MINI PROJECT REPORT Sound operated switch using 555 Timer IC


Sound operated switch is one of the interesting applications of 555 timer IC. The circuit uses a 555 timer IC and transistor BC547 for its operation. The electrets microphone is used to provide the pulse to the 555 timer. The operation is simple. Clap and the lamp turns on. Clap again it turns off. The electrets microphone picks up the sound of your claps, coughs, and the sound of that knocked off the table. It produces a small electrical signal which is amplified by the succeeding transistor stage. Two transistor cross connected as a bistable multivibrator change state at each signal. One of these transistors drives a heavier transistor which controls a lamp. The transistor type is not critical and any n-p-n silicon transistors can be used.



Clap switch is an beginners project done using 555 timer IC. Its application is interesting that we can switch on an off by just clapping the hands. Simply by lying on the bed even we can switch on and off the light. The circuit which is provided in this report is the most simple and economical circuit for a clap switch. Since it uses a simple condenser mike to produce the pulse signal more voltage is not necessary. It can be used for controlling ornamental lightning circuit.




The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude.COMPONENTS USED RESISTOR: A linear resistor is a linear. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. In a high-voltage circuit. the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current through the circuit is called resistance. Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits. particularly analog devices. according to its specific application. and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films. attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinks. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. 4 .4. Thus. This relation is represented by Ohm's law: Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. such as nickel-chrome). as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications.

Cross-Section of a Typical Condenser Microphone 5 . changing the distance between the two plates and therefore changing the capacitance. When the plates are further apart. capacitance increases and a charge current occurs. which uses a capacitor to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. Condensers also tend to be more sensitive and responsive than dynamics. capacitance decreases and a discharge current occurs. The resulting audio signal is stronger signal than that from a dynamic. The diaphragm vibrates when struck by sound waves. when the plates are closer together. A voltage is required across the capacitor for this to work. This voltage is supplied either by a battery in the mic or by external phantom power. In the condenser mic. They are not ideal for high-volume work. an electronic component which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. making them well-suited to capturing subtle nuances in a sound. How Condenser Microphones Work A capacitor has two plates with a voltage between them.CONDENSER MICROPHONES Condenser means capacitor. Condenser microphones require power from a battery or external source. The term condenser is actually obsolete but has stuck as the name for this type of microphone. Specifically. as their sensitivity makes them prone to distort. one of these plates is made of very light material and acts as the diaphragm.

Capacitors can be manufactured to serve any purpose.Used for high frequency purposes like antennas. We can easily make a capacitor from two pieces of aluminum foil and a piece of paper. or dielectric. some capacitors are better for high frequency uses.Good for high voltage applications Ceramic . Mylar. from the smallest plastic capacitor in your calculator. Teflon and even air are some of the non-conductive materials used. Here are some of the various types of capacitors and how they are used. alarms and counters Glass . specific materials are used that best suit the capacitor's function.Most commonly used for timer circuits like clocks. chemical reactions produce electrons on one terminal and absorb electrons on the other terminal. However. to an ultra capacitor that can power a commuter bus. NASA uses glass capacitors to help wake up the space shuttle's circuitry and help deploy space probes. A capacitor is much simpler than a only stores them.Powers electric and hybrid cars 6 . The dielectric dictates what kind of capacitor it is and for what it is best suited. cellulose.Often used in radio tuning circuits Mylar . the terminals connect to two metal plates separated by a non-conducting substance. porcelain. X-ray and MRI machines Super capacitor . for practical applications. Mica. ceramic. Depending on the size and type of dielectric. Inside the capacitor. capacitors and batteries both store electrical energy. while some are better for high voltage applications. as it can't produce new electrons -. • • • • • Air .CAPACITOR A capacitor is a little like a battery. The dielectric can be any non-conductive substance. A battery has two terminals. Although they work in completely different ways. Inside the battery.

NPN transistors consist of a layer of P-doped semiconductor (the "base") between two N-doped layers. the equilibrium between thermally generated carriers and the repelling electric field of the depletion region becomes unbalanced. The arrow in the NPN transistor symbol is on the emitter leg and points in the direction of the conventional current flow when the device is in forward active mode. The BC547 transistor is an NPN bipolar transistor. Most bipolar transistors used today are NPN. The electrons in the base are called minority carriers because the base is doped p-type which would make holes the majority carrier in the base BC547 Transistor Symbol BC547 Transistor Pinouts 7 . because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility in semiconductors. One mnemonic device for identifying the symbol for the NPN transistor is "not pointing in. In typical operation. when a positive voltage is applied to the base emitter junction. allowing thermally excited electrons to inject into the base region. the emitter base junction is forward biased and the base collector junction is reverse biased. These electrons wander (or "diffuse") through the base from the region of high concentration near the emitter towards the region of low concentration near the collector. an NPN transistor is "on" when its base is pulled high relative to the emitter. 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors. allowing greater currents and faster operation. It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V. In other terms. A small current entering the base in common-emitter mode is amplified in the collector output. in which the letters "N" and "P" refer to the majority charge carriers inside the different regions of the transistor. The BC547 transistor is a general-purpose transistor in a small plastic packages. In an NPN transistor.BC547 TRANSISTOR The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor." An NPN transistor can be considered as two diodes with a shared anode region. for example.

555 is very commonly used for generating time delays and pulses. low level (0 V) OUT rises. The 555 timer IC is an amazingly simple yet versatile device. The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer. they are pin-compatible and functionally interchangeable. RESET A timing interval may be interrupted by driving this input to GND. These differences primarily affect the amount of power they require and their maximum frequency of operation. 8 . when this input falls below 1/3 VCC. It is an 8pin timer IC and has mainly two modes of operation: monostable and astable. The part is still in widespread use. pulse generation and oscillator applications. PINOUT DIAGRAM The connection of the pins for a DIP package is as follows: Pin Name Purpose 1 2 3 4 5 GND TRIG OUT Ground.555 TIMER IC 555 is a very commonly used IC for generating accurate timing pulses. This output is driven to +VCC or GND. and interval starts. thanks to its ease of use. In monostable mode time delay of the pulses can be precisely controlled by an external resistor and a capacitor whereas in astable mode the frequency & duty cycle are controlled by two external resistors and a capacitor. The two primary versions today are the original bipolar design and the more recent CMOS equivalent. low price and good stability. 2/3 VCC). CTRL "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default. It has been around now for many years and has been reworked into a number of different technologies.

Open collector output. ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. tone generation. The advantages of LEDs mentioned above have allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed. touch switches. logic clocks. The 555 has three operating modes: • • • Monostable mode: in this mode. smaller size. may discharge a capacitor between intervals. pulse position modulation and so on. improved robustness. and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting. LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. frequency divider. bouncefree switches. pulse generation. V+. capacitance measurement. linearize it and even provide calibration means. and greater durability and reliability. longer lifetime.[3] LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption. turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. missing pulse detection. The use of a microprocessor based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature. Astable – free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include bounce free latched switches. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. security alarms. with very high When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on). early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications 9 .6 7 8 THR DIS The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL. releasing energy in the form of photons. electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device. Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop. VCC Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V. faster switching. but modern versions are available across the visible. pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on. Applications include timers. LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2). Selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor: the period of the output pulse is determined by the temperature. Uses include LED and lamp flashers. if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used.

Some cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode. It consists of a number of voltaic cells.. A separator between half cells allows ions to flow. i. 10 . while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode. but prevents mixing of the electrolytes. i.e. Battery: A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate. the cathode or positive electrode. and other domestic appliances.e. DVD players. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate. In the redox reaction that powers the battery. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including the anode or negative electrode.

Biasing of amplifier: A transistor stage.OPERATION OF SOUND OPERATED SWITCH Conversion of sound to electrical pulse Microphones are types of transducers. so the leakages current of the capacitor (all electrolytic capacitor here will not work). This is connected through “streering” diodes to the base of the transistor which is conducting. but then the current into the device gets reduce which brings down the gain. those two capacitors across the base resistors come into action. This transistor stop conducting. The first time the microphone output goes positive. however. This microphone has a stage of amplification built in. biased near cut-off (that is. The output of the microphone is coupled to the base of the transistor using an electrolytic capacitor (note : using a better capacitor here will not work). Changing State: On a clap. both transistors become off. So at a clap. which can usually be ignored. a microphone is made up of a diaphragm. the base conducts at around half a volt. The capacitor connecting to the base of the transistor which was ON has voltage across it. As the sound of the clap dies away.5. The top of the electrets microphone is at a few volts.e.1 microfarads (100 nanofarads). they convert acoustic energy i. and the other transistor was not conducting anyway. the base conducts at around half a volt. This causes the current through the transistor to increase and this increase in current causes the voltage at the collector. which was sitting near the supply voltage. the state of the bistable changes. (because somebody clapped) this change gets coupled to the base entirely due to the action of the capacitor. to fall to nearly zero. The power for this built in amplifier is supplied by connecing a resistor to a posotive source of voltage and the changes in current get reflected as changes in voltage across this resistor according to the familiar relation V=T*R. A larger resistor will give you a larger voltage. So the collector will have He times this leakage. Then. sound signal. The top of the electrets microphone is at a few volts. almost no current with no signal) amplifier the signal from the microphone. If you clapped loudly enough. The output of the amplifier is converted to a sharp pulse by passing it through a (relatively) low valued capacitor. of 0.But due to the difference in the charges of the two capacitors. The capacitor connecting to the base of the transistor which was OFF has no voltage across it. both bases rise towards the supply voltage. This causes other components in the microphone to vibrate leading to variations in some electrical quantities thereby causing electrical current to be generated. The current generated in the microphone is the electrical pulse. Basically. Its function is to produce no output for (slightly) bigger sounds. so the customary biasing network can be omitted. This is not a high fidelity audio amplifier. which was sitting near the supply voltage at the collector. which is a thin piece of material that vibrates when it is struck by sound wave. the base of the transistor which was previously not conducting reaches the magic 11 . so the leakage current of the capacitor (all electrolytic capacitors leak at least a little bit) will eventually cause he steady state condition in which the leakage of the capacitor goes into the base terminal of the transistor.

New Delhi . 6th edition. ‘Power Electronics: Circuits. Pearson Education.H. while lying in bed) simply by clapping your hands.g. 2004.. B.value of half a volt first. New Delhi 2004. Publications. K. J. television. 2005.S. M. radio or similar electronic device that the person will want to turn on/off from bed. 12 . you have it there .APPLICATION OF CLAP SWITCH The primary application involves an elderly or mobility-impaired person. Rashid.Rico.g. ADVANTAGES : The major advantage of a clap switch is that you can something (e. Pearson Education. Devices and Applications’. “Microprocessor and Microcontrollers”. Two Red Light Emitting Diodes have been placed in the two collector circuits so that this circuit can be made to work by itself. DISADVANTAGES : The major disadvantage is that it’s generally cumbersome to have to clap one’s hands to turn something on or off and it’s generally seen as simpler for most use cases to use a traditional light switch. and display the other prominently. Bogart Jr. 2nd Edition. 6. If you cover up one LED.S. PHI Third edition.Beasley and G. REFERENCES William D. Electronic Devices and Circuits – T. Lal Kishore. a lamp) on and off from any location in the room (e. Pearson Education. Prentice – Hall of India. A clap switch is generally used for a light. Electronic Devices and Circuits – Dr. and stays on. and it gets on. 2007. Until the next clap. Krishna Kant Eastern Company Edition.Stanely. ‘Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits’. 2004.F.a clap operated light.

Energy. the largest democracy with an estimated population of about 1.04 billion. If an AMR system via PLC is set in a power delivery system. So the remote detection of illegal power usage comes under Energy conservation. utilities are losing billions of rupees in this account. The recorded energy is compared with the value at the main kilo Watt-hour meter. particularly electricity. is a key input for accelerating economic growth. If an Automatic Meter Reading system via Power line Communication is set in a power delivery system. The target of this study is to discover new and possible solutions for this problem.PAPER PRESENTATION Remote Detection Of Illegal Electricity Usage Via Powerline Communication C. an error signal is generated and transmitted via PLC network. a detection system for illegal electricity usage is possible .Jinesh Final year EEE. In the detection system. The architecture of the system and their critical components are given. In the case of the difference between two recorded energy data. The theft of electricity is a criminal offence and power 13 . the second digitally energy meter chip is used and the value of energy is stored. The measurement results are given. This paper describes detector system for illegal electricity usage using the power lines based on the research work-taking place at the Central Power Research Institute (CPRI). St. The detector and control system is proposed. INTRODUCTION : this is one of the effective ways by which power theft can be controlled.Power line communications (PLC) has many new service India. a detection system for illegal electricity usage may be easily added in the existing PLC network. Bangalore. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering ABSTRACT: One of the ways through which the power loss occurs is by power theft so in order to conserve the power the power theft should be literally eradicated from the power system Power line communication (PLC) presents an interesting and economical solution for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR). is on a road to rapid growth in economy.

this problem should be solved by electronics and control techniques .possibilities on the data transferring via power lines without use of extra cables. or cyclometer style meter dials. so that disk speed is reduced and the recorded energy is also reduced. Some means of translating readings from rotating meter dials. As is well known. the recorded energy is proportional to electromagnetic field. using power lines. into digital form is 14 . Bangalore ”. only the last two methods are valid for digital meters. The following sections will describe the proposed detection and control system for Methods of illegal electricity usage: In illegal usage a subscriber illegally use electricity in the following ways. 1) Using the mechanical objects: A subscriber can use some mechanical objects to prevent the revolution of a meter. 3) Using the external phase before meter terminals: This method gives subscribers free energy without any record. The scheme is based on the research worktaking place at “Central Power Research Unit (CPRI). illegal electricity usage using the power lines. Therefore. AMR is a technique to facilitate remote readings of energy consumption. the current does not pass through the current coil of the meter. 2) Using a fixed magnet: A subscriber can use a fixed magnet to change the electromagnetic field of the current coils. so the meter does not record the energy consumption. Although all of the methods explained above may be valid for electromechanical meters. BUILDING BLOCKS FOR DETECTION: Automatic Meter Reading (AMR): Fig 2 : AMR communication setup Fig 1: Automatic meter reading The AMR system starts at the meter.In this section the discussion is on how a subscriber can illegally use the electricity and the basic building blocks for the detection using power line communication. 4) Switching the energy cables at the meter connector box: In this way. Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) is a very important application in these possibilities due to every user connected each other via modems.

they can be divided into polemounted transformers. in terms of distribution line types. digital code that translates to the actual reading on the meter dials. Communications systems: used for the transmission. Where transformers are concerned. the meter that is used in an AMR system is the same ordinary meter used for manual reading but the difference with conventional energy meter is the addition of some device to generate Three main components of AMR system are: 1. pad-mounted transformers and indoor transformers. Additionally. controlling electronics and a communication interface that allows data to be 2. controllers. host upload links. POWER LINE COMMUNICATION (PLC): transmitted from this remote device to a central location. The practice of using medium-voltage (11-to-33kV) and low-voltage (100-to-400V) power distribution lines as highspeed PLC communication means and optical networks as backbone networks is commonplace. meter sensors. each with a single opening. or telemetry. High-speed PLC applications of the future include Automatic Meter Reading 15 . In most cases. Electrical power systems vary in configuration from country to country depending on the state of the respective power sources and loads. This technique involves injecting a high frequency AC carrier onto the power line and modulating this carrier with data originating from the remote meter or central station. every user connected to each other via modems with data originating from the remote meter or central station. Meter interface module: with power supply. connection points for adjacent systems are provided in order that paths/loads may be switched when necessary for operation. data concentrators.Under normal service conditions. they can be broadly divided into open-loop systems. One such technique using optical sensor Power line carrier communications take place over the same lines that deliver electricity. pulses relating to the amount of consumption monitored. there are underground cables and overhead power distribution lines. receivers.necessary in order to send digital metering data from the customer site to a central point. In this power network. In the case of tree systems. Central office systems equipment: including modems. of data and control send signals between the meter interface units and the central office. Power line communications has many new service possibilities on the data transferring via power lines without use of extra cables. or generates an electronic. and host computer . and tree systems with radial arranged lines. AMR is a very important application in these possibilities due to every user connected each other via power lines. 3.

(AMR). leakage current detection. the remote. power theft detection. power system fault detection.monitoring/control of electrical household appliances. as well as home security. and billing . Fig 3 : illegal detector system of one subscriber 16 . home networks. and the measurement/control/energy-management of electrical power equipment for electrical power companies. online games.

The host PLC unit reads two recorded data coming from metering PLC units. Although the proposed system can be used uniquely. which is placed in subscriber’s locations. PLC1B. an illegal load may be connected to the power line before the kilowatt-hour meter via an S switch. and 95–148. signaling levels. a PLC modem and an energy meter chip for every subscriber are added to an existing AMR system. In Fig. At the system model. Disk speed of the kilowatt-hour meter is counted and obtained data is sent to PLC modem as energy value of the kilowatt-hour meter. 4. It contains a host PLC modem. and the other. 3–95 kHz are restricted for use by electricity suppliers. PLCNB and energy meter chips belong to the detector. 3. In order to detect illegal usage of electrical energy. in which the frequency bands. If the AMR system will be used in any network. and procedures are specified. These two recorded energy data are compared in the host PLC. In Europe. These units provide communication with each other and send the recorded data in kilowatt-hour meters to the PLC unit. as in the case of illegal usage. and an optical reflector sensor system is loaded at the same phase of the power grid. The recorded data in kilowatt-hour meters for every subscriber are sent to host PLC modem via PLC modems. PLCNA and are used for AMR. . On the other hand. This proposed detector system has two recorded energy data in host PLC unit. PLC signaling is only valid over the low voltage VAC power lines. SIMULATION: The system model and simulation of the detection system of illegal electricity usage is shown in Fig. which comes from the PLC modem at the connection points.The detector PLC s and energy meters must be placed at the connection point between distribution main lines and subscriber’s line. Since this connection point is usually in the air or at underground. and therefore two recorded energy values are different from each other. a contactor may be included to the system at subscriber locations to turn off the energy automatically. While only a legal load is in the system. If the S switch is closed. the host PLC unit and a PLC modem for every subscriber should be contained in this system.5 kHz are restricted to consumer use. 3. As given in Fig. If it is requested. energy meter chips are located at the connection points and read the energy in kilowatt-hours and also send the data to host PLC unit. 3 belongs only one distribution transformer network and should be repeated for every distribution network. one.PLC signaling must be in CENELEC standards. The energy value at the electromechanical kilowatt-hour meter is converted to digital data using by optical reflector sensor.DETECTION AND CONTROL SYSTEM: The proposed control system for the detection of illegal electricity usage is shown in Fig. an electromechanical kilowatt-hour meter and its PLC modem. an error signal is generated. If there is any difference between two readings. the illegal load is connected to the system. This means that there is an illegal usage in the network. it is not suitable for anyone to access. an energy meter chip and its PLC modem. the subscriber address and error signal are combined and sent to the central control unit. such that its control is easy. two meters are accorded each other to compensate for any error readings. The main procedure of the proposed system can be summarized as follows. the host PLC unit and other PLC modems are named PLC1A. The system given in Fig. After that. it is better to use it with automatic meter reading system. which comes from the AMR-PLC. CENELEC has formed the standard EN-50 065-1. The system should be applied to every low-voltage distribution network.3.

. Therefore. M. This is the detection of the illegal usage for interested users. energy value data.F. Lal Kishore. B. 2007. the recorded energy may be received in the digital form directly using the port of the meter. ‘Power Electronics: Circuits. CONCLUSION : The proposed detector system to determine illegal electricity usage via power line communications is examined in the laboratory conditions. Pearson Education. Bogart Jr. there is no need for an optical reflector system in digital meters. 2004. error correction bits. communication bits such as parity and stop bits. ‘Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits’. Krishna Kant Eastern Company Edition. the distribution losses in India can be reduced to a considerable level effectively. the carrier frequency is selected at 132 kHz.Fig 4 : System simulation and modeling of the detection system of illegal electricity usage for electromechanical kilowatt-hour meters The host PLC unit is generated when it received two different records from the same subscriber. Pearson Education.Beasley and G.S. It is very economical and is a reliable solution when it is compared with the economic loss caused by illegal usage . In these tests. New Delhi . Rashid. The protocol may also be changed according to the properties of the required houses. address. which is permitted in the CENELEC frequency band. Once this proposed detection systems are tried in real power lines. 2nd Edition. Electronic Devices and Circuits – Dr. In the digital energy meter system. and other serial REFERENCES William D.Stanely. J. PHI Third edition. Data signaling between PLC modems has a protocol. Devices and Applications’. 6th edition. $ 20–25 per subscriber.H. The results of the tests show that this system may solve this problem economically because the budget of the proposed system is approximately U. “Microprocessor and Microcontrollers”. Prentice – Hall of India. New Delhi 2004. Electronic Devices and Circuits – T. Pearson Education. The data rate between the host and other PLC modems is 2400 b/s. . which includes a header. Results proved that if AMR and detector system are used together illegal usage of electricity might be detected.Rico.S. Publications. 2004.S. 2005. K. In real applications the AMR systems may be designed in CENELEC bands.

What number should fill the blank? ..33 C. and then add 8. (Choice c) is incorrect because a cover is only one part of a book. What number should fill the blank? A. 97 C. 93.)Yard is to inch as quart is to A.novel C.)Look at this series: 83. __. The answer is not (choice a) because a novel is a type of book. 178 Answer: Option D Explanation: This is an alternating division and addition series: First. 85 B. . 43.. 93. is interpolated as every third number.)Window is to pane as book is to A.)Look at this series: 664. 63.gallon C.APTITUDE QUESTIONS 1. a book is not made up of covers. 3.. 332. 340. and a book is made up of pages.. divide by 2. . 73.liquid B. 93. In the subtraction series.ounce D.cover Answer: Option D Explanation: A window is made up of panes. 4. 10 is subtracted from each number to arrive at the next. ____. 89. 109 D. 170.milk Answer: Option B B. The answer is not (choice b) because glass has no relationship to a book.53 D. 2.93 This is a simple subtraction series in which a random number.73 Answer: Option B Explanation: B.

A quart is a larger measure than an ounce (a quart contains 32 ounces).teacher C. 223.. EOO. Choices c and d are incorrect because they are not units of measurement. KUU A. 222.)Pride is to lion as shoal is to A. 122. The second and third letters are repeated.ITT B. U. S. GQQ. the letters remain the same: DEF..student D. D2E2F3 A.GSS D.D2E2F2 . B.self-respect Answer: Option D Explanation: A group of lions is called a 7. The answer is not (choice c) because self-respect has no obvious relationship to this particular meaning of school. 233. DE2F2. K.)CMM. B.DEF3 C. 6. DEF2. 333. _____.D2E3F Answer: Option D Explanation: In this series. The subscript numbers follow this series: 111.GRR C. O. they are also in order with a skipped letter: M. 5. Teacher (choice a) and student (choice b) refer to another meaning of the word school.)DEF.Explanation: A yard is a larger measure than an inch (a yard contains 36 inches).D3EF3 D. 112. Q.ISS Answer: Option C Explanation: The first letters are in alphabetical order with a letter skipped in between each segment: C. E. . A group of fish swim in a shoal. Gallon (choice a) is incorrect because it is larger than a quart. G. I. _____.

)Which word does NOT belong with the others? A.) Answer : 5:19 Explanation : Starting with the watch on the left. and expressway are all high. interstate.freeway D.) .8. a street is for low-speed traffic. add 42 minutes to the time shown to give the time on the next watch to the right. B. 10.speed highways.interstate Answer: Option A Explanation: Freeway.street C.expressway 9.

B. Let the length of the platform be x metres.)A train passes a station platform in 36 seconds and a man standing on the platform in 20 seconds.225 m D. . what is the length of the platform? A.240 m D.200 m C. which a train 130 metres long and travelling at 45 km/hr can cross in 30 seconds. If the speed of the train is 54 km/hr. 130 + 2 Then.) The length of the bridge. 11.x =5 30 2 2(130 + x) = 750 x = 245 m.245 m Answer: Option C Explanation: 45 x 1 8 5 m/sec = 2 5 2 m/sec.250 m Speed = Time = 30 sec. is: A.Answer : To the 4 Explanation : The sum of the numbers pointed to by the hour and minute hands is always 11.None of these m/sec = 15 m/sec. Length of the train = (15 x 20)m = 300 m.120 m C. Let the length of bridge be x metres. 12.300 m Answer: Option B Explanation: Speed = 5 54 1 x 8 B.

(13900 x 22) 6x = 45000 x = 7500.6 C.a.Cannot be determined B. 6500 D. If she paid Rs. 1200 with simple interest for as many years as the rate of interest. and 11% p.3.Rs. 14.300 = 15 36 x + 300 = 540 x = 240 m. what was the amount invested in Scheme B? A. 7200 E. Thomas invested an amount of Rs. None of these Answer: Option B Explanation: Let rate = R% and time = R years.22x = 350800 .Rs. If the total amount of simple interest earned in 2 years be Rs. sum invested in Scheme B = Rs. 7500 .6 D. 2 + 2 = 3508 100 100 28x .a.18 E. 6400.x) x 11 x Then. x and that in Scheme B be Rs. Then. (13900 . So. 432 as interest at the end of the loan period. None of these Answer: Option A Explanation: Let the sum invested in Scheme A be Rs.900 divided in two different schemes A and B at the simple interest rate of 14% p.x). what was the rate of interest? A.) Mr. 13.) Reena took a loan of Rs. respectively.x + Then. x x 14 x (13900 .Rs.7500) = Rs. 6400 C. 3508.Rs. 1200 x R x R = 432 B. (13900 . 13.

The rate of interest per annum is: A. for 3 years = Rs. The period (in years) is: A.5% C. 6125.000 at 7% per annum is Rs. 34347.15% Principal = Rs. for 5 years = Rs. 15. (9800 .9800) = Rs. rate = 3675 = 12% % 6125 x 5 16. 5 5 3 = Rs.12% Answer: Option C Explanation: S.4 1 2 . 3675 B.I. Let the time be n years.2 C. 30.3675) = Rs. (12005 .8% D. (30000 + 4347) = Rs. 9800 after 5 years and Rs. 100 x Hence.3 Answer: Option A Explanation: Amount = Rs.) The compound interest on Rs. 220 x S. 7 Then.100 12R2 = 432 R2 = 36 R = 6.I. 30000 1 +10 0 n= 34347 B. 2205. 4347. 12005 after 8 years at the same rate of simple interest.2 D.) A sum of money amounts to Rs.

273 m Answer: Option C Explanation: Let AB be the lighthouse and C and D be the positions of the ships. The length of the ladder is: A.10 7 10 0 3434 1144 10 7 9 7 n= = = 3000 1000 10 0 0 0 2 n = 2 years. AC 3 AB = tan 45º = 1 AD = AB = 100 m. the distance between the two ships is: A. ACB = 30º and ADB = 45º. AB = 100 m. B.300 m Then.) Two ships are sailing in the sea on the two sides of a lighthouse.4.3 m C.) The angle of elevation of a ladder leaning against a wall is 60º and the foot of the ladder is 4.200 m D.6 m D.2 m .173 m C.73) m = 273 m.8 m Answer: Option D Explanation: B. If the lighthouse is 100 m high.2. AB 1 = tan 30º = AC = AB x 3 = 1003 m.9. AD CD = (AC + = (1003 + 100) m AD) = 100(3 + 1) = (100 x 2.6 m away from the wall. 18. 17.7. The angle of elevation of the top of the lighthouse is observed from the ships are 30º and 45º respectively.

(1.6 (2. 20.Let AB be the wall and BC be the ladder. 2 = 2 x [(4)2 . Weight of iron = (462 x 8) gm = 3696 gm = 3. Internal radius = 3 cm.36 kg Answer: Option B Explanation: External radius = 4 cm.36.61 B.6 m.6) m = 9.61)2 2.2 m.6 kg C.8 B.(3)2] x21 Volume of iron cm3 7 2 x 7 x 1 x = 2 21 cm3 7 = 462 cm3. If the thickness of the pipe is 1 cm and iron weighs 8 g/cm3.4 D.3. 19. AC 1 = cos 60º = BC 2 BC= 2 x AC = (2 x 4.2 C. then the weight of the pipe is: A.696 kg.) A hollow iron pipe is 21 cm long and its external diameter is 8 cm.3. Then.1. ACB = 60º and AC = 4.9 kg .39)2 .696 kg D.39 .)Evaluate : A.

) If 2994 ÷ 14. a .5 ] 14.11 Answer: Option D Explanation: Let the required number of working hours per day be x.0.5 299 1 4 [ Here. How many hours a day must 4 pumps work to empty the tank in 1 day? A.b) a2 .5 0 17 =2 10 = 17.5 = 172.10 D. can empty a tank in 2 days.45 14. More pumps. Less working hours per day (Indirect Proportion) Less days.2 22.172 C.b2 21.12 B.9 299. working 8 hours a day. then 29.b (a .17.61) = 4.172 .45 = ? A.1.) 3 pumps. More working hours per day (Indirect Proportion) Pumps4:3 :: 8 : Days 1:2 x B.39 + 1.94 ÷ 1. 4 =4 1.72 D. Substitute 172 in the place of = x 1 2994/14.9 C.Answer: Option B Explanation: (a + b)(a Given Expression = =b) = (a + b) = (2.2 Answer: Option C Explanation: 29.

24.13 D. Less persons. working 5 hours a day.15 30 x 6 x x = 39 x 5 x 12 x = (39 x 5 x 12) (30 x 6) x = 13.10 C.a = b Answer: Option A Explanation: B.a . Less days (Indirect Proportion) 3 0 Working hours/day6 Persons 3 9 :5 : :: 12 : x B.) 39 persons can repair a road in 12 days.14 Answer: Option B Explanation: Let the required number of days be x. working 6 hours a day.a2 . 23.a + b = 1 C.4x1xx=3x2x8 x = (3 x 2 x 8) (4) x = 12.b = 1 D. In how many days will 30 persons. then: b a A. More days (Indirect Proportion) More working hours per day. complete the work? A.b2 = 1 .) a b If log +log = log (a + b).

7 x0 = Rs.) A man bought 20 shares of Rs. the rate of dividend being 13 . 96. 2 100 Dividend = Rs. 135. [20 x (50 .Rs. log b a So.a b log + log = log (a + b) b a log (a + b) = a b x = log 1. investment = Rs. (50 x 20) = Rs.Rs. 650 from 10% stock at Rs. 26. 25. 6240 D. 9600 = Rs. 1 1 % 2 2 1 3 1 D.5)] = Rs. Face value = Rs. investment = Rs.)In order to obtain an income of Rs.15% Answer: Option C Explanation: Investment = Rs. 3100 C. 900. 96. 1 650 0 B.Rs. 6500 Answer: Option B Explanation: To obtain Rs. 1000. one must make an investment of: A. 1 % 2 2 % 3 C. The rate of interest obtained is: A. 650. 2 100 13 5 x Interest obtained = 90 = 15% 100 % 0 . a + b = 1. 50 at 5 discount. 6 B. 10.Rs. 9 6 x To obtain Rs. 6240.

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