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BUSINESS AND EDUCATION
Robert Houser, Des Moines Development Group, Chair of Business and Education Roundtable James Aipperspach, US WEST Communications Perry Chapin, South Central Iowa AFL-CIO Russell Christiansen, Iowa Public Service Company Fred Comer, Iowa State Education Association William Cropp, Polk County Mental Health Center Sister Catherine Dunn, Clarke College Charles Edwards, Des Moines Register, representing the Iowa Future Project James Erickson, Anderson-Erickson Dairy Co. Ron Fielder, Grant Wood Area Education Agency, representing AEAAdministrators Gene Gardner, Iowa Area College Presidents Association John Gardner, Quad City Development Group Nolden Gentry, Brick, Seckington, Bowers, Swartz & Gentry Thomas Glenn, South Central Iowa AFL-CIO, representing the State Board of Education Dale Grabinski, West Des Moines Community School District, representing School Administrators of Iowa Roger Hughes, Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust David Hurd, Principal Financial Group, representing the Iowa Business Council Tom Long, United Auto Workers Jean Morgan, Iowa Parent Teachers Association Don Nickerson, Babich, Bennett, Nickerson & Newlin Merlin Plagge, Iowa Farm Bureau Federation Hunter Rawlings, University of Iowa David Rendall, Amoco Customer Service Center Joanne Stockdale, Northern Iowa Die Casting, Inc. Tim Struecker, Iowa Association of School Boards Jamie Robert Vollmer, Great Midwestern Ice Cream Company Richard S. White, John Deere Des Moines Works, representing Iowa Association of Business and Industry Tom Whitson, Council Bluffs Savings Bank George P. Wilson III, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Iowa, representing the State Board of Education Consultant: David W. Hornbeck, Former Chairman, Board of Trustees, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, and Former Maryland State Superintendent of Schools
Iowa education today is nationally recognized as a leader. Iowa students continue to earn high marks on college entrance exams and standardized tests. Our state's high school graduation rate is among the nation's best. Businesses often choose to locate in Iowa based on the high-quality employees they find in our educated workforce. Iowa citizens show unwavering support for education as the cornerstone of quality of life and economic vitality. We're proud of our education system, but not too proud to say it can be better. Being a frontrunner in education quality in the United States today allows us to aim even higher for tomorrow. The Roundtable's goal is a world-class education for every Iowa student. The time to focus on education in Iowa is now. President George Bush and the National Governors Association have set six ambitious national education goals, 1 focusing public attention on the quality of America's education system. Iowa Governor Terry Branstad is committed to achieving those goals in Iowa. The Iowa General Assembly has shown unwavering commitment for education in recent years. Iowa citizens, through town meetings conducted by the Iowa Future Project in 1989, said clearly that Iowa should aggressively pursue excellence of a higher order in its education system, taking a fresh look at education in the context of the global economy. The State Board of Education has also set a goal of making Iowa's education system world class. These efforts have come together in a partnership of the Iowa Business and Education Roundtable, the State Board of Education and the Iowa Future Project.
Through a task force established in March 1990, these groups have created a strategic planning process to define "world-class" education, assess the current status of education and determine strategies to attain a world-class elementary-secondary education system. The Roundtable's goal is to establish a shared vision for Iowa education in the 21 st century. The effort has cut across the public and private sectors so that the vision is held by all Iowans. Business leaders and leaders of Iowa's major education associations served on a task force to develop the core of the report. A draft of the report was discussed by more than 2,000 Iowans at 22 public meetings throughout the state, and the contributions of educators were sought through meetings and conferences. agreement with most of the principles, assumptions and results put forth in this report as the basis for a world-class education system. But there was no clear consensus about what strategies should be used to achieve those results, and this final report reflects considerable changes made as a consequence. I am confident that this report represents a shared vision to guide us to world-class schools, along with a carefully thought out series of recommendations to develop consensus on critical issues that remain unresolved. Creating a vision of a world-class education system is a tall order, but one that must be filled if Iowa is to thrive in the 21 st century.
Robert N. Houser Chair, Iowa Business and Education Roundtable 1 We found overwhelming
WHY BUSINESS IS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION
The purpose of business is to promote the growth of prosperity in our society. Changes in the world today are profoundly altering the formula business uses to pursue its goal. Once business could rely on machinery, natural resources and hard work to ensure economic growth. Today knowledge has become the driving force in the marketplace. Employees must be able to obtain, organize, analyze and creatively apply new information. The forecast is that this pattern will rapidly spread. By 2000, the ability to learn will be a key requirement in three of four jobs. Business people are acutely aware of
to focus on the quality of public education. In Iowa and across the nation, business men and women are realizing that they can and must be helpful partners with all those already engaged in the process of systemic reform of education. Business has begun to commit its considerable capital, human and organizational resources to the task. The projects are as varied as the individual business involved, but the goal is always the same to work with educators to develop learning to the highest level. The Iowa Business and Education Roundtable is a partnership of business people and educators committed to understanding each other's concerns and working together to create world-class schools in Iowa. The success of this partnership will result in continued prosperity for our state and a higher quality oflife for Iowans in the 21 st century.
Today knowledge has become the driving force in the marketplace. Employees must be able to obtain, organize, analyze and creatively apply new information.
this shift and of the progress other countries are making to adapt and excel in a knowledge-driven world economic system. The business community has responded in part with an increased interest in the development of human capital. This new emphasis on people has naturally led business
Photo Courtesy of Bob Paxson, Des Moines Public Schools
THE NEED FOR WORLD-CLASS SCHOOLS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Iowa of the 1990s operates in a global economy and competes in the international marketplace. If the state is to succeed in this changing world, its citizens must refuse to be complacent and must accept the challenge of developing a world-class education system. The need for world-class schools is apparent in the following facts: T Our state and nation are movingfrom and apply knowledge. They need to be able to deal with a virtual bombardment of information to make sense of our complex world. They need higher levels of mathematical, scientific and literacy skills. For example, the "shopkeeper math" skills of the past addition, subtraction, multiplication, division have given way to the need for skills that help students interact, communicate, understand and solve problems in a technological world. We are approaching the 21st century with a public school system that was designed to serve the workplace and social conditions of the 20th century. In 10 years, the United States has moved from being the world's largest creditor nation to being the world's largest debtor nation. Iowa's top-ranked education system is subject to a similar risk. T Although Iowa students are among the What at one time we considered basic skills are no longer adequate in an information society.
a labor-intensive industrial economy to a knowledge-based economy.
Rapid rates of industrial change caused by automation, robotics and widespread use of computers are dramatically altering the composition of the workforce and the needs of businesses. What at one time we considered basic skills are no longer adequate in an information society. In 1950, only about half of our students graduated from high school, and we saw little reason to worry. Those who did not graduate could still find jobs and lead productive lives. This is no longer the case. Today, about 86 percent of Iowa students graduate from high school, and we have reason to worry. That still means that each year about 5,600 Iowa students do not graduate. According to the National Center for Excellence in Education, "The people of the United States need to know that individuals in our society who do not possess the levels of skills, literacyand training essentialto this new erawill be effectivelydisenfranchised, not simply from the material rewards that accompany competent performance, but also from the chance to participate fully in our national life." Tomorrow's citizens need to have significantly higher levels of skills and knowledge than ever before. They need to be able to think, to solve complex problems, to integrate
nation's best, they still may not be able to compete with students from other countries.
International assessments of student achievement are limited. However, those that exist tell us that Iowa students are leading a nation whose educational system falls far short when compared with those of other industrialized countries. American 13-yearolds ranked the lowest in math and near the bottom in science on an international assessment conducted by the Educational Testing Service. Americans ages 18-24 came in last in a 1988 international test of the geographic knowledge of adults in nine nations. A study by the American Association for the Advancement of Science indicates that 94 percent of Americans don't have enough science and technology knowledge to function in today's SOCIety.
T Today's Iowa students need to be
placed on schools by society are placing greater pressure on the education Iowa educators today are working system.
prepared to succeed in life anywhere in the world.
Iowa high school graduates go on to be students and employees and citizens in virtually every state and country in the world. To succeed, they need foreign language
at capacity be ex-
pected to do more. Yet they are trying to do more. Efforts to involve staff members in decision making, to increase cooperation and to provide training tems for educators forward-looking within schools sys-
skills and exposure to a variety of cultures.
are occurring Iowa school
in many districts. shared
Some Iowa schools are exploring decision-making sponsibility
systems that put more re-
at the building level with staff
members who work directly with students. Others are developing new partnerships
among schools and social service agencies to provide much-needed dren and families. But teachers
Photo Courtesy of Des Moines Register
services to chil-
are largely working
Iowans are increasingly in the in-
or perhaps in spite of it. They are in the context of an education
finding themselves participants ternational marketplace.
Iowa farmers find
system that emphasizes process over results, that places too many restrictions on creativity and innovation, that discourages collab-
buyers for their products around the world. Iowa companies with national standing are moving into the international arena.
oration and shared decisions.
Those who live and work in Iowa need to be world-class competitive.
T Many parents feel disenfranchised
from the education system.
The importance ment to a child's of parental involvesuccess is emphasized research. While
T Educators are becoming increasingly
frustrated that the education system is inflexible and cannot meet the demands of society and the needs of students.
Restructuring in education has become the byword that quesfor a movement
ways in Iowa schools, many others are left outside the school house door with no sure path for involvement. If Iowa students are levels, parents
tions whether the rules, standards and practices of today's high-stakes ahead. schools of can the meet the
to achieve at world-class
must become an integral part of the system. In short, Iowa's system of education needs to be revamped to fit the expectations and needs of teachers, students and society.
in the family structure, and more demands
world-class education is doubly
difficult because our world is changing so rapidly and because no comprehensive international standard of excellence exists today. The Business and Education Roundtable's goal is that within 10 years, an Iowa education becomes the world-class benchmark that other nations and other states strive to reach. Iowa's world-class education system will equip students to live, work and compete as successful citizens in a global society. Their ability to contribute as productive employees is,of course, important. But just as important is their ability to be self-sufficient,responsible citizens and family members. A world-class education will equip all Iowa high school graduates with robust skills in areas such as reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, foreign language, problem solving and thinking skills that go far beyond today's standard. Those students will be able to apply their knowledge and skills in tomorrow's complex, technological society. In short, they'll be equipped to succeed in multicultural communities and workplaces of the future anywhere in the world. A world-class education system must be created through a partnership of education, business, parents and communities. The Roundtable feels that the adoption of the assumptions, principles and recommendations in this report will lead us to a world-class education system that produces results such as those described beginning on page 8.
Photo Courtesy of Bob Paxson, Des Moines Public Schools
CREATING WORLD-CLASS SCHOOLS IN IOWA
guiding prinof a
.... Ways exist to teach all students successfully. There are teachers and schools
ciples and results form the foundation world-class education sent an underlying
system. They reprethat focuses
across the United States and in Iowa that successfully serve children who are rich and poor, children of every color, the
on student achievement,
improved ways to
measure student progress, shared decision making and accountability Almost based on stuevery recomis being tried
disabled and those who are not. What works is a matter of knowledge, not
dent performance. mendation
opinion. While we can continue
in this report
cover new teaching practices, our immediate goal must be to identify existing successful practices and then educate all school staff members in those practices.
somewhere in Iowa, and this plan attempts to take the best of those proven programs and combine sive plan. them into one comprehenthis foundation is
.&. What students learn should be challenging to all. How, when and where they learn it and who teaches it should be variables. Each child should learn to
strong and effective only when whole and integrated.
It would be a solid basis on
which to build world-class schools.
If students who graduate from Iowa in schools are to be equipped to participate a global society and an internationally
think, to solve problems and to integrate knowledge through a rigorous curricu-
lum, not a curriculum watered down for some. The variables must be adjusted until each child succeeds.
competitive workforce, the basic principles underlying the state's education system
Based on these three assumptions, Roundtable that must the has developed eight principles guide the transformation of
must be reassessed. The state's new vision for world-class fundamental education must reflect a belief in results. It must set for students, and state teachers, The
high expectations administrators Roundtable
today's Iowa schools into the world-class schools of tomorrow. The Roundtable be-
lieves that these principles foundation
can serve as a
tions that present a dramatic change in the philosophy .&. Virtually of Iowa education. all students can learn at high
for a system that prepares stu-
dents for their role in Iowa's future. Every change made in Iowa's education system
levels. Iowans must believe this if they hope to achieve significantly els of performance including higher lev-
should be measured against how it contributes to or detracts from these essential principles. .&. Iowa's world-class education system
from all students, failed by system
Iowa schools. Iowa's education
should be based on results. The success
of schools in the new system should be judged by how well students master a
must bring out the best in all students, not settle for less from some.
clearly defined, measurable core oflearning that moves beyond minimum standards and sets high expectations for all students. Iowa's present system emphasizes process, not results, by setting strict minimum requirements for the length of the school day and school year, staffing, course offerings and other areas. ... Student performance should be measured with a variety of tools that reflect the complexity of what students are expected to learn. Setting high expectations for students who can think, understand ideas and solve problems will require the creation and use of equally complex assessment strategies. Today' s assessments seldom measure such complex skills, but instead too often test only a student's ability to recall or recognize facts. ... Successful schools, judged on the improvement should be of student rewarded, achievement, unsuccessful
must be accountable for results. Holding schools accountable for results means giving schools authority to decide how to achieve those results. Decisions affecting instruction should be made by staff members as close to the students as possible. Such decisions could include personnel selection, budget, curriculum, instructional practices, scheduling and disciplinary practices. Site-based management and shared decision making must replace the current more authoritarian system of managing education. ... Educators must have the training,
knowledge and leadership skills to help students succeed. Placing new, higher expectations on schools means that Iowa must equip its teachers and administrators with new skills to make results happen. Skillful and inspirational leadership will be essential at all levels of the new system.
schools should be helped to improve and consistently inferior schools should be penalized. When schools .succeed today, rarely are they rewarded. When schools fail, rarely are they penalized. A system built on results requires a system of rewards and penalties that measures a school's performance, not that of individual teachers. Schools in which the proportion of successful students grows should be rewarded. Unsuccessful schools should have access to technical assistance and support, and schools in which student achievement consistently does not improve should be penalized . ... Staff members in individual schools must have the authority to make decisions affecting student achievement and
Photo Courtesy of Des Moines Register
... Schools must be responsible the full involvement ners in the
for seeking as partchildren.
Results of World-Class Schools
of parents of
education system is one that
Schools don't exist in a vacuum. Parents are the primary influence in a child's life and a critical factor in a child's school success. Schools must be responsible for seeking parent involvement of children's education in all facets and develop-
produces results such as the following. The success or failure of schools in the new
system should be judged on how well each school improves in achieving results such as these. Examples of indicators that could be used to measure success are included.
ment. When parents cannot or will not become involved, schools must help the child overcome that difficulty. ... Readiness for school is critically important. Providing a stimulating environ-
Result 1: Each student will be able to read, write, speak and listen and to use math and foreign language skills in ways similar to what he or she will encounter in life.
... Reading: Reads for pleasure and information; recognizes different purposes and styles of writing; comprehends, interprets, separates fact from opinion. ... Writing: Uses a process of planning, drafting and revising; uses standard English sentences; modifies writing style for different purposes. ... Speaking and Listening: Engages in constructive discussions with peers and teachers; listens critically to presentations; recognizes stereotypes; prepares and delivers oral presentations. ... Mathematics: Adds, subtracts, multiplies, divides with whole numbers, decimals, fractions and integers; uses ratios, proportions and roots; understands and' uses the concepts of probability and statistics; organizes data in various forms; uses geometry. ... Employability Skills: Is aware of personal interests, aptitudes, skills and values in relation to demands of the work place; can set goals for work and understands the necessary preparation; has a basic knowledge of work - careers, occupations, jobs, and the structure and functions of the labor market (national, state and local).
ment early in a child's life can prevent problems in the future. By the time a
child reaches high school, it's difficult to catch up on basic skills that should have been learned earlier. In contrast, positive early experiences lay the foundation for
future success in learning. Schools in the new system must provide the option of prekindergarten opportunities, children. espeAl-
cially for disadvantaged though academic foundation prekindergarten instruction, of positive
is not formal it will build experiences a for
Iowa children. ... Schools in the new system must be responsible for ensuring collaboration
with health and social service agencies to reduce barriers to student Children learning.
of all ages must be physically, healthy if they
mentally and emotionally
are to learn. Hunger, stress or illness can keep students from school success.
Schools must eliminate those barriers to success instead of using them as excuses when students fail.
... Computer Skills: Uses keyboarding skills to input data; uses computer for instructional purposes; uses computer to operate standard software such as word processing. ... Information Processing Skills: Uses computers, libraries and other resources to obtain information; can extract, organize and summarize data in a useful way.
... Links ideas to core concepts in different subject matter fields. ... Uses ideas to solve problems with reallife applications. ... Uses real-life knowledge. situations to gam new
Result 2: Each student will be able to apply core concepts and principles from subjects such as mathematics, the sciences, the arts, the humanities, social studies and practical living studies to situations and problems similar to what he or she will encounter in life.
Possible Indicators: ... Recognizes the use or application of core concepts in a variety of real-life situations.
Result 3: Each student will become a self-sufficient individual and a responsible member of a family, work group and community.
Possible Indicators: ... Possesses confidence in academic ability. ... Maintains a healthy lifestyle.
... Is adaptable and flexible. ... Is resourceful and creative. ... Demonstrates cipline. self-control and self-disPhoto Courtesy of Des Moines Public Schools
... Makes decisions based on ethical values .
Examples of Core Concepts
Structure and function in organisms Interdependence of Iivi ng th ings Change: cycles and trends Stability and equilibrium in the universe Conservation
... Learns on his or her own. ... Uses problem-solving skills to resolve conflict; demonstrates awareness of the effect of personal behavior on others; is sensitive to the views of others. ... Demonstrates respect for authority; recognizes both rights and responsibilities of self, family members, fellow students and fellow citizens. ... Maintains a multicultural, nonsexist world view; knows and values contributions of different groups; interacts with people of different ethnic backgrounds. ... Participates service. effectively in community
Culture Relationship of environment to human activity Artistic style Creative expression Music, art, literature
Structure and function of political institutions Rights and responsibilities in rule of law Democracy and other "isms" Equality of opportunity Economic systems Competition and market structure
Practical Living Studies
Nutrition and wellness
... School attendance
rates. rates. ac-
Substance abuse Consumerism Parenthood Work and employment
... High school graduation ... Participation tivities.
rate in extracurricular
Photo Courtesy of Bob Paxson, Des Moines Public Schools
... Drug use and abuse among students and educators. ... Proportion of students who must be disciplined. ... Teenage pregnancy rates.
Result 5: Each student will be able to connect and integrate experiences and new knowledge from all subject matter fields with what he or she already has learned.
Result 4: Each student will be able to think and solveproblems both in school situations and in a variety of situations similar to what he or she will encounter in life.
... Makes historical connections using new knowledge. ... Makes connections with basic knowledge such as core concepts and principles previously learned. ... Identifies applications of the knowledge in the real world. ... Describes methods for advancing the knowledge or the field of knowledge. ... Describes the contributions or potential contributions of the knowledge to society. ... Identifies personal relevance or potential personal relevance of the knowledge. ... Describes relationships of the new knowledge with other fields of knowledge .
... Identifies and formulates problems or states problems. ... Identifies what is known and what needs to be known to address the problem. ... Locates and organizes information. ... Develops options for solutions. ... Makes informed decisions in selecting a possible solution to the problem. ... Applies the solution in appropriate ways. ... Evaluates the solution.
Result 6: Each student will successfolly complete a high school education.
Percentage of students who earn a high school diploma. Percentage of students who earn a General Educational Development certificate. Percentage of students who drop out of school.
Percentage of students who have been employed for a number of months after graduation in a job that allowsthem to be self-sufficient, as defined by a reliable standard such as the Department of Labor minimum wage for self-sufficiency . Percentage of students who have successfully completed a postsecondary education or training program one year after graduation or who remain enrolled in such a program. Percentage of students who are participating more effectively in the workplace by virtue of being involved in decision making, problem solving or other higher level activities.
Result 7: Each student will make a successfultransition to the work place or postsecondary education after high schoolgraduation.
Photo Courtesy of Bob Paxson, Des Moines Public Schools
that follow will reof the way
A result that cannot be measured may be a useful goal, but it is irrelevant as a result for which a school or school district can be held accountable. The results identified in this report in-
sult in a substantial restructuring education is practiced
in Iowa, permitting nationally
Iowa to maintain
and, more important, world-class status.
to achieve the goal of
These recommendations plemented expected
cannot be im-
clude subject areas such as math, science and reading discipline along with skills that cut across areas such as problem solving,
overnight, and results cannot be immediately. We can, however, invest-
on this important
critical thinking and integrating knowledge. They also include personal qualities related to self-esteem, good health habits and ethical decision making. The strategies, test instruments, indicaand
ment of time and resources in our education system. The Roundtable implementation projects a six-year
of these recommendations.
These recommendations cannot be implemented overnight, and results cannot be expected immediately. We can, however, begin immediately on this important investment of time and resources in our education system.
The results advocated m this report should be established by the State Board of Education as the outcomes expected of all
tors and tasks used to assess whether when a student has achieved
knowledge or understanding
must be as rich
as the results to be achieved. If we want to know whether Iowa students knowledge, assessments can think, we need to and develop
by the time they graduate
from high school. The State Board should involve Iowa's best educators in committees for each result area to identify high-expectation 'results, such as those proposed report. These committees should use their exin this
write or integrate broaden new ones. current
The State Board of Education
adopt a state assessment program that relies on multiple approaches that determine not
pertise along with the resources of national organizations such as the National Council
school and school district performance, individual student performance.
for Teachers of Mathematics national Reading Association
and the Interto develop a
purposes, a multiple-choice,
enced test may be satisfactory. In other instances, new performance-based strategies student's will be needed assessment the
final statement that characterize
of the results and indicators high expectations and re-
flect the scope and depth of results described in this report. Adoption of these results and indicators is an imbe accom-
ability to apply skills. If writing is sample will be
to be assessed, a writing required. If thinking
by the State Board of Education portant first step and should
skills are at issue, the proper tool may be a series of open-ended thought questions in which the
plished within a year.
process is weighed more than the
answer. With respect to some of the results, such as those related to dropout post-graduation 12 rates or
success, still other assess-
ment strategies will be required. these assessment
sion to develop the program of rewards and penalties and school-based decision mak-
tools can be identified
quickly; others will require several years of development. The Roundtable recommends that the
ing. The commission members ucation appointed Association,
should consist of two by the Iowa State Edtwo members ap-
State Board of Education
obtain the ser-
pointed by the Iowa Association Boards, two appointed ministrators pointed by
vices of three to five assessment experts with expertise and experience in both traditional assessments and current thought on assess-
by the School Adtwo apTeacher
of Iowa association, the Iowa Parent
ment. These experts can identify existing assessments that meet Iowa needs; assessuse, but which
Association and two appointed ness and Education Roundtable.
by the BusiA neutral
ments suitable for interim
Iowa leader should chair the commission. This commission should consider re-
should eventually be replaced; and areas for which no satisfactory assessment approach exists. By collaborating testing organizations cies with assessment with other states,
The proposal of a rewards and penalties system for Iowa schools is not an alternative to a decent salary base for Iowa educators . ~. A decent salary base is a matter of fundamental fairness to Iowa's educators for their outstanding performance.
wards and penalties 'and school-based
sion making as two sides of the same coin: authority hand. and accountability go hand in
and other state agenexpertise, the State
The goal of the commission
is to that and
Board should develop and adopt a reliable, valid total assessment program.
produce substantive recommendations take into account high expectations
justify the substantial additional investment
Rewards/Penalties and School-Based Shared Decision Making
of Iowa funds in education. The commission should consult with Roundtable by
the Business and Education September
A set of significant
1991, with the Roundtable's to the State Board to be
rewards and penalties,
based on whether schools succeed, is crucial to achieving a world-class education system. an effective system of school-
made in October. This timetable will allow the organizations represented on the com-
mission to consult widely with their members in developing workable, a consensus on a fair,
based decision making is integral to a worldclass education system in Iowa. But while school board generally no
effective plan for implementing
Iowa teachers, administrators, members, parents
these crucial initiatives. Several items must be noted. First, the proposal of a rewards and penalties system for Iowa schools is not an alternative decent salary base for Iowa educators. Roundtable to a The
support these principles
consensus has emerged on what shape those elements of the system should take. These are far too important to a world-class edu-
fully supports current propos-
cation system to ignore or to act upon without significant Opl1l10ns. The Roundtable recommends that the contributions of ideas and
als to move Iowa teacher and administrator salaries to at least the national average. A
decent salary base is a matter of fundamental fairness to Iowa's educators outstanding performance to date. for their create a cornmis-
State Board of Education
Second, as Iowa's new results-based system is established, cation can the State Board of Edurelease regulations schools from
The lack of
support and development
have been barri-
ers to meeting these challenges." The state Department of Education a program that
process-oriented come unnecessary.
that may be-
should be funded to coordinate of staff development provides appropriate
Third, penalties must be carefully formulated so as not to harm students or to reduce a school's chances for ever succeeding. Without a workable system of accountthe comprehensive schools advo-
for all districts training
based, shared decision making; exposure to the best research in instructional a strong introductory practices;
ability and authority, foundation
staff development assessment;
program on performance-based and continuing ing effort. In addition,
cated by this report will crumble.
discussion of the restructur-
sus on these issues is critical if Iowa is to move forward with the other elements this plan. of
each Iowa school district at a
should be funded for staff development rate of $25 per student
per year with the for
This report sets a course
requirement which results at We
that the district participate
five years in a regional staff development consortium. One way to ensure stability of
Without a workable system of accountability and authority, the comprehensive foundation for world-class schools advocated by this report will crumble.
schools are expected to produce unprecedented
levels with all students.
the program would be for the area education agencies to serve as the regional staff development a district consortia. After the fifth year, staff development
cannot expect Iowa educators to meet these goals without recommended support. The key initiatives are:
by the Roundtable
"Staff development must assume a much larger role in a restructured system. A high-expectation, Iowa education results-based
from any source.
licensure and Preparation
To ensure the continued excellence of Iowa's educational workforce, the following recommendations should be implemented and the
system that is evaluated with substantially different assessment strategies will require different capacities and skills
by the State Board of Education Iowa Board of Educational
from Iowa educators. Virtually every educator will need some retraining. documented, This need is
Each newly certified teacher, including elementatyteachers, should be required to have a teaching specialization or major in addition to his or her coursework in education. Teacher candidates should begin field
for example, in the final reon Enhancing Ed-
port of the Commission ucational Leadership
in Iowa,? which says,
"There is very little systematic professional development Administrators for current administrators.
work at the earliest possible time. Requirements for entering the profession should be strong. New teachers should teach only
are being asked to provide requiring participa-
new kinds ofleadership tory management
time for at least the first two of a strong inSpecial staff de-
in schools that are also more complex
years within the framework ternship/mentor program.
facing issues that demand
velopment opportunities should be provided for new teachers. The Board of Educational Examiners should develop a carefully supervised alternative certification process to allow career changers, liberal arts graduates and others to enter the teaching ranks. Maintenance of licensing for teachers should require evidence of continued renewal through academic instruction, travel, work as a mentor to a less-experienced teacher and other experiences. Advanced degrees for teachers should continue to be emphasized, with the focus on content that is likely to contribute to better teaching and higher student performance. Iowa school principals and superintendents should complete a rigorous assessment program such as those developed by the National Association of Secondary School Principals and the American Association of School Administrators. Research-Based Instructional Activities By 1992, a research center should be established in the state Department of Education to identify and disseminate the best developing instructional practices in Iowa and around the world. The center could be established using current resources such as FINE (the state education research foundation), regional education labs, university expertise or a combination of sources. Examples of areas on which the research could focus are learning styles, assessment, parent involvement, curriculum, leadership development, elementary school counseling, dropout prevention, specialeducation and the education of the gifted and talented.
Photo Courtesy of Des Moines Register
Extended Instructional Time for Students With the acknowledgment that virtually every student can learn at a significantly higher level comes the acknowledgment that each learns in a different way and at a different speed. By the 1991-92 school year, Iowa schools should have the capacity to allow at least a third of all students to attend school for the equivalent of 240 days per year, including time on weekends, summers and outside the regular school day. Noninstructional Time for Teachers Implementing the recommendations in this report will require wider responsibilities of teachers, including additional curriculum design, more involvement in decision making, visits to students' homes, staff development and planning. These added duties cannot be accomplished within the present teacher work day. By the 1995-96 school year, every teacher in Iowa should be allowed 20 more days per year of noninstructional time to meet these responsibilities.
Prekindergarten Research proves that a high-quality prekindergarten program for disadvantaged students will positively affect the incidence of teen pregnancy, criminal arrest rates, placement in special education, employment rates, public assistance and school performance. Within two years, a high-quality halfday prekindergarten program should be made available for disadvantaged Iowa 4year-olds whose parents wish them to attend. A high-quality program, as defined by High Scope' and endorsed by the National Governors Association, is one with the following characteristics: ... at least one staff member for every 10 children and a classroom enrollment limit of 20 children A teaching staff members who are early childhood specialists-with academic degrees in early childhood development, competency-based child development associate credentials or their equivalents A a curriculum model, derived from principles of child development, that has been evaluated and found to have positive intellectual and social outcomes A support systems to maintain the curriculum model, including curriculum leadership by administration, curriculumspecific inservice training and evaluation procedures, and teaching staff assignments that permit daily team planning and evaluation A collaboration between teaching staff and parents as partners in the education and development of children A sensitivityand responsivenessto children's health and nutrition needs and family needs for child care or other services.
These programs could be established in schools or through existing programs such as Head Start. The key is that school districts have the responsibility and resources to see that a program exists. Ungraded Primary Schools Iowa should remove grade-level differentiations through the fifth grade and focus on the developmental characteristics of children, with the aim that all youngsters be ready to enter the sixth grade by ages 10 12. Ifinstruction is designed around developmental characteristics, the possibility of "failing" in school at an early age will be eliminated. Technology Technology will be a centerpiece in Iowa's effort for world-class schools. Technology can enhance and make efficient the delivery of advanced level courses, staff development, assessment, data collection and analYSlS,
materials. In 1991, the State Board of Education should establish a Commission for Education Technology to develop a vision and a specific plan for education technology in Iowa. Within a year, the Commission should develop a five-year plan for education technology that covers all aspects of technology, including instruction and administration, video and computer, software and hardware, building needs and staff development. Curriculum While a required state curriculum would contradict a fundamental premise of a results-based system, the state Department of Education must continue to be deeply involved in curriculum development. It should develop a strong curriculum frame-
work directly related to the goals, results and indicators adopted by the State Board of Education. This framework can provide direction to local districts and schools as they shape their specific curricular response to the goals and results. The state curriculum framework should identity textbook resources, software, video resources, films, teaching strategies,
middle school or high school with 20 percent or more low-income centers could be patterned ters in other states. Each family resource center would inelude services such as full-time preschool olds, students. The
on similar cen-
child care for two- and three-year
school-age child care for children ages 4 to 12, parent and child education, family sup-
learning opportunities in the community and potential community partners. The curricu-
port services, and health services or referral to health services. Each youth service center would in-
lum framework should also reflect alternative ways to use time. This curriculum proceed in accordance development should
elude services such as primary and preventive health services, referrals to health and social services, employment training, counseling and and
with the time lines of results, in-
laid out for the development
dicators and assessment strategies.
drug and alcohol counseling,
Parent, Advocate, Health and Social Service Support
Children need far more than academic instruction to succeed in school. If all children are to be successful, we must deal with the whole child's needs by connecting tion, health educa-
family crisis counseling.
and social services, and the ways. Our goal is a and families, programs
home in unprecedented system driven
rather than a series of fragmented
into which children and families must fit. The Roundtable legislative commission recommends that a to
consider new ways of approaching
being of children in Iowa. The commission should develop a plan that goes far beyond the traditional cooperation calls for collaboration and
to consider a vision in which
the school would become the center of support for children and families. The Roundtable recommends that a
family resource center be created in or near each elementary school that has 20 percent or more low-income children, and a youth
service center be created in or near each
Photo Courtesy of Des Moines Register
An Office of Family Support should be established in the Department of Education
keep Iowa on the frontier of educational excellence. In addition, the State Board and Department should ensure that these initiatives work in concert with recent state legislation on competency-based vocational education, so that Iowa students have opportunities
implement the centers, coordinate ser-
vices with the Department of Human Services, identify the best outreach and parent support programs and assist school districts in pursuing them. A major objective of this office should be to develop, in consultation with the Iowa Parent Teacher Association, a comprehensive plan to engage parents as full partners in the school effort. The plan should include parents as teachers, a source of nurture, as The Iowa Business and Education Roundtable makes a to-year commitment to support the establishment of the new system and to serve as its advocate. We will embark on a public information campaign that builds local support and understending of what is being undertaken and will work with other organizations and groups to cooperatively get the job done. school decision makers, as school volunteers, as co-learners with their children and as child advocates. In addition, the office should conduct cost-effectiveness studies of federal health, social service and job-related programs to ensure that the maximum amount of federal funding is being obtained.
acquire applied skills and technical knowledge in a variety of ways, including apprenticeship, work experiences or high school or community college coursework.
Business and Education Roundtable Role
In issuing this report, the Iowa Business and Education Roundtable makes a lO-year commitment to support the establishment of the new system and to serve as its advocate. We will embark on a public information campaign that builds local support and understanding of what is being undertaken and will work with other organizations and groups to cooperatively get the job done. We, individually and collectively, will continue to be advocates for a world-class education system in Iowa. In addition, we accept the challenge of the National Center on Education and the Economy in its report, America's Choicer America's Choice notes that "the organization of America's workplaces today is largely modeled after the system of mass manufacture pioneered during the early 1900s" a model that requires the education level now produced by Iowa schools. America's Choice calls for a new, high-performance work organization that" reduces bureaucracy by giving front line workers more responsibility. Workers are asked to ... make decisions ... Front line workers assume responsibility for ... quality control to production scheduling... " In such a framework lies the pros-
State Board/Department of Education Role
This report envisions the Iowa Department of Education and the State Board of Education in important roles. Defining results, building assessment strategies, being a primary source of research-based instructional activities, helping to create the supporting initiatives and ensuring a strong system of family resource/youth service centers will all require strong state-levelleadership. The Roundtable recommends that the Department further develop its leadership capacity by initiating a statewide strategic planning process. An annual part of this effort could be a week-long symposium of education, political, business and civic leaders, parents and national experts to work to
pect of economic
fulfilling careers for the Iowa students who will graduate from a world-class education system. The Roundtable is committed to
leading Iowa's corporate community vocating work organization development patterns
lead to economic opportunities
for Iowa's youth. will also advocate apto support
The Roundtable propriate education
in other contexts not mentioned
in this report. These include the roles business can play in providing students students' incentives for
to do well in school, in keeping part-time employment at approbusiness
priate levels and in encouraging
people to serve on local school boards and as school volunteers.
RESOURCES AND TIMELINES
Creating world-class schools in Iowa will investment The of time and Roundtable of will dividends in student achievement. This, in
require a long-term resources
turn, can fuel economic growth, leading to a higher quality of life for Iowans.
projects that complete the recommendations
implementation in this report
T Funding Sources
The Roundtable did not conduct a
take at least six years. Annual cost estimates are difficult because these recommendain gradually in a
study of possible funding Iowa's
tions could be phased
sources for these recommendations.
variety of ways. Existing resources could be reallocated, and of course, new funding
elected leaders will be faced with the task of balancing the competing needs and priorithose limits,
sources are a possibility. The estimated cost the first year, 1991, would be about $13 million to cover the specific initiatives listed in this section. The estimated cost for subsequent years would depend and degree of implementation. this substantial investment on the speed We feel that in a results-
ties of our state. Considering several points can be noted.
Iowa's long history of support for education indicates that any growth in state
revenue would be considered funding
as a source of
for an effort to create world-class
schools. But not all of these inititatives will require entirely new funding. Some funds
based system is sure to reap immeasurable
are being invested today in some areas, such
Public Policy Initiatives for 1991
Following is the Roundtable's recommendation for the activities that can be started in the coming year, along with projections of resources that would be required.
Define results and indicators (costs related to committees) Begin development of state assessment program Define rewards and penalties and school-based decision making
70,000 200,000 50,000 750,000 25,000 500,000 500,000 2,350,000
Staff development (planning costs and initial delivery of programs by Department of Education) Licensure and teacher preparation planning activities Develop research capacity in instruction Extended student instructional time (planning and pilot grants) Noninstructional time for teachers (to provide the equivalent of two extra nonteaching days for each of five teachers in every Iowa public school building, so they can plan how staff of their building could effectively use the full 20 days proposed) Prekindergarten (for one-third of eligible children) Ungraded primary schools (planning activities) Develop five-year plan for technology Parent, Advocate, Health and Human Services Support Establish Office of Family Support Establish commission to develop comprehensive child/family service system Study effectiveness of use of existing resources Develop plan for parent involvement
8,213,333 25,000 25,000 150,000 25,000 200,000 50,000
as early childhood and site-based decision making. In addition the reallocation of existing resources may occur as a logical result of these recommendations. For example, the call for a more coordinated system of education, health and social services for children and families is intended to result in a more productive use of current state and federal funds. If additional funds are still needed, we recommend that an increase in the state salestax be considered before any increase in income or property tax.
Staff Development The voucher plan that allots districts staff development funds at a rate of $25 per student per year should be phased in, with $10 per student provided in 1992, at a total cost of approximately $5.2 million. with an annual cost of $13 million. Extended Instructional Time for Students Iowa should move toward the goal of providing the equivalent of 60 days of extended instructional time for one-third of Iowa students. The cost for each day is $3.35 million, which is one-third the current daily cost of instruction for all students. Noninstructional Time for Teachers The state should move incrementally toward the goal of providing 20 additional days of noninstructional time for all teachers. The estimated cost of each noninstructional day is $6.4 million. Reduced Teaching Load for Novice Teachers Implementing a reduced-load program to replace one-third of classroom time for firstand second-year teachers would cost approximately $20 million per year. Research and Development A substantive program of research related to instruction should be developed from the foundation builtin 1991. While the first-year cost is estimated to be $500,000, costs thereafter would be about $2 million per year. Prekindergarten Iowa should move toward offering prekindergarten opportunities for all disadvantaged four-year-olds by 1992. Based on an estimate of7,400 eligible children at a cost The full implementation would begin in 1993
Public Policy Initiatives
Assessment Planning and development of the assessment program would have begun in 1991, but most implementation and spending would occur in following years. It is estimated that an assessment for each of seven subject areas would need to be developed over five to seven years, with a development cost of $1.2 million per assessment. In addition, the annual cost of maintaining an assessment program at the state level is estimated to be $500,000 the first year, $750,000 the second year and $1 million in the third and following years. Rewards and Penalties/School-Based Shared Decision Making When, through the efforts of the commission
be appointed by the State Board of
Education, consensus has been reached on a workable system of rewards and penalties and school-based shared decision making, the system should begin to be created. Although the costs of the program cannot be estimated until the program is developed, they will undoubtedly be significant.
of $3,500 per child, this effort would cost approximately
Resource Center. The annual cost of funding these centers in today's dollars is estimated to be $33.1 million for the Family Resource Centers and $11 million for the Youth Resource Centers.
$26 million per year.
Using the five-year plan for technology veloped by the appointed commission, dethe
state should make technology part of instruction
ungraded primary schools
in Iowa schools. While the
it's not possible to precisely identify costs associated
should occur during years two and three as a result of planning in 1991. The costs for
with this plan, estimates Office of Techno l-
from the Congressional
this initiative would be paid for by the staff development page 21. voucher system discussed on
ogy Assessment suggest that $125 million, or $25 million per year, would be a minimum investment if technology is to be a
major tool in instruction
in Iowa. This cost
Office of Family Support
Based on the results of study in 1991, action should be taken to establish more effective ways to ensure the well-being of children
could be spread over the five years.
Family and Youth Resource Centers
1he work of creating world-class schools in Iowa has just begun. It will require flexibility, risk-taking and experimentation.
Iowa should begin phasing in these centers in 1994, with the goal being to have all centers established by 2000. Currently,
and to further engage parents as full partners in the school effort. The cost for parent involvement activities resulting from plan-
ning done by this office cannot be estimated until the plan is complete. The annual cost for administering be $150,000. the office is estimated to
elementary public schools and 110 secondary public schools meet low-income criteria
and could quality for a Family or Youth
The work of creating world-class schools in Iowa has just begun. It will require flexibility, risk-taking and experimentation. It will also this report to all Iowans so that they can be informed for their involvement in the pol-
icy-setting process. The Roundtable will provide a draft of
require a strong partnership among educators and the citizens ofIowa. The Business and Education Round-
legislation that can be used to start public policy discussion during the 1991 legislative session. In addition, the Roundtable is com-
table submits this report to the Iowa General Assembly, Governor Terry Branstad as a blue-
mitted to remaining an advocate for worldclass education in Iowa through continued
and the State Board of Education
print that can guide legislation and public policy in the years to come. We also present
work, support and leadership.
The Iowa Businessand Education Roundtable
The 30-member group was established in March 1989 by William Lepley, director of the Department of Education, to give business and education leaders an opportunity to contribute their ideas and opinions to public education policy at the state level. The Iowa Initiative for World-Class Schools is the first major project of the Roundtable. The Roundtable ment Corporation. is chaired by Robert Houser, president, Des Moines Develop-
schools. The board is committed to longrange planning to improve Iowa education. Ron McGauvran of Clinton is president of the Board.
David Hornbeck, Consultant
The Roundtable Task Force on WorldClass Schools used the consulting services of David Hornbeck, former chair of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement ofT eaching. Dr. Hornbeck has also been state superintendent of schools for Maryland and an advisor to the National Business Roundtable.
The Iowa Future Project
The Iowa Future Project was launched in late 1988 to capitalize on the nature of Iowans to want to plan for the future. An active leadership group of 48 people from across the state guided the project, which received input from more than 5,000 Iowans during town hall meetings. The quality of the education system was one of the most important issues facing Iowans who participated in the project. The Iowa Future Project is sponsored by the Iowa Newspaper Association and endorsed by the Iowa Broadcasters Association. John Gardner, Bettendorf, is chair of the advisory committee for the project.
The State Board of Education
The l I-rnember board is appointed by the governor to establish policies for the efficient provision of public education in Iowa, to adopt rules for enforcing school laws and to set minimum standards for Iowa
Photo Courtesy of Bob Paxson, Des Moines Public Schools
Educating America: State Strategies for Achieving the National Education Goals. Washington, D.C.: National Governors' Asociation, 1990. 2 Commission on Enhancing Educational Leadership in Iowa: A Report and Final Recommendations. Des Moines, IA: Iowa Department of Education, December 1990. 3 Berrueta-Clement, J.R., Schweinhart, L.J., Barnett, W.S., Epstein, A.S., and Wei kart, D.P. Changed Lives: The Effects of the Perry Preschool Program on Youths through Age 19. Monographs of the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press, 1984. 4 America's Choice: High Skills or Low Wages! Report of the Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce. Economy, June 1990. Rochester, NY: National Center on Education and the
Note: The Roundtable members endorsed this report by consensus. Specific recommendations do not necessarily represent the views of an individual member of the group.