of examination. but it is justifiable by our purpose to ascertain how a literature As which fascinated. in ground of detailed all criticism. the Cambridge Platonists. From this statement of the general position. however. as might be anticipated. We find. Assuming some tradition of the kind. that Burnet raises no question have as to the wisdom of Moses. there could be no doubt that it was depraved in the lapse of time. with specific results which no sympathetic inquirer can reasonably quarrel. which may be regarded as the common particular. If which attempt. from the by questioning seriously how much of wisdom came down to the Israelites. a knowledge mysteries derived from the Egyptian education of the Jewish lawgiver.

the Divine Names and the word-book of the Scriptures.omc Christian all tubcnto of the |labalah 391 purge away that numerical.&quot. It is Ritual of the Dead.&quot. In accordance with his intention Burnet proceeds to divide the Kabalah into the Nominal and Real. and in truth it would seem hard to decide whether intellectual superiority and philosophical seriousness &quot. grammatical part which seeks to extract arcane meanings from the alphabet. literal. The delight in unintelligible language because of as it is unintelligible at is as characteristic some of occult writers the present gloom -wrapped Hades it day. think. belong to far sane literature. are the diversions of our children. I We is must further bear in mind. should be ascribed to rabbinical anagrams or to the apparatus of &quot. they do not wisdom. and this. Its devices. Vocabula. even according to the a tendency which has an inscrutable foundation in the entire subject. The first is that which he has specified as worthless Gematria. The warning which it implies is not less needed at the present moment than in the days of Thomas Burnet. In any case. Tcinurali. Notaricon. The magical and superstitious element must also be purged away.Tit: Tat: To. much less to So we can accept very readily the judgment . that the enunciation of common notions in uncommon language cannot be accepted as the true Kabalah. the most sensible and necessary of all the secondary points raised in the criticism. as in the case of CEdipus. he says. and would seem indeed that the sphinx who propounds the arcana in terms as monstrous as herself needs only a commonplace to overwhelm her.

He expected. and there was no novelty in the line taken even so far back as the second half of the seventeenth century.&quot.f the is of Burnet. and the Fifty Gates of Providence his marvellous science. him into manifest error.gt. and concealed the same in the according to the Kabalists. and his drawn only from the Kabbala when it does not arrest his judgment. from the Sepher Yetzirah and its &quot. to consider what he has agreed to regard as the real Kabalah. % John. their significance in t He the thirty-two attained mentions in addition to the Sephiroth and the Four Worlds. * Elsewhere. he attempts to consider connection with the axiom ex nihilo nihilfit.f however. the doctrine of the SephirotJi and that of the Four Worlds. i. Paths of Wisdom. through which Moses commentary. Thus. his insufficiency slender knowledge. + &quot. but he complains that the real for conception which underlies the former does not appear With the help of the Lexicon of Rosenroth clearly. and then surrenders the inquiry in the hope of finding more intelligible state sets forth He ments concerning the Four Worlds. 19-21. leads Denudata. however.39 2 ^QThe jpocitme zinfc fCitentture x&amp.. . and glancing at the &quot. is quite evident.e. he tells us that the Kabalah contains two things which are important our consideration. but destructive criticism always com paratively easy. Pentateuch. as might be of Occupation is the most ness rather than the light when already into the world. the pseudo- mystics of Kabalism.* what he can glean from that source con cerning Kcther and Chokmah. he decides finally that they are emanations from God. iii. Theosophy and Hermetics is who continued to love the dark the light was come assumes. When he comes. that the condemnation of that of the unbelievers He all concludes. that the Book important part of the Zohar.

meant by the symbolism of the Vast and the We are all of us liable some &quot.. t De Fide Christ ianorum. but it is a to common complaint of the mind among Orientals : be distracted by allegories.&quot.The eschatology and Part i.Slubcnt0 of the gUbalah 393 commentaries of Isaac de Loria and of Hirtz on the developments. the 71. . confesses his inability to understand either from text or interpreters tract in question its and what is Lesser Countenance. Duties of Christians. if it is tion than his ability as a critic of Kabalism. of the rare is precursors of liberal theology. posthumous work on * &quot. yet clearly set forth.(Dirisliau &amp. time or other to be distracted by reasoning. Thomas Burnet has higher claims to considera the Kabalah. et officiis c.! he is also stated to have excluded so much that seemed to him doubtful or unimportant in accepted doctrine that it is ques A tionable whether even Christianity remained.lt. He had perhaps few qualifications from which he might be expected to understand or sympathise with the He was one aspirations embraced by theosophy. but that they is have perished.* It at the same time scarcely that all foundation should be wanting to possible its doctrines were openly and hard to say whether they would move us to laughter or astonishment. &quot. resur- Guide of the Perplexed. and he said to have closed the path of his promotion by venturing to express the opinion that the story of the Garden of Eden should not be understood Faith and In a later treatise on the literally.&quot. To sum the general position We know from Maimonidcs that the Hebrews once possessed many mysteries concerning things divine.

The life SAINT-MARTIN and doctrine of Louis Claude de Saint- Philosopher. It is a tradition which differs very consider ably from other presentations of occult doctrine.394 ^he Jtortrine zwb Jpttrature of the Jbbalah rection* maintained that the punishment of the wicked would terminate ultimately in their salvation. the genesis of which remains undetermined. so far &quot. Life of Louis Claude de Saint- Martin. the Unknown spirit of mysticism. the Unknown Philosopher. and is now esoteric termed Swedenborgian by his present interpreters in France. 1901. J It is right to say that Kenneth Mackenzie. though it was termed Rosicrucian by his initiator. with which we are or may infer acquainted only through some excerpts published by one of Saint-Martin s biographers and in the cate. He was tradition through Martines de Pasqually. E. and the Substance of his Tran scendental Doctrine. t See A.&quot. XV. I having been the subject of a refer to special study. I should add that some pretended English versions of the Archaeological Philosophy do not represent the original. Philip Wellby. * De Statu Mortuorum : et &quot. Waite The Resurgentium. and in particular omit altogether the Kabalistic section. London. who at the end of the eighteenth century and amidst the torch lights of the Revolution diffused in France the higher Martin. . and in particular it has little in common with what we know concerning Rosicrucian teaching. shall him here only very discussed the recipient of an for his Kabalistic connections are at some length therein. in his Cyclopaedia of Freemasonry/ attributes to him three published works which.f briefly. In the writings of Pasqually.

for purely traditional nor did he show much He deference towards doctors of authority therein.&quot. Man and the Universe. except in his life-notes. of course. are unknown.Martin was a man who cared very as traditional. but he never mentions it in correspondence posthumously. Saint. and does not scruple doctrines. as I am them as mythical. Now. developed by Saint-Martin. but it has lost all touch with in the Kabalism hands of Saint-Martin. who indeed brought to it a gift of genius which was wanting in his instructor. but it is entirely out of line with all other numerical mysticism. which are also most probably is his work. There is that in particular concerning the Great Name which I which have developed at some length in the study to I have referred. Till he came under the influence of Jacob Bohme he neither quoted nor possessed authorities. and I must add that personally I regard It may be noted further that while this volume was passing through the press the fragmentary treatise referred to in the text has been published in Paris. had ever read Kabalistic presumption that he did there is every Some of his lesser doctrines possess a Kabalistic complexion. instruction. he preferred though he wrote many learning at first hand from God. the tradition It was much presented in a very crude manner. considered books at best a makeshift method of . nothing to indicate that he . from the source of his initiation. aware. &quot. . any and There clear his is manner. He drew. little. with the exception of the Scriptures.on\t Christian Stubenta of the Jiabnlah 395 chisms of the Masonic Rite propagated by him. both published literature not. So also he has a complex system of mystic numbers which suggests the Rabbinical Notaricon. at least to say so.

I conclude that Pasqually. however.* He has therefore little title to be included among the defenders and expounders of Kabalistic doctrine. and in some of its com is.39 6 ^He itortrin* aitb IpUratttte at the its and makes the question of attractive origin one of the most I problems in later occult history. in which it may be safely said that there is not a single trace of Kabalism. . and rest regret that his I Super must add by one among the who from gifts position in the modern rite of Martinism has the know differently and the opportunity to which make use of opportunity. writers day. which would have come as a surprise to himself. and may even instruct them.j* who seem anxious I annex anyone. and that they were brought over by Saint-Martin without any historical associations what ever. ELIPHAS LEVI Between the period of Saint Martin and that of Alphonse Louis Constant. I mentators. think. the French literature of Kabalism may be more * correctly said to have been initiated rather than That man is superior to the angels. This at this is done.&quot. by French occult to &quot. Le t More especially in the case of the so-called facetious allegory Crocodile. This notion is found in the Zohar. the subject of the present notice. whom take to have been a sincere and perhaps even a saintly man. from Shakespeare to the author of natural Religion. XVI. the most convincing instance in Saint-Martin of such a filtration. derived from a source which retained some filtrations of Kabalism. as his Masonic school was almost a seminary of sanctity.

published some few years subsequently. to whose views on the subject of new impetus by post-Christian religious philosophy I among the Jews. scholars its limitations. to of course. and together with the researches of Munk. Franck s work has. ahhale on la / /n losoph. . have been practically the only source of that knowledge down to recent times. and has in certain definite respects inclined to return to his standpoint. as regards not only the antiquity of Zoharic tradition but of much of the body of the Zohar. The first was an academic writer having no occult interests the second claimed both methods and . together with its delineations of the correspondences between the philosophical school of Kabalism and the schools of Plato. created French knowledge on the subject. not ordinary . A&amp. 1843. his and it is well known that excerpts subjected from to the Kabalistic strictures books in were .lt.* I have also indicated that much of its value remains unim paired after the lapse of criticism indeed modern nearly sixty years. diffused not only initiation but of adeptship. of Alexandria.f Rcligieuse des Htbrfu.\ n -sources scholarship focussed only the on a Par. have already made frequent reference. Paris.1.(Christian tnbcuts of the gabalah 397 to have received a the publication of Adolphe Franck. of Philo. analyses of the Sepher Yetzirah and of the Zohar. with the exception of such light as may be held to have been by the writings of Kliphas Levi.\. As regards motives Franck and Levi are located at opposite poles. early severe Germany but for an accomplished Its and luminous review of the whole subject nothing of later date can be said to have superseded it. Franck.

or to display more signal ignorance. : the world it crushed Paganism and Theurgy. by the power of which the demons of hell and the divinities of heaven were compelled. from a name known already in the schools of Alexandria. issued from of the scholastic. to 1843 the most extraordinary ignorance must have prevailed upon the subject in France. to appear in obedience to the wand bizarre formulae. as formerly the neoplatonist Porphyry evoked with Platonic words. who attracted such zealous partisans and furious enemies. but all the advantages which could be derived from the exclusive possession of its master key. It within the dimensions of a paragraph. hence Victor Cousin the delirium which brought Bruno to the stake.&quot. . Cours de Philosophic. . This new mysticism. mysterious numbers. subsequent to 1850. mystic ecstasies of Raymond Lully. since it was possible for a distinguished philosopher to When Christian philosophy made its appearance in write as follows &quot. did not reappear till the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in certain schools of Italy and Germany. and signifying oral tradition. which set aside mysticism. Paris. causing blood to flow . appearing in 1843. literary Among criticism the lesser difficulties of Kabalistic the proper allocation of Alphonse Louis Constant in the throng of students and expositors is not without its gravity. of of the period pretations of their first leader into the obscure body of dogma which comprises * the esoteric tradition of Although the elegant treatise of Franck had. and in the second century humanity was made subject It to a severe regime. So far as I can recollect the professed adept never referred to the Prior sympathetic criticism and defence of the more academic writer.* and I may add that few persons thus initiated have done anything but read the inter LeVi. and acted with the instruments of the the scholastic. but since bosom entirely disappeared.398 ^he Jlortrme zmb Jftteratute ot the Jiabalah and historical problem. 1836. as we have seen. called Kabalah. hence the : would seem impossible to record a greater number of inaccuracies. The Cabbala (sic) of the fifteenth century put in operation magic squares and circles. Whether of occult in France or in England few have approached the subject with in sympathies philosophy the direction science and to who do not owe I their introduction course. Eliphas speak. preceded Levi s interpretatations by several years. as it was pretended.

is which looks so simple aspect. on the other. barred his progress through the higher of that initiation. : a Journal of Psychical. while. nor must I deny that this school possesses the respect of its partici certain proportion of its tradition was pants.gt. no sooner raised than it is complicated by several kinds of considerations and indeed by incompatible facts. When I published a &quot.&amp. I an independent do not think that he ever made statement upon any * historical letter in &quot. to reduce very largely the authority attributed to Eliphas Levi.-O my Light 4. Occult and Mystical Research/ July 1896.onu Christian If it tufcenta of the JOabalah 399 the Jews. take a plain possible to course in the matter there can be no real need hesitation.* On the one hand. grades therefore.&quot. but this is it and for so far as is only a question of the moment. in its But first the question. the possibilities of his communication and that ceased at the limit of his knowledge. few years ago my English I version of it Levi s Transcendental Magic. therefore. it can be shown abundantly that he was not in any solid sense of the word a first hand student of the literature of occult philosophy.&amp. stated that was the into work of a writer who had received initiation a school of traditional knowledge. A made public for the first time in Levi s treatise and under circumstances which seem then to have been I do not think that I regarded as inopportune. I must expect to alienate the sympathy of his many admirers. . as it is it alleged. into conflict with his superiors.lt. fact to which the On tliis point M. shall be making an unpermissible statement if I now add that the course pursued by the author brought him. be necessary.

so it occurred frequently that he attributed to it an old author the kind of sense which would be very interesting to find in old authors. but only modestly remarks that the gift of prophecy so generously attributed to reviewer would be required to discern anything beyond that period. Arthur Machen would term a decorative imagina tion. from this Here is an instance of what Levi reads into an author. and is equalled in any year of grace by the almanacks of Raphael and Zadkiel. little book by Abbot Trithemius.400 least ^ht grrdrhu ant&amp. As in the one case he embroidered history by the help of what Mr. for example. which does not opinions of that learned simply a trifle addressed to a reflect but is German prince explaining how some persons in antiquity distributed the government of the world among certain planetary intelligences ruling successively in rotation. He invests a science. Trithemius says nothing of the kind.gt. grand and sublime whereas it does not show half the acumen and reassuming rule with the importance of achievement of prophetic it of our empirical friend Nostradamus. Nor do we need to depart unhappy little treatise to test his reliability over an express matter of fact. a perfectly worthless Benedictine. but is not met with except by the mediation of a magician with the transmuting power of Abbe Constant. He the takes. literature at the Jiabalah confidence could be given with prudencenever presented the sense of an author whom he was reviewing in a way which could be said to He reproduce that author faithfully. He tells us that the forecast of Trithemius closes with a proclamation of universal monarchy in the year 1879. his him by . I mention this matter.

also admire him. But even incredible.(Ehriatian ^tubents of the to gabalah 401 which I revised edition I because have drawn attention previously in the of the Mysteries of Magic. but it is not pyrotechnic and detonate. I more especially those who admire him. 200. necessary to exhibit the quality of mind which was brought by Eliphas Levi to the illumination of Kabalistic literature. 1861. I say. I will not dwell upon the miserable plight of in those works which he have passed for press. not as historian. CC . only as a literary thaumaturgist working great wonders with the magic of words I wish to prepare them. nor could they be explained by supposing that he was ignorant of their His acquaintance language.&quot. He simpler matters his blunders are gives the three mother-letters of the accredited in Hebrew alphabet inaccurately. as critic. Paris. must have been slender enough. though not as not as expositor. may every Hebrew quotation to may be supposed necessary to be proficient in Hebrew or indeed in Chinese to ensure the accuracy of a few The excerpts excerpts. and that any matter of fact in the hands sharp if of this unaccountable to juggler seems I to become speak so roughly. pp. into the most twisted squibs and crackers. 199. for the fact that the deliberations of the Holy Synods will be found to have suffered many changes and transfigurations through the medium of their inter preter. No ordinary carelessness would account for such blunders. spell. in Eliphas Levi no one can speak and no one can &quot. literary beauty we all admire. I wish to whose brilliance it and but because is prepare my readers. not wish to accentuate charges against a writer &quot.* which for an * La Clefdes Grands My stores.&quot.

&quot.&quot. be explained Le Livre les Etudes sur des Splendeurs. .* Of this the first part is intended as a compressed translation of the Greater Holy Synod. Now. That less in spite of his slipshod criticism. contenant le Soleil Juda ique Paris. as will appear by referring to the fourth section of the fifth book of the present volume. his care the reading and his malpractices in historical matters works of Eliphas Levi do contain valuable by saying that he drew from his initiation and verified his knowledge badly by the ordinary channels. But is the Idra Suta. This is true up to a * material may.402 *&he Jtortrine anfo gDiterature xrf the gtabalah student of the Sepher Yetzirah is almost as inexcus able as if an English author erred in enumerating the vowels of our own language. but to prove that he was guilty of egregious errors the indication of which neither supposes nor requires any knowledge of the kind.Book of Splendours. Hebrew appear treatise entitled accordingly at the Idra Suta. . Levi says that the deliberations of this conclave are contained in a &quot. What should we think of the qualifications of a commentator on the books of the Old Testament who informed us that the word Bereshith was applied to will Deuteronomy ? because It be observed that that I do not make this criticism to show Levi was unqualified he was ignorant of Hebrew. . &c. of course. however. the name of the Lesser Synod. Origines de la Kabbale. occurs in the posthumous work entitled the &quot. 1894. . to which I wish to draw particular attention. or more correctly Zuta. and these words head of his version. because it seems to me impressive and even final. while Idrak Rabba is that appertaining to the record of the Greater Assembly. The instance.

and it is they which have fascinated his students. &amp. Magic. the surprising which he could obtain from an old doctrine. 1897. Mysteries of p. What seems to me to distinguish Levi it and from all other occult writers an initiate. This is equivalent to saying that the influence of Eliphas LeVi does not and proper understanding of occult doctrines. they were certainly not harmony with any secret knowledge. represented the rather than the trans- they afflicted the transcendental standpoint in consequence. even as from an old author.* It is needless to say that it neither has nor could have any rabbinical authority and that it first occurred to the mind of a Frenchman in the second half of the nineteenth As it century. . &quot. it reads a meaning into the esoteric tradition of Israel which is not make for a and as concerns the Kabalah that fully in harmony first therewith. exceeds quotation in this I must refer the place reader to the work in which I have rendered it at Let us take.lt.$tubcnt0 of the Jabalah 403 does not do justice to the yet entire position. p. they which have multiplied his admirers. for which he claims a chapter Kabalistic foundation. they standpoint of the agnostic cendentalist. second edition. et seq. London. his inverted text of of Genesis. were They certainly not in reliable results. they also which have undeniably imparted a new impulse to the study of occult philosophy. 334 108 e t seq.Christian certain point. not his knowledge as but the peculiar genius of interpretation is results which he applied to that knowledge. the * La CUf ctes Grands My stores. but they wore the guise and they spoke the language of occultism. omitting indeed one of its essential features. for example.

by the Kings of Edom. a mediating shadow &quot. neither the Ahriman of the Persians nor the evil principle of the Manichaeans. night of faith. if you prefer it. infinite light and the feeble eyes of humanity with which God Himself deigns * I. to cover His glory first Mysteries of Magic.&quot.404 ^Lht JRottnnt nnb ^it^catitre ot the length. the other the dark figure. however. Let us take another case which. this occult Genesis was thought out by Moses before writing his own. The one is the great creative hypothesis. the As it is name of to the Lesser Coun is is the mystic utterance of the adept to the recipiendary of the Egyptian mysteries Osiris is a black god. between the . and second edition. the tenance that it attributed. 1886. the point at which the sober critic must diverge from the interpreter is that &quot. The other the idol of the vulgar.&quot. God s creation by man. Grant Allen must have been of the God-idea in hindered by the limits of his erudition from utilising As an exercise of ingenuity it is admirable. but a more exalted concept.e.&quot. the restricted hypothesis. shortly described as replacing the history of creation by God with that of It may be. the evolution much humanity. is more perhaps to our a construction placed upon For Eliphas Levi the Great Countenance of the Zohar is the evolution of the idea of God from the shadow divinities represented is purpose. It is. . Microprosopus is the grand one is the God of the wise. : Microprosopus is. though it brings us to the same question. because it Zoharic symbolism. but it.The a veil made in the likeness of humanity . Tetragrammaton follows that the secret of the Zohar &quot. 1897. though I fear that Mr.: &quot. London.* however.

however. the God who made is conquered by prayers and offerings. We all know how much into Fitzgerald is supposed to have imparted Omar Khayyam.(Christian gtutonte ot the JUbalah all 405 a shadow which contains the reason of mysteries. which has always technical to tax space difficulties.&quot. 69. Grant Allen to write a Occupation. It is not a case in which it is necessary &quot.* appeased man. Lc Livre . When we and construction we idea in come. but line s his graceful verses are literal and upon line of LeVi Zoharistic analysis. for elegant accounted that it the symbolism is so plausibly seems to enforce acceptance. 70. The validity of the construction it is is seen by the text with which connected. but. If it seem at first sight incredible that the Kabalah should conceal so reasonable and a doctrine. and delighted irresistibly at discovering an esoteric tradition in which all theological difficulties seem to dissolve together. * compared with the high fantasy As an example of this des Splendeurs t pp. the God who sleeps frequently and is awakened by the trumpets repents having of the temple. when on the point of punishing. That this interpretation has fascinated many students can be no cause for surprise one is amazed . who threatens and inspires fear. It is the God of the priests. the God who exacts sacrifices. to a close analysis of text find that the one does not warrant the other and that the evolution of the Godauthors of the Zohar than humanity had no more occurred to the it would have occurred Book of recently to Mr.&quot. and patience by the demonstration of a negative exhaustively. explaining the terrible Deity of the prophets.

says It is Eliphas Levi. 74 et seq. on the transfiguration of dogmas and on vicarious atone* Ibid. p. . failing I may point out that advanced views on despotism. 86 et seq. is corresponding the number because of creation. said to have no negative aspect. inversion of spiritual beauty in Tiphereth .. Book of Splendeurs which follows.f Without dwelling on the carelessness of the arrange ment.406 it Ihe ]Badnnt anfc literature at the gabalah is sufficient to refer the student who may desire an express case for comparison to the forty-third section of the Idra Rabba as it stands in the Latin version of Rosenroth in the &quot. opposed Netzach as in the eternal victory of goodness in eternal hell as opposed to the eternity of goodness. to the fecundity of goodness. so-called supreme power of Kether\ shadow of eternal wisdom in Ckokimmutable dogma which is at the same time inevitably progressive as the antithesis of active intelligence in Binah blind faith again as the . the text of Rabbi Schimeon. sterility produce nothing. f Ibid. mere brilliant illusion and mockery.* Another extreme instance is the inversion of the Sephiroth which gives despotism an absolute power as the dark side of the blind faith as the mah . presumably to while Malkuth. divine vengeance Chesed\ as opposed to eternal justice in Geburah\ willing sacrifice as the shadow of infinite mercy in abnegation and voluntary renunciation as to . in part sephirotic and in part transposing and celibacy and abandoning the sephirotic series. or on the ingenuity which repeats the same contrasts. with the excursus on Justice &quot.. p. presumably in Hod\ celibacy and sterility opposed Jesod.

the past the magician was content to evoke spirits. undertaken not as a mere object of research or as a part of whom The students the history of philosophy. the astrologer to spell the dubious message of the stars. that standpoint.lt. can be varied to infinity. telligible. from which all all have issued and into which is return. true that later on his own scepticism did its best to . and in a very true sense Eliphas L6vi has been the supreme magus who has revealed the horizon of this mystery. in particular. the alchemist to produce gold when he could. apart from the light cast on it unin by the it deliberations precisely this of the Holy Assemblies. the inaugura tion of a new epoch in the study of the Kabalah. we have considered heretofore have been either Christian propagandists or writers by the way whose connection with the subject is unsubstantial but the . He had his antecedents and he drew suggestions from there and It is here. is simply the magisterial affirmation of Eliphas Levi represents. its Now and is nections. however. standpoint of Levi all is that there it religions and that is a feligion behind the veiled mystery of is Kabalism.&amp. the Kabalist of sorts to be wise in anagrams and word-puzzles. but he wrote it all up and he coloured it. but these things are now regarded only as parts of a greater mystery. have created derivatives con In modern occultism. we may appreciate the contrasts here created by the evidence which supports them and that the interpreter.ome (Ehristian tubcuts of the gabalah 407 ment most are not likely to have been held even by the illuminated rabbins and that since arbitrary artificial tabulations and and contrasts are easy exercises. Christian doctrine.

but this his disciples. and the nucleus paper produced for the occasion in was afterwards expanded into a slender question It is a meagre measure to allot to so large volume. as already stated. they have in learning . so there has been no scholar apart from occult interests who has treated The work of Dr. because it was the first clear. but as there has been no occult student who wrote anything of real moment concerning it. do not say that there have been nowhere any I references number what they wanted early made up in and authority and a few valuable gleanings might be gathered from to Kabalism . a space of two centuries. mostly through sympathy with occultism. editions of the larger cyclopaedias.408 ^he ^odnnz anb IpUrattire of the Jiabalah is spoil the splendid illusion. arose in an informal manner out of a meeting as it of of some literary society in Liverpool. the subject seriously. There is a similar hiatus in the merely academical interest represented by Burnet. TWO ACADEMICAL CRITICS to the fact that. but it was as much as could be warranted . has been always in England a certain number there of persons who have been interested. it will appear almost incredible that there are no memorials of their interest between the period of Thomas Vaughan and the year 1865. Ginsburgh. not observed by XVII. was epoch-making. so well known that it scarcely needs describing. simple and methodised account of Kabalistic doctrine and literature. in the study of the Having regard Kabalah. the short a subject. It leaves naturally much to be desired.

Hebrew Ginsburgh in scholars is. I believe. . the authorship of the Zohar. suggests that the French critic has the English. indeed. There a period of a quarter of a century between the two writers. it is interesting to note profited by the one matter over which they diverge. whose . are accomplished origin. Isidore Loeb. There is good reason to believe that it did not by the existing interest. it is said. to mainly connect him with the name of a writer who of recalls him in France Dr. matters are of no importance to the reader in These who is search only of elementary information. Ginsburgh s knowledge at the period. further than cyclopaedic or yet it went much notices. both Jewish and has done work tarian however. It has been objected against Dr. derived from Franck. Dr. connection with the Trini as I am it Bible Society. a Christian. concerned with a standpoint. which represent Dr. and as their point of view is in general respects almost identical and.lt. while M. of to-day.tnbcuts of the giabalah is 49 sharply determined by the fact that a second edition was never needed. reflects their views and shows little independent research. Both. theological Ginsburgh is therefore entitled to a place among I the Christian students of the Kabalah. and are open therefore to the harsh criticisms passed on them many years ago in Germany. His quotations from the Zohar are. is and to therefore only by way of contrast with I his English prototype that am is warranted in referring him in this place. has remained in the faith of Jewry. and which is purpose in this brief notice.gome Christian &amp. namely. Ginsburgh that he draws chiefly from Continental writers. so far aware.

in giving space to the following of M. Schiller-Szinessy s article &quot. In England Dr. The itself makes Dr. has helped to create another and more natural manner of regarding the Zohar. that M. Isidore s Loeb s essay. fact They have been noticed briefly in Book we take in connection with this the 3. and as it is one of the purposes of the present study to place the evidence of this fact before the English reader.410 ^h* Jortrine anb ^iitt&tnu ot the gabalah is purpose Franck criticism fact served well enough by the translations of and for whom a digest of authoritative is about the best text-book possible. more or less exclusive. and it is is There really a matter of regret that the sole contribution of . of Moses de Leon. as it may not synopsis be accessible to some who are acquainted with that I we shall see that some progress has been feel warranted of Dr. II.&quot. Ginsburgh. the one which is a literary excellence in fairly precluded by the circum stance that called the other into being. Ginsburgh derived from the work itself have been equally disposed of in the majority of cases and the few which still remain can establish nothing conclusively. English Zohar to the authorship. who so closely reproduces If Dr. Ginsburgh s little treatise the representative of a particular school of that of the hostile criticisms which refer the research. Johanan was the author of the Palestine Talmud. made with the subject during recent years. on the Midrashim in the ninth edition of the referring the nucleus of Encyclopaedia Britannica. abandons the theory of unqualified imposture. the book to Mishnic times and regarding Simeon ben Jochai as the author in the same sense that R. The critical objections of Dr.. Ginsburgh. sec. Isodore Loe b.

makes a very proper distinction between the metaphysical or mystical Kabalah and the gross thaumaturgy connected with the practical branch. His other literary work comprises a mono graph on the Jewish chroniclers. rupted. Loeb towards the of Kabalistic literature occurs in was. Loeb some time president of the publica La Grande committee of the French Society of Jewish Studies. high antiquity.&amp.lt. the essay with which we are here concerned In he records the opinion that the term Kabalah may not be anterior to the tenth century and that the claim to antiquity which it signifies is written monument. and some observations on the situation of the Israelites in Turkey. The and becoming more imperfect and material. tradition. diminishing in its spiritual qualities as it removes further from its source. this claim is much less an uncorAs we have had occasion to see.Sonu Christian tubent0 of the gabalnh elucidation 411 M. Loeb the Kabalah is a part of the universal mysticism which seeks to explain the disparity between an infinite God and a finite world by means of intermediate creations through which the Divine Power descends. no longer made by any competent student of the subject. a table of Jewish calendars. critics. of a kind which would permit it to be regarded as the perpetuation of an indigenous. however. as need scarcely be said. however. difficulty is removed by this process much in the as the difficulty of a terra firma for the same manner . Loeb. but not. Servia and Roumania. To it the like original all elements a of the first he ascribes. tion for Encyclopedic. M. M. case that It it seems should difficult supported by no in the nature of the be so substantiated. For M.

So also he refers correctly the common name cites the catchword of the Zohar to Daniel xii. and that each individual of that mystical fraternity was required angels. Loeb s his or indeed erudition. On critical the whole. Passing from this consideration the French critic discovers the foundation of the Kabalistic theory of meta physics in the Scriptural personification of Wisdom. but in this con nection he cites only the Platonic doctrine of the Logos. as every one it has cited before him.4i2 ^h* Jlortrtiu an& literature of the elephant which supports the universe is disposed of In in Indian cosmology by assuming the tortoise. hackneyed point by suggesting. as an less but he raises a on the authority us that example of gtmatria. remember accurately the names of the however. 3. At the same mysticism. Loe b seems assume. reminding the He Essenians does better service by attached great importance to symbolical angelology. to time the explanation is emanationist which not is all mysticism. not in objection than the last analysis open to greater any other philosophic attempt to bridge the gulf between finite and infinite. It to is. it is not removed at of all. its influence on the Greek Septuagint and on the Chaldee version of the Old Testament. of Munk. He number of the beast in the Apocalypse. I do not think that M. following several previous authorities. faculty. he discovers the germs of Kabalistic mysticism. as M. about which points there no or question whatever. and they are matters of knowledge. in is and the chief elements of its symbolism the prophetical books. among the Jews of Alexandria that. that Temurah was employed by Jeremiah. is at all . other words.

the is first form of the Zoharistic Macroprosopus. Kabalistic tradition assertions by saying of the Talmud. Among all these he distinguishes the Sepher Yctzirah as occupying a and deserving a rank apart. together with a crowd of apocalyptic treatises. entitled is. which has an elaborate doctrine of Pneumatology.&quot. &quot. To instance. ravages of Gnosticism among the Jews of Palestine. of the third century. all-important He refers to the ninth &quot. dealing with the places alphabet of the Hebrew letters.lt. that is.Christian &amp. of He Akiba. we have the seen. including Pirke of R. Measures of the Stature of which in fact. He admits its place antiquity. He describes .The century that as treatise God.3 of the gabalah 413 citj comparable to a crucial his graceful synthetic talent. the he runs over impetus given to Jewish literature under Arabian influence from the middle great of the seventh century. he dismisses one testimony to &quot.D. 499. to the second century that he refers the &quot. about the same symbolism period.lt. that passage which I have mentioned elsewhere.tuteut&amp. With a rapid pen Sephiroth. which he A. and mentioned by Agobad. He and sketches the rise Palestine schools those of traditional country of magic. we (sic) : Despite the contrary refuse to believe that Johanan ben Zoccai is or his contemporaries devoted It themselves to mystic doctrines or secret things. Eliezer. comparative affirms to seeming to to regard it as immediately posterior have been finished the Talmud. and confesses that it is the doctrine of the another germ of the mediaeval Kabalah.&quot. the Babylonian. and cites the of decline of the various subtleties of the doctors which arose at that period.&quot. He Babylon.the cites from Rab. &quot.

influence of Christian is and Pagan gnosticism. a new school of occult philosophy. to the assigns a Spanish origin. THE MODERN SCHOOL OF FRENCH KABALISM it Eliphas LeVi died in 1875. but does not press the authorship of Moses de Leon.&quot. but of course entirely con jectural. without perspective. assumes When he observes further that its must be sought in Azariel s Com mentary on the Sephiroth and in the Bahir. XVIII. The opinion interesting. and the anthropomorphic mysticism of the Jewish schools of Northern France. philosophic anthropomorphic mysticism by mysticism. between which the Kabalah rose up and as a mediator. For the ten years which preceded his death he had . under the influence of Arabian philosophy. I fail to understand the grounds on which he attributes fountain-heads a superior antiquity to those works. living having only the literature of the Law.completing Talmudism by by philosophy. Among the fine points of his criticism is a picture of the pure He Zohar itself Talmudists of the period of Maimonides. especially those of the Peninsula and the south of France. as must be admitted. correcting philosophy theosophy. and as the doctrine of emanation is not very clear accept the Sepher Yetzirah. having founded. &quot.414 it ^he gtodrine anb literature of th* gabalah as a philosophy and a in to have been written and supposes it Palestine under the direct gnosis. we should not hastily the theory of an influence which in it. without philosophical doctrine.

and mysticism moderated by science became the characteristic of the succeeding 1 epoch. a proportion of publication the French mystics gathered round it. abandoning for the moment their interest in la metaphysique orientate.ome (Christian gtubcnts ot the Jlabalah 415 made no outward initiations sign. established. regarded his suggestive speculations almost in the light of revelation. on the elements of occult science. after his death. his influence had elapsed that any visible result of became manifest. of which Dr. under the auspices His of the Society. took place and the seceding members. During that period a marked change had come over philosophic thought . following his leading. a school of Western occultism. so to speak. passed off in the direction of mysticism. appeared in the pages of Le Lotus and his first work. but all that is known certainly is that he collected around him a small group of private students who looked up to him as their master. accepted religious the belief. without returning to the Church. When about the year a lodge in 884 the Theosophical and began the Society opened of a monthly magazine. A rupture. Gerard of Encausse. There are rumours of the rites which were offered him and of the which he remodelled. and. Encausse became the moving and leading spirit and Eliphas LeVi the most immediate inspiration of . and. the schools of young chef de in laboratoire of an eminent the doctor celebrated connection one contributions hypnotism. however. Kabalah It as the great till synthesis of was not another ten years. and one of the Paris most noticeable in the group was with first Dr. in Paris the younger generation broke away from the traditions of positivism and materialism.

but the transcendental conceptions associated with these names have undergone developments which have to some extent effaced their original outlines. Stanislas de Guaita belongs to what may be termed the literary school of occultism and as such he . The ostensible characteristics of this school are Neo-Martinism and Neo-Rosicrucianism. There is. the first he has derived a systematic view of Jewish history. So also the admired masterpieces of Eliphas Levi have been a point of departure quite as much as a guide. call for notice in Gerard Encausse and Stanislas de Guaita. and along with other occult interests the study of the Kabalah has been revived under It enthusiasm. From d Olivet. broadly speaking. Eliphas Levi and Adolphe Franck. for it the reflected of his impulsion has not been so far an exhaustive I it. been altogether a critical for granted has not shown a comprehensive acquaintance with the documents. from LeVi unfortunately a burden of historical suppositions. On the other hand. the first The literary and occult antecedents of Fabre writer are Saint Yves d Alvedre. from the second his notion of esoteric mysteries concealed in the Hebrew language. nor has study. the work of Levi which has been continued. and from Franck an academic precedent for the antiquity of Kabalistic literature. however. It is. study. no writer of began by taking too much and it this group who has not had something to tell us concerning Jewish theosophy. nevertheless.4i 6 ^he |p citrine anb JCtterature at the the past. think. The two names which most this connection are Dr. while its activity has engendered consequences of much the same kind outside its immediate circle.

Papus is a voluminous writer. he has made this ancient work for responsible that of the doctrine of critical Ain Soph and it is a point of great in importance that there Formation. and commentary of Eliphas Levi on the &quot. A. and so far back as the year 1887 he made the first French trans lation of the Sepher Yetzirah. methodical and laborious. period. which Papus himself recom mends with the generosity of a true student. The chief blemish of his own version is that by some misconception or error. the head of the French Martinists and the leader of occult activity in Paris. of Apollonius. founded apparently on the use of a dubious word in the Latin rendering of Postel. It is also the From the beginning of his literary life he has been occupied with Kabalistic questions.lt. which appeared in the theosophical review Lotus. is no such doctrine the &quot. and he has done work which along its own lines is admirable. I propose to consider the position of both these writers in short sub-sections and to connect them with a third who is governed by very different motives and principles. Book of DD . PAPUS The word according to a Papus signifies physician.&quot. presumably because he is a doctor of medicine.Nuctemeron&quot. it is the title of a genius belonging to the first hour of that mystic pseudonym adopted by Gerard Encausse.&amp.lt. It is not entirely a satisfactory translation and has been superseded by Meyer Lambert.ome Christian &amp.Stubent0 of the $abalah 417 connects with Sar Peladan.

The bibliography of works in the Latin language is much better done. no reference to the Kabalah . that this volume contains : * a / La a paper on the Kabalah by Papus. Papus. of second-hand books issued by Mr. C. who is only superficially acquainted with English. a catalogue &quot. Massey s translation of Du Prel s &quot. Philosophy of Mysticism..&quot. of works which are Thus.&quot. a clumsy satire s . unfortunate above all other instances. together with a bibliography. language. the once celebrated &quot. and. Redway.Supernatural Religion. Barlet. though it contains some useless numbers. the only reference to the subject is in an essay by F. however. open to the same objection Eckartshausen on the Sanctuary. Another instance is Julien Lejay La Science Occulte Appliquec Economic politique. Dr. Lives of Alchemystical Philosophers. but are again open to criticism. in the one case. with results which are occasionally ludicrous. my own Hartmann &quot. Alchemists.&quot. viz. entitled Science Secrete.&quot. which refers the origin of the Kabalah to the fourth century. .&quot.&quot. and again by the inclusion evidently unknown to the writer. we find among books in the French Figuier s Alchemy and the &quot. subsequently embodied in his larger work.* In the other case.Kabalistic Cloud a and as number of esoteric romances which have s much claim to insertion as Baudelaire translation of Poe. s White and Black Magic. the increase of the numerical importance by adventitious elements which are not Kabalistic at all. The bibliography has been constructed upon the most debatable of all principles. Saint-Martin Crocodile. which are both useful. I may observe. in a volume of composite authorship.&quot. also non. &quot. which contains s &quot. Dr. . Outside this.4i 8 ^The Ipodritu anb ffiterature of the Jiabalah In 1892 Papus published a methodical summary of the Kabalah. classifies Mr.

It is altogether excellent as a general introduction to the subject by an occultist and for the use of occultists. As diagrams derived from similar sources. on the other. with a number of serviceable . Having appreciated in another section the claim of the clavicles to recognition in necessary to say that is Kabalistic literature. it is here only in the work under notice there justify no attempt to their inclusion. this connection owes something to the French of Molitor. we shall not be surprised to find that he regards P. But it makes the mistake of attributing a real importance to the Hebrew influences found in the literature of Ceremonial Thus Dr. on the one . mainly a series of tabulated quotations from Franck.&quot. . . Papus says that Magic.lt. or.tubents of the gabalah 419 regards the treatise itself it has the merit of extreme modesty it is. this Papus has led irresistibly to prefer the imperfect equipment of past authority to the result of modern In Egyptology he knows scholarship. Dr. Loeb. Kircher and so forth. which is explained by the sympathies of the author. in is hand. in fact. At Paris the Bibliotheque Nationale debased possesses one of the finest examples. of which the origin is attributed to Solomon. the practical part of the Kabalah is barely indicated ! in a few manuscripts dispersed through our great collections. de Guaita. Christian as a source of serious information concerning the Egyptian mysteries of initiation. to the who in version also unfortunately a bias common of French and majority English occultists.omt Christian &amp. is and by bias he no higher name than that of Court de Gebelin problems of Hebrew philology his great master Fabre d Olivet and hence.

Schure continues: &quot. however.&quot. and oral explanations after the captivity of Babylon rendered into Phoenician characters. penetrated only to the primitive great The secret sense does. points which. translators it acquaintance In this case may have been had a very slight the remnant of this knowledge which the Jews so hostile to the Septuagmt. lost more and more. or not. and Egyptian hieroglyphics. of this study phoneticism. at least it not for the consequences the descent in the case of Papus. there can be no confided their keys having three senses. &quot. Edouard maintains that. 1889. in Les Grands Inities. The into He is not alone t&amp. remain buried in the Latin translation. as. which plunges by and the writer affirms that it flashes forth at times for tl in the phonetic &quot. for example.420 ^he ot the liabalah iortritu anb fCtteratttr* that he considers the to be identical with Hebrew the of the Mosaic books The position of writers idiom of ancient Egypt* who base their views on undertaken at the beginning of this language-studies more reasonable than would century is not really to be that of a person who should now attempt But defend the antiquity of the Rowley poems. 181.&quot.owing to the Secrete des Religions.Jerome. temples. the its roots into the sacred tongue of made M. while to speak of it were it might be scarcely worth that it involves. its identity of the esoteric tradition from Moses and debatable -with the mysteries of Egypt. and that by structure of the the keys which the Kabalah furnishes. doubt that he wrote Genesis in education of Moses. is indeed no need this view. by &quot. intention and his despite his serious sense when he made his mind. among recent French writers in taking Histoire de Schure. 180. Genesis. and by comparative esotericism. .shines forth once more intuitive. I to it indicate exists in is that the historical argument. * Papus.gt. and the Greek therewith. Paris. it is this day permitted us at t reconstruct the veritable Pp. Esquisse M. so and there altogether unsatisfactory. Hebrew text. must not be determined have said sufficient far as after this unscholarly fashion. and esoteric sense was Aramaic Chaldean characters by Esdras. that for seers it the words adopted or created by Moses.&quot.&quot. In the time of Solomon it was to his successors.

Martinists. whence the Kabalah most complete summary mysteries. is Kabalah the standpoint of Papus is that the the keystone of all the Western tradition . Rosicrucians. B. but the sub-surface understanding is un doubtedly that a tradition of absolute religion has been perpetuated from antiquity. . thr name of the Marquis Marie -Victor-Stanislas de Guaita. Gerard Encausse. and so also whether Moses drew from Egypt. and with all his dissemblings and palterings. Kabalists. tubents of the giabalah his little 421 summary in work is useful as a of the content of the Kabalah. or Freemasons that the source of the Kabalah was Moses and that .omt (Ehrietian to reckon with it. though even it But this respect advantage. with all the hindrance of his scepticism. was valued in the occult circles of Paris. STANISLAS DE GUAITA much of Associated with the literary work and the active propaganda of Dr. transcendentalism that all the alchemists were mystic fraternities. Templars. though scarcely known in England. and his much com paratively recent death at the early age of thirty-six I years occasioned profound sorrow. As might have been simplified with regards the special motive of our own of inquiry. may perhaps observe that outside the immediate circle of his friends and admirers it is possible to say that he is a real loss to the esoteric literature of France. in is the existence of the Egyptian Why those mysteries should have an absorbing claim on our respect does not appear from Papus. that also is LeVi s standpoint.

however. He life as a poet. .&quot. His mystic and he the occult to His works entitled &quot. the absolute truth must be sought enthusiasm knowledge. to which entrance could be obtained only after successful examination. &quot. and he considered that in Neo . Mystery.&quot. that can be to this that dreamed by an Guaita is occultist. xxxviii. occult science de Guaita was chiefly attached to the Kabalistic &quot. and the possession of the three grades of the Martinist Order was an indispensable pre liminary condition. If we add De contradiction the described by Papus as occupying beyond first rank among the pupils of Levi. &quot. The Threshold of Genesis and The Key &quot.. magis In terial which recalls that of his master. for their &quot.432 ^he It JBuctrine anb |ttftattxre of the will perhaps scarcely be necessary to state disciple of Eliphas LeVi.. of The Serpent of Black Magic are much admired form. fair we shall have a began his literary knowledge of his position. soon devoted himself exclusively sciences. 1898. torn. 12. When the numerical strength of the association had attained the limits prescribed by * From a Lettre intditc quoted in L? Initiation. pp. and in that character in his verses.Mosaic and Christianity. Jan. 13. connects with the school of Baudelaire. explained by the Holy (under Kabalah in all Alexandrian Hermeticism certain reserves).&quot.* early At an period of his occult Stanislas de Guaita founded a Kabalistic Order of the Rose-Cross. that he was a whose works he regarded as constituting &quot. tradition. &quot. No. 4.the absolute and unimpeachable synthesis most cohesive. comprehending three grades. preoccupations appear.

is recorded that he believed himself more thoroughly possessed of the Kabalah than all others. and by these he was clearly intimidated.lt. except with the most arduous and by years of sacrifice.Some Christian Students of the Jtabulah 423 its constitution. of the it was rigorously closed by decision Grand Master.Kabalah. p. Kabalah of such Kabalists that the pages of active works. I know that Flamel the alchemist. The other is apparently the Kabalah as presented by William I Postel. the message to the serious student of Kabalism Zohar has its difficulties. author of the has no Serpent of Genesis &quot. I Khunrath. except in the most phantasmal sense and by a most remote derivation. was concerned with the transmutation of metals and not with the mysteries of Soph. Hut the kind of distinction which . Am It is is. . the toil first to have distinguished two species of a science which no one could teach and no one could learn. who also mention his the Hebrew it folios which enriched library. the his said to illuminate de Guaita and to have inspired the Despite therefore tf his accredited erudition. * li id. for it is more rugged than Wronsky. . And after all &quot. so forth. more complex than Gnostic analysis. however. Nicholas Flamel. it appears to be only a pseudo. puzzle. if he ever wrote anything. Marc Haven he seems Kabalah. 32 et seq.&amp. Saint-Martin and must confess that this distinction is a well know enough that Saint-Martin was not a Kabalist. Hut if we may accept the authority of Dr.&quot.* Finally. more diffuse than Spanish Mysticism. De Guaita is termed an erudite orientalist by his friends.

the missionary enthusiasm of the early Christian schools of Kabalism. by Mirandola and Postel. Kabalistic Christianity. orthodox Christianity. as in Levi. the spirit has fructified the Gospel and immortal works have been the fruits of this union. Flamel. As disappointment first waited on so it the mistaken ardour of the zealots.424 ^hx JBortritu anb |pt*rattire ot the gabalah de Guaita sought to establish offers at least one Postel. The Kabalah became Catholic in the school of St. the soul . the master of the absolute masters. Saintpoint of interest. as understood.* from his fellow propagandist Papus. Thus. have been exchanged for an attempt to go back upon the path of doctrinal development and to discover in the analogies between the Kabalah and the Gnostics a practicable thoroughfare into the debated regions of esoteric religion. this is the special characteristic of all occult students who take any interest in the light cast on and the religion of Jesus by the post-Christian develop ments of Jewish theosophy. . . and the Messianic dream constructed by Jewry out of the wild elements of the Zohar. &quot. to for that marriage of the Zohar and the Gospel which he refers expressly. 183. on the other. Khunrath. on the one hand. are names which stand in his mind for Martin. p. Le Serpent de la Genhe. but Christianity permeated by Gnostic elements. . or. John. * The Zohar has wedded . who exhibits few Christian sympathies and is differs He therefore attached more consistently to the doctrine of Eliphas But in de Guaita. with which the Kabalah is connected. . by Rosen roth. incarnate in an admirable metaphysical form spirit of the science of justice and love which vivifies internally the dead letter of all the orthodoxies. it is not the Levi.&quot. is possibly in store for the revived zeal in Kabalism.

It is true that his large treatise. is a product dream of the Papacy concerning the Liberi Muratori and is saved only by the sincerity Freemasonry the of the troubled its of is intention from a place in bogus literature it .lt. Having SJ. We have only to study their doctrine and to compare it with those of civilised nations in antiquity Indians. .Stufcent0 of the 3nbalah 425 C LEON MEURIN. Persians. unnecessary to say that it is an entirely hostile criticism. it connects with a squalid imposture long since unmasked. Babylonians. Greeks and so forth. Assyrians.Rhri0tian &amp. it seems just between to include among Kabalistic students the laborious investigator of this subject. to become assured is that the same all.&quot. pantheistic system of emanation inculcated by We find ever) where an eternal principle emanating a primeval triad and thereafter the entire universe. and it is worth noticing how the transcendental tradition of the Jews was appreciated quite recently by a Catholic critic who was also an ecclesiastic of some eminence and a member of the Society of Jesus. the late most Arch bishop of Port Louis. modern Kabalists represent the paganism with which certain Jewish sectarians became imbued during the captivity of Babylon. but it shows a considerable acquaintance of the superficial order both with true also that Kabalistic doctrine and Masonic symbolism. Egyptians. Synagogue of Satan. In place of the orthodox syna It is &quot. gogue and the true doctrine of Moses which God Himself inspired.lt.-Some &amp. &quot. to establish some points of connection the Kabalah and Freemasonry.

he advances that we musk seek the distinction between the Infinite and the Finite.&quot. but it and the Jewish it was impossible in the nature of both. as has been occasionally saved since. but by substantial emanation. which wears. he proceeds at a general later stage to The develop his impeachment by exhibiting all the fundamental error of pantheism. and number. Infinite to the for which concerns the transition of the Finite. for these categories they are superior &quot. entire treatise may be regarded it as the development is paragraph.&quot. that.&quot. he tells us. Hence are compelled to recognise a close connection between Kabalistic philosophy and ancient paganism we which of the is difficult to same the explain except by the inspiration author. the aspect of his &quot. namely. God.elevated unity. with Picus de of this must be We moment Mirandola as their mouthpiece. the view that would be taken inevitably have seen that under by the Latin Church. being thus defined with perfect accuracy by Mgr. any in serious thinker. as intuition if by some happy which preceded any position real knowledge of the interests at stake. the Lying Spirit of mankind. and the Church was saved then. a fraudulent device. Basing : argument on the well-known verse hast ordered all Wisdom Thou things in measure. in other words. who is enemy The confessed. in these and weight. or rather above themselves and lost in a in do not exist Creation out of nothing rational solution of the the only grand problem concerning the is . the auspices of Christian Kabalists.* anb Eiterature of the gmbalah not by creation. Meurin. which. there was for one a sign of rapprochement between the Church tradition.4*6 ^hc gbrt 1 &quot.

since it does not derive the universe from the divine substance by an is true that ex nihilo emanation of any kind. but as God is everywhere by the hypothesis. that I am confusing the notion of endless space with that of the Divine Nature. a doctrine which assumes no weight of a passage from Infinite to Finite. In a study like the present it would be entirely out of place to discuss the points at issue between emanationists and creationists. there is also the Omnipotent. The Kabalah is a system of emanation. the consistent and correct exponent of the Church which he . which fortunately cannot produce a single consequence of importance to the human mind.It nihilum . though it is precisely to such arid speculations that official orthodoxy has always sought to attach an eternal consequence for the soul. and it is untrue to say that with nothingness and the all-powerful.Stnbents of the glnbalah origin 427 world which is governed by number. however.&quot. Mgr. nihil fit. Meurin remains. Ex nihilo nihil fit a Deo nothing can be made. of course. and then where is the nihilum ? But the whole controversy concerns a res ardua ct diffic-lis. and measure.Christian . there is no place which is not filled by His power and His presence. But in the creation there is not only the &quot. God. and it is so far opposed to the official doctrine of orthodox religion on a question of fundamental philosophy. I think personally that the better reason is on the side of the hypothesis of emanation on the simple ground that the conception of nihilum cannot co-exist with that of an infinite I shall be told. as Isaac de Loria would have termed it. would be a false axiom.

We have. as the prelate well observes. is concerned he has registered. students. by Anna Bonus Kingsford.428 i. THE KABALAH AND ESOTERIC CHRISTIANITY discussion of the points of contact between Christianity and the mystical tradition of the Jews A must not close without some reference to a scheme of mystical Christianity which obtained for a period a certain vogue in English occult circles and met with especial commendation from certain Kabalistic. thus reversing the order. and so this Church fully. It may well understanding. I refer to the New Gospel of Interpretation. for example. but they are crude and mis leading enough in their outward sense. the heretical and allow that in other places I a logical point against it. as we must admit nature of Kabalistic doctrine. can well deny the person go further he scores occasionally think that no intelligent intellectual We may clumsiness with which the system of Sephirotic emanation is presented in works like the Greater Sacred Synod. such notions as the in ment of thought emanation of commence Ain Soph which proceeds the psychological besides formulating an absurdity concerning the one Being in whom there is no beginning. not perhaps always . or believed to have been received. founded on illuminations received.he Jltfctrine anb literature of the Jtabaiah far as represents. and developed since her decease. XIX. be that in the last analysis these things are to be their surface understood more profoundly than is suggested by meaning.

&quot.a new illumination. McGregor Mathers dedicated his English translation of some of the Zoharistic books Mr. It was welcomed in terms of still higher apprecia tion by Baron of Kliphas accord with Spedalieri. The Perfect Way.&quot. Kabalah and laying great value upon its teachings. and was much purer when it first emerged from the Postel and his sanctuaries. the end of the era. was on the ground that it one of the most deeply occult works that has The dedication for centuries. they would be made the basis ol &quot. constituted a philosophical development and historical verification of the doctrines received by the Way. and. a small collec tion containing the illuminations. secondly a formal treatise which. &quot.ome acceptably. and this restoration have (c) That this illumination been accomplished in In this book \ve find &quot. connection with this appreciation the respectable all French occultist observed tradition : (a) That the Kabalistic we now possess it is far from genuine. the Kabalah. Edward Maitland. S. the disciple in complete Levi. mystical traditions. now also passed away. touching to the authors of this treatise &quot. (b) That when William as brother Hermetists predicted that the literature con would become taining the secret tradition of the Jews known and understood meant that it at &quot. under the title of The Perfect &quot.&quot.&quot. L. and especially In with the ^reat mother of these. seeress. The text books of this movement were. of Marseilles.&quot.&quot. reinstating that tradition in its purity. who regarded it as &quot. (sic) been written excellent and wonderful also described it as an much on the doctrines of the book. firstly. (Christian tufcent0 of the gabalah 429 by her collaborator and co-recipient. &quot. He adds : all that there is of truth in the .&quot.

&quot. Indeed. and our concluding words should be simply to direct the student who is in search of the true meaning of esoteric tradition to the doctrines con word of a course would seem at first tained in this last revelation. and would not endorse the opinion. Postel and his fellow Hermetists are accomplished and I consider that from henceforth the study of the Kabalah will be but an object of curiosity and erudition. the inquiry with which to we is have been occupied at such considerable length the New Gospel of Inter only prolegomenary pretation. homo geneous.&quot. that the Kabalistic School of occultists in England has not followed the lead thus indicated. though committed to a certain extent in the same direction. such could be followed. Since the whole tradition thus finds itself recovered or restored to original purity. while the New Gospel of Interpretation has taken no permanent hold on the occult thought of the time. like that of Hebrew If this antiquities. Dr. supplemented by new intuitions. be the case. but for its recovery occultists seem inclined . such as present a body of doctrine at once complete. Formation. the translator of Book of influence. I sight the only one which must add. Wynn I represent Kabalism. logical and inexpugnable.430 TOe Ipoxtrine anb JCiterature ot the Jtabalah Kabalah. its the prophecies of . but this is the extent s its infer also that Baron Spedalieri statement as to the adulteration of the genuine tradi tion in the Hebrew Kabalah would not be traversed seriously. that the opinion expressed by Baron Sped dieri has produced no consequence. and Westcott. however. It is still occasionally quoted with respect by writers who notably by the of &quot.

in the exclusive sense of the term and masculine but as man both masculine and feminine&quot. and the Kosmic universe but it is the ideation of that Mind. and these human.Some to look (Christian &amp.The Way.new Gos. is androgyne). divinity of the of its Kabalah on the ground of the purity of correspondences. the Nameless But. althou-h the the Definite. but it would be easy to exaggerate their extent. as also. is thinly sketched the Form by the following passage.tubente of the gUbalah to 43 r backward towards Egypt rather than any form of supplementary revelation. a name. and &quot. it is not as man only. I at maintained the should add that the &quot. We may &quot. or the Divineespecially as to the dual nature Edward Maitland. which shows that doctrine .&quot. So in also the conception of Macro- prosopus reflected Microprosopus &quot. as is Humanity itself. the Kabalistic doctrine of Ain Soph and His emanations God unmanifest and abstract in the statement that superficial. (Microprosopus it will be remembered once man and woman. some The conspicuous cases.&quot. traceable references are few find. work is well its substance has been made accessible in many forms. is not a far-reaching correspondence. as a man in and to the souls Lord is God manifested In * the Lord of those to whom the vision is vouchsafed. el &quot. less and example.lt. &quot. in their importance. for is the Primordial Mind. the Infinite less assumes a form.. the multiplicity of principles in the human system&quot. It does offer some conspicuous with the tradition of the Kabalah. points of contact of God. I do not propose of in to recite here even the leading aspects the system Perfect of esoteric for the Christianity developed kn-Avn and &quot.&quot. thanks to the untiring devotion of Mr. Feminine.

432 &quot. master-key to the Kabalah. With this statement of may its be brought into contrast the interpretation of the claim made by &quot. and variously entitled Hermetic and Kabba- I should add that in &quot.&quot. bringing his earlier work into discredit by exaggerated The claims concerning it. its connections assume to be the outcome of a similar it is quality of discernment. the Kabalah as to the it manner of delivery. is that the doctrine contained in them that which man is always discerns when he succeeds in attaining to that inner and celestial region of his nature where he taught directly of his own Divine Spirit.&quot. be regarded as a &quot. Also at the close of Mr. and then to Moses on Sinai. found The thoughtful persons have Perfect Way a fountain of light. Taking it as a whole Perfect Way&quot.&quot. As The Perfect Way and &quot. interpretative and reconciliatory. &quot. I think. ^he 5-trrtrttte anb |!Jiteratiire of the Jiabalah to a period prior this famous compendium belongs to that destruction by the priesthoods of the in its equilib rium of the sexes which constituted &quot. that much of its . or as anything indeed but a series of suggestions and glimpses concerning the . and it depends to some extent on philo indicates rare logical a arguments which are more than s life fantastic. many &quot. When is said that these Scriptures first were delivered by God of all to it is Adam meant in Paradise. Maitland he wrote much which must have been regretted by his friends. one sense the Divine origin Fall. of course.&quot. listic. and knows even as he is known. that the doctrine commonly called a recovery of &quot. cannot. the Gnosis. &quot. it follows. quality of genius interpretation yet it was not free at the beginning from the fantastic element.

roughly speaking. claims advanced by the founders. XX. will be useful to ascertain eastern how far the which we owe to philosophy be said in expositions of it connect with the subject of our inquiry. occult student will be inclined to overlook this possesses at and as the Theosophical Society it least this aspect of importance. the unfolding of which will not perhaps be accomplished even in the twentieth century. have already established The cosmology and recognised. we have only twenty in to survey its literature during the past it years to see how large a field has succeeded covering. THE KABALAH AND MODERN THEOSOPHY in the The attempt which was made year 1875. as it would be impossible and misplaced here to attempt their full discussion. as reflections or deriva from an older knowledge and a higher teaching EE . No fact. as an organisation a neglected branch of knowledge. by the foundation of the Theosophical Society. about which it would be unbecoming to speak positively. in spite of its chequered history. succeeded to a very large extent in that If we remove from consideration certain object. which of of course. to ex tend and perhaps to centralise the study of Oriental Occult Philosophy. and if we regard the Society rather as it assumes to regard designed to namely. It may a general I manner that the correspondences are. promote itself. Jewish esoteric pueumatology tives tradition are regarded.(Christian ^tubente of the Jiabalah 433 full hidden sense of many sacred scriptures. has.

of course.&quot. On the one hand. to quote Judge terminology (&quot.&quot. The author had. the starry Shemaia of the and are now for resting from their grand J That check.from the burnished Echoes from the and mysterious East. but not very carefully selected. but these heirs elect of the sages who discovered Chaldaean lore which shone on the great have solved the absolute labour. New York. an enormous budget of materials. iii. who ignorant absurdity and assurance of the late did not scruple to affirm that Abraham. and the universal. any * critical study of the Jewish Kabalah Compare the W.Isis Unveiled&quot.-). said that the Jews.wfc SJtterature of iht $iabalah in which has existed from time immemorial farthest the East* I suppose it would not be denied are.&quot. she distinguishes which it is difficult to agree.The Secret Doctrine&quot. Its nothing that adepts are few first is . is This Secret Doctrine.there was at all times a Literature among simply without warrant.lt.&quot. f It is. If little be known of the one. and % &quot. and &quot. 1890). c. on makes statements occasionally with Thus. she gives us information which we are not able to check because we do not know her authorities the other she .&quot. 1893. 5.Echoes&quot. of this kind &quot.&quot. p. but with these there is little sympathy and indeed little acquaintance.434 ^he Stortritu &amp. must be confessed. between the ordinary. however. we cannot and can. high teaching has been handed down. definite. i. it is a statement which. so to that the peculiar methods of the Kabalah speak. Orient. or Oriental Kabalah. &quot. known truths of the other. do not find response among theosophical Kabalistic is writers in England.Isis Unveiled. at least &quot. . contradicted by the literature itself. Judge..The Ocean of Theosophy. Moses and Solomon were members of the ancient lodge of adepts from whom this &quot.Nor do I throughout trace a sufficient warrant in knowledge for the expression of particular opinions. it of &quot.. or Judaistic. Q. indigenous. New York. 17. there is nothing. 166. I. &quot.

&quot. however. statement which we cannot check is. and still not quite agree as to the nature of the fabric upon which it is written. acquainted with the strong Book of Formation. added that the Sepher Dzeniouttia was compiled from another and older work which is not named. maintains that &quot. Such a course is very inexact and mis leading. I.&quot. In we are told that the of Occultation is the most ancient on occult this I learning. may be taken to indicate a growing feeling among occultists of all schools that the Hebrew tradition has been perverted. The a .Book accompanied the present &quot.lt. and that this &quot. but the same abuse of words is found in however. &amp. original copy &quot.&quot. is so very old that our modern anti quarians might ponder over its pages an indefinite time.The Ivsoteric Basis of Christianity.the collection number of writings known as the Bible constitutes but one of a record. 15. which are all derived from and based one upon unifying system. but it is stated that there is only one in existence.! and would be countenanced by any student who Hebrew document much doubt whether claims of the was &quot.* carry no be accepted also as evidence that because the term Kabalah signifies an oral reception it has It may come any unwritten knowledge. part I. Kint^sland... J Till antiquaries * One of theosophical writer. London.&quot.Stnbfnt0 of the labalah 435 It weight. usually can. i.Christian therefore. 1891. p. &quot. \V. or Secret Doctrine. % Ibid. to say nothing of the literature It is which belongs to Talmudic times. purpose not intended by those who use it it distinguishes between scholar and sciolist. &quot.&quot. to be used in connection with Paracelsus and many later writers. It serves. however. f Isis Unveiled. &quot. known at times as the Ancient Wisdom Religion. by the statement that we case &quot. &quot. .

much superior to the Zohar. oriental or otherwise. the Sepher Yetzirah is also a portion of the Book of Numbers. felt authorised to It make use of in Book iii. Madame Blavatsky adds that t This is Dr. according to another authority. &quot. is said to be It is. &quot. &quot. but the question is whether Kabalists. an interesting statement which I have not. in fact. classes of statement we may connect the affirmation furnished with the that is not evident in reasoning. . Westcott s opinion.43 6 are ^he Jtodrine ani $it*ratxm ot the gabalah opportunity they will be With both these tempted to dismiss this claim. 6.)..* which. the only real Kabalah. is a companion to the sEsh I sis Unveiled to Metzareph. i. which is taught by observations of add the borrowed view which may this kind we rests on bad &quot. 579. ib. L. 170. . itself and is supported by of their old.. but now lost. of this study.&quot. 214. the patrimony of the persons previously described as having solved the absolute.. Of such is the Chaldaean Book of Numbers.&quot. may pass over as circumspectly as We possible the writer s personal pretension to a first hand acquaintance with Kabalistic books once indis putably in existence.. however.Secret Doctrine.^ but is declared in be a part of the great Oriental Kabalah.. for darkest of a the example.. thus enigmas attributing * mystical sense to the commentaries This work i.&quot. have any colourable pretence of evidence to produce in support of its truth. Ibid. iii. 17. that the Talmud is even for most Jews. namely.! To the lesson &quot. doubtful Thus we that are told of Oriental traditions Kabalists who assert the science are more than seventy thousand years concerning which claim it is observed that modern science cannot prove it to be false. Ibid. criticism. appears to be now in possession of certain Persian sufis (id. as.

which MSS.called Midrash. 70 and and yet again. though scattered through at the same time its contents were was &quot. edited for the first time &quot. that many considerable one of great weight with occultists can be quoted support of this opinion. 125).. it was written. the 437 on the exoteric laws of attribution value of which I must names and has already been exhibited. 92.D.. as 350.&amp. &quot. 438. iii. a number of minor MSS.&quot. the original being lost. and thence proceeds to exhibit the Sephirotic doctrine of that collection. 167).. not be surprised to learn that St. 230. opinions * || The best test of Madame Blavatsky s first-hand knowledge of the subject is the fact that she calls the Liber Drushim of Isaac de Loria a part of the Talmud... the last term were particular. the Zohar &quot. iii.. Zohar not sufficiently esoteric. &quot. 114. and Christian Gnostics to help him. Simeon was forced to possession of the &quot.gt.ome Christian tubent0 of tlu Jlabalah Israel. iii. is f It characteristic that she should regard the Ibid. 167. She also says that it was on account of his t Ibid. Such Chaldaic. 237). Moses de Leon. on the Kabalah.&amp. as it now stands.. iii..&quot.lt. it .* It in would serve no purpose to extend further the correction of such manifest errors or to enumerate all the singular assertions which rest more or less exclu sively on the good authority of Madame Blavatsky. Moses had Syriac. The symbolism of the Lesser Countenance Ibid.&quot..gt. Peter was a Kabalist (//. if ii. i. .. or contain th. that the Count de St..Secret Doctrine. i. iii. 167.. Ibid. between . are without any warrant for serious criticism.secret knowledge&quot..f author is said to be R. regarding also the the Central Sun as (#. admit. 1 10 by R... i. || Ibid.it information i&amp.. however. and not generic (ib. After this version of a matter of fact we shall take refuge in the cave. Germain had access to unknown Vatican MSS. It will be sufficient to refer to her views upon the On the one hand the authenticity of the Zohar. that R.. is also referred to the Talmud. A. Simeon ben Jochai J again. R.

of astrology.BOOK VIII THE KABALAH AND OTHER CHANNELS OF ESOTERIC TRADITION ARGUMENT Modern occultism the great occult regards all the secret sciences as vehicles of tradition. which is confined to estimating the extent of the influence exercised by Kabalism on other branches of esoteric knowledge in the West. but its connection is slight. without prejudice to their As a conclusion to merits. but thn is outside the purpose of the present inquiry. I. a variety of channels are recognised. the whole research the doctrine of pure mysticism is contrasted with that of Kabalism and the points reached in the investigation are brought into a single focus. in the It is found that It this influence has been has been unquestionably large in the case of ceremonial magic. but very small in that of alchemy. THE KABALAH AND MAGIC IT was established at the outset of our inquiry that occult speculations do not consider any single system as the exclusive depository of occult knowledge . and by the net work of communications subsisting between these channels the occult sciences are methodised and their . because of an insuperable difficulty. occultists as a with Kabalism channel of the secret tradition. &c. The claims of the Tarot as a key of Kabalistic symbolism are set aside. Freemasonry has also been regarded by much exaggerated West.

the birthplace of that work. There was. Palestine was.ir of Antiquity. an obscure sheaf of hieroglyphs known as Tarot cards. : Notes on the Scientific and Religious M\ /&amp. but. finally.&quot. As. individual predilection exercising. we have found many of the resemblances may be accounted for in a more natural and spontaneous manner. Schiller-Szinessy. Alchemy. however. . may conclude in a We general manner that the tradition being ubiquitous by the hypothesis is thought to have assumed its forms everywhere and at all times.gt. for example. and may be said roughly to have developed. no inconsiderable influence. accepts also what follows therefrom. &quot.! necessary channels by which the arcane knowledge to have been communicated to the West. enormous divergence of opinion as to what may and may not constitute a path of the secret tradition. it was in the western world that Kabalism was chiefly propagated. the occult associations which culminated in Freemasonry. to it is observe its connections with is other believed These are Magic.&amp. who defends [hi* derivation.lt. * John Yorker 5. of course. For this hypothesis the integral connection of Kabalism with other systems belonging to the far past its would be evidence enough that it had a root in the secret tradition. Astrology. admitted. Simeon ben Jochai be t If the derivation of the Dr. and. p. without denying altogether that there may be a certain warrant that for not dissimilar view.(Other Channels of Esoteric UniMtion 439 There is an identities and analogies exhibited. as will be supposed. iVun R.h. no exoteric religion which did not possess an esoteric interpretation* and there was no esoteric interpretation with all that is which did not connect that religion more especially understood here by the secret teaching.

without place or date. and it is under such titles that the mutilated reprints of the &quot.440 oEhe Ipcnrtrine is anb literature of the gabnlah There also a side question as to whether devotional mysticism. though it would be folly to pretend that without Kabalism there would have been no Western Magic.L. Moreri Cabale. is still la Sorcellerie dcvoitie.Little Albert&quot. La Grande et Veritable Science : form the basis of Magic. apart from any formal initiation.v. while those who look their enlightenment more especially to the Kabalistic apparatus have been unduly predisposed to discern Kabalism at the root of all. Historique. and the Red Dragon appear in the obscure by-ways of Paris. Tom. and Cabalistiqtte &quot. shows any trace of Kabalism over and above that of uncon scious analogy. shall see We that in most instances the connection was accidental. see the anonymous Similar productions of the last century also Telescope de Zoroastrc on Clef de la s.The Kabalah is the source of all the vain imaginations which many Jews devoted to the Kabalah are also addicted thereto. 1796. Far too much for stress has been laid upon the common basis of all the occult sciences. Like the studies which have preceded it.Great Albert. The paramount exception to this statement is the first system with which we have here to deal.&quot. exhibit it . ii. t The strength of the connection is exhibited by the modern literature of colportage in France. or of the historical order. the &quot. Grande Cabale divinatoire des Mages. . abusing the names of God and the angels for the Grand Dictionnairc performance of things supernatural. There is no doubt that Magic in the West * owes its processes and its complexion to Kabalism. usually &quot.f I propose in the present section to restrict the use of the term Magic within the narrow limits of its common acceptation. 1740. late in chiefly its introduction. a matter of adornment. To take it in its higher * &quot. s.. the object of this concluding book is rather to correct misconceptions than to establish novel views.&quot. Amsterdam.

Franr Hartmann s Magic White and Black are much too highly coloured to possess any historical &quot. fact we have seen. Leusden s . its forms all has obtained almost beliefs. it and at its necessary that we should estimate true worth.(Other Channels of dreotcric tirabitton 441 sense. would make it superfluous to inquire whether connects with a definition. Name of God in J. countenance. value. that the ends proposed are very different from vviil show by the speculative Kabalah the evocation of spirits. but such attempts to present it as Dr. &quot. The concerned only White and Black Middle Ages constitutes a kind of Magic spurious practical Kabalah which represents Jewish esoteric science debased to the purposes of the of the sorcerer. because it has been the subject it is of not only among uninstructed but even professed students. persons study of the Zoharistic writings. like universal it behind the insensate character which * exhibits externally II would be unwise to deny that there is a higher sense. is tradition The which lays claim to the same question as it is understood here than metaphysical. even with the slender much misconception A materials which are offered in this work. as in The Kabalah. the raising of ghosts. in power resident one of the Of it the antiquity and . however. diffusion of that doctrine there can be no doubt in one or other of universally.* as equivalent to Divine it Wisdom.f and it burdens of its inheritance. and. and is rather historical with the Western world. 1672. t See the important chapter on the Philologus Hebraits. their develop ments and commentaries. the doctrine of the is Divine Namcs. does. the discovery of concealed treasures. the bewitchments and other mummeries of Ceremonial Magic.

44 2 there it. and four letters are the living forces which actuate them. at it which we should indicate is sufficient here to that is the sources to which Kabalistic tradition generally referred. has been already mentioned. which was no doubt the prototype of the Keys and Grimoires. wherein allusion is made to a book of exorcisms or adjurations of Demons passing under the later name of Solomon. the doctrine of the power of It must have passed very early into un words. symbols. and posing With as an angelic revelation to Noah. than this. namely. Matthew. Akkadia. it It with them into the dispersion of inspired a whole cycle of bizarre More legends concerning Solomon and his marvels. and they carried the third exile. this work constitutes one of the storehouses of mediaeval magic. symbolically at least. ^he IBottrine an!b Jitn atttre of the for may be an be inward reason which accounts in Without attempting an inquiry probably baffled. . this doctrine prevailed it was no doubt brought out of Babylon by the Jews. it may be said to be directly connected with the Kabalistic symbolism concerning the divine powers the and qualities attaching to the Hebrew alphabet The worlds were made. besides being chiefly responsible for the whole of the practical Kabalah. fortunate applications. Chaldaea and Babylonia. There can be therefore no question that every Kabalist accepted. and its f So settled far as regards the early Christian centuries. to avert evil chances and so forth. the question is by a reference in the thirty-third Sermon of Origen by way of commentary on St. referred to Eleazer of Worms. its figures for the government of evil conjurations by means of the Divine Names. so to speak. by instrument of a single letter. its mystic or occult alphabetical spirits. its double seal of Solomon. .-f But it was a part also of the Chaidaean doctrine that the * The Sephcr Raziel.* sacred names were written on amulets and talismans which were used to heal diseases. its talismans and philtres.

Paris. influence the Name could. The chief of them known as the &quot.. and evil Above all. ffisloires. so. good and mostly with the evil.gt. and this. is to be found in the French the grimoires of Black Magic. illicit. a demonologist of the sixteenth century. and points out that the art which they deal with depraved the most secret interpretation of the Divine Law. p.&quot.ing spirits by means of Divine Names which are corrup tions of Hebrew terms. passing subsequently into the vernaculars of various countries. I think. but contain no formula for dealing they for dead. containing processes for compell.Sec Antonius van Dale: De Online et Progressu iiT. if is be translated from of the Hebrew. Key Solomon. in his Disputes et Discours (Us Illusions et Impostures des Diablcs. 1696. every variety of purpose. indicates their Jewish origin. of which there are two recensions. for the Jews had very strong feelings as to the sacred nature of the repose of the human Jean Wier.(Dther Channels of (Esoteric ITraoition 443 possessor of the Divine way.gt. gives a list of magical works current at his period under great names of the past.f under an identical Among the points which should be observed concerning them is the fact that while they are concerned with all classes of spirits. . more correctly regarded as distinct works title. 1885. It was. * hai&amp.. broadly speaking. somewhere about the fourteenth century that a Latin literature rose up in Europe.* The processes pretend to but. Amsterdam. 558. or rather the final corruption. 175- f A work passing under this name was condemned in a Decree of Pope Gelasius. . Here is the germ of which the last development. the demons spirits became subservient to power of such words. &amp. known as Kabalah among the Jews. the originals are not extant. in some obscure God to whom it was attributed.. Seethe reprint of this work.

is a perfectly traceable doctrine concerning not rationally Divine Names. of some interest.* The professed Kabalistic occultists of the latter country would actually seem ascribe a superior importance and an additional of aspect mystery to the worthless Clavicles of Solomon. Papus barely observes &quot. 1765. more spurious. distinctly which did enter also into necro mantic mysteries. of which the There is some ground for supposing that the first express attempts to identify Magic with Kabalism must be referred to Germany. but Welling s Opus MagoCabbalisticum. Hamburg. to exalt works Key of Solomon into embodiments of &quot. think an unfortunate policy. by representing that they are the only written memorials of a most secret oral branch of practical Kabalism instead of the if final debasement of accountable Dr. It is literature one thing to note the existence of this and to confess its derivation it is another.444 ^fte Jodrtne anb JJiterature soul. and it is also a work . . There are numerous earlier examples. the Uibliotheque Nationale possesses one of the finest exemplars. : The practical part of the Kabalah indicated in a few manuscripts scattered through our great libraries. and con taining sacred words the efficacy of which would not have been so promptly acknowledged by a Hebrew. is * a good instance. They begot many variations adapted for the use of Christian operators. xrf the jiabalah Out of these two works there was developed subsequently a larger variety of processes. and imbecility of Ceremonial has been done in England and is being done to at this day in France. At Paris. genuine Kabalistic tradition. rabbins of the It is an insult to the Holy Synod to suggest their connection with the puerilities It Magic. and as like I the &quot.

acquaintance the mentions little the Enchiridion &quot. country places (the Great and Little Albert. general fact remains that it is by the perversion of the Kabalah that we have obtained the The and that the sympathetic student of the Jewish tradition mu. may be concealed a secret of the sanctuaries so also the apparatus of Ceremonial Magic may be a travesty and disfigurement of an occult practice known also to the occult sanctuaries. * A &quot. behind the ancient doctrine of the virtue resident in certain theurgic words and formulae there .t tolerate this unwelcome fact as he best can.0oteru ^raiitiou 445 These manuscripts. goes to show that a Jew in possession of the and also of the secrets of Holy Traditions of the Kabalah &quot. . are the basis of all the old grimoires which circulate in origin is attributed to Solomon. the intellectual and moral difference between the Clavicles and their derivatives is so slight that it is scarcely worth labouring. As regards their scope and intention. but more elaborate and interesting than most of them. generally known under the name of Clavicles. and the Grimoire of Honorius is not more concerned with sorcery than are rituals like the Red Dragon.(Dther Channel* of &amp.* grimoires. work belonging to this class. Finally.&quot. The statement does with the works which in its not exhibit it full . the Clavicles are themselves I have indicated the possibility that grimoires.&quot. but no one is on the track of these mysteries for signatum on begins by mistaking signum the one hand or the mutilated who reflection for the original on the other. Red Dragon and Enchiridion} and of those which drive priests into mental alienation by sorcery (Grimoire of Honorius).Keys earliest forms owes to of Solomon.lt.

L. similar to the sealing names of IHV are in These permutations is called the Sepher Yetzirah. its materials and its method. it seems necessary for the sake of completeness to say something briefly of It was concerned above firstly. or Tetra- the grammaton. Eheieh Jod. which claim. translated by See the does not appear. Geburah is with Elohim Gibor. MacGregor Mathers. The Divine Name connected with Kether was that signifying the essence of is (AHIH). is manifestly imposture. It attributed certain means of Kabalistic processes. the strong God of Grace in correspondence the God who avenges practical Magic. . attributed to is The name Jehovah Elohim (JHVH and signifies God Bin&amp. &quot. ALHIM) of Gods. and these were regarded as analogous to the divine forces and attributes associated with the Sephiroth.ih EL (AL) referred to is Chesed. 1898. and.&quot. Library. Mathers. and belongs to the i8th century. London. is devoid of critical judgment. who has a certain erudition but authorship is unlikely. The original is an MS. That of Ckokmah Deity. in the Arsenal Mr. bequeathed the first to his elder and the second to his younger son. according to Rosenroth. and its meaning. as they are found in as their Holy were Scripture.&quot. names to the Sephiroth. What happened when there were more than two sons Book of the Sacred Magic. developed by mysteries secondly.lt. and Ruler of Mercy. but so much import ance having been attributed to it by modern occultists. S. accepts every claim advanced by this work.Key of Solomon. commonly rendered Jehovah (JHVH). as he accepts that of the &quot. Even its Jewish by the internal evidence. Banners by the Kabalists.446 ^he I Jocttine nub fiDitetature of the Jlabalah should prefer to ignore altogether this so-called practical part of the Kabalah. Jah. Paris. and susceptible of twelve permutations. all with the names of God. but it claims to have been written in Hebrew in the year 1458.

Adonai Melekh (ADNI MLK) to Malchuth. may be added divine Cornelius Agrippa connection that according to simple numbers were used to express things. numbers of ten were for . Elohim of similar Tzabaoth. but over and above these there were other names referred to the numbers based on the number of the . the number presume three the number to four I by AHIH or JHVH and that . extended It Tetragrammaton in this JVD HA VAV HA. . Eloah va Daath is the Divine .expression to these names. Kabalism has added six which Jesus. belongs to Hod . the God Lord of Hosts. the omnipotent living God. and JHVH TsDQNV ten by ALHIM TsBAVTh and by the . But the ten Sephirotk are naturally connected with the ten numbers. which divine the names belonging to the Sephirotk were those also of the scale of the denary. is referable to Jesod . meaning. ARARITA and AShRAHIH eight ALVH V DATh and JHVH V DATh. is connected with Netzach . Shaddai El Chai (ShDI AL Chi). five Christian by ALHIM. and not in its alphabetical order in which it is equivalent to ten. Name or or of Tiphereth (ALVH V DATh) Jehovah Adonai Tsabaoth (ADNI TsBAVTh). seven by by JHShVH=/*vW/W/ ALVThIM and AL GBVR . nine by by JHVH TsBAVTh. ALHIM GBVR. The number two was represented by by ShDI = Shaddai JH . understood Name. and AL . the number one as a Divine was represented by the single letter Jod.(Other Channels of Neoteric Urabition 447 crimes of the wicked. letters which gave Thus. and hence there was an occult power resident in numerals analogous was inherent in the Hebrew letters to that .

held to be . serve no purpose to enumerate all the complicated The ten apparatus developed in this connection. The also Names and their qualifications were tabulated in reference to the twenty-two letters. princes of Devils. and numbers of a thousand Divine things to come. successful With this was connected the name of 72 letters obtained by the Kabalistic computation of the numbers of the letters of Tetragrammaton after a conventional manner. and in opposition to all these there were also evil spirits. 19. as already seen. conventional device 20. secrets of the sanctuary and for all Kabalistic magic was the master key of operation.448 lhe Uortrine anb |iteratu of the $abalah celestial. numbers of one hundred for for earthly. 21. concerning which something has been said already in It would the section on Kabalistic Pneumatology. as follows : Jod = = : 10 15 Jod He Jod He Vau Jod He Vau He After the == = = 21 ^ 26 those of the Divine Names come orders of the angels and the chiefs of the hierarchy. rulers of the four elements. archangels and the ten angelic orders corresponded to the ten divine names connected with the Sephiroth and the name of 72 letters had 72 other angels attributed thereto. Of these names the greatest power and virtue were attributed to the Tetragrammaton which was the root and foundation of all and the ruling force of t the world . its was one of the true pronunciation. There were angels of the cardinal points. whose names were extracted by a from Exodus xiv. angels of the planets. angels of the Divine presence.

449 in the elements. have much hesitation in a that am not less consensus of authorities. In a pamphlet entitled Fra. and accepting must begin first of all by distinguishing the earlier books ascribed to Hermes Trismegistus. said&quot. critics. et A. that of Dr.&quot. Kabalah.* I as regards the branch of is Hermetic philosophy which known under be the name careful of alchemy. (2) &quot.gt. (i) from the from the heirs of the traditional lore now identified by the Of these alleged sources. The and though differing from however. John Everard. (3) from ancient Egypt.. name the have derived their knowledge of this subject.sages of &quot.&quot.C. I should such sure is exceedingly complicated. We with the transmutation of metals.Purifying Fire.&quot. and not concerned * Aude.sx&amp.R. seen that the Hermetic and Kabalistic philosophies are generally ascribed to a is common source. first FF . Alchymy. the anonymous preface to the first English translation of the Divine Poimander.Channels of &quot.f &quot. which the debased magic has so little connection with II. and this the case with sympathetic as well as hostile question.teric ^rabition so forth. about making we should exceedingly statements.&quot.lt. The Science &quot. THE KABALAH AND ALCHEMY Some reference has been made to the subject of Hermetic tradition when considering the Kabalistic treatise entitled We have there &quot. and This apparatus magic Kabalah may be said to have constituted and ruled throughout. the of medieval by Supere Europe are to Arabs. 1650.offensive &amp. K. t Compare.&quot. and it is for this reason that Western conventional folk-lore. passed bodily over to the ceremonial of the middle ages. however. only is historically certain.

166. When be found Isaac Myer affirms that many to of the doctrines of the in less veiled. however. Collectanea Hermetica. 167. Trismegistus. 1894- London. here prefixed to his verbatim reprint. altogether such extreme mystical While we must discount Casaubon. is See also Dr. as compositions. Les Origines de FAlchiinie. and there are also other references to this personage.D. may can Kabalah. . importance in this fusion of the religious and East and of Greece. other tracts. pp. Westcott s observations ascribed to Hermes Termaximus. which presided at the The Alexandrian Jews were for one moment at philosophy. to the Emerald make Table use of no the and Golden Treatise. Berthelot.&quot.the great Elixir of the Philosophers&quot. * &quot.the role attributed to the Jews in the propagation of alchemical ideas recalls that which they enjoyed at Alexandria during the contact of Greek culture with the It is known that the Jews exercised an culture of Egypt and Chaldea. influence of the first scientific doctrines of the birth of Christianity. though naturally included among the great names of antiquity who are associated with the making of Hermes gold. the existence of which the fourth can be traced about or prior search definite the Greek century.* the reference obtains be intended only. who treatises opinions as that of Isaac Hermetic represents the earlier of a Kabalistic as the work adept who was probably a Jew of numerous general reasons Alexandria.&quot. 1885. observes that &quot.450 Ihe itortrine an& literature ot the late from such stronger term. 2. the head of science and Paris.^ for we have admitting that there were points of contact between Neo-Platonism the possession of &quot. to the Divine Asclepios Poimander^ to the and A. alchemists in We may for vain any doctrinal connection is with these works.The Philosophy of Ibn Gebirol. f M. more or the books attributed Hermes and only. vol.

. there a quotation from the &quot. that. is most inaccurate as regards its facts. livrzison ii. they do Justice. and its Kabalistic correspondences must also be sought elsewhere. throughout. it will be well to point out that he classes all Byzantine literature of alchemy as apocryphal. is and the Kabalah. Figuier s work. Consult. and is therefore presumably in the hands of some of them. connects Hermetic and Hitroglyphes d Horapollon. operates independently of any foreign action.more solid by Divine Both come from remote ages.* as seen in an earlier The connection through the of alchemy with Hermes not Hermetic books of the Neo-Platonic period. is identical with the Edris of the Orientals and witli Hermes (p. 48). and it is only necessary to add that since the researches of Berthelot it has become I may add impossible. on the point involved. le Chevalier I. the third edition. 1827. de Goulianov in his Essai sur Us &c. and of no consequence as to its opinions and inferences. symbol of chemistry is drawn from creation * &quot. the Egyptian rendered &quot. t As Louis Figuier s popular work. A. 206.f True Book of Sophe concerning the Divine Lord of the Hebrews and the powers of Sabaoth. There was never much excuse for this opinion.&quot. who plays such an important part in the revelation of the Kabalah. though exceedingly interesting. and the work of monks belonging to the 8th. sustained by prayer and divine grace. which accounts for tlie philosophical work of alchemy generation being likened to that of God in the creation. i860. p.. Paris. Qth. Among the writings of Zosimus the Panopolite. . entitled UAlchimic ct les Alchimistcs. The (in the M. p.Channels of (Esoteric ^rabition 451 section. that of the Egyptians and that of the Hebrews. the is &quot. and loth centuries. Then comes the following significant passage. which belong to the third century. which affirms that there are two sciences and two wisdoms. I not investigate material and corruptible bodies their second being . is much quoted by occultists. J Collection des ancicns akhimistcs Grecs. 6 Paris. Kabalistic tradition on the fantastic ground that Enoch.

the University of Cambridge.&quot. as the sun There is no doubt that citation. the flower of the fire. referred to the seven Zosimus. It king is in the this a very important shows why the early Hermetic books came to be regarded as alchemical in later times. As there is a sun.452 ^he Sptfjctrine aitb literature of the giabalah eyes of its adepts) who save and purify the divine all.* king on earth. to support inferred that these f Ibid. is by is becomes then a which sky. it in the Zohar. shows no traces of acquaintance with The same observation the Jewish secret tradition. if it it assume the colour of is. so copper. to the early Arabian and Syriac alchemists applies who drew from Greek sources. two esoteric . as already seen. But that the is latter the science of the Kabalah there cite. When we add to this that in spite of such evidence for the connection between alchemy and the Kabalah as is offered by the late ^Esh Metzareph planets. must be * Ibid. the right eye of become gold) flower (that purification. if terrestrial sun. and it institutes a striking parallel between Egyptian and Jewish is science. and the there is very it little. and.f collection. mention possessed by the talismans of Solomon. no evidence to of still So also the reference to the Labyrinth Solomon which occurs among the remains of earlier Greek alchemists In short. is is a mediaeval inter- polation. soul enchained in the elements. above who separate the divine spirit confounded with the flesh. the so far celebrated Byzantine of all which the source alchemy. though some extracts from with analyses. the world. in a Syriac MS. power which they exercise over demons. a celestial sun.

the analogy between spiritual and the Zoharistic symbolism of the balance. see fair. of reference I New is York.Philosophy of Ibn Gebriol. and that the terminology of this literature offers analogies with that which after wards prevailed in the West. P. Mycr s mention hypothesis 5. 27. as in alchemy flourished it has been affirmed.&quot. it may well be that we must look to the furthest East for the cradle of what is usually understood by Hermetic Science. namely. See Book .. % The A. cit. origin. Albert Poisson. material. by Dr. but we shall do well to remember that the doctrine of the Macrocosm and the Microcosm. most accessible work &quot.* long peried in independence Furthermore. that of transmutation. have all been traced to the oldest sacred books of the Chinese.The Chinese. observes that Alchemy among the Greeks was. whose Theories et Symboles des Alchimistcs is a contribution of real importance to the elucidation of Hermetic science. 6 ct seq. Magic and Alchemy. it possessed a literature. 1891. that China from a remote period. and it was not it to the till the fifteenth or sixteenth century that allied itself afresh \\ith the occult sciences Thenceforth a considerable number of properly so called.(Channels of Creotcnr Trnbitiou traditions 453 grew up for a of one another. thanks philosophic Arabs. Isaac this iii. Op. this science became purified. J * The analogies may not be so striking It is contains the earliest part of a Berthelot s Collection des Anciens Alchimistes Grecs. so that it may be taken for what it is worth. 1881. however.&quot. p. that If it be true. Je. appendix H. there is no trace of in ancient Egypt. by reason of its very t &quot. alchemists demanded the Key of the Great Work from the Kabalah. Paris.. t See &quot. p. Later on. mixed up with magic and theurgy. livraison. W.&quot.f The subject is far too large to enter on in this place. to state that the Leyden papyrus which known process of alchemical sophistication forms Gnostic and theurgic collection. and it worth noting that the claim of alchemy rose into at that period when certain prominence precisely Chinese ports were first thrown open to Western is any science of transmutation commerce. Martin. On this point.

* is one of its evidences many Kabalists Metzareph literature .454 as ^he the . a few alchemists studied the is But it still a slight and occasional which we must be careful not to exaggerate there is also very little trace of it prior to the seventeenth century . because the term Azoth is composed of the Amphitheatrum second tract of the first and final letters of the Greek. could not profit in any Kabalah. became alchemists Kabalah. as time went on. the term is at least as old as pseudoGeber. and was excluded from the collection of Mangetus. Mr. . and Khunrathj introduced Kabalistic symbolism into the pictorial emblems of transmutation. Sapientice A^terncc. but the foundation is exceedingly slight. but I have already given full proof of the very slender connection between this adept and the esoteric tradition of the Jews. p.f when writers like Fludd concerned themselves with both subjects. Moreover. way by its alliance with the a science of observation. connection : .The Azoth of the Philosophers&quot. thought to who have discovered them have means of this. 1700. and suggests a certain connection with Kabalism. Jtorttine anb JpUratwre of the scholars as . * &quot. while the treatise attributed to Basil Valentine is of doubtful authenticity. Latin and Hebrew alphabets. and as alchemical developed in Europe. with which compare the J^rinum Chemicum Secundum. best The proof of these statements is the literary history of the ALsh Metzareph itself. Strasbourg.&quot. a connection un The ssh doubtedly arose with the Kabalah. this confusion of one occult science with another mainly to Paracelsus. which passes under the name of Basil Valentine. at a very far Of course. There is a treatise entitled &quot. 28. we have no real deciding but they indicate at least the possibility of a common source for both esoteric traditions at a centre not as yet acknowledged and epoch of the past. It has been called into requisition accordingly.Alchemy. which was purely a speculative science. t Poisson refers Poisson. Theories et Sy wholes des Alchimistes.

Wynn Westcott s Collectanea Hcrmctica.&amp. p. fragments among the This was the Lover &quot. t Reprinted in Dr. Philalethes. and when were known its is understood by still fewer. may be truly said in of. not always derived from the best sources.&quot. tract is largely a collection of opinions and quotations.lt. for its author appears to regard Edward Kelley and Elias Ashmole as of equal authority with the acknowledged adepts of alchemy.h. &quot.&quot. year Art.&quot. Introduction. follows. Prior to that date there is no case within my knowledge of its quotation by any alchemist.gt. who collected and translated the fragments &quot. 3. 15. which is not by the editor. and although the Kabbala Denudata was described on its title-page as Script um theologis omnibus philoI logis. that when alchemy most flourished the West. 1894 . but &quot.* If this position in the year 1887.&quot. the preface. . that it only one alchemical writer concerned himself with the appearance of in its Apparatus of Librum Sohar. omnium religionum. atque believe PHILOCHVMICIS after quam utilissimnm. The little Metzare/&amp. vol. to the JEsh there seems no foundation for this view. the treatise had mentioned by being first Rosenroth at the end of the seven never been heard teenth century. however.h*mul0 of (Esoteric ^Trabition &quot.f A 1714 and also published in the same Short Enquiry Concerning the Hermetic in which introduces certain citations from the ALsh into Metzareph and connects them first with the symbolism of the Doves of Diana introduced alchemy by Eirenaeus It Philalethes. states that the * Short Enquiry was &quot.The Kabbalah Unveiled. London. 455 Mathers observes that it is known it to few.written with special reference&quot. philosophis. from what has been stated previously that the literary connection between the Kabalah and alchemy does not begin so late as &quot.

Collectanea four worlds of the Kabalists. 1893. later edition. There are also some observations worth noting on the regeneration which are useful of subject of for the mystical aspects alchemy. Here the term Cabala is simply a catchword derived from Paracelsus. and is used in this sense by a compiler belonging to the group of Paracelsian exponents. Frankfort. On Cabalce where the 16 there is a curious Figura in the right light from the Ens Entium on a bearded characteristic figure holding the in compass and the square the left hand. I except such slender analogies as the correspondence traced by Sapere Aitde between the three worlds of Jean D Espagnet and the Hermetic Arcanum. Mtilhausen. 1 s Edition). Brundliche Beschriebungiind und uber naturalischen Dingen erschasun . least . Azoth Philosophicum Solificatum. . : das Enveisung There was a aller natitralischcn London. 1761. thus giving the symbols of emblematic connection with the secret sciences at a Masonry in date when such a connection would scarcely be expected on the Continent by modern scholarship. .&quot. This little work is incidentally of importance in p. of whom Benedictus Figulus and Alexander von Suchten are the names now most remembered or forgotten. ist. (Westcott f Cabala verier Descriptio vol. more than falls one respect. boieditrch das Verbum Fiat das alles Hamburg. J A work of similar pretensions is F.45 6 ^he first Bortrine anb Jpittrature ot the quarter of the eighteenth century* and the ALsh Metzareph seems to have been cited though methodically by only one writer. * Chemica. Kiern s Cabala Chymica : concordantia chymica. 1606. See &quot. the influence of the the Kabbala Denudata its may be traced in Germany soon after tract publication by means of an anonymous which pretends to treat of the chemical Kabalahf (cabala ckymica) and has these words on its headline. j Unfortunately title the correspondences between the Kabalah and transmutation seem to be confined to the which I have quoted. 1680.

. the Apparatus of Rosenroth..&quot. Bolton observes that this great work is 1842. comprenant des MSS. 242-244. and to which some importance has been * Ferdinand Hoefer : Histoirc de la Chimie depuis Us temps les une analyse cUtiillec plus recuUs jusqu a notre tpoque . maintains that the science of trans Before dismissing the Kabalistic connections of alchemy. pp. Akiba. and this is a quotation from the Metzareph. 2 vols... alchimiques de la Bibliotheque Roy ale de Paris . C.. and as M. i. superseded so far as the Berthelot. 1893.f The to authorship of the Sepher Yetzirah is attributed R. Den. Washington. MSS.Channels of Esoteric ^rabition 457 the subject The most important information on be in of History expected might include an exposition Chemistry. and out of two very large volumes there are only two pages stone. t T. namely. by the researches of Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. i. are concerned See &quot. etc. The Hoefer also mutation was pursued in ancient Egypt. 119. II. It is also affirmed that Jewish and Arabian alchemists possessed an old and that honour evidence as knowledge of Kabalistic books. p. /Cab. a word must be said concerning two works which have been supposed to be examples of that connection. 441-443.* which claims to Hoefer s &quot. J unfortunately wanting. were held by adepts in as much they those is of Hermes Trismigestus. Paris. % There is indeed one authority cited. c. un exposf ales doctrines cabalistiques sur la Pierre Phihsophale. . it would be unsafe to accept his opinion unsupported by other authority. 7. Simeon. of Kabalistic doctrines concerning the philosophical term proves on examination to be used in the loose sense of the period. but the devoted to the subject of the Kabalah. 1843. and that of the Zohar to R.A Select Bibliography of Chemistry. Mr.

cum Voarchadumia Pro pertionibus. is One Transmutationis Metallicce. 459 et seq.* share in common of s Both have the advantage. also mentioned. a definition which leaves something to be desired .45 8 ^Ehe J&octnnt anb |iterattt of the gabalah attached. muneris et iconibus rei accomodis illustrata. entitled Ars et Theoria Pantheus. the Kabalistic connection is thin and elusive. 1613. (&) as the Kabalistic of alchemical veins. and one It will prior to any printed edition of the Zohar. 1690. date 1550. See also Cabala Spiegel der Kunst Augsburg in : : und Natur in Alchymia. It was published Voarchadumia.&quot. 1659.a liberal art gifted with the virtues of occult science. a treatise by Joannes Augustinus a Venetian priest. at Venice in April i53O. which they with Khunrath and his Amphiprecedence over the publication is theatrum. . &quot. geneous. Argentorati.f Following the author himself. and. and the work is quite worthless. science of metals. it distinguishes the hetero parts.&quot. etc. p. is second edition.auriferous metallurgy. Augsburg. Volatile and exhibits There are others naturally in the large literature of alchemy. ii. as in all cases. A Paris edition . See vol. be needless shows an acquaintance with the sEsh Metzareph. but they are not of Hermetic value. remarkable for its curious folding plates.with the art of King Solomon. It is further a species &quot. but there is no Kabalistic knowledge. o Secret Cabinet of Nature. of Rosenroth Kabbala Denudata. the Plermetic Lexicons interpret (a) as &quot. concerning metallic explains yellow colour of gold it the intrinsic fixed form and the natural . t Rare in the original edition.. nor do I observe in their contents anything to connect them with the Sephirotic to say that neither attribution of the metals which is characteristic of that work. but rendered accessible by the reprint in Lazarus Zetner s Thcatrum Chemicum. Such is the Philosophic^ Salomonis. * combustible. a German anonymous treatise published at Here the royal stone of alchemy is connected 1753..

tinged.&quot. the edition of This translation. the symbol is silver. heavy. and the cross representing the fodr elements. John Dee. ductile. The explanation of Voarchadnmia. Martinus P- Rulandus. problems to the student. was restricted to six 1612.* It will of style that the work is for an alchemical treatise. which is the Thus. without date or place. It See the anonymous English translation of Martinus Rulandus Lexicon Alchemia. ance can be reasonably ascribed to The and it other work is much better known to fame offers several interesting.f composed of the crescent ^. t For the astrological aspect of speculations in Alan this analysis. educed and transmuted into true gold by means of and arcane substance of cementation. Practical Astrology.&quot. n. * copies. . of It transmutation seeks to throw light on the by calculations of exercised no influence. and the present purpose and to observe that be seen from this specimen very nearly unreadable. rarefied Quicksilver or Mercury.&quot. glyphica of Dr. the circle O. and no import it. some curious d. fixed. and includes a large Supplement to the Alchemical Lexicon of : &quot. second edition. lastly. perfection.Channels of (geoteric \Trabiticm 459 how &quot. which that of gold. sive Dictionarium Alchcmisticum.a the same may be conducted It defines. Special alchemical importance is attributed to their union in the sign which represents the fundamental matter of the philosophers as well as metallic quicksilver. and of an incombustible Metallic Sulphur. corporeal. Leo s &quot. occurs on see 438. and so is far unsolved. even it will be enough for to note the fact of its existence it mysteries Gematria. the fusible. This first the Monas Hiero1 containing an attributed to is analysis of published in the planetary 564. to the grade of Matter of the work. and symbols Mercury the sign of of metals.

of the Eclairtissement de Astronomiqiie appended to M. J It is due to my readers. Histoire FAstronomie also the . It supplied by the obscure but subsisting analogies between the ancient document of Latin alchemy known as the Turba Philosophorum\ and the two I Synods of the Zohar. more especially regarding the four elements of ancient chemistry. and allusions in this obscure colloquy. which offer curious points of contact with Kabalism. J * For information and references see s xliv. now lost. and to the subject. referring to the accidental similarity of form. . Paris. enough has been said in indication of a possibility upon which there is no need.* I be seen that this may observe in conclusion that there is one possible connection between alchemy and Kabalism which would appear to be overlooked by all those who have is instituted a comparison between them. Waite. so far as it can be assigned. and the third Pythagorical Synod . 1896. to insist further. &quot. of course. though it is highly important for the obscure question of the origin and history of the astronomical signs. . Bailly Ancienne. 1781. called t See the book of Truth in the Art. 2nd edition. . as indeed there are few materials. must confess that I have no theory as to the two previous Synods. Translated from the Latin By A. having regard to the history of the Turba. to confess that I have not made an exhaustive examination of alchemical literature in I . though.460 will ^he JJrrrtrine anb JJiterature of the JUbalah is not in any sense information which helps to connect alchemy with Kabalism. of the promulgation is somewhere between the Book of Formation and the Zohar. or Assembly of the Sages. When we add to this that some scholars have referred the Turba in the guise that we at present possess it to a Hebrew original. am not. and that its date. . London. Turba Philosophorum. this accident is There are statements certainly a feature of interest. E.

so that this also proves nothing. Cologne..the Kabalah was bound up during the middle ages with alchemy.lt. according to M. Jacob and the word Sabaoth papyri of the same family as No. mere names Abraham. entitled.. Tractatus Cabbali^tico Chymico PhiloI sophico contents. . been overlooked on both sides. . To infer that the of them. &quot. to claim that all the occult sciences arise out of their own.Channels of (Esoteric ^Trabition 461 III.&quot. it is possible that my future researches may discover something which has.d&amp. .gt. All his instances as to the earlier I But mediaeval period is connections must be rejected decisively. gives a reference to a work by Hyler. as already remarked. that is. C. so far. THE KABALAH AND ASTROLOGY school of Kabalism is The modern inclined. who published it to the rest of the world. 1729. infer that this great authority has. so far as the concerned.&quot.gt. we must remember that this view belongs to a period which referred all science and philosophy to the chosen people on the principle of Aristobulus and Philo. but as their observations have not been based upon a wide study of the alchemists. or that at least his notion of the Kabalah has been obtained as such notions most commonly are.&quot. . Magicus.im revelation of the sacred art from the Egyptians to the Jews. II. &quot. Some of them. van 179 //. and determine the superior accuracy of either view we must have recourse exclusively to history and literature. Lcs Origincs de CAlchimic ii. and the connection goes far back. Isaac.in \vi&amp. Observe that Itibliotheca Dritannica. It is only in the instance is of Ceremonial in Magic that the voice of both unanimously favour reference to its connections with Kabalism. but it seems more correct to Kabalah has been engrafted on some in this manner we have Kabalistic as we have also Kabalistic astrology. It is further obvious that a reference by Zosimus to Solomon and his establishes no Kabalistic analogy. I have made myself acquainted with all sources which have been cited by those who affirm them. I should note also that. Berthelot. when the Greek alchemist traces the &quot. have been already dealt with &quot.&quot. but am not acquainted with its . Finally. to Jhe Leyden Papyrus as well as to the Greek alchemists. such as the others are Labyrinth of Solomon. received only a derived impression. 75 of Keuven&amp. alchemy.

* and.462 ^he gortriue zm!b Jpteratee of the gabalah of a Kabalistic origin as regards the Western world. during the Kabalistic was imbedded in fastastic notions and puerile processes. which firstly. it Jewry. Scriptura qtia pugnare inter It was also debated by Gaffarel. that its history considerations shall From a priori we and literature contain little to It connect it essentially with Jewry. Against these must be placed two other facts. has derived something from the later Hebrews. The Josephus may have been question whether the art was condemned by the Law of been a subject of some debate. however. 142. See on this point the Conciliator of Menasseh ben Israel. we know famous deluge. that Jewish writings draw belonging to the Christian chiefly from Arabia. and that as regards astrology in period. as it is known in the West. Frankfort. He contrived to defend the . that ancient Israel contributed very astronomical centuries little to the science of astronomy. There are two facts. secondly. We are not called to deal here that with the history of it the science . be disposed to the case of astrology will prove some believe that thing like that of alchemy. to that the Jews were that much the addicted prophetic astrology. se Videntur. 1633. it must be admitted are above challenge. namely. p. by distinguishing it into two branches. are Josephus traces himself reported to Seth and assures us that he two the pillars had to all visited the have the survived of and said on to which have * rules astrology been engraved. namely. Perhaps the best opinion considered that it was. not of less significance. science of the stars. has the air of an exact science and seems to suggest few possible analogies with the speculations of a theosophical system. Israel has art writing from the Christian standpoint. Sive de conventia locorum S.

docs not attempt to account for the grounds on which the old judgments are based. 1898). Clefs gtntiales I? Astrologic^ p. Mr. for the simple reason that the Zohar does not connect seriously with these subjects. that it flourished among the Babylonians.. may have been this is.f and there are doctrines connected with it which even to the occult student may seem insufficiently ascertain whether they have pondences. would be interesting to any Kabalistic corres As to the data. little however. It has also liberty.* . or he may have been tempted to claim for his nation on the warrant of a fable the precedence in a study to which the notion of Seth and the pillars set apart.&quot.ilxmrs of the &quot. . Histoirc dt la 1.gt./. J/&amp. Astrology works upon data which are very obscure in their history . I suppose no one has grounded.New Manual. but he offers no evidence Spectduw Astrologia of Junctin was a kind of synthesis of the astrological l.Arabian and Hebrew Kabalists.lt. beside the real question its we not justified in looking for the Zohar or in influence Jewish writings on mathematics or natural philosophy. concern with astrology. but it has been thought that some astrological theorems I may have Christian affirms that there was. that it was practised in Egypt. has never been elucidated by any writer on the subject. We are at to ask ourselves one question. vii. 579. Corn Old s &quot. even a Kabalah of to Christian astrological procedure communicated times. It attempted to institute a parallel. All are however. \V..k t Which history. perhaps the latest work on Astrology (London. and it is natural to suppose that the Jews must have had their share in the knowledge of each of these There peoples.lt.&quot. in support of his assertion that the &amp.Channels of (Neoteric ^rabition 463 deceived easily. we know also that antique Chaldea was a great centre of astrology. moreover.c/&amp. learning was attached.

. A reprint t See L? Ombre Ideale de la Sagesse Universelle^ 1679. Jupiter. and a tabulation has been constructed by Papus. Esprit Sabathier. already cited frequently . where the attribution in question will be found. for The synopsis of the Kabalah in this Kircher (Edipus (Egyptiacus. as tions. Hod Jesod Malkuth_ Venus. P.&quot. : 2. its what is said upon this subject by students. Saturn. 8.464 ^he jBadnnt anfc $titt*ittte 0! the glabalah a connection with Kabalistic apparatus. Mars. Netzach Sun. . Let us see. &quot.. but the R. These are followed by Rosenroth. Geburah Tiphereth 6. refers Mars to Geburah and Mercury to Hod. 3.* following the authority of Kircher 1.Kether corresponds to the Empyrean. The original is rare. and there is no copy in the British Museum. 81 of his treatise on the Kabalah. work has been promised in Paris. in that strange little treatise on Kabalism which still exercises so much fascina French students of the subject. Primum Mobile. 10. that tend to the one truth. 80. therefore. Moon. 7. 4. all is the d5s/i Metzareph shows. but the reader may consult the of this Table given by Papus at pp. rare work has been recently translated into PVench. but this scheme systems not in accordance with either of its own attribu It is possible. Mercury. 9. The attribution of metals to the Sephiroth in the sEsh Metzareph suggests planetary attribution. .^ When there is tion on * For Papus consult La Kabbah. Chokmah Binah Chesed Firmament. 5.

Principles of Astrological Geomancy&quot. the planetary correspondences of the figures used in geomancy have been adjusted to the Sephiroth\ Kabalistic principles have been which in applied to chiromancy physiognomy alone.&quot. by John Varley. criticisms. of James during who based his observations on a direct knowledge of chief rabbinical exponents the Christian centuries.. Physiognomy. GG . every case possess or suggest astrological connections. 254.* have received some kind of Kabalistic attribution.Channels of 0oterir ^rabition 465 no unanimity we must infer that there is no point of importance involved and that attributions and tabulations of this kind are less or more conventional and can have little application to In astrology itself. and Natural Astrology&quot. See also &quot. Second Edition. M. of course.f information on astrology &quot. all the divinatory sciences. the &quot. and Mysteries of Magic. although. 1897. however.A Treatise on Zodiacal Physiognomy.D.&quot. 248. title of &quot. illustrates this connection. modern times.&quot. and an old work published about the beginning of the seventeenth century under the title of &quot. for the Thus. as we have it previously seen. 1899). with some pertinent Eliphas Levi s Kitucl dc la Haute Magie. 1828. connected with astrology. among Gaffarel.The Influence of the t Physiognomy has been. the Jews its in the Curiosities &quot. and.&quot. there is direct warrant for in the The most accessible is Zohar. they regarded it as a book.} To reduce what he says to a sentence. London. will s information.Book of Palmistry. 253. pp. Thus. while Miss Rosa Baughan has compiled a curious medley of * chiromancy and astrology under the Stars. % A summary of Gaffarel be found in &quot. part ii. 252. (London. possibly because it has never had much attention at the hands . of professed occultists.Transcendental Magic. the Jewish astrologers read the heavens like a book. See also &quot. seems an exception to this rule. have been the subject of a special treatise by Franz Ilartmann.

and it was claimed that by means of the signs and figures in the heavens most profound secrets and mysteries could be discovered. apparently fortuitous. So regarded.466 ^he Ipottrivu anb literature ot the its JUbalah purposes of methodising its contents with a view to the in interpretation. Their process was therefore not an astrological process. they collected stars fact. but more correctly one of divination.* to read the sense of the heavens so that they could give the meaning thereof was an operation no less sacred in its intention. of the starry heavens. the Hebrew alphabet. mysterious in its and strange in its methods. at to be admitted that the it fundamental fact suggests a correspondence with notion of the Sepher Yetzirah.. 760. of the unmeaning mythological of pagan antiquity they imagined the twentyfigures two elements of the divine word manifested to the chosen the people. Latinised by Surius under the title of the Twelve De Vera Contemplatione. which were. the stars and constellations are a subject of contemplation. t Compare those other strange results in symbolical astrology of &quot.&quot. Zohar. Mantua. There natural for those who were made by nothing more believed that the heavens and be the inscription of letters in the air than to discover these letters in the configura In tion. place. ii. though the previous the earth has not been could observed by any writer. into hieroglyphic characters. and the imagination once delineation justified it by apparent became part of the scheme of the universe of the characters . we have only to glance Gaffarel of the Hebrew planisphere furnished by how arbitrary was the nature At the same time it must arrangement. than the application of resultsf * This is the Zoharic notion. . and a source of mysterious delight for the sage.Book which Ruysbrceck the Mystic speaks in the Beguines. therefore. and as the see to its value.

were in high credit at the Persian Court during the reign of the usurper Artaxerxes.The Indian Religions. 207 et scq.&quot. what commonly understood by Magic/ p.. The late Mr. turn the logical development. 1835. judicial astrology. Lamb s London. as western world its .&quot. Hebrew characters derived from Hieroglyphs. Ilargrave Jennings has also some pleasing fantasies on the &quot. . century the Jews of Babylon were famous as doctors and astronomers and. See 247. p. as we wide a range of subjects could not have grown up without con tributing anything to the knowledge of the heavens.gt.(EhanneU of Esoteric ^rabitiou 467 Zoharistic processes to the disentangling of the mystic meaning beneath the letter of the Scriptures. must be distinguished from &quot.astronomy of the mind&quot. J. ami &quot. This is the true Kabalistic astrology. Samuel Needless to say this astrology is not judicial. passages and words of the sacred writings are inter preted by recourse to them.* based on a Kabalistic doctrine which is its justification and of which it is in the Sepher Yetzirah. t As an instance of the extraordinary lengths to which speculations of this kind have been carried outside astronomical connections. even as astrology in the West has nothing to tell us concerning the Kabalistic mystery of Am Soph.f of course. be anticipated that a literature said at the inception of our inquiry. London. * Which is astrology.teries of Dr. The hieroghyphics in question are re-constituted. Outside it has the countenance of the Zohar itself. It is better therefore not to confuse further the complicated issues of the secret sciences by the suggestion of realisable It will. partly for this In the third reason. various doctrines. fantastic influences and un- communications. in &quot. as Levi rightly observes. But it has it little in common with the science of the stars. so so large as that of the Jews and embracing. see My&amp. it has been pursued in the can offer nothing in evidence of considerations. 1890.

connection with the judgment of the judicial with they are sufficient to establish that this occult science is to be found in Jewry during astrology. Naharden. Ada. founder of the academy of Sora. was another student of the subject in the days of Ferdinand and Isabella. during the reign of Alphonso the loth. and head of the academy of an instance in point. R. In the second half of the thirteenth century. King of Castile.468 Ihe |S0rtrine anb literature rrf the giabalah Lunaticus. himself called the astrologer. Abba Aricha. Abraham Chiia and Abraham Nasi are also con temporary students of the same science. astrology was much pursued by the Eastern Jews of the tenth and eleventh centuries. and R. or thereabouts. i. is stars. Avi Joseph wrote a treatise on the intelligences which move the heavens and concerning the judg ment of the period. family of In the fifteenth century the Alcadet produced Zacut. most of the Christian centuries. him. two author famous of the astronomers. the rabbins were in high estimation for their knowledge of the heavens. was again a deep student of astronomy. . and Abraham Sepher Yuhasin. a great well Aben Ezra.. having regard in astronomy was usually pursued stars. and names might be multiplied easily. and the Tables attributed to Alphonso were the work of a Jew whom he employed. Side by side with medicine and the interpretarion of dreams.e. attributed famous to is is for the astronomical tables Naharden. Meagre as are these to the fact that indications. about the same name among the astronomers of in Jewry as as doctrine and philosophy. In 1150. also of another. better known as the Babylonion Rav.

&quot. on the other. whose information drawn from R. which was developed at great length and applied to the science of the stars by P. for. 1688.. so. has published a Kabalistic astrology. J It is obvious that the use of the term Kabalistic in such a connection parler. Gorn Old. Christian.* but the system which he develops is not less fantastic. suggest Kabali-tic &quot. * connections through the vehicle of Ceremonial Magic. like that attributed to Cagliostro.hannel0 of (Eeoterir ^rabition 469 The with the astrology reader first who desires to become acquainted of Gaffarel. and vi. London. W. iii. and is that indeed which we have described briefly in the earlier part of the present section.&quot. Some s account of Cagliostro &quot. Jacob Kapol ben Samuel. Aben This learned Ezra. R. Also s VHomme will also Rouge cks Tuileries. the secrets of the Hebrew planisphere and the mysteries of stellar writing do not connect with the practice of the art in the West It may be added that a recent writer. ( ? 1892). It would be out of place to extend our references.lt. as on the one hand Sephirotic astrology is rejected even by so determined a Kabalist as Gaffarel. &c. . but books like John Bishop s Marrow of Astrology. Moses. principles and procedure of Jewish may consult the is &quot.d. is unfortunately in very common merely a fagon de use. % In his Histoire de la Magic. or Your P ortune in your Sepharial.Manual Method be found in Grand Orient of Cartomancy. Mr. This So far as I am aware. n. but pedantic writer wholly rejected what is called Kabalistic astrology. with its list of the governing angels of the signs and the planets.Kabalistic Astrology. London. of which several editions have appeared. t &quot.&quot.Curiosities&quot.. &c. with its Sephirotic attributions.f but it is merely a process of divination. R.&amp. by in ii.. no astrological work developing these connections has ever been printed in any European language. books Name.

not as signifying the initiations of Egypt.&quot. such as Templars and Rosicrucians. that Freemasonry. obvious and meagre character. but symbols a conventional meaning of an As such. IV. Old s process is affirmed to have equivalent. or otherwise. Masonic Fraternity but that it an institution of mystic has lost its real and is interesting only as a survival. of Greece. the working in complete silence. but an actual Mr. THE KABALAH AND FREEMASONRY It is generally agreed is among secrets occultists that the origin. some known to history. but this merely speculative and an inference from certain Tarotic connections.47 is ^h* Stortrirte anfo literature ot the Jbbalah made further evident by the parallel use of the term Hermetic. after some manner that is not wholly apparent. . in use among the ancient Kabalists. not only as an analogue. As to its historical origin. fraternities. namely. certain legends arid it applies to them it continues to preserve of occult philosophy. but rather the secret power and intelligence which is thought to have been present behind the philosophical associations of all ages and most During the Christian period the knowledge which would otherwise have perished was preserved among successive occult civilised countries. or of Rome. been is &quot. there is also a general opinion prevailing in the same circles. but this term is used in a catholic sense. is a survival of the ancient mysteries. they were all affiliated with Corporately each other and symbolic Freemasonry forms the last link in the rest Western chain of transmission.

but it is on this point . it has shown no sense of under its standing on occult subjects. however. and though it has tolerated and even received them. a varnish rather than a . indications which point to a possible connection this.(Channels of (Esoteric ^rabition 47 l No been presentation of this hypothesis has so far able to survive analysis. a question of subsequent introduction. as much imputation as reality. This being the state of the case. The evidence is. respect And like position in this much that of alchemy. and the inductive student must be content to recognise. Freemasonry per se. and the claim which is made for tion Freemasonry having never been urged by the institu on its own behalf. (a) the mystic nature of most Masonic symbolism to which the fraternity now attaches only elementary . nor has it a clear notion how it came by symbols. and admitted. meanings belonging to the ethical primer () a certain analogy of ostensible purpose as regards the ends of human existence. would constitute the first link in nection with con the past. its if between Masonry and Rosicrucianism. in spite of the affinity with Mysticism which I have just mentioned. inconclusive. has never exhibited any mystic character. (c) not worth while to insist strongly the affinity for Mysticism which has always been shown by Masonry during its historical It may be added that there are certain period. there is nothing /V*d facie to it accredit the idea that has ever been a channel of the secret tradition or to warrant us in supposing a priori that is it should have any distinct analogies as a fact its with Kabalism. though occultists at all times bave gravitated towards it. or at least unextricated. seemingly fortuitous.

Swedenborgians. orders. evocations and rituals of Pasqually. occultists it. As it Free is masonry alchemy. theurgists. I must refer for a third time to the fact that since on the historical plane. and yet possessing considerable occult interest. . so it not Kabalism. and the uncommon swiftness with which they passed into extinction. and interesting. it is not theurgy. They represent the Kabalism of the period. but it has been developed somewhat Kabalistic as in other interests. as it is still less the mysticism of any of the true Mystics. all we know and were that Martinists.lite Jtortriiu anfo literature ot the Jiabalah yet. invented at this new grades period there new also and so as in Kabalists. and all the magical marvels of Schrcepfer. Masonry appeared and mystics have has received them always tended towards all that it in amiably. During the prevalence of the passion for rites alchemists. such positions. it may be observed that some account of it was published at New York in 1870 by Samuel Berwick. it has its literary remains in grimoires and The history of the Swedenborgian Rite being exceedingly obscure. spite as not the as of the Elect Cohens. and especially of Kabalistic rites and grades which exhibit is influences. It is in must be added that the few Kabalistic degrees left any record behind them beyond their name. and that all have elaborated the system accordance with their particular notions. like all permeating tincture. one or two instances we hear of Kabalistic rites.472 &quot. is no need to speculate as to its quality bequeathed * There . not in Swedenborgianism. To establish my point. give no evidence of which have acquaintance with the Jewish esoteric tradition.* astrologers.

as. the admirable harmony which subsists between nature and as a religion. As be well to enforce these statements by means of documentary evidence. a magical complexion. on the Sephiroth most of its developments are very late. of course. numerorum signific adonis liber.Channels of (Esoteric ^raMtion 473 grand cesses clavicles. on Correspondence Philoentre deux Cabalistes. A existed degree Knight Kabalah once among those innumerable decorative develop ments of the Fraternity which were termed high by their disciples and spurious by some who resented innovations. I will add an account of will one Kabalistic grade of which of may the be taken to represent the whole. was to know. according to the &quot. see Petrus Bargus : Mystica to occultists. numerical mysticism of the Kabalah is La-c-d. the attempt to simplify chronology by Kabalistic figures in Michael Aitsinger s Pentaplus Regnorum Afundi. was developed by the See .. &c. 1754. On the general subject. for which reasons they do not enter into the scheme of this study. La Ilaye. Antwerp. Bergomi. 1579. The object of has long since fallen into disuse. Some of these developments are quite unknown for example. The man who Master of the Lodge in which the degree was imparted seems to have been called the President of the Sanhedrim and the Rabbi.* the and lavations of the rabbinical conduits. : . It defines the Kabalist has acquired the Sacerdotal Art and the Royal Art by the communication of the tradition. of the spurious thaumaturgic pro Abramelin. The device was Oninia in muneris sita suut. catechism of the degree. . The mystical significance * of numbers*)&quot. by means of numbers. 7 vols.&quot. D Argcns . It and especially those which led to nothing. the candidate. and in amusing Kabalistic in correspondence with lees it the Seigneur Astaroth. and possess . 1585. sophiquc t The Lettres Cabalistiqucs. .

IV=the mentary it is. a spirit embodied in the virgin earth. The reference here to salt.&quot. the most mysterious of numbers. four cardinal virtues. It is the generative number in the order or Nature. through the triad. and thence. essence. VI = the It is the theological cube and the physical cube. all numbers are evolved. thus indicating the Hermetic connections of Three also denotes the triple divine this grade. &quot. &quot. II = In the moral order. the generative In the moral order. and the quint It is essence of matter which again is alchemical. most salutary number. the four ele qualities another Hermetic reference and moreover. apparently a false symbolism. the is three principles of bodies. V=the quintessence of religion. man and woman. otherwise. because it contains all the mysteries of nature. III virtues . the three in theological the physical. It is in the physical. The precise meaning of statement does not appear. number in created things. whence Eliphas Levi more correctly says that the monad supposes the duad. sulphur and mercury. which may be worth while to summarise. because the monad neither generates nor is generated. active and passive. in the centre of the last series. because it is enclosed also the most occult number. I = In the moral order.474 ^he Ilortritu anb Jiteratuu ot the Jiabalah it catechism in a somewhat curious manner. in the bosom of a the Religion physical order. word incarnate . a virgin. in of Divinity. because it contains . but it may possibly refer to the pentagram as one of the emblems this of the grade.

number. the faculties of the creature. X = the &quot.&quot. because and nature are both exalted thereby. seven the most fortunate number. XI I = the twelve articles of faith City.&quot. &quot. we arrive at the multiplication of things. of divine knowledge. By the study of this number we find the relations of all things. the Alpha and Omega XI = the &quot. because leads us to the decade. foundation of the Holy who preached throughout the whole world for our happiness and of nature. religion exaltation of religion and the exaltation is It the most sublime number. the perfect number. of nature. whence everything emerged. the beginning and end.hanncl0 of (Esoteric ^rabitiou 475 the source of our spiritual and corporeal happiness.&quot. ten commandments and the ten precepts because it It is the most perfect number. because with the possession of two units. wise. it = It the is seven sacraments and the &quot.&quot. power and force. VIII = the small number of the elect or the because It is the most desirable number. the power of the Creator. which created everything. multiplication of religion and the It is the most multiplying multiplication of nature. the twelve operations twelve signs of the Zodiac. he who possesses it is of the number of the Elves and Sages. . symbol of matter and chaos. life and annihilation. foundation of the . In its figures it comprehends the created and uncreated. the spiritual joy. IX^the of matter. and zero. the twelve apostles. includes unity. Is this a reference to the mystical adultery of the first man whereby the coming of the Liberator was necessitated ? VII planets.

and the remaining Sephiroth . for extending temporal it throughout It is the our felicity. 8oth Grade by the by the French Mason Peuvret. The history of the Knights of the Kabalah is unfortunately involved in obscurity. thus the most solid number. * Among the degrees collected there was that of Mafon its France dignified Cabbalistique. The numbers after twelve were that this left to the also discernment of the candidate. all this would have proved nothing as to the Kabalistic connections of Masonry. and there can be little doubt that it was his intention to transform the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite into a seminary of occult study. &quot. . being the basis of our spiritual and corporeal happiness. had the lodge represented Atziluth. There may be of its own brethren at the present time in many whom this statement will excite only incredulity.47 6 ^he Jtorirtne attb ^iteratxtu of the Jlabalah Primum universe Mobile. The Metropolitan Chapter of title of Chevalier de Cabale. which furnishes a resemblance to other and institutions later professing similar purposes and having similar religious sympathies. but it will be seen that it was Christian and Catholic. The catechism itself shows order of concerned with with the the universal spirit alchemy and even quadrature of the circle. Within recent years a powerful Masonic order has undergone a species of development in this direction through the labours of Albert Pike. grade. Ain Soph. had the ritual been constructed from the Zohar and the catechism from officers the the Apparatus of Rosenroth. the Master his throne in the East Kether.* Had in the Book of Occultation been made the theme of a Masonic eighteenth century the &quot.

limitations he made available an amount of informa tion on occult subjects with which no previous . He accepted. for all the grades of the order. all these things is to be found of instruction which he compiled. while for the rest his only source of further information was the Kabbala Denudata. He was also seconded by numerous like-minded persons who occupied high dignities in the United States Southern Jurisdiction. or that he pursued it into regions of which Masonry has now no conception. was not a skilled critic though a man of wide reading. It matters little that the sources from which Pike drew were not of the best.of (Esoteric ^rabition 477 but it is not the less certain that Albert Pike was far more than an ardent admirer and more than an unqualified follower of the occult philosophies. Morals and Dogma &quot. can fail to trace the hand of the occultist therein. from whom he translated verbatim at great length. that. and some of whom The still survive. he for we are concerned only . for example. with no specific acknowledgment. No person who is acquainted evidence of in the vast with the &quot. seeming to as entitled to rank regard in the authority In spite of these Sepher Dzcnioutha. the construction placed on Kabalism by the most unsafe of all its expounders. passing from grade to grade in the direction of the highest. however. this instruction becomes more and more or Kabalistic. he shows no with analytical Liber Drushim the knowledge. Eliphas Le*vi. body chiefly from sources in occult literature. without due caution. with a tendency and its development. of which. and it is to be especially observed that. and. following his professed habit.

* it is useless to insist on the connection. in which case.478 ^he JBo-ctrin* attb JJiterature ot the giabalah his scheme had ever provided Masonry. however. depuis sa creation jusuq a nos jours. J We see therefore that Kabalistic influence It its is confined to the so-called high grades. with all the romantic elements which might be expected. another t A history of this institution. if we except such interesting minor instances as the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia. is it must be confessed that the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Misraim-f- the only section of high-grade Memphis* and Masonry . Yet with all strenuous efforts it must be doubted whether the seal of occultism has been impressed effectually on the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. or seek to interpret the legend of the master grade in connection with Jewish tradition.gt. unaccountable. but the presence of the seal of Solomon among the heirlooms of the brotherhood being. De Ordre Mcyonniquc V de Misratm. was written by Marc Bedarride and published in two volumes at Paris. des Mysteres Mafonniques. so far. is designated . Le Rameau d 1 work by Marconis is also interesting as the views of an amiable student upon the Mysteries in connection with Masonry. under the title. and it remains which claims a it is practically in abeyance. 1845. See Marconis et Moultet : V Hitrophante&amp. with which I have dealt elsewhere. &c. Paris. to The symbols. dttveloppement compkt or cf Eleusis. 1839. among other forms of occult philosophy. distinct purpose of an occult kind not necessary to say that in England. The fourth Series of the Rite of Misra im Kabalistic. which are familiar the initiates of these lodges do connect with - Kabalism. it has failed wholly in obtaining recognition as a genuine development of Masonry. absurd to discuss the possibility of would be conscious presence in the blue lodges. at least.

published with London. 1888. The inquiry then fell into neglect. They were first mentioned by the French archaeologist the close Court de Gebelin at of the eighteenth century. Kabalism and Masonry have history joined hands in the sphere of the higher grades. is the author of a small explanatory treatise. a set of the cards. who wrote a great deal about them in several illiterate tracts.The Tarot.00teric ^rabitimi it. when Eliphas contributions to occult science. however. except in so far as Continental fortune-tellers were concerned. must be left to those who V. but that it is otherwise significant affirm it. It THE KABALAH AND THE TAROT is very well known to all occult students at the present day that the Tarot is a divination* by means of seventy-eight picture - method of symbolical cards. MacGregor Mathers &quot. and as a historical fact this is interesting. &c. L. named Alliette.lt. its Occult Signification.Channels oi &amp. Their literary history is also equally well known. taken up by a professed cartomancer. to which great antiquity and high importance are attributed by several authorities. S. LeVi made his first * As there may. until the year 1854. and endeavoured to trace their connection with Egypt through the Jewish Kabalah. entitled.. 479 because nothing logically follows from is So far as concerned. I may observe that Mr. be some readers who are not acquainted with this matter.&quot. and were attributed by him to an Egyptian Much about the same time the subject was origin. .

night of time (413). inquiry was occultist &quot. Tarot of the Bohemians. P. the Kabalistic connections. a deduction from described the Tarot as the sidereal book of Enoch (412).480 i. He ! only mentions the Kabalah to establish its connection with Cabul (p. Falconnier Les xxii. Christian. Eliphas LeVi says that * Histoire gipsies this Vraie des is Vrais Bohhniens. of the Magic . its As . with explanatory booklet. In the year 1887 I in 1870. and this is consistent with their views on the origin of the Kabalah. the synthesis of ancient faith. period its Tarot speculations are M.the sacred texts and translation &quot. He was the first who introduced the claims of the Tarot to English readers in a digest of the chief works of to Eliphas Levi. So Mons. 54). Vaillant* endeavoured to prove and transmission by means of the gipsies . their connection with these nomads was great to the subsequently adopted by LeVi. Vaillant worthless. but no statement which he makes can be accepted with any confidence. Compare R. of course. who gave prominence year 1865. Jeu des 78 Tarols Egyptiens. Z. Its origin he affirms to be lost in the &quot. Lames Hermttiques du Tarot divinatoire. to the Tarot in all his writings The subject was who published a also taken in up hand by Magic large history of developed still further the Egyptian theory. which pretend to be re-constituted cards under the : exactly according to of old Egypt ! &quot. and its philological arguments absurd. f Occult writers mostly favour Egypt as the birthplace of the Tarot. all the The point which concerns us here is. J. Lismon has recently published a version of the title of Livre de Thot. a notice of the work exceedingly good for &quot. remains the most comprehensive and attractive summary of arguments. though scarcely of critical value on the historical side.&quot.he gortritu anb JDitmture of the Jhtbalah In 1857. An made important contribution the shortly after by the French whose elaborate work entitled the Papus. their Chinese origin^ A.

It must be admitted. . dispassionate they have allowed affirmation to take the place of evidence they have regarded a . for which he quotes the authority of not. be interpreted too strictly. that the analogies are exceedingly striking. and that although the historic evidences can scarcely be said to exist. Unfortunately. human tradition &quot. he institutes an analogy between the symbols of its four suits and the four letters of the Divine Name Tetragmmmaton. and between the each ten Scfihirotk and the ten small cards belonging to suit He gives also the correspondences between the twenty-two trump cards and the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. there can be no doubt that the Tarot actually. &quot. in the first place because they have all proved themselves incapable of conducting a historical inquiry . some of which were importance symbolically. and have been supplied from the treasures of imagination. Setting aside Court inquirer de Gebelin.divers Kabalistic Jews. mitted also to register may the interpretations broadly outlined by Eliphas LeVi. as although the symbolism of the Hebrew alphabet has been much dwelt on by such authorities there is no trace of any reference to the Tarot by Kabalistic writers of the past. of considerable perhaps be per my personal belief that it has distinct Kabalistic connections.&quot. and the primitive source of divine and &quot. on the other hand. hint as a sufficient ground of conviction . Mil who was merely an hampered by . of its symbolism which have been attempted by various writers are nearly worth less. they have made conjecture certitude.Channels of (irsoteric Tradition 481 the Tarot cards are the key to the esoteric tradition of the Jews. is as it is claimed I to be. which must however.

&quot. In the second place. the uninstructed because they had nothing wrongly. and by those who knew better because they desired to I may go further and say that the true mislead.. Druids&quot. marvellous learning is so much and so un safely insisted on by the whole French school.482 ^he Jloctriue anb literature ot the gabalah the limitations of his period . and outside that circle . who seldom made an accurate statement about any matter of fact . to Le&quot. is at once disorganised if there be any doubt as to the attribu of its trump cards to the Hebrew alphabet. Papus pursues his inquiry It is into the origin of the Tarot. Obviously. Now there is one card which bears no number and therefore allocated according to the discretion of tion is It has been allocated in all cases the interpreter. Papus nothing himself to the problem on its historical side except an affirmation that the game contributes called the Tarot. setting aside Levi. by an appeal if to the writers who preceded to him. Papus. which the Gypsies possess. which.&quot. is the Bible of Bibles.Celtic &quot. nature of Tarot symbolism is perhaps a secret in the hands of a very few persons.vi. the symbolism of the Tarot. as their authority were in final . is most patiently and skilfully elaborated in his work. by but their private judgment to guide them. with his fascinating theory of gipsy transmission which is about as conclusive as Godfrey Higgins on the &quot. archaeological reasoning to Vaillant. the historical question calls for treatment by some independent scholar who will begin by releasing its present fantastic con nections. Court de Gebelin. observe how Dr. to do justice to Dr. who was of a groper the dark during the childhood . whose &quot.

there is so much in the Kabalistic system which seems extrinsic to the subject of mysticism. it The symbolism is. to the pure mystic. almost as reason for the same purpose.Absolute misdirecting his advertises his laborious to Occult Science. that is scarcely known or admitted in any distinct connection. The correspondence and into the difference if it may perhaps be brought harmony be permissible to regard mysticism in two ways as a philosopical system. that there is a temptation to underrate its real influence. however. but they are not the key of the Kabalah.&quot. of On so the one hand in the Kabalism it is imbedded that of mysticism.Channels of Neoteric Trabition operators 483 they like will never find and writers may combine the cards as and attribute them as they like. It THE KABALAH AND MYSTICISM is attempt purely history a a task of no inconsiderable difficulty to the Kabalah from the judgment upon mystic standpoint. On the other hand. so rich that in will give meanings of a kind these whatever way it may be disposed. readings as the Key VI. The purpose of this short show that the published Tarots and the methods of using them may be very service paper is therefore to able for divination. fortunetelling and other trifles. an ordered . but they are illusory none the less. Papus is therefore unconsciously many followers when he &quot. that is to say. but they the ri^ht way. and that the Royal Game much of Goose may be recommended with Dr. and some of may be strikingly suggestive.

in a word. to which this It is also. For that far larger class to whom the possibility of than any other rather sanctity is denied. but not in the same way that we find it in Ruysbroeck or St. like other metaphysics has some useful It is a source of intellectual lights. because the mysteries of the Divine Life do not fall within the limits of historical research. $\a. therein.484 ^hc Jlojctrin* unii JCiteratitre of the Jiabalah metaphysics. held intellectually. that the I conceive sum of Kabalistic instruction is of no real service to the disciple of this secret path. and there is no moderate office can be denied. all Holy Unity into which all come forth therefrom can be Like all Invenit sanctum. . as transcendental doctrine and transcendental life. I conceive that the Kabalah of and reassuring but again. something more would be the correspondence of the Zohar with And this For example. It is more especially a rationalised system of mystic thought. t Zohar. so other and perhaps not more methodised theosophy. all consolation that one of the most barren of the ways pursued by flowers and fruit. i. concern ing whom it is consonant with the purpose of our present inquiry to speak only with great reservation.f studies. have sought to show. as * I no book. after every allowance has been made for the Zoharic doctrine that a science of that things return as attained by man. The practical mystic is the saint on the path of his ascent into the mystery of the eternal union. the doctrine of ecstasy is assuredly found mysticism. Mantua.* but also as a mode of conduct practised with a defined purpose. the human mind There is has its own strange system.. John of the Cross. who are in search a guide for thought upon questions of fundamental philosophy. it has a certain office in the sanctum facit.

here under the common influence of right reason. This v ew shows little first-hand Ilillman. P. throughout all its history. having diverse characteristics and a divergent mode of induction. is and to say soul to it the eternal speaking. even an inheritance that has been transmitted from a period far back in human history. the Cabala itself is not importation Israel among the Nations.plummet of the sense&quot. We is are all acquainted with the distinction which and hypnotic sleep. and again.gt. is sweep through confess that all intelligence. as somnambulism or even in frenzy. mysticism. it seems occasionally to &quot..2 9 2 - acquaintance with the subject. and Jew this is their M.* With occultism. in what state soever. * is made between the magnetic They have much in common. . however. and seems never to have been so.The Hassidim. there in it ecstacy and vision. the &quot. and backward this. translated by Francis rooted in Judaism. of course. a religion of the mind.strike beyond all time. London. been a law.gt.Channels of (Esoteric (Tradition 485 than an inheritance from the past.&quot. mysteries of the Kabalah.Judaism has nlway&amp.&quot. obtained in both. occultism and mysticism is a Latin equivalent for a Greek The difference between much more than that of term. was indigenous of the . it Now. There is that on the philosophical side the Kabalah connects assuredly with mysticism. as might appear at first sight. the speech must be a no need to add connects wholly. Anatole Leroy Beaulieu says that the is not inclined to &quot.&quot. but they are pathologically separate. and those seem to have been a foreign according to the best judges. Sleep. of the would seem in human soul. neo-Kabalists. in Jewry.m to mystic transports or divine languors. an intellectual creed not favourable He denies also that Kabali&amp. message to the mystic. 1895. The Zohar at least has the power of stirring those depths in the human heart which are beyond the &quot.

by is This the hypothesis. in A knowledge of the nature is is powers which are latent human which not unlikely to lead to mysticism. ment union. In the case of occult science it is. Mysticism It is difficult to name paratively speaking. by their secrecy. however. is ostensibly the art of infusing a certain recondite spiritual power artificially. however. . for the kind of end which we connect with the notions of magic.486 c&ht Doctrine anb literature at the Jiabalah superficial and obvious point of union that so superficial and so obvious fail the ordinary observer would scarcely to identify them. For example. but between com and the Kabalah they are. a branch of occult science which is not indebted for some in development. the develop of the latent powers in the direction of divine is usually. no person less than the occultist conventionally under really mystic There stood. Between occult science and mystic science there is the common point of union which is created. so called. is Beneath this fantastic resemblance there the more important fact that they both profess to deal with the inner and otherwise uninvestigated forces of the human soul. of an occult or generally unknown nature and applies it in accordance with the formulae of a concealed instruction. The points of contact between occult science and the Kabalah are very numerous. Talismanic Magic. while they have also been identified on grounds which are not precisely those of ordinary observation. few. let us say. it into some object composed science because an operation of occult deals with a power which is. though for not as we have to seen most cases a governing direction.

so had as we have seen. cannot in the absence of the Key which will open its use to the mystic. contribute to the success secret not impossible that a knowledge so obtained will take him far from any traditions of Israel. that of the emanation of souls. or on the other hand I of importance to the Kabalah. provide more than intellectual knowledge. nor can the mysteries. in the defence explicitly. while the connections of alchemy with the ALsh Metzareph have been the It seems unnecessary to subject of a special study. who ignored possibilities concealed behind Kabalistic symbolism. The end of the present section. which Key the confused Kabalistic medley. confined to the most general conclusions their must be ignorance by and based upon absurd principles.Channels of the tradition (Esoteric AlraMtion far 487 as of the Jews. nothing the to literature or traditions. owing. Should he enter within the circle of initiation where that Key is said to be obtained the student whether the will in due time be in a position to know can knowledge which underlies such symbolism But it is of his enterprise. it This is true in a degree even of said astrology. owed anything . though Ceremonial Magic in the West had. though frankly that its rabbinical aspects are often highly fantastic. as appears most not with intention. except those of the natural order. its root in Kabalism . prolong the thesis of or attainment of conscious Mysticism is the recovery The secret doctrine of the creation. written symbolically. of Gaffarel. so at least the West is concerned. as ness in God. as such. all methodised Divination. I have never met with any mystic. even by the most extreme hypo thesis. be of any is the successful methodising of itself.

488 ^he Itortrine nub literature of the Jiabalah have never met with any mystic. not a doctrine of spiritual essences con structed extrinsic as. however. and a small space only can be spared to a summary of its results. is a sacramental experience of the soul. complicated by a number of justice in issues to which is it a brief space. hypothetically. so it has at best but an connection with Bereshith and Mercavah^ all in like manner. school is We entirely German Graetz. Schiller- admirable the article on the Midrashim. but we are not pledged thereto. We have now reached the term of our inquiry. admit that the final shape assumed by the Zohar may not have been much name We . We respect the legend by which that tradition is identified with the of R. with that we understand conventionally by the occult sciences. As regards the documents of Kabalism we take our stand with Szinessy reject s that later is and better scholar ship the position of which indicated by Dr. properly disengaged from its adventitious associations and regarded essentially. Simeon ben Jochai. whose popular English exponent We regard the centuries. the greatest students of occult science within my acquaintance have been invariably taken further afield. as distinguished from occult students concerned with the offices of Magic. who had so much as a tolerable acquaintance with the subject. Ginsburgh. But impossible to do may be clearly set down that as mysticism. some Dr. of Dr. Zoharic writings as the growth of believe that they represent a We tradition which connects with Talmudic times. that the question It is it must be confessed. not a system of cosmology. Finally.

but we receive every statement with regard to this personage tentatively and under all reservation. received additions which We deserve to be described as spurious. or to some form of that document. in so far regard in We as they follow from Scripture. in some form all occultism they are part of burden.Channels of (Esoteric TTrabition its 489 anterior to the date of deny that it may have do not publication. to be of various chiefly unassignable dates and and periods. believe these doctrines to have been derived by the We Jew his early settlements and captivities. but by We correspondence. but the extent to it antedated the ninth century must remain We observe in the Sepher Yetzirah conjectural. by affiliation. look upon the Kabalistic writings as documents of humanity. possessing their connections with other systems and other modes of thought. by filtration. but they go far back into antiquity. ascribing little evidential value to the account in the Sepher is Yuhasin. consider Akiba is not an unwarrantable We earlier date to ascribe to the Sepher Yetzirah. or that some of its increment may be attributable to Moses de Leon. by causal look identity. and among such as memorials of the genius of Israel. which and the Zohar certain doctrines which or other belong to its . full of great- . the other doctrines of the Zohar. but in so far as they are philosophical subtleties or theosophical fantasies we regard them as largely post-Talmudic. rather than by historic descent. and confessing that outside it there perhaps no ground for supposing that such a rabbi in flourished that the period of R. the thirteenth century. We upon the Zohar in particular as one of the most attractive curiosities of the human mind.

It contains few or no traces of that doctrine of secret religion which occultists look for therein. can be accounted for naturally and historically as a genuine growth of its age and not either as an imposture or as the key of all esoteric hold that We knowledge.49 ^he Jtoctrine anb |Citerjiturc at the folly. is that extent discounted. It is the theosophical doctrine of Jewry. and in no real sense of the term can it be said to possess such a side. not approachable from the historical side. ness and littleness. It is therefore outside the for inquiry. The question. It supposes and involves the whole claim of Jewry. however. its is and as such sense intolerable acceptation in any serious teaching to the modern mind and it would not be worth arguing were trend of not for the its direction. be sought by those who assume that the by which I mean into is transcendental succession has passed the Church of Christ. and assuming living in common channels of the moment that any is person now the flesh all. of sublimity and The interest which it aroused on all measure survived has lived some appearance criticism. entitled to affirm its is existence. be proved in it by recourse this Kabalistic and so to far as notion has been rested thereon. and the work itself its has in down even it the admiration of its believers. in concluding. . as I warranted to do it is that venture to say in Christian channels that this doctrine must it. yet the question itself does not stand or fall by the Kabalah. thought strong a concealed doctrine of religion The existence of occult in perpetuated from to antiquity cannot literature. I Speaking from first the transcendental standpoint for the feel time. then he best of though not he only.

as with the historical aspect of subjects. The historical association of the Kabalah with occult have taken science in the West could not. . these must not ignore the Kabalah. as first is believed.of (Esoteric Traoition 491 aware that the secret doctrine is not of this world. the rigid for which of reasons influence demarcation of its sphere and operation has been much needed. of course. place without a common ground between them. and it has been here attempted. with certain side issues all of astrology. with the physical possibilities said to be indicated under alchemical symbolism. and the occult students who are concerned practically with the alleged efficacy of theurgic formulae. for the time.

.

sketch of the author. 162. Order of the Tradition. 158 . see Divine Names. 115. Soph. see also Flamel. Ahih. 115. Abramelin. 315 singular mistakes in regard to his work. 182. 100. alleged identity with the instructor of Flamel. 41. difficulties of the treatise. 312. 93. an ultimate . 201-203.gt. his commentary on the Sepher Yetzirah. the Supernal Father and Mother. 31 . beginning of Kalndi-. Agobad. see also 329. 36. 57 . 376 . 3i8. 54 a second Adam an averse Adam. 35 transcendency created for of. postulation of its exist ence by the Kabalah. 252. 33 ib. his Dialogues on Love. a great his orthodox apologist. 160. of its . R. 464. 319. Adam. the Av. 487. his subsequent retractation. 51. work buted to. 77 80 sin of Adam Kadmon.. Aben Ezra. 309 . Agla and Ararita. world of. Zoharic elements. . sephirotic attribution of the for minor metals. 345 probable source of his acquaint ance..tic philosophy. 160. R. . lan guage of. and gene : Abraham. 96 . Cornelius. i. sketch of. 34 . 181 . 185.o|. 159. Leo the Hebrew. 272. Adam Kadmon.. concentrated 51 . Abu Alphrag on synagogue. 46. Abraham ben David Ha Levi.gt. 136. 60. 232. Academy of Sora. 311. . 96. manifestation. account of. Aristotelian tendency. archetypal and abode in man. . 274. 181. 112. Kabalistic name unmanifest Deity. Abravanel. 346 summary of his instruc tion.S^///. 380. an application of Kabalism to alchemy. 51 AtzHuth. 86. 308 . 317 summary . 313 . spuriou-.hiral claims oi the doctrine. 157. activity. I pi-ubleiii-. his Abraham of Beaucaire. to if . probable period. Abba and Aima. 314 . see also 76. Simeon.K-h Metzareph. 151. 59. suggested author of the Zohar. 316. Abraham ben Samuel Zakut. 243-245. the traditional scribe of . 455. 449. 179. 452. 55. Abraham Abulafia. his Messianic enthusiasm. the subsistent state of Deity. his commentary on its the Sepher Yetzirah. the Sephiroth . Adni substituted for the Tetragram.e. . probable reference to the Sepher Yetzirah. 127. 214. 105108. 105 . 310 Levi s alleged reconstitution. A fther. 436. central point 45. 186.-//. 1 rally under DIVINK NAMES. . 150. . gives earliest methodical description of the Kabalah. 346. Simeon.h.INDEX AARON the Great. passage In in latency 44. I Ain the attri Abraham bn Wakhnr.. influ ence of Agrippa on Yaughan. 345 . 312 a second personage bearing his name. his hiBook of Genealogies. 37. 115. eulogy of R. suggested author of the Zohar. 347 . 1 80. the alleged true in . 37 . 123. 159. on Ain Soph. 161 . fundamental in 73 the Kabalah. philo&amp. St. Absolute. Abbah. 180. Acco./ . 347-349. . . his narrative concerning Isaac de . Abraham Agrippa. the essence of all. 344. his writings. 49 essentially as the Closed unknowable. 104 estimate of the Zohar. the decade and Ain So/&amp. 162. 261. 151. . doctrine of. meaning. 98 . . of Posquiere. 54 Eye. in Briah. R. 55. primordial . references see 328.

Basnage. see Gebirol. influence on Ha Levi. Barzillai. Mysteries of. 431. on the date of the original Zohar. 289 292 . Bailly 460. 180. Earth. Al. on Abraham Al Tufail. 91 . his Messianic mission. Aitsinger. his rabbinical bibliography. 126. see also 457. Saadya Gaon. mentioned in the Bahir. 164. 183 . 159. on the coinci dent development of Gnosticism and Kabalism. 161. the hierarchies according to Mirandola. on the Sephiroth. M. AlboJ. 141. 120 . see Four Worlds. on the commentary of R. 468 Sephirotic astrology accord 123. 148. Eliezer s commentary on the Sepher Yetzirah. 178 . 161 . Akiba. Samuel. on R. 96. astronomy and the Sephiroth. 1 88 . 138. 146. on the Astronomical Signs. Astrology. 347. Astral Light. according to Azariel. F. traditional author of the Sepher Yetzirah. his mystical tendencies. 414. on that of Isaac de Loria. 387. 160 alleged influence on Avicebron. Arabian Philosophy. 470. 472. 164. M. 185 . on Talmudic references to former creations. see Alphabet. Joseph. Albelda. 464. Jewish astronomy. the date of Aristobulus. M. 115. Bakoda. 91. ben David Ha Levi. R. 175 . 350 .. 489. Alchemy. 346. Bar Cochba. E. totelian philosopher. Amelineau. Angels. on exegetical Angus. 417. summary . on Kabalism in Cornelius Agrippa. claims of the attribution. 221 Moses of Cardova. 450 . Avicebron. 154. 1 86 on the commentators of the Canticle of Canticles. 208 . 192. see Illustrious Book. . 469. Alphabet of Akiba. his treatise on the Duties of the Heart. BAHIR. 280 . 453 . 21. Berthelot. on on the minor Abravanel. 185. 387. 167. 355. 166 . Julius. Archangelus de Burgo Nuovo. on Kabalism in also 93. 274. methods. Saadya Gaon. as described by Saadya Gaon. 92. see also 52. 97. alchemy and the Sephiroth. see . 179 . see Vast Countenance. com mentary on Mirandola. 56. 313 . 246. Bertet. also 181. see also 144. 309 . 109. 98. 2 . on the Kabalah and alchemy. . the Pentateuch. . 181 . rabbinical 308 309 . 461. . 128. on the Sepher Yetzirah. Judah ben. 131. 41. much studied by the Jews. 467. Berwick. . alchemical allusions in the Zohar. 91. 155. see also Sepher Yetzirah and Instruments of Creation. his death. importance of the tenth century for Israel. 147. 183 . Assiah. 332 . 423. 94. 146. Azariel. Averroes. ing to Gaffarel and modern occultists. Atonement. alchemy and Paracelsus. 370 . Aristotle. 148 . 335 . 465-467 . his apparent excerpt from. 130.. on the spurious books of Geber.. 473. R. in on 220. 186. influence on. 315 literature of Kabalism. . 449-460 also 8. the Flamel legend. 6 1. 339 view of the Kabalah. 249. 312.. Bartolocci. 316. 462 . on Henry More. according to the Zohar. 461. on other commen tators of the Sepher Yetzirah...494 lute of Jewish astrology. on Jewish influence upon alchemy. on the Leyden papyrus. Azariel opposed by the Aristotelian party. 128. 28. his prejudgment of the Kabalah. 124. Behai ben Joseph ibn. 242 . 182-184. . an Aris yoke of. 99 . not essentially connected with the Kabalah. 92 .. 320 . 9. . R. concept of metaphysics. see also 76-78 and under PNEUMATOLOGY. on the Swedenborgian Rite. his slight knowledge of the Zohar. on the Sepher Yetzirah. see Divine Names. 462. 178 . Arik Anpin. general connec tion with Kabalism. 174. Jewry. see Adolphe.

Chateau. Buddieus on the Bahirt 236. 389. Samuel. Boismont. 450. on the transmission of the secret wisdom of Moses. on human sacrifice among the Jews. see Sephi roth.Intellectual 386. Cohen. The. . Creation of man - /char. Chiah. 386. forged alchemical testament attributed to. Gaon. Cryptography and symbolism. of. the Mysteries. Converts from Kabalism. Confucianism. 40. C.. St. Claverus. Buxtorf on the Bahir. M. 59. 321. Kabalah. 126. phist. on Raymond Lully. E. 300. 189. Kabalah. old and new. art. according to Saadya the heavenly Chiah. Victor. 495 200 the . on the transmission of secret knowledge. Cybele. Brashith or Bereshith. Thomas. mystery Zoharic explanations 153 . the demons of Kabalism. 236. hi. see Four Worlds. 326. 433-437. Chesed. H. Commentary on Ruth.. Brierre de. 3. 127. R. 320. on the Miissorah. Dale. n. on the Kabalistic 320. see also 317. 380. Antonio Van. 331. 461. Cousin. Court de Gebelin. 82. his appeal . 398 . Briere. Yves. creation ex nihilo. P. 274. Cortices. . 37. Gabriel. 23. Chamai. Cud worth. connection with Hay Gaon and Gebirol. Chassidim. Chinese Kabalah. l)i. Browne. II. see Sephiroth. to rabbinical authorities. 482.. de. Casaubon. 52 . higher life. on 126. a great theosohis &quot. connection with System. Blunt s Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology. 393Burton. 165. M. see Sephiroth. 387-389. on Islamic Mysti Countenances. Mirandola. absurd mistake as to the Greater and Lesser Zohar. ! cism. Kabalism. on Kabalistic alchemy. its worthless article on the Kabalah. 310. spondence with Abba.. according to according to Henry More. 326. 416 . Closed Eye.. his criticism of the Kabalah. fragments in the Zohar and possible author ship. 301. in corre Binah. 481. see Sephiroth. gories. 144. influence on French occultism. 390 . 157Bois. 419. alleged . 4 . 193. DAATH. 143. 479. xv. description of. m\ Monas lnca\ 459. 339 . 227. 64. his alleged French version of the Zohar. 120. Abbot. see Lesser and Vast Countenances. on the sEsh Metzareph. R. Byrant. Iliero- 85 . 391 392 . his referen Mirandola. his reference to the Key of Solomon. 73. a higher principle of the soul. ib. his confusion on the subject of the Kabalah. attributed to Assiah. 443. Iielanne. 199 according to the 201 . 463 on j Body of God. van. errors and specu on Oriental alle Crown of the Kingdom. on Vampires. on the Christian aspects the Kabalah. Jacob. Cremer. Byler. of. John. 469. 8. 79 as recrements of the Edomite Kings. . L. . astrological | Cagliostro s process of divination. 145. Briah.. 146. as an authority on Egyptology and the Tarot. Blavatsky. 55. Ralph. Christian. 473. Jules. Sir Richard. 273. Alvedre. on the Nominal and Real lations. G. Burnet. on the language of the Zohar. 228. CALMET. h Ai-en-.. on the Kabalah and its literature. Bride of Microprosopus. 158. of a name of Neshamah. 281. P. Chokmah. 242 273 . ! 154.fnfccx Beyers. 115.lO-odlcd Kabalistic D correspondence. Chasdai. on the origin of the Zohar. II. 177 . 372. Dee. Sephirotic poem of Avicebron.

. 207. . 19 cosmology of the Sepher Yetzirah. according to the Conclusions of Mirandola. 273 . Fichte. see also 21 1. Young Man. 243. . his mystic system. description of the W Talmud. 141. world of formation or Yetzirah. the Divine Names and the Scale of the Denary. in connection with . Ezra. . Worms. see Papus. treatise quoted by the Zohar. 135 analysis and excerpts. 164. 24. EDERSHEIM on emanationism and Talmudic tradi17 ditionalism. 376 Eleazar of . Louis. 366 . 38 . emanationism Dionysius. 148. world of creation ib. 424. Kings bolism. in. Evangelical Design of Christian Kabalism. 369 . Zohar. . 83. 86. F. treatise of Avicebron. 252 . 91. world of action astronomical or Assiah. misstatements of Eliphas Levi. Kabalistic doctor. 77- Discourse of the Aged Man. his Kabalistic connections. 159- God. 317. 177 . . 177 . 246 according to the Faithful Shepherd. . . Briah. 92. 144. among .gt. 186. Moses Ibn Jacob Ben. Fludd. its sole Deity or Atziluth. 448. 162 . important pre treatise. place among English occultists. 368. 172 Saaclya Gaon on the names of Sephiroth. no. emanation and Divine Imman Demonology. 229-233. 446. world of occupant. his Kabalistic studies. Divine Names. 181 . 348. Drach. excerpts from. 369 . 156. 423. 335. of forces Elohim. 162 . 447. as the manifestation of the Absolute. 220. 29 its authority. eminence in alchemy. Flagg. 277-278. on the the Talmud. 167. 157- T. 272. 315. . T Farrar. 51. his Kabalistic school. Donolo. Robert. 441 the sealing names. 448. fragments in the unmanifest state of Deity. 368 . 325. or Briah. 159. 118.. Eliezer. 41. 57. 171. ence. 295. Four Worlds of Kabalism. alchemical literature. . Chevalier. 447 supposed occult power. 35 33&amp. Flamel. . Desatir. 32. 193 summary of. 147-149. 146. 177. on Byzantine by Papus. 17. on the Names of God. 40.. 367 . Celestial. its analogies with Kabalism. speculation of Isaac de Loria. 202. mystery of his life. . R. his commentary on the Sepher Yetzirah. 192 . analogies with Kabalism. Gerard.49 6 Delineation of the Heavenly Tem Kabalistic ples. ib. alleged evan gelical zeal. J. his use of the W. 34&amp. Sabbatai. 349 . Emanation and the Kabalah. not acquainted with the Zohar. according to the Tosephthoth. 165. 156. Falaquera. Encausse. G. 158. 159. as expounded in the Zohar proper. their . Edom. . $2 . 154. El Shaddai. connection with the in 33 . on the uses of the term Kabalah. Fountain of Life. . . 375.. on Abravanel. . 32. 149 . Chassidim. 451. 370. term Kabalah. 98. 311 opinion of Stanislas de Guaita. in Zoharic sym Egyptian Wisdom.. 94 . disciple of Maimonides. I on tne authors of the 1 Zohar. 296 criticism of Cornelius Agrippa. 40 . FAITHFUL Shepherd. . on reincarnation the Kabalists. see also 455. antiquity of this belief. on the practical Kabalah. Nicholas. reference in the Zohar. tract of the Zohar. his instructor in alchemy. Eliezer Hagabite. 246-255 see also 192. 449.gt. 58. Figuier. the world of emanations. of. as cited 418. Fall of Man. 203 according to the Bahir. 51 ib. 63 description of. . 79-82. on Akiba. Discourse of the and pantheism. 76 . 75 secondary gods. 109. Duties of the Heart. alleged invention of the Kabalah. Eirenoeus Philalethes. a name assumed by God. in. on the unmanifest God. .

( Influence 97 . sketch of his. 16. 332. metic and le. R. 158. a sketch of universal science. Graet/. 154. 190 . his translation of the SepluT Yet/. 479. Kabalistic degrees. on the Divine Will. i.lt. 154. 350.. the . on the name Ain Soph.M) Series f Simeon i &quot. 370. reference to the Sepher : . Dr. . 20. &amp. . 15.jiks.gt. see also xi. ireph. hi. sec 57.. on the evangelical value of the Kabalah. on Ik-r- Paracelsus. Adolphe. As regards Atzi uth.&quot. on the Hakir. . 34 . Ganz. 289. a place of the . on early Kaba listic Ash Infernal. on ] -n - Future Happiness according to the Zohar. M. his \\iitii: their evidence on the antiquity of the Zohar. David. 56. ism. Franck. on the origin of the Zohar. Good W. on the Sepher Yet/. on Raymond Lully.irah. 91. &quot. 21 1. 264. 336. on the compilation of the Mishna. 329 on William Hostel.abulaire see also 17. 83. Zoharic Doctrine of..lition.n Kabalistic tra&amp. ib.iu 1 . 226. d. Gates of Light. 267... Gikatella. Briah. Kabalistic literature. 1 20. Ginsburg. his astrological pro- xiv. see also 138. on 150. on the Kabalistic of Mirandola. 359 on the Kabalism of Henry More. 155. included 374- Freemasonry. 226.. 166 . 94 the Kabalah. 122. 476-478. . occultism and the Scottish Rite. 472-476. Frinellan. C. 73. 164 . 162 his chief doctrines.irah. see also 344. in the Geburah. as regards Assiah.iubex earliest 53 . 308 his defence of Yet/. . 81. 408-410. 163 . L. among eavly Kabalists. quoted by the Mttzareph. con 165. traces of the doctrine. 471 . 328. correspondences. on Isaac on the Sepher 75. Gates of Understanding. Masonic Rosicrucianism. Petrus. 27 . M-ription of the Zohar. . 462. Garden of Pomegranates..lt. 497 good works. pantheism. astrology and the Law of Israel. Yetzirah. on the on pneumatology. 60. 288. Gebirol. reference by Miran dola. 172. his estimate of . indiscriminate hostility of his criticism.. literature. 398. 148 quoted by the Ash . 99. authority of among Aristotelian the Jews. 97. riai. 397. 60. 310. 4/0. 77. on th. his 23Vo&amp. 292. 165 . 210 on the connection . . 139. see of Light. 45 - this treatise 290. Yet/irah.. 93. 189.ih. Goldschmidt. Goulianuv. and difficulties. Galatinus. exegetical method of. . 74 . mystic origin. of his work on the analysis Kabalah. IOI. 275. example of. 1 Geber. on the language of the Zohar. 154. 162 . ib.irah. Sepher Yetzirah and the on Kabalistic eschaZohar. 73. its historical origin. 171. Gould. life. GAFFAKKJ. 167 . 320. Joseph. 300 . ing 73- . sec Sephiroth* Geinara. on the the Zohar. 167 complexion of his philosophy. 113. 331. 262. 72 late origin. 470 . 161 the with which he connects. 75. . 128. his alleged Greek 166. 256. 239. its obscurities among Kabalists. Afet*arepk t 312. as regards 208. 310. 79 I 7 l 3 . Future Punishment according to the Zohar. 77. 39 on the Gates of Understand &sh .lt. on Gamaliel. 211 tology. 232. Garden of Ivlen. Sepher on the . 205 . Gnosticism. 44. 488. Latin writings attributed to. 58. MSS. 79. the upper and lower. 57. 313. 144. 97 . on the foreknowledge of the soul. xiv. 300 as regards Yetzirah.in of 115. Gematria. 472 . his Foun tain of Life. nection with occultism. . . 77. 300. 73 &amp. 478 the higher grades and Kabal. 292 .V 16 . Friedlander. D.

his Platonic leanings. 169. 178. 295. 219-226. Akiba. K... Kabalistic par allel. R. 465. 259 . Hidden Things of the Law. 166 . on the consciousness of the unrnanifested creation in Ain Soph. 112. 25 discourses. HALAKHA. extracts in Zohar. . scheme of. Hillel the Great. its extent and development. Instruments of Creation. 450.W. J. 256 specimen of its on the stages exegesis. on Kabalism and early heretics. alchemy. followed by Ginsburg. on Bacon as a Rosicrucian. 25. Haven. its literary aspect. 422. pantheism. Stanislas de. Valley.. 107 . Napthali. Franz. on the authorship of the its &quot. attri ILLUSTRIOUS Book. an alleged author of the Zohar. 182 his supposed commentary on the . 422. . 260.&quot. 441 . 423. Immanence. 158 alleged commentary on the Sephir Yetzirah. 99. on the Massorah. 160 of Abulafia. Sepher Yetzirah. 445.&quot. Gri moires of magic. demonology. on the interpretation of dreams. 306. on the pantheism of the Sephirotic system. 102 later series. on the Kabalah and demonology. 414. Rosicrucian Order. 43. . . 156. close connection with the Magical Clavicles. between Halakha and Haggada. . abrupt termina tion of his narrative. 108 .49 s writings iniiex . of his quest. meeting failure with Moses de Leon. 449. on the Kabalism of Stanislas de Guaita. his views on Kabalism. 78. Clifford. connection his school with Avicebron.\ ib. 217 . 115. ib. literature. Hershon. analysis of his Royal &quot. Judah. between Deity and matter. T. Helmont. 37. 336. . distinction 192 history. 24. see EMANATION. the language of the Zohar. 106 . Harrison. 21. Greater Holy Synod. Isaac de Acco. 91. Hebrew 2. arrangement of. on . Intermediaries. Harrison. 207. 457. 92. 46 . on definite rejection Gebirol. . summary account of its symbolism. B. 144. 186 . Great Adam. 19. Divine. Kabalism. on the Egyptian origin of Kabalism. on the Divine Will. 174. Greene. Hermetic Books. on the Scholastic Phil osophy. notice of his Zoharic commentaries. his search for the MSS. 488. Marc. 71. 256-257 on of mystic vision. i . antiquity of occult traditions. in contrast to Hareau. . 159. 118. Isaac ben Moses. Guaita. 303-306. 59-65 . Mercurius and J. 286. 88. 162 a precursor of Kabalism. absurd explana tion of the term Kabalah. 258. ib. Irira. B. 259. of the Zohar. on the divisions of the Kabalah. alleged teacher of Azariel. 423. 131.. on the higher sense of magic. his literary work. the on Christian Hook. Abraham Cohen. 307 . 167 . on astro logical geomancy. . 162 . G. his forged Zohar. Kabalistic balance. buted to R. R. . 211. characteristics. C. Hellenism. 39 . on the Sepher Yetzirah. Hosmer. 157. 234-246 Ha Levi. Hirt/. in connection with the virtue of words. 364. B. Hartmann. the recorder of 219. 24. Hay Gaon. see also . 175. his 421. alleged place in the scheme of Kabalism. 423 . their alchemical researches. P. W. Dean. of the the worlds 22 on on the Kabalah. 41 . Hermetic Maxim. their earlier and of his views.. and the esoteric tradition. observation of Loeb. analysis and excerpts. quoted in Zohar. Book of. 424. 258 the vision at Mamre. 150. 3 error as to the literal Kabalah. Isaac the Blind. Heckethorn.. 381. 122. 107. C. 92. . 123. 257. its fragments . van.. a foundation of the Kabalah. on Kabalism and Hoefer. P\. content of Concealment.

Jechidah. Athanasius. 385. 65. 40. 153. Solomon..\ Kabalah and Freemasonry. suggested derivations.. et sei}.lit ( of the Xohar. Kether..Inbex author of Ishmael. the Delineation of the Heavenly . &amp. 143. 13.Seven Thrones.gt. on th&amp.39. Kabbala Denudata of motives which led if to . as an embodiment of Kabalistic tradition. 5 his -eeress. 84. defendant of the Kabalah. 3. 294.. 386. 85 . it.iita. 4 . Kingsford.. . 140. 264. V. . Kabalah and 347. a secret traditional knowledge. Last. 348. \V. Kcrner. 76. Akiba. true derivation of the term. Kabaiism. 470 .sticism and the Kab-alah. Kabalah and Alchemy. sources of Xohar. the understanding n iiu-thodi-rd. 103. . 225.gt. 228. 23./iira. 449 ct jw/.h and Agrippa. . its two recensions.Arabic translation of . .gt. . .ir hen Napthali.tinus. 157. . 100 . Kenealy. 71 of. pu-h. ct 461 scq. Jehovah. Hebrew tradition. t Kabalah and Modem 433 ft si t/.. Key 443 of . v . on the A . . c. by Stanislas de (iii. by Kliphas I. 435. 444. 414 (. 488-491- . authority Kabalah and the its of. 91. 45. Kabalah. 351. 457. 304. a transparent nonsensical pro- conceal of the Pentateuch. its ambitious design. 232. 195. 213. hi. i corre . 138. Jesod.65 his synopsis i ft sfij. ritical standpoint. Anna. the Talmud. 438 Kabalah 97irah. 293. 54.. K.47. Kiern. Judge.cc. \viii-\x. quintessence the mystic daughter.&amp. . 42 on the names of the Xohar. on a secret lodge of adepts. limitation 90. Modern . Kabalah and Magic. 26-28 mystery infused by the Kabulah into the bible. &quot. 463 ft . sec Tttra^mmtnaton. : : I 88. 98 . 383. four groups of . 31: of a liberal and Catholic doctrine. 300. forgery. 12 failure .. 84. 307. involved by the his citations from 1 Moses de Leon. the hidden thought of Israel. Judgment. O. 233 as a name of Ne^hamah... principle of the soul. 263. 440. . 177 the soul. 33. V. 214. 6. we Sepkirotk. 159.gt. the . 306. 308. 4 . 267. whether a channel of the secret tradition. Joshua ben Chananga. Dr. Kairites. * 14 . and the Joel. W. 132. sec Sephircth. 383. F. his connection with Kab- alism.v . t 6. Issach. 307.&quot.. reference Khunrath. .lt. 499 . 4 s 51.mism. Kabalah and Astrology. fifth his &quot. K. 323. 41. JAM I of Herat. 4.w/. 424 .. KABALAH. \V. on the wisdom of the revelations of Adnm. \i. his Kabalah of alchemy. . 75. 4 : -airificts the preface. on the ancient tra ditions of the Zc on the anal -n (In. on emanationism Kabalah. 54 . Kingslanrl. 3i&amp. 10 its literary . 192. 456. the iii.lt. its unique character. . 122 Wisdom Religion. Ju&amp. 242 accord ing to Isaac do Loria. hii. Temple^. Jellinek.. the inquiry sumn Kosenmth. 7 two ways of regarding its importance.lt. the Sepht r and mystic tradition.f 42&etseo. .stianily. )n the Kabalistic t &amp. . 382. the methods. 20. work. 6 difficulty of its . 291. . 324. from the Kith Haininadrcsh. 150. 434. Kircher. 3 S.&quot. Kapila. popular identification with mai ic.. . of occult expositions. ill . r. 188 excerpts and references. 380 . 454. on the term Sg/&amp. doctrine. 3. Karppe. 227. . fcS. interest not exegetical or historical for the occult student.. 194.

Lux in Tenebris. 73. Lesser Holy Synod. as described by Rosenroth. 219. 216. seq. 214 conformations of. see also 173. 47 . 362. popular connection with not of Zoharic Kabalism. 71. 294-303. 227 . . Mayer. 287. Lejay. of . 206 : . see also . 325. . on French and Spanish Jews in the thirteenth century. 227 discourse. influence on Henry More. Lully. 326 translation of Mirandola s Conclusions. 86. 23 tradition. of the Zohar. 485. 124. 213 ever hidden and concealed. Libavius. on the collection of Pistorius. 150. 227. 409 et Lelievre.356 358. 294-297 . on William Postel. on the commentary of Saadya 95 Gaon. 480. its observations on the Zohar. Leroy-Beaulieu. 228. 19-21 on the Divine Name. his scholastic system. Kabalah. 148. . 2. . A. Levi . of excerpts in the connection. 385. position as a Kabalist. Levi. 294 summary of same. Kabalism by Agrippa. II. characters. 196. Kabalistic bride of Samael. 330 . on the Jew Longelus. 351 . MACROPROSOPUS. Levita. A. the Kabalistic magic of the of Fludd. 417. . 24 . 55. 335 .gt. 334 variants from same. on the antiquity of the Vowel-Points. 354 . its . 97. M. J. Lesser Countenance. first of. Ranutius. . 81. Lillie. on Microprosopus. on the divinatory sciences. 230. manifestation. . 18 . Eliphas. 299-303 recommended by his treatises his position and Rosenroth. 424. Kabalism by Para celsus. 115. Magic. 441. 396-408.Points. 215. 423 . 360. his date and legend. on the thirtyfirst Path of Wisdom. 56. 182 . 175 . Kabalistic doctrine of the sexes. . David. 228 . on the un speculation. Raymond.gt. antithesis of anthropomorphic Deity. 130. 150. . ib. 213 symbolism. Isidore de. no. 58. 95. &sh 216. . 293. 481. 226 . 368. on the authorship . Simeon s death. and mysticism. on the benevolence the creative act. . on the date and character of the Sepher Yetzirah. 179. 324 . 76 . 260.. see also 99. Leusden. on Pneumatology. Elias. design of its nature of the revelations. his true work. Dr. 368. Carl. A. 329 . 467.smon. 87. 327 errors of Franck. 255. 345 et seq. 83- his study of the on Metatron. Landauer. on the Hebrew Lilith. 311 Raymond Lully. on the Tarot. as judged by De Guaita. s &amp. 328 . 150. Loria. Luria. David. . 60 . 371. 221-224 description see also 404. Rosenroth. 418.. 19 . 293. 394. his developments of Zoharic pneumatology. fundamental to the Kabalah. 293 . . symbolism of. 479&amp. develop ment of the magical side of collection analysis of. . 328. his works. 227 Mackenzie. Lowy. 109... known writings 395- of Pasqually. his misconstruction of the Talmud. Li. on the Vowel. on the on Metzareph. 228. 215. Liber Drushim. 369 identified with . Letters from a Mystic. his connection with Kabalism. 3 66 3 82 415. long animity of.343 ment. J. 361. sketch of . 455. doctrine of. 227.500 LAMB. 229. the history of late in 123 . 82. on the Book of Conceal . Julien. 75.. not of Kabalistic philosophy. on the Hatakha and Haggada. Z. 195 period. Leiningen. 225.. Kenneth. 310. Isaac de. 326 the Lully of alchemy. 217. relation with Microprosopus. 219. . 56 . Loeb. mysticism of the Divine Name. Andrew. 323. on the name of God. 220. Levi. 223. symbolical body of. account of R. .. 109. development of. Rev. Lambert. A. 25 higher under a late standing of the term. Lover of Pljilalethes. 480. 292 .

hna as 15 part of the Tal mud.. power of Divine Names. of ll-. aii&amp. see also xvii. R. Maier. name of the Xohar. Mathers. Pantheism. 373 his Conjcctura 37 !&amp. 2 55 . on the Kabalah and Freemasonr) . of. a troubled dream of Satan.. Metempsychosis. Meurin. 429 . ing to the Xohar. Microprosopus. . 57 . Rite of. MacGregor. 156. his Aristotelian said to have 214.iinus.lt. 16 . partisan 150. as interpreted by Papus. on the Daimon of Socrates. 96 . his Kabalistic MSS. see also 414. 182 . tendency.32i. conversion effected by. excerpts in Zohar. R. 327. he brought into Marcus. Cabalistica. Michael. 17. 478. 227. 267. 380. false impression created by. his contributions to the Kabbala Denndata. his on treatise astrology.lt. rejected by Saadya Gaon. S. Midrash of R. More. conformations .on. 228 also 404. 441. Manning. 442. Molitor. . 438-440 . 332. 118. Misraim. 455 . 17. 125 the Papacy. Picus de. Massey. Mid rash Conen. error . Fd\vard. 373. 326 connection with Fludd. 219 . L. Marconison Masonic Mysteries. Macroprosopits. Massorah. docs not mention the Xohar. 274. Mi&amp. object of his 1 ! Kabalistic studies. 225. 176 taught by Isaac the Blind. 335-344. 76. 375. see Scphiroth. 441 . compiled by R. 56 . . Kabalah. 444 the grimoires. 154. 21 . 446-449. Solomon. 443. date according to M&quot. Mandrakes. Mi-diution. 12. his evangelical zeal. 123 .gt. of. turned a Kabalist. 2O.Inbex modern French occultists. with unacquainted Avicebron. Mevi. 440. Morerus on Magic. Xoharic symbolism of. White and Black Magic. 425 on Freemasonry and Manicheanism.gt. Malkuth.-ckethorn. Le&quot.gt. 215 . Mishna. sketch of Mirandola. Mordechai. 426-428. 444 445 summary of the doctrine of Names. Measure of the Height. Metatron. 478. 319. see androgyne nature. Gnosticism. Perfect critical concerning the treatise on the xi. preKabalistic treatise. 128. the Xohar. 425. assertion concerning the sEsh Mttzareph. in. character of its speculation. what . 374. in. 426 . Moriinis. Cardinal. description of. . 332 his Kabalistic conclusions. Agrippaand Mirandola. 37 remarks on Isaac de 372. 13 . eulogy 161 . not a of magic. on. 307 devoid of Way. influence of Kabalism on Western Magic. 148. and by Manasses. 103. 321 .. 215 of the late Kabalah. 247 . exposition of 37 Ezekiel. 124 Sephirotic attribution.. 208. 96. the Angel of the I resence. Henry. his edition of the Sepher Yetzirah. according to Kludd. Maimonides. 275. 216 . 212 . 172. 77 . a fundamental doctrine festation of. an alleged Mansions or Abodes. blunder Beth Elo/iifti. 446 . 370. . Memphis Mercavah. 367. Lully and Mirandola. 329 . 370 . ISO. Mangetus. 188. 331 . . . maton. . his Tripus Aureus. Maitland. 353. 203. 120. 56. 164 . Simeon. on the Tarot. 440 . ^9 which he attributes I : 59&amp. 479. 159. 13 his translation of the occupation . see also 94. Mirandola. 432. 419. . mani . 320. 344. on the Tetragram. 5 01 419 . 346 .274 symbolism of. an almost . of. considerations on the general connection. 225 . not acquainted with Avicebron. on Gnosticism and the Matter. Meyer. Miilrashim and Targumim. 429. Judah. 426 . 58. lne importance to same. 331. 64. sections of. judgment. 224. Gerald. emanation relation to .i a&amp. 310. 164 . on the Synagogue of . his gratuitous assumption. 333 . 372. hi* alleged author ship of the Zohar. 443 processes of debased Kabal the Keys of ism.

53. see also 159. his between Maimonides and the Zohar. 235 . 84 . 162. 32 . 127. summary 290-292. on the Christian aspects of the Zohar. on the authorship of the Sepher Yetzirah. 453. Norrelius. 185 . the living creature of Genesis. 103. 85 according to Saadya Gaon. . 349 . Solomon. 285 . . 202. Nagdilah. of human . contact are few. in with 84 correspondence Assiah. Isaac. the con nection is extrinsic only. 237. 484 . 242 . Neshamah the Neshamah and the body of the resurrection. 46 Kadmon. Munk. 115. 257 . 279. 260. on Paracelsus and the Kabalah. 273 . in 200 its correspondence Atziluth. munication between Divine and human.502 impossible theory. Moses. 103. Moses. 27. 268. 108 . 261. Neoplatonism. 486 . 51 on the speculative Kabalah. on the antiquity of the Kabalah. 236. 163 . on the Kabalah and on New Testament. Nazir. . 96 the acquaintance of Maimonides on the with the Zohar. Norse Mythology. 90 . Nephesh. 34 . narrative in the&/4*r Yuhasin. see Sephiroth. high authority of his treatise. its five names. . on the higher soul of the Thorah. 104. see also preface xvi. 5 the on Adam creation ex nihilo. and yet it has a certain the points of message. 176. in male and female. his erudition and his similarities assumptions. 270. 230 with Abbak. a pupil of Azariel. 450 on a Chinese Kabalah. Jacob. . it. Kabalistic connections of Avice on liay Gaon s bron.. 182 . 265 . 102. the Kabalah of no real service to the practical mystic. suggested ana logies with the Kabalah. his Kabalistic writings. 289 . correspond ence with Jechida. distinction Kabalah and the Talmud. 164. 385. a Kabalistic method of exegesis. on Hay Gaon and the Zohar. 242 . 114. 106-108 . 75 . writings. his pneumatology. 143 . Book of Emanation. . alleged author of the other attributed Bahir.gt. . on the language of the Zohar. 243 . 22. 110-113. 178 . 93 . its correspondence judgment. 414. see Abravanel. of the righteous. on the fusion of the Kairites and Motozales. 162 . 128. 85 . on the authorship of the Sepher Yetzirah. 319. 233 a name of Neshamah. . 410. see also 174. Notaricon. 263. 18. Andreas. NACHMANIDES. Netzach. points of weakness in the defence. 35 . 78. corresponds to Briak. 300. individuality. 109 . &amp. 113. . 232 . 177 originally sanctified. 350. analogies between the Mystic Marriage and the Kabalistic doctrine of the Proto type. 483 . Mevi. Nicolas. 162 . how met by the defenders of the Zohar. Moses of Cordova. further 290. 59 on the Aristotelian on and Kabalistic systems. old Jewish doc trine concerning the mystic com . alleged commentary on the Sepher Yetzirah. his Paradise on the of Pomegranates. M. 92 . sketch of the internal evidence. the animal nature of man. 40 . the garments of Neshamah^ 272 . date of R. on the pantheism of the Kabalah. on the Her metic Books and the Kabalah. 139 . 184. 488 . Mysteries of Love. Neshamah. Nechoniah. evidence adduced for it. 273 accord ing to Isaac de Loria. according to Isaac de Loria. 485 . on the divisions of the Kabalah. 232. Kabal istic history imbedded in that of mysticism. 300. concerning speculation R. Myer. . 120. Mysticism and the Kabalah. . simplicity of Ain Soph. 165. on the stages of mystic vision in the Zohar. alleged transmission of the Zohar from Palestine. on certain account of opposed by R. on the Talmud and Kabalah. between the 13 . 85 according to Saadya Gaon. 231. 269 . the seat . 197 . 104. Moses. on Avicebron. does not prove the authorship of K. 177 . the higher soul of the Zohar.

417. student of defined. 6b &amp. 470. 203. Pantheism. 41 . 324 . on the Yi-King.. occultists and Christian Kabali&amp. Philo. 130-133. Eugene. Pascjually. document which embodies them. 5 . system. 10 . G. : i .lubcx Notary Art. 486 . on Kabali&amp. personal what occultism testimony. II. occultism and physiognomy. 417 . historical association between occult science and the Kabalah. as explained by the Zohar. 461. 149 . 109. ib. 418-421 . Ouziel. Hebrew letters numbers in and numerals. 23 . 394. {ewish academy of. 277 . difficulty ining. Old. diffusion of the Mysteries. alleged in his traces of the 349 . 431 . 438. 430 statement of the allusions. his assump tions concerning the Kabalah. 71 66-71 . 173. 380. Oliphant. his manual of as: i his pneumatology. 353. 363. . Perfect Way. 277. . his Aramaic dialect not 340 . Numbers. in what way it discloses its meaning. 442. 72 on Kabalistic pneumatology. 261. 464 . Paths of Wisdom. his Chaldaic paraphrase. 82. general inference. translation of the Zohar. the decade as an emanation of numbers and the Deity. their modern accent. . value of same. 28. errors of occultism as to the .lt.-. Kabalah . xvi. Rev. . 127. 87. mderstood by the 469. on R. Laurence.. his sum mary of the Kabalah. 276. 474 et . occultism and the concealed sense in the Kabalah. 480. 416. Zohar. . Avicebron s poem on the Paths.gt. ends of occult science. 429 mysticism. quoted by Mirai. 220. 9 . Ockley. his 142. G. see also xv. 485.gt. &quot. 445 on the Metzareph. . 86 limita tions of this importance. . 212. . in. VV. 189 . occult feeling as to perversion of Hebrew tradition. 43 . Edward. transmission of. opinion of Haron Spedalieri. 45 on the true name of Satan. . / Onkelos. 58. how met by its 463. doctrine concernin S* 5 special nature of their translation of the interest. 328. 15. Pherruts Schibbur. 1 1 . i. 432. 157. 150 occult estimate of the Sepher Yetzirah. 432 . 433. 444. E.. 126. 491 . Marlines de. Kabalism one of . George. &sh Paracelsus. 173 . Nuctemeron. 72 . its connection with Kabalrsm and with Lully. 417: on an alleged French . on the practical Kabalah. 83 analogic with Kabalism. 126. means and involves. 446 . 503 identical with that of the Origen on Exorcisms. i defender. his translation of the Improvement of Human &quot. on Kabalism and the religion on Kabalism l_5 and Northern Mythology. his connection with the French occult movement. . -erning . 21 . in the Sepher Sfphiroth. 9 whether it is methodised. 429. PALMER. 235. Original Sin. . 44 . 168 . 88 occult estimate of the Zohar. examination of this estimate. on the islic aspect* of marriage. Vct/irah. apus. 435 occultism and the practical Kabalah. 12 .dola. on the Paths of Wisdom. 63 Kabalistic Freemasonry. occultism and occultism and 477 nry. value of his references. Prince. Jonathan Ken. 276.:ic astrology.. 350-352 . its Kabalistic allusions. Mysticism concerning. I Nus. Polling. 40. ib.m. 121 . on the Oliver.e. his its vehicles. Encausse. 398. 84 his translation of the Sepher Yetzirah. 415. Kabalah. OCCULT Philosophy. in the Zohar Phylacteries. on the Tarot. 13. Kabalistic doctrine important to. 388. interest of the occultist in the Kabalah. 301. 9. according to Papus. Judah the seq. 166. .. not a student of the Kabalah. 269. occult criticism. occult antecedents. 439 . 43. Simon. . 416 .

261. Sabbatai Zevi. Ernest. 187. Michael. 246. 357. Rulandus. quoted by Agrippa. P. see also 75. of the Rittangelius. 218. Ritual of the Dead. 364 . 204 . Zohar. 270 . according to Isaac de Loria. 84. Masonry crucians. 358. 299-303. Resurrection. according to 271. 264. pre-existence of the soul of the Messiah. 212. . as students of the Kabalah. treatise of Manasses. religion. written in Arabic. 423. 157 . reference of Saadya Gaon. Martinus. ib. his transformation of the Scottish Rite. 299-303 . other . his C. . 44 . charac teristics. 20. 231 . Reincarnation. 271. his sacrifices and labours. Alchemy. Sabathier. 191. Rosenroth. Porter. of Eliphas Levi. 83 faith in the of Maimonides. 56. 348. Kabalistic Order of. the lesser spirit of the Zohar. 360362 . see also 65. 380 . 272.. Pre-existence. Pistis Sepher Yetzirah. SAADYA Gaon. statement listic Revolution. 219. his translation of the Babylonian Talmud. excerpt from. from reincarnation. 364. 242. on the Sephiroth. according to the . 1 80. 157- Jewish academy of. 210. 362. 464. 259. 359 extravagance of his views. 310. on the Absolute. 430. rejected by Saadya Gaon. 364. Noah. scarcely a Kabalistic com tenet . 290-292 . Cohen Irira. Rose Cross. Relandus. 459. according Stanislas de Guaita. 15 . and Synagogue. 321. 261. office of Metatron. conversion to Christianity. 147. 166. and Rosicrucianism. 213. Rossi. Pott. his edition Sepher Yetzirah. on a sense in the Talmud. 146. Sepher to writings. 175178 . differs from Kaba 86. Henry. William. his collection of Kabalistic writers. 156. 282-284. Revolution of Souls. Prayer of Elijah. 423. his analysis of the Zohar. object of same. 386. 209. 116. historical evidences of the Order. 382 . 231 . . according to A. 369. 267-269 . taught in the Zohar. 242. Ruysbroeck on Symbolical Astrology. 355. 381 . see METEMP SYCHOSIS and REVOLUTION. 200. 353 tendencies. Eliezer. 232 . 477. . 175 . his translation of the Sacramentalism. 307. Paulus. as taught in the Zohar. 179. 129. 86 . his esoteric tradition. Reuchlinus. his Messianic Mission. 260. 230. 151. 177 . Saint-Martin. Rosicrucians. on Alchemy. Pirke of R. 252 . 34. 364 . 466. his commentary on second the Sepher Yetzirah. 383 384 his critical standpoint. his Pneumatology. 172. 476. 272. 385. 176. 365 . 176. Knorr von. Sophia. RABANUS. corresponds to Yetzirah) 85 . of Talmud pro mentary. Ruach. 180. 255. Pistorius. . 230-233. 294. R. A. Kabalistic doctrine according to Saadya of. 287. Riccius. 177. 363. notice of his life. on the terms of Pumbaditha. a name of Neshamak. see also 209. 188. 363 . 356 . 478. Lutheran his et seq. his group. Rodkinson. his translation of the Sepher Yetzirah. Moses of Cordova. 424 . according to Isaac de Loria. Mrs. 57. the treatise of Isaac de Loria. 454. Postel. 74-88 Gaon. described in the Zohar. importance to occultists. Abbe de. the rational nature. Adrianus. accepted by Saadya Gaon. 422. Poisson. views on the conversion of the Jews. 300. 306.128 . distinguished as 86 . 359. 354-356 . the form of all Mysticism. 176. his commentary on the Yetzirah. his alleged translation of the Bahir. 172. 242 . on the Rosi- 1 88. his legend. summary of. his connection with Kabalism. 84. 355. in Adam. 263. his occult connections. Renan. Esprit. a fession of ib. 471. see also 380. . 172 .

general analysis. 346. as a vehicle of the philosophic tradition of Kabalism. according to the Zohar. 174. . see also 488. Learning. the ascribed to Akiba. see 192. averse correspondence of Hod. 277 .Inbcx 394 395 not a student of the Kabalah. 369 . 122 .gt. 2&amp. . Edouard. 161 . vii. 28 part of a large mystical contains the germ literature. not the of occultism in earliest Israel. 97 . 435- Sepher Raziel. 154.S. contains no reference to Kabalistic pneumatology. 115. on the latest date which can be ascribed to the Zohar. 11.ui&amp.har. Middle Ages Ghoolat Sect. see also 179. . Sealing Names. Secret Societies in the 424. 324.. 53. commentary of A/.mission from antiquity. 276. 420. its antithesis. fragments ex tant in the Zohar. on Ain Soph. Sepher I)/. 184. on the Mishnic period of its nucleus. Schoettgenius. 138.. on the two Edens.vi physiogonomy. reel ion. on future on the 264-267. Sepher Yetzirah. 93. . a storehouse of mediaeval magic. 119.n of the Hebrew alphabet. authorship. 131 . nt held in the past. 212. see also 192. xv. alleged lr.&amp. 116. its connections and depend passim Secret . 175-178. an important orthodox apology. 171. 45does not mention the Four 49 Worlds of later Kabalism. 174. the oldest part of the Zohar. 63. 1 12. Kabalistic complexion of his ib. 309. on a holy intelligence and an animal soul in man. Schure. 146 reference to a Sepher Yet/irah in the Talmuds. . 92. . debased . 114. Book of Concealment. 154. 65 . 410 Schiur . body. 90. xiii. retributive justice. . 167. 1 14 . 160. 136. 345. and Hk. 261 262 . . Salomon and Ahsal. 94 . apparatus of. other com the Seph mentaries.aon.gt. 444 see also 6. 119. 44 . 29 its of the Sephirotic scheme. 146. . Scaliger and the Knights of the Temple. soul at death. 324. . 267-269 on angel . on the derivation of alchem 125 ical knowledge to the West.gt. place in the Zohar. Secret Doctrine. Simeon ben Jochai. error of lesser doctrines. 213-216. its different influence on Christian minds as compared with the Zohar.enioutha. III.ariel. uviit quoted Sirret of S in /:&amp. xii. on the authorship on of the Sepher Yetzirah. the 1 aths of Wisdom as a 60-62 dependency of the Sepher Yet/irah. latest possible 93.. 263 happiness. . 8 1 . 75 probablj .e. on the soul and connection between tin. Samacl. see also . see also 192. 60. 245. Abraham. 449. 260 . . 174. description of the Sephiroth. 185 zirah said to end where the Zohar not a magical work. nor yet the doctrine of the Countenances.. US. 276.. Christianus. Komah. commentary of K. date. . 91. 244. 312 Kahala and Chaldean philosophy. 92 modern criticism of the Targiimim on the late and Midrashim. 136. . on a triple sense in Genesis. 140. an alleged early name of the Zohar. 180-182. 13 the Kabalah not demonstrably the a part of such tradition. &amp. on the Christianity of R. 103 date and origin of the Zohar. 153. commentary of Saadya C. . 2Sj5. i. . Schiller-Szinessy. permutations of the Tetragram in the Sepher Yet zirah.lt. form 211 . 439 on the original writings of Moses de Leon. . commentary of Nachmanides. 33 . .imentary. xvi. 162. . French occultists. summary of its contents. . 86 affirmative view wa. 168I82-I. 323. 21 1 encies. traditional :-:el t-j the Secret 1 :. on the instruments of creation. Secret Commentary. ice al-o 96. . 180 . 112. 396 . 505 istic al. Sapere Aude on the Ash Mctzareph on the and Alchemy. Seder Ha Kabalah.lt. concerns Kabal 174-186. 59 on the letters . 172. 74. 157.. 187.

connec tions of the Talmud and Kabalah. Shekinah. 16 . according to the Supplements of the Zohar. analogies in Avicebron. 17 . Sufic Doctrine. 228 . 119.S o6 359. as emanations of the Sepher Yuhasin. his Discourse in the Greater Synod. 146. 162. 144. 120. . 169-172. Spedalieri. nayoth. 378. 138. 108. Sufic analogies. evolution of the Sephiroth. according to Isaac de Loria. Zohar. Talmud. a pupil of Akiba. 44 qualities and symbolism. 281. of Gene alogies. 93. 139 . curious fantasy of the . 79 . 486. the Sephiroth and on the of Divine absorption. R. 17. 65 . 235. 35. . 208 . S^S. how understood by Saadya Gaon. on an error of Walton. Simeon.. 168 Talmud and Tradition. Persian 140 . 312. 42 initial purpose of the system. Book 437. 200 as the form of God in the likeness of humanity. 446.. 22 on superstitious sciences brought by the Jews from on magic and Chaldea. value of the doctrine. 260. 15. his alleged authorship of the Zohar. 58. 489. Spinoza. . 77 . alchemy. Talmud 83. ib. his Midrash according to the Talmuds. starting point of. 218. 78. Tosephtoth. 49. Sufism and Jewish tradition. 278. 297 et seq. 175. the doctrine Azariel colours of the Sephiroth) 184 . 255 . 256 . 281-285 the Later Supplements. ib. Ancient Supplements. his reminiscences of the Kabalah. by ib. 217. 284. conversations with Elias. Gaon R. 56 the Paths of Wisdom. . 140 . 18 . errors of comparison. Talmudic account of R. Meir ben. 429. 218. 106-108. 44-49 an occult explanation concerning them. differences between the traditions. 253 . 142 . analogies. in the Faithful Shepherd. averse correspondences. 291. angelic correspondences. 227. 152. 50 the Sephiroth in the Four Worlds. archangelic correspondences. 55. ib. 137. Soul and Death. two 280 . 386. 141 . Sephiroth. 58. on the Kabalah . Isabel de. 265. Simon. R. ib. Simulacrum. 16. and Mysticism. . 105 . notice of the series of. Steinschneider. . TALISMANIC Magic. Talmuds of Jeru salem and Babylon. 229. 51. in the Lesser Synod. 465. rival Mishnayoth and Mish Shereera. the authorship merely traditional. . 19 . . 406. Spain and Jewry. 206. ib. therein. 104. . 95 Mystic Tradition. Talmud and Sepher Talmud and Yetzirah. Talmud and Pneumatology. see also 219. Malkuth. 17 . . 26 . 321. 43 first met with in the Sephtr tabulation of their Yetzirah.e. aspect of the Kabalistic books. in the Bahir.gt. account of his death. Richard. 219 . Simon. i. errors of Eliphas Levi. Spouse of God. see also 209. . 285. its divine correspondences. . 49. 220 et seq. . its materials embodied whom methodised. Spencer. 74. 52. 157. . 178 . sources. . and the Perfect Way. 87 . how it rests upon the first man. Deity. 41 . 243. the Talmud not Kabalistic. 14 . hypothesis of Tholuck. 136. 313. results of their confusion. 435&amp. 262. 447. his traditional authorship of the Book of Concealment. 76. . 98. referred to . 228. 283 . . 8 1 . 112. 12. ence to Simeon Ben Jochai. his scribe. 219. on the positive the Uncon representation of ditioned. 488. 166 according to the Sepher Yetzirah. 24 on the Christian Kabalism. 80. closing of refer the Talmudic canons. 246. Simeon ben Jochai. Kabalistic analogies in Sufic poetry. 282. see also 138. the Sephiroth and the Two Counte the Sephiroth and nances. Supplements of the Zohar. 21. statement in the Zohar. 19-22 . their names. . Baron. Steiger. view of the Zohar. . narrative of Isaac de Acco. 105. 229 . 155 . Herbert. the Ge/nara..

Tiphereth. as misprinted by Levi. its attribution to the Lesser Counte nance. A. Alexander. 482 bution of its trump cards. 19. liable to exaggera tion.Targum-:. points of contact with the Zohar. excerpts from. Points. wealth of its symbolism. 480. Welling Westcott. on and the ib. 400. Tradition. on the Bohemian . 377. . fragments in Zohar. pantheism Kabalah.. 460. 484. :y of Souls. language of. alleged translator of the Zohar. . 85. Widrnanstadt.gt.-tica. Symbolism 55. 440. Basil. ! as the archetype of the 96. 170. Thomas. mentioned by Court de views of Levi and . ToM-phthoth. R. 169. union of man with. 86. Theory of Ecstasy. . the Zohar in Latin. Tarot. t . 481. 87. Vision. on the terms Kabalah and . 444. 308. 228. 39.! Zoh. 26. Chaim. its abysses of mystery. object of this its success. 23. A . various statements of H. on the . 434-437 . its antiquity and importance. 21. with More. his controversy a disciple of his Kabalistic of Zoroaster. where found. 271 . 112. 230. Ain Soph. Viterbi. 404 Tetragrammaton and . . Blavatsky. Christian aspects of his Kabalism. the move ment in Paris. 109. on the true and false Kabalah. J.. 480 analogies with the its history accord Kahalah. Chorum. Modern. 434 . 85- Vast Countenance. 158. on 365.. treatise of May Gaon. 379 not a real Kabalistic see expositor. VAILLANT. Gebelin. 433 views on the Kabalah. his analogy with the Zohar. movement. Baron. 360. its pro-existence. Royal. Simeon. i Turba the Phil. Tarot. concealment of God in the Thorah 253 . 483 479 . see Phylacteries. 394. reading. Transmigration. 195. ib. 483Tauler. Gui de. in what manner the universe 57 proceeds from this name. 308. UN I VERSE. . 259 restored by R. Weill. 211. 214. 338 mentioned by Fludd. 380.. 360.Magic. on the Sephiroth. 436. on magical books. True Intellectual System 387see of. WAITE. A. 369 . 272. see Numbers. Vaughan. 3 s i E. . alleged purchaser of . J. . no. Dr. his translation of the Sepher Yet/. 156.-txircph 309. 215. ib. ib. 172 transposition of. 378 . . &amp. P. Mystic. the Tarot.// M. Thorah. )egrees of Contemplation. . lu\ collection . iv Zoharie 136. 67-70. 219. . Tholuck. Voice of God in its Power. 482. editor of Isaac de Loria. 60 its permutations in the Sepher Yetzirah. pronunciation of. 481 true attri ing to Papus. Triilu-mius. 261. 376 .ss.ric Collect an--ii doctrine. . on Christianity and the Talmud. ib. 405. . Walton. 354. treatise. 454late Kabalistic Valley. 377 . on the ChakLean 1. ir./:. of Union. Tsure. 257. Tephilim. 357. 123. 64 . 221-223. 443. of.pe Ten I Tetragrammaton. Massorah.. 460. lean. 197 worlds.gt. 65. Way . Wynn. its symbolism according to the Zohar. 366. alleged treatise on Azoth. Vowel question of their antiquity. oral. Vital. Vaillant.irah. analogy with Synods. Valentine. also xv. Vitta. . on the connection between the Kabalah and Sufism. 144. spiritual principle of man in the archetypal world. 139. on the word Kabalah. on Kabalistu. see Sephiroth.. 271. 85. 455. first Unmanlfest Deity. 149 on Moses. Ilam. . 375 Agrippa. antiquity 122. . his &amp. 273. 419. Theosophy. 7.

on the Absolute.85. Writing Name. 14 .38. 95. 60. Yi-King. Will of God. 96. in the production of the emana tions. 147. 1031 14 . 39. 74. according to Avicebron. for full analysis. LONDON AND BRADFOKD. religion of. alleged connections with Kabalism. I3 1 * l6 7.W. Work of the Chariot. 39. 324. 146. 52. 108. 119. 34- Zosimus. 369. on the Rosicrucian Kabalah. 127. of. 115-121 . Israel. 35. see Zohar. F. 53.^1. see Sepher Yet- Wolf. 97. 125. 33. Wisdom 323- Religion. YARKER. 75. 452. operating in creation. on the Metzareph. 311 . 385. 79. Lazarus. Wigston. Kabalistic sources ZANGWILL.84. ib. ioo. for age of Zoharic tradition. PRINTERS. his Theatrum Zettner. 37. Chemicum. prior to the creation. 489Zoroaster. 345. the third world of Kabalism. Witchcraft. 286 zirah. ssh a forgery. WILLIAM BYLKS AND SONS. Kabalistic MSS. 6. Hoene. . 377. 365. 187for minor references. for date and authorship. on the Zohar as purpose of his rabbinical bibliography. 77. Greek alchemist. on the Mysteries of Antiquity. Zohar. C. 167. manifestation in Kether^ 44. 126. 38 . Yetzirah. . . Wronski. Work of Creation. John. of Mirandola. 332. 458. 4H.

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