Chapter 19 El Filibusterismo Published in Ghent (1891

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El Filibusterismo took 3 years to write Rizal started writing Fili in Calamba in October, 1887 and made changes in the plot and some chapters in London in 1888. He wrote more chapters in Paris and Madrid, and finished the manuscript in Biarritz on March 29, 1891. Privations in Ghent From Brussels to Ghent on July 5, 1891  Ghent – a famous university city in Belgium  Reasons: 1. Cheaper cost of printing 2. Escape attraction of Petite Suzanne Cheap boarding house with Jose Alejandro  Jose Alejandro – engineering student in the University of Ghent; became a general in the Filipino-American War of 1899-1902  Preparing their own breakfast to reduce the rent: Rizal purchased tea, sugar, alcohol and a box of biscuits for him and his roommate with equal rations for 30 days Printing of El Filibusterismo F. MEYER-VAN LOO PRESS offered lowest quotation  Print Fili on installment basis  Rizal pawned his jewels for the down payment  Money from the sold copies of Morga’s Sucesos in Manila (some from Basa and P200 from Arias Rodriguez)  Funds are still not enough Printing suspended on August 6, 1891 Ventura, Savior of the Fili Similar to the circumstance of Noli in 1886 Berlin  Valentin Ventura knew the condition of Rizal and sent him money to continue the printing The Fili Comes Off the Press Rizal’s Fili came off the press on September 18, 1891  He sent 2 copies to HK for Basa and Sixto Lopez  He donated the original manuscript and an autographed printed copy to Ventura  Complimentary copies to his close friends Fili received praises in foreign countries  La Publicidad of Barcelona: “a model and a precious jewel in the now decadent literature of Spain”  El Nuevo Regimen of Madrid: serialized the novel First edition (Ghent edition) of El Filibusterismo  In wooden boxes and shipped to Hong Kong  Other boxes were confiscated and lost  Increased the price of Fili to 400 pesetas Dedicated to Gom-Bur-Za Rizal dedicated El Filibusterismo to Don Mariano Gomez, Don Jose Burgos, and Don Jacinto Zamora Errors in Rizal’s dedicatory note  Martyrdom happened on February 17, 1872 not February 28  Father Gomez was 73 y.o. not 85  Father Burgos was 35 y.o. not 30  Father Zamora was 37 y.o. not 35 The Manuscript and the Book Original manuscript  Now preserved in the Filipina Division of Bureau of Public Libraries, Manila  Acquired by the Philippine Government for P10,000 from Valentin Ventura  279 pages of long sheets of paper Foreword and Warning  Two features of original manuscript that did not appear on the printed book  To save on printing cost Inscription on Title Page Written by Ferdinand Blumentritt  Not found in published English translations Synopsis of El Filibusterismo Fili is a sequel to the Noli  The hero is Simoun, the Crisostomo Ibarra of Noli, a rich jeweler and a friend of Spain who secretly plans to revenge against the terrible Spanish authority

 Two Magnificent Obsessions of Simoun: 1. Rescue Maria Clara from the nunnery of Santa Clara 2. Foment a revolution against hated Spanish masters “Noli” and “Fili” Compared NOLI FILI Romantic novel Political novel Work of the heart Work of the mind Book of feeling Book of the thought Freshness, color, humor, Bitterness, hatred, pain, lightness, and wit violence, and sorrow 64 chapters 38 chapters Rizal, M.H. Del Pilar, Blumentritt, G.L. Jaena, Retana considered Noli Dr. Rafael Palma superior to the Fili considered Fili superior BOTH Good novels from the point of view of history Depict with realistic colors the actual conditions Instrumental in awakening the spirit of nationalism Responsible in paving ground for Ph revolution Mariano Ponce to Rizal, “It is a true twin of the Noli” Rizal’s Other Unfinished Business Rizal wrote to Blumentritt on September 22, 1891  A third novel in the modern sense of the word  Ethics will play a principal role  Habits and customs of the Filipinos  To be humorous, satirical and witty, to weep and to laugh, to laugh amidst tears, that is, to cry bitterly From Marseilles to Hong Kong on October 18, 1891  On board the steamer Melbourne  Rizal began writing the novel in Tagalog during his voyage  Continued in HK but did not finish for some unstated reason Unfinished third novel  It has no title, 44 pages in Rizal’s handwriting  Preserved in the National Library, Manila  The hero of the novel was Kamandagan. Descendant of Lakan-Dula, last king of Tondo  It would have caused greater scandal

Rizal’s Other Unfinished Novels Makamisa  A novel in Tagalog with light satirical style  2 chapters in 20 pages Dapitan  Written in ironic Spanish during his exile in Dapitan to depict town life and customs  An 8-page manuscript About the Life in Pili  A novel in Spanish about a town in Laguna  A 27-page manuscript without title About Cristobal  A novel about a youthful Filipino student who returned from Europe after 12 years  A 34-page manuscript The Beginnings of another Novel  A novel written in Spanish which describes the deplorable state of the Philippines  Through the mouth of the  Contained in 2 notebooks, 31 written pages on the first and 12 on the second  Style is ironic

NICOLE S. SAN JUAN 200815062 PI 100 – Summer 2011

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