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Manufacturing Process 1 by Gunal Ramteke

Manufacturing Process 1 by Gunal Ramteke


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Q.1 What are master patterns? How does their size differ from other pattern`s ? Explain Ans : Master patterns are used for preparing the moulds

for metal castings which are later used as patterns for further moulding work, called metal patterns. patterns are accurately finished wooden The master which


carry double shrinkage allowance and the required machining allowance. For example, an alluminium pattern is to be

made which is to be used further for making moulds for brass castings. The alluminium pattern should, obviously,

be larger than the desired brass casting by an amount equal to shrinkage that will take place during solidification of this casting. pattern is to For making this alluminium pattern a wooden be used which should be larger than the

alluminium pattern by an amount equal to the alluminium shrinkage, added with proper machining allowance for

finishing the alluminium casting. be represented thus :

Mathematically, it can

Let Sb represent the size of the desired casting in brass. And And Let Sa represent the size of alluminium pattern. Let Cb represent the contraction allowance for brass. Then Sa=Sb+Cb Ca represent the contraction allowance for Again, let S represent the size of the master pattern. And let

alluminium. Also let Am represent the machining allowance required to finish the alluminium casting to the required size of pattern and to give smooth surface finish.

MP -I Then

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S = Sa+Ca+Am = Sb+Cb+Ca+Am or

Size of master pattern = Size of the final casting to be Made + shrinkage allowance for the material of final casting + shrinkage allowance of the metal of which the pattern is to be made + Finishing allowance for the metal pattern.

Q.2. What considerations are necessary while designing a pattern? Ans. The following points should be considered, while

designing a pattern : 1. Proper necessary. 2. The parting line should be carefully selected so as to allow as small portion of the pattern in the cope as possible. 3. A proper material should always be selected for the pattern after carefully considering the factors mentioned in Art.9.4. 4. An endeavor should always be made to employ full cores instead of jointed half cores as far as possible. This allowances should be provided, wherever

will reduce cost and ensure greater dimensional accuracy. 5. The wall thickness and sections should be kept as

uniform as possible. avoided. 6.

Abrupt changes should invariably be

The use of offset parting, instead of cores, should be encouraged to as great an extent as it is possible.


For large-scale production of small castings, the use of gated or match-plate patterns should be encouraged wherever the existing facilities permit.

MP -I 8.

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3 corners and edges should be invariably



provided with suitable fillets or otherwise rounded to enable an easy withdrawal of pattern, smooth flow of

molten metal and ensure a sound casting. 9. All those surfaces of the casting which are

specifically required to be perfectly sound and clean should be so designed that they will be molded in the drag. 10. The pattern should be given a high-class surface

finish as it directly effects the corresponding finish of the casting. 11. If gates, runners and risers are attached to the

pattern, they should be properly located and their sudden contraction or enlargement should be avoided. 12. Shape and size of the casting and that of the core

should be carefully considered to decide the size and location of the core prints.

Q.3. Shortly explain the following : (1) Segmental patterns (2) Core prints Ans: Segmental patterns:-These patterns are used for

preparing moulds of large circular castings, avoiding the

use of a solid pattern of the exact size.

In principle

they work like a sweep, but the difference is that a sweep is given a continuous revolving motion to generate the

desired shape, whereas a segmental pattern is a portion of the solid pattern itself and the mould is prepared in parts by it. It is mounted on a central pivot and after


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preparing the part mould in one position, the segment is moved to the next position. the complete mould is ready. Fig. (2) Core prints : When a casting is required to have a hole, through or blind, a core is used in the mould to produce the same. This core has to be properly seated in the mould on formed impressions in the sand. projections places. are added on To form these impressions, extra the pattern surface at proper The operation is repeated till A typical example is shown in

These projections are known as core prints.

Q.4.(a) What do you understand by acid and basic cupolas? Where each type is preferred and why? Ans : Cupolas are termed as basic or acid according to the type of refractory lining used inside them. The refractory

lining is provided by setting bricks, made of refractory material all along the inside surface of the cupola shell. Basic cupolas find their specific use in the production of ductile cast iron. They help in the reduction of sulphur They also

content in iron to the tune of 0.005 percent.

enable a higher carbon pick-up than acid cupola, with the use of same raw material. This enables use of a higher However, if sulphur is

proportion of steel scrap in the metal charge. higher percentage, say upto 0.1 percent of

admissible in the cast metal the acid cupola proves to be relatively cheaper.

(b) Write a short notes on following casting defects. (1) Metal penetration (2) Warpage Ans.: (1) Metal penetration : This defect occurs as a rough and uneven external surface on the casting. It takes place when the molten


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metal enters into the spaces between the sand grains and holds some of the sand tightly with it even after fettling. The principal causes for the promotion of this defect are the use of coarse sand, having high permeability and low strength, and soft ramming. Use of fine sand with low

permeability and hard ramming will minimise this defect.

(2) Warpage : It is an undesirable deformation in the casting, which may occur during or after solidification. The deformation

takes place due to the internal stresses developed in the casting due to differential stresses solidification are occurs also in in different and

sections. differential


developed of




having very large and wide flat surfaces.

Both the causes

can be attributed to faulty design of the casting, which needs modification to ensure proper directional












performances of a foundry sand. Ans. Sand Grain : The shape and size of the sand grains has a remarkable effect on the physical properties of the foundry sand. The

sand grains may have smooth, conchoidal or rough surfaces. Out of these the first type i.e., smooth, is preferred for moulding for the reason that such a surface renders higher permeability, sinter point and plasticity to the sand

mass, but the percentage of binder required is also equally high. Similarly the sand grains may have different shapes. The commonly and formed compound. shapes The are rounded, grains sub-angular, do not bind



together two well when rammed and, hence, render the sand


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mould highly permeable but the strength of the mould is also reduced. Sub-angular grains give a relatively stronger bond

than above but the permeability is reduced. sharp grains produce a much stronger bond

Angular or and a low

permeability when rammed. greater strength.

Thus they enable a mould of

Sand grains which are cemented together

such that they do not separate when screened are called compound. They may consist of one, two or a combination of They are not

all the above three shapes. much preferred.

Like the shape the size of sand grains also effects the mould structure and its characteristics. Large, regular and uniform grains increase permeability. Smaller grains

increase smoothness on mould surfaces.

Q.5. What are the common materials used for pattern making? Discuss their relative merits and demerits. Ans.: Pattern materials The common materials of which the patterns are made are the following: 1. Wood. It is the most common material used for pattern

making because of the following advantages : (i) It is cheap and available in abundance. (ii) It can be easily shaped into different forms and

intricate designs. (iii) Its manipulation is easy because of lightness in



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7 finish can be easily obtained by only

(iv) Good


planning and sanding. (v) It can be preserved for a fairly long time by applying proper preservatives like shellac varnish. On the other hand, it has certain disadvantages also as follows: (i) It wears out quickly due to its low resistance to sand abrasion. As such, a wooden pattern cannot stand a long constant use. (ii) It is very susceptible to moisture, which may lead to its warping in or a splitting. dry place This and needs its careful of




preservatives. (iii) Its life, owing to the above reasons, is short as compared to other pattern materials. This confines its

use to such cases only when a small number of castings are required. 2) Metals :- Metals are used with advantage, as pattern material, only when the number of castings to be made is very high and a closer dimensional accuracy is desired. They have a much longer life than wooden patterns and eliminate the inherent disadvantages of wood to a great extent. But they also carry the following

Disadvantages : (i) They are costlier than wood and, therefore, cannot be used with advantage, where a smaller number of

castings is to be made. (ii) For giving different shapes and fine surface finish they need machining. (iii) This again adds to their cost.

Most of them are very heavy and in case of large the weight of the pattern always poses a


problem in its manipulation. (iv) A large number of them have a tendency to get


MP -I 3)

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8 :Plaster of Paris or gypsum cement is


advantageously used as a pattern material since it can be easily casted into intricate shapes and can be easily

worked also.

Its expansion can be easily controlled and it Its specific use boxes involving

carries a very high compression strength. is in making small patterns and core

intricate shapes and closer dimensional control. A marked feature of this cement is that contrary to the action of metals, it expands on being solidified. Thus, if a cement

of proper coefficient of expansion is selected, the effect of shrinkage of casting can be automatically neutralised. 4) Plastics pattern :Plastics are gradually their gaining following favour as





characteristics : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Lightness in weight. High strength. High resistance to wear. High resistance to corrosion due to moisture. Fine surface finish. Low solid shrinkage. Very reasonable cost. The plastics used as pattern materials are thermosetting resins. Phenolic resin plastic and foam plastic For making the pattern, first The

suit best for this purpose.

the moulds are made, usually from plaster of Paris.

resin is then poured into these moulds and the two heated. At a specific temperature, the resin solidifies to give the plastic pattern. 5) Wax :- Wax patterns are exclusively used in investment casting. For this a die or metal mould is made in two The die is As the wax

halves into which the heated wax is poured. kept cool by circulating water around it.

sets on cooling, the die parts are separated and the wax pattern taken out.


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Q.6. Explain conditioning. Ans.: None of













qualities to the required extent. more of these properties which

They may lack in one or we have to make up by

artificial means to make the sand suitable for use.


mixing is the process through which we add those materials to the sand which are rich in such characteristics, which the sand lacks. Sand to be used in moulding should be properly

conditioned before use in order to obtain good castings, since most of the defects, which occur in castings, are due to improper conditioning of the sand. It holds good

equally for the new as well as old or used sand. conditioning means the uniform distribution of

Proper clay


bond over the sand grains, even distribution and proper control of the moisture content in the sand and sorting out the foreign materials like nails, gaggers and other metal pieces from the sand by ridding and a thorough mixing of the entire sand mass. Even today the above operation is carried out by hand in most of the small foundries. Since no testing equipment

is normally available in such foundries, the sand condition is judged by the moulders themselves by virtue of their practical experience only and the quality of the castings produced factor. followed in A by such foundries physical the entirely test, depends which for is upon this

common most of

generally the sand



condition is to grip a handful of the prepared foundry sand and then relieve the pressure of the fingers. The sand

mass thus produced is broken into two pieces by hand and the edges formed at the broken section are carefully


If there is no deformation in the edges the sand

MP -I is

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10 to be properly conditioned. If the upper


surface of the broken pieces appears to be setting down gradually, as if it is being compressed, it indicates a high moisture content. Gradual separation of sand grains,

as if they are being sprinkled from the parted surfaces, indicate a weak bond and low moisture content. Mixing of

sand by hand is performed by first collecting the sand, together with the other constituents to be mixed in it, in the form of a help and then pouring adequate amount of water on to it. is turned After keeping it as such for some time it down by means of a shovel and the


operation repeated several times to ensure through mixing of different constituents. It is then riddled to remove

the forming material from it and thus it is ready for use.

Q.7. Write short notes on :(1) Mould hardness test (2) Core hardness test Ans.: (1) Mould hardness test. The hardness of a sand mould can easily be tested by means of a hardness tester. working machine. bottom, on the principle It is a very handy instrument of dryness hardness testing

It carries a hemispherical ball or tip at its which is penetrated inside into the the mould surface. of A the





instrument actuates the needle of the dial gauge fitted at the top. The dial of this gauge provides direct reading of

the mould hardness. (2) Core hardness test. It is also a very simple and handy instrument used for testing the hardness of dry sand cores, especially of the dried oil-sand cores. It carries a cutter at its bottom,

which is provided with a pre-determined pressure, by means of a spring inside the instrument, when it is pressed


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11 surface of the core. Corresponding to the



penetration the hardness is directly given by the scale provided on the tester.

Q.8. What are crucible furnaces? Where are they preferred and why? Ans.: These are the simplest of all the furnaces used in foundries. foundries They are sparingly used in most of the small where melting is not continuous and a large In

variety of metals is to be melted in small quantities. these furnaces the entire melting of metal takes


inside a melting pot, called crucible, which is made of clay and graphite. The sizes of these crucibles vary from

No.1 to No.400 each number representing a definite quantity of metal that can be held conveniently by the crucible.

Q.9. How is the thermal efficiency of cupola is determined? Ans. The thermal efficiency of the cupola is given by the ratio of heat actually utilised in melting and superheating the metal to the heat evolved in it through various means. This ratio can be expressed mathematically as follows:

= Heat utilised in melting and superheating

the metal x 100

Cal. Value of coke + heat evolved due to oxidation of iron,Si & Mn

In case of a hot blast cupola the above expression will change as follows: ηpercent

= Heat utilised in melting and superheating the metal x 100

Cal. Value of coke + Heat evolved due to oxidation of iron, Si and Mn + Heat supplied by the air Blast


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Experiments reveal that the thermal efficiencies of different cupolas normally range between 30 to 50 per cent.

Q.10. Explain in brief causes and remedies of the following casting defects Ans. (1) Blow holes:- They appear as cavities in a casting. When they are visible on the upper surface of the casting, they are called open blows. These blows are normally

rounded and have smooth walls.

When they are concealed in from outside, they are

the casting and are not visible known as blowholes.

They are due to the entrapped bubbles

of gases in the metal and are exposed only after machining. Possible causes : 1. Excess moisture content in moulding sand-leading to the production of too much of steam and thereby

rendering the permeability of the mould as inadequate. 2. Cores not sufficiently baked. 3. Use of rusted or highly moistened chills, chaplets or other metal inserts-giving rise to the production of a high amount of steam and gases. 4. Excessive use of organic binders-resulting in the

production of high amount of gases. 5. Cores not adequately vented-resulting in their low

permeability. 6. Moulds inadequately vented resulting in their low

permeability. 7. Moulds rammed very hard-more addition to low

permeability. Remedies : 1. Moisture content in the moulding sand should be properly controlled. 2. Cores should be adequately backed. 3. Chills, chaplets and metal inserts used should be clean and free from rust or any other gas producing substance.


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4. Organic binders should be used with restraint. 5. Cores and moulds should be adequately vented. Moulds should not be rammed excessively hard. (2) Shrinkage :- During solidification of metal, there is a volumetric shrinkage. This should be adequately compensated by feeding failing These which voids voids may will be on produced the in the as




depression, called surface shrinkage, or within the casting called internal shrinkage. crack, known as hot tears. Too much shrinkage may lead to This defect occurs on account

of inadequate and improper gating, risering and chilling so that proper directional solidification does not take place. As such it can be remedied by adopting corrective measures in respect of the above factors. (2) Hot tears :They are also known as pulls or hot

cracks. strength

The main reasons of their occurrence is the low of metal after solidification, causing the

metal to fail in coping up with the excessively high stresses set up by the solid shrinkage of the metal. These cracks may be external or internal. supposed to be more harmful when they are They are present

internally, because in that case their occurrence is not revealed Their without is machining or by radiographic an oxidised testing. surface



showing an irregular and ragged appearance on fracture. The main reasons in of the their core occurrence and mould, residual are lack of

collapsibility leading to


design at




certain portions in the casting and very hard ramming of sand resulting in restricted contraction of casting. improvement over these shortcomings will An help

elimination of hot tears.


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Q.11. Describe the following types of sands in respect of their composition, particular properties and uses Ans: Loam Sand :- It is a mixture of clay and sand with water to a thin plastic form and from which moulds are built. It contains moisture 18-20% and the loam is dried It is used for producing larger castings.

very slowly.

A typical mixture of loam sand consists of Floor coke Loam sand New sand Silica sand Clay Other gradients 10 Vol 10 Vol 6 Vol 22 Vol 5 Vol 5 Vol 80% mixture + 20% moisture

1. Parting Sand :- Conventionally, mould is prepared into two or more boxes. These boxes are to be separated

without adhering to each other’s sand.

For this purpose

parting sand is used. One of the parting compounds is lycopedium, which is used when oil is mixed with moulding sand. Very fine brick powder can also be used.

2. Green Sand :- It is the sand in green condition and after preparing the mould, casting (pouring of molten metal) is done in moist state. While preparing the mould, the

rammed sand is dense but porous and further the structure is made porous by venting. Green sand is generally used

for small or medium sized casting. (a) Mixture of green sand for light work purpose contains Floor sand ...... 80% New sand........ 13.5% 95% mixture + 5% moisture

Super fine coal dust ... 6.5% (b) Mixture of grey n sand for general purpose contains

Floor sand………….. 60% New sand ………… .. 30% Coal dust ………….. 10% 95% mixture + 5% moisture

MP -I (c)

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15 of green sand for high finish castings


contains Floor sand ………… New sand ………… 51% 23% 8.5% 95% mixture + 5% moisture

Coal dust ……………

Carbon blacking … 8.5% Talc ……… 2.8%

3. Backing Sand :- Backing sand or floor sand is used to back up the facing sand and to fill the whole volume of the flask. Old, repeatedly used moulding sand is mainly

employed for this purpose. The backing sand is sometimes called black sand

because of the fact that old, repeatedly used moulding sand is black in colour due to the addition of coal dust and burning on coming in contact with molten metal.

Q.12. Describe the utility of following moulding tools and give neat sketches of each. Ans. Bellows :- A hand operated bellow is shown in Fig.

It is used to blow but the loose or unwanted sand from the surface and cavity of the mould. Hand Riddle :- It consists of a wooden frame fitted with a screen of standard wire mesh at its bottom. It is used for

hand ridding of sand to remove foreign material from it.


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Rammer:- A hand rammer is a wooden tool used for packing or ramming the sand into the mould. One end,

called the peen, is

wedge shaped, and the opposite end, called the butt, has a flat surface. Floor rammers are similar in construction but have long handles. Pneumatic rammers are used in large

moulds saving considerable labor and time.

Q.13. What do you understand by casting? List the merits and demerits of casting process. Ans. Casting is one of the most versatile form of

mechanical process for producing components; casting is a replica of pattern, in metal which is obtained by pouring molten metal into the mould. Principal of casting consists of introducing the

molten metal into a cavity or mould of the desired shape and allowing it to solidify. When it is removed from mould, the casting is of same shape but slightly smaller due to contraction of metal. The molten metal passes through the

four stages i.e. liquid stage, musy stage, plastic stage, and solid stage till the solidification takes place. Today we have a variety of moulding processes and melting equipments, thus we are capable to produce castings of

different, materials and their alloys.

Though, there is a

tremendous improvement in the production methods, but the basic principles are still the same. importance of castings and their One can realise the role in modern


Unit - 1

17 It is difficult to visualise any product


which do not have one or more casted parts in different sizes. as Though there are other metal shaping process such metal-forging, the community. stamping But which can

metal-machining, the needs of




inherent advantages, which have made it as the backbone of industrial production. Design Advantages (a) Size – Casting can be prepared upto 200 weight and the Its

least size that can be made is weighing few grams.

advantage lies with the production of massive objects in one piece. (b) Complexity – Most simple/complex shaped products can Such production depends Complicated shaping

be prepared by casting easily.

on the preparation of pattern and mould. shapes methods. (c) cannot be easily produced by


Weight Saving – Since the metal can be placed at the

exact location where it is needed, thus lot of metal can be saved by adopting this process. (d) Production of Prototype – It is capable to produce

prototype models/exact product as desired. (e) Wide Range of Properties – This process offers a large of mechanical and physical properties in the


castings as per requirement. alloys is one variable. Advantages of Casting Process (a)

Usually the use the metal-

Low cost – It is usually found to be the cheapest Dimensional Accuracy – Tolerances as close as ±0.1 mm

method of metal shaping. (b)

can be achieved depending on metal to be casted, casting process, shape and size of casting. Surface finish can

also be controlled from 5 microns to 50 microns.

MP -I (c)

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Versatility in Production – This process is adaptable

to all types of production. Metallurgical advantages (i) Fibrous structure.

(ii) Controlled grain size, (iii) Uniform density. Merits of casting:1. Versatile components. 2. There is no limit to the size and shape of the articles that can be produced by casting. 3. Casting offers one of the cheapest methods and gives high strength and rigidity even to intricate parts, which are difficult to produce by other methods of manufacturing. Demerits :1. Casting is not always the best method of the various production techniques. 2. Metals having good fluidity and small shrinkage can only be casted in a best way. form of mechanical process for producing

Q.14. Which factors need to be considered in selecting a particular type of pattern? Explain split pattern, sweep pattern sketches Ans. Factors affecting selection of a particular tape of pattern. The type of pattern to be used for particular casting depends upon many factors like 1. The bulk of casting i.e. whether a small or large number of casting is wanted. 2. Ease or difficulty of moulding operation. 3. Type of moulding process. Split pattern :- Many times the design of casting offers difficulty in mould making and withdrawal of pattern, if a and match-plate pattern with the help of neat


Unit - 1

19 For such castings, split or two They are made in two parts,

solid pattern is used.

piece patterns are employed.

which are joined at the parting line by means of dowels. While moulding one part of the pattern is contained by the drag and the other by the cope.

Match plate patterns :- These patterns are used where a rapid production of small and accurate castings is desired on a large scale. but the same is Their construction cost is quite high, easily compensated by a high and rate of






requirement for machining in the casting.

These patterns

are made in two pieces; one piece mounted on one side and the other on the other side of a plate, called match-plate. The plate may carry only one pattern, or a group of The Gates

patterns mounted in the same way on its two sides. plate may be of wood, steel magnesium or alluminium.

and runners are also attached to the plate alongwith the pattern.




Sweeps of



advantageously symmetrical This



preparing particularly large

moulds of in


castings, effects The a

circular time,

cross-section. labour and





Unit - 1


equipment consists of a base, suitably placed in the sand mass, sweep. a vertical spindle and a wooden template, called

The outer end of the sweep carries the contour The

corresponding to the shape of the desired casting. sweep is rotated about the spindle to form the


Then the sweep and spindle are removed, leaving the base in the sand. The sweep and spindle are removed, leaving the The hole made by the removal of spindle

base in the sand.

is patched up by filling the sand.

Q.15. What is pattern? How does it differ from the actual product to be made from it? Ans. A pattern may be defined as a replica or facsimile model of the desired casting which, when packed or embedded in a suitable moulding material, produces a cavity called mould. This cavity, when filled with molten metal,

produces the desired casting after solidification of the poured metal. Since it is a direct duplication, the

pattern very closely conforms to the shape and size of the desired casting, except for a few variations due to the necessary allowances. The ways in which a pattern differs

from an actual component are : 1. It carries an additional allowance to compensate for

metal shrinkage. 2. It carries additional allowances over those portions,

which are to be machined or finished otherwise.


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3. It caries the necessary draft to enable its easy removal from the sand mass. 4. It carries additional projections, called coreprints, to produce seats for cores.

Q.16. What is permeability? What is the effect of Moisture and clay content permeability? Ans. It is also termed as porosity. the sand, which allows the gases It is that property of and steam to escape

through the sand mould. When the hot molten metal is poured in the mould a very large volume of gases and steam is formed similar due to heating materials to moisture, in coal the dust, oil If and





gases are not allowed to go out they will either make the casting unsound or blast the mould. Therefore, this is It

very important property required in the moulding sand.

largely depends upon the same grain size and shape and the proportion of moisture and clay present in the sand.

Rounded grains of uniform size lead to a high permeability. This property is also effected by ramming of sand. A soft ramming will will increase it. In the permeability it is and hard ramming by





applying vent wires in the prepared mould.

Q.17. Write note on Skeleton pattern Ans. Skeleton pattern :- When the size of the casting is very large, but easy to shape, and only a few numbers are to be made, it is uneconomical to make a large solid

pattern of that size. of

In such cases, a pattern consisting

a wooden frame and strips is made, called skeleton it is filled with loam sand and rammed. The


surplus sand is removed by means of a strickle. The core can be prepared separately, either with the help of


Unit - 1


a core box or another skeleton made for that, and assembled in position in the mould.

Q.18. Give reason for Rat-tails or buckles in casting. Ans. 1) Continuous large flat surface on casting. 2) Excessive mould hardness. 3) Lack of combustible additives in moulding sand.

Q.19. What care is to be taken in operating cupola? Ans. The following considerations should be made for

operating the cupola successfully: 1. A superior refractory lining should be used to withstand high temperature produced inside the furnace. 2. The man who fires the coke and charge should place the metal charge in the centre. 3. The molten metal should be tapped out well before its level rises too high in the well. 4. The tap hole should be property closed by means of a well-prepared clay bolt or plug. 5. In closing the tap hole care should be taken to press the plug downward in the hole so that the splash of the molten metal does not fall on the hands. 6. The amount of air supply should be property controlled. An excess amount of air will result in lowering to

temperature inside.

Q.20. Define (a) (i) Pattern

(ii) Mould


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(iii)Casting (b) Write different stages in core making. (c)Explain non-destructive inspection method of casting any three methods. Ans: (a) (i)Pattern : Pattern is a model of anything which is used to prepare moulds by placing it in sand. (i) Mould : A mould is a cavity so prepared that it can be used to make castings by molten metal into it. (ii) Casting : The molten metal poured into mould, on

cooling is known as casting. (b) Core making consists of the following operation. i) Core sand preparation : The first consideration in making a core is to mix and prepare the sand properly. The mixture must be homogeneous so that the core will be of uniform strength throughout. The core sands are

generally mixed in (1) roller mills, and (2) core mixers. In the case of roller mills, the action of the mullers and ploughs mills gives are a uniform and homogeneous sands mixing.






cereal binders, whereas the core sand mixer is suitable for all types of core binders. ii) Core making : Cores are made separately in a core box The various steps in core making sand in the box, venting,

made of wood or metal. are ramming of core

reinforcing, removing of core from box, baking, pasting, sizing etc. done by hand This work of producing cores can either be or by some machines designed for this

purpose. rammed by

In machine moulding, the core-sand mixture is jolting, machine. squeezing Venting, or blowing by means of





operations are carried out by hand.


Unit - 1



Core Baking : Generally baking is carried out in

ovens equipped with drawers, shelves or other holding devices. The operation is generally continuous and cores

are put either in batches or continuously over or moving shelves. The heat in oven is produced by burning oil or Core-baking time depends

coke or by electric resistance.

upon the types andTypes of cores of binder used, the amount of quantity moisture used in sand, and size of core. The temperature When cores on a flat for baking depends on the core material used. are baked, they are more easily supported

surface, which should be incorporated in the design. iv) Finishing : After receiving them from ovens, the

cores are properly finished by rubbing or filing, etc. to bring them to correct their dimensions, surfaces remove extra a sand good





surface finish.

Then only they become suitable for being

placed in the moulds. (c) (i)Sound test : It consists of suitably suspending the casting, free of floor and all other abstractions, and then gently striking noted. it with hammer. by The the sound produced is done is at




different points and a change in the pitch and quality of sound indicates a discontinuity it is within the to mass of the the





discontinuity and the extent to which it is present.

MP -I (i)

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Magnetic particle testing : This method can be used for those metals and alloys, which can develop


magnetic properties, e.g. iron and steel.

The principle

involved in this test is that in a magnetised metal if its magnetic field is interrupted by a crack its

continuity is broken.

Due to low magnetic permeability

of air some magnetic flux lines leak out of the metal, and if a magnetic material is spread over that portion some of it is held there by the flux lines to show the presence of a crack or void there. So, for this test,

the casting is first magnetised and then fine particles of iron or steel are spread over its surface. The

presence of cracks is revealed by the help up particles on the surface. (ii) Penetrant testing : This method is used to detect

small surface cracks and can be conveniently used for all metals and alloys. liquid It over consists the of applying of the a thin




allowing it to penetrate into the cracks by capillary action and then cleaning the whole surface which draws back some of the liquid on to the surface. is then exposed to an ultraviolet light The surface where the

presence of liquid is clearly seen, indicating a crack there.

Q.21. What do you understand by gravity die-casting? State its advantages. Ans. Advantages: 1) It is a very speedy process and each cast takes between 2 to 4 minutes time only. 2) Permanent moulds have a very long life in as much as one mould can be to conveniently 10,000 castings used in for cast producing iron and



between 10,000 to 25,000 castings in alluminium.


Unit - 1


3) Surface finish through this method is better than sand castings but inferior than pressure die-castings. 4) Dimensional tolerances of the order of ±0.508 per 100 mm. can be conveniently obtained. 5) For the same amount of production it requires less

floor area than sand casting. 6) Less skill is required of the operator than in sand casting. 7) Many of the defects found in sand castings are

eliminated totally. 8) Castings produced through this method are found to have a finer grain structure. 9) Castings in large quantities can be produced more

economically. 10) A minimum thickness of 2.4 mm. Can be easily cast.

Q.22. Explain with the help of neat cross sectional sketch of cupola, indicating its various zones. Ans. Various zones of cupola are shown in Figs.

A number of chemical reaction take place in these zones which are explained below : 1. Well :- It is the space between the bottom of the tuyeres and the sand bed. The metal, after melting,, trickles

down and collects in this space before it is tapped out. 2. Combustion zone :- It is also known as oxidising zone. It is located between the top of the tuyeres and a

theoretical level above it. zone is normally from 15

The total height of this 30 cm. The actual

cm. To

combustion takes place in this zone,

consuming all free

oxygen from the air blast and producing a lot of heat, which is sufficient enough to meet the requirements of other zones of cupola. More heat is evolved due to A temperature of The

oxidation of silicon and manganese.

about 15400C to 18700C is produced in this zone.


Unit - 1


exothermic reactions taking place in this zone can be represented thus. 3. Reducing zone :zone. It is also known as the protective

It is located between the top of the combustion CO2 is reduced

zone and the top level of the coke bed.

to CO in this zone through an endothermic reaction, as a result of which the temperature falls from combustion zone temperature to about 12000C at the top of this zone. The reaction is as follows : Nitrogen, upward moving hot the other does on main not constituent participate of the of in the the

gases zone,





atmosphere in it, protects the charge against oxidation. 4. Melting zone :- The first layer of metal charge above the coke bed constitutes this zone. The solid metal charge

changes to molten state in this zone and trickles down through the coke to the well. The molten metal picks up

sufficient carbon content in this zone as represented by the following reaction : 5. Preheating zone :- It extends from above the melting zone to the bottom level of the charging door and contains a number of alternate layers of coke and metal charges. The function of this zone is to preheat the charges from atmospheric settle temperature to to about the 10930C before zone. they This




preheating takes place due to the upward advancing hot gases, from which the solid metal also picks up some sulphur content.

6. Stack :- The empty portion of cupola above the preheating zone, which provides the passage to hot gases to go to atmosphere, is known as stack.

Q.23. Explain the common allowances provided on patterns. Ans. Pattern Allowances

MP -I (i)

Unit - 1

28 When any metal cools, it naturally


shrinks in size.

Hence, if the actual object itself is be

used for the pattern, the resulting casting would slightly smaller than desired. possibility, a shrink rule is

To compensate for this used in laying out of

measurements for the pattern.

A shrink rule for cast

iron is 10 mm per meter (the average shrinkage for cast iron) longer than the standard rule. When metal patterns are to be cast from the original patterns, double shrinkage must be allowed. (ii) Draft :- When a pattern is drawn out from a mould, the tendency to tear away the edges of the mould in contact with the pattern is greatly decreased if the surfaces of the pattern are given a slight taper in a direction

parallel to which it is being withdrawn.

This tapering

of the sides of the pattern, known as draft, is done to provide a slight clearance for the pattern as it is

lifted up. The amount of draft on exterior surfaces is about 10 to 20 mm per meter. On interior holes, which are fairly small, the draft should be around 30 mm per meter. (iii) Finish :- When a draftsman draws up the details of a part to be made each surface to be machined is indicated by a finish mark. The mark indicates that additional

metal must be provided at this point so that there will be some metal to machine. The amount that is to be added

depends upon the size, shape of casting, but in general, the allowance for small castings and average sized

castings is 3 mm. (iv) Distortion :- This allowance applies only to those castings of irregular shapes, which are distorted in the process of cooling as a result of metal shrinkage. Such

an allowance depends on the judgment and experience of the pattern maker, who understands the shrinkage

characteristics of the metal.

MP -I (v)

Unit - 1


Shake :- When a pattern is rapped in the mould before

it is withdrawn, the cavity in the mould is slightly increased. In an average sized casting this increase in In large castings or in one that

size can be ignored.

must fit without machining, however, shake allowance must be considered by making the pattern slightly smaller.

Q.24. Discuss the advantages split and multi-piece patterns. Ans. Following are the advantages of split and multipiece patterns. 1. Complicated designs can be constructed in these types of patterns. 2. They facilitate easy withdrawal from cope and drag box.

3. These pattern are easy to contact as compared to solid or single piece pattern.

Q.25. Why testing of foundry sand is necessary? What are the common tests performed on foundry sands? Ans. In progressive foundries it is recognized that the foundry metal. sand deserves as much attention as the casting

The foundry sand may account for one-third of the In modern mass production of sand, which constitutes required control to of the be its

cost of the finished casting. sand chief tested castings, moulding the moulding is

material, in

therefore, that



composition and properties may be maintained. either chemical or mechanical.

Test may be

Chemical tests are used

only to determine the undesirable elements in the sand, and in most cases mechanical tests are employed. The essential mechanical tests include fineness,

moisture content, clay content, permeability, strength in compression, and mould hardness.


Unit - 1

30 the factors, which should be considered

Q.26. What


before designing a casting? Ans. The important factors to keep in mind when designing a casting to obtain maximum strength and minimum casting

include : 1. Design for directional solidification. 2. Design for minimum stresses. 3. Design for metal flow. 4. Cast-well design. 5. Design for minimum casting. 6. Design for expected tolerances. 7. Functional design.

Q.27. Write short notes on the following casting defects. 1) Cuts and washes 2) Drops Ans. 1) Cuts and washes :- These defects occur due to the erosion of sand from the mould or core surfaces by the molten metal. The cavities formed on the mould and core

surfaces due to this erosion are filled by the molten metal and the same appear on the casting surface as an surface as an excess metal in the form of ragged spots. are called scabs. The eroded sand appears These spots as a sand

inclusion some-where else in the casting.

These cuts and

washes take place due to insufficient strength of mould and core, lack of binding material in the facing and core sand and faulty gating. Obviously, the remedy of the defect

lies in adequate ramming, additional of sufficient binders in facing and core sands and improved gating system. 2) Drops :This defect appears as an irregular

deformation of the casting. portion of the sand breaking

It occurs on account of a away from the mould and

dropping into the molten metal. place due to low green strength

The above breaking takes in the sand, too soft


Unit - 1


ramming, insufficient reinforcement of the cope or other sand projections. Increase in green strength of the sand

by suitable modification in its composition, hard ramming and adequate reinforcing of cope and other sand projections by means of bars, nails and gaggers etc. are the principal remedies of this defect.

Q.28. What are the factors which govern the selection of a proper material for pattern making. Ans. Factors effecting the selection of pattern material:The selection of a particular material for making the pattern is influenced by the following factors : 1. Number of castings to be made. 2. Method of moulding to be used, i.e., hand or machine. 3. Type of casting method to be used. 4. Degree of accuracy in dimensions and the quality of

surface finish required on the castings. 5. Design of casting.

Q.29. How are the patterns classified ? solid pattern. Ans: On the basis of material used

Explain the use of




patterns, they are classified as : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (1) Wooden patterns Metal patterns Plaster patterns Plastic patterns Wax patterns

on the basis of number of pieces used in construction,

patterns are classified as (1) (2) (3) (4) Solid or single piece pattern Two piece or split pattern Multi-piece pattern plate pattern


Unit - 1


Solid or Single piece pattern :A single piece pattern is the simplest of all the patterns, is made in one-piece and carries no joint,

partition or loose pieces.

Depending upon the shape, it This pattern is the

can be moulded in one or two boxes.

cheapest but its use can be done to a limited extent of production only since its moulding involves a large number of manual operations like gate cutting, providing runners and risers and the like.

Q.30. Write short notes on 1) Functions of a pattern 2) Core boxes Ans. 1) Functions of a pattern :The main functions of a pattern are : (i) To produce the mould cavity of appropriate shape and size in which the molten metal can be poured to obtain desired casting. (ii) To produce seats for cores in the mould in which cores can be placed to produce cavity in the casting. seats in the mould are called on coreprints the These the






produce these seats, are also known as coreprints. (iii) To establish the parting surfaces and lines in the mould. (iv) To establish distinct locating points in the moulds of which the corresponding points on the casting are used as reference points, for checking the casting


Unit - 1


dimensions and relative location of machined and other surfaces. (v) To minimise defects in castings.

(vi) To enable production of green sand or rammed-up cores within the mould itself. (vii) To minimise the cost of casting.

2) Core boxes :Core boxes are used for making cores. made single or in two parts. Their They are either is,


generally, according to the shape of the core or the method of making the core. following :(i) Half core box :- To prepare the core in two halves which are later on cemented together to form the The common types of core boxes are the

complete core.(See fig. )

(ii) Dump core-box :- Used to prepare complete core in it. Generally, rectangular cores are prepared in these

boxes.(See fig.)


Unit - 1


(iii) Split core-box :- It is made in two parts, which can be joined together by means of dowels to form the

complete cavity for making the core.(See fig.)

(iv) Strickle type core-box :- It is used to form cores of irregular or unsymmetrical shapes, as shown in fig.


Loose piece core-box:-

It is used to prepare, in the

same core box, the two halves of a core of which the halves are not identical in shape and size. (See fig.)

Loose piece core box

Q.31. What are the factors which govern the choice of a particular type of furnace for melting a particular metal?


Unit - 1


Ans. The choice of a particular type of furnace is largely based on the following factors :1. Rate of melting desired, depending upon the quantity of metal required to be melted per hour. 2. Type of metal to be melted. 3. Temperature required. 4. Capability of melting medium for absorbing impurities. 5. Method of pouring the molten metal. 6. Economic considerations, i.e. initial investment to be made as cost of equipment and its installation,

maintenance cost and cost of fuel to be consumed, etc.

Q.32. What is a hot blast cupola?

What are its advantages?

Q.33. Explain the causes and remedies of following casting defects. Ans.

Sr. Defects Possible courses No 1 Fusion a)Low refractoriness in moulding sand. b) Faulty gating. c) Too high pouring temperature of metal. d) Poor facing sand. 2 Short metal (a)Too low pouring temperature. a)Excess sulphur Content in metal. (a) Faulty gating. (b)High moisture


(a)Improve refractoriness. (b)Modify gating system. (c)Use lower pouring temperature. (d) Improve quality of

facing sand. (a) Use higher pouring temperature. (b) Reduce sulphur content. (c) Modify gating system. (d) Reduce moisture content.

content in moulding sand.

MP -I 3

Unit - 1

36 (a)Repair or replace the pins. (b) Repair of replace dowels causing misalignment. (c) Provide adequate support to core. (d) Locate the core properly. (e) Repair or replace


(a) Worn-out or bent Clamping pins. (b) Misalignment of Two halves of pattern. (c) Improper support of core.

(d) Improper location of core. (e) Faulty core boxes. (f) Insufficient strength of moulding sand and core.

the core boxes. (f) Increase strength

of moulding sand and core.

Note :- There is always a possibility of asking question on “ Casting defects, their causes and remedies”. Students are advised to Refer table 11.1 containing total 18 defects in Workshop technology by B.S.Raghuwanshi.


LEARN Mechanical Desktop & AUTO-CAD 2000i



Unit - 2


Q.1. (a) Define the following 1) Drag 2) Sprue 3) Parting line 4) Gate (b) Discuss the following casting defects. i) ii) Sand Spots Run Out Drag:Sand moulds are prepared in specially terms.

Ans. 1)

constructed boxes called flasks.

The purpose of the flask

is to import the necessary rigidity and strength to the sand in moulding. They are usually made in two parts, held The top part is called the

in alignment by dowel pins. cope and the lower part.

2) Sprue :- A vertical passage through the cope and connecting the pouring basin to the runner and gate is

called Sprue.

Conventionally a sprue should be tapered

with larger end to receive the molten metal and to act as reservoir. longer Round sprue is preferred upto 20 mm dia, but may be rectangular (less turbulence in


rectangular sprue). exposed flow). to cooling

The circular sprue has minimum surface and offers the least resistance to

3) Parting line :- It is the line along which the sand surfaces of the drag and cope join each other. 4) Gate :It is an opening through which the moltenThe size, and

mental flows from runner to mould cavity.

location of gates are so arranged that the mould cavity can be filled as quickly as possible without cutting the mould surfaces, further crack in metal after solidification

should not develop.


Unit - 2

38 Sand spots on surfaces are generally



developed on iron castings rich in silicon content due to local chilling of those spots by moulding sand. Due to

this chilling effect white cast iron is formed at those places, rendering them hard. The main cause of this defect

is a faulty metal composition and a faulty casting design which results in relatively more rapid cooling of certain portions than the remaining of casting. Changes of in metal and






modification in casting design are the possible remedies of this defect. i) leaks Run Out :- A run out occurs when the molten metal out of the mould during pouring, resulting in an

incomplete casting.

The main causes of this defect are

defective moulding boxes, which do not fit properly, and faulty moulding. Corrective measures in respect of these

two causes will prevent this defect.

Q.2. What is the purpose of die casting? Describe vacuum die casting with the help of a neat sketch. Ans. The method of die casting serve the following purpose : 1) Increasing production rate. 2) Effecting greater economy. 3) Improving quality of casting. 4) Eliminating machining. 5) Provide better dimensional control. 6) Production of better surface finish. or minimising the need of further


Unit - 2


Vaccum die casting machine :- Complete evacuation of air from the die prior to metal injection is a vital necessity for preventing the air entrapment in the casting. This difficulty is overcome in the vaccum die casting machine. Some modifications are made in hot chamber die The

casting machine to get vaccum die casting machine.

additional equipment required in this case consist of an encasement ground the die blocks, compressible seals at

the top and bottom of this encasement and a pipe connecting the encasement to the vaccum pump through a valve and

vaccum tank. An additional plunger, adjacent to the main plunger, for elasing the part, when vaccum is applied to the die to prevent the molten metal From being drawn into the die.

Q.3. What is the utility of various types of furnaces used in foundry shops? Describe one widely used furnace with special reference to its parts, working and other features. Draw a neat sketch of the furnace also. Ans. The main utility of various furnaces used in foundries is for melting of various varieties of ferrous and nonferrous metals and alloys. Describe Cupola furnace for 2nd part of question.

Q.4. Write short notes on the following (Covering main aspects only).

MP -I (i)

Unit - 2


Inspection of castings

(ii) Modernisation and mechanisation of foundries. Ans: Inspection of castings :It serves two purposes (1) The rejection of the castings which do not meet the specifications and (2) maintaining the quality of workmanship. There are many methods used to check the quality of castings. (i) Most of the methods mentioned below.

Visual inspection.

(ii) Dimensional inspection. (iii) Mechanical testing and chemical testing. (iv) Defects in internal flows by non-destructive tests. (v) Metallurgical testing.

(ii) Modernisation and mechanisation of foundries. The term ‘mechanization’ means substitution of

machinery to perform the operations which were otherwise performed by hands. sand preparation, Such a substitution can be made of moulding and core-making, pouring,

material handling and many other similar operations. Such foundries, where machines have been employed to replace However,

hand operations, are called mechanized foundries.

the decision to switch over to mechanization in any foundry is largely governed by economic considerations. to which it can on be adopted quantity in and any type The extent depends

foundry of




Larger the production, more is the scope for mechanization. This scope is further enhanced if the sad production is of identical components on mass scale. Advantages of mechanization 1. From the same floor area much higher production can be achieved. 2. A large saving in labour and time is effected by doing away with a number of laborious hand operations, like sand preparation, mould making and material handling etc.


Unit - 2


3. It creates more hygienic and healthy working conditions for the shop workers and effects an increase in their earnings through higher production. 4. It improves the quality of the castings tolerances, produced by





defects and providing better surface finish. 5. Overall production cost is reduced due to faster rate of production and elimination of a large number of laborious hand operations.

Q.6. What is permanent mould? Specify its advantages and disadvantages? Ans. When the mould made from metals like C.I. or steel then, while casting such mould is not destroyed or rebuilt after every casting. Since can be use for long period such

mould is known as permanent mould. Advantages of permanent mould 1) Increases the speed of casting process. 2) Have very long life. 3) Results in better surface finish than sand casting. 4) Castings in large quantities can be produced

economically. 5) Casting method requires less skill and at same time

number of rejections are less. Disadvantages of permanent mould 1) These moulds are much costlier than sand mould. 2) It can be successfully used for casting very high

temperature alloys 3) Gates, runners and risers can not be shifted and

positioned any where at will. 4) May produced several defects in casting like stress and surface hardness due to surface chilling effect.


Unit - 2


Q.7. Sketch cross section through permanent mould showing its principal parts. Describe its construction in detail. Ans. Construction of permanent mould: these moulds are made in two halves, parting


surface of which is in a vertical plane.

Cores may be

designed as part of the mould itself known as fixed cores or fitted separately known as movable cores. quick removal of movable cores separate For easy and mechanism is


Clamping arrangement is used to avoid mould

to open under the hydrostatic pressure of molten metal. Mould generally comprises of several blocks joined together as shown in figure. The form block and base block together form the actual mould cavity whereas the runner block incorporates the

runner and riser. parting line.

Runner and riser are generally kept on

Q.8.What is gravity die casting? Explain with neat sketch. Q.9. Explain the difference between gravity die casting and pressure die casting. Ans. In gravity die casting pouring is done simply due to gravity and no external pressure is applied. But for

pressure die casting external pressure is applied to free the molten or semi molten metal in to the die cavity. In P.D.C. the pressure is applied to the force the fluid in die cavity. The fluid alloy fills the entire die


Unit - 2

43 Hence intricate can be

including all minute cavities. -

produced successfully but as compared to G.D.C. We get better dimensional tolerance and better surface finish in P.D.C. compared to G.D.C. P.D.C. can be made fully or semi automatic. P.D.C. metal in semi molten state can be cast which not possible in G.D.C. As the arrangement to develop the pressure is needed in case of P.D.C. it needs some costly equipments which increases the build up cost for P.D.C. Hence the

equipments use for P.D.C. are costlier than G.D.C.

Q.9. Write short notes on (i) Repair of castings

(ii) Pressed casting Ans: (i)Repair of castings:- When casting gets damaged or found defective particularly in case of large castings, it is not economical to reject it and recast it. In such case

we can repair it by proper method mostly by welding which save time as well as money. Depending upon the casting

material, type of defect, we can use proper welding method to repair defect. In most cases, bend or warped castings,

if slightly out of shape also possible to bring back to original shape by hammering with soft hammers by hand,

jacks or by presses. (ii)Pressed casting :- In this type fixed amount of molten metal fitting poured cores into are the pushed permanent in the mould cavity, and by then this close molten

metal force into the mould cavity. metal sets into cavity.

Cores are removed after

We get thin walled hallow casting.

This method is limited for ornamental articles.

Q.10. Explain Jamming of cupola. Ans. Jamming of cupola may be permanent or temporary.


Unit - 2


If the molten metal is not taped out before its level rises to high in the well, the slag which floats on the surface of molten metal, will start flowing into wind belt through the tuyeres and air passage will be choked and the cupola jammed. Thus, the furnace is put to an unusable Iron and Due to the

condition then it is known as permanent jamming. slag around the tuyeres openings get solidify.

low temperature at the tuyeres openings which results in the closing of air passage and supply of air is temporarily stopped termed as temporary jamming. This can be prevented

by frequent poking of this solidified material by poking bar, through tuyeres.









conditioning. Ans. Following steps are carried out for sand preparation and conditioning :Sand found in nature doesn’t content all required

qualities in required extent necessary for proper moulding. Hence some additives are mixed with sand. Generally clay,

lime, magnesia, potash, soda, horse manure, saw dust, cow dug, coal dust etc. used in small quantities. This additives are mixed by hand or by mixing machine which ensures uniform distribution of clay, moisture and other constituent between sand grains. Then adequate amount of water is poured over sand, then the sand turned upside and downside by means of


This moistens the clay making it adhesive. mixture is riddled to remove the foreign

This material.









casting? Ans. Advantages of die casting are

MP -I 1) It

Unit - 2

45 less floor space as compared to other


casting processes. 2) Rate of production is high. 75 to 150 casts per hour in cold chamber and 300 to 350 casts per hour in hot

chamber process. 3) Die casting dies retain their accuracy for a very long time. 4) Very thin sections can be cast and holes upto minimum of 1.6 mm diameter can be easily cored. 5) High surface finish is obtained and often no further finishing is required. 6) Cost per unit is minimum hence economical. Disadvantages of die casting 1) All metals and alloys can not be cast. 2) The cost of machines, dies and other equipment used is high. 3) Not economical for small quantity production. 4) Heavy casting cannot be cast. 5) Special precautions are necessary for evacuation of air from die cavity, otherwise cause porosity.









casting machine and hot chamber machine. Ans. Following points shows the difference between cold

chamber die casting (machine) and Hot chamber die casting (machine). Cold chamber die casting (Machine) 1. Heating chamber of is Hot chamber die casting (Machine) not 1. Heating chamber is integral

integral unit.


machine part of machine unit.

Metals are melted in

a self contained pot in an auxiliary furnace. Non ferrous metals and Metals an alloys having low

MP -I alloys point

Unit - 2

46 high above melting melting point usually below

having usually

5000C. 5000C. are cast.

are cast. Requires operating pressure Requires

comparatively pressure below

low 150

of 300 to 1600 kgf/cm .

operating kgf/cm .

Usually 75 to 150 castings Usually per hour can be produced.





per hour can be produced.

Semi solid metals and alloys Semi solid metals and alloys can be cast. Usually nickel-chrome can not be cast. steel Usually hardened and tempered chrome-vanadium tungsten die. steel or is chromeused for

is used for die.

Q.13. How permanent mould casting differ from sand casting? Ans. Permanent Mould Casting Sand Casting

1. Mould is a permanent one 1. Mould is not permanent. and is neither destroyed

nor remade after each cast. 2. Requires less floor 2. Requires more floor space area. 3. Cost of mould is less. is 4. Rate of production is

space area. 3. Moulds are costly. 4. Rate of production

high. 5. Economical for

slow. large 5. Used for small quantity of production.

quantity production.

6. In order to enable and 6. The runner and riser can easy removal runner normally and of and kept unrestricted be casting, riser on suitably positioned at

the will. are the

parting line.


Unit - 2

47 Surface finish inferior

7. Better surface finish is 7. obtained. 8. Less skill operator

than permanent mould casting. is 8. Comparatively more skill


operator is required.

9. Eliminates many defects 9. No need of such precaution found need in sand casting but against chilling effect on


precaution casting surface.

against chilling effect on the casting surface.

Q.14. sketch?









Q.15. Sketch and explain the construction and operation of hot chamber die casting machine. Ans. In the hot chamber die casting machine the metal

melting unit forms an integral part of machine. consist of hot chamber and a goose neck

It mainly type metal

container made of cast iron. Construction This type of machine having goose neck type container which always remains immersed in the metal pot.

Cylindrical shape is formed at the end of goose neck, a plunger acts inside the cylinder. the top of the cylinder. A port is provided near

Goose neck injector is connected

to stationary die by nozzle and movable die can move to from die casting and injecting the casting. Die is

provided with proper injecting mechanism. Operation As the plunger move upward the port get open and

molten metal enters into cylinder.

Downward movement of

plunger closes the port and forces the molten metal inside die cavity through nozzle. After solidification plunger

moves upward at the same time movable die move away from stationary die to inject the casting.


Unit - 2


Injecting mechanism cause to inject the casting.


starts downward movement and movable die moves towards the stationary die to form required casting. is further repeated. Q.16. Write short notes on 1) Slush casting 2) Pressed casting Ans: Slush casting :Slush casting is a method of The cycle

producing hallow casting by using permanent moulds without the use of cores. In this method the molten metal poured

in to the mould and allowed to solidify upto the required thickness, then remaining molten metal made to fall out. Because of this we cannot precisely control the thickness of casting, hence this method is adopted for ornaments, statues, toys and other novelties were controlled thickness is not too important. Pressed metal casting poured :In the this type fixed mould amount and of then molten close



fitting cores are pushed in the cavities, by this molten metal force into the mould cavity. Cores are removed after

metal sets into the cavity and we get thin walled hallow casting. This method is limited for ornamental articles.

Q.17. Explain







operation of a die casting die? Ans. Construction :-


Unit - 2


Die castings are made into halves, one is stationary and other is movable. vertical parting These two halves when closed have Dowel pins are provided for


perfect alignment. into parting

Provision of vent for escape of air is usually provided. A proper


ejecting mechanism is provided.

The die is so designed

that after solidification the casting will always cling to the ejector die. Operation :- Movable die moves and comes in contact with stationary die. Movable die perfectly aligned with This

stationary die, which forms the required die cavity. cavity is usually the required casting. metal is injected into the die

Then the molten cavity. After

solidification, inserted cores are firstly withdrawn. Then the die opens, casting cling to the movable die.

Then either the movable half is slighted backward over the ejector pins or the ejector plate attached to this is advanced to project the ejector pins beyond the movable die to eject the casting from the die.

Q.18. What are the common forms in which the die casting dies are designed? Describe. Ans. Die forms. 1) Single impression dies :- In this form die have single cavity by this die only one casting at a time can casting dies are generally designed in three



Unit - 2


2) Multi impression dies :- In this form die have more than one die cavities. These die cavities are alike. By this

die, castings equal to the number of cavities in them can be produced at a time. 3) Combination dies :- In this form die have more than one die cavities, but these die cavities are not alike. By

this die, casting equal to the number of cavities in them can be produced.

Q.18. Explain the working of a cold chamber machine with the help of a diagram. Ans. The working principle of a cold chamber machine is illustrated in Fig.15.3. to denote horizontal For The word ‘cold chamber’ is used into which the the injection is melted

cylinder these





separately in a furnace and transferred to these by means of a small hand ladle. After closing the die the molten

metal is poured into the horizontal chamber through the metal inlet. The plunger is pushed forward hydraulically After solidification, the The plunger is

to force the metal into the die.

die is opened and the casting is ejected.

again drawn back and the cycle repeated as usual for next casting. These machines are widely used for casting a good

number of alluminium alloys and brasses which cannot be cast in hot chamber machines as they require higher melting points. alluminium Moreover, are almost the chances in of iron pick up as by it




takes place only at elevated temperatures, and also because the molten alloy remains in contact with the steel cold chamber and plunger for a very small period.









casting? Ans. Advantages of die casting are


Unit - 2


1. It requires less floor space as compare to other casting processes. 2. Rate of production is high. cold chamber. process. 3. Die casting dies retain their and more accuracy for a very long time. 4. Very thin sections can be cast and Holes upto minimum of 1.6 mm. 5. High surface finish is obtained and often no further finishing is required. 6. Cost per unit is minimum hence economical. Disadvantages of die casting are 1. All metals and alloys cannot be cast. 2. The cost of machine dies and other equipment used is high. 3. Not economical for small quantity production. 4. Heavy castings cannot be cast. 5. Special precautions are necessary for evacuation of air from die cavity, otherwise cause porosity. 75 to 150 casts per hour in

300 to 350 casts per hour in hot chamber

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Unit - 3


Q.1. (a) Explain the method of carbon dioxide moulding with its neat sketch. Ans. In this method silica sand and 3.5 to 5 % Sodium silicate liquid base binder, mixed for 3 to 4 minutes in a muller. clay. Silica To sand should be clean, dry and some free from





like, wood, coal dust, flour, graphite etc are added. Moisture content should not exceed 3%. This prepared

sand is put in to the mould (around the pattern) by any convenient method. After packing CO2 gas is forced into mould at a pressure of about 1.41 kg/cm2, called gassing.

CO2 reacts

with sodium silicate, following reaction takes place and silica jel is formed. Na2SiO3 +H2O+CO2 (Sodium silicate) carbonate) Silica jel binds the sand grains together to provide the strength and hardness to the Mould. dioxide moulding shown below. Steps of carbon Na2CO3 +(SiO2+ H2O) (Sodium (Silica jel)

Q.2.Describe the process of true centrifugal casting with the help of neat diagram.

MP -I Ans.

Unit - 3

53 this process, the castings are made in a


hollow, cylindrical mould rotated about an axis, common to both casting and mould, the axis may be horizontal,

vertical or inclined.

The mould used may be either of

permanent type or a sand lined mould usually end cores are used to prevent the molten metal, thrown out from end.

Fig shows horizontal true centrifugal casting machine. Having pipes. provided a large The with cylindrical consists sand mould of an for casting cast iron flask is



metallic The





rotated between two sets of rollers, mounted on a shaft driven by a variable speed motor. on the body of a trolley. Molten metal is poured while Mould is rotating, due to the centrifugal force metal is directed towards the periphery. after While pouring Mould is rotated at slower speed, speed is increased to effect even Pouring basin is formed


distribution of the metal all along the inside surface of the mould and proper directional solidification. After

solidification flask is replaced by new one and the process is repeated. The use of this process is limited only for

symmetrical shaped objects, such as pipes, rolls, cylinder sleeves etc. and liners, piston-ring stock, bearings bushing

Q.3. Explain the ‘core’ with the use. characteristics of a good core?

What are the

MP -I Ans.

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54 core can be defined as a body of sand,


generally prepared separately in a core box, which is used to form a cavity of desired shape and size in a casting. However, there are some exceptions to this definition. For

example in a pattern can be used to form a core as a part of the mould, in this being known as or a green the sand core. are






formed by the metallic moulds themselves as an integral part of them. Cores which are prepared separately in core

boxes are called dry sand cores, and held and located in the moulds in the seats formed by the core prints provided on the patterns. The main characteristics required in a good core are the following : 1. It must be sufficiently permeable to allow an easy

escape to the gases formed. 2. It should be highly refractory to withstand the intense heat of molten metal. 3. It should be enough hard and strong to bear its own weight and the force of molten metal. 4. It should have high collapsibility i.e.; it should be able to disintegrate quickly after the solidification of the metal is complete. 5. It should not carry such constituents, which will give rise to excessive gases on coming in contact with the molten metal. (The and their main ingredients of core have sand mixtures been




discussed in the last chapter.)










advantages and disadvantages? Ans. Following are the steps of investment casting: 1.First of all master pattern is made from wood or metal.


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2 By using gelatin or an alloy of low melting point and master pattern, master mould is formed. 3.The master Mould is filled with liquid wax or by thermo plastic polystyrene resin which when solidified forms a wax pattern. 4. The wax pattern is coated with slurry consisting of

silica flour and small amounts of kaolin and graphite mixed with water. This process referred to as the

investment of the pattern. 5. The pattern is then used to make up moulds similar to those used in the conventional moulding process, but the pattern within the mould is not taken out of the mould, which is not opened after this moulding process. 6. Finished mould is dried in air for 2 to 3 hrs. and then baked in an oven about 2 hrs. to melt out the wax or remove the wax with the help of a solvent degreaser. 7. After this the mould is sintered at about 10000C to

improve its resistivity.

Finally it is cooled down to a The castings

temp. between 800 and 7000C for casting.

are obtained by gravity, pressure vacuum or centrifugal operations. After the metal is cooled the plaster is The castings blasting,

broken away and gets feeders are cut out. so obtained are finally cleaned by


grinding or other finishing processes. Advantages 1. Better dimensional accuracy, the normal tolerance being ± 0.005 mm. 2. Better surface finish 3. Thin sections of the order of 0.75 mm can be cast 4. Intricate machining of the casting is avoided 5. Castings are sound and have large grains as the rate of cooling is slow.


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Disadvantages 1. Moulds used are single purpose, i.e.they can be used only once. 2. It is expensive process and hence is adopted only where small number of intricate and highly accurate parts are to be manufactured. 3. This process is suitable for small size parts. 4. They present the same difficulty where cores are to be used. 5. Process is slow.

Q.5. Which are the moulding machines used in practice? Describe any one with the help of sketch if required? Ans. Types of moulding machines: The large variety of moulding machines that are

available in different designs can be classified as: 1. Jar or Jolt machine. This machine consists of an airThe air enters from the

operated piston and cylinder.

bottom side of the cylinder and acts on the bottom face of the piston to raise it up. At the top of the piston

is attached the platen or table of the machine which carries the pattern and moulding flask with sand over it. When the piston, and hence the table, has been raised to a certain height the air below the piston is suddenly released, resulting in an even packing of sand around the pattern in the flask. The operation is repeated several It is known as jolting.

times and quite rapidly. 2.

Squeezer machine: These machines may be hand operated The pattern is placed over the machine In hand-operated

or power operated.

table, followed by the moulding flask.

mechanism whereas in power machines it is lifted by the action of air pressure on a piston in the cylinder in the same way as in jolt machine. The difference is that the

table is not dropped from height but is raised gradually.


Unit - 3


On the top of the machine column is provided an overhead plate and the sand in the flask is squeezed between this plate and the upward rising table. pressing power more of sand in the flask. over A This enables a uniform specific advantage ones is of

operated pressure

machines can be

hand-operated in the

that which



facilitates handling of a wider range of jobs. Pin lift or push-off type machines. In these machines the mechanism is almost similar to the above except that the supporting ram is stationary and four pins are suitably incorporated passing through the machine platen and the

pattern plate.

No stripping plate is, however, required.

After the ramming is over the moulding flask is lifted off the pattern by by a the four pins which are mechanically in the

operated machine.




Q.6. Describe centrifugal casting and state its advantages and limitations. Draw a sketch of the same.

Ans. Centrifugal casting is casting method in which, molten metal is poured while mould is rotating, due to the

centrifugal force metal is directed towards the periphery. The cold metal is forced towards the outer side of the casting by the centrifugal force, where as the hotter metal remains on the inner side of the casting to provide the required feeding of metal during solidification. Although many different shapes can be cast through this process, but those with symmetrical shapes are best suited for it. Centrifugal follows: a) True centrifugal casting b) Semi centrifugal casting c) Centrifuging casting methods can be classified as


Unit - 3


Advantages: 1. Due to the forced movement of the molten metal castings are dense sounds and free from porosity. 2. The use of gates, feeders and central core is

eliminated, making the method less expensive 3. Mass production is possible with less rejection. 4. Mechanical improved. 5. Parts are produced closer to finished dimensions with consequent saving in machining. Disadvantages: 1. Need heavy initial investment. 2. Need skilled labour. 3. Economical only for mass production. 4. Expensive maintenance cost. 5. The process is limited to only cylindrical and circular parts with a limited range of sizes. and physical properties of castings are

Q.7. What is meant by felting and why is it required? Explain in brief Ans. Castings, when taken out of the mould, are not in the same condition in which they are desired since they have sprue, risers, gates, etc. attached to them. are not completely free of sand particles. Besides, they This operation

of cutting off the unwanted parts, cleaning and finishing the casting is known as felting. This includes: 1. Removal of cores from the castings.


Unit - 3

59 of gates, risers, runners, etc. from the

2. Removal castings.

3. Removal of fins, and other unwanted projections from the castings. 4. Removal of adhering sand and oxide scale from the surface of the castings (surface cleaning). 5. Repairing castings to fill up blowholes, straightening the warped or deformed castings.

Q.8. What do you understand by design of casting? Ans. Design of casting includes following: 1. Design for directional solidification. 2. Design for minimum stresses 3. Design for metal flow. 4. Cast-well design. 5. Design for minimum casting. 6. Design for expected tolerances. 7. Functional design.


Q.9. Describe shell moulding in terms of the following :(i) Its principal

(ii) Patterns for it. (iii) Materials used in making shell (iv) Steps in the process Use sketches at appropriate places. Ans. Shell moulding :- Shell moulding is a method of metal casting, in which conventional rammed sand moulds are

replaced by relatively thin, rigid shells of approximately uniform wall thickness. By the same technique, hollow

cores can be made to replace the traditional solid rammed and baked cores normally used in green sand moulds. The main steps in shell moulding are as follows :1. A metal pattern usually of cast iron having the same profile as that of the required casting is heated to


Unit - 3

60 It is taken from the oven and a

1500-2500C in an oven.

stripping agent, usually silicon 5 to 10 % solution in paraffin or water, is sprayed on the pattern to

facilitate the subsequent withdrawal of the shell from the pattern. 2. As shown in figure,(b),the pattern is clamped to the dump box which is mounted on trunions. In the box, the dry

sand resin mixture is the shell forming medium. 3. The dump box is inverted, as shown in figure (c), so that the dry sand mixture falls on to the hot pattern face. The hot pattern face causes the resin to soften and flow. After about 30 seconds, the resin component of the sandresin mixture softens and fuses to form a fairly uniform shell about 60 cm thick on the pattern face. 4. The dump box is returned to its original position as shown in figure (d), and excess of sand-resin mixture falls back to the bottom of the box leaving a shell adhering to the hot pattern surface. The partly cured This

shell is then placed in an oven for final curing.

is carried out at about 4000C and may take about two minutes. 5. When curing is complete, the shell becomes rigid and is stripped from the pattern by spring loaded ejector pins, which pan through the pattern plate as shown in figure (e). 6. Two such shells are fixed together to form the complete mould, with the help of bolts, clips or glue and placed in a suitable box with proper backing and to receive the molten metal as shown in figure (f). Sand for shell moulding.


Unit - 3


Usually zircon sand of rounded grain shape, free from organic impurities and having a grain size of 100 to 150 mesh (B.S.) is used. Coarser sands increase shell strength Finer sands improve the surface Although zircon sand is

but lower surface finish. finish but weaken the


costlier than silica sand, it gives, a stronger shell for a given percentage of resin binder and a good surface finish. Binder for shell moulding: The binders used are resins of thermosetting type and the most common resin are phenol formaldehyde, urea

formaldehyde, and polysters.

The resins are used in the

powdered form and when subjected to about 2000 to 2500C, they melt instantly one or and two turn into a rubbery usual state amount and of





resins in the sand moisture varies from 3 to 10 per cent.






CO2 sand





sketch. Ans. In this method silica and 3.5 to 5% Sodium

silicate liquid base binder, mixed for 3 to 4 minutes in a muller, clay. silica To sand should be clean, dry and some free from





like, wood, coaldust, flour graphite etc. are added.


Unit - 3

62 This prepared

Moisture content should not exceed 3%.

sand is put in to the mould (around the pattern) by any convenient method. After packing, CO2 gas is forced into mould at a pressure of about 1.41 kg/cm2, called gassing.

CO2 reacts

with sodium silicate, following reaction takes place and silica jel is formed. Na2SiO3+H2O+CO2 (Sodium Silicate) Na2CO3 + (SiO2+H2O) (Sodium Carbonate) (Silica jel)

Silica jel binds the sand grains together to provide the strength and hardness to the Mould. dioxide moulding shown below. Steps of carbon

Q.11. What is centrifuguring ? Describe the process stating its differences with other centrifugal casting method? Ans. This is also sometimes known as pressure casting. mainly differs from true centrifugal or It


casting methods in that unlike the latter two, the axis of rotation and that of the moulds do not coincide with each other, as the moulds are situated at a certain distance from the central vertical axis or rotation all around the same. Shapes of castings do not carry any limitations in A number

this method and a variety of shapes can be cast.

of small mould cavities are made around a common central sprue and connected to the same through radial gates. For


Unit - 3


a higher rate of production the stacked moulds can be used with advantage. the molten metal As in semi-centrifugal force used to force from the central sprue into the mould

cavities through the radial gates.

Sectional view through

a typical mould for centrifuging is shown in Fig.

Q.12. What are the factors to be considered while selecting the method of casting?

Q.13. Specify and explain the method of casting used to manufacture pipes. Ans. ** Write the process of centrifugal casting** 7

Q.14. Explain in detail investment casting?

Q.15. What is mercast process of casting? Ans. In this process frozen mercury is used for the

production of precision castings.

In this case, the metal

mould is prepared of the necessary shape with gates and sprue-holes. It is then placed in cold bath and filled

MP -I with

Unit - 3

64 (which acts as a lubricant). Mercury is


poured into it and freezing of mercury takes place at 200C after about 10 minutes of pouring. The patterns are then

removed and are given dippings in a cold ceramic slurry bath, until a shell of about 3 mm is built up. then melted and removed at room temperature. dried and heated at high temperature to Mercury is The shell is form a hard

permeable shape.

The shell is then placed in a flask, After

surrounded by sand, preheated and filled with metal. solidification of metal, the castings can be removed.

Q.16. What is core? What is its use? What are the characteristics of a good core? Ans. A core can be defined as a body of sand, generally prepared separately in a core box, which is used to form a cavity of desired shape and size in a casting. However, there are some exceptions to this definition. For example

in a pattern can be used to form a core as a part of the mould, this being known as a green sand core. Similarly,

in permanent moulds or dies, the cores are formed by the metallic moulds themselves as an integral part of them. Cores which are prepared separately in core boxes are

called dry sand cores, and held and located in the moulds in the seats formed by the core prints provided on the patterns. The main characteristics required in a good core

are the following: 1. It must be sufficiently permeable to allow an easy

escape to the gases formed. 2. It should be highly refractory to withstand the intense heat of molten metal. 3. It should be enough hard and strong to bear its own weight and the force of molten metal.


Unit - 3


4. It should have high collapsibility i.e., it should be able to disintegrate quickly after the solidification of the metal is complete. 5. It should not carry such constituents which will give rise to excessive gases on coming in contact with the molten metal. The main ingredients of core sand mixtures and their essential characteristics have already been discussed in the last chapter.

Q.17. Explain hot chamber die casting machine? Ans. The main parts of a hot chamber machine are shown Fig. This is operated by a hydraulic plunger. This plunger acts inside a cylinder formed at on end of the goose-neck type casting submerged in the molten metal. A port is provided

near the top of the cylinder to allow the entry of the molten metal into it. When the bottom of the plunger is above the port the cylinder is connected to the melting pot through this port. The down stroke of the plunger closes

this port, cuts off the metal supply and applies pressure on the molten metal present in the goose neck to force the same into the die cavity through the injecting nozzle.

After a certain period of time the plunger is raised up, causing the remaining molten metal in the nozzle and Just

channel to fall back into the goose neck casting.

before the end of its upward stroke the plunger uncovers the port, through which more molten metal enters into the cylinder. ejected. The dies are then opened and the casting

Zinc based low melting point alloys are generally

cast in these machines.

Q.18. State its advantages and disadvantages? Ans. Advantages 1. Surface finish a good


Unit - 3


2. Dimensional accuracy is high 3. Thin sections upto 2 mm can be cast 4. Sand handling is minimum 5. Permeability of the shell is high 6. Surface chilling of the castings is absent and the castings are free from skin hardening 7. Less floor area is required 8. It is highly adaptable for mechanisation. 9. Cost of cleaning the casting is low 10.Casting defects are minimum 11.Shells can be stored 12.It allows for greater detail and less draft 13.Unskilled labour can be employed. Disadvantages 1.Higher pattern cost 2.Higher resin cost 3.Not economical for small runs 4.Dust-extraction problem 5.Complex jobs cannot be shell moulded. Shell moulding machines are of two types, (1) Semi automatic (2) Automatic.

Q.19. Illustrate







Centrifugal casting. Ans. This centrifugal process, casting which is is also used known for as profiled large



castings which are symmetrical in shape, such as discs, pulleys, wheels and gears etc. In this method the mould is

rotated about vertical axis and the metal poured through a central sprue. at a time. It is not necessary to cast only one mould

Several moulds can be stacked together, one

over the other, and fed simultaneously through a common central sprue, as shown in Fig. This provision increases

the rate of production considerably. The centrifugal force

MP -I is

Unit - 3

67 feed the metal outwards to fill the mould



cavities completely.

The centre of the castings is usually

solid, but, if required, a dry sand central core may be used to produce the central hole. The speed of rotation of

these moulds is much lower than that in true centrifugal casting. With the result the pressure developed is too low

and the impurities are not directed towards the centre as effectively as in true centrifugal casting. The speed of

rotation of these moulds is such that a linear speed of about 180 meters per minute is obtained on the outer edge of the casting. The moulds used may be of green sand, dry

sand, metal or any other suitable material.

Q.20. Describe the complete procedure of investment casting. What are the main advantages and disadvantages? Ans. INVESTMENT CASTING :- It is also known as Lost was or Precision casting. are within very The castings produced by this method close tolerances and do not require

subsequent machining. The procedure adopted for investment casting is as follows. 1. First of all, a metal die for casting the wax pattern is made. 2. The wax patterns and gating systems are produced from the metal dies by injection.
0 0

The wax is injected into the

mould at 50 C to 80 C and at pressure of 35 kg/cm2 to kg/cm2.


Unit - 3


3. The wax assembly is dipped into a slurry of a refractory coating material. A typical slurry consists of silica flour suspended in ethyl silicate solution of suitable viscosity to produce uniform casting after drying. After dipping,

the assembly is coated by sprinkling it with silica and allowed to dry. 4. This The coated wax assembly is now invested in the mould. is done by inverting wax assembly on a table,

surrounding it with a paper-linked steel flask and pouring the investment moulding mixture consisting of either sand 95%, water 27 to 31% and 5% alumina cement. The mould

material settles by gravity and completing surrounds the pattern as the work table is vibratech the moulds are then allowed to dry in air for 2 to 3 hours. 5. The wax is melted out of the hardened mould by heating it in an invested position at 900C to 1800C. may be collected and re-used. 6. The mould is again heated at the rate of 400C to 700C per hour from about 1500C to 10000C for ferrous alloys and 6500C for alluminium alloys. The temperature is controlled so The melted wax

that the mould is at a temperature desirable for pouring the particular alloy. under simple The investment moulds may be poured force or under the force of


applied out pressure or by centrifugal force.






Unit - 3



(e) Following are the

(f) advantages and disadvantages

investment casting. Advantages : 1. The close tolerances (±0.05 mm) are easily maintained in average work. 2. It produces extremely smooth surfaces. 3. It eliminates post machining operations including thread cutting and gear tooth ferming. 4. It is adaptable to all metallic alloys. Disadvantages : 1. The investment moulds as well as the materials from

which they are made an single purpose, therefore they can not be reused. 2. The larger This increases cost of production. are impractical for investment


casting due to equipment size limits. Steps involved in making investment casting. (a) Wax injected into die to make pattern. (b) Pattern have been gated to central sprue. (c) Placing a metal flask around the pattern assembly. (d) Investing the wax pattern assembly. (e) Removing wax pattern from investment mould. (f) Pouring molten metal into the mold. (g) Removing material. casting from the mold by breaking the mold


Unit - 3


Q.21. What do you understand from ‘Centrifugal castings’? How are the centrifugal casting methods classified? Ans. The process of centrifugal casting is also known as liquid forging. It consists of rotating the mould at a Due to

high speed as the molten metal is poured into it.

the centrifugal force the molten metal is directed outwards from the centre, towards the inside surface of the mould, with considerable pressure. thickness surface of of metal the being is As a result of this a uniform all along the inside the of

deposited where remain it

mould, lighter

solidifies, to the

and axis

impurities rotation. with


This process enables the production of castings accuracy and better physical properties as


compared to sand castings. of distinct surface

It also enables the production and dense metal structure.


Although many different shapes can be cast through this process, but those with symmetrical shapes are best suited for it. The better physical properties of the castings are

the result proper directional solidification of the metal inside the mould. It is achieved because the denser(or

cold)metal is automatically forced towards the outer side of the casting by the centrifugal force, whereas the hotter metal remains on the inner side of the casting to provide the required feeding of metal during solidification. The

centrifugal casting methods can be classified as follows: 1. True centrifugal casting. 2. Semi-centrifugal casting. 3. Centrifuging.











investment casting? Ans. 1. Gravity casting method. 2. Centrifugal casting method.


Unit - 3


3. Vaccum casting method.

Q.23. What are the materials commonly used for making the moulds for centrifugal casting? Ans. The moulds used in centrifugal casting methods are made of sand, metal or graphite. Sand moulds are generally

preferred for slender castings where the metal has to flow a long distance. The use of these moulds minimises

chilling effect. preferred. Metal

For quantity production metal moulds are moulds are made from cast iron, high

carbon steel or alloy steel. used for non-ferrous castings.

Graphite moulds are largely

Q.24. With the help of neat diagram describe the process of true centrifugal casting. production of pipes? How this method can be used for

Q.25. Describe step by step, the process of shell moulding. What are its advantages and disadvantages?

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Unit - 4


Q.1. What is hot working ? State its principles,

advantages and disadvantages. Ans. Mechanical working of metals above its

recrystallisation temperature is known as hot working. Advantages : 1. Larger deformation can be accomplished and more rapidly by hot working since the metal is in plastic state. 2. Porosity of the metal is considerably minimised. 3. Concentrated impurities, if any in the metal are

disintegrated and distributed throughout the metal. 4. Grain structure of the metal is refined and physical properties improved. Disadvantages : 1. Due to high temperature a rapid oxidation or scale formation takes place on the metal surface, leading to poor surface finish and loss of metal. 2. On account of the lost of carbon from the surface of the steel piece being worked the surface layer loses its strength, which is a disadvantage when the part is put to service. 3. This weakening of the surface layer may give rise to a latigue crack which may ultimately result in

fatigue failure of the part. 4. Close tolerances cannot be maintained. 5. It involves excessive expenditure on account of high cost of tooling. This, however, is compensated by the high production rate and better quality of products.


Unit - 4


Q.2. Describe the procedure of hot extrusion of tubes. Ans. A common method of hot extrusion of tubes is shown in figure. It is actually a forward extrusion method using a mandrel to form the bore of the tube. First the mandrel is pushed through the centre of the billet and the die,

followed by applying pressure on the billet by advancing the plunger. The metal is forced to flow through the

opening between the die and the mandrel. performed quite rapidly. hot extruded, although

The operation is

Most of the metals and alloys are some of these are cold extruded

also, for production of seamless tubes.

Q.3. Write short notes on Ans. 1. Hot Spinning :The process consist of heating the metal to forging temperature and then forming it into the desired shape on a spinning Usually lathe shapes which of is similar to an engine lathe. are




symmetrical about the axis of rotation, are formed by this process. metal The workpiece is shaped over a formed revolving device, It called well chuck, with the help of of

holding tools.






stamping in so far as the production in small quantities is concerned, since the cost of dies for such small quantities will lead to uneconomical production through the latter


Unit - 4



Hot spinning is generally used for thicker plates

and sheets which cannot be shaped through cold spinning. In operation it is similar to cold spinning and, therefore, the details of equipment, tools and procedure, etc., will be given later under 'cold spinning’. 2. Hot Forging These process basically consists of heating the metal to plastic state and then applying pressure to form it into different shapes and sizes. Unlike rolling, the pressure The hot

in this case is not continuous but intermittent.

metal piece may be compressed along its length to increase its cross-section, along its cross-section to increase its length, within a closed cavity to acquire the shape of that cavity or in different directions to bend it into different shapes. hand or The pressure may be applied by hand hammer called smith by forging, by power hammers, or called upset hammer forging

forging, machines.




3. Hot drawing This process is widely used for the production of

thicker walled seamless tubes and cylinders. performed in two stages. The first stage

It is usually consists of

drawing a cup shape out of a hot circular plate with the help of a die and a punch. reheating the drawn cup and The second stage consists of drawing is further to the The

desired length having the required wall thickness.

second drawing operation is performed through a number of dies, which are arranged in a descending order of their diameters, so that the reduction in wall thickness is

gradual in various stages.

The farther end of the drawn

object is always blind, which may be cut off to produce a through hole, if required.


Unit - 4


Q.3. What are the specific advantages and limitations of cold working? Ans. Advantages and limitations: 1.Better dimensional control than hot working is possible because the reduction in size is not much. 2.Surface finish of the component is better because no

oxidation takes place during the process. 3.Strength and hardness of the metal are increased. 4.It is an ideal method for increasing hardness of those metals which do not respond to the heat treatment. 5.Only ductile metals can be shaped through cold working. 6.Over-working of metal results in brittleness and it has to be annealed to remove the same. 7. Subsequent heat treatment is mostly needed to remove the residual stresses set up during cold working.

Q.5. What are the main characteristics of the hot working of metals or compared with cold working process? Ans. (1) Above the re-crystallisation temperature, the By

metal becomes plastic and causes the growth of grains.

hot working, the grains are broken up and their parts are deformed into small and more numerous crystals or in other words the refinement of grain occurs. Metals possess

little elasticity and low load is required to shape the metal as the strength and hardness decrease at elevated temperatures. (2)The porosity of the steel ingot can be eliminated to a greater extent. (3)Great latitude in shape and size of form is possible due to reduction of elastic limit. (4)A uniformity is established either by squeezing other impurities into fiber slags or distributing them throughout the mass.


Unit - 4


(5)Directional property resulting from a fiber structure is obtained. (6)Due to refinement of grains, mechanical properties such as toughness, ductility, elongation and reduction in area are improved. (7)The power required to finish the part ingot is less. (8)It can be used on most of the metals, because it is a rapid and economical process.

Q.6.Why forging generally preferred for those components which require high strength and resistance to shock? Explain briefly. Ans. (1)It Characteristics of the Forged Parts refines the structure of metal by closing up the

cavities and by smashing up large grain formations. (2)Forged parts have directional properties and hence have good strength. (3)Mechanical properties such as percentage elongation,

percentage reduction of area and resistance to shock and vibration are improved. (4)Cracks and blow holes are minimised.

Q.7. For various methods of forging known to you give the application areas. Ans. (1) Hand forging :- Hand forging is emplayed only to shape a small number of light forgings chiefly in repair

shops. (2) Hammer forgings :- Usually used for small item forging. (3) Press forging :- Usually used for heavy item forging. (4) Machine forging :- For medium sized and large articles requiring very heavy blows. (5) Drop forging :- For mass production of identical parts.


Unit - 4

77 up setting, edging, drawing, piecing and


punching operations as applied to not working of metals. Ans. Upsetting :- This is just opposite to drawing and involves increasing of the cross-sectional area usually by pressing or hammering in a direction parallel to the original ingot axis. In the process of upsetting, the shaft or rod is

generally gripped in dies, and the head or flange upset either by a plain flattened ram or with further dies,

shaped to give the desired contour. Edging :Drawing :- Refer – (Hot drawing) Piercing :- This process is employed for the production of seamless tubes. It offers the most economical mechanical It

working, process for the manufacture of seamless tubes.

consists of passing the hot rolled billet at 11000C. between two conical rollers and over a mandrel which helps in

piercing and controlling the size of bore as the billet is forced over it.

Q.9.Define the following terms related to cold working of metals. Ans. (1) Blanking :- This is the operation carried out on presses and consists of cutting of the outside contour blanks of of a






Unit - 4

78 a a single-action punch, a press equipped with a

shapes tools

requires comprising



stripper to keep the sheet from following the punch on its upstroke and means for aligning the sheet or strip of material and for spacing successive cuts. inside contours, i.e. holes and slots is Cutting called


All these operations will be dealt in detail However pressed-metal

under the chapter of presses.

parts, or stampings are recommended for mass production. Stampings degree of combine the virtues and of lightness, well a high to




receive protective and decorative finishes. (2) Swaging :This or operation forces consists on the of applying below the




recrystallisation temperature.

It causes the metal to

flow in the predetermined shape according to the design of the dies. Rotary swaging and cold heading are the

two important processes of swaging. (3) Lancing :- It is a special form of piercing operation in which the entire remains contour attached is with not the cut, the blanked It is



achieved by bending down one side of partially punched hole. (4) Embossing :- It is also like a drawing or stretching operation and does not require much pressure like

drawing and coining. It consists of producing, projected or raised designs in relief on a surface of sheet. is done with the help of two mating dies. It

The sheet is

first blanked and then little more force is applied by the punch which forces the metal against a mating die conforming to the same configuration as the punch. In

this way very little metal is squeezed in the operation and the words are printed on the sheet in projected form.


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Q.10. Explain extrusion process as used for production of Draw sketches for various stages in it.

Q.11. In what way does shear spinning differ from spinning process?

Q.12. What are the various methods of tube manufacturing? Explain any one in detail. Ans. 1.Tube drawing 2.Roll piercing 3.Tube manufacturing by lap welding. 4.Tube extrusion. Roll piercing :It is a method of producing seamless tubes. piercing machine used in the process consists of The two

tapered rolls called piercing rolls. of steel is passed between these

Round heated billet over a mandrel.


Both the rolls rotate in the same direction.

The billet is

centre punched or provided with a small drilled hole at one end and heated to proper temperature. forward into the rolls. it further into them. therefore they revolve It is then pushed

The rolls grip the billet and pull The axes of the rolls are crossed, the billet as well as draw it

forward to force it on to the mandrel. also revolve in its own position.

The mandrel can

This combination of the

revolving motions of the billet, and mandrel, together with the axial advancement of the billet, provide a helical

rolling effect on the material.

Production of a 12 meter

length of upto 150 mm diameter rough tubing will take about 10 to 30 seconds through this method. If tubing of larger

bore (say upto 350 mm) are to be made a second piercing operation is necessary after the first. will need a third piercing operation. Still larger sizes


Unit - 4


The rough tubing produced as above is further subjected to rolling, reeling and sizing etc. to bring it to the correct shape and size and to provide a fine surface finish. alloys etc. Such like tubes are produced in various brass metals and and





Q.13. What do you mean by cold working of methods ? Explain any two cold working process with neat sketch. Ans. The processes which are done on the metals by

keeping the temperature below recrystallisation temperature are known as cold working processes. The force required for these processes is high as compared to hot working

processes. Cold working processes are also applied for soft materials working otherwise the work & piece will is crack. In cold but





grain structure is distorted.

Q.14. Write short notes on 1.Hot spinning (described earlier) 2.Hot drawing (described earlier) 3.Roll piercing (described earlier)

Q.15. Explain principle of rolling showing its effect on granular structure. Ans. passing The the process hot ingot of rolling basically two rolls consists rotating of in


opposite direction at a uniform peripheral speed. The space between the rolls is adjusted to conform to the desired thickness of the rolled section, and the same is always less than the thickness of the ingot to reduce its crosssection and increase its length. The process is illustrated in figure, which shows the changes that take place in the grain structure of the metal


Unit - 4


as it passes through the rolls. As a result of squeezing the grains are elongated in the direction of rolling and the velocity of material at exit is higher than that at the entry. After crossing the stress zone the grains start

refining. But this is the case only in hot rolling. In cold rolling they tend to retain the shape acquired by them

during rolling.

Q.16.Describe the types of rolling mills. Explain their arrangements, specific uses in detail. Ans. The different types of rolling mills are

described below: 1)Two high millIt consists of two heavy horizontal rolls, placed exactly bearings stands. one over the in other. sturdy The rolls are supported on

housed The

upright the rolls

side can

frames, be

called by




raising or lowering the upper roll. The position of the lower roll is to of fixed. one Both the as rolls shown and rotate in in opposite Their

directions direction

another, is

figure. be





Thus, the work can be rolled by feeding from one direction only. There is a another drive type of two that high can mill reverse which the

incorporates workpiece

mechanism through




between the rolls. This type of rolling mill is known as a two-high


Unit - 4


reversing mill. They are normally employed for the initial rolling of an ingot. 2)Three high rolling millsIt consists of three horizontal rolls, positioned directly one rotation of the upper and lower rolls are the same, but the intermediate roll rotates in a direction

opposite to both of these. All the three rolls continuously revolve in the same fixed directions and are never

reversed. The work piece is fed in one direction between the upper and middle rolls and in the reverse direction between the middle and lower rolls. Many pieces may be

passed through the rolls simultaneously. This results in a higher rates of production than the two-high mill. This mill may be used for blooming, billet rolling or finish rolling.


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3)Four-high rolling millsIt consists four horizontal rolls, two of smaller diameter and two of larger diameter, arranged directly one over the other as shown in figure. The larger diameter

rolls are called back-up rolls and their main function is to prevent the deflection of the smaller rolls, which

otherwise would result in thickening of rolled plates or sheets at the centre. The smaller rolls are known as

working rolls and they are the rolls which concentrate the total rolling pressure over the metal. These mills are

generally used for subsequent rolling of slabs. The common products of these mills are hot or cold rolled sheets and plates. 4)Cluster millIt consists of two working rolls of smaller

diameter and four or more back-up rolls of larger diameter. The arrangement of rolls for this mill is shown in figure. The number of back-up rolls may go up as high as 20 or more, depending upon the amount of support needed for the working rolls during the operation. This type of mill is generally used for cold rolling.


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5)Continuous rolling millsIt consists of a number of nonreversing two-high mills arranged one after the other, so that the material can be passed rotate rolls through at in a all of each speed successively. than that the of The the

millstand preceding

faster to




length of the metal piece being rolled. This arrangement facility facilitates a very rapid production, because the component passes continuously from one stand to the other until it reaches the final pass. But it is suitable for mass production work only, because for smaller quantities quick changes of set-up will be required and they will

consume a lot of time and labour. As the speed of rolls on each successive stand varies it is necessary that their respective surface speeds should be properly calculated and adjusted.

Q.17.Write short notes on 1)Cold spinning 2)Roll bending Ans. Cold SpinningThe process is similar to hot spinning, described earlier. The metal is pressed on to the surface of a wooden or metallic form, called chuck, attached to the lathe

spindle. An adapter fitted in the barrel of the tailstock


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holds the work against the form. The tools used, called spinning tools, are provided with blunt edges and are

supported on the toolrest fitted on the cross slide, as shown in figure. Alluminium and other soft metals are best suited for cold spinning. A few commonly used spun articles out of

Alluminium and its alloys are processing kettles, cooking utensils, Various ones, liquid other containers and light reflectors etc.



particularly into is

non-ferrous typical during



successfully of the


various reduced





spinning, and proper allowance should be made for this in the blank to be cut. At the end of the operation the

unwanted material is trimmed off to bring the product to required size. The form or chuck may be in single piece or composed of many sections attached together, depending upon the possibility of the spun part from it. Where the space of the part does not permit its removal from chuck, offcentre chuck are used.

This process of spinning is generally used for: 1.Limited production. 2.Keeping the tool costs low. 3.Production such peculiar shapes which are difficult to be produced through other forming methods.


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2) Roll bendingIt through which is also s kind of and roll bent forming into operation




shapes. The roll bending machines carries three rolls; two being fixed and the third adjustable. Diameter of all the same. By adjusting the position of the adjustable roll the plates or sheets can be bent in different curvatures.

Q.18. Define cold bending. Ans. various It is employed for bending into desired shapes stock materials like rods, wires, bars, pipes,

tubes and various structural shapes. Formed dies are used for bending these articles and the operation is usually performed in many stages. Well designed fixtures are also used where mass bending of such components is required.

Q.19. Discuss extrusion of a seamless tube.

Q.20. Sketch and describe the types of rolls used in rolling mills. Ans. The rolls used in rolling mills essentially

consists of three parts, namely body, neck, and wabbler. The main rolling operation is performed by the body. It is therefore made to have different shapes on its periphery, according to the desired shapes of the rolled products, such as smooth for flat and grooved for other sections. The rolls vary in diameters from a few centimeters to about 1.5 meters. The extent to which the reduction in cross-section can be made in a single pass depends upon the weight and size of the rolls. The neck is that part of the roll on which it rotates in the bearing. The wabbler is the starshaped construction at both ends of the roll which engages the hollow cylinder to connect it to the driving shaft to receive power. The advantage of providing the wabblers is


Unit - 4


that the main body of the roll is not directly connected the driving shaft. Thus, in case of too heavy

loading, if there is any damage, it will occur only in the wabbler, which is a much weaker section, and the main body will remain absolutely free from it. The rolls are

generally made from cast or forged steel or cast iron.

Q.21. Describe the process of cold spinning stating its advantages and specific uses. Ans. Advantages of cold spinning

(1) This is very cheap process. (2) It does not require much investment. (3) The production of in cylindrical shape by spinning is less economical. Specific uses of cold spinning: Cold-spinning process is frequently used in the making of bells on musical instruments and also for light fixtures, kitchen-ware, reflectors, funnels, and large

processing kettles.

Q.22. What is continuous rolling mill? What are its advantages? Ans. This consists of several stands of two high mills As the metal comes out of

arranged one after the other.

one set of rolls, it enters second, third and so on and finally comes out in required size and shape. The speed of

every stage goes on increasing in comparison to preceding roll in order to accommodate the increasing length of the metal and thereby making it a continuous process. The


Unit - 4


operation is thus very fast and space requirement for mill is less. The production is economical and at the same time mass production is possible.

Q.23. Write short notes on Ans. Cold rolling: Cold rolling is generally employed for providing a smooth and bright surface finish to the previously hot rolled steel. It is also used to finish the hot rolled

components to close tolerances and improve their toughness and hardness. for this The items generally are bars, subjected rods, sheet to cold




strips and wires etc.

Before being put to cold rolling the

hot rolled articles are cleaned through pickling and other operations. The same types of rolling mills, described

earlier in connection with hot rolling, are used in cold rolling. In order to obtain a smooth surface finish the

roll surfaces are polished and scratches, if any, removed. The part being rolled pass is is usually made, so annealed as to and bring pickled it to




accurate size and obtain a perfectly clean surface.

Q.24.What is hot working? What are the common hot working processes? Ans. The principal hot working processes generally

applied to various metals, are the following: 1.Hot rolling. 2.Hot forging. 3.Hot spinning. 4.Hot extrusion. 5.Welded pipe and tube manufacturing. 6.Roll piercing. 7.Hot drawing.


Unit - 4


Q.25.Explain the following cold working process. Ans. Cold hobbing: It is a process for producing cavities of various shades in a blank of soft metal by pressing a hardened steel form into it. This form is known as a hob. The

operation may require several pressings and annealings in between. Hydraulic presses are used for providing the

required pressure.

The main advantages of this process is

the economical production of identical cavities in large number. Moulds for plastic moulding can be produced

through this method.

Q.26. What principles are involved in hot rolling? Explain.

Q.27. What is hot extrusion? performed? Ans.

In how many ways it can be

The process of extrusion consists of compressing

a metal inside a chamber to force it out through a small opening called die. successfully. Most Any plastic material can be extruded of the presses used for extruding A

metals are hydraulically operated horizontal presses.

large number of extruded shapes are in common use such as tubes, rods, structural shapes and lead covered cables.

Q.28. What is roll piercing and for what purpose it is used?

Q.29. Describe the process of cold spinning stating its advantages and disadvantages and specific uses.

Visit dept of production engineering on web at



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Q1. Describe with the help of neat sketch the principle of spot welding. Ans. The principle of spot welding is illustrated in

fig, where a transformer core is shown having primary and secondary windings P and C respectively. One end of the secondary windings is connected to the upper electrode E1 carried in the movable copper or bronze arm A and the other end to the lower electrode E2 mounted on the fixed arm B. In operation the metal sheets S1 and S2 are held and pressed between the electrodes and a strong current at low voltage is switched on. Due to the resistance offered by the sheet metal to the flow of this current the temperature at the contact surfaces rises to fusion point and the weld is

completed under the contact pressure of the electrodes.

Q2. Write shorts on 1)Welding rods 2)Fluxes 3)Gas flames Ans: 1)Welding rods: Sufficient care should be taken in selecting a suitable welding rod or filter rod for welding a particular material. Always the best available quality of the rods should be selected as the cheaper qualities are likely to contain more impurities and they will result is the


Unit - 5


production of an unsound joint. Welding rods suitable for welding different metals are produced by various standard manufacturers under their own trade names and it is

advisable, at least for a beginner, to be guided by the manufacturer’s instructions in the selection and use of

these rods. However, it is reckoned that a welding rod will posses the same or nearly same composition of its

constituents as that of the metal which is to be joined.

2)Fluxes: The chemicals, which deoxidize the metal surface and provide inert atmosphere around the molten, are known as fluxes. FUNCTION: 1)To prevent oxides from the hot surfaces. 2)To reduce the viscosity of molten metal. 3) It maintains a steady arc in case of arc welding Fluxes are available as liquid, powder, paste and gas. Powder flux is sprinkled on the surfaces to be welded Liquid & Gas

or the filter rod is dipped into the powder.

paste fluxes are sprayed on the surfaces to be welded.

fluxes are used to form inert atmosphere around the joint to be welded. 1) Gas flames There are three types of gas flames : 1.Oxidising Flame 2. Carburising Flame 3. Neutral Flame


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Q.3. Briefly explain seams welding and butt welding. Ans. Seam Welding: Seam welding is used for making continuous welds

between two overlapping pieces of sheet metals. process the current is not passed continuously

In this but is

regulated by a timer. between the two wheels,

The work to be welded is placed which apply sufficient pressure

between the sheets and also carry sufficient current or producing continuous welds. passing of the current The heat is generated due to the resistance in the


welding circuit.

The heat generated can be controlled by

either varying the current or pressure between the sheets, which varies the contact resistance. high then the speed of rollers in If the heat rate is increased thereby

reducing the weld time and vice versa.

The electrodes are

made of copper alloys and are water circulated in order to dissipate heat from them. In high speed seam welding using

continuous current, the frequency of the current acts as an interrupter. In seam welding, a series of over-lapping and these have joint.

spot welds are formed as shown in Fig sufficient overlap to provide a


However the spacing of these spots can be regulated also. Butt Welding : In butt-welding, the two pieces of metal of same

cross-section are gripped together and pressed while heat is generated in the contact surface by electrical

resistance when the current is passed.

As pressure keeps

on acting continuously, the joint is upset slightly which has to be rounded up by machining or grinding. It is

desirable that both parts are of same resistance in order to have uniform heating at the joint. good weld, first the pressure must In order to have be less and then

increased steadily to the value sufficient to effect weld. In this process there is no flashing or arcing at the joint


Unit - 5

93 This process is best suited to rods,

during the operation.

pipes and many other parts of uniform cross-section. Butt-welding can be sub-divided into two groups, i.e. upset butt-welding and flash butt welding. In the

first type, the parts to be welded are clamped edge to edge in clamps of the machine and brought together with light contact while current flows to heat the joint. The

pressure applied upsets the joint.

Upset butt-welding is

used principally for non-ferrous metals. In the flash butt welding, the parts are brought together in a vary light contact. finishing action. other till A high voltage starts a

The parts keep on moving against each temperature is reached and then


sufficient pressure is applied to effect the weld. process it is very important to have proper

In this and


current for the size and section of parts used. large areas are welded by flash welding process.

Usually This Most of high

process requires less current and is quite rapid. the non-ferrous metals except those


percentages of lead, zinc, tin and copper can be welded satisfactorily.

Q.4. What is resistance welding? Ans. Resistance Welding :


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94 is the process of joining metal pieces


together by raising the temperature of the pieces to fusion point and applying a mechanical pressure to join them. In

this the pieces to be joined are held together and a strong electric current(A.C.) of high amperage and low voltage is passed through them. This current comes across a certain

resistance in passing from one piece to the other and it is this resistance offered to the flow of current which

results in raising the temperature of the two pieces to fusion of melting point at their junction. The mechanical This

pressure applied at this movement completes the weld.

method of welding is widely used in modern practice for making welded joints in sheet metal parts and bars and

tubes etc.

Q.5. How welded joints are tested? Explain any two methods of it. Ans. Welds may be inspected and tested in a variety of

ways depending on the nature and type of a given welded structure. In most cases weldment are :1) Inspected visually defects which can be defected by

examination. 2) Tested for tightness. 3) Tested for mechanical strength. 4) Examined for hidden flows by physical method. Overall two types of tests are performed. Destructive testing 1) Macro-Crack test. 2) Weld tensile test. 3) Transverse tensile test. 4) Impact test Non destructive tests 1) Visual inspection. 2) Dye penetrants test.


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3) Electro-magnetic test. 4) Magnetic particle test 5) Radiographic test ( X-ray production) 6) Ultrasonic detection of flows Magnetic testing : This type of test is limited to those materials which can be magnetized i.e. ferrous materials. is used to detect surface faults only. If a ferrous component is magnetized and if the metal is sound the lines of force pass smoothly through the test piece as shown in figure. If a fault is present the This test

lines of focus tend to become distorted as they try to bypass or circumvent the fault. If the fault is at or near

the surface, the distortion of the magnetic field may cause the lines of force to break the surface. At this point on

the surface, a region of comparatively intense magnetism exists. A magnetic link composed of iron powder suspended The particles

in oil can then be sprayed over the surface.

of iron are attracted to the region over the fault and hence mark its site. Any unevenness on the surface to be tested gives the same effect as a surface fault. Surfaces

should therefore be reasonably smooth and clean.

Ultrasonic testing : Sound waves above 20,000 vibrations sec, are

inaudible to humans. testing. Ultrasonic

This is the ultrasonic range used for sound waves travel very rapidly


Unit - 5

96 and solids and are reflected from any


discontinuity. air.

The waves do not travel smoothly through

In order to reveal the internal condition of a metal by the use of high frequency sound a method must be adopted whereby sound can be generated, passed into the metal and any echoes that are reflected from inside the metal are subsequently recorded.

No Fault

Before the commencement of the test a film of oil is coated on to the specimen to be tested. The transducers

A & B (crystals of quartz and barium titanate) are placed as shown in figure. A high frequency alternating current is applied to “A” in short pulses. Crystal “A” vibrates and sends outs shorts waves of ultrasonic sound via the air film into the metal. face They pass through the metal, reflect off the bottom return to the top face again. The reflected


vibration strikes the crystal “B” is connected a cathode ray tube similar to that used in an ordinary television set. Each time a voltage passes from crystal “B” a blip appears on the tube face. If there is no fault in the metal, only two

echoes are recorded as shown in figure. present, relating a third “blip” is visible to the on

If a fault is the screen. By the






position of the flaw can be estimated.

This is a more

sensitive device and hence difficult to distinguish between a potentially dangerous fault and unimportant one


Unit - 5


The method can be used to revel all the usual weld faults.

Q.5. Write short notes on the following highlighting the principal, any. Ans. Brazing : The term brazing implies the use of brass as the filter material but nowadays a number of other alloys are also in use. The filter metal is called, ‘spelter’. brazing, metal parts are joined by coalescence temperatures above 5600C. In at application in industries and limitations if

However, non-ferrous filter metal

is used which has a melting temperature below that of the base metals. The Consequently, filter metal the is base metals in are the never joint



between the base metals by capillary attraction and the coalescence is between the base metals and the filter metal and not between the base metals. Application : Brazing is used for electrical items, radiators, heat exchangers, pipes & pipe fittings and tool tips. Disadvantages : 1. Low strength. 2. Not applicable for hardened steel and aluminium alloys. SOLDERING Soldering is a process of joining two metals by using another low temperature metal alloy. The metal used

for the joining purpose is called solder. Solders are of two types : 1. Hard Solder 2. Slot Solder Hard solder is an alloy of copper and zinc where as the soft solder is an alloy of tin and lead. Process/Procedure :


Unit - 5


The surfaces to be joined are cleaned and are on each Zinc other. A flux is s employed used to prevent for this

oxidation. purpose.



The soldering iron(shown in the figure) is heated

either electrically or by some external heat. Then the hot end is dipped into the flux and solder is pressed against the surfaces to be joined. A joint is formed by melting the solder. Applications : Soldering in widely used for sheet metal work and in radio and television work for joining wires. Advantages : 1. 2. 3. Joining cost is low Equipment is very simple and cheap Good sealing in fabrication as compared to other processes like rivet, spot weld and bolts 4. 5. It provides a positive electrical connection. Due to low operating temperature, the properties of base metal are not affected. Disadvantage : 1. Joints formed are weak. Riveting : It is a permanent fastening process in which the end of the metal pin is pressed over or spread out by hammering light operation Wrought Riveting iron and can be cold are riveting used for for hot



riveting and copper, brass and aluminium are used for cold riveting. Application : In engineering practice, there are many items, which are built up of a number of separate pieces rigidly attached example, together boilers, by means of and permanent various joints. For




which are subjected to internal pressure, are constructed out of separate steel sheets joined together permanently.


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Further, steel structures, such as cranes, bridges, beams, trusses, etc., are also built up of separate steel sections rigidly commonly fastened used together. of Riveting producing is one o the most





joints in all such cases.

Q.7. Describe the Thermit welding process. Ans. Thermit Welding :Thermit welding is the application of a filler material or the joining of two pieces of metal, usually steel, through the use of heat supplied by a chemical


The chemicals used for the heating process are a The thermit, as the

mixture of aluminium and iron oxide.

mixture is called, requires an igniter of some type to set of the reaction. The chemical formula for this process is 30000C,

8Al + 3Fe3O4 = 9Fe + 4Al2O3 The heat released is approximately causing the iron, remaining in the charge, to charge and melt.The thermit is mixed in a suitable crucible and the igniter is placed on top. metal rod. It is then lit with a red hot As the igniter burns, temperatures around 11500C At this point

are reached before another reaction begins. the metal begins to melt.


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The reaction carries burning throughout the mixture for 25 to 30 seconds. The heat released causes the iron to change from a solid to a liquid. This steel then becomes molten and reaches the desired fusion temperature. It is channeled into a prepared mould. The fracture or two pieces to be joined together, have been preheated to the high


of the liquid steel, and thus the parts are

welded together.










processes of similar purposes? Why is inspection necessary after welding? Ans. Replacing Casting : A manufactured fabricated wide by as variety casting, weldments. of are machine now parts, being base, which were and and

designed frames


brackets are made up of standard steel shapes and rolled plates and joined by any one of the welding processes.

Replacing Riveting and Bolting : Welding is gaining importance day by day in the joining of metals as it gives speedy and sound joints and at the same time, the joined structure is lighter in

weight. Welding as the only means of fabrication : Welding is the only solution in cases where the equipment is to be constructed of steel plates, the

thickness of which is greater than those joined by means of riveting and caulking. Testing and Inspection of Welds : It operation inspected and as is very important welds may are that for satisfactory tested hazards and and

working, their

properly into



great losses.

The tests can be either of destructive or


Unit - 5

101 nature. The and is former used type in gives the

non-destructive quantitative



whereas the second type gives the idea of quality of weld.

Q.8. Write brief note on welding defects and remedies

Sr. No 1.





1)Inherent properties of electrodes 2)Improper welding procedure 3)Insuffici ent pudding time to allow entrapped gases to escape (4) Poor

(1)Some electrodes produce inherently sound welds. Ensure that proper electrodes are used. (2)Puddling keeps the weld metal molten longer and often ensures welds. (3)A weld made of a series of strong beads is apt to contain minute pin holes. Weaving will often eliminate this trouble. (4)Do not use excessive welding current. (5)In some cases the base metals are at fault. Check this for segregation and impurities.

base metal 2. Poor or 1)Improper preparation of joint 2)Use of too large arc 3)Insuffici ent welding current 4)Too fast (1)Ensure allowance of proper space at the bottom of the weld. (2)Use small diameter electrodes in narrow welding groove. (3)Use sufficient welding current to obtain proper penetration. Do not weld too rapidly. (4)Use a backup bar if possible. (5)Chip or cut out the back of

incompl etepenetra tion


Unit - 5

102 welding speed the joint and deposit bead of weld metal at this point. (1)Select electrode with high welding speed and moderate penetrating properties. (2)Weld rapidly to prevent excessive local heating of the plates adjacent to the weld. (3)Do not allow excessive space between the parts to be welded (4)Properly clamp the parts adjacent the joint.



1)Shrinkage deposited weld metal 2)Excessive local heating at the joint 3)Improper preparation of joint 4)Improper clamping of parts

Q.9. Give two applications of the following :(1) Resistance Welding (2) Oxy-acetylene Welding (3) Atomic Hydrogen Welding (4) Gas cutting Ans: (1) Resistance welding: Resistance processes obtained where from in welding coalescence of is is a group of by the welding the heat of

produced work to




electric current in a circuit of which the work is a part and by the applications of pressure used for i) Joining sheets, bars, rods and tubes ii) Welding aircraft and automobile parts. iii) Making cutting tools iv) Making fuel tanks of cars, tractors etc. v) Making wire fabric, grids, grills, mask weld, containers etc.


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2) Oxy-acetylene Welding: It is a process in which acetylene is mixed with oxygen in correct proportion in the welding torch. It is a furion welding process. It joins metals using the intense heat of combustion. Uses: 1)For joining thin materials 2)For joining materials in whose case excessively high

temperature or rapid heating and coating of the job would produce unwanted or harmful changes in the metals. 3)For joining materials in whose case extremely high

temperature would cause certain demerits in the metals to escape into atmosphere. 4)For joining most ferrous and non-ferrous metals. e.g.

carbon steels, alloy steel, cast iron, Alluminium, copper, nickel, magnesium and its alloys etc. 5)In automotive and aircraft industries, in sheet metal

fabricating plants etc. 3)Atomic hydrogen Welding: It is a welding process where in coalescence (furion) is produced by heating the job with an electric arc maintained between two tungsten electrodes in an atmosphere of

hydrogen which also acts as a shielding gas. Uses: 1) The process can be used for the welding of most of the metals and alloys like plain carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless alloys. 2)For surfacing dies and tools. 3) Gas cutting:Gas cutting is a group of cutting processed where the steel, Alluminium, copper, nickel and their

severing or removing of metals is effected by means of the chemical reaction of oxygen with the base metal at elevated


Unit - 5

104 in the case of oxidation resistant metals,


their reaction is facilitates by use of a chemical flux or metal powder. Uses: 1) To prepare edges of plates for bevel and groove weld joint designs. 2) To cut small sized work-piece from bigger plates for further processing. 3) To cut rivets, gates and risers from castings. 4) To cut many layers of thin sheets at same time(stack cutting) to reduce both time and cost for production work. 5) To pierce holes and slots in steel plates 6) For salvage work.

Q.10.What is mean by bright dipping? Explain briefly. Ans: Bright dipping:- The purpose of bright dipping is to remove all dirt and oxides from the metal surface and

produce a highly reflective surface on non ferrous metals and alloys, like copper, alluminium, bronze etc. This is quite necessary as nonferrous metals can be easily

dioxidised. Such a process of cleaning the surface makes the metals more attractive. In this process the metals are dipped in acids such as Sulphuric & followed by Nitric acid in different concentration in water. In case of Alluminium metal Phosphoric acid and nitric acid with water is mainly used. This solution mixtures can be changed for different metals.

Q.11.What are the various factors to be considered while selecting the joining process? (O.P.Khanna) Ans:- Various factors are to be considered while selecting the joining process:a) Safety recommendation for installation and operation of gas welding and cutting equipment


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b) Safety recommendation for installation and operation of arc welding and cutting equipment. c) Explosion of fire and other hazards and protection

against them. d) Protection of welders e) Ventilation and health protection.

Q.12.What is resistance welding? Explain spot welding in detail with the sketch.

Q.13.State soldering.






Ans. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOLDERING AND BRAZING Sr. No. 1. Filter melting 4000C. 2. More stable joints can Less made. pressure do & Joints are affected by high stable joints can be metal point has the Filter metal has the melting above point below 4000C. Brazing Soldering

be made. 3. High


not temperature & pressure.

affect the joint. 4. Equipment cost is more. Equipment cost is very low.

Q.14. What is weldability? Ans. Weldability of Metals : It may be defined as the capacity of the metals to be welded into inseparable joints having specified

properties such as definite weld strength, proper structure etc. This weldability, welding. If means, it metal if should has a be particular readily metal suitable it can has for be

then the




Unit - 5

106 the use of proper (a) shielding against



atmospheric procedure and,

action,(b)flux,(c)filter in some cases,(e)proper

metal,(d)welding heat-treatment of

the metal before and after deposition.

Q.15.What are the various methods of testing welded joints? Explain any two in detail. Ans :- Testing of welded joints is necessary to asses the properties and qualities of welded joints and asses the suitability of the weldment (as assembly whose component parts have been joined by welding) for the intended

purpose. There are two main forms of testing and inspection of welds. (1) Destructive testing :- This test is applied to samples representative of the welded joints under review, often

made especially for test purposes. In a destructive test, the test piece or specimen is destroyed, in most cases by fracturing. After the test the specimen remains no longer useful for further use. Destructive tests as applied to welds are:a) The tensile test, b) The bend test, c) The impact test d) The Nick-break test e) The hardness test and f) The etch test 2) Nondestructive test : Such tests are applied to welded components to determine their suitability for the service conditions to which they will be subjected. These tests neither break nor alter the structure or appear on the

welded component. These tests have the ability to detect invisible subsurface defects. And make components more

reliable and safe. These tests are applied to welds are:


Unit - 5


1) Visible inspection 2) Stethoscope tests 3) X-ray and Y radiography 4) Magnetic inspection particle 6) inspection Ultra Sonic



inspection 7) Eddy current testing

Q.16.Describe limitations. Ans. when







Limitations :It cannot be applied to those portions abrupt change in contour occurs along the path of

electrode wheels, such as on sharp corners. 1) In longitudinal seam welding machines the maximum length of the seam joint that can be made equals the throat depth of the machine. 2) It is necessary to avoid obstructions in the path of electrode wheel or else a corresponding recess should be provided on the wheel periphery to accommodate these. 3) It is necessary that the weld should proceed along a straight line or a uniform curve. 4) Stock thickness above 3 mm cannot be welded with normal case. 5) For successful welding and production of defect free

welds it is essential that the work surfaces should be perfectly clean and free from grease, paint, oil, rust and scale.

Q.17. Write short notes on 1) Left ward welding 2) Bronze Welding Ans. 1) Left ward welding :

It this welding the tip of the torch is held at 60 to 70 degrees to the plates. And the filter rod is inclined at 30 to 40 degrees in opposite direction. In this method the plate edges are heated immediately after the molten metal. The torch tip and filter rod are moved


Unit - 5


slowly in the direction towards left.

2) Bronze Welding : Bronze welding, also called braze welding, is a process which is intermediate between true welding and true brazing. melted. In brazing process, the edges or surfaces are not Instead, a low melting alloy is introduced between

them and a joint is produced by adhesion. In welding, the edges or surfaces are melted and a stronger joint is made of two similar metals. In bronze welding, the edges or surfaces of the materials to be joined are only heated to a temperature which corresponds to the melting point of the bronze-

filling rod used. The filter rod used for bronze-welding usually contains 60 per cent copper and 40 per cent zinc, a combination Additional deoxidisers. Q.18. Explain Tungsten Inert gas arc welding with its specific application. Ans. This process has popularly been called TIG since giving elements high are tensile silicon strength and tin and ductility. act as


it is based on a tungsten electrode working in the presence of inert gas. This process consists of a torch with a The use of filler material depends on

tungsten electrode.

the material composition, thickness, etc. and is fed either


Unit - 5


with hand (for manual operations) or by means of a feeding mechanism (for semi-automatic and fully automatic). Details have been shown in Figure.

The tungsten electrode may range in diameter from 0.15mm to 9.25 mm and or may be made of pure tungsten, The Thoriated of





Thorium/Zirconium held in easy electron emission and easy starting. Very little tungsten is lost, during welding process, since its boiling point is very high (58600C). If the electrode touches the base metal, some tungsten may be deposited on the weldment.


Unit - 5


While welding stainless steels and other steels, electrode 0.35mm are to 0.75mm to diameter help and A.C. the high and frequency to ease on and


used G.T.A.

stablise is


starting. stainless


conventionally alloys,





copper alloys, and titanium or highly alloyed metals where weld purity is essential. There is hardly any need to

finish the weld. The welds are hard. Advantages – Useful for welding those metals which tend to oxidise rapidly (primarily for non-ferrous metals). Disadvantages operation. – The process is relatively slow in

Q.19. Describe the process of welding used for : Ans. 1. Cast Irons :This metal needs special care in welding because of its extreme brittleness and weakness. The endeavor in welding cast iron should be to prevent the occurrence of contraction stresses during welding and thus produce a

strong joint free from fractures at the junction of the parent metal and the weld. Cast iron components are It has

generally preheated to a dull red heat and then welded. should be carefully noted that once the cast iron

melted it should be cooled slowly so as to allow time to carbon to turn into graphitic state. If the cooling is

rapid the carbon will be retained in the metal in combined state to form white cast iron. This, being a hard and

brittle substance, will render the iron harder and more brittle and reduce the tensile strength and its


The object, therefore, should be to produce

Grey iron except when a very hard metal is required, which of course is a very rare need. Cast iron can be welded both by arc welding as well as gas-welding. In arc welding a


Unit - 5


flux coated electrode should be used. Sometimes annealing may be needed after are welding process. 2. Aluminium : Pure aluminium can easily be welded by gas and arc welding. Resistance welding and atomic hydrogen welding methods can also be successfully and its employed have for their welding melting




points ranging from 6000C to 7000C. At elevated temperatures aluminium forms its oxide and it remains on the metal in the form of a thick layer. It is a very refractory material so much so that its melting point is above 27500C. Another difficulty is that the specific gravity of this oxide is higher than that of aluminium. With the result,

if it is not removed, it will be disbursed throughout the weld rendering it unsound. It is necessary, therefore,

that the said oxide should always be removed by using a suitable flux. In arc welding D.C. is usually preferred A positive polarity, or a reserve

for welding aluminium.

polarity as we call it, is a recommended practice. The size of electrode will be determined by the thickness of the metal. only. Edge preparation can be needed in thicker sections

Q.20. Define arc cutting process. Ans. Arc cutting is based on melting the metal at the

cut by the heat of an electric are and blowing molten metal by a jet of air. pressure of at The air is continually supplied under a least 4 atm.(400 kN/m2) into the torch

(electrode holder), along the electrode and into the cut. In some torches air is supplied from the side. Both carbon and metal electrodes are employed in the arc cutting of metals. A more recent addition is the oxy-arc cutting process using carbon electrodes. By this method, a jet of


Unit - 5


oxygen is passed on the molten metal some distance from the arc, and the oxygen readily oxidises the metal and removes both the oxidised and molten metal from the cut. The action is similar to that of gas cutting except that the preheat is supplied by an arc instead of a flame. A plasma-arc operation without the addition of filler metal is an

effective means of cutting metal. The current is supplied by a de welding generator.










application. Ans. In this reference, Metal Inert Gas(MIG) shielded Wire, acting as consumable

arc welding is very common.

bare electrode, is fed through the welding head with the help of wire feed rolls. Inert gases are used for welding the jobs. fed Electric arc is developed between a continuously electrode and the work piece. Metal is A


transferred through protected arc column to the work.

fixed relationship exists between the rate of wire burn-off and the welding current such that the stabilised arc is maintained. Current depends on the electrode wire diameter, speed of melting the wire, composition of parent metal, and its thickness.


Unit - 5


In case of using high amperage, the gun or welding torch may either be air cooled or water cooled. During welding, the welding area is flooded with inert gas which does not react with metal and the rate of flow of inert gas is kept enough to keep oxygen of air away from the hot molten pool and hot area. For high nickel be used. welding non-ferrous (A1-alloys; Cu-alloys,

alloys) argon or argon-helium gas mixture may No flux

Titanium needs only argon gas shielding.

is needed. It gives high welding speed. This process can be easily made automatic.

Q.22. What do you understand by gas welding? Ans. Gas welding process consists of joining the

metals with the help f high temperature flame and filler rod. High temperature flame is generated by combusting a

mixture of two gases (Oxygen + Acetylene) and the flame is used to heat the work pieces and filler rod fills the gap. The filler rod melts along with the parent metal and fills the parent metal cavity. The acetylene) is mixture commonly of these for two gas gases (oxygen and




However, the mixture of other combustible gases can also be used. The production of gases in this reference is very



Unit - 5


Q.23. Explain the procedure of soldering. How it differs from brazing?

Q.24. Write short notes on Ans. 1) Forge Welding :This is the oldest of all the methods of weldingprocesses. Generally this process is used in the

blacksmith shop.

In it, the work pieces are placed in a

forge or other appropriate furnace and heated within the area to be joined, to the condition of plasticity, on the surface. The parts are then quickly super-imposed and

worked into a complete union by hand or power hammering or by pressing together. The quality of the weld depends to a If the ends to be

great extent upon the amount of heating.

joined are not heated enough, they will not stick together; if overheated, the metal becomes burned, brittle and has spongy appearance. Wrought iron and low carbon steel are the

materials most commonly joined by the forge welding. The oxidise very rapidly when exposed to the atmosphere after being heated to high temperature. oxygen should be permitted to Therefore, very little the metal being


heated. The most commonly used forge-welding processes are hammer welding, die-welding and roll-welding. The

principal difference between these processes is the manner in which pressure is applied. In case of hammer welding,

the pressure is applied at high velocity in the form of blows. In die-welding, the pressure is exerted either by In roll-

means of a bell or a mandrel and tube rolls.

welding the work is forced longitudinally between platerolls, which supply required pressure. (2) Polarity in arc welding : Conventionally, in case D.C. welding set, one can have straight polarity or reversed polarity. Polarity


Unit - 5

115 direction of current flow. In straight



polarity, the work is kept positive, whereas the electrode is negative and electrode as positive. The significance of

polarity is that there is a direct relationship between the points where the heat is to be liberated. Most of the heat Thus, the

is liberated in the positive side of the arc.

total heat generated by flow of current is divided into two parts (66% at the +ve pole and 33% at the -ve pole). In

conventional way, the electrons flow from –ve pole to +ve pole, and these electrons bombard at the +ve pole. Due to

this bombardment of electrons, the heat developed at the striked end is always higher. This phenomenon has been

explained. This is the reason for having higher amount of heat liberated at positive pole in straight polarity.

Straight polarity is used because it is preferable to have most of the heat at the work-piece rather than at the

electrode, since it is desired to have more heat at workpiece. If light coated electrode is connected to

positive pole, it will become red-hot and so welding will be impossible. If the light coated electrode is connected to negative pole and the work to the positive pole, so the molten pool at work will become a source of higher heat content and the electrode will not be affected. the thin sheets, the work is made So welding Carbon


electrode is always made negative, so change of polarity is not applicable in this case. In case of A.C.welding, the heat generated at each pole is the same owing to cyclic nature of current.


Unit - 5


Electrodes used in arc welding : Electrodes, the filler material rods, can broadly be classified into two categories. Non consumable electrodes are made of carbon,

graphite or tungsten, which do not consume during welding process. Consumable electrodes are made of different

metals depending on the chemical composition of metal to be welded. These electrodes are of two types.

(a) Plain or bare electrodes are made of various metals and alloys, which do not have any coating of flux. The

globules of metal pass from the electrode to work, they are exposed to atmospheric air and thereby the molten metal oxidises which does not float at the top of pool. Pool

after solidifying contains the oxidised metal also which ultimately decreases in the the strength So and the use develops of bare



electrode is limited to minor repair of poor quality work of welding.


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(b) Coated electrodes are conventionally used in industries. These electrodes are called as conventional electrodes. A

conventional electrodes forms a molten pool in the joint area which must be the protected presence from of being oxidised. makes On the




joint weaker and less efficient. be protected from 13.lb). oxidation Thus

So the molten pool must by gaseous loss of shield heat is and also

slag(Ref.Fig prevented. the flux


This gaseous shield and the slag is produced by coating on the electrode, hence called Coated


Q.25. Explain, what is an electric arc welding. Ans. Metal are welding process is the most extensively The source of heat

employed method of joining metal parts.

is an electric arc. When two conductors of an electrical circuit (AC or DC) are brought together and separated by a small air-gap (2 to 4 mm) such that the current continues to flow through the gaseous medium, an electric arc is


Electrical energy at the arc is converted into

heat energy producing a temperature of about 3700oC at the centre of the arc. The intense heat given out by the arc

raises the temperature of the parent metal, which forms a pool of molten metal. The metal at the end of metal

electrode is melted and transferred into the pool in the shape of globules. The added molten metal fills the gap

between the parts of the parent metal and forms a permanent joint.








applications. (1) Tig welding (2) MIG Welding


Unit - 5


Q.27. Describe in brief the equipment required for oral acetylene welding. Ans. Oxy-acetylene gas welding equipment comprises of the

following : 1. Oxygen cylinder : It is used to store the compressed oxygen gas. It is black in colour and is made of steel.

2. Acetylene cylinder : It is used to store acetylene gas. It is maroon in colour and is made of steel. 3. Blow-pipe : It is used to mix oxygen and acetylene gases and then to supply the gas mixture to a nozzle connected to its end. torch) the The has flow blow-pipe two of (also sometimes devices, and the known one as for for


controlling acetylene



oxygen entering a chamber, called mixing chamber.

4. Nozzle : It is a device screwed to the end of the blowpipe. It is used to permit the flow of oxy-acetylene gas

mixture from the mixing chamber of the blow-pipe to the tip of the nozzle to facilitate burning. The nozzles are

interchangeable, as it is the size of the nozzle outlet, which determines the gas consumption, and so the size of the gas flame. A nozzle having small-bore diameter is used

for fast melting. 5. Pressure-reducing valve : Pressure-reducing valve is

located on the top of the gas cylinder.

Its function is to

reduce the pressure of the gas inside the cylinder to a pressure suitable for welding. The regulator located on


Unit - 5


the top of the oxygen cylinder is called oxygen pressurereducing acetylene valve. 6. Pressure gauges : Each gas cylinder is provided with two pressure gauges, one for registering the pressure of the gas inside the cylinder and the other for indicating the pressure of the gas supplied to the blow-pipe. 7. Hose and hose-fittings : The hose, connecting the outlet of the pressure-reducing valve and the blowpipe, should be strong, durable, flexible, non-porous and light. The hose valve and the is one called located on the top of the




for the supply of oxygen is green in colour and that for the supply of acetylene is red in colour. made of piles of rubber covered with fabric. The hoses are Hose-fittings

are provided at the ends of the hoses for attachment to the blowpipe and the outlet of the pressure-reducing valves. 8. Welding goggles : Goggles with tinted glasses is used during welding to protect the eyes from injury. 9. Welding gloves : It is used to protect the hands from the heat and metal splashes. 10. Spark lighter : It is used to provide a convenient and instant means for lighting the blowpipe. 11. Chipping hammer : It is made of steel and is used to remove metal oxides from welded bead. 12. Wire-brush : Its function is to clean surfaces of a joint before and after welding.

Q.28. How are the different parts prepared before riveting and how is riveting done to join those parts? Ans. In preparing the joint the primary requirement is Of course in

the correct drilling of holes in the plates. thin plates they may be punched.

If the holes are punched

their edges get hardened and may result in cracks all round the periphery. The safer practice is therefore, to punch


Unit - 5


the holes slightly smaller in size than required and then enlarge them to the correct size by means of drilling and reaming. for as Drilling of holes is preferably carried out, as possible, For this by a holding fairly the high plates degree together of skill in is


required of the marker, as the correct drilling of holes will be possible only when the holes will be accurately set out and marked. A common practice, therefore, is to first

mark and drills all the holes in one plate and one hole in the other plate. The two plates are then secured either by

riveting or bolting in this common hole and the other end is suitably clamped. The plate containing the holes is Holes in the

kept on the top and the other one under it.

lower plate are then drilled through these holes which act as guides for correct location and drilling of holes in the lower plate. If countersunk rivets are to be used, the

holes should be provided with proper chamber to accommodate the counter-sunk head. sinking. After the above operation is over the rivets are heated up, passed into the drilled holes and the head The operation is known as counter-

formed at the free end. Care should be taken in selecting the correct length of the rivet as too large a rivet will bend during hammering and if it is too short in length the head formed will be undersize. The rivets should be heated

sufficiently so that they attain the forging heat and then the operation performed quickly. During riveting a snap

should be used to support the rivet by accommodating its head inside the cavity at its end and then a similar tool should be used on the other side of the rivet to form the head. However, if a counter-sunk head rivet is being used

it should be performed at the other end.


Unit - 5


Q.29. Describe with the help of neat sketch the principal of spot welding.

Q.30. Describe fully the method of oxy acetylene cutting? Ans. It is a chemical process in the sense that the

metal, at the portion where it is to be cut, is actually made to oxidise under the action of the flame. All ferrous The

metals can be cut by means of an oxy-acetylene flame.

metal to be cut is heated up to red heat by means of the flame and then a sharp stream of oxygen is made to this electrode and the work-piece and shielding is provided by the gas evolved during combustion of flux plus the CO2 gas fed around the arc for this purpose. While welding with flux coated electrode a

magnetized granular flux is fed into the arc through the gun nozzle, and there it attaches itself to the electrode. The coating so provided protects the electrode against the atmospheric contamination by the shield of CO2 gas. The

method of feeding the electrode wire into the arc is again similar to that in standard MIG welding process described in Art.22.37.above. Thus, it will be observed that the CO2 the electrode wire uses either

MIG welding process is exactly similar to the standard MIG welding process except

magnetized flux of as its core. Main advantages of CO2 MIG welding process are : 1.It is a fast welding process. 2.The deposition rate is quite high. 3.Penetration of the arc is deep. 4.Minimum edge preparation is required, particularly in

butt joints.

Q.31. Explain the process of soldering and brazing. Ans. Soldering :-


Unit - 5


Brazing :- The process of joining two metal surfaces heating and adding a non-ferrous alloy with melting point above 4000C is known as brazing. Process :- The surfaces to be joined are cleaned from all oil, dirt or oxides. joining position. Then both the surfaces are placed in The The On

Flux is sprinkled or placed on it.

heat is given to the surface and the filler metal. molten filler metal flows to the surfaces to be joined. cooling brazing joint is formed. are copper, copper alloy, silver

The filler metals used alloy and aluminium


In brazing the filler metal melts but the surfaces The various methods used to

to be joined remain un-melted.

melt the filler metal and flux are (i) Gas torch brazing : It is a commonly used process in which oxy-acetylene torch is used. (ii) Furnace brazing : The surfaces to be joined are placed in a furnace already hot. (iii) Dip Brazing : The surfaces to be joined are dipped in molten filler metal. (iv) Electrical brazing : In electric brazing heat is

produced by resistance or induction method. Applications: Brazing is used for electrical items, radiators, heat exchangers, pipes & pipe fittings and tool tips.











joints? Explain. Q.33. In which type of welding, the electrodes are used and why? How do you identify electrodes?


Unit - 5




Be a Certified Autocad 2000i & Mechanical Desktop Professional at


education, Akola




Unit - 6


UNIT NO : 06
Q.1. What factors govern the selection of a particular

cleaning process for metallic surfaces Ans. Selection of cleaning process is mainly influenced by (a) Type of contaminants (b) Degree of cleanliness required (c) Composition of metal (d) Condition of metal (e) Thickness of rust and scale (f) Allowable metal loss (g) Surface finish tolerances (h) Shape and size of workpieces (i) Production requirement (j) Available equipment (k) Cost involved.

Q.2. Describe the process ‘Electro-forming’ in detail. Ans. This is the process of forming metals. The parts of

various shapes are produced by electrolytic deposition of metal upon a conductive removable mould. between the electroplating case the and electro-forming permanently The difference being sticks that to in the



cathode, whereas in later case a solid shell is produced around the cathode which can be separated from it. The

cathode (mould) can be made of any shape depending upon the shape required for the part. The finish of part produced The metal

depends upon the surface smoothness of mould.

for electroforming the part on the mould is supplied from an electrolytic solution in which a bar of pure metal acts as an anode for the plating current. This process is very useful for thin walled parts where high accuracy and surface finish are desirable. This


Unit - 6


is also suited to complicated internal shaped parts which difficult to machine. The process is also very

advantageous for production of small number of parts for which other methods will be very expensive. Process. In electroforming process, first a negative image This

of part, called matrix, mould or pattern is prepared.

can be either permanent or expendable type depending upon the shape of part to be produced. Permanent moulds can be These

easily machined from metal and are very economical.

can be used only when there is sufficient draft to withdraw them without any damage to the formed part. type of cores can be either of low The expendable temperature In case of


alloy or of some chemically soluble substance.

expendable type of moulds, the substance used may be nonconducting e.g., plastic etc. In such cases they must be

coated with some metallic film by spraying, brushing or chemical reduction. Wax mould can be coated with graphite.

After the desired forms are prepared, the moulds are placed in the electrolytic solution and proper current is passed in the solution. The mould keeps on receiving

the metallic ions from the metallic rod and finally a layer of sufficient thickness is formed around the mould. It is

then removed from the bath, rinsed and then stripped from the mould. The various nickel, Alluminium metals iron, and used silver, others for electroforming lead, tin

include cadmium, nature.

copper, gold,

zinc, having


Out of these copper, nickel, iron and silver are

best suited for electroforming as they have the properties of good reproductibility, resistance to corrosion, good

bearing surface and adequate strength for small thickness. The properties of the electroformed parts depend upon the characteristics of the metal used, rate of deposition of metal and plating temperature etc. Some changes in


Unit - 6


properties of electroformed parts can also be achieved by proper heat treatment. Q.3. What is ‘Abrasive cleaning’? Ans. classes This of method and is widely rust used for removing all





weldments, and heat treated parts. requirements, blasting may be the

Depending on the finish sole means of scale

removal or it may be used to remove the major portion of scale, with pickling employed to remove the remainder. In this process the parts are generally cleaned by the use of abrasive particles such as sand, steel grit, or shot, impelled against the surfaces to be cleaned. Some cleaning is performed by means of a highvelocity air blast, with the blast directed by hand. In

many cases, an air less blast machine that cleans by impact is also used. hopper to The abrasive is fed from an overhead storage centre metallic of a radially or grit rotating is hurled wheel, in a

the the



controlled stream upon the work to be cleaned. of sand, scale, to oxides, virgin and other material

All traces are removed








surface for bonding final finishes. The airless blast machine is used for cleaning engine blocks, crankshafts, castings of different shape and size, railroad cars, car wheels, oil and gas pipes, steel strip, and many other purposes.











provided? Ans. It is an oxidising process used for Alluminium The article to be anodised is made

and magnesium articles.

anode and sulphuric, oxalic and chromic acids are used as an electrolyte. oxidising process The coating is produced entirely by the and not by plating. The coating so


Unit - 6


produced is hard but at the same time it is porous enough and hence advantageous from decorative point of view. oxide coatings enable organic coatings and dyes Such to be

successfully used on Alluminium article surfaces.


Alluminium glasses and pitchers are the examples of this class.

Q.5. Write short notes on (1) Parkerizing (2) Tumbling Ans. (1) Parkerizing : It is a process used for making thin phosphate coatings on steel to act as a base or primer for enamels and paints. dipped in a at heated In this process steel articles are solution of of magnesium for about dihydrogen 45 minutes. magnesium 88oC the

phosphate During the






dihydrogen phosphate decompose and phosphate separates out and forms a thin coating on the steel articles. (2) Tumbling :- Tumbling, often, is the least expensive process for removing rust and scale from metal parts.

Parts configuration and size are the primary limitations of the process. Tumbling in dry abrasives (deburring

compounds) is effective for removing rust and scale from small parts of simple shape. However, parts of complex

shape, with deep recess and other irregularities, cannot be descaled uniformly by tumbling. It may require several The addition of compounds will

hours of tumbling, if the method is used. descaling compounds instead of deburring

often decrease the tumbling time by 75 percent. The operation is accomplished by placing

workpieces in a drum or barrel, together with stars, jacks, slugs, or abrasive materials. The abrasive materials can

be sand, granite chips, slag, or Alluminium oxide pellets. In operation, the barrel is rotated, and the movement of


Unit - 6

128 and the accompanying slugs or abrasive


material against each other produces by friction a fine cutting action which remove the fins, flashes, and scale from the products.

Q.6. What is buffing ? Ans. this jobs. buffing Semi-automatic machines are mostly used for doing These machines carry a series of polishing and which can be adjusted to different


positions so that all surfaces of the part can either be polished or buffed as required. selected are governed by the The compounds and wheels shape of the part, the

material of which it is fabricated, and the appearance of the product. For ordinary and buffing polishing wheels and are buffing on




floor polishing lathes. Commonly used polishing wheels are constructed of canvas, muslin, felt, and leather, while buffs are flexible wheels made of cotton cloth, canvas, linen, flannel or wool discs. Polishing and buffing compounds, like wheels, are usually divided in two broad categories : (1) cutting down, the removing of scratches and grain lines from previous operations, and (2) colouring, which gives the product the final, bright, deep luster. Buffing compounds can either be greaseless or

have a grease base.

A mixture of glue base, a softening Grease Many

agent, and a mineral make up a greaseless compound. buffing compounds use oil, tallow, and other bonds. abrasive elements are used for the colouring


such as red rouge, green rouse, crocus, and white colouring compounds.


Unit - 6

129 the specific difference between Electro


plating and Electroforming? Ans. The difference being that between in electroplating the and metal



permanently sticks to the cathode, whereas in a solid shell is produced around the cathode which can be separated from it.

Q.8. Write short note on metal spraying covering mainly the following :1) Surface preparation 2) Methods of spraying Ans: treat Metal with spraying or coat or metallizing a metal or literally metallic means to



Metallizing as a process normally includes the preparation of base material, the spraying on the metal and finally finishing the surface by grinding. 1) Surface preparation : The surface of parent metal is properly prepared as the bond between the sprayed metal parent metal is purely mechanical. The surface is cleaned

by blasting with sharp silica sand or angular steel grit. Cylindrical objects are prepared by machining small grooves on the surface followed by rolling over the tops of these grooves with a tool similar to the knurling tool. Both of

the methods roughen the surface and provide the necessary interlocking surfaces, so that the plastic material can be easily adhered to the surface.


Unit - 6


The molten material is blown with considerable force, which causes the interlocking with surface irregularities. sprayed metal itself provides a suitable surface The for

successive coatings and permits the building up a layer of considerable thickness.

2) Methods of spraying : Basically, there are two types of equipments used for metal spraying. On is the metallic-gun

which consists of a gas torch with a hole in the centre of the tip for the wire, a small air turbine and gears to feed in the wire through the tip into the flame as fast as it melts and an air cap around the torch tip and nozzle which supplies a blast of air to atomise the molten metal and deposit in on the prepared surface. In other method,

powdered metal is fed from a container through a rubber hose to the spray-gun and out through the centre of the flame, similar to the wire gun. In this case metal is

already in the atomised form and hence air needed is just sufficient to deposit the molten metal on the surface being coated. The important having no in applications their of both fields. less, the methods The is are

respective or gears,

powder-gun lighter to



handle and without the blast of atomising air, can be used more effectively to heat the base metal when such heat is needed. form On the other hand, metal is less expensive in wire in powder form; metal in wire form is more


readily available, and more easily handled. 3)Applications in manufacturing :(1) Corrosion-Protection:The most extensive use of metal

spraying is the application of Alluminium and zinc into iron and steel. Calorising is frequently accomplished by


Unit - 6


spraying of 0.125 mm Alluminium on steel and then heating the part to form iron Alluminium compound on the surface. (2) Hard and noble surface:One big application of

metallizing is the application of special metal surface on large masses of less costly metal e.g., a big shaft required to be corrosion resistant need not be made

completely of stainless steel. any metal and then

It might be made first of with the noble metal.


Similarly the metallizing may be applied for abrasion or wear resistance, corrosion protection and electrical or magnetic properties etc. Most of the regular hard

surfacing materials are available in powdered form and can be sprayed when thin coatings are prepared. (3) Soldering surfaces:- Sprayed copper is frequently used on non-metallic parts when it is desired to attach parts by soldering. The procedure may also be adopted on hard

solder metals such as magnesium, when galvanic corrosion is not a consideration. (4) Electrical conductivity:- Conductive coating of copper and silver can be obtained on poor conductor e.g., by spraying copper on most of carbon brushes for motors and generators for better electrical connection. (5) Thermal conductivity:Sometimes it is desirable to

have surface to carry away heat from hot spots on poor conductors. In this case copper can be sprayed and it

has further advantage of perfectly fitting into the nonconducting part and gives best efficiency. (6) Its other applications are in having decorative films, reflecting surface and special metal forms.

Q.9. Describe the following processes. Ans. 1) Anodising: 2)Shot-peening.


Unit - 6

132 has been of developed metal by The recently setting process to up is

Shot-peening the fatigue stresses

resistance in the



carried out by blasting or hurling a rain of small shots pneumatically or mechanically at high velocity against the worked surface. striking of Small indentations are produced due to which causes the metal to flow


plastically to a depth of few tenths of mm. is adopted to remove stress concentrations

This process on parts of

irregular shapes or at local areas.

Q.11. What is Anodising? Give its applications.

Q.12. What is pickling? What processes must be carried out before it? Ans. The most common method of removing unwanted

pigmented compounds which are mostly oxides of metal is by acid pickling. Either diluted sulphuric, hydrochloric or

phosphoric acid is sprayed on the part, or the part is dipped into a tank, agitated, and then washed and rinsed thoroughly. Muriatic acid can also be used either hot or Alkaline cleaning of the part

cold as a pickling solution.

should be used first to remove all dirts and oils in order to obtain an even removal of the oxides during the pickling process. Sometimes it is necessary to add pickling

inhibitors such as detergents, liquid glycol, ether, etc. to decrease the action of acid upon the metal particularly Alluminium and other non-ferrous metals.

Q.13.What is shot peening? What properties does it impart? Ans :- Short peening :improve the fatigue It is a mechanical process used to of metal by setting up


compromise stresses in the surface. It is carried out by blastion or hurling of metal shots on to the surface of a


Unit - 6


component by air prom are or with the help of a wheel revolving at high speed. This process impart some important properties to the metal, such as to remove stress concentration on parts of irregular shapes, increases strength and hardness of the surface and also makes it fatigue resistant.









importance. Ans: Parkerising: Parkerising in nothing but a phosphate

coating on metal surfaces. Phosphate coating are provided on metal surface. Phosphatic coating are provided on metal surface to give the metals large durability. This process is mainly used for steel. Thin coating of phosphate on

steels acts as primer or base coat for paints and enamels. Steels is coated by dipping it in hot bath of manganese dihydrogen phosphate at constant maintained temperature of 88oC for about one third hour. A corrosion resistant film on steel is deposited during this process. Such type of coating is provided on metal surface to make them wear resistant surface, providing a protective coating against the effects of weather and humidity,

providing coloured coatings in different shades, providing a premier base for proper adhesive of organic coating. It also reduces friction to the metal. Q.15. Write note on : 1) Barrel finishing (tumbling)( given earlier) 2) Barrel blasting.

Q.16. What are the special features of electroforming for which it is preferred in industries? Ans. This process is very useful for thin walled parts This

where high accuracy and surface finish are desirable.

is also suited to complicated internal shaped parts which


Unit - 6

134 to machine. The process is also very


advantageous for production of small number of parts for which other methods will be very expensive.

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