Basic Mathematics
Alan Graham

Acknowledgements
Many thanks to Wendy Austen, Carrie Graham, James Grifﬁn and Sally Kenny for their help in the preparation of this book.

Acknowledgements

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Contents
Meet the author Only got a minute? Only got ﬁve minutes? Part one – Understanding the basics 1 Reasons to be cheerful about mathematics Is this book really for me? Can I succeed now if I failed at school? Hasn’t maths changed since I was at school? Will it help to use a calculator? Can I help my child? 2 The magic number machine Numbers, numbers everywhere Saying hello to your calculator Introducing the counting numbers Ordering numbers Tens and units Hundreds, thousands and beyond Children and numbers Answers to exercises for Chapter 2 3 Calculating with numbers Properties of numbers Adding Subtracting Multiplying Dividing Knowing what sum to do Answers to exercises for Chapter 3 4 Fractions Facing up to fractions What is a fraction? How to picture a fraction Fitting fractions into the number line ix x xii

3 3 5 6 7 8 11 11 14 15 17 18 21 24 25 27 27 31 36 42 46 50 55 61 61 62 64 65

Contents

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5 6 7 8 9 What are equivalent fractions? Adding and subtracting fractions Multiplying and dividing fractions Ratio and proportion Answers to exercises for Chapter 4 Decimals Decimal fractions What is the point of the decimal point? Using the four rules with decimals Dividing fractions An overview of decimals Answers to exercises for Chapter 5 Percentages What is a percentage? Changing a fraction to a percentage Why bother with percentages? Calculating percentage increases and reductions Persistent problems with percentages Answers to exercises for Chapter 6 Measuring What do we measure? Why do we measure? How do we measure? How accurately should we measure? Imperial and metric units Answers to exercises for Chapter 7 Statistical graphs Barcharts and piecharts Scattergraphs and line graphs Misleading graphs Answers to exercises for Chapter 8 Using a formula Is algebra abstract and irrelevant? Algebra as shorthand Calculating with formulas Proving with algebra Answers to exercises for Chapter 9 66 67 69 70 73 76 77 80 82 84 85 89 94 95 97 98 100 105 108 113 113 115 117 119 123 130 134 135 139 144 148 151 151 153 157 161 165 vi .

Part two – Mathematics in action (appendices) Appendix A: Calculating a best buy Appendix B: Reading the 24-hour clock Appendix C: Bus and railway timetables Appendix D: Checking the supermarket bill Appendix E: Understanding a shop receipt Appendix F: Checking the VAT Appendix G: Cooking with ﬁgures Appendix H: Buying a TV set Appendix I: Will it ﬁt? Appendix J: Measures of alcohol Appendix K: Understanding barcodes Appendix L: Junk mail and free offers Appendix M: Winning on the National Lottery Appendix N: Safe travel Appendix O: World population Taking it further Index 229 233 238 243 247 250 253 259 262 265 270 274 277 284 287 289 293 viii .

But. observe and explain patterns when handling data (statistics). mathematics is about responding to an inner human need to pose and solve problems. There are four main strands of basic mathematics: numbers and calculations (arithmetic) shape and space (geometry) Maths handling data (statistics) solving problems x . more than that. Increasingly. be they everyday problems or those of the inventively curious mind. it is about describing and explaining patterns – that includes number patterns (arithmetic) but also patterns in shape and space (geometry). our ‘digital’ world bombards us with numerical information and an essential life skill is being able to generate. Finally. collect.Only got a minute? Mathematics is about numbers.

T. you will ﬁnd 15 case studies showing you how mathematics can help to solve everyday problems and provide insights that would not otherwise have been obvious. …. at the end of this book. ‘Two’. F. The next two letters in this sequence are N and T (the letters are the initials of ‘One’.In the main part of the book you will cover these four themes. S. … Only got a minute? xi . you will also learn what algebra is about and discover how to use a spreadsheet. T. E. … ? Finally. S. You will have the chance to try a variety of puzzles such as the one below: What are the next two letters in this sequence: O. F. ‘Three’.

why they are written that way and how to perform calculations with them. 4¾ and 25%. decimals and percentages are. These each require their own special notation and include numbers like ‘three point seven’. ‘four and three quarters’. Measuring How many times would you say you perform some measurement task during the course of an average day? The answer is probably xii . some basic ideas about numbers are explained in Chapters 2 and 3. Fractions. Clearly a sound understanding of basic maths is useful not just for our own personal needs but also to be able to help others (your child. In Chapters 4. These ‘broken bits’ of numbers can be written using fractions. ‘twenty ﬁve per cent’. 3.7. how they are written (e. decimals and percentages Moving beyond whole numbers raises the question of what lies inbetween them. for example). decimals and percentages. respectively). So.g.5 Only got ﬁve minutes? Numbers and calculations For most people. the topics numbers and calculations represent the core of the mathematics that they learnt at school. Chapter 2 will also help you to become more familiar with a simple four-function calculator. 5 and 6. these two chapters will help you to present ideas about numbers to others and to clarify them for yourself. you will get a straightforward explanation of what fractions. and so on.

There may be even more occasions where you are engaging in informal measurement and this often involves making judgements based on using estimation skills – like working out whether the armchair will ﬁt into the gap between the sideboard and the door or choosing how many potatoes to cook for a family of four. I tend to think about the length of a football pitch or when estimating weights I think of a bag of sugar (1 kilo). But in order to handle these numbers sensibly and with understanding. There are two main ways of seeking out helpful patterns in data. for most people. you need to know how they were measured and in which measuring units.much more often than you think. These are some of the issues explored in Chapter 7. (Note: a terabyte is one trillion. It is hard to avoid the conclusion that we are drowning in statistical data. bytes of information. For example. checking your weight on the bathroom scales and so on. one is to use summaries like reducing the many numbers to a Only got ﬁve minutes? xiii . checking the temperature on a thermostat. Sometimes the measurement you do is formal – perhaps reading the time on a watch or clock. 100 metres. Informal measurement often involves the use of some everyday template or benchmark against which to make comparisons. Statistical graphs and charts A University of California study suggests that 1. reading the dial (in litres or in money) as you ﬁll the car up with petrol. It is worth remembering that numbers which arise in the everyday world have had to come from somewhere and the chances are that they are the result of some measuring process.5 billion terabytes of new information were created in 2008. when estimating.) This is not a static ﬁgure – estimates suggest that it is growing by roughly 30% each year. or 1 000 000 000 000. say. the sight of a page full of ﬁgures gives them the heeby-jeebies. And unfortunately.

I have often heard students observe. scattergraphs and line graphs. algebra. and a and b. when thinking back to their school days. geometry. For your mathematical skills to be useful in solving everyday problems.simple average. but we never actually got to discover why that might be a useful thing to do. knowing how to perform these skills is clearly important. If your mathematics is to be useful to you in the real world. and so on. school algebra was just about learning the rules of handling expressions and equations involving letters. including barcharts. But just as important is the ability to know what skills to use in any given situation and also being able to translate your mathematical answer back into the real world situation where the problem originated. to really fox them. Modelling with mathematics Mathematics is usually deﬁned in terms of the sets of skills it uses – arithmetic. what is the point of doing calculations with letters? For most of us. piecharts. This is a bit like a musician practising scales and arpeggios but never actually getting to play a tune. just when they were getting to grips with doing calculations involving numbers. there are three stages involved: deciding what ‘sum’ xiv . You have been warned! Algebra And then there’s algebra. along came letters like x and y. You will also learn some of the tricks and dodges used by advertisers and others to deliberately mislead the gullible public. A number of such charts are explained in Chapter 8. It is the second approach that is explored here. that. It is a question that you should get a proper answer to in Chapter 9. The other is to depict the data visually using a statistical chart. So.

particularly by taking every opportunity to exploit technologies like the calculator and computer. and you are taken through the solutions step by step. you are presented with 15 everyday scenarios. Remember that successfully tackling these sorts of real problems is just as much about using thinking skills and strategies as it is about being able to perform the calculations. ‘Oh yes. rather than saying vaguely. ‘Mathematics in action’. In Part two of the book. relate the ideas to your own personal experiences try to learn actively (this means actually doing the exercises. a question is posed.to do. This is often referred to as mathematical modelling. here are four useful tips to help you to make your maths journey an exciting and successful experience: go at your own speed and be prepared to re-read sections if necessary where possible. How to succeed at maths Finally. I’m sure I can do that’) be prepared to explore and experiment with ideas. doing the ‘sum’ and interpreting the result. Only got ﬁve minutes? xv .

Part one Understanding the basics .

but was able to get by. Is this book really for me? I wonder what made you decide to buy this book! No doubt each individual has his or her own special reason. even if you have failed in the past • why a calculator will help • how to develop a positive attitude to maths. She could usually work out the sums set by her teacher at school. so I tried to write this book with two particular types of reader in mind. I will call them Marti and Mel. I clearly can’t meet everyone’s exact needs. MARTI Marti was neither particularly good nor particularly bad at mathematics.1 Reasons to be cheerful about mathematics In this chapter you will learn: • why you can succeed at learning maths. As author. an exciting mental world of mathematical ideas to be explored but somehow it never happened for her. She now has two children aged ten and six. She is aware that her own attitudes to mathematics are being passed on all the time to her 1. She had a vague sense that there was. potentially. but never really understood why they worked. Reasons to be cheerful about mathematics 3 .

Or it is possible that you have always regretted that your mathematical understanding got lost somewhere. You now have a richer vocabulary and a wide experience of life. Watching these students at summer school I see excitement. got off to a bad start learning maths at school and disliked the subject. and the difference in motivation is crucial. conﬁdence and – for the ﬁrst time for many of them – the experience of success in a subject they thought they couldn’t do! MOTIVATION A third factor in your favour now is motivation. How different it is now. Or maybe you are a mathephobic parent who wants a better outlook for your own child. MATURITY AND EXPERIENCE You are a very different person from when you were 8 or 15 years old. Hasn’t maths changed since I was at school? Mathematics has changed a bit since you were at school but not by as much as you think. both of which will help you to grasp concepts you never understood before. you have made a conscious choice to study this book. The changes have occurred more in 6 . enthusiasm. and it is simply time to lay that ghost to rest. Perhaps you have chosen to read the book because you need a better grasp of mathematics in order to be more effective at work. through no fault of their own. Children are required to attend school and to turn up to their mathematics lessons whether they want to or not.Insight For many years I have been lucky enough to work for the Open University – sometimes referred to as the ‘second chance’ university. In contrast. Many of our students.

one which does the four functions of add. multiply and divide). In an infants’ classroom I was enjoying watching these 6. As you work through this book. you will see how the calculator can be used as a 1. Once you’ve learnt which key to go to. it didn’t frighten me. ‘What’s this little dash. Most adults have a calculator. Will it help to use a calculator? Yes. This book should help you overcome any anxiety you may feel. but perhaps many rarely use them.the language of mathematics than in the topics covered. It’s just a case of learning. the calculator is more than simply a calculating device. isn’t it. No. You won’t need anything more sophisticated (or more expensive) than a simple ‘four function’ calculator (i. you do it and that’s it. She had just tried subtracting a bigger number from a smaller number on her calculator and had discovered the world of negative numbers all by herself.e. Basic arithmetic is still central to primary mathematics and today’s 12-year-olds are still having the same sorts of problems with decimals and fractions as you did. but it’s like driving a car. But two reasons to think about here are: Firstly. subtract. All right. Insight Visiting schools is a part of my job. it takes you a while to know what each button is. Reasons to be cheerful about mathematics 7 .and 7-year olds excitedly using calculators for the ﬁrst time. You will need to get a calculator before reading the following chapters. There are a number of reasons why this book has been written assuming a calculator is to hand and some of these are spelt out in more detail at the start of the next chapter. As one student explains: It’s only a thing with buttons. miss?’ asked one girl.

there is no reason to condemn your child to the same fate. Can I help my child? Many parents who were unsuccessful at mathematics themselves have the depressing experience of watching their children follow in mother’s or father’s footsteps. giving a better understanding of the key ideas of mathematics. even if you are not yourself a parent. it was something I could see straight away. Being hopeless at mathematics seems to run in families – or does it? While it certainly seems likely that conﬁdence in mathematics passes from parent to child. Secondly. … would never have believed. knowing that you can divide and get larger numbers. Mathematical skills should be useful and insightful to you in your real world and in the real world that most of us inhabit. you will ﬁnd it interesting. So if you consider yourself to be a duffer at mathematics. there is much that you can do to build your child’s conﬁdence and stimulate his or her interest in the subject. This theme will recur throughout the book and I hope that. it is less certain that ‘mathematical ability’ is inherited in this way. I mean. without the calculator. being competent with mathematics isn’t just some abstract skill that divides those who can from those who can’t. but because it was instant. that was a thing that. Indeed. I would have been. Try to stimulate your child’s thinking and curiosity about mathematical ideas. My experience of working with adults has been that looking at children’s errors and experiences in mathematics can be a fascinating ‘way in’ for the adults. This chapter ends with a section on children’s mathematics. The ideal setting for these conversations 8 .means of learning and exploring mathematics. As one student commented: That was something that I enjoyed.

practice is necessary if you are to achieve mastery. but not to get long detailed explanations of things. He said. learning mathematics doesn’t happen just by reading a book about it. Then I could go away and work the rest out for myself. Although explanations can lead to understanding. ‘Yes.’ 10 .Just as with cooking. Insight I once asked my son if his mathematical understanding beneﬁted from having a maths teacher as a dad. carpentry or playing the piano. I just wanted short answers to simple things where I was stuck.

A farmer will check that all the cows are in by counting them as they go through the gate. spin round on petrol pump dials. … It seems that. numbers everywhere Everywhere you look. whatever task we want to perform. provide us with breakfast reading on cornﬂakes packets. the vicar reads out the hymn number.2 The magic number machine In this chapter you will learn: • how to say ‘hello’ to your calculator • about numbers and how they are represented • how children ﬁrst ﬁnd out about numbers. ﬂash up on supermarket check-outs. numbers seem to leap out. Note: In this and all subsequent chapters. 2. Members of the congregation are able to ﬁnd the hymn in their hymn books only if they know how numbers are organized in sequence. Numbers. are displayed on buses. The magic number machine 11 . comments on exercises are given at the end of the chapter. Here are a few more examples. are stamped onto coins and printed onto stamps. They lie hidden in recipe books. numbers have some role to play. At church.

The recipe book says ‘pour into a 9-inch square tin and bake at 180°C for 45–50 minutes’. temperature in degrees Celsius and time in minutes. 12 EXERCISE . say.1 How long can you last without numbers? Take a waking period of. Shortly afterwards I went to make a cup of coffee (I don’t have a very long attention span!). Minutes later the phone rang and I was aware that the person on the other end had just pressed a series of numbers. I tried the exercise while writing this chapter on my computer. highest break. The phone call was to ﬁx a meeting. How would we survive without them? What alternative ways might we think up to organize human activity if we couldn’t count on numbers to control them? Exercise 2. usually in the form of scoring – half-time scores. … You can probably think of lots more examples of your own. placing it into the microwave and keying 1 45 (1 minute and 45 seconds) into the timer. It’s hard to imagine a world with no numbers.1 is designed to help you to be more aware of the role that numbers play in your life. This involved putting milk and water into a cup. winning times. number of runs. we need to know about measurement of size in inches. Within just a few seconds I found that I was adjusting the line width of the text to exactly sixteen and a half centimetres. For this to make sense. Competitive sport is totally based on numbers. so I had to conﬁrm the date and time in my diary. 30 minutes of your life and see how many situations require some use and understanding of numbers. EXERCISE 2. Then read on.

Numbers are the building bricks of mathematics. too few people ever get a sense of the ‘power to explain’ that mathematics offers. Sadly. Let us return now to these building bricks. being able to: read numbers and count tell the time handle money when shopping weigh and measure understand timetables and simple graphs. and see what sense your calculator makes of them. When your ‘number is up’. just like being able to read. If you ‘have someone’s number’. To ‘do a number’ on someone means to cheat them. One is in the practical sense of measuring and using patterns and diagrams. So. practical side. mathematics is a powerful tool for expressing and communicating ideas. For example. The phrase ‘painting by numbers’ means doing something that should be creative in a mechanical and unfeeling way. you have worked out what sort of person they are (and it’s not good!). there are certain basic mathematical skills that you need in order to live a normal life. But as well as having a useful. solving problems with mathematics can also be challenging and fun. 2. then you’d better watch out because you may be about to die. ‘Can I use the symmetry of the garment to make two cuttings in one?’ The pleasure you get from solving these sorts of problems is what has kept mathematicians going for four thousand years! Most of all. The other is more abstract – ‘How can I cut out my pattern so as to use up the least material?’. Insight The word number crops up in many phrases and sayings. The magic number machine 13 . the numbers. Anyone who has done dressmaking or carpentry knows that mathematics can be used in two ways.

Saying hello to your calculator Most basic calculators look something like this. Usual etiquette is as follows. display screen the ‘off’ key OFF % ÷ the ‘divide’ key MRC M– M+ the ‘multiply’ key 7 8 9 _ the ‘subtract’ key the number pad 4 5 6 + the ‘add’ key 1 the ‘on’ and ‘clear’ key 2 3 = the ‘equals’ key ON/C 0 zero the ‘decimal point’ Before we tackle the hard stuff.7734 Turn your calculator upside down and read its response on the screen. you should start by saying hello to your calculator. Press the ‘On’ switch (probably marked ON or ON/C ). 14 . Now key in the number 0.

2. See if you are more convinced about this by the time you have ﬁnished this book. Introducing the counting numbers Let us begin at the beginning. 3. some of which are listed below. Examination boards have largely designed their examinations on the assumption that all candidates have access to a calculator.Good! Having now exchanged ‘hELLOs’. calculators take the slog out of the arithmetic and allow you to focus your attention on understanding what the problem is about. then you can use it for both purposes – to subtract one number from another and to enter a negative number. this is clearly the basis for a good working relationship! As was explained in the previous chapter. this book aims to teach you basic mathematics with a calculator. Insight The word ‘minus’ is a source of great confusion in arithmetic as it has two possible meanings. 5. The magic number machine 15 . the calculator provides a powerful aid to learning mathematics. If your calculator has just one minus key (as does the calculator above). For some types of problem. … No doubt they look familiar enough. One meaning is ‘subtract’ (as in: 6 minus 2 equals 4) and the other is as a negative number (as in: the number that is 3 less than zero is minus 3). Most importantly. let’s see how they look on your calculator. with the counting numbers 1. 2. More sophisticated calculators provide two different ‘minus’ keys for these two rather different functions. There are a number of good reasons for presenting the book in this way. 4. But before you reach for pencil and paper.

You might like to consider in the next exercise which of the numbers from 0 to 9 requires the fewest and which the most dashes to be displayed. has already been done for you). could you turn these into anything useful? 16 . Number Dashes 0 1 2 3 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 EXERCISE b See if you can sketch any new combinations of dashes that are not already covered by the numbers. Then ﬁll your answer into the table below (one.EXERCISE 2. the 3 requires ﬁve dashes and is written as follows. you should see that it is made up of a series of little dashes. Write down what is recorded and make a note of exactly how the numbers are displayed. If you were a calculator designer. the 3.2 Entering numbers Switch on your calculator and key in the following sequence EXERCISE 123456789 Look carefully at the screen. EXERCISE 2. If you look carefully at each number. For example.3 Displaying numbers a Check how the other numbers are represented and count the number of dashes each number needs.

Your table should now enable you to answer the question posed earlier. The magic number machine 17 . you’re hitting my keys too hard!’ Ordering numbers Most calculators can be set up to produce number sequences. Or: Press 1 + 1 and then the = repeatedly. For example: and One possible application of these shapes is to spell letters. What is going on here is that your calculator is doing a constant ‘add 1’ calculation. while the 8 uses the most (all seven). Press + 1 Now press = repeatedly. … If this has not happened. 5. try the following. For example. Was your earlier guess correct? In fact. namely to spot which number requires the fewest and which the most dashes to be displayed. Either: Press 1 + + and then the = repeatedly. the number 1 uses the fewest dashes (two). 4. 3. There are a few combinations not covered by the numbers. 6. 2. Here is a simple one to try. The ‘C’ could perhaps be used to mean ‘Constant operating’ or maybe ‘Careful. the ‘E’ above could be used to refer to ‘Error’ if an impossible key sequence was pressed. You should see the counting numbers in sequence: 2.

but note that it is quite different from the previous numbers. has appeared in this column the nine has changed to a zero It is worth reﬂecting on the fact that numbers do not need to do this. the 1. You should now see the following. Tens and units Let’s have another look at the sequence of counting numbers. Focus on the fact that there are now not one but two ﬁgures displayed here. the 1. the numbers could be extended to look like this: 18 . Repeat the instruction above.Insight The capability to perform ‘constant’ calculations like this is available on most calculators in some form. repeatedly press = until the calculator displays 9. has appeared to the left of the zero. thus: 10 a new figure. 10 Most people will recognize that this is simply a ten. As before. the calculator has a few more squiggles up its sleeve which might be used for extra numbers. It is an extremely useful feature and exactly how and when it can be used will be explained later.3. What has happened in the move from nine to ten is that the nine has changed to a zero and a new ﬁgure. using the constant to add 1. As you saw from Exercise 2. The display should look like this. For example. 9 Pause for a moment and then press the = once more.

I might group them in tens. we have come to an agreement that only ten unique characters are needed for counting. 2. and count how many tens and how many left over. here is a scattering of just some of the one pound coins that I happened to ﬁnd when tidying up my daughter’s money box. as it happens. Probably for the reason that most humans are born with ten ﬁngers and ten toes. 5. These ten characters are called the numerals. 2. 1. So the columns represent the tens. as follows. If you feel that you need practice at dealing with tens and units for slightly larger numbers. 8 and 9. There are therefore 23 coins here: two tens and three units. 6. 7. our number system doesn’t look like this.Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen But. and the ones left over are the units. 4. we simply group numbers in tens. rather than being concerned with how many things the numbers represent. The magic number machine 19 . After counting as far as 9. For example. The word numeral refers to how we write numbers. These are 0. In order to count them. have a go now at Exercise 2.4. 3.

20 . Enter Press = = = = = = = = = = = = Expected Expected Answer tens units = = = = = = = = 44 59 73 66 4 6 8 7 7 4 1 0 47 64 81 70 Don’t press ‘Clear’ here This idea of grouping in tens is the very basis of counting up as far as 99. The next section goes beyond tens and units.. Once again. you have already pressed the ‘clear’ key. you will need to reset the constant by rekeying + 1 = or an equivalent key sequence. count on four more . 3 7. In other words.4 Practising with tens and units Switch your calculator on and once again set up the constant ‘add 1’ by pressing the sequence: + 1 = (or by another method. depending on your particular calculator. as this will destroy the constant setting. at the risk of being boring. See page 18. probably marked C or ON/C . for example.) Now enter the number 37 and press the = key four times... into the world of hundreds and thousands.EXERCISE 2.. If. The result should be 41. 4 1 three tens seven units four tens one unit EXERCISE Note that pressing any key at this point other than the number keys and = is likely to destroy the constant setting. you are reminded not to clear the screen after each sequence.

Let’s explore thousands by setting the calculator to count up in much larger steps. which we call one thousand. you need to regroup and create a new category of ‘ten hundreds’. Remember also not to clear the screen after each sequence. Now enter the number 96 and press the = key four times. The magic number machine 21 . 9 6 . If you want to get any larger.5 Handling hundreds EXERCISE Switch your calculator on and once again set up the constant ‘add 1’ by a method suitable for your particular machine. The result should be 100. you will need to reset it by rekeying + 1 = or an equivalent key sequence.. 1 0 0 nine tens six units one hundred no tens no units You should not press any key other than the number keys and = . thousands and beyond EXERCISE 2. You 2. count on four more .. this time in intervals one hundred at a time. Enter Press 198 399 696 897 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Expected Expected Expected Answer hundreds tens units 2 4 7 9 0 0 0 1 1 4 2 3 201 404 702 913 sixteen times The largest number you can produce with three ﬁgures is nine hundred and ninety-nine.. As before.. In other words.Hundreds. if you have destroyed the constant.

If not. Or: Press 100 + + and then the = repeatedly. Press + 100 and then the = repeatedly. it helps if you say the numbers VERY LOUDLY INDEED. The ﬁnal section of this chapter invites you into the infant classroom to see what things go on and what sorts of notions and difﬁculties young children have with numbers.6 Saying numbers out loud Set your calculator constant to add 1423. EXERCISE This is done by pressing + 1423 (or 1423 + + or 1423 + 1423). try one of the following sequences. 22 . try to develop a sense of what to expect at the next press of = . particularly when the number in the hundreds column is a 9. As you do this exercise. You may have children of your own or may be interested in how these ideas are tackled with young children. This is normal behaviour for mathematical geniuses. try to say out loud the number you see on the screen. each time you press the = key. EXERCISE 2. Now.may be able to work out for yourself how to do this. you can check your answers with those given at the end of the chapter. Incidentally. Don’t worry if other members of your household or your dog think you are crossing the ﬁnal frontier. The number system represents a central theme in the work of teachers of children in the early years of schooling. When you have completed this exercise. To end this section. Or: Press 100 + 100 and then the = repeatedly. it is useful to be able to say numbers as well as to write and interpret them.

the digits are often grouped in threes simply to make them easier to read. tens of thousands and hundreds of thousands lie two additional words that you should know: millions and billions. billion. notice how. billion. the two-digit number 37 is written as 3. write down: a the largest possible four-ﬁgure whole number b the smallest possible four-ﬁgure whole number. For example. followed on the right by 7. 2. It refers to the key idea of how our number system works. billion.EXERCISE 2. the term place value needs to be explained.7 Ordering your ﬁgures Using the ﬁgures 3. it is equivalent to ten billion. with very large numbers like these. billion. billion. A billion is a thousand million or 1 000 000 000. EXERCISE Insight If you think a billion is a large number. By the way. its position in the number) is what determines its value. the three. A million is a thousand thousand or 1 000 000. Incidentally. billion. the Google website was named as a play on the word ‘googol’. To end this section. we agree that the ﬁrst of these digits. By convention. 9. billion. Place value is really another way of describing the whole idea of hundreds. try a googol. billion. namely that the ‘place’ of a digit (in other words. billion. refers to three tens while the seven refers to seven units. 4 and 6 once only. billion. Put another way. tens and units. To understand this point is to understand the principle of ‘place value’. The magic number machine 23 . Beyond thousands. which is 1 followed by one hundred zeros.

match boxes. bottle tops. 5. to becoming aware of what the threeness of three really means in terms of the number of objects – 3 toys. ‘We have three 12s in this room’. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 etc. 3. ﬁve. two. It is a major breakthrough for a child when she learns that ‘three’ is a description that can be applied to a whole variety of different collections (or sets) of things. recorded in the book Wally’s Stories by Vivian Paley. try to pick your way through the following exchange between a four-year-old and his teacher. just in case you thought that helping children to understand number was a straightforward exercise. three. once I caught a ﬁsh alive’. and so on). She will need many occasions in which she physically grasps three objects before three-ness becomes a concept that she can grasp mentally. there is quite a step for children from understanding numbers in a number line. 2.Children and numbers For most children. The number line shown below is a helpful way of enabling children to form a mental picture of the sequence of numbers. and so on. Many school activities in the early years deal with this concept by means of play involving counting out various objects – bricks. The round 12 is the boss of the clock. four. and so on. Wally said one day. number words ﬁrst come into their world through songs (‘Five little speckled frogs sitting on a log’. the long 12 is the ruler. and a short 12. a long 12. and the short 12 is on a calendar. This idea of a number describing how many things there are is known as the cardinal property of numbers. A feature of many such songs is that the numbers are sung in sequence – sometimes the numbers go up and sometimes they go down. 4. … is the ordinal property of numbers (ordinal as in the ‘order’). 3 sweets. ‘A round 12. However. 3 calculators.’ 24 . This property of the way that numbers follow on from each other in sequence 1. 3 bricks. ‘One. Finally.

6 Written on the screen 1423 2846 4269 5692 7115 8538 9961 11384 12807 Said VERY LOUDLY INDEED one thousand four hundred and twenty-three two thousand eight hundred and forty-six four thousand two hundred and sixty-nine ﬁve thousand six hundred and ninety-two seven thousand one hundred and ﬁfteen eight thousand ﬁve hundred and thirty-eight nine thousand nine hundred and sixty-one eleven thousand three hundred and eighty-four twelve thousand eight hundred and seven EXERCISE 2. ‘I’m like the boss of March because my birthday is March 12. The magic number machine 25 . 2.7 Using the ﬁgures 3. The 12 is on the top of the clock. I asked.5: No additional comments. It’s ﬁve.’ ‘Right.‘Why is the 12 on the calendar a short 12?’. It’s really a ﬁve. ‘Me and Eddie measured it.’ Wally stared thoughtfully at the clock. b the smallest possible four-ﬁgure whole number is 3469. 4 and 6: a the largest possible four-ﬁgure whole number is 9643. It comes out ﬁve on the ruler.1 to 2.’ Answers to exercises for Chapter 2 Exercises 2. EXERCISE 2. 9.

SUMMARY In this chapter you were introduced to your calculator and shown its constant facility. we looked at the numerals. and you were then asked to count your way through our whole number system. CHECKLIST You should have the ability to: use the constant facility on your calculator to count on or back in any interval. But numbers have other features worth exploring. By closely examining how numbers are represented on the calculator display. which is their cardinal property. i. how numbers are written. hundreds and thousands. They are also important as a way of describing ‘how many’. This is known as their ordinal property and is nicely represented on a number line.e. based on tens. 26 . You were then shown how to use the calculator constant to count in ones or in any interval. Firstly. they form a natural sequence.

it is worth looking at some of the more useful properties of numbers. even. rectangular and square numbers. So. EVEN OR ODD Choose a selection of your objects (any number between 1 and 12 will do) and try to arrange themww into two rows. for example).e. try to get hold of 10 or 12 small identical objects (coins. minus) numbers ﬁt in. prime. square. Calculating with numbers 27 . buttons. multiply and divide • how negative (i. or paper clips. You will ﬁnd out what is meant by odd. subtract.3 Calculating with numbers In this chapter you will learn: • some important number words – like prime. odd and even • what calculations you need in different situations • about the ‘four rules’: add. before reading on. Properties of numbers Before tackling the sorts of calculation that we normally do with numbers. like this: 3. These terms are best understood by seeing the numbers arranged in patterns on the table in front of you.

there was an odd one over – like this: the odd one over When any selection of things that are laid out into two rows produce an odd one over. mark the box corresponding to whether it is even or odd. like this: 28 . then there must have been an odd number of them. then your selection was an even number of coins. choosing 11 coins produced two equal rows of ﬁve each plus an odd one over. RECTANGULAR AND SQUARE Now choose six of the coins. Notice that they can be arranged in a rectangle as two rows of three. So ten is an even number. However. Exercise 3. like me. choosing ten coins produced two even rows of ﬁve each.If.1 will give you practice at deciding whether a number is even or odd. The ﬁrst one has been done for you. So 11 is an odd number. perhaps your selection didn’t work out like this and. In this case. when the two equal rows were formed.1 Even or odd? EXERCISE For each number. you chose a number of coins that produced two equal rows. EXERCISE 3. Number 11 Even × Odd 7 2 12 8 6 3 1 0 PRIME. In this case.

So seven is not a rectangular number. six is a rectangular number because it can be arranged in the form of a rectangle. You will soon ﬁnd that this is impossible.or as three rows of two. 3. the number 18 is rectangular because 18 coins could be arranged in this way: Now try the same task with seven coins. Calculating with numbers 29 . like this: Either way. No matter how you move them around. the coins will not form a rectangle. they can only be placed on a line. Similarly. like this.

Pause for a few moments now and think about what other prime numbers there are. so 7 is a prime number.2 Prime. Notice that the coins have formed a square shape. mark the boxes corresponding to whether it is prime.Any number which can’t be arranged in the shape of a rectangle is called prime. rectangular or square. A square is a particular type of rectangle. as shown below. rectangular and square numbers. EXERCISE 3. rectangular or square? For each number. Now choose nine coins and arrange them into three rows and three columns. (Note: 9 is also a rectangular number. Number Prime Rectangular Square 9 × × EXERCISE 7 2 12 8 5 3 4 11 30 . so two boxes have been marked.) What other square numbers can you think of? The next exercise will give you the opportunity to practise your understanding of these three terms: prime. The number 9 is a square number because it can be arranged in the form of a square. The ﬁrst one has been done for you. Note that 9 is both rectangular and square.

The square of 5. You will be shown how to: do each operation on the calculator relate each operation to a helpful mental picture do the operations mentally (i. 3. in your head) do the operations using pencil and paper. written as 81. written as 102. is 10. Calculating with numbers 31 . The square root of 25. is 9. Adding The four most basic things you can do to any two numbers is add (+). These are known as the four rules (sometimes referred to as the four ‘operations’). written as 92.e. A few examples should illustrate what square root means. The square of 9. is 100. The square root of 81. written as 100 . written as 52. The square root of 100. written as 25. is 5. is 81. subtract (–). and it is written as . is 25. You should also know that the opposite of a square is called a square root.You have already been introduced to the idea of square numbers like 9 and 25. What follows in these four sections is an explanation of what each operation means and how to perform it. multiply (×) and divide (÷) them. The square of 10.

Note that 14 tens is really 4 tens and 1 hundred. Write the 2 in the units column and ‘carry’ the 1 ten over into the tens column (shown here by a small ‘1’ beside the 6). Add the tens (7 + 6 + 1 = 14). The answer: 95 TU 27 +68 27 + 618 5 27 + 618 95 Example 2 Calculate 173 + 269. Note that 15 is 5 units and 1 ten. Add the hundreds (1 + 2 + 1 = 4) and write the 4 in the hundreds column. Add the units (7 + 8 = 15). Set out the sum like this with units under units (U) and tens under tens (T). tens (T) and hundreds (H). The answer: 442 HT U 173 +269 173 + 2 619 2 173 + 21619 42 173 + 21619 442 If you need more practice at pencil and paper addition. Add the units (3 + 9 = 12). Write the 4 in the tens column and ‘carry’ the 1 hundred over into the hundreds column (shown by a small ‘1’ beside the 2). Set out the sum like this with units (U). 3. do them and check your answers on the calculator. Add the tens (2 + 6 + 1 = 9) and write the 9 in the tens column. try making up some questions. Calculating with numbers 35 . Write the 5 in the units column and ‘carry’ the 1 ten over into the tens column (shown here by a small ‘1’ beside the 6).Example 1 Calculate 27 + 68.

Subtracting CALCULATOR SUBTRACTION Switch your calculator on and. The question is: ‘How many do I now have left?’ This picture demonstrates a key feature of subtraction – that it is the reverse of addition. EXERCISE 5 coins take away 2 leaves 3 36 . Write down in your own words what important property about subtraction this demonstrates. EXERCISE 3.6 ‘Guess and press’ subtraction a Guess the results to each subtraction below and then check your answer on the calculator.6. Try the ‘guess and press’ subtractions in Exercise 3. PICTURING SUBTRACTION Children’s concrete version of subtraction is based on starting with a particular number of objects and taking some away. if necessary. press C to clear the screen. 12 − 7 = 7 − 12 = 32 − 27 = 71 − 57 = b Look again at your answers to the ﬁrst two questions.

Start at position 8. EXERCISE 3. 3. 85. key in a different starting number (say. a Press 84 followed by = = = … But this time. b Set up your calculator constant to ‘subtract 7’ and repeat the exercise given in part (a). Calculating with numbers 37 . subtraction is represented by a movement to the left. Press 100 and then = to see a 95 displayed. MENTAL SUBTRACTION Just as you were able to use the calculator constant to help improve addition skills. don’t press any of the operation keys or the Clear key as this will switch off the constant. … EXERCISE Now. the same approach can be taken for subtraction. try to guess each answer before it is displayed.7 Practising subtraction Set up your calculator constant to ‘subtract 5’ (do this using the − rather than the + key). take 3 steps to the left and you end at position 5. without switching off the constant.Whereas addition on a number line is represented by a movement to the right. 80. 75. Then. Keep pressing = repeatedly to see the number come down in steps of 5: 90. 215) and repeat by pressing = = = … c Now try subtracting larger numbers using the calculator constant. End 3 2 1 Start 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 This example shows why 8 – 3 = 5.

there is no rule that requires you to do it this way. Then you only have to get the rule slightly wrong and the game is up! 38 .8. these are explained on page 53. The problem is that it is too easy to simply follow a set of rules with no real understanding of why the method works. it is possible to go below zero.8 Speed subtraction Use the tip shown above to do these subtractions EXERCISE a 68 – 35 b 98 – 56 c 72 – 55 Set yourself some more subtractions and check your answers with the calculator. Now subtract the 6: 39 – 6 = 33 Here is a slightly more awkward one: 56 – 29 Subtract the tens ﬁrst: 56 – 20 = 36 Now subtract the 9: 36 – 9 = 27 You can practise this shortcut now by doing Exercise 3. where you will meet up with the negative numbers. EXERCISE 3. In fact. For example. eventually you will reach zero.Note that if you keep subtracting repeatedly. suppose you are subtracting 26 from 59 in your head. Subtract the tens ﬁrst: 59 – 20 = 39. Although pencil and paper calculations are usually done from right to left. Here is a useful tip for mental subtraction. PENCIL AND PAPER SUBTRACTION Most children and many adults struggle with performing subtraction on paper.

One 10 and 4 singles 3. which will explain in everyday terms what it is about. Before galloping into an explanation of decomposition.Although there is more than one way of setting out subtraction. What you have done here is to decompose one ten into ten separate singles. each containing 10 sweets – i. 20 sweets in all.e. Six friends turn up and you generously decide to offer a sweet to each one. the method of decomposition is the most common and the easiest to understand. you have 14 sweets remaining – one unopened packet of 10 and 4 singles. 20 sweets in two packs of 10 This involves breaking up one of the packets into 10 single sweets before you can give one to each friend. Calculating with numbers 39 . Suppose you just bought two sweet packets. consider the following scenario. One 10. and 10 singles After handing over the sweets.

Subtract the units (13 – 7 = 6) and write the 6 in the units column. Try to subtract the units (3 – 7). Example 1 Calculate 63 – 37. 9 remaining singles Now look at a written subtraction using this method of ‘decomposition’. because 7 is bigger than 3. as with the written method for addition. 14 singles You hand over the 5 sweets and are left with 9. Reduce the 6 in the tens column to 5 and ‘carry’ the 1 ten over into the units column (shown here by a small ‘1’ beside the 3). Clearly you can do this but only if you open (i. Set out the sum like this with units under units (U) and tens under tens (T). you need todecompose one of the tens in the 63.e. you always work from right to left. This gives 13 in the units column. ﬁve more friends turn up asking for their sweet. The answer: 26 40 . This gives 14 singles.Joining in the feeding frenzy. Note that. decompose) the second packet. However. TU 6 3 –3 7 5 13 –3 7 5 13 –3 7 6 5 13 3 7 2 6 Subtract the tens (5 – 3 = 2) and write the 2 in the tens column.

3. you need to decompose one of the tens in the 534. try making up some questions. Try to subtract the units (4 – 7). Subtract the tens (12 – 4 = 8) and write the 8 in the tens column. Try to subtract the tens (2 – 4). because 7 is bigger than 4. you need to decompose one of the hundreds in the 534. because 4 is bigger than 2. tens (T) and hundreds (H). However. Reduce the 3 in the tens column to 2 and ‘carry’ the 1 ten over into the units column (shown here by a small ‘1’ beside the 4). Reduce the 5 in the hundreds column to 4 and ‘carry’ the 1 hundred over into the tens column (shown here by a ‘1’ beside the 2). However. marked units (U). HTU 5 3 4 –1 4 7 5 2 14 –1 4 7 5 2 14 –1 4 7 7 4 12 14 1 4 7 7 4 12 14 1 4 7 8 7 4 12 14 1 4 7 3 8 7 Finally.Example 2 Calculate 534 – 147. This gives 12 in the tens column. Subtract the units (14 – 7 = 7) and write the 7 in the units column. Set out the sum in columns like this. Calculating with numbers 41 . subtract the hundreds (4 – 1 = 3) and write 3 in the hundreds column. do them and check your answers on the calculator. This gives 14 in the units column. The answer: 387 If you need more practice at pencil and paper subtraction.

young children are offered a vision of multiplication based on rows of identical objects. b As a useful check on your answer.PICTURING MULTIPLICATION Building on the idea of repeated addition. or four rows of three. 9 × 10 = 90. 3. 12 can be thought of either as three rows of four. and 126 are even. For example. any multiplication that includes an even number always gives an answer that is an even number. So 6 × 10 = 60. Note that even numbers are easy to spot since their last digit is always even. Calculating with numbers 43 . Thus 12 × 7 or 9 × 16 will both give an even answer because 12 and 16 are even. Try these. and so on. a Multiplying by 10: Multiplying a whole number by 10 is easy – just add zero. Pictures like these help to explain why 3 × 4 = 4 × 3. but 37 and 83 are not. 115 × 10 = 1150. 38. MENTAL MULTIPLICATION There are several useful tricks and tips to improve your multiplication skills. 12. So.

then the tens and then the hundreds. 30 30 20 600 20 600 20 × 30 = 600 4 120 30 × 24 = 600 + 120 = 720 PENCIL AND PAPER MULTIPLICATION As was the case for pencil and paper addition and subtraction. Now try a harder one: 30 × 24. So the answer to 30 × 24 is 600 + 120 = 720. For example. The dimensions of the new one are 30 × 4. giving 600 coins altogether). d Picture it: Building on the image of multiplication as a rectangle made up of a series of identical rows of objects it is possible to create two or more rectangles whose areas can be summed to give the answer you require. You can extend the rectangle by 4 units to form two rectangles. For example. 44 .c Break it in two: Suppose you are multiplying by 6. you may already know that 30 × 20 = 600. the usual written procedure for multiplication is based on working from right to left. starting with the units. with an area of 120. which has an area of 600 (it may help to think of 20 rows each containing 30 coins. to ﬁnd 7 × 6. This can be represented by the ﬁrst rectangle below. this is the same as multiplying by 3 and then by 2. ﬁrst ﬁnd 7 × 3 (which is 21) and then double your answer (42).

Write down the 5 in the hundreds column and carry the 1 thousand over to the thousands column (shown here by a ‘1’ in the previously empty thousands column). Set out the calculation like this with units under units (U) and tens under tens (T). This completes the ‘multiplying by 7’ part. Multiplying by 7 units Multiply the unit digit (4) by 7 (4 × 7 = 28). Multiply the tens digit (5) by 7 (5 × 7 = 35). 5 4 × 3 7 2 8 5 4 × 3 7 3 52 8 5 4 × 3 7 3 52 8 0 5 × 3 3 52 12 4 7 8 0 Th H T U 5 4 × 3 7 5 4 × 3 7 3 52 8 1 51 2 0 5 4 × 3 7 3 52 8 1 51 2 0 19 98 Finally. Multiply the tens digit (5) by 3 (5 × 3 = 15). I’ve added the hundreds (H) and thousands (Th) columns as well as you will need them in this calculation. or 30.Example 1 Calculate 54 × 37. Write down the 5 in the tens column and carry the 3 hundreds over to the hundreds column (shown here by a ‘3’ in the previously empty hundred column). Write down the 8 and carry the 2 tens over to the tens column (shown here by a small ‘2’ below the 3). Write down the 2 in the tens column and carry the 1 hundred over to the hundreds column (shown here by a small ‘1’ below the 3). The answer: 1998 3. multiply by 10 by putting a zero in the units column. First. Multiply the unit digit (4) by 3 (4 × 3 = 12). Multiplying by 3 tens Note that the 3 is in the tens column so it is actually 3 tens. add all the sub-totals together (including the small digits). Calculating with numbers 45 . This completes the ‘multiplying by 3 tens’ part. The key strategy for multiplying by 30 is to break it into parts.

5 and 6. 46 . Dealing with non-whole numbers (fractions. decimals and percentages) is covered in some detail in Chapters 4. CALCULATOR DIVISION The ‘divide’ key on a calculator is usually written ÷ . do them and check your answers on the calculator. if this exercise were possible (which of course it isn’t) the resulting pile of paper would correspond to a journey of roughly 130 trips to the Moon and back! Dividing So to the fourth and ﬁnal operation described here – division. Then tear the two pieces in half again and stack them together. Estimate the height of the paper pile. Insight: Doubling is troubling Imagine tearing a large sheet of paper in half. Place one half on top of the other. try making up some questions. the height of a house. Very few would put the answer at anything like. even that greatly underestimates the size of the answer. You will have noticed that if you start off with two whole numbers and multiply them. just as subtraction is the reverse of addition. As you will see. Continue in this way until you have made 50 tears. for example). so division is the reverse of multiplication. you end up with an answer that is not a whole number.If you need more practice at pencil and paper multiplication. Most people will come up with answers like 10 cm or maybe one metre high. and this will be displayed in decimal form. However. One reason that people ﬁnd division hard is that this is not true of division – more often than not. say. making a pile four pieces high. you always end up with a whole number answer. If you try this on a calculator. although sometimes it is shown as / (on a computer. you will be amazed to learn that. Repeat the process to produce eight sheets.

Calculating with numbers 47 . How can they all get the same number of sweets? The answer is to share (or divide) 12 by 4: 12 ÷ 4 = 3 Building on the idea of sharing. 12 sweets fairly among 4 people. 12 can be shared among 4 people … giving 3 each. young children are offered a vision of division based on splitting up a collection of objects. For example.10 ‘Guess and press’ division Guess the solution to each of the calculations below and check your answers on a calculator. say. (Note: they have all been chosen to produce whole number answers. a child might be asked to share.) a b c d e f g 12 ÷ 4 12 ÷ 3 24 ÷ 8 48 ÷ 12 72 ÷ 9 2230 ÷ 10 52400 ÷ 100 PICTURING DIVISION The key to understanding division is the idea of sharing equally. For example.EXERCISE 3. EXERCISE 12 objects shared equally among 4 3.

320 by 10. In this example. To divide. c Break it in two: The tip suggested for multiplication also applies to division. simply remove the ﬁnal 0. Since 14 is 2 × 7. Long division is usually reserved for calculations involving large numbers. However. PENCIL AND PAPER DIVISION Unlike pencil and paper addition. starting with the hundreds. you can ﬁrst divide by 2 (224 ÷ 2 = 112) and then divide by 7 (112 ÷ 7 = 16). 5700 by 100. So 320 ÷ 10 = 32. for such calculations I would always whip out a calculator so I propose to avoid this rather cumbersome calculation. armed with a strategic hacksaw. b Be aware that all even numbers can be divided by 2 (this is really what the term ‘even’ means).Suppose you are now dividing 14 objects equally among 4 people. To divide. if it ends in 00. so each person gets ‘three and a half’ (3½) coins. but what is to be done with the remaining 2? There are two choices – either call these the ‘remainder’ and leave them unshared. MENTAL DIVISION Here are some tricks and tips to improve your dividing skills. There are two traditional methods of pencil and paper division. a Dividing by 10: If a whole number ends in zero. remove the ﬁnal 00. it can be divided by 100. you could halve the two remaining coins. say. then the tens and then the units. 48 . it can be divided exactly by 10. suppose you want to divide 224 by 14. The ﬁrst 12 objects can be allocated (giving 3 each). Thus. or attempt to split the remainder into fractions. So 5700 ÷ 100 = 57. say. 36 is clearly even (since its ﬁnal digit is even) and so 36 ÷ 2 = 18. the usual written procedures for division are based on working from left to right. known as ‘short’ and ‘long’ division. For example. subtraction and multiplication.

Most of these terms are listed in Exercise 3. Knowing what sum to do What causes some confusion when using the four rules is that different people use different words to describe them.you need to clarify the circumstances under which it is true – for example: ‘Dividing makes smaller’ is true when both numbers are positive and the number that you are dividing by is bigger than 1.11 The terms used to describe the four rules Tick which term refers to which rule. Term add and difference EXERCISE + – × ÷ divide from goes into how many more how many less less minus multiply plus 50 . EXERCISE 3.11. See how many you recognize.

3. giving the answer. Here is an illustration. as before. Example 2 I have four bottles of milk delivered each weekday and seven at the weekend.Term product share sum subtract take away times + – × ÷ With a calculator to hand. is 5 × 4 + 7 = . The real skills are knowing what sum to do and how to interpret your answer. 27. Calculating with numbers 51 . Example 1 Calculate 5 × 4 + 7. Five lots of 4 bottles (one lot for each of the ﬁve weekdays) is a multiplication: 5 × 4 and seven at the weekend is an addition: + 7 So the solution. 27 bottles. Solution The calculator sequence is 5 × 4 + 7 = . giving the answer. actually doing a calculation is usually straightforward. How many bottles are delivered in a week? Solution The calculation is made up of two parts.

the following question requires a multiplication. 2 Over eight minutes. a What was the temperature rise? b What was the average temperature rise per minute? 3 Denise drinks 15 glasses of water per day. 18 people get on and 9 get off.12 Calculations in context 1 A bus sets out from the depot with 27 people. Calculate the number of people on the bus. if: a after the ﬁrst stop. How many sweets were in the box? An added complication here is the particular choice of the numbers 18 and 3. 52 . although the word ‘share’ usually suggests a division calculation. If a glass holds about 10 cl. How many will she have drunk: a in a week? b during the month of July? c in a year? 4 A bottle of wine is said to provide enough for about 7 glasses. The fact that 18 happens to be exactly divisible by 3 may make it even more likely that someone who hadn’t read the question carefully would do a division. c after the third stop. the oven temperature rose from 21 degrees Celsius to 205 degrees Celsius. 12 people get on and 21 get off. 5 people get on and 16 get off. how much does a bottle hold? EXERCISE Insight Sometimes the wording of the question can fool you into using the wrong calculation. EXERCISE 3. b after the second stop. For example. A box of sweets was shared out among 3 children so that they got 18 each.Here are some for you to try yourself.

Look at these two examples: Although I had only £3 in my bank account. In bank statements these have the letters O/D (standing for overdrawn) beside them. you can’t take more than three away. if you start off with three objects. so that it can show both negative and positive numbers. I wrote a cheque for £5. we take ﬁve steps to the left. However. Calculating with numbers 53 . however. subtraction is normally seen very much in terms of ‘taking away’ objects. taking us to the answer. So really the number line should be extended to the left to look like this. –2. Basically. The banking system hasn’t ground to a halt or the thermometer exploded as a result of these events. –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 Subtracting 5 from 3 can be shown on the number line as follows: Stop 5 4 3 2 1 Start –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 Starting at the number 3 (the right-hand arrow). said as ‘minus two’.NEGATIVE NUMBERS You may have noticed that the subtractions which you have been asked to do so far have been artiﬁcially ‘set up’ so that you have been taking smaller from larger. we just call them minus. The temperature was 3°C and it dropped a further ﬁve degrees overnight. We simply solve the problem by inventing a new set of numbers less than zero. subtraction doesn’t always involve moving objects around. and so. Usually. 3. or negative numbers.

respectively. 54 . which should help to consolidate some of the key points of the chapter.You can check this result by pressing the corresponding key sequence on your calculator. multiply and divide numbers? For example. and indicate whether each number is prime. even or square. right or left. Check your answers using a calculator. × and ÷. Find the temperature which is three degrees less than each of the following. What is the place value of the digit 6 in the following numbers? Number Place value 365 ten 614 496 16 042 1 093 461 EXERCISE 3 7°C is three degrees less than 10°C. –.13 Practice exercise 1 Set yourself a few simple ‘sums’ using the four rules of +. 2 The place value of the 6 in the number 365 is ten. EXERCISE 3. 5 a Does the square of an even number always give an even number? b Does the square of an odd number always give an odd number? c Are all odd numbers prime? d Are all prime numbers odd? e Write down the numbers from 1 to 20. odd. Do the ‘sums’ involving + and – again by drawing a number line and moving. 3 − 5 = Now have a go at the practice exercise below. rectangular. subtract. Check that you get the same answer as with the calculator. Temperature °C 10 Three degrees less 7 4 21 –6 –10 0 3 –3 4 Does it matter in what order you add. does 23 × 15 = give the same answer as 15 × 23 = ? Use your calculator to explore.

but not for subtraction and division. 21.5 a 28 + 39 = 30 + 40 (– 2 – 1) = 70 – 3 = 67 b 21 + 59 = 20 + 60 (+ 1 – 1) = 80 + 0 = 80 c 19 + 38 + 9 = 20 + 40 + 10 (– 1 – 2 – 1) = 70 – 4 = 66 9 × × 11 × 7 × 2 × 12 × 8 × 6 × 3 × 1 × 0 × 7 × 2 × 12 × 8 × 5 × 3 × 4 × × 11 × 3. Calculating with numbers 55 .1 Number Even Odd EXERCISE 3. c The property holds true for addition and multiplication. 104 b With addition.3 a 10. … This is the 7 times table. 21. the order of the numbers being added doesn’t matter. … This is the 4 times table. c 17. EXERCISE 3. 8. 85.Answers to exercises for Chapter 3 EXERCISE 3.4 a 4. 51. … This is the 17 times table. 34. 20. EXERCISE 3. 35.2 Number Prime Rectangular Square EXERCISE 3. 28. 12. 10. 16. 68. 14. b 7.

EXERCISE 3. 56. 14 b Unlike addition. b 84. 208. 74. 70. … 215. … Note the repeating pattern in the last digit. 64. 69. –5. 63. 77. 201. the order of the numbers matters with subtraction. 194. 79.8 a 68 – 35 = 68 – 30 – 5 = 38 – 5 = 33 b 98 – 56 = 98 – 50 – 6 = 48 – 6 = 42 c 72 – 55 = 72 – 50 – 5 = 22 – 5 = 17 EXERCISE 3. 5. 59. 187. EXERCISE 3. … There is no obvious pattern here.6 a 5.10 a b c d e f g 12 ÷ 4 = 3 12 ÷ 3 = 4 (Note: this matches the answer to part a.) 24 ÷ 8 = 3 48 ÷ 12 = 4 72 ÷ 9 = 8 2230 ÷ 10 = 223 52400 ÷ 100 = 524 56 .7 a 84.9 No comments EXERCISE 3.EXERCISE 3. 49.

7 × 10 = 70 cl + • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • – × ÷ 2 3 4 3. Calculating with numbers 57 .12 1 a 27 + 18 – 9 = 36 people left b … + 12 – 21 = 27 people left c … + 5 – 16 = 16 people left a 205 – 21 = 184 degrees b Average temperature rise per minute = 184 = 23 degrees 8 a 7 × 15 = 105 glasses of water in a week b 31 × 15 = 465 glasses of water during the month of July c 365 × 15 = 5475 glasses of water in a year.EXERCISE 3.11 Term add and difference divide from goes into how many more how many less less minus multiply plus product share sum subtract take away times EXERCISE 3.

All prime numbers are odd with one exception. 9. which is 3 × 3).13 1 No comments 2 Number Place value 365 614 ten hundred 4 1 21 18 496 unit –6 –9 16 042 thousand –10 –13 0 –3 1 093 461 ten 3 0 –3 –6 3 Temperature °C 10 Three degrees less 7 4 The order doesn’t matter when adding and multiplying but it does for subtracting and dividing. For example: Adding Multiplying But Subtracting Dividing 5 a b c d e 2+3=3+2=5 2×3=3×2=6 2 – 3 = –1. Not all odd numbers are prime (for example. The square of an odd number always gives an odd number. whereas 3 ÷ 2 = 1 2 The square of an even number always gives an even number. namely the number 2.EXERCISE 3. whereas 3 – 2 = 1 2 1 2 ÷ 3 = 3. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 prime • • • • • • • • • • • • • • rectangular odd • • • • • even square • 58 .

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: The number 1 has not been marked as either a prime number or a rectangular number. Calculating with numbers 59 . 3. It doesn’t comfortably ﬁt into either category. and can’t be classiﬁed in this way.

SUMMARY This chapter started by examining some of the properties of numbers – whether they are even or odd. odd. multiply (×) and divide (÷) were explained on a calculator. using pencil and paper. Next. prime. mental arithmatic and pencil and paper methods. these can be thought of as the numbers that appear to the left of zero on the number line. ﬁnally. You were shown how to use a ‘number line’ to represent numbers and simple calculations. rectangular and square numbers add. The four rules are. of course. multiply and divide using a calculator. CHECKLIST You should have the ability to: identify even. 60 . prime. Finally. in pictures. the so-called ‘four rules’ of add (+). subtract (–). closely connected to each other and these interconnections were explored with the help of a calculator. subtract. for example. rectangular or square. using mental arithmetic and. you were introduced to negative numbers.

They weren’t interesting enough for me. As you will see over the next three chapters. In fact these sorts of fractions are not quite as ‘common’ as they used to be. What we call fractions – things like 1 . I don’t know. The ﬁrst thing you should realize is that fractions. Fractions 61 . a friend Not the most promising start to a chapter on fractions perhaps! It certainly seems to be the case that. now. Facing up to fractions Decimals. 3 and 2 4 so on – should really be called common fractions. I just didn’t seem to grasp them … I just found them boring. sums with fractions can bring the shutters down. they are all slightly different ways of describing the same thing. and fractions. I couldn’t concentrate on them at all.4 Fractions In this chapter you will learn: • how to picture a fraction • about equivalent fractions • how to calculate with fractions. while most people know roughly what’s going on when the four rules are applied to whole numbers. decimals and percentages are all very similar. It wasn’t attractive enough. 4. Sheila.

They have never heard of a fraction. For example.e. as with the square of chocolate. If the remainder of 1 is also shared out among the 3 (people) they each get an extra one third. Decimal fractions look like 0. But ﬁrst of all. but they are quite capable of inventing one when the occasion arises. What is a fraction? Sabine and Sam are four. Fractions occur quite naturally in division (i. fractions can be thought of as the ‘broken bits’ that lie between the whole numbers. and so on. like 8 and 32 . you can be sure that they won’t give it to me. sharing 7 doughnuts among 3: 7 doughnuts shared … … into three lots of 2 … and 1 left over (the remainder) This can be written as follows: 7/3 = 2 remainder 1 But. I produced three squares of chocolate and said that they were to be shared between them. sharing) when the sum doesn’t divide exactly. As will be explained below. 62 . as shown below. They took one square each.125.3 5 Increasingly the more awkward common fractions. let’s ﬁnd out what a fraction is and where it comes from.3. Sabine and Sam may not have heard of a fraction. and are dealt with in Chapter 5. 0. Now what about that third square? Well. for example. or their favourite charity. we don’t always want to leave the remainder ‘unshared’. are being replaced by decimal fractions.

3 or 1/3. The fraction 1 really is another way of writing 1 divided by 3. the more complete answer to this division sum is: 7/3= 2 1 .three lots of ‘two and one third’ So. 7 divided by 3 gives 2 and a third 3 It is important to understand why fractions are written as they are.1 will help you grasp this important idea. a How many segments will each person get? b What fraction of a box will each person receive? 4. the top number is the numerator 1 3 the bottom number is the denominator Exercise 4. The bottom number (the denominator) tells you how many shares there will be.1 Sharing cheese A box of processed cheese has six segments. EXERCISE 4.e. Share two boxes equally among three people. Fractions 63 EXERCISE . i. So the top number in a fraction (called the numerator) is the number of things to be shared out.

You should ﬁnd it helpful to have a mental picture of a fraction. to make a slice of one third. For example. then you need more than pictures. consisting of differentsized slices of circles. We asked each child to create their own personal fraction kit. like this: whole 1 half 1 2 quarter 1 4 three quarters 3 4 These sorts of pictures are helpful as a way of understanding what a fraction is. three quarters and two thirds are part of everyday language. we carried out a piece of ‘action research’ based on introducing fractions to her pupils. they had to ﬁnd a way of cutting a cardboard circle up into three identical slices. 64 . For example: Is 2 3 of a cake bigger than 3 4 of it? Insight A few years ago. to make quarters they needed to make four identical slices. working with primary school teacher Louise Graham. What was unique about our approach was that we didn’t tell the children how big to make each slice – this was something that they had to ﬁgure out for themselves. and so on. But if you need to compare fractions or do calculations with them.How to picture a fraction The common fractions like a half. This can be cut into slices representing various fractions. The picture which is in my mind (and which is used in most schools when fractions are ﬁrst introduced) is to imagine a whole as a complete cake.

21 3 7 310 0 1 2 3 4 5 4. Fitting fractions into the number line The next step is to understand how fractions ﬁt into the sequence of numbers that you looked at in Chapter 2. Louise Graham. First. how to make these slices. 2008. and explain to others. Second. touching and picking up actual physical slices of circles. Alan Graham. This initiative has been written up in several journals.The outcome of this initiative was remarkable. Fractions 65 . which we believe gave them a core understanding of fractions that remained with them long afterwards. they had to think for themselves. By the end of the sequence of lessons. We concluded that there were two key factors to the success of this work. every child in the class seemed to have a conﬁdent understanding of what a fraction was – something that many pupils never achieve after many conventional lessons on fractions. For example: 2 1 is one third of the way between 2 and 3 3 7 3 10 is seven tenths of the way between 3 and 4 The diagram below shows how these fractions ﬁt on the number line. including Mathematics Teaching: ‘DIY fraction pack’. NCETM (National Centre for Excellence in Teaching Mathematics) support CD for teachers. their understanding was based on physicality – they beneﬁted from seeing.

The ﬁrst lot of people might actually get 2 of a cake but that would seem to be the same as 1 . 66 . The word used to describe this is equivalence. Well. Finally. We would say that 2 4 and 1 2 are equivalent fractions. between 2 and 3. and so on. you can see that there are lots of other points between 1 and 2.e. Cake diagram fractions are ‘bits’ of a whole Number line fractions ﬁll in the gaps ‘between whole numbers’ And now you’re ready to add and subtract fractions. How many are there? Are there any gaps at all on the number line when the fractions are added? These aren’t questions with easy answers but you might care to think about them. Try it now. What are equivalent fractions? What is the difference between sharing two cakes among four people or sharing one cake between two people? Well. here is a reminder of how the cake diagram and the number line can help your mental picture of fractions. there is no difference in the share that each person gets. numbers can be thought of as a set of points equally spaced on the line (i. the whole numbers). yet they are different – they have the same value but have different numerals top and bottom. since everybody ends up with half a cake. nearly… Before that it would be useful to know what equivalent fractions are.Until fractions are introduced. So 2 and 2 4 4 1 2 are fractions which are the same. Exercise 4. But as your picture of numbers expands.2 (b) will give you a chance to spot some more equivalent fractions.

it is helpful to think of the slices of cake. 2 4. 8 . Fractions 67 EXERCISE b Find three fractions equivalent to each of the following (the ﬁrst set has been done for you): . like this: 1 3 4 + = 8 8 8 It is usual to write the answer in the form of the simplest equivalent 4 fraction. 2 .EXERCISE 4. can be written as 1 . For example: 1 8 3 + 8 =? 1 8 1 8 + 1 8 1 8 = Here the slices are all the same size ( 1 each) so we just add them 8 together. 1 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 Fraction 3 4 1 2 9 10 1 3 6 24 10 20 Equivalent fractions 6 8 9 12 . 4 10 . 12 . 16 Adding and subtracting fractions When adding fractions.2 Finding equivalent fractions a Mark with an arrow each of these numbers on the number line below: 3 1 9 1 2 4 . so the answer.

suppose you are adding 1 and 2 . what happens when you have to add fractions like the following? 2 3 + 1 =? 2 1 3 1 3 1 2 This time the slices of cake aren’t the same size. For example. this process of breaking fractions up into smaller slices so that they can be added or subtracted is called ‘ﬁnding a common denominator’.However. The way out of this problem is to cut both fractions until all the slices are the same size – like this: 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 Now. with all the slices equal to 6 . Insight It’s easy to add and subtract fractions with the same denominators. By the way. 5 5 the answer is 3 . I could have used slices of 12 or 18 but that would have been unnecessarily complicated. they can be added. so we can’t just add them together. This is like adding 1 metre and 2 metres to 68 . Here your fractions are both in the same 5 ‘units’ of ﬁfths. The calculation looks like this: 2 1 + 3 2 4 3 Both fractions are changed = + 6 6 to equivalent ‘sixths’ 7 = 6 1 = 1 6 1 But why did I choose to subdivide each fraction into slices of 6 ? 1 The reason is that 6 is the easiest fraction that a half and a third will 1 1 break up into.

You would have to convert the units so they are the same and then you could add them. the lowest number that 3 and 2 both divide into is 6. you simply add the 1 and the 2. unless they share the same denominator).3 (the ﬁrst one has been done for you). You can’t do it because the units are different.) This number then becomes the new denominator. Thus in the example above. Fractions 69 EXERCISE . However. To summarize. Exactly the same is true with fractions – you can’t add or subtract fractions unless they are composed of the same-sized slice (i.get 3 metres – because the measurements share the same units. Calculation 2 3 1 2 1 3 4 5 1 5 1 4 1 +4 3 +4 Equivalent fractions 8 12 3 + 12 Answer 11 12 +5 6 1 −2 1 +4 1 −5 Multiplying and dividing fractions How often in your life have you had to multiply or divide two fractions outside a school mathematics lesson? I suspect that the 4. Now try Exercise 4.3 Adding and subtracting fractions Complete the table below.e. so 6 is the new denominator. EXERCISE 4. ﬁnding the lowest common denominator means ﬁnding the smallest number which both the denominators will divide into. suppose you are asked to add 1 metre and 2 feet. metres. (Remember that the denominator is the bottom number in the fraction.

fractions with numerators equal to 1). Insight The earliest known use of fractions is around 5000 years ago in the Indus Valley. Another example is rewriting 12 as 2 4 1 1 1 2 + 3 + 12 . and a tenth of a tenth is one hundredth. This is probably easier to understand by looking at decimal fractions.e. the fraction 3 could 4 11 be expressed as 1 + 1 . it is written as two numbers. it is useful to know a few basic facts – for example. This ‘unholy’ number challenged so many of their beliefs about religion and the natural order of things that they took a vow of secrecy about it. They discovered that the square root of two (written today as 2) could not be expressed as a fraction. which is part of Pakistan today. the Pythagoreans. Typically. So. for most people. when you want to produce a smaller or larger cake than the one in the recipe) where multiplication and division of very simple fractions may be helpful. separated by a colon. I therefore don’t intend to devote much space to this difﬁcult and rather pointless exercise. However. a half of a half is a quarter. 70 . There are also a few practical situations (like scaling the ingredients of a recipe. Come forward another 500 years to the Greek philosophers. Two thousand years later. The story goes that one member of the brotherhood let the cat out of the mathematical bag and was promptly put to death for his indiscretion.answer is. for example. Ratio and proportion A ratio is a way of describing how something should be shared out into two or more shares. the Greeks invented their own form of fractions based on adding unit fractions (i. a simple ratio might be written as something like 2:1 (said as ‘in the ratio two to one’). who were also very aware of fractions. For example. For example. never. so we shall return to this topic in Chapter 5. lest such numbers should come to the attention of a wider public.

with the stipulation that it is to be divided in the ratio 1:2:3. the longest side is exactly three times as long as the shortest side. respectively. £1000 (two shares) and £1500 (three shares). Suppose three children are left £3000 in a will. So there are six shares altogether. Each gets cakes cakes cakes 4.suppose you wish to share £30 between two people in the ratio 2:1. To work out what each child gets. Each gets c 5 cakes among 6 people. This captures the fundamental idea in proportion – when the two ratios are the same. Each one is worth £10 (i. the two shapes are in proportion. 6 3 1 2 Exercise 4.) EXERCISE a 11 cakes among 4 people. £30 ÷ 3). Each gets d 20 cakes among 3 people. (The ﬁrst one has been done for you.4: Practice exercise 1 Share the following equally. Each gets 2 3 cakes 4 b 17 cakes among 5 people. in the ﬁrst triangle below. so one person gets £20 while the other gets £10. Now imagine that you have enlarged this triangle so that its shape stays the same but every length has been doubled.e. Fractions 71 . Proportion crops up when a particular ratio is seen to apply to two different situations. The best way of tackling problems like this is to say that there are three shares altogether. So the three children receive £500 (one share). What you ﬁnd is that the longest side is still three times as long as the shortest side. Divide £3000 by 6 to ﬁnd that each share is worth £500. This means that one person gets two shares while the other gets one. For example. you ﬁrst add the numbers (1 + 2 + 3 = 6). Here is a slightly harder example.

one has been done for you. Charity C was to receive the rest. (The ﬁrst one has been done for you.) Fractions Fractions as twelfths Rank 2 3 3 4 8 12 2 6 7 12 5 6 1 2 3 6 A sum of £600 000 was left to be shared among three charities. 8 4 The fraction 10 can be written more simply as 4. Check that they add to 1. Now add the fractions together.) Fractions Simplest form 5 4 5 4 5 4 6 5 10 12 18 6 9 4 16 8 48 9 18 2 22 (i) Change all the fractions below to twelfths. Charity B was to receive two thirds. (One has been done for you. Write the following 5 fractions in their simplest form. as follows: Charity A was to receive one quarter. putting a rank of 1 against the largest fraction and 6 against the smallest.2 The number 1 consists of 3 thirds. (Again. 72 . Calculate: a the fraction of the sum that went to Charity C b the amount of money due to each charity.) (ii) Now rank them in order of size. How many thirds are there in the following numbers? a 2 d 12 1 b 4 e 33 2 c 10 f 73 3 Write the appropriate fractions onto the slices of the clock.

900 6 60 1000 1 . Fractions 73 . 2 . Fraction 3 4 1 2 9 10 1 3 6 26 10 20 Equivalent fractions 6 . 12 4 10 14 18 . 12 2 18 21 EXERCISE 4.2 a 1 3 11 3 23 4 9 4 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 b There are many possible answers here. 100 4 8 300 1 . 12 8 12 16 2 . 9 . 45 . EXERCISE 4. each person gets 4 or.3 Calculation 2+ 3 1+ 2 1+ 3 4− 5 1+ 5 1− 4 1 4 3 4 5 6 1 2 1 4 1 5 Equivalent fractions 8 + 3 12 14 2 + 3 4 4 2 + 5 6 6 8 − 5 10 10 4 − 5 20 20 5 − 4 20 20 Answer 11 12 5= 1 1 4 4 7=11 6 6 3 10 9 20 1 20 4. 5 .1 a Each person gets 6 + 6 = 12 = 4 segments.Answers to exercises for Chapter 4 EXERCISE 4. 12 20 50 24 2 . 9 . 6 2 3 of a box. in other words. 20 . 3 3 b Expressed as a fraction.

3 12 6 2 1 + 12 + 12 + 12 = 3+2+1+6 = 12 = 1 12 12 4 Fractions Simplest form 5 Fractions Fractions as twelfths Rank 8 10 4 5 2 3 4 6 2 3 3 4 5 12 6 4 8 10 18 9 16 48 1 2 2 6 2 3 7 12 2 3 5 6 1 4 1 2 1 6 9 18 1 2 2 22 1 11 8 9 4 7 10 6 12 12 12 12 12 12 3 2 6 4 1 5 1 2 11 1 6 a Charity C was to receive 1 – (4 + 3) = 1 – 12 = 12 1 b Charity A was to receive 4 × £600 000 = £150 000 2 Charity B was to receive 3 × £600 000 = £400 000 1 Charity C was to receive 12 × £600 000 = £50 000 (As a quick check.EXERCISE 4. 1 6 12 and 3 . 1 d 12 = 3 1 10 e 33= 3 2 f 7 3 = 23 3 1 . Each gets 6 3 cakes 6 36 2 a 2= 3 12 b 4= 3 c 10 = 30 3 3 The fractions are 4 .4 1 a 11 cakes among 4 people.) 74 . 1 These can be rewritten in twelfths and added. Each gets cakes 2 d 20 cakes among 3 people. as follows. £150 000 + £400 000 + £50 000 = £600 000. Each gets 1 3 3 cakes 2 b 17 cakes among 5 people. these amounts of money should add to £600 000. Each gets 3 5 cakes 1 3 c 5 cakes among 6 people.

A useful way of representing fractions is as slices of a cake. 1 2 Equivalent fractions. Multiplying and dividing fractions is easiest to understand when the fractions are written as decimal fractions (see Chapter 5).SUMMARY Fractions can be thought of as bits of whole numbers. and adding the numerators (the top numbers in the new fractions). Fractions 75 . like 2 and 4 have the same value and correspond to the same size of slice of the cake. 4. This means ﬁnding a common denominator (the bottom number in the fraction). Adding and subtracting fractions usually involves rewriting the fractions as equivalent fractions.

Five ﬁngers on each hand (well. However. is that the reason our number system is based on the number ten is because humans have counted on their ten ﬁngers for thousands of years. 5.9. for example: … the winning time of 10. 76 .9. And there is no shortage of those around us. it usually refers to decimal fractions. four ﬁngers and one thumb) seems to be a reasonable number to possess. 5.31 metres) and will appear on a calculator display at the touch of a button. then.5 Decimals In this chapter you will learn: • about the ‘ten-ness’ of numbers • why we use a decimal point and where we put it • about the connection between fractions and decimals • how to calculate with decimals. Just listen to sports commentators. ‘Decimal’ (from the Latin deci meaning ten) is really a way of describing the ten-ness of our counting system. … Decimal points appear whether we are talking about money (£8.14) or measurement (2.84 seconds smashes the world record by two hundredths of a second. any more and we’d have a bit of a struggle putting on a pair of gloves. … the winning scores for the pairs ice skating are as follows: 5. Any fewer and we wouldn’t be able to play the ‘Moonlight Sonata’ with the same panache. What I’m really saying.8.

Decimal fractions
A decimal fraction is simply another way of writing a common fraction. In this section you can use your calculator to discover how fractions and decimals are connected.

EXERCISE 5.1 Deriving decimals from fractions
For each set of questions below: a write down the answers in fractions b use your calculator to ﬁnd the answers in decimals c complete the blank in the ‘Conclusion’ box. The ﬁrst one has been started for you. Key sequence 1 ÷ 2 = 2 ÷ 4 = 5 ÷ 10 = 50 ÷ 100 = 1 ÷ 4 = 2 ÷ 8 = 5 ÷ 20 = 25 ÷ 100 = 3 ÷ 4 = 6 ÷ 8 = 75 ÷ 100 = 1 ÷ 10 = 10 ÷ 100 = Fraction
1 2 5 10 1 The decimal for 2 is

Decimal 0.5

Conclusion

0.5

1 The decimal for 4 is

3 The decimal for 4 is

1 The decimal for 10 is

As can be discovered from the key sequences above, converting from fractions to decimal fractions is very straightforward using 5 a calculator. For example, the fraction 8 can be converted to a
5. Decimals

77

EXERCISE

decimal fraction by dividing 5 by 8, i.e. by pressing the following key sequence: 5 ÷ 8 = This produces the result 0.625.
5 In other words, the fraction 8 has the same value as the decimal fraction 0.625. Exercise 5.2 will give you practice at converting from fractions to decimal fractions.

EXERCISE 5.2 Converting from fractions to decimal fractions
EXERCISE

Now use your calculator to ﬁnd the decimal values of the fractions below. Fraction Decimal
1 2 1 4 3 4 1 10 1 10 1 5 2 5 3 10 9 10 1 20 1 8 1 3

Insight
Practically every country in the world today has a decimalbased system of currency. Decimal day in the UK was 15 February 1971, when the centuries-old tradition of 12 pence to the shilling and 20 shillings to the pound was changed to 100 new pence to the pound. The US system of 100 cents to the dollar dates back nearly two hundred years earlier (the US dollar was brought into existence by the Coinage Act of 1792). PICTURING DECIMAL FRACTIONS You may remember from the previous chapter that fractions could be helpfully represented using slices of a cake. Since there is such a close link between fractions and decimal fractions, it follows that the same helpful pictures apply to decimal fractions.

78

Here are the ‘cakes’ from Chapter 4, but this time with the corresponding decimal fractions added.

whole 1

1 , 2

half or 0.5

1 , 4

quarter or 0.25

three quarters 3 , or 0.75 4

Let’s now turn to the way we represent decimal fractions on a number line. Again, since fractions and decimals are really very similar, it is not surprising that they can both be represented in the 3 same way. For example, the fraction 4 and the decimal 0.75 share the same position on the number line. Thus:
3 4 or 0.75

0

1

Having made a connection between fractions and decimals, the next exercise (called ‘Guess and press’) gets you working just with decimals. The idea is to write down your guess as to what the answer will be for each calculation. Then you press the key sequence on the calculator and see if you are right. The aim of this exercise is to help you see the connection between decimals and whole numbers.

5. Decimals

79

EXERCISE 5.3 Guess and press
Calculation 0.5 + 0.5 = 0.5 × 2 = 0.25 × 4 = 0.5 × 10 = 4 ÷ 10 = 0.1 + 0.1 = 0.1 × 10 =
EXERCISE

Guess 1

Press 1

What is the point of the decimal point?
If the world contained only whole numbers, we would never need a decimal point. However, it is helpful to be aware that decimal numbers are simply an extension of the whole number system. If we think of a whole number, the rules of place value tell us what each of these digits represents. Thus, the last digit of a whole number shows how many units it contains, the second last digit gives the number of tens and so on. For example, the number twenty-four is written as:
2 two tens 4 and four units

However, when we start to use numbers which include bits of a whole (i.e. with decimals) some other ‘places’ are needed. These represent the tenths, hundredths, the thousandths, and so on. The decimal point is simply a marker to show where the units (whole numbers) end and the tenths begin. You’ll get a better idea of this by discovering when the decimal point appears on your calculator. As you do Exercise 5.4, watch out for the decimal point …

80

Insight
Apart from the UK and Ireland, most European countries use a comma rather than a full stop as a decimal separator. In other words, a French school child will write 1.75 as 1,75. However, the decimal point is also commonly (and increasingly) used in these countries as the international notation because of the inﬂuence of electronic calculators and computers, which use the decimal point.

EXERCISE 5.4 Blank checks
Complete the blanks and then check with your calculator.
EXERCISE

100 ÷ 10 = 400 ÷ 10 = 25 1 4 7
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

÷ ÷ ÷

10 = 10 = 10 =

÷ ÷ ÷

10 = 10 = 10 =

÷ ÷ ÷

10 = 10 = 10 =

10 = 100 = 100 = 1000 =

You may have got a picture of the decimal point jumping one place to the left every time you divide by 10. Actually, this is a slightly misleading picture. Most calculators work on a principle of a ‘ﬂoating decimal point’. This means that the decimal point moves across the screen to keep its position between the units and the tenths digit. The key point to remember is that the decimal point is nothing more than a mark separating the units from the tenths. Below I’ve written out the more complete set of ‘place values’ extending beyond hundreds, tens and units into decimals. Decimal point Tenths Hundredths Thousandths • (0.1) (0.01) (0.001)

Hundreds Tens (100) (10)

Units (1)

5. Decimals

81

Using the four rules with decimals
If you aren’t sure how to use the four rules of +, –, × and ÷ with decimal numbers, why don’t you experiment with your calculator? You will quickly discover that the four rules work in exactly the same way for decimals as for whole numbers, and for that reason addition and subtraction of decimals are not spelt out here as a separate topic. Back in Chapter 4, I suggested that you could learn about multiplying and dividing fractions by experimenting with your calculator. Exercise 5.5 is designed to help you do just that.

EXERCISE 5.5 Multiplying with decimal fractions
The ﬁrst column in this table gives you three multiplication calculations involving fractions. For each calculation: a change the fractions to decimals (column 2) b use your calculator to multiply the decimals (column 3) c change the decimal answer back to a fraction (column 4). Calculation in fractions
1 2 1 2 3 5 1 ×2 1 ×5 1 ×2

EXERCISE

Calculation in decimal form 0.5 × 0.5

Decimal answer (use a calculator) 0.25

1 4

Now look at columns 1 and 4 and see if you can spot the rule for multiplying fractions. Think about this for a while before reading on.

Rule for multiplying fractions
To multiply two fractions, say 3 and 1, multiply the numerators 5 2 (3 × 1, giving 3), then multiply the denominators (5 × 2, giving 10).
3 3 The answer in this case is 10 : i.e. 3 × 1 = 3 × 1 = 10 5 2 5×2

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as follows. 0. these two fractions can be converted into decimal form. we can check this against the rule for multiplying 1 9 fractions. so the calculation can be rewritten as follows.6 = on the calculator gives an answer of 10. it doesn’t matter whether multiplication is done in fraction form or decimal form. However.25 × 4. just to check that the two methods produce the same result. As before. So. Example 2 Look at this multiplication: 1 24 × 4 3 5 Again. 3 4 2 3 6 × 5 = 4 × 2 = 20 ×5 3 6 3 This can be simpliﬁed to 10 (remember from Chapter 4 that 20 and 10 are equivalent fractions). Pressing 207 ÷ 20 = on the calculator conﬁrms the previous answer of 10. the number 2 4 must be rewritten as 4 . 9 × 23 = 94××23 = 207 4 5 5 20 Finally. and 4 3 5 23 must be rewritten as 5 . these two fractions can be converted into decimal form. 2.35. 5.Example 1 Look at the following multiplication: 3 4 2 ×5 As before. or 10 . so the calculation can be rewritten as follows.75 × 0. we could apply the rule for multiplying fractions.4 Pressing 0. By way of a check.25 × 4.3.75 × 0.6 Pressing 2.4 = on the calculator gives an answer 3 of 0. Decimals 83 .35. this fraction can be converted to decimal form by dividing the numerator by the denominator. We multiply the two numerators and then the two denominators. the result is the same either way.

in my view. 0.875.75 ÷ 0. in this case we get: 3 2 3 ÷ 5 = 4 × 5 = 15 4 2 8 If you check on your calculator (by pressing 15 ÷ 8 = ).Dividing fractions Dividing fractions is a more painful and less useful skill than multiplying them and I don’t propose to waste much time on it here.4 Using the calculator.875. this gives: 0. whereas the 2 is 2 tenths. This topic is one of several ‘casualties’ of the calculator age: it is no longer relevant and.235. A useful way of demonstrating this is to write the number as shown below. the 3 has less value than the 2 since it refers to 3 hundredths. in the number 0. If you are in a situation where you need to divide fractions. A rule of thumb which used to be taught for dividing fractions is to turn the fraction you are dividing by upside down and proceed as for multiplication. a good strategy is to convert the fractions to decimals and perform the division on your calculator. So. Example 1 3 4 2 ÷5 Rewriting as decimal fractions.235 The number is written so that the physical size of each digit indicates its unit value in comparison to the other units. 84 . 8 Insight A useful fact to remember about decimal numbers (and indeed about whole numbers) is that the value of each digit gets smaller as you go to the right. is simply not worth learning. you will see that the fraction 15 has the same value as the earlier answer of 1. this gives an answer of 1. For example. Here are two examples.

0.2 ÷ 1. just to check that the two methods produce the same result. However.03 0. 14 ÷ 5 = 2. So just as you add up to 10 units and then swap them for one ten.10 Ten hundredths are written as 1 in the tenths column.06 0. 21 2 ÷ 3 = 21 × 3 = 21××32 = 42 5 2 5 5 15 which can be simpliﬁed to 14 . so the calculation can be rewritten as follows: 4.8. so you add up to ten hundredths and swap them for one tenth. giving the same answer as before.5 = on the calculator gives an answer of 2.01 0.2 ÷ 1. Decimals 85 . will be shown simply as 0.8. As before. Example 1 6 3 10 Ten units are written as 1 in the tens column. we can check this against the method of dividing fractions 1 described above.10. this fraction can be converted to decimal form by dividing the numerator by the denominator. these two fractions can be converted into decimal form.1 on the calculator display) 5.5 Pressing 4. 5 Finally. the number 4 5 must be rewritten as 21 5 1 3 and 1 2 must be rewritten as 2 .Example 2 Look at this division: 1 1 4 5 ÷ 12 Again. (Note that this result. What this means in practice is being able to understand place value. An overview of decimals As your conﬁdence with decimals grows. 0. you will come to appreciate how decimal numbers are a natural extension of our whole number system.

One obvious property of whole numbers is that the more digits a number has, the bigger it is. Unfortunately this is not true for decimal numbers. For example, the number 5.831659 is actually smaller than, say, 7.2. Don’t be unduly impressed by a long string of digits. What matters is the position of the decimal point. You need to see beyond this string of digits and get a sense of how big the number actually is. For example, it is more useful to know that 5.831659 is between 5 and 6 (or just less than 6) than to quote it to six decimal places. Sensibly used, calculators are an excellent means of seeing beyond the digits of a number. For example, earlier in the chapter, in Exercise 5.4, you were asked to perform repeated division by 10 and then observe what happened to the decimal point of the answer. This is an exercise which you can do with any starting number of your own choice, and the repeated division by 10 can be more efﬁciently done by using the calculator’s constant facility. Exercise 5.6 contains some calculator activities which should help you to become more conﬁdent with decimals.

Insight
A much debated mathematical fact is whether the number 0.9999... is equal to 1. Many students argue that this cannot be true, since 0.9999... clearly contains numbers that are ‘just shy of 1’, even though there is an inﬁnite number of nines. However, here is an argument for showing why these two numbers are equal. Write down 1 as a decimal: 3 1 3 = 0.3333... Multiply both sides by 3: left-hand side = 3 = 1 3 right-hand side = 0.9999... So it follows that 0.9999... = 1.

86

EXERCISE 5.6 Using the constant to investigate decimals
a Set your calculator’s constant to divide by 10. Next enter a large number into the calculator display and then repeatedly press = . At ﬁrst, watch what happens. Later, try to predict what will happen. b Set the constant to multiply by 10. Then enter a small decimal fraction and repeatedly press = . Try to make sense of what is going on and then try to predict what will happen next. c Set the constant to add 0.1 and repeatedly press = . Without pressing the ‘Clear’ key, enter a large decimal number and keep pressing = . d Set the constant to add 0.01 and repeat what you have just done in part c. e Repeat parts c and d but with the constant set for subtraction in each case. f With a friend, play the game ‘Guess the number’, the rules of which are explained at the end of the chapter. Practical situations involving decimals abound, the most obvious example being money. Thus £3.46 represents 3 whole pounds, 4 tenths of a pound (i.e. 4 ten-pences) and 6 hundredths of a pound (i.e. 6 pence).
£3.46 pounds ten-pences pence

However, the money representation of decimals can be confusing. We say £3.46 as ‘three pounds forty-six’, rather than ‘three point four six’, which is the more correct decimal form. This latter version emphasizes the decimal place value of each digit. Otherwise you can get into trouble when dealing with sums of money like one pound and nine pence, which is often mistakenly written as £1.9, rather than £1.09. We grow up with decimals and metric units like metres, centimetres, kilograms, millilitres, and so on all around us. However, we still have feet and inches, pounds and ounces, and these units, known as

5. Decimals

87

EXERCISE

imperial units, are the ones that many adults still feel happy with. These units are explained in some detail in Chapter 7. The main advantage of metric units is that they are based entirely on tens, hundreds and thousands; for example, there are 100 centimetres in a metre, 1000 metres in a kilometre, 1000 millilitres in a litre, and so on. Contrast this with the old-fashioned 14 pounds in a stone, 12 inches in a foot, 1760 yards in a mile, and so on – really a complete shambles!

EXERCISE 5.7 Practice exercise
1 a Mark the numbers 0.35 and 0.4 on the number line below.
0 0.5 1

b Which of the two numbers, 0.35 or 0.4, is bigger? 2 In the number 0.6, the 6 stands for 6 ______. 3 Ring the number nearest in size to 0.78. 0.7 70 0.8 80 .08 7
EXERCISE

4 Multiply by 10: 5.49 5 Add one tenth: 4.9

______. ______.

6 The number marked with an arrow on the line below is about ______.

21

22

7 How many different numbers can you write down between 0.26 and 0.27? 8 Which of these numbers is larger, 24.91257 or 83?

88

Guess the number
A game for two players, based on the calculator constant. Player A secretly chooses a number between 1 and 20 – say 12 – and presses 1 ÷ 12 = 0. The ﬁnal 0 is pressed in order to clear the display. (If your calculator has a ‘double press’ constant, then press 12 ÷ ÷ 0 instead.) Player B has to guess which number A has chosen to hide in the calculator constant by trying different numbers and pressing = . The aim is for B to guess A’s number in the fewest possible guesses. Sample play: B’s attempts to guess the hidden number 12 are as follows. B presses 16 15 9 12
= = = =

Display 1.3333333 1.25 0.75 1.

Comments 16 is too big 15 is too big 9 is too small 12 is the hidden number

Answers to exercises for Chapter 5
Your calculator should have provided you with most of the answers to these exercises. However, here are some of the main points.

5. Decimals

89

EXERCISE 5.1 Key sequence 1 ÷ 2 = 2 ÷ 4 = 5 ÷ 10 = 50 ÷ 100 = 1 ÷ 4 = 2 ÷ 8 = 5 ÷ 20 = 25 ÷ 100 = 3 ÷ 4 = 6 ÷ 8 = 75 ÷ 100 = 1 ÷ 10 = 10 ÷ 100 = Fraction
1 2 2 4 5 10 50 100 1 4 2 8 5 20 25 100 3 4 6 8 75 100 1 10 10 100

Decimal 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.1 0.1

Conclusion

The decimal for

1 2

is

0.5

The decimal for

1 4

is

0.25

The decimal for

3 4

is

0.75

The decimal for

1 10

is

0.1

EXERCISE 5.2 Fraction
1 2 1 4 3 4 1 10 1 5 2 5 3 10 9 10 1 20 1 8 1 3

Decimal 0.5 0.25 0.75 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.9 0.05 0.125 0.33…

90

EXERCISE 5.3 Calculation 0.5 + 0.5 = 0.5 × 2 = 0.25 × 4 = 0.5 × 10 = 4 ÷ 10 = 0.1 + 0.1 = 0.1 × 10 = Press 1. 1. 1. 5. 0.4 0.2 1.

EXERCISE 5.4 100 ÷ 10 = 10 ÷ 10 = 1 ÷ 10 = 0.1 ÷ 10 = 0.01 400 ÷ 10 = 40 ÷ 10 = 4 ÷ 10 = 0.4 ÷ 10 = 0.04 25 ÷ 10 = 2.5 ÷ 10 = 0.25 ÷ 10 = 0.025 ÷ 10 = 0.0025 1 ÷ 100 = 0.01 4 ÷ 100 = 0.04 7 ÷ 1000 = 0.007 EXERCISE 5.5 Calculation in fractions
1 2 1 2 3 5 1 ×2 1 ×5 1 ×2

Calculation in decimal form 0.5 × 0.5 0.5 × 0.2 0.6 × 0.5

Decimal answer (use a calculator) 0.25 0.1 0.3

1 4 1 10 3 10

5. Decimals

91

27.6 No comments. the 6 stands for 6 tenths.0 6 The arrowed number is about 21.7 70 0.9 54.85. 0. For example.78 is ringed below.262 and 0. There are nine of these. say. 21 22 7 There are inﬁnitely many numbers between 0. I could write out the thousandths: 0.26 and 0.269.2623.08 7 4 5. 0.49 5 4.4 is bigger than 0. and so on up to 0. Then I can write out numbers in hundred thousandths. its value is only about 25.2621. 0.EXERCISE 5.91257 contains more digits than 83. 0.2622. 3 The number nearest in size to 0.261. millionths.7 1 a 0.35 0. and so on. 8 Although 24. EXERCISE 5. 0.5 1 b 0. each expressed as a ten thousandth: 0. 92 . 0. and so on.262.263.35 2 In the number 0.263 I could write out nine further numbers. so 83 is larger. But between. This process can continue indeﬁnitely or until I fall over with exhaustion.8 80 .4 0 0.6.9 5.

decimals. 5.45 is half way between 3.25 means 3 4 3 and 3. and conﬁdence with. and so on.03 and so on) ﬁt into the way the number system is organized. here is a checklist of the sort of things you should aim to know about decimals. pounds (£).SUMMARY This chapter should have helped you to make the link between fractions and decimals.5 know that 0. CHECKLIST You should have the ability to: know that the 4 in the number 6. tens. 45.e. you now have a clearer sense of how decimal fractions (i. Finally. numbers like 0. I hope that. kilograms) in practical situations know roughly what answer to expect in a calculation involving decimals.56. 100 and 1000 know that 3. the calculator is an excellent place to start. A variety of calculator activities were suggested which should all contribute to your understanding of. the digits to the right are the tenths. hundredths. hundreds. after reading it. thousandths.75 means 3 4 handle units (metres.4 and 3. and so on. Note: You will have the opportunity of using decimals again when we look at units of measure in Chapter 7. Decimals 93 . If you want to explore numbers. While digits to the left of the decimal point represent the number of units.143 refers to four hundredths mark decimal numbers on the number line arrange decimal numbers in order from smallest to biggest multiply and divide decimal numbers by 10.

Yet this is despite the fact that you can’t pick up a newspaper or watch TV without coming across the words ‘percentage’ and ‘per cent’ over and over. many people ﬁnd percentages difﬁcult. Failing to compare like with like can result in quite incorrect conclusions. Government reports and educational researchers have conﬁrmed that among adults there is a widespread inability to understand percentages. The facts are right but the conclusion is wrong when you realize that the population of Russia is about 80 times that of Ireland. as this example has shown. 95 out of every 100 households) have a telephone. I opened a daily newspaper at random and quickly picked out the following two examples. So it would seem that people in Russia are better off in respect of access to telephones than the Irish. Percentages are a useful device for making fair comparisons. In fact about 95 per cent of households in Ireland (that is.6 Percentages In this chapter you will learn: • why percentages are important • about the connection between percentages. There are roughly 40 million telephones in Russia and only about two million in Ireland. fractions and decimals • how to do percentage calculations • about common difﬁculties that people experience with percentages. Unfortunately. 94 . whereas only about 30 per cent of Russian households have one.

Think back to Chapter 4 6. I think. a percentage is used to describe a ‘bit’ of a number. quite simple. You will get another chance to read them at the end of the chapter. 2 February 1995 The reason for the confusion that most people have with percentages is. Percentages 95 . Many adults and most children don’t really understand what a percentage is. Like them.Read the cuttings below and try to make sense of how the term ‘per cent’ is being used. What is a percentage? The ﬁrst thing you should realize about a percentage is that it is very similar to a decimal and a fraction. But really it is nothing more than a particular sort of fraction. Source: Guardian.

Here are four fractions which are equivalent: 1 2 . it is equivalent to a fraction with a denominator (the number on the bottom) as 100. 50 100 50 is the same thing as ‘ﬁfty per cent’. So. You might read it as ‘ﬁfty out of a hundred’. 50 100 These fractions are equivalent because they share the same value of a half. 100 ) is the same as 50 per cent. out of a hundred Well. 50 The symbol for ‘per cent’ is %. 5 10 . 96 . Put these two clues together and you’ve worked out that a percentage is a fraction ‘out of 100’. 2 4 . if a half (i. So 25% is really another way of writing 25 100 or 25 per cent.on fractions. The two zeros signal that the number 100 is involved. In other words. while the fact that these digits are above and below a quotient line suggest that it is a fraction. 100 . which explained how two or more fractions could be equivalent. what do you think a quarter becomes as a percentage? The answer is 25 because 1 4 25 = 100 or 25 per cent.e. which gives a clue to its meaning. Insight The symbol for per cent is %. A shorthand way of saying this uses the Latin words per centum meaning ‘out of every hundred’. Now look at the last of these four fractions.

percentages can be represented on the number line. If not.1 now.80. Step 1 Change the fraction into its decimal form. Fraction 1 2 3 4 7 10 1 5 1 20 3 5 3 8 Decimal fraction 0. 4 0. EXERCISE 6.) Express the answer in hundredths.Changing a fraction to a percentage By now you might have worked out for yourself how to change a fraction to a percentage.1 Changing fractions to percentages Fill in the blanks in the table below. Let us take the example of 4 converting the fraction 5 to a percentage. 6. press 4 ÷ 5 = on your calculator. In the percentage number line below. Percentages 97 . so 5 (If you ﬁnd this hard to do in your head. you can read the method which I’ve summarized in two simple steps below. The ﬁrst one has been done for you.8 is the same as 0.8 Step 2 You will probably want to practise this. 5 converts to 80%. 200% to 2 and so on. so try Exercise 6. 0. 100% corresponds to the number 1. 4 So.5 Percentage 50% EXERCISE Like fractions and decimals. or 80 hundredths.

and hundredths are very convenient. b A camera is to go up by £5. percentages are rarely represented in the form of a number line but I’ve included it to stress the similarity with fractions and decimals. So here goes … Fraction 3 4 7 10 Hundredths 75 100 70 100 Percentage 75% 70% 3 4 Clearly 75% is bigger than 70%.65% % 0 50 100 150 200 In practice. Why bother with percentages? The main advantage of percentages is that they are much easier to compare than fractions. because the slices of the whole ‘cake’ (quarters and tenths. so we can now conclude that 7 is bigger than 10 . Which of the following would represent the bigger price rise? a Bread is to go up by 6p per loaf. 3 7 4 or 10 ? Written like this you can’t really say. If you look at a practical example you will get a better idea of how useful percentages are. which do you think is bigger. 98 . In order to make a proper comparison. For example. respectively) are not the same size. the fractions need to be broken down to the same size of slice.

so this price rise is affecting our shopping bill every week. the number 43 into a percentage? The answer is no! You cannot turn a single number into a percentage. It is that we tend to buy bread every week. are a very rare purchase and even a £5 price rise will simply not affect most people most of the time. for anything more complicated. Thus. 50 per cent. Here. 100 per cent. 25 per cent or 10 per cent).e. Cameras. There is. on the other hand. of course. it should be possible to do the calculation in your head. I would always use a calculator to calculate percentage changes. percentage price increases (or decreases) are calculated as follows. Let’s now look in more detail at how to calculate percentage increases and reductions. Calculating percentage increases and reductions Where the percentages convert to very simple fractions (e.g. ‘out of’) some other number. are two examples which could probably be done in your head.In summary. ﬁrst. 100 . It must be expressed in comparison to (i. Percentage price increase = Price increase × 100 Original price Perhaps you were able to conﬁrm my calculation that bread went up in price by 10 per cent whereas the camera went up by only 5 per cent in price. 43 out of 50 can be turned into a 43 percentage – it is 50 or 86%. another reason that this increase in the price of bread will cause more concern than that of the camera. Insight: Can you turn. say. However. then.

50 – £1. we get: An estimate of the average price of a new house a year later is £182 000 + £9100 = £191 100.25 = £1. 6. the average price of a new house in a particular town in the Midlands was £182 000. So.50.50 2 = £1. Over the next year. prices of new houses in the town increased by about 5% Estimate the average price of a new house a year later. we know that the prices rose by 1 20 over = £9100 Adding to the original price.25.Example 1 A 50% reduction SOCKS £2.50 a pair Now 50% off!! What is the sale price of a pair of these socks? Solution 1 Since 50% is 2 . Percentages 101 . So the new price is £2. Solution Since 5% is the same as this period. there is a reduction of half of £2. the price rise is 182 000 20 1 20 .25. Example 2 A 5% increase In 2008. This reduction is £2.

102 . Unfortunately. Stage 1: Find the price increase. garages increased all their pump prices by 6%. A possible way of proceeding here is to perform the calculation in two stages. one-staged method.832p. First.06 of the original price. there is a quicker.8p. Petrol prices are usually quoted to one decimal place. As you will see shortly. What is the new price of unleaded premium petrol at this garage? Solution An increase of 6% means an increase of six hundredths. All prices to go up by 6% at midnight tonight. Current petrol prices Unleaded premium.So much for calculating simple percentage increases using pencil and paper only. The price increase is 0.2p per litre. 5.2p = 5. 97. Example 3 A 6% increase Following a budget announcement on petrol tax. i. but you will ﬁnd this method easier to follow if you ﬁrst work through the two stages explained below. The method for calculating percentage price changes is explained in the next two examples.06 × 97. most percentage calculations are more complicated than this and require a calculator. so this price increase would be rounded to the nearest tenth of a penny. or in other words an increase of 0.e. ﬁnd the price increase and then add it on to the original price.

06. the new price is 1.2 = 103.06 comes from. It may not be obvious to you where the 1.032p.0p. the reduction now is only 15%! SOCKS £2. since 15% is not easily converted into a convenient fraction. it makes sense to do this calculation on a calculator. (Notice that the price is written as 103.) As was suggested above.06. It is helpful here to think in terms of hundredths. As for Example 3. Percentages 103 .50 a pair Now 15% off!! What is the sale price of a pair of these socks? Solution Again. As you can see. 100 So. which conﬁrms the previous answer from the two-staged method. if all you want to ﬁnd is the new price.8p = 103.2p + 5. The whole process can be reduced to a single stage. Before the 6% price increase we have 100 of the given amount. by multiplying the old price by 1. which equals 1. rather than 103p in order to stress that the price has been stated accurate to one decimal place. This rounds to 103.Stage 2: Add on the price increase.06 × 97. Adding 6% will increase this to 100 100 6 106 + 100 = 100 . this two-staged method is unnecessarily complex. Example 4 A 15% reduction This time the socks sale is rather less inviting.0p. (Contd) 6.0p. The new price is 97.

by multiplying the old price by 0. You will need some practice at calculating percentage increases and decreases.375 = £2. After rounding. two-staged way and then more directly using the one-staged method.15 × 2. As was the case with Example 3.85.3 now. Anytown Autos VAT @17. The price decrease is 0. The new price is £2.62 104 .375. it is helpful to think in terms of hundredths.50 = £0. Again. How much will it cost with a 30% reduction? EXERCISE 2 Check my garage bill. so have a go at Exercise 6.13. Before the 15% price decrease we have 100 of the given amount.I will ﬁrst do it the long-winded.125. the whole process can be reduced to a single stage. the new price is £2. EXERCISE 6. the new price is 0.50 = £2.50 – £0. Stage 1: Find the price decrease.85. Subtracting 15% will decrease this to 100 100 15 85 − 100 = 100 which equals 0. Rounding to the nearest penny.85 × £2.3 Calculating percentage increases and decreases 1 A chair normally sells at £42. 100 So.5% £34.125. this conﬁrms the previous answer from the twostaged method. Stage 2: Subtract the price reduction.

How much of this will you have left after paying 33% in stoppages? Insight The managing director of a particular company was being interviewed and claimed that: ‘Our proﬁt increased this year by 70% over last year. £100m to £170m – an increase of 70% – then you would be right to be impressed. Many children come away from a lesson in percentages (or whatever) with only a few pieces of the jigsaw and have to somehow ﬁll in the rest of the picture themselves. Unfortunately they don’t always get it right. over one year. a large company were to increase its proﬁt from.’ Are you impressed? The problem here is that he has not stated the sort of sums of money involved. Percentages 105 . Big deal! Persistent problems with percentages It will be no surprise to you to be told that a lot of children’s time in school takes place with one eye shut and the other staring out of the window. Can you spot where the child on the following page has gone wrong? 6. But suppose his company barely broke even over the previous year – let’s say they cleared just £10 proﬁt. say. They would only have to make a proﬁt this year of £17 to show a 70% increase in their proﬁt. or a rise of £12 per week? 4 Your taxable earnings are £884 this month. which would you prefer: a rise of 6%. If.3 If you earn £230 per week.

If you think back to Chapter 4 and the idea of a fraction being a slice of cake. it is not the case that 20 is more than 1 5 .Now. the price of a house represents a huge saving. Each of these slices is a twentieth of the cake and is therefore a very small slice indeed. However. say. 1 20 1 = 5% 1 5 = 20% Shopping during the sales is an opportunity to check out some of 1 these ideas. the chances are that they can be traced back to a fuzziness about fractions. then imagine a cake cut into twenty equal slices. whereas the same percentage reduction from. This is probably the most common misapprehension about percentages. 106 . You may know that 20% 1 is more than 5%. If you still have problems with this. 3 off is a better discount than 10% off. on the other hand is a large slice. Perhaps the most important thing you need to grasp is that fractions. One ﬁfth. For example. decimals and percentages are really the same thing. what were percentages again? I can remember the teacher saying that 1 10% was 10 but I can’t remember much else 1 If 10% is 10 then 5% must 1 be 5 And 3% is 1 3 The problem is that she has started from a true fact that 10% = 10 and built up a rule which doesn’t work for any other fraction. Also remember that 40% off the price of something fairly cheap like a packet of envelopes represents only a small saving in actual money.

5 0. Percentages 107 . 5 Fractions 0 3 5 1 4 1 2 3 4 1 0.25 0.4 Practice exercise 1 Which is bigger. 8% or 8 ? 2 Which is bigger. are prices: a going up? b coming down? c neither? EXERCISE 4 What is 20% of £80? 5 What is 10% of 20% of £80? 6 Here are some egg prices before and after a price rise. 0.75 1 Percentages 60% 0 25% 50% 75% 100% EXERCISE 6.6 Decimals 0 0.6 and 60% have the same value. The arrows show that 3. 15% or 1 15 1 ? 3 If the rate of inﬂation drops from 5% to 4%.I have found that drawing three number lines one above the other is a helpful way of emphasizing these connections. Old price (per half dozen) Small eggs Large eggs 71 84 New price (per half dozen) 75 88 Which has had the greater price increase: small or large eggs? 6. as shown below.

What would the bill be: a without VAT? b if VAT were rated at 25% instead of 17.75 0.1 Fraction 1 2 3 4 7 10 1 5 1 20 3 5 3 8 Decimal fraction 0.7 My garage bill has come to £120. Answers to exercises for Chapter 6 EXERCISE 6.5%? 8 Why do children’s sweets tend to suffer greater inﬂation than most of the other things adults buy? 9 Study the newspaper cuttings on page 96 and then answer the following questions. b Turning to the second article on the same page.2 0. estimate the number of residents in Campodimele who are aged between 75 and 99 years old.5 0.375 Percentage 50% 75% 70% 20% 5% 60% 1 37 2 % 108 . the ﬁnal sentence ends by stating that ‘typical housing costs … would pass the £4000 mark in October’.6 0.05 0. a From the ﬁrst cutting.5%.7 0.93 and includes VAT at 17. Use the information from the rest of the article to check that this ﬁgure is correct.

175 = .2 The solution is in the text. EXERCISE 6.3 × 42 = both of which give the correct answer £12. EXERCISE 6.4 1 is 12 1 % and so is bigger than 8%.40 × 1. (Note: the direct method for checking the ﬁnal bill is to press 186. Percentages 109 .7 × 42 = . Using a calculator. So the reduced price is £42 – £12.40 × 0.80.) 2 The VAT is incorrect.EXERCISE 6. On the calculator you would press 0.62.40.40.3 1 The reduction in price is 30% or 10 .28. The addition was also incorrect. 2 Note: You can use your calculator to convert 1 to a percentage by 8 pressing 1 ÷ 8 × 100 = . which gives the answer £29. (Note: A quicker way of doing this is to say that a 30% reduction will bring the price down to 70% of the old price. Three tenths of £42 can be found on your calculator by pressing either 3 ÷ 10 × 42 = or 0. which is £592. press 186. 4 I will have 67% of £884 left. 6.60.7%.) 3 6% of £230 is £13. so I’ve been overcharged by £10. which is a bigger rise than £12. so 15% is bigger than 1 15 .60 or £29.175 = to give the answer £32. 1 15 1 8 3 2 is approximately equal to 6.

this means that prices have risen. One ﬁfth of £80 is 1 £80 5 = £16.e. 5 10% of 20% is one tenth of 20%.93) as 117. So the net bill (i.5%. Old price (p) Small eggs Large eggs New price (p) Price increase (p) Percentage increase (rounded to 1 decimal place) 4 71 71 75 4p × 100 = 5. 100 Now. as it involves working backwards after the percentage increase has been added.6% 84 88 4p 4 84 × 100 = 4. So.60 6 The solution is summarized in the table below.3 The annual rate of inﬂation measures how much average prices have risen over a year.92 (rounded to the nearest penny). The story line of the solution is as follows: Let the bill without VAT be thought of as 100% and the bill with VAT (costing £120. which is 2%.92. the small eggs have shown the greater percentage rise. 2 2% of £80 = £80 × 100 = £1. If that rate is a positive number (such as 4% or 5%. 7 a This calculation is slightly harder than the others. not including the VAT) is £102. for example).8% So. 4 20% is 5 .5 = 102. So we must divide the total bill by 117. although both eggs have seen the same actual price rise (4p in each case).5 and then multiply by 100. 110 .93 × 117. £120. the current rate of 4% shows that prices are still rising. but not quite as quickly as they were over the previous year. even though the rate of inﬂation has fallen.

g. 112 .g.SUMMARY You should now be able to: realize that converting to percentages makes it easier to compare fractions link percentages to common and decimal fractions convert from percentages to (simple) fractions and decimals 3 and vice versa. 75% = 4 = 0. e.75 express something as a percentage of something else. 6 is 25% of 24 calculate percentage increases and decreases. e.

I think it’s fair to say that. If it is small. And if it is about their own size. If it is large. What do we measure? Most people tend to think of measuring as using weighing scales or a tape measure. humans are slightly more discriminating! Any activity which involves making judgements about the size of things can be called measuring.7 Measuring In this chapter you will learn: • about measuring dimensions and units • how to round numbers • how to convert units of measure. in general. they run away from it. they mate with it. But what sort of thing do these devices tell us 7. Measuring 113 . It is said of frogs that they sort all other animals they meet into just three categories. Although frogs may not be engaged in highly sophisticated measuring here. they are trying to understand the bigness or smallness of things around them. they eat it.

They are known as the metric system of units and the imperial system of units. Because many people are confused by these various units of measure.1 Dimensions and units Complete the table (the ﬁrst two have been done for you). miles. There are. 114 .about? Weighing scales tell us about weight and a tape measure about length. and so on. These types of measurement are called dimensions. area. for example: temperature. inches. angle. capacity.1 will give you a chance to think about these dimensions and also about the units in which they are usually measured. time. of course. they are explained in some detail later in the chapter. grams. I have included two lots of units in the examples above because both are in common usage. and so on. speed. Dimensions of measure are measured in certain measuring units. pounds. metres. volume. while length may be measured in centimetres. For example. many dimensions other than length and weight which we need to measure. … Exercise 7. ounces. weight may be measured in kilograms. EXERCISE 7. Question EXERCISE Dimension of measure weight length Likely units of measure kg or lb cm or in How heavy is your laundry? How long is the curtain rail? How hot is the oven? How far is it to London? How fast can you run? How long does it take to cook? How much does the jug hold? How big is your kitchen? How big is the ﬁeld? As you can see.

or perhaps 70%? … It is interesting that both sides in the dispute have been deliberately 7. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (seconds) Why do we measure? The reason we measure is that. A very large proportion of the staff didn’t show up for work. If you start counting 1. you should start counting from zero. between a lightning ﬂash and the ensuing rumble of thunder. Union spokesperson A large proportion of the staff showed up for work. … you are actually chopping off the ﬁrst second. often we need to be more precise. Measuring 115 . and so on). in seconds. ‘I’d like a small helping’. Management spokesperson The use of the word ‘large’ in these quotations is highly dubious. quite simply. 2.Insight: Start at zero Suppose you are asked to estimate the time taken for some short event to take place – say the interval. Although words like ‘large’ and ‘small’ are sometimes good enough for some particular purposes (‘Give me some of the large apples’. 3. The first second runs from 0 to 1. Here is an example where the word ‘large’ proved inadequate during a national rail strike. we live in a more complex world than a frog. 25%. How large would the proportion have to be for you to consider it ‘large’ – 10%. As the diagram below shows.

check that the children’s shoes don’t pinch and so on. Weight (W). lay well-ﬁtting carpets with a minimum of waste.3 m) wide or over The reason that we tend to measure with numbers is to help us make decisions and comparisons fairly and accurately. however. EXERCISE 7. (Note: there may be several dimensions involved in each activity.) Everyday activities Baking a cake Buying and laying a carpet Checking the children’s shoes Setting out on a journey in good time 116 . Temperature (T°). a general impression is simply not good enough. Capacity (C) and Speed (S). EXERCISE Make a note of which of them are likely to be important in the following everyday activities.vague about the exact ﬁgures and prefer instead to give a general impression. For example. and something more precise is needed. In Exercise 7. how would you know whether this referred to you? Rest assured that the small print below the sign goes on to explain that: Large means 11 00 (3. Area (A). Time (T). you may have seen signs on the motorway advising drivers of ‘large’ vehicles to stop at the next emergency phone and contact the police. Volume (V). Careful measuring helps us bake ‘the perfect cake’ every time.2 you are asked to think about the measuring dimensions involved in these sorts of everyday tasks. If you are driving a lorry.2 Being aware of the dimensions of measure Here is a list of eight common dimensions of measure: Length (L). Sometimes.

Yet. they are usually thinking about measurement based on numbers. etc. and so on. Descriptions of quantity. and so on. speed and temperature). sensitive. Chris has 5 children. These are ways of indicating whereabouts on some sort of scale (respectively they refer to size. For example. are the same size. thoughtful. this one is obvious) the yard (the length of a man’s stride) One problem with this approach was standardization of the units – not everyone’s thumb.Insight: Whose foot? Early measures of length were based on using parts of the body as standard units. First. Donal is 73 years old. Descriptions can come in two basic forms. these descriptions are a sort of measure. words which describe. there are descriptions of quality and these tend to be made with words. How do we measure? Measuring is basically a way of describing things. do involve numbers. carefree.59 m tall. stride. Measuring 117 . These are not the sorts of descriptions that easily lend themselves to being reduced to numbers. you can’t say that ‘curious’ is bigger than ‘excited’ or that ‘red’ is 7. Ann is 1. fast or slow. although they make no mention of numbers. Such words can be ranked into a meaningful order and they then produce what is called an ordering scale. foot. you might describe something as being large or small. For example. Some measuring seems to fall between quality and quantity. but not always. On the other hand. on the other hand. an emotion or a colour do not normally relate to a useful scale. chilly or warm. say. Thus. you may describe your various friends as happy. For example. When people talk about measurement. This approach gave rise to: the inch (the thickness of a man’s thumb) the foot (well. moody.

thus: impossible. cotton.3 Using an ordering scale Here are ﬁve words used in describing how likely something is to happen: likely. stand. certain. here are some for you to do. measuring can take the following three basic forms: words alone words which can be ranked in order numbers. 1 These ﬁve words are used in describing ways of travelling on foot: jog. amble 2 These are the developmental stages that babies usually go through: walk. from least likely to most likely. rayon To summarize. 118 . roll over 3 These words are often written in sequence on an electric iron: wool. then. Rank the following sets of words into useful ordering scales. silk. highly improbable.3 will give you practice at using an ordering scale. certain EXERCISE least likely most likely Now. Such words are simply descriptions. walk. Exercise 7. stop. sit up. linen.more than ‘blue’. sprint. impossible. likely. doubtful. EXERCISE 7. highly improbable These descriptive words can be written in order of likelihood. lie. doubtful.

temperatures in the UK (for example. which he deﬁned as zero degrees. On the Fahrenheit scale. Although all three types of scale are helpful in providing an interesting variety of descriptions and comparisons. Based on his scale. Insight Until the early 1990s.The types of measuring scale which these three approaches use are: words ordering scale number scale. weather and cooking temperatures) tended to be given using the Fahrenheit scale. it is the third of these. On the Celsius scale. the freezing point of water turned out to be 32 degrees warmer than this. the freezing point of water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) and the boiling point is 212°F (both measured at standard atmospheric pressure). who proposed it in 1724. A brain surgeon and a tree surgeon have different needs for accuracy when sawing up their respective 7. This gives a scale of 212 – 32 = 180 units. This scale was named after Daniel Fahrenheit (1686–1736). 100 unit) scale. which is the most important in mathematics. How accurately should we measure? The accuracy with which we measure depends entirely on what and why we are measuring. the Centigrade (literally. the freezing point of water is 0 degrees Celsius (0°C) and the boiling point is 100°C. which gives rise to its alternative name. Measuring 119 . measuring with numbers. This gives a scale of 100 – 0 = 100 units. Fahrenheit’s reason for choosing this odd starting point of 32º to represent the freezing point of water is to do with the coldest temperature that he was ever able to measure in his home town of Danzig (now Gdansk in Poland). this scale has largely been replaced by the Celsius scale. Today.

They are only there to give the overall magnitude of the number.However. In order to be able to do this.982 0.6666.7841 38.666667 for the fence panel calculation.619 38.0142 and the two zeros at the end of 74300 are not considered to be signiﬁcant ﬁgures. And this is the reason that some calculators produce the answer 11. which accounts for why they tend to be slightly more expensive than the calculators which don’t round. It makes sense to do this as otherwise the number 74312. which is clearly nonsense! The last example in the above table.1491 Answer to 4 sig. ﬁgs. By the way. Exercise 7.4 Rounding practice Round the following numbers to four signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Number a b c d e f g h i j 4124. its third digit has been rounded up from a 6 to a 7. the 6 in the tenths column is rounded up to a 7. As you can see.611 39048.692 would be rounded to 743. The clue to why it has been rounded up can be found by looking at the fourth digit in the original number: the 6. the two zeros at the beginning of 0. Since it is bigger than 5. Measuring 121 . is different from the others in the following respect. 11. don’t worry if this explanation of rounding sounds confusing – it is easier to do than to read about! EXERCISE 7.7412 39042. these calculators need to process their calculations to greater accuracy than the eight ﬁgures that they display. EXERCISE 4125 7.142937 1317.4163 291.699 3050.4 gives you practice at rounding. Such calculators have been designed so that they round up the ﬁnal digit displayed when the next digit would have been a 5 or greater.4131 446.

There are many practical situations where careful measurement is essential – for example. I’ll just get out my school ruler and check that last digit! 122 . when returﬁng a lawn. we turn to the units that are used in measuring. Colorado or Cairo. as promised earlier in the chapter. Now. you may wish to measure its area fairly accurately using a tape measure. The classical deﬁnition of a metre is that it is one ten-millionth of the length of the Earth’s meridian along a quadrant (i. an estimate based on experience and common sense is often good enough. a more precise deﬁnition has been used: one metre is the distance travelled 1 by light in free space in 299 792 458 of a second. and so on. For example. if you’ll excuse me. carpentry. but if you decide to seed it. in other situations. the distance from the equator to the north pole). Insight The main advantage of metric units of measure is that they are standardized – so whether you live in Crewe. For example: Estimate estimating height or distance estimating capacity/ volume estimating weight estimating air temperature Helpful image a door is roughly 2 metres high a running track is 400 metres around a standard milk bottle holds one pint a bag of sugar weighs 1 kg typical winter temperatures 0°C–10°C summer temperatures 20°C–30°C spring/autumn temperatures 10°C–20°C And now. Since 1983. Estimation is a skill which greatly improves with practice. However. dress-making. a metre is a metre is a metre.e. simply pacing it out to estimate the area may be sufﬁcient. weighing out parcels to calculate the cost of postage. I sometimes ﬁnd it helpful to imagine everyday objects of a standard size to help me make an estimate.

83 metres) under. Unit Metric yard = 39 in Metric inch = 2 cm Metric foot = 30 cm Metric mile = 1500 m ‘True’ value 1 m = 39. there are ‘about’ 39. Indeed. gallons. and so on – in favour of metres. a number of half-baked approximations have appeared like the metric yard. Since the 1980s. however. however. litres and the like. the British population has at last owned up to the fact that they have the same number of ﬁngers and thumbs as the rest of the world. Conversions between metric and imperial units tend to involve rather awkward numbers. Since then. pints. and have ‘gone decimal’.48 cm 1 mile = 1609. Unfortunately. the metric foot and even the metric brick. called metrication. weight and capacity be phased out within a few years. The decimalization of money in 1971 was carried out quickly and effectively.344 m 7.Imperial and metric units Until about 1970. we are still regularly using both systems (and having fun trying to convert from one to the other!). the changeover was so half-hearted that. most people mastered the new coinage within days. measurement in the UK was largely done with imperial units. stones.370078 inches in one metre! Not surprisingly. yards. pounds. inches. at the present time of writing.370078 in 1 in = 2. It was also intended that the familiar imperial units of length. Have a look at the table below and you will see just how ‘approximate’ some of the approximations are. As a result.54 cm 1 ft = 30. kilograms. during the 1970s. For example. was to have swept away the most familiar of the measuring units – feet. many children learnt only the metric units in school on the assumption that the old imperial units would soon be six feet (sorry. This change. Measuring 123 . children have been taught both systems in school. 1.

100 cm in 1 m. there are 10 mm in 1 cm. It will help you understand and remember the metric units when you realize that: for each dimension there is a basic unit – the basic unit for length is the metre all the other units get their names from the basic unit: 1 e. LENGTH Metric units millimetre (mm) 10 centimetre (cm) 100 metre (m) 1000 kilometre (km) Imperial units inch (in) 12 foot (ft) 3 yard (yd) 1760 mile The numbers above the arrows tell you how to convert from one unit to another. because centi.I have summarized most of the metric and imperial units that you are likely to need later in the chapter. and so on. If you want to know how many mm are in 1 m. then a centimetre is one hundredth of a metre. The following table of metric preﬁxes will help you to work out the others. Thus. Preﬁx MilliCentiDeciKiloMeaning 1 one thousandth (1000) 1 one hundredth (100) 1 one tenth ( 10 ) one thousand (1000) 124 . then multiply the two numbers 10 and 100 (i.g. there are 1000 mm in 1 m).e. I will explain how to use it by focusing on the most basic measure of all – length.means one hundredth ( 100 ).

on the other hand. One m2 is the area of a square. The area of a 1 m × 1 m square is equal to 1 m2. Problems involving surfaces (sizes of paper.5 cm. it follows that one inch is roughly equal to 2. use the conversion 1 inch = 2. Have a go at Exercise 7. 1 m by 1 m. 7. the instructions on the tin may say something like: ‘contents sufﬁcient to cover 35 m2’. 1m 1m Similarly. curtain material. However. is the basic metric unit of area. The unit described as a ‘m2’. Sometimes we describe area simply by stating the length and the breadth. and also use a calculator! AREA Length is a one-dimensional (1-D) measurement because it involves only one direction. lawns. For example. carpets. Measuring 125 . There should be enough paint in the tin to cover 35 of such squares. 1 ft2 (1 square foot) is the area of a square 1 ft by 1 ft. or a ‘square metre’.Converting between metric and imperial units is a little trickier. and so on for the various other units of area. curtain material is bought by the metre (length) but we also need to know that the roll is 1 m 20 cm wide. Dividing 30 by 12. …) are two-dimensional (2-D). It means exactly what it says. If you don’t need to be too accurate. If you are buying paint. it is helpful to remember that a 12-inch ruler is almost exactly 30 cm long. it’s all not quite as easy as it sounds.5 now and see if you can avoid the traps that people often fall into. When you need to be more accurate.54 cm.

A cubic metre is the amount of space taken up by a cube measuring 1 m by 1 m by 1 m. double the length and double the breadth). People who work in the building trade become skilled at estimating amounts of earth and concrete. is rather different. Unlike the words ‘length’ and ‘area’. EXERCISE 4m 126 . In fact they can be called upon to describe any of a number of dimensions. We tend. the trouble with words like ‘big’ and ‘size’ is that they don’t necessarily refer to volume. The size of a piece of paper might mean its area. instead. as used in mathematics. breadth and height. The size of a bag of sugar might even mean its weight. to use terms like: How big is the brick? or What is the size of the box? However. A ‘cube’ usually refers to a cubic metre or a cubic foot. For example. what do you do to the area? VOLUME If you ask most people about the word ‘volume’. It describes an amount of space in three dimensions (3-D). its volume will depend on the three dimensions: length.5 Area traps a How many square feet (ft2) are there in one square yard (yd2)? 6m b How many cm2 are there in one m2? c What is the area of this rectangle? d If you double the dimensions of this rectangle (i. ‘Volume’. they will tell you that it is the knob on the TV set which makes it go loud and quiet. ‘volume’ is not a word in very common everyday usage. They usually measure these volumes in so many ‘cubes’. If you think of a box.e. and so on. the size of a pencil might mean its length.EXERCISE 7.

7. Have a look now at the table overleaf. which showed 31 mpg (for motorway driving. bucket. capacity and weight. The units of capacity.833 imperial gallons. The difference between capacity and volume is that capacity describes a container and is a measure to show how much the vessel holds. travelling at 60–70 mph). approximately). His only disappointment was its fuel consumption as displayed on the screen. etc. which are included in the table on page 128. which shows some of the most common metric and imperial units for length. volume. we talk about the capacity of a saucepan.1m 1m 1m Similarly a cubic centimetre (cc or cm3) is the amount of space taken up by a 1 cm cube. area. Not very impressive. For example. Insight My cousin recently purchased his dream car – a BMW. Measuring 127 . It turned out that the on-board ‘i-Drive’ computer was set to record fuel consumption in miles per US gallons. bottle. Switching to the UK setting immediately improved this ﬁgure to a more respectable 37 mpg (note that 1 US gallon = 0. are normally only used with liquids. 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm Another measure which deals with three dimensions is capacity.

128 . so do Exercise 7.6 now.CONVERTING BETWEEN UNITS Metric units Length millimetre (mm) centimetre2 (cm2) 10 centimetre (cm) metre2 (m2) 100 metre (m) 1000 kilometre (km) Area 10 000 10 000 hectare Volume centimetre3 (cm3) 1 000 000 metre3 (m3) Capacity millilitre (ml) Weight gram (g) 1000 litre (l) 1000 tonne 1000 kilogram (kg) Imperial units 12 3 1760 Length Area inch (in) inch2 (in2) foot (ft) foot2 (ft2) 9 yard (yd) 4840 mile 640 square mile 144 yard2 (yd2) acre Volume in3 1728 ft3 27 yd3 2 quart 8 4 gallon hundredweight (cwt) 20 ton Capacity ﬂuid ounce Weight ounce (oz) 16 20 pint 14 pound (lb) stone You will probably need practice at using these tables.

Sometimes it is necessary to convert between the two.6 Getting familiar with the units of measure a b c d e f How many millimetres are there in a metre? How many centimetres are there in a kilometre? How many grams are there in a tonne? How many inches are there in a mile? How many square inches are there in a square yard? How many ounces are there in a ton? EXERCISE Unfortunately it isn’t enough to be able to convert units within the metric or the imperial system separately.454 kg = 454 g Speed 100 km/h = 62.54 cm Capacity 1 litre = 1. Measuring 129 .37 in 1 in = 2.7.76 pints 1 gallon = 4. 7.2 pounds 1 pound = 0. it would be a good idea to practise some of these conversions now.1 mph 100 mph = 161 km/h Rough ‘n’ ready conversion 1 metre is just over a yard (a very long stride) 1 1 inch = 22 cm 3 1 litre = 14 pints (a large bottle of orange squash) 1 1 gallon = 42 litres 1 kg = just over 2 lb (a bag of sugar) 1 1 lb = just under 2 kilogram 8 km/h = 5 mph Again.) Accurate conversion Length 1 m = 39. (Note: km/h means kilometres per hour. so have a go at Exercise 7. The table below shows some of the most common conversions between metric and imperial units.54 litres Weight 1 kg = 2.EXERCISE 7.

The weight of an object is a measure of the force of gravity acting on it and this will vary depending on where the object is in relation to the Earth. I feel that I should raise the issue of my use of the word ‘weight’ throughout this chapter. What is this roughly in mph? e Is 1 litre of beer more or less than a pint? 2 f If we bought milk by the 1 litre. Strictly speaking. Mass is the ‘amount of matter’ which the object contains and. provided your mathematics is conducted mostly on the Earth’s surface. how many bottles would you have 2 to buy to have roughly 7 pints? As a footnote. I wouldn’t let it worry you too much! EXERCISE Answers to exercises for Chapter 7 EXERCISE 7. 600 kg. 6 kg b Is it better value to buy a 25 kg bag of potatoes or a 56 lb bag for the same money? c What is the height of your kitchen ceiling from the ﬂoor.EXERCISE 7. Most scientists feel that this distinction is critical but. in metres? d Some French roads have 90 km/h speed limits.7 Practice exercise Use the tables on pages 128 and 129 (and a calculator where appropriate) to answer the following: a Which of these would be a reasonable weight for an adult? 60 kg. this will not vary. I should talk about ‘mass’ rather than weight.1 Question How heavy is your laundry? How long is the curtain rail? How hot is the oven? Dimension of measure weight length temperature Likely units of measure kg or lb cm or in degrees (°C or °F) 130 . wherever its position.

1491 Answer to 4 sig.699 3050. S Baking a cake Buying and laying a carpet Checking the children’s shoes Setting out on a journey in good time EXERCISE 7. C L.619 38. 4125 38. amble. stand. roll over. walk.142937 1317.42 291. T°.7841 38. ﬁgs.2 Everyday activities length/distance speed time capacity volume area km or miles km/h or mph minutes cm3. jog. walk rayon.3 stop.982 0. A L L.How far is it to London? How fast can you run? How long does it take to cook? How much does the jug hold? How big is your kitchen? How big is the ﬁeld? EXERCISE 7. linen EXERCISE 7. Measuring 131 . silk.4 Number a b c d e f g h i j 4124.1429 1318 3050 7. T. sit up. T.0 0. pint or ﬂ oz m3 or ft3 hectare or acre Measuring dimensions W.4131 446.7 39040 39050 38.611 39048. cotton.41 447. wool. sprint lie.4163 291.7412 39042.

buying a 56 lb bag for the same money is a slightly better deal. 132 .88 pints.76 = approximately 4 litres.76 e 1 litre = 1.76 pints. So.5 a b c d 9 ft2 = 1 yd2 10 000 cm2 = 1 m2 Area = 6 m × 4 m = 24 m2 Doubling the length and the breadth makes the area four times as big. roughly.EXERCISE 7. EXERCISE 7. 7 f 7 pints = 1. So.6 a b c d e f Number of millimetres in a metre = 10 × 100 = 1000 Number of centimetres in a kilometre = 100 × 1000 = 100 000 Number of grams in a tonne = 1000 × 1000 = 1 000 000 Number of inches in a mile = 12 × 3 × 1760 = 63 360 Number of square inches in a square yard = 144 × 9 = 1296 Number of ounces in a ton = 16 × 14 × 8 × 20 = 35 840.2 = 55 lb.7 a 60 kg would be a reasonable weight for an adult. since 1 litre = 2 = 0. c A typical height of a kitchen ceiling from the ﬂoor is roughly 2 1 to 2 3 m. d 90 × 5 ÷ 8 = 56 mph. 1. EXERCISE 7. this is less 2 than one pint. or 8 half-litre bottles. b A 25 kg bag weighs 25 × 2.

in terms of these units. clock) recognize composite units (miles per hour. balance. time. price per gram. Measuring 133 . speed. temperature) use and understand standard units of these measures (centimetre. weight. Finally. area. 7. volume. weighing scales. knowing when a measurement is about right and what sort of accuracy is appropriate use various measuring instruments (tape measure. area. ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions of measurement. kilogram. weight. here is a checklist of the basic skills of measuring which you will need. angle.SUMMARY This chapter started by looking at the ‘what’. ruler. and so on). …) estimate lengths. volume. weights and so on. thermometer. temperature. CHECKLIST You should be able to: work with the common measures (length. capacity. What do we measure? length. time. … – using words alone – using words ranked in order (an ordering scale) – using numbers (a number scale) to help make decisions and comparisons How do we measure? Why do we measure? The ﬁnal part of the chapter looked at the common metric and imperial units of measure and at how we can convert within and between the two systems. measuring jug. speed. capacity.

Deception can occur not only through the quoting of incorrect information.8 Statistical graphs In this chapter you will learn: • how to draw a variety of statistical graphs and diagrams • how to spot misleading graphs. Open a newspaper or watch the news on TV and you will be expected to make sense of a range of charts and graphs and to process statistical facts and ﬁgures. For example. For example. line graphs and tables – as well as scattergraphs. the other two are prepared to mislead the public a lot! One of the troubles with statistics is that there is such scope for deception. piecharts. Did you know that eight out of ten advertisers are prepared to mislead the public a little in order to sell their product? Furthermore. This chapter deals with the charts and displays that are most commonly used and misused in the media – barcharts. what they mean. 134 . Equally common is ‘dirty dealing’ by means of the incorrect display of correct information. how they are interpreted and how they are sometimes misused to create a false impression. here is a statistical fact. But writing them ‘in black and white’ somehow seems to lend credibility to so-called ‘facts’. I just made up the ﬁgures quoted above out of my head. It provides examples of where they are used.

CSO Other The main strength of a barchart is that columns placed side by side. Figure 3. The height (or length) of each bar is an indication of its size. You can also see that roughly twice as many children took a packed lunch as ate a free school meal. in Figure 8. 60 50 40 % 30 20 10 0 Grass/ grazing Crops Urban Forest/ Other Inland woodland agricultural water land Figure 8.2 for example. Barcharts (sometimes called block graphs) consist of a set of bars set either vertically or horizontally. Source: Social Trends 25. So. 8.Barcharts and piecharts Barcharts and piecharts are useful when we want to compare different categories.8. or one above the other.1 Land area by use. Source: Social Trends 37.13. Ofﬁce for National Statistics 35 30 25 % 20 15 10 5 0 Packed lunch Paid school meal Free school meal Figure 8. Statistical graphs 135 . Figure 11. you can see at a glance that the most popular form of lunchtime meal of pupils for the year in question was a packed lunch. are easier to compare.2 Vertical barchart showing the lunchtime meals of pupils.

3.9. This compound barchart shows two for the price of one – both male and female data are represented on the same graph. 3 chose ‘track’ and 4 preferred ‘golf’. 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Males Females % Underweight Desirable Overweight Obese Figure 8. The most common way of doing this is to use a compound barchart. Look at this simple ‘barchart’ illustrating the results of a sports survey. 7 people were asked whether they preferred track or golf. as a result of which the column corresponding to ‘track’ is relatively too tall. 136 Track Golf . Ofﬁce for National Statistics Sometimes you may wish to draw a barchart where the category names are rather long. Source: Social Trends 37.3 Compound barchart showing body mass by sex. as shown in Figure 8. Table 7. Insight Sometimes it is tempting to brighten up a chart or diagram with a few relevant images. However.Sometimes barcharts can be used to show categories from more than one source on the same graph. With a vertical barchart there simply isn’t enough space to write the names beneath each bar and so a horizontal barchart may be preferred. Can you see what went wrong here? It just happened that the icon for golf was much smaller than the one for track. this can sometimes produce a misleading chart.

show the information in the form of a pie. overweight and obese). desirable. Statistical graphs 137 .4 below depict the same data that were used for the compound barchart in Figure 8. as the name suggests. the 8. actually represent something sensible. Source: Social Trends 37. For example.9.5 shows. with one piechart drawn for each. the two piecharts in Figure 8. Table 7. for different types of school. Females 2% 24% 42% Males 22% 32% 1% 34% Underweight Desirable Overweight 43% Obese Figure 8.4 Piecharts showing the body mass indices of males and females. when taken together. For example. the data for males and females have been kept separate.3.4. In Figure 8. The piecharts show the number of males and females who fall into the four main categories of body mass (underweight. the piechart in Figure 8. Ofﬁce for National Statistics An important feature of a piechart is that it only makes sense if the various slices which make up the complete pie.Piecharts. The size of each slice of the pie indicates its value.

1 Interpreting graphs 1 In Figure 8. whether paid or free. estimate the percentage of pupils who ate a school meal.9.1. Use your estimates to check that they cover all of the pupils in the survey. 3 From Figure 8. Figure 3.2.4 5.5 21. It is often too easy to cast your eye vaguely over a graph and murmur. Type of school Nursery Primary Secondary Non-maintained Special Average ratio 21.8 Special schools Non-maintained Nursery Secondary Primary Figure 8. overweight or obese) contains roughly a quarter of the females 138 .5 A silly piechart showing pupil/teacher ratios by type of school. CSO EXERCISE 8.various average pupil/teacher ratios. would you say that it was men or women who had a greater than desirable weight? 4 From Figure 8.4 10. yes. EXERCISE 2 From Figure 8. in other words the average number of pupils per teacher.4. this is rather silly drawn as a piechart and would have been much better drawn as a barchart. ‘Oh. desirable.’ The next exercise asks you to linger on the various graphs that you have looked at so far and to make sure that you really do understand them. roughly what percentage of land is in non-urban use? 5 From Figure 8. which category of weight (underweight. UK.2.3. As the ﬁgure title suggests. I see.9 15. estimate the percentage of pupils falling into the four categories of the lunchtime meals. Source: Social Trends 25.

Statistical graphs 139 . Remember that the computer is only as smart as the person driving it and the scope for using it to create inappropriate. However. incorrect or just plain silly charts is now vast! Scattergraphs and line graphs The graphs you have looked at so far have been helpful if you want to make comparisons – barcharts allow you to make comparisons based on the heights/lengths of the bars. and make a rough sketch of what the information would look like redrawn as a barchart. we wish to know how two different measures are related to each other. while comparisons within piecharts are based on the relative sizes of the slices of the pie. the days of having to hand-draw a statistical chart are thankfully over. which look at two different measures together. This usually takes the form of either a scattergraph or a line graph. Sometimes. 8. however.surveyed? For which category of weight are there roughly twice as many females as males? 6 Explain brieﬂy in your own words why the piechart in Figure 8. For example: Does a person’s blood pressure relate to the fat intake in their diet? Is a child’s health linked to the size of the family’s income? How has a particular plant grown over time? Are lung cancer and heart disease linked to smoking? To answer these sorts of questions. take care: just because something is easy to do on a computer doesn’t mean that it is easy to do correctly.5 is silly. Insight In this era of decent computer applications such as spreadsheets or graphing packages. we need a two-dimensional graph.

6 2. you must place one of the measures on one of the axes and one on the other. Country Contributions € billion 19.7 Germany France Italy United Kingdom Spain Netherlands Belgium Sweden Poland Portugal Source: http://www. 2006. the EC budget of the ten highest-contributing countries in 2006. you can see that this point lines up with the value £9.1 13. Each country is plotted as a separate point.hm-treasury.gov.2 2.1 1.9 5.pdf In order to draw a scattergraph of this information.9 2. the corresponding value is £15. and receipts from. Reading across to the Receipts axis from the same point.6 5.6.1 Receipts € billion 12.5 1.7 3. 140 .6.9 12. the EC budgets of the ten highest-contributing countries.1 Contributions to. Table 8.9 16. and mark on each axis a suitable scale.The ﬁgures in Table 8. By analysing the scattergraph. As you can see from Figure 8.4 2. The same information is also portrayed in the scattergraph shown in Figure 8. it is possible to explore the relationship between contributions and receipts.uk/media/9f8/f1/ecbudget220507a. ‘Do countries which give the most tend to receive the most?’.6 4. the point corresponding to Spain is shown at the top of the graph.6 billion. and receipts from.2 9. Following the down arrow to the Contributions axis. I have chosen to place ‘Contributions’ to the EC on the horizontal axis and ‘Receipts’ on the vertical axis. For example.2 12.1 billion. For example.6 9.1 show the contributions to.4 15. and so on.2 10.

0 Contributions (€ billions) 20.0 0. Similarly.0 Figure 8.0 Spain 10. the major contributors. Source: http://www.0 25. EXERCISE 8. Statistical graphs 141 . You will probably need to spend some time consolidating your understanding of a scattergraph.0 5.6 you can see that the points lie in a fairly clear pattern running from bottom left to top right on the graph. (Contd) 8.2 Practising scattergraphs EXERCISE Do you think that countries which have a high rate of marriage also tend to have a high divorce rate? Have a look at Table 8. for example) also tend to get small receipts.0 15.uk/media/9f8/f1/ecbudget220507a.0 6.0 8.0 Receipts (€ billions) 10.0 4.pdf The pattern of points on a scattergraph helps to reveal the sort of relationship between the two measures in question. like Germany and France.0 14.0 12. For example.16. a Check that you understand how the points have been plotted and try to match each point up to its corresponding country. in Figure 8.0 0.0 2.6 Scattergraph showing the relationship between contributions and receipts to the EC. so do Exercise 8. This reﬂects the not-too-surprising fact that countries which make small contributions (like Portugal and Poland. are also two of the largest receivers of money from the fund.2 and then at the corresponding scattergraph in Figure 8.hm-treasury.gov.2 now.7.

9 4.4 5.2 5.1 5.7 1. does the scattergraph show a clear relationship between a country’s marriage rate and divorce rate? Table 8.8 Divorces 2.7 2.5 4.7 4.6 1.7 0. 142 .1 2.1 4.13.8 4.5 1.1 2.0 1.0 2. Ofﬁce for National Statistics 5 6 Marriage rate 7 8 Figure 8. Country Denmark Netherlands Portugal Greece Finland Ireland Spain United Kingdom France Germany Italy Austria Luxembourg Sweden Belgium EU average 3. 2002.5 4.0 1.5 5.4 3.4 2.2 5.5 0.8 2.b Which three countries show the lowest divorce rates? Can you provide a possible explanation for these low rates? c Overall.9 5.4 0.2 Marriage and divorce rates per 1000 population: EU comparisons.4 2.7 Scattergraph showing the marriage and divorce rate data.7 4. Table 2.7 4.3 3.5 Divorce rate 2.9 Source: Social Trends 34.6 0.0 0.9 2.5 3.0 3 4 Marriage 6.9 2.

500 400 Marriage Thousands 300 200 100 Divorce 0 1950 1960 1970 Year Figure 8. Figure 2. Statistical graphs 143 EXERCISE . the points were based on data taken in one-year intervals. EXERCISE 8. how have levels of marriage and divorce altered in the UK since 1950? How would you account for these patterns? 8. Ofﬁce for National Statistics 1980 1990 2000 Figure 8. Source: adapted from Social Trends 37. known as a time graph.8 A time graph showing marriages and divorces in the UK.9. A line graph is one of the most common types of graph and indeed is what most people think of when we use the word ‘graph’. It is so called for the obvious reason that the measure on the horizontal axis is time. In the original line graphs (printed in the publication Social Trends 37).8 shows a particular type of line graph. are two-dimensional. b Notice that the points marked on the two line graphs have been taken over ﬁve-year intervals.3 Interpreting line graphs a Estimate the number of marriages in 1992 in the UK. like scattergraphs.Line graphs. so again we will be dealing with two measures at a time and examining the relationship between them. How do you think the size of the interval might affect the overall shapes of the line graphs? c Overall.

8 4.3 Unemployment rates (%) for the North of England (2003 to 2008).9 5.2 5. Table 8. Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Rate (%) 4.8 4. The graph below contains a ﬁne collection of disasters! See how many you can spot.Misleading graphs If you read through newspapers and magazines. you really need to have a look at the data from which it was drawn (Table 8.9 Spot the errors on this graph! In order to make sense of this graph and to see some of the distortions it contains.2 5.3). Unemployment graph for the North 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figure 8. it isn’t difﬁcult to spot graphs which are misleading.3 144 .

or to what is being measured (the title should state that these are percentages). Let’s go through them in turn. now the increase is not nearly so dramatic and it is clear exactly what the ﬁgures refer to. so you have no idea what these ﬁgures are. Statistical graphs 145 . In effect.10 Line graph showing unemployment rates (%) for the North of England (2003 to 2008). The title is not very helpful. the rise was not as dramatic as suggested by this representation.9 certainly looks dramatic. which has the effect of making the graph look steeper. although unemployment rates in the North of England did rise over this period. the scale has been cut. However. A more correct version of the graph is shown in Figure 8. The axes are not labelled. the scale fails to match up with the corresponding data in Table 8. There are a number of errors and misleading features of the graph. 5 4 Percentage 3 2 1 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year 2007 2008 2009 Figure 8.3. The vertical axis should show clearly that the ﬁgures are ‘Percentages’ and the horizontal axis should say ‘Year’. Although there is no printed scale on the vertical axis.The graph shown in Figure 8. As you can see.10. There is no clear explanation of what region the graph refers to (‘the North’ could refer to anywhere). There is no scale marked on the vertical axis. 8.

9 4. provided an indication is made on the axis that this has been done. The most common method is to mark a break on the axis.0 4. 5.One ﬁnal point about the scale on the vertical axis of Figure 8.9 is that it does not start at zero.2 5.12 and see if you can spot how it might give a false impression.11 shows the same graph drawn with the vertical axis starting at 4. In fact it is acceptable to draw a vertical scale starting from a number other than zero.8 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year 2007 2008 2009 Figure 8. here is one of the most common types of distortion. Sometimes the axis break is shown like this … … and sometimes it is shown like this … Figure 8.4 5.3 Percentage 5.11 A graph demonstrating an axis break. Have a look at Figure 8. To end this section on misleading graphs. as shown below.7% but with the break in the axis added to alert the reader to this potential source of confusion. 146 .1 5.

not facts! Over the next few weeks. Table 6. You will ﬁnd it helpful to ask yourself: ‘What is the vested interest. Source: Social Trends 37. therefore.12 Internet sales to UK households. not only has the 2005 image been drawn four times as tall as the 2002 image. and therefore what impression is this graph designed to convey?’ 8. Statistical graphs 147 .9. Certainly. i. However.££ ££ 2002 2005 Internet sales to UK households in 2002 = £5.0 billion). which is to make differences look bigger then they actually are. but it is also four times as wide. Most people who present information to the public have some sort of vested interest. Advertisers are able to exploit the fact that most of us work on impressions. is that it has an area which is ‘four times four’.4 billion is more than four times the 2002 ﬁgure of £5. sixteen times as great as that of the smaller image.0 billion Internet sales to UK households in 2005 = £21.4 billion Figure 8. Ofﬁce for National Statistics The diagram in Figure 8. The overall impression of the larger image.e. why don’t you look out for some more examples of misleading graphs in newspapers and magazines. internet sales increased greatly in the UK between 2002 and 2005 – by over four times in fact (the 2005 ﬁgure of £21.12 shows up a favourite trick of advertisers.

so the percentage in nonurban use is 85% (100% – 15%). 148 .1 are as follows: Lunchtime meal Packed lunch Paid school meal Free school meal Other % 32 29 16 23 2 The percentage of pupils who ate a school meal. 3 You must combine the ‘Overweight’ and ‘Obese’ categories to identify people with greater than desirable weight. 6 The piechart in Figure 8. as shown in Figure 8. the complete pie corresponds to the sum of the various average ratios in the different types of school. In this case. is 29% + 16% = 45%.If you are interested in ﬁnding out more about statistical ideas. why not get a copy of Understand Statistics? Answers to exercises for Chapter 8 EXERCISE 8.1 1 Estimates from Figure 8. This combined category produces a slightly higher percentage of males than females (65% compared with 56%). 4 Roughly 15% of land is in ‘Urban’ use. 5 Roughly a quarter of the females (actually 24%) fell into the ‘Obese’ category. Roughly twice as many females as males fell into the ‘Underweight’ category.5 fails to meet a basic condition of a piechart in that the complete pie doesn’t represent anything meaningful. whether paid or free.13. and who cares about that! The data would be more helpfully drawn as a barchart.

the sudden blip in the divorce ﬁgures tends to be smoothed out when plotted over a ﬁve-year interval. It was the 1971 Divorce Act that started this change (there were 80 thousand divorces in 1971. Spain and Italy. 8. EXERCISE 8. Statistical graphs 149 . c There is little evidence of any clear pattern linking divorce and marriage rates in these points.25 Average pupil/teacher ratio 20 15 10 5 0 Nursery Primary Secondary Non-maintained Special Type of school Figure 8. b The three countries with the lowest divorce rates are Ireland. Divorce remained fairly low until the early 1970s when it rose rapidly until the mid 1980s.3 a The number of marriages in 1992 in UK was roughly 355 thousand. each being constructed by joining up 12 points with straight lines. My graphs given in Figure 8. when it levelled off and even dropped slightly. A possible explanation is that these are strongly Catholic countries where divorce is discouraged on religious grounds. by the following year the number had risen by over 50% to 125 thousand).2 a No comments.8 are actually rather crude. as opposed to every ﬁve years. b When graphs are plotted based on data taken at one-year intervals. as you will see in the answer to part c. c Marriage levels rose between 1950 and 1970 (as the post-war baby boom reached marriageable age) and then fell (as cohabiting became a more acceptable alternative to marriage). However. EXERCISE 8. there are likely to be more subtle changes in direction.13 Vertical barchart showing average pupil/teacher ratios by type of school.

CHECKLIST Here are some important conventions to remember when drawing any graph or chart. 150 .SUMMARY This chapter has covered four of the most common types of graphs: barcharts. piecharts. The ﬁnal section dealt with misleading graphs and a list was provided of some of the common ways in which graphs can be drawn in an unhelpful or deliberately distorted way. Include: a helpful title labels and appropriate numerical scales for the axes and the units of measure data sources. where appropriate. scattergraphs and line graphs.

for that is the point of algebra. you need to understand what the symbols mean and how they are related. the arrival of algebra in their school lessons was the point at which they felt they parted company with mathematics. Let us ﬁrst consider whether algebra is abstract. Is algebra abstract and irrelevant? For many students. largely because many people see it as abstract and irrelevant to their lives. if algebra is to be useful to you. to forget about 9. Algebra has a reputation of being hard. Assuming this is the case. The word ‘abstract’ means ‘taken away from its familiar context’. expressing something as a brief mathematical statement (which might be a formula or an equation) allows you to strip away the details. Naturally. The simple answer to this charge is ‘Yes it is!’ Algebra is certainly abstract. The reason that algebra is such a powerful tool for solving problems is that it enables complex ideas to be reduced to just a few symbols. Using a formula 151 .9 Using a formula In this chapter you will learn: • why algebra might be useful • some of the rules of algebra • how algebra can be used to prove things.

To take the example of education. in medicine and engineering. calculating drug dosages. Clearly you wouldn’t wish to use algebra for such problems. and some of the conventions regarding how it is written.the context from which it was taken and focus on the essential underlying relationship. Of course. setting machines correctly for different tasks and so on. a formula is used to deﬁne how much money is allocated to secondary and primary school budgets on the basis of the number and age of pupils. formulas are crucial for converting units. There are many questions that immediately arise. Increasingly. Next. Yet in many jobs. for example). Most people believe that they never use algebra. there are often situations where you don’t want to strip away the context (in questions of human relationships. the relative amount) for secondary-age children is much greater than for primary-age children. or should all children be allocated the same amount. particularly. say. let’s examine the charge of algebra being irrelevant. regardless of age? How can you ﬁnd out what the relative weightings are for children of different ages? Who should decide these sorts of questions and can interested parents and teachers enter the debate? The point I wish to make in introducing this chapter is that people can debate this question only if they understand what a formula is saying. For example: Is it a fair way of allocating money? Is it right that the weighting (i. Before starting to examine any formulas. other people will be making such decisions for you and you will have no idea whether or not they are acting in your best interests. 152 . If you don’t understand basic algebra.e. large organizations and government institutions use formulas for deciding on and describing their funding arrangements. we begin by looking at some of the basic features of algebra – how it is used as a shorthand way of expressing something.

for many people.2 you are asked to examine some mathematical shorthands. etc. a maths textbook used in Mesopotamian Elementary School would contain questions like: ‘A quantity added to a quarter of itself is 20. M1. they were able to solve equations using methods very similar to those used today.… c PAS. What do they mean? 9.1 Shorthands in everyday life Example a det. Despite the fact that they lacked any real algebraic notation. in Exercise 9. MOT. EXERCISE 9. the idea of using a shorthand isn’t just conﬁned to mathematics. who lived in what today we call Iraq. K2. S&M.Insight The origins of algebra can be traced back four thousand years to the ancient Babylonians. Using a formula Source Meaning EXERCISE 153 . For example. FCH … b K1. However.1 for you to interpret. good runner d NYWJM seeks same with view to B&D. What is the quantity?’ Algebra as shorthand There are many situations in everyday life where it is convenient to adopt a shorthand – usually in the form of abbreviations or special symbols – in order to speed things up. gd decs. See if you can identify the source of these shorthands. lge gdns. Some examples are given in Exercise 9. hse. P1. fsh. Then. the symbols in algebra seem to cause confusion rather than be an aid to efﬁciency. C4F. I am aware that.

is repeated below for convenience. and four and three-quarters The sum of the squares of three and four Four times the difference of nine and three Five plus four. Rewrite each one in mathematical shorthand. As you can see from these examples. M 154 . I = 39. ﬁve squared. we have saved time by inventing the numerals 1. Longhand EXERCISE Shorthand 1 3×22 a b c d e Three multiplied by two and a half The sum of twelve. Thus. 3. as it demonstrates a key feature of algebra. or 5 times 5. I. and so on. Squaring is represented by writing a small 2 above and to the right of the number or letter that is being squared. can be written as 5 × 5 or as 52. etc. Rather than say ‘multiplied by’ or ‘added to’. is found by multiplying the number of metres.2 Shorthands in mathematics Here are some mathematical sentences. by 39. ‘two’. mathematics is full of shorthand notation.EXERCISE 9. M.37 times the number of metres.37. let us focus on part f of Exercise 9. I is equal to 39. For example: Instead of writing numbers out as words. ‘one’.37 × M the number of inches. which is given on page 165. we use the symbols × and +. ‘three’. all divided by the product of ﬁve and four f The number of inches. The solution to this example. For now. 2.2. The ﬁrst one has been done for you. More examples of notation will be explained in the next section.

as follows: I = 39. You may feel that this shorthand has reduced the formula to its bare essentials.20 Using a calculator. implies that they are multiplied. if you are buying something like curtain material or a carpet. but it is actually possible to dispense with the × altogether and write the formula even more brieﬂy.20 and calculate the corresponding value of I. notice that I have introduced the abbreviations = and × to save the trouble of writing out the words ‘equals’ and ‘times’. Firstly. Using a formula 155 .37 times the number of metres. 9. in imperial units. First. as follows: I = 39. (As an aside.76L’ means ‘1.) Now give some thought to how the formula. make sure that you can use this formula.20 metres and you want to know what that is in inches. suppose you have just bought curtain material with a drop (the drop is typically the distance from the curtain rail to the window sill) of 1. rounding up may be appropriate here for two reasons. For example: ‘ab’ means ‘a times b’ ‘4y’ means ‘4 times y’ ‘1. I is equal to 39. namely that writing two letters together.37 × 1. 1.76 times L’ and so on. it is always better to have a little bit too much than to be a little bit short. I = 39.20 the number of inches. Simply replace the M in the formula by 1.Before reading on.37 × M. For example. has been written. a result which you might round up to 48 inches. Secondly. or a number and a letter together. the answer is 47. 48 inches happens to be one of these standard lengths. curtain material tends to come in various ‘standard lengths’ and.244 inches.37M This demonstrates an important convention in algebra.

I and M. Y = 39. with the possible exception of the n. In algebra. 156 . i. in this formula. a. say. the letters which we happen to choose to represent numbers are quite arbitrary. Insight I once observed a rather nice introductory lesson in algebra. However. The most common letters used in basic school algebra tend to be x. it is usually a good idea to relate each letter to the quantity that it represents as this will help you to remember what the various letters stand for. I used the initial letters of Inches and Metres. b and n There is no obvious reason for this choice. Thus.37X. respectively. I could have written the formula as.A second aspect of the formula worth noting is that I have used the letters I and M to represent. y. the number of inches and the number of metres. which can be thought of as representing some unknown number. For that reason. with Y representing the number of inches and X the number of metres.e. The teacher began by writing on the board the ﬁrst line.

based on the child’s age. because clearly a dose that would be suitable for an adult would be too much for a young child. Calculating with formulas Drug dosages need to be carefully calculated and measured out. The problem is greatly complicated when the drug is to be administered to a child. Gradually over the next few minutes. he started to change the format. First he replaced his drawing of a box with the written word ‘box’ (line 2). There needs to be a way of adjusting the dosages depending. One such formula. on the body weight or the age of the child concerned. Finally he dispensed with the initial ‘squiggle’ entirely and now the letter x was used to represent the unknown number (line 4). Giving too little of the drug means that the patient doesn’t get the full beneﬁt. this formula means the following: Child dosage = Adult dosage × Age Age + 12 9.The students were asked to guess the number inside the box (2). perhaps. but giving too much could be highly dangerous. His handwriting then started to deteriorate so that only the ‘x’ of the word ‘box’ was legible (line 3). The teacher then did several more questions like these. D represents adult Dosage and A is the Age of the child. Written out in longhand. is as follows: C =D× A A + 12 where C represents Child dosage. Using a formula 157 . The next section deals with formulas in practical contexts and how to use them to do calculations.

.Example 1 Let us take an example where the adult dose of cough medicine is 10 mg of linctus..8 C + 32 i. 1 C = D × A = 10 × 6 = 10 × 6 = 33 mg 18 6 + 12 A + 12 Now here are some to try for yourself. 158 . using the formula. calculate the dosages for the following a An adult prescription of a certain drug is 24 micrograms (µg). A A + 12 .. A = 6 With these numbers to hand. the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit is found by . adding 32. we are ready to calculate the child’s dose. this time for converting temperatures... multiplying the temperature in degrees Celsius by 1. What would be the appropriate dosage for a child aged 6 years? Solution First let us write down what we know.. . What would be an appropriate dose for a child aged 4 years? We now move on to another formula. F = 1. Temperatures in degrees Celsius can be converted to degrees Fahrenheit with the following formula.. D = 10..8 and . What would be an appropriate dose for a child aged 10 years? b An adult prescription of another drug is 200 µg..3 Calculating dosages EXERCISE Using the formula C = D × situations. EXERCISE 9.e.

my last bill of £97.20 pence per unit used. F = 1. Using a formula 159 .042U where C is the Charge in pounds and U is the number of Units used. What is this in °F? c There is only one temperature which is the same in degrees F as in degrees C.16 and a further 4. What would this be in degrees Fahrenheit? b The boiling point of water is 100°C.) The next example of a formula is concerned with calculating a phone bill. EXERCISE 9. What is this in °F? Solution Applying the formula: The temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. EXERCISE 9. Example 2 Oven temperatures A typical cooking temperature for an oven is 180°C. Telephone bills are usually calculated each quarter on the basis of a ﬁxed sum for the rental of the line plus a variable cost based on the calls you make.61 was made up of a rental of £20. Try to ﬁnd it.16 + 0. (Hint: It is a temperature well below freezing point.Here is an example of the formula in operation.4 Temperature conversion a A warm summer day’s temperature would be something like 30°C. For example. The formula for this can be written as follows: C = 20.8 × 180 + 32 = 356°F Now here are some for you to try.

042) in order to match with the units of the rental which is also expressed in pounds.20 pence per unit has been rewritten in the formula in pounds (i. c.16 + (0.5 gives you the opportunity to try some of these for yourself.e. 160 . Is the quarterly charge for my telephone bill correct? Solution The charge is calculated as follows: C = 20. E.61 (rounded to the nearest penny) This conﬁrms the bill which I received as being correct. Einstein realised that matter and energy are really different forms of the same thing. possessed by a body with mass m. as 0. EXERCISE 9. and the speed of light. Exercise 9. and vice versa.042 × 1844) = £97.Notice that the charge rate of 4. Example 3 I used 1844 units last quarter. so matter can be turned into energy.5 More bills EXERCISE Calculate the quarterly charge for a household which used: a 944 units b 3122 units. Insight One formula that most people will have come across is Albert Einstein’s equation connecting the energy. The formula E = mc2 states that the energy possessed by a body is equal to its mass multiplied by the square of the speed of light.

is it so hard to prove a numerical result to be always true? The reason is that you can’t try all the inﬁnite number of possible cases. but unfortunately providing lots and lots of special cases would not cut much mustard with a mathematician. Using a formula 161 . But what if I produced another 20 examples. But before launching in to it. but have we proved it? Certainly not! Checking only four examples does not constitute a proof. which is even 5 + 11 = 16. For example. It is often easy enough to show that the result is true for several particular numbers but it is quite a different matter to say that you know it is true for all possible numbers. or 100. So. algebra is needed for making generalizations. The mathematical proof of this generalization (that the sum of two odd numbers is always even) is outlined and explained below. which is even 111 + 333 = 444.Proving with algebra This ﬁnal section looks at an aspect of mathematics close to the hearts of mathematicians – the idea of proof. Why. Without algebra. which is even. Thus: 3 + 7 = 10. it does seem to be true. you need to spend a few minutes thinking about how we might represent even and odd numbers algebraically. While arithmetic is useful for doing calculations with particular numbers. proving that a mathematical result is true is quite difﬁcult. and it would only take one of the ones you didn’t get round to checking to be wrong to blow your theory apart. or even a million? That would be quite impressive. then. which is even 23 + 15 = 38. is it the case that adding two odd numbers always produces an even answer? We could take some examples and see if it works. 9.

2L + 1 = 7. we are now ready to prove the earlier result algebraically. 2K = 26. which is even when K = 50. I have restated it in Example 4. Again. which is odd when L = 8. let’s take a few examples to check this out: when L = 3. A number one greater than an even number is necessarily odd. say. which is even when K = 13. And again. the letter L. the letter K. 2L + 1 = 101. The reason we know that 2K is always even is that it contains a factor 2. 162 . we can show that the number 2L + 1 must be odd. say. You can check this out by giving K any value you wish to think of. Similarly. 2K = 6. 2L + 1 = 27. 2K = 100. The explanation lies in the fact that the number 2L + 1 is 1 more than the number 2L. With these ways of representing even and odd numbers at our disposal. which is essentially what an even number is. which is odd when L = 13. 2L + 1 = 17. an odd number can be written with the formula 2L + 1. which is even and so on.AN ASIDE ON EVEN AND ODD NUMBERS If we think of a whole number as represented by. which is odd. from logical reasoning. 2K = 16. if we represent a whole number by. For example: when K = 3. then we can write even numbers as 2K. which itself must be even because it contains the factor 2. which is even when K = 8. which is odd when L = 50.

We have now proved the result in general terms. 9. don’t worry if you ﬁnd this difﬁcult. the problem with doing this is that. the general argument demonstrates that the result 2(K + L + 1) will always be an even number. notice that 2K + 2L + 2 can be written as 2(K + L + 1). Simplifying. However.6. you may need to read this proof through more than once. We need to allow the two odd numbers to be different. we get 2K + 2L + 1 + 1 = 2K + 2L + 2.Example 4 Prove algebraically the result that the sum of two odd numbers always gives an even number. By the way. then 2(K + L + 1) must be even. Then. Their sum is (2K + 1) + (2L + 1). Solution One possibility might be to let both the two odd numbers be represented by 2K + 1. we ﬁnd ourselves with two odd numbers with the same value. No matter what whole number values you think up for K and L. respectively. and K + L + 1 is a whole number. If you are unfamiliar with algebraic reasoning. have a try at writing your own proof in your answer to Exercise 9. we can let them be 2K + 1 and 2L + 1. Using a formula 163 . Most people ﬁnd algebraic proofs hard to fathom and you would need a lot more practice at working with algebraic symbols than has been provided in this chapter if you are to perform proofs with conﬁdence. whatever value for K is chosen. I have included it mostly to indicate the sorts of things that mathematicians spend their time on. Since this number contains a factor of 2. and to give you an insight into how algebraic symbols can be an aid in solving abstract problems. using different letters. so. Now. when you are more conﬁdent. This is subtly different from the problem we set out to prove.

to work out the value of the unknown letter that makes the equality true. because 2 + 3 = 5. For example. 164 . Typically. They are often provided in textbooks for students to practise collecting ‘like’ terms together (2x and 3x are ‘like’ terms because the letter part. is the same in each). Expressions 2x – 2y + 3x 4a – 6b + 2b Equations consist of a statement of two expressions that are equal.) Test this out ﬁrst with a few special cases and then try to prove it algebraically. in the ﬁrst expression below. So. an algebraic expression is just a collection of letters and numbers placed together with addition or subtraction signs between them.6 Proving with algebra EXERCISE Is it true that the product of two odd numbers is always an odd number? (Reminder: product means ‘the result of multiplying together’. the 2x and 3x terms can be put together giving 5x and the whole expression is simpliﬁed to 5x – 2y. the x. You’ll know it is an equation as it always contains an equal sign = (the clue is in the ﬁrst four letters of ‘equal’ and ‘equation’). Equations are provided in textbooks for students to solve – that is. Equations x+3=5 2x – 5 = 3 EXERCISE 9. the solution to the ﬁrst equation below is x = 2.Insight Two words that cause confusion in algebra are expression and equation.

all divided by the product of ﬁve and four f The number of inches. full service history Personal ad. FCH … for a house Detached house. etc. Knit 2 c PAS. lge gdns. Purl 1. … forward. and four and three-quarters c The sum of the squares of three and four d Four times the difference of nine and three e Five plus four. is found by multiplying the number of metres.Answers to exercises for Chapter 9 EXERCISE 9. M1. holds for a car an MOT certiﬁcate. Cable 4 K2.9 µg. B&D.3 a A ten-year-old’s dosage is 24 × Shorthand 1 3×22 3 12 + 4 4 32 + 42 4 (9 – 3) 5+4 5×4 I = 39. b A four-year-old’s dosage is 200 × 4 + 12 16 9.37 × M 10 = 24 × 10 = 10. 10 + 12 22 4 = 200 × 4 = 50 µg. in a New York white Jewish male … d NYWJM seeks same with view to US newspaper Bondage & Discipline. hse.37 EXERCISE 9. EXERCISE 9. C4F. I. full central heating … b K1. M. etc.2 Longhand a Three multiplied by two and a half b The sum of twelve. Power assisted steering. Knitting Knit 1. Make 1. Using a formula 165 .1 Example Source Meaning a det. large gardens. Newspaper ad. S&M. fsh Newspaper ad. good decorations. P1. MOT. Sadism & Masochism. by 39. gd decs.

8T = 1.8T + 32 The table below summarizes how this equation can now be solved.EXERCISE 9. Subtract 1.8T + 32 –0.8 = –40 Note 1: The intention here is to collect the T terms on one side of the = and leave the number on the other side. This can be checked by putting the value –40°C into the formula. Simplify the terms in T.8 T = 32 = 32 –0. as follows. Remember that the object of the exercise is to ﬁnd the value of T. Note 2: The intention here is to isolate the T on its own.8T –0. Thus: F = 1.8 × –40 + 32 = –40°F The answer can be calculated directly using algebra. as follows.8T from both sides (Note 1).8T + 32 T – 1. Divide both sides by –0.8 Explanation This is the equation to be solved. = 32 –0. then they are connected by the formula.4 a F = 1. Simplify. 166 . If the temperature T°F = T°C.8T – 1. Algebra T = 1.8 × 100 + 32 = 212°F c You might have tried to ﬁnd this temperature by trial and error. Let the unknown temperature be T.8 (Note 2).8 × 30 + 32 = 86°F b F = 1. T = 1. The solution of the equation is –40.8T –0. and the result –40°F comes out. The solution is –40.

16 + (0. we get 4KL + 2K + 2L + 1. we can let these two odd numbers be represented by 2K + 1 and 2L + 1.6 It is true that the product of two odd numbers is always an odd number. which is odd.042U a C = 20. As before. notice that the ﬁrst three terms.28 (rounded to the nearest penny). Using a formula 167 . and 2KL + K + L is a whole number.81 (rounded to the nearest penny). which is odd 5 × 9 = 45. 4KL + 2K + 2L. which is odd 113 × 5613 = 634 269. First. Their product is (2K + 1) × (2L + 1). Now we move on to a general algebraic solution. Simplifying.16 + 0.042 × 3122) = £151. can be written as 2(2KL + K + L). This can be written as 2K(2L + 1) + 1(2L + 1). Now add the ﬁnal ‘1’ and it follows that 4KL + 2K + 2L + 1 is odd. then 4KL + 2K + 2L must be even.042 × 944) = £59.16 + (0. EXERCISE 9. which is odd 13 × 7 = 91. Ignoring the ﬁnal term. b C = 20. Since this number contains a factor of 2. here are some special cases: 3 × 5 = 15. 9.5 The formula is C = 20. the ‘1’ for the moment.EXERCISE 9.

Algebra involves expressing relationships in a mathematical shorthand in the form of symbols and letters. that writing 4X actually means ‘4 times X’). 168 . Essentially. This has the effect of reducing the problem to its bare essentials and allows you to see and manipulate its main features. As the title suggests.SUMMARY A key point made in the introduction to this chapter was that it is silly to criticize algebra because it is abstract. the main activities of the chapter involved using formulas and you were invited to dip your toe into the esoteric world of mathematical proof. Certain algebraic conventions were explained (for example. the purpose of algebra is to be abstract.

10. Insight Curiosity may be a life-threatening trait for felines but it is the lifeblood of mathematics. There seems to be some characteristic of the human mind that makes it unable to resist the urge to tackle puzzles of every type. add a dash of conﬁdence and you will be on your way to becoming successful at mathematics. it is surprising how often the act of thinking about how to solve a puzzle will lead you into thinking about some helpful piece of mathematics. games and diversions 169 . And by the time you ﬁnish working through the puzzles in this chapter. You only have to harness that problem-solving instinct. games and diversions In this chapter you will learn: • about the fun side of maths with a collection of puzzles and number games. ‘That’s another ﬁne maths you’ve got me into!’ This chapter provides a few suggestions for number puzzles and activities which should help to amuse and entertain on a long journey or a wet weekend.10 Puzzles. Puzzles. Indeed. you’ll be heard to say more than once.

Hardy remarked that he had just travelled in a taxi bearing the rather dull number 1729.1 Bus number game Games with bus numbers are best played in cities.H. 39) all the digits are prime numbers (e. See if you can spot bus numbers where: the digits add up to 10 (e.g. It is the smallest number expressible as a sum of two cubes in two different ways’ (10 cubed plus 9 cubed or 12 cubed plus 1 cubed). 275). 163) all the digits are even (e. 91 is the product of 7 and 13. For example. Interesting numbers The renowned Indian mathematician. a perfect opening line during that awkward ‘ﬁrst introduced’ phase at a party 170 . Hardy. With practice. in which case the game can be made more challenging. both of which are prime). 284) all the digits are odd (e. most people quickly get good at spotting patterns in numbers. said his friend. try to spot bus numbers that are the product of two primes (e. ‘On the contrary’.g.g. Srinivasa Ramanujan. ‘it is a very interesting number. But you should not underestimate the degree of interest and social cachet you are likely to attract at dinner parties by passing on gems about the properties of certain numbers. Not everyone has quite the same fascination and skill with number properties as Ramanujan.g.g. was once visited by the British mathematician G. For example. where buses are plentiful.

Useful questions are ones such as: ‘Is it less than 50?’ or ‘Is it even?’ Less useful questions are ones such as: ‘Is it 26?’ since this eliminates only one number at a time. depending on whether or not both batsmen and both umpires are depicted!) 3 Guess my number One player picks a number between 1 and 100 and the other player must guess it with as few questions as possible. are the ‘Coach and Horses’ (with 24 or more legs. If you go past a pub sign which has no legs. depending on the number of horses) and the ‘Cricketers’ Arms’ (with up to 30. You score according to the number of legs (human or animal) which can be seen on each pub sign that you drive past. 10. the ‘Bull and Butcher’ scores six (four for the bull and two for the butcher). Note that the questions must be such that they require a Yes/No answer. Players take turns to ‘bat’. Popular signs in this game. Puzzles. this sort of chat-up line certainly seems to work for me! 2 Pub cricket This is played on a car or coach journey where the route is likely to pass a number of pubs. then you are ‘out’ and the next player takes a turn at batting. while the ‘White Hart’ scores four.might be. backwards?’ Well. by the way. For example. games and diversions 171 . ‘Did you know that our host’s telephone number is the ﬁrst six digits of the decimal expansion of pi.

touch the 7 ﬁnger of one hand with the 8 ﬁnger of the other (it doesn’t matter which way round). This gives the number of tens in the answer. So the answer is 56. b Multiply the number of ﬁngers on each hand above the touching ﬁngers (here it is 3 × 2 = 6). Now to multiply. Try it for some other numbers. Here is a method which provides the answer to all products between 6 and 10 (remember that in mathematics ‘product’ means what you get when you multiply).4 Finger tables Most people know their ‘times table’ up to about 5. Number the ﬁngers as shown above. Why does it always work? You will need to do some algebra to prove it works every time! 172 . Place your hands in front of you as in the diagram. thumbs uppermost. say. using the cheapest digital calculator around – your ﬁngers. 7 and 8. with 6 and above they may have problems. This gives the number of units in the answer. However. Now the answer to 8 × 7 can be found as follows: a Count the number of ﬁngers below and including the touching ﬁngers (in this case 5).

Don’t forget it is also 12 + 0. this could go on all night! 6 Magic squares This is a magic square. columns and diagonals ‘magically’ add to the same total (in this case. etc. Ah! It’s 24 lots of a half. 2 Well. columns and diagonals of the 4 by 4 square should add to? 10. 4 4 Hey. games and diversions 173 . 15). Now we’re getting stuck. columns and diagonals add to 15? How about a 4 by 4 magic square … or a 5 by 5? Hint: You may have spotted that the total of 15 for the 3 by 3 magic square is 3 times 5 (5 is both the number in the centre square and the middle value in the range of 1 to 9). if you’re allowing fractions it’s 1 3 + 10 1 . Puzzles. Can you make a different 3 by 3 magic square so that all the rows. 8 3 4 1 5 9 6 7 2 A magic square is so named because all the rows. 3 × 4 and 6 × 2? And don’t forget 12 × 1. What about 4 × 3. it is 11 + 1. Can you ﬁrst of all work out what the rows.5 The story of 12 How many different stories can you make of 12? Well. 10 + 2. so it’s 24 × 1 . This is known as a 3 by 3 magic square because there are three rows and three columns.

For example.7 Magic triangle 1 2 3 The numbers 1. 6. what digits become letters of the alphabet when turned upside down? 174 Upside down . 8 and 9 along each side of the triangle so that the four numbers on each side (i. the corners) of the triangle. 7. including the numbers at the vertices) add up to 17? 8 Upside down The year 1961 reads the same when turned upside down.e. 5.e. When was the most recent year prior to 1961 that reads the same upside down? When will be the next year that this works? Explore what happens when letters and numbers are turned upside down. 2 and 3 have been placed at the vertices (i. Can you place two of the following numbers 4.

and all but four of them ﬂy away. 2 2 8 4 2 2 3=5 2=3 2=2 10 The bells. the bells! a If it takes 15 seconds for a church bell to chime 6 o’clock. each sock separated from its partner. How many fence posts are needed to panel a 16 m gap? 10. without looking. but you know three of them are written out backwards. What are they? d Ten birds sit on a roof. How many candles will you be able to make if you start with 49 stubs? h What is the fewest number of coins you need to pay for something costing 85p without receiving change? i Fill in the missing signs in the sums below. Puzzles. You make a noise to scare them off. How many single socks do you take out. to be sure that you have: (i) a matching pair of any colour? (ii) a matching pair of a particular colour? g You need seven candle stubs to make a new candle.9 Logically speaking a What word is from this sentence? b 1981 is to 1861 as 8901 is to what? c Seven numbers can be seen in this sentence. how long does it take to chime midnight? (It’s not as easy as it sounds!) b A fence panel is 2 m long. games and diversions 175 . How many are left? e How old is a coin engraved with the date 88BC? f You have three pairs of different-coloured socks in a drawer.

5 × 0. have a go at the following crossword puzzle. Now turn it upside down.5 × 2 257 × 3 Finally. try decoding the following ‘message’: 3145 × 10 + 123 204 ÷ 4 0. to ﬁt the puzzle. Use the results of each calculation. upside down.11 Calculator inversions Enter the number 53045 on your calculator. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 176 . Can you see something that helps you keep your feet off the ground? Next.

÷). 10 using exactly four 4s and any other operation (for example. …. . it sounds like a cow hath spoken (2) Down 2 0. –. ×. Puzzles.Across 1 3 × 1000 + 45 may be a good ﬁt (4) 6 5 × 1111 – 18 is no more (4) 7 93 – 19 is useful for troubled waters (3) 8 25 + 11 but please speak up! (2) 10 123 × 25 for a quick gin? (4) 12 Two score. You are also allowed square root. 1. for a surprise (2) 14 13 × 24439 + 5000000. Hint: 2 can be written as 4+4 4 . 10.1234 is one third of a police ofﬁcer’s greeting (5) 3 17 × 10 × 7 × 3 + 3 is another possibility (4) 4 112 × 31 is emerald in Ireland (4) 5 1111 × 5 – 48 for a no-win situation (4) 9 Two-ﬁfths expressed as a decimal is one-third of a Christmas greeting (2) 11 1101 × 7 describes life in the 10 across lane? (4) 13 19 × 2 × 193 can be found on a 1 across (4) 15 Half could be a needle pulling thread (2) 12 Four 4s The number 7 can be expressed using four 4s as follows: 7=4+4− 4 4 Express the numbers 0. 2.65 + 0. games and diversions 177 . so stop and buy some (7) 16 432 + 1 for the Spanish (2) 6 70 17 100 Verily. +.

11112.) d Three consecutive numbers have a product of 1716. (8 × 10 = ) Square the middle number. 12 321. 12 231) (1. How fast must I travel on the return journey to average 40 mph overall? 14 Find the numbers a Two consecutive numbers add to give 49. 121. (111. (9 × 9 = ) Subtract the smaller answer from the bigger answer. 37 × 3. What are the numbers? e Two numbers have a difference of 15 and a product of 54. …) 12. (say. 9 and 10) Multiply the first and third number. …. 1112. What are the numbers? c Two consecutive numbers have a product of 600. The result is 1. Take three consecutive numbers. What are the numbers? 15 Explore and explain the pattern Try these out on your calculator. 37 × 333. 37 × 33. However. (81 – 80 = 1) Does this always work for three consecutive numbers? 178 .13 Return journey I plan to complete a return journey (there and back) in an average time of 40 mph. 1221. What are the numbers? b Three consecutive numbers have a total of 60. 8. my outward journey is slow and I complete that part at 20 mph. etc. What are the numbers? (Note: The product is what you get when you multiply. 112.

favourite colour. ask your ‘victim’ for some additional but totally irrelevant information (for example. and so on). 724) Reverse the digits and subtract whichever is (724 – 427 = 297) the smaller from the bigger. date of birth. Note: If a zero occurs in any part of the calculation.16 1089 and all that Take a three-digit number. this puzzle can be set up as a trick to impress your friends. then which numbers does it not work for? Why? Insight By the way. For example: 534 – 435 = 099. Reversed. (792 + 297 = 1089) Try it for other three-digit numbers. this must be counted as well. Why does 1089 keep cropping up? Do you always get 1089? If not. telephone number. 099 becomes 990. as follows. (say. Write down the ﬁgure 1089 on a piece of paper and seal it in an envelope beforehand. 10. Reverse the digits of the answer and add it to the answer. This gives 099 + 990 = 1089. In order to give the trick a little pzazz. Puzzles. games and diversions 179 . Then ask the friend to choose any three-digit number and perform the calculation described above.

two on the second. the evil. cunning and extremely wealthy empress Calcula offers you a choice of one of the following options. eight on the fourth. or b As many gold pieces as the largest number you can get on your calculator by pressing just ﬁve keys. You will be given: either a As many gold pieces as the number of minutes you have been alive.17 Large and small sums Try to arrange the digits 1. 2. four on the third. Now try to arrange them so their sum is as small as possible. 180 . 4 and 5 (each used once only) to form two numbers so that the sum of the numbers is as large as possible. or c One gold piece on the ﬁrst day of this month. Explore the same sorts of questions for multiplication. decide what you should do. and so on. … 18 Gold pieces In exchange for your lucky calculator and this oh-so-precious maths textbook. 3. With the help of your calculator. ending on the last day of the month.

S H T R Solution 3 Blind Mice. If you get them all right. it should spell out the name of a ﬁlm as well as a catchphrase when you read down the central boxes. Clue 3 B M. games and diversions 181 .19 Initially speaking This puzzle is easiest to explain with the following example. Puzzles. 3 BLIND MICE S EE HOW THEY RUN 101 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ O _ _ 3 M __K_____ _ 10 Y _ _ _ _ IN A _ E _ _ _ _ 18 H _ _ _ _ IN A _ _ L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 24 B_ _ _ _ _ I _ _ _ B_ _ _ _ IN A _ _ _ WE 3 K _ __ _ OF O_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ THE 10 C _ _ _ _ _ _ _ E _ _ _ 36 I _ _ _ _ _ IN A Y_ _ _ 76 T _ _ _ _ _ _ _ IN T _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 64 S _ _ _ _ _ _ ON A _ H _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 11 P_ _ _ _ _ _ IN A _ _ O _ _ _ _ T _ _ _ 100 IS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ T OF W_ _ _ _ 20 Guess the number The rules of this game are given at the end of Chapter 5. See How They Run Now complete the solutions below. 10.

Start with 28 matches in the pile. removes at least one but not more than six matches. There are many versions of Nim. B picks up 5 matches. thereby winning game. Here is a typical game. and is usually played by two people. To ‘pot’ a ball.) Ball Result needed Score Red 1… 1 Yellow Green Brown 2… 2 3… 3 4… 4 Blue 5… 5 Pink 6… 6 Black 7… 7 182 . (The degree of accuracy can be varied according to experience. one of which is described below. A (realizing that defeat is just a match away) picks up 1 match. leaving 11. set … and match. A picks up 4 matches. 22 Calculator snooker Player A enters any two-digit number. leaving 17. A picks up 2 matches.21 Nim Nim is one of the oldest recorded games. B picks up all remaining 6 matches. leaving 19. Player B takes a ‘shot’ by multiplying with another number. possibly Chinese in origin. B picks up 1 match. leaving 24. Each player. in turn. the ﬁrst digit of the answer must be correct according to the table shown. Start with a pile of matchsticks. The winner is the player who picks up the last match. leaving 7. A picks up 3 matches. leaving 6. leaving 8. B picks up 6 matches.

She elects to go for blue … … and misses. and so on. colour.) When the last red has gone. games and diversions 183 . Comments 23 Place invaders This game. A player must score in the order red. PLACE INVADERS 1 Enter a 3-digit number into the calculator. for one or two players. until all the reds have gone. 2. Move on to a new level when you ﬁnd the game too easy. There are 10 (or 15) reds and one of each of the six ‘colours’. etc. The third red. red. For example.). one sequence of plays was: Player Karen Peta Enters 69 ×2= ×5= Karen ×2= × 5. (Note: The colours are replaced but the reds are not. colour. the colours are potted ‘in order’ and are not replaced. can be played at different levels (1.Otherwise. 10.6 = ×7= Display 69 138 690 1380 7590 12144 85008 Peta pots the ﬁrst red. She elects to go for black again … … and misses. She elects to go for black … … and pots it. Puzzles. 3. the rules are similar to ‘real’ snooker. These three digits are removed one at a time by subtracting to zero. Karen pots the second red.5 = × 1.

e. 6. 184 . not subtraction. Example: Starting number 352 Key presses − − − Display 350 50 0 i. then numbers with 5. you remove the 2. 385. Try 4-digit numbers. 7 and 8 digits. except that you remove the digits by addition. 143. 589. then the 3. PLACE INVADERS 4 This is the same as Place invaders 3. 264. PLACE INVADERS 2 This is the same as Place invaders 1 except that the digits must be removed in ascending order. This time the game will end with a 1 followed by a string of zeros. 853. 512. 179. Use as few goes as possible. except that you can use numbers with more digits. 954.Example: Starting number 352 Key presses − − − Display 350 300 0 You can make up your own numbers and let your partner remove them 2 = 50 = 300 = Try the following: 416. and then the 5 2 = 300 = 50 = PLACE INVADERS 3 This is the same as Place invaders 2. 741.

Answers for Chapter 10 Note: There are no comments for puzzles 1 – 5 6 MAGIC SQUARES Here is another 3 by 3 magic square.Example: Starting number 1736 Key presses + + + + Display 1740 1800 2000 10000 4 = 60 = 200 = 8000 = Note: If you start with a 5-digit number. 3. 4. Puzzles. e.g. 6. the game ends with a display of 100000. 2 9 4 7 5 3 6 1 8 10.326. 5. to be removed by subtraction in the order of 1. games and diversions 185 . 451. 2. PLACE INVADERS 5 This is the same as Place invaders 3. Note: If you make a mistake. it is easy to undo by adding back the number that you have just subtracted. except that you can use decimals.

Any other solution must be a reﬂection or rotation of the original 3 × 3 square. Now here is a 4 by 4 magic square. 16 5 9 4 3 10 6 15 2 11 7 14 13 8 12 1

With this 4 by 4 magic square each row, column and diagonal adds to 34. What makes this one even more magic is that each block of four corner squares also adds to 34. Hang on – what about the four central numbers …? 7 MAGIC TRIANGLE
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9 LOGICALLY SPEAKING a What word is missing from this sentence? b 1981 is to 1861 as 8901 is to 1068. c The three ‘backwards’ numbers are in bold type here; the other four are underlined. Seven numbers can be seen in this sentence, but you know three of them are written out backwards. d Four birds are left. e No coin could have been engraved with this date. f (i) 4 socks (ii) 6 socks g Seven candles initially. But these will produce seven more stubs, so the answer is eight. h Four coins: 50p + 20p + 10p + 5p i 2 × 4 − 3=5 2 ÷ 2 + 2=3 8 ÷ 2 − 2 = 2 or 8 ÷ 2 ÷ 2 = 2 10 CALCULATOR INVERSIONS ELSiE iS SO iLL
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11 FOUR 4S 0=4+4–4–4 1=
4+4 4+4

= 44 = 4 + 4 – 4 44 4
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2= 4 + 4 3=

4+4+4 4

– 4 = 4 + 444

5= 4+ 4+
+ 6 = 4 + 444

4 4

7 = 44 – 4 = 4 + 4 – 4 8=4+4+4–4 9=4+4+ 10 = 4 + 4 +
4 4
4 4

4 4

12 THE BELLS, THE BELLS! a Answer: 33 seconds. It takes 15 seconds for 6 chimes. There are 5 intervals between the ﬁrst and the sixth chime. Therefore it must take 3 seconds per interval. A series of 12 chimes has 11 intervals, hence 33 seconds. b 9 posts are needed for 8 spaces. Both the above questions refer to a common ‘type’ of maths question known as the old ‘posts and spaces’ trick. There are two things to remember in any ‘posts and spaces’ sort of situation. Firstly, be clear about which you are trying to count, the ‘posts’ or the ‘spaces’. And secondly, remember that there is always one fewer ‘space’ than there are ‘posts’.

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13 RETURN JOURNEY It can’t be done! Suppose the total distance (there and back) is 40 miles, then the total journey (there and back) must take exactly one hour. If the outward journey of 20 miles is completed at a speed of 20 mph, the one hour is completely used up! 14 FIND THE NUMBERS a b c d e 24 and 25 19, 20 and 21 24 and 25 11, 12 and 13 3 and 18

15 EXPLORE AND EXPLAIN THE PATTERN a 111, 1221, 12321. These numbers are palindromes (i.e. they read the same backwards as forwards). b 1, 121, 12321, 1234321. Again a palindromic sequence similar, but not identical, to part a. c This result works for all sets of three consecutive numbers. 16 LARGE AND SMALL SUMS The largest sum is 573 (541 + 32) or (542 + 31) The smallest sum is 159 (125 + 34) or (124 + 35) The largest product is 22 403 (521 × 43) The smallest product is 3185 (245 × 13). 17 1089 AND ALL THAT This result works for most but not all numbers. Try starting with some palindromic numbers and see what happens.

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18 GOLD PIECES Let us calculate each option in turn. a As many gold pieces as the number of minutes you have been alive. Assuming that you are, say, 45 years old, the required calculation is: 45 × 365 × 24 × 60 = 23 652 000. In other words, between 23 million and 24 million. b As many gold pieces as the largest number you can get on your calculator by pressing just ﬁve keys. My best effort here was to press: 99 × 9 = This comes up with a puny 891 gold pieces. If your calculator has a ‘square’ function, marked X2 , you will do much better than this. So much so that even ﬁve key presses will produce an answer too large for most calculators to display and which will therefore result in an error message. For example: 99 X2 X2 X2 produces an error message on my calculator. c One gold piece on the ﬁrst day of this month, two on the second, four on the third, eight on the fourth, and so on, ending on the last day of the month. This arrangement may sound very low key, but in fact it will produce an astronomically large result quite quickly. The best way to get an impression of the effects of doubling is to set your calculator’s constant to multiply by 2 and then keep pressing = . What you will see should be something like the following: Day Amount 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 … 12 … 16 2 4 8 16 32 … 2048 … 32 768

Before you get to the end of the month you will probably ﬁnd that the calculator has over-stretched itself and produced an error message!

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The answer, therefore, is that the ‘best’ option to choose depends on what sort of features your calculator has – for example, how many ﬁgures it displays, which keys it provides and so on. But whichever calculator you use, the third option is certainly a good one to go for! 19 The phrase is Some Like It Hot.
3 BLIND MICE S EE HOW THEY RUN 101 DALMATI O NS 3 M USKETEERS 10 YEARS IN A D E CADE 18 HOLES IN A GO L F COURSE 24 BLACKB I RDS BAKES IN A PIE WE 3 K INGS OF ORIENT ARE THE 10 COMMANDM E NTS 36 I NCHES IN A YARD 76 TROMBONE IN T HE BIG PARADE 64 SQUARES ON A C H ESS BOARD 11 PLAYERS IN A FO O TBAL TEAM 100 IS THE BOILING POIN T OF WATER

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1 A basic spreadsheet grid. sequences and percentages. Usually the rows are numbered Cell B3 Figure 11. 192 .11 Spreadsheets In this chapter you will learn: • what a spreadsheet is • why spreadsheets are useful • how to use a spreadsheet to calculate sums. An overview of a spreadsheet A spreadsheet is a computer tool that is used to set out information in rows and columns on a screen.

120. The real power of a spreadsheet is its ability to handle formulas.1. 2.72 and pressing Enter. 3. This is illustrated in Figure 11. I could then enter a formula into cell B2 for converting the height into centimetres. for example 7. as is the cell itself). down the left-hand side. Cells are identiﬁed by their column and row position. B. what is displayed is the numerical value of the formula (in this case. These can be either whole numbers or decimals. by selecting cell A2. The information you might want to put into each cell will be one of three basic types: Numbers. Words. Note that on this screen the cursor is currently set on cell B2 (this is evident as both column B and row 2 are highlighted. These can either be headings or explanatory text. Formulas. etc. I enter my height in metres (1. while the columns are labelled A. A typical spreadsheet might resemble that shown opposite. Note that.32. C. and the formula that produced it is shown in the formula bar at the top. Spreadsheets 193 . typing 1. 6.1. except that more rows and columns are visible on the screen at any one time. across the top.2 overleaf. First. For example. etc. The value displayed in the cell is 172. 172). Here is a simple example of using a formula. by selecting cell B2 and typing: =A2*100 Press the Enter key to ‘enter’ the formula and the value 172 is displayed in B2. although I have typed a formula into cell B2.72) into cell A2. 11. Each ‘cell’ is a location where information can be stored. cell B3 is indicated in Figure 11. it is the cell in row 3 of column B.

More often than not. In general.Figure 11. Figure 11. the formula will contain a reference to some other cell or cells. 194 .4. This is what has happened in Figure 11.2 Converting metres to centimetres.3 The calculation updates to match the new value in cell A2. Now enter any new height in metres into cell A2 and the value in B2 immediately adjusts to display the corresponding height in centimetres. A deﬁning feature of a formula is that it starts with an ‘=’ symbol. If you forget to include this. a formula entered into a particular cell will contain a calculation. The cell containing the formula will then display a value calculated from the numbers currently stored in the cell (or cells) referred to in the formula. the spreadsheet will treat the entry simply as text and display exactly what was typed in.

4 A formula with a missing ‘=’. as I hope you will ﬁnd as you work through this chapter. Yes. but this is just a small part of what it can do for you. Spreadsheet formulas can cover anything from calculating an average or a row or column total or perhaps. Many of the attending students have never used this tool before and the standard comment afterwards is: ‘I really had no idea you could do all those things on a spreadsheet!’ It is a common misconception that the primary function of a spreadsheet is for laying out data in a table so that it can be visually inspected. if relevant cell values are altered. As well as being able to reorganize the ﬁgures. Insight Every summer I teach at a maths summer school for teachers and one of the sessions is an introduction to spreadsheets. the formula will instantly and automatically recalculate on the basis of the updated values and display the new result. a conversion from one unit of measure to another. as in the example above. you can also use a spreadsheet to summarize them and plot them in a variety of different charts and graphs. But most of all. Spreadsheets 195 . As you can see.Figure 11. using spreadsheets is fun! 11. a spreadsheet will let you display data.

whose values you want to add together. Click in cell B4 and enter: =SUM(B1:B3) The colon (:) here indicates a range of cells. Here is one I use when entering a formula that contains a cell range like this: =SUM(B1:B3) 198 . Insight There are many useful shortcuts when entering a formula.Figure 11. EXERCISE 11. B2 and B3. So ‘B1:B3’ means cells B1.5 A shopping list with prices. or cell range.2 Finding totals using a formula The formula for adding cell values together is: =SUM() EXERCISE Inside the brackets you enter the cells.

subtracting. rather than typing the range. Your spreadsheet should now look like the one shown in Figure 11. How much change would you expect to get? Again. All that remains is to type the close bracket key and you’re done! By the way. Next. Spreadsheets 199 .Enter the ﬁrst part of the formula. multiplying and dividing require the use of the corresponding operation keys. Calculations involving adding. this is something that the spreadsheet can ﬁnd easily.6 Using the =sum() command. enter the word TOTAL into cell A4. it doesn’t matter whether you type spreadsheet commands in upper or lower case. This will automatically enter B1:B3 into the formula. Suppose that you gave the shopkeeper £10 to pay for these items. So you could have typed: =sum(b1:b3) Press Enter and the formula in cell B4 produces the sum of the values in cells B1 to B3.6. =SUM( Now. simply select the cells corresponding to this range of values. B1:B3. Figure 11. respectively marked 11.

which takes time). Enter the data in Figure 11. starting with the ﬁrst entry in cell A8.37. In order to calculate the overall total cost. Remember that the formula must begin with an equals sign and it must calculate the difference between the values in B5 and B4. Figure 11. the number 10 in cell B5 and the word ‘CHANGE’ in A6. Now enter a formula into B6 which calculates the change. the total cost of the black pens is 24 × £0. along with the number keys and ‘=’. usually on the right-hand side of your keyboard (these keys are also available elsewhere on the keyboard.7 into your spreadsheet. 200 . Note that the letter ‘x’ cannot be used for multiplication: you must use the asterisk. * and /. you must ﬁrst work out the total cost of each item. conveniently located on the numeric keypad.+. Now try a slightly more complicated shopping list. a little lower down. this time with an extra column showing different quantities. *. You can enter this into the previous spreadsheet.3 Calculating the change from £10 EXERCISE Enter the word ‘TENDERED’ in cell A5.7 Two columns of ﬁgures. You will ﬁnd these keys. EXERCISE 11. –. but you may have to hunt them down. For example.

4 Summing up With the costs in column D completed. you should get a total bill of £22. you are now able to calculate the total cost. Do this now. Now move the cursor close to the bottom right hand corner of cell D9 and you will see the cursor change shape (it may change to a small black cross.3. Magic! EXERCISE 11. I prefer to ﬁx the number of decimal places to two.25) and the plastic tape (£2. when displaying amounts of money on a spreadsheet.88) and release the mouse button. With the cursor displaying this new shape.72) should now be displayed in cells D10 and D11 respectively.Enter into cell D9 the formula: =B9*C9 This gives a cost. When you do this. for example).30 into the cell of a spreadsheet. Click on cell D9 (which currently displays 8. you’ll ﬁnd that the zero will be automatically removed and the value displayed as 11. EXERCISE Insight Suppose you want to enter the sum of money £11. The spreadsheet will automatically update the appropriate references for these new cells. This means that every value will displayed helpfully as pounds and pence. Spreadsheets 201 . You ‘ﬁll down’ the formula currently in D9 so that it is copied into D10 and D11. I ﬁnd that. using a powerful spreadsheet feature called ‘ﬁll down’. As before. The correct costs for the folders (£11. for the pens. of £8. Now. Now click on cell D10 and check on the formula bar at the top of the screen that the cell references are correct.88. you could repeat the same procedure separately for the folders and the plastic tape but there is an easier way. click and drag the mouse to highlight cells D9:D11 and then release the mouse button. Repeat the same procedure for cell D11. dollars (Contd) 11. this requires an appropriate entry in D12 using the =SUM() command.85. This can be inconvenient.

in column A. which makes them easy to compare as you run your eye down a column of ﬁgures.8. 14. in column B. the numbers 1. Then ﬁnd the command that lets you ﬁx the number of decimal places (on most spreadsheets this facility will be a special button on the top of the screen). which will display the value in A1. 4. 21. We’ll start by creating. In cell A1 enter the number 1. You should now see the numbers 1 to 30 in this column. and so on. plus 1: =A1+1 Select cell A2 once more and use the ‘ﬁll down’ technique to ﬁll this formula down as far as cell A30.and cents. 28. enter the following formula. It also means that all the numbers are decimally aligned. In cell A2. because the spreadsheet can generate these sorts of sequences until the cows come home. …) Open a new worksheet (by clicking the ‘Sheet2’ tab at the bottom of the screen). the corresponding numbers that form the 7 times table (7. Your spreadsheet should now look like the one in Figure 11. Number sequences on a spreadsheet Having trouble remembering your 7 times table? Have no fear. To do this. ﬁrst select the column or row of cells that you wish to format. 202 . Select cell B1 and enter the following formula. 2. Instantly. all the numbers in the selected range will be displayed to two decimal places. which will seed the 7 times table: =A1*7 Reselect this cell and ﬁll down as far as cell B30. 3. … and then.

generate in column C the numbers in the 7 times table (i.Figure 11. As you will see from the next exercise. this suggests an alternative way of generating the 7 times table. For example.e. Using a formula involving addition. 11. but based on a formula using addition rather than multiplication). Spreadsheets 203 .8 The seven times table. in the case of the 7 times table.5 Repeated addition EXERCISE Enter the value 7 in cell C1. multiplication is sometimes referred to as ‘repeated addition’. In mathematics. EXERCISE 11. this can be generated by repeatedly adding 7. column C should display the same values as column B.

column E now displays the percentage price increases. in pounds (£). 11. Figure 11. Select D1 again and ﬁll down as far as cell D3. Column D now displays the actual price increases.Select cell D1 and enter: =C1–B1 Then press Enter.10. As shown in Figure 11.10 Finding the percentage increases. Figure 11. Spreadsheets 205 . WORKING OUT THE PERCENTAGE PRICE INCREASES Select cell E1 and calculate the percentage price increase for milk by entering: =D1/B1*100 Select E1 again and ﬁll down as far as cell E3.9 Finding the price rises.

in cell C2. the formula: =SUM(D9:D11) EXERCISE 11. in cell D12. in cell D12.5 You need to enter. the formula: =SUM(D9:D11) 208 .4 You need to enter. EXERCISE 11.6 You need to enter. the formula: =C1+7 Then reselect cell C2 and ﬁll down as far as cell C30.EXERCISE 11.

Spreadsheets 209 . Most home computers already have a spreadsheet package installed. analyze and display the results in a variety of ways. 11. essentially. you only need to set up a calculation once. Once you have input all of your data into a spreadsheet you can summarize.SUMMARY A spreadsheet is a computer tool that is used to set out information in rows and columns on a screen. They are useful for storing and processing data when repeated calculations of a similar nature are required.

As you will see. Diagnostic quiz 211 . So. say. 3 6 4 a 20 + 7 + 10 + 100 + 1000 8 2 7 b 60 – 3 + 10 + 100 – 1000 62341 c 1000 12. I have included detailed comments after the solutions in order that you can ‘turn your errors into learning opportunities’. For each one that you answered incorrectly. how to convert miles into kilometres. but be prepared to take longer than that if you need to. please give the quiz your very best shot. a (i) 3 × 14 (ii) –5 – 17 (iii) –20 ÷ 4 (iv) 15 ÷ 75 1 1 b (i) 2 2 +1 4 1 3 (ii) 3 2 − 2 4 1 (iii) 5 2 ×3 2 (iv) 3 3 × 5 c (i) 82 2 (ii) 81 (iii) (32 + 42) Express the following as decimal numbers. This isn’t a test to be taken under examination conditions and you aren’t expected to remember all the formulas and conversions in your head.Don’t be afraid to look things up in earlier chapters of the book if you have forgotten. It is designed to take about one hour. then work through my solutions at the end of the chapter. When you have done all that you can do. ask yourself the following questions: ‘Where and why have I gone wrong?’ ‘What can I learn from this?’ Good luck! Quiz 1 Try these calculations without using your calculator.

5? d 10 per cent or an eighth? e 8 per cent or a tenth? 5 Using suitable metric units.00117 4 Which is bigger: a three-quarters or 70 per cent? b 0.724 c 0. 300 mm c half a week. four days.06 or one-twentieth? c two-ﬁfths or 0. 75 centilitres 3 b 1 4 metres. estimate the following: a the height of a chair seat from the ﬂoor b the width of a cooker c the weight of a newborn baby d the distance from London to Birmingham e the capacity of a doorstep milk bottle f the weight of a letter g the temperature inside a domestic refrigerator h two teaspoonfuls of liquid i the thickness of a £1 coin j the temperature on a hot summer’s day in London. 95 hours.93 b 11. 6 Place the following in order of size from smallest to largest: a 450 ml. 1. What does the ‘7’ represent in the following numbers? a 271.3 In the number 13.01 of a year. estimate the following: a the speed of a car travelling on the outside lane of a motorway in the UK b the speed of someone having a brisk walk c the speed of a top 100 m runner d the speed of a supersonic jet aircraft. 212 . half a litre.2 km.873. 7 Using both imperial and metric units. 18 cm. one pint. 0. the ‘7’ represents the number of hundredths.

the prices they quote do not include VAT (at 17. the voluntary cash donations to the top 10 UK charities in a particular year. in thousands of pounds (£000).8 A web-based store is holding a sale where each item is reduced by 30%.2 billion. an estimated 19. 12. The piechart opposite shows the estimated annual tourist spending. broken down by which part of the world the tourists came from. c Explain why a piechart would not be appropriate for depicting the earnings of the top ﬁve charities. Name National Trust Oxfam RNLI Save the Children Fund Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Research Campaign Barnardo’s Help the Aged Salvation Army NSPCC Income (£000) 78 745 58 972 56 229 53 866 48 395 45 352 36 452 33 141 32 303 30 818 9 a Rewrite the ten incomes. b Using the rounded ﬁgures.5%). How much would you expect to pay for an item that was originally quoted by the store (pre-sale) at £40? The table below lists. although VAT must be included in the payment. 10 In a certain year. Diagnostic quiz 213 .2 million international visitors came to Britain and spent £9. However. rounded to the nearest £million. sketch a horizontal barchart to represent the earnings of the top ﬁve charities in a particular year. Postage and packing are free for payments over £30.

99 29.29 22.00 7. estimate the annual spending by tourists from Europe.75 5.99 John Lewis 9. The prices (in £) of three toys are summarized below. Hamleys Toy A Toy B Toy C 12.25 22.97 On the basis of these prices: a Which of the three stores seems to be the most expensive? b Which store is the cheapest? 214 . how much more revenue might it be able to generate? Make a note of any assumptions that you have made in doing this calculation. b From which one of the regions listed here did roughly £2 billion of the tourist revenue come? c If Britain were able to attract an extra 10 million visitors. 11 A survey of toy prices was taken in three large stores.99 4.Other Australia/NZ Africa Middle East Far East Europe North America a From the piechart.95 Toys R Us 9.

b Calculate how much Petra will have to pay in tax: (i) over the year (ii) each week. She pays tax at the basic rate of 20% and her tax allowances are £3750. T = 0. how much would you have saved compared with buying them at the most expensive price? d From your answer to part c.) Solutions to the quiz 1 a (i) 42 3 b (i) 3 4 c (i) 64 2 a 27.341 (ii) –22 3 (ii) 4 (ii) 9 (or –9) (iii) –5 1 (iii) 16 2 (iii) 5 (or –5) (iv) 1 or 0. (Give your answer to the nearest penny. 12 Petra earns £6200 per year doing part-time work. annual tax on earnings is calculated. The annual amount that she has to pay in Tax.813 c 62.) c Assuming there are no other stoppages from her wages. (Give your answer to the nearest penny.2 5 1 (iv) 18 3 12.2 (I – A) (where I represents her annual income and A represents her tax allowances) a Explain in your own words how.c If you bought all three items at the cheapest price on offer.364 b 57. calculate your total savings as a percentage of the total cheapest price. T. can be calculated from the following formula. calculate how much Petra will receive each week after the weekly tax bill has been paid. Diagnostic quiz 215 . according to the tax formula.

90 9 a The rounded incomes are as follows. Diagnostic quiz 217 .90.175 Price after a 30% reduction = £40 × 1. National Trust Charity Oxfam RNLI Save the Children Fund Imperial Cancer Research Fund 0 10 20 30 40 50 Income (£m) 60 70 80 12. As payment exceeds £30.7 = £32. so the total bill = £32. Name National Trust Oxfam RNLI Save the Children Fund Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Research Campaign Barnardo’s Help the Aged Salvation Army NSPCC Income (rounded to the nearest £million) 79 59 56 54 48 45 36 33 32 31 b Below is a horizontal barchart showing the earnings of the top ﬁve charities in the year in question.8 Price including VAT = £40 × 1.175 × 0. postage and packing are free.

and multiply the result by 0.98 Least expensive prices = £9.98 – £36. b (i) £490 (ii) £9.25.2% 12 a The annual tax bill.2. b John Lewis and Toys RUs are very similar in price.) b North America c Roughly £5 billion. 10 a Roughly £4.97 = £13. which would correspond to the complete pie. I.c A piechart would not be appropriate because the combined income from these ﬁve charities together. compared with John Lewis’ £37. Subtract the tax allowances.97 = £36. from annual income.99 = £49. c Most expensive prices = £12.75 + £4.00 + £7.81 Detailed comments on the solutions QUESTION 1 a (i) 3 × 14 This can be written out and calculated as follows: 14 × 3 42 Solution 42 218 .01 d Percentage saving = £13.95).01/£36.97 Saving = £49. This calculation assumes that the extra 10 million visitors spend at the same rate as do current visitors. 11 a Hamleys is the most expensive. A.99 + £29. does not represent anything meaningful.42 c £109. T. with Toys R Us having the slight edge (a total price of £37. can be found as follows.97 × 100 = 35.25 + £22.5 billion (I will accept anything between £4b and £5b.

Next you do the calculation with the numbers. as follows: 17 steps to the left End here Start here –25 –20 –15 –10 –5 0 You start at –5 and then subtract 17. Because the two numbers are of different signs. so write down the negative sign. 5 A common mistake here is to do the division the wrong way 75 round. giving the solution 1 or 0. you must rewrite them as equivalent fractions which have the same denominator. add the fraction total to the whole number total. the fractions become 4 + 1 = 4 4 Finally.e. 4 So the solution is –5. which in this case is easiest done using quarters.(ii) Adding and subtracting with negative numbers can be confusing and it is sometimes a good idea to write the calculation out on a number line. you move 17 steps to the left. giving 15 = 5. whether the answer is positive or negative). giving the result 5. Diagnostic quiz 219 . b (i) 2 1 + 1 1 4 2 First add the whole numbers: 2 + 1 = 3. 20 ÷ 4 means 20 . This gives the result of –22. Next. Remember that.2. First you must decide on the sign of the answer (i. –. in order 2 4 to add fractions with different denominators. the result must be negative. 3 3 Solution: 3 + 4 = 3 4 12. 3 2 So. (iv) 15 ÷ 75 This can be written as 15 . add the fraction parts: 1 + 1 . (iii) –20 ÷ 4 Here you are dividing a negative number (–20) by a positive one (4). 75 The fraction can now be simpliﬁed to the simplest equivalent fraction by dividing the numerator and the denominator by 15. In other words.

because it satisﬁes this condition – i.e. when squared. or the square root of 81. means 8 × 8 = 64 (ii) 81. –9. as follows. namely. Next. 92 = 81. The most obvious answer is 9. thus: (–9)2 = –9 × –9 = 81 (iii) (32 + 42) First. the 1. and turn it into quarters along with the fraction parts. 3 3 3 Solution: 1 1 − 4 = 6 − 4 = 4 2 4 1 (iii) 5 2 × 3 Multiply each part separately by 3 and then add the results together. Using the same reasoning as in part (ii). 3 × 5 = 15 10 2 1 3 × 5 = 3 = 33 1 1 15 + 3 3 = 18 3 c (i) 82. or 8 squared. this gives the two possible solutions. 5 × 3 = 15 1 × 3 = 11 2 2 15 + 1 1 = 16 1 2 2 (iv) 3 2 × 5 3 Multiply each part separately by 5 and then add the results together. means ﬁnding the number which. However. gives 81. 3 Write down what still has to be calculated: 1 1 – 4 2 Notice that you can’t just subtract the fraction parts directly because the fraction being subtracted (three-quarters) is bigger than the fraction it is being subtracted from (a half). work out what is inside the brackets: (32 + 42) = 9 + 16 = 25. 5 or –5. The way around this is to borrow the whole number part.3 (ii) 3 1 – 2 4 2 First subtract the whole numbers: 3 – 2 = 1. 220 . You can check this by squaring –9. if you give the question a little further thought you may notice that there is another possible answer. ﬁnd the square root of 25.

‘62341. a Converting three-quarters to a percentage: 3 Three-quarters as a percentage is 4 × 100 = 75%. 8 2 7 b 60 – 3 + 10 + 100 – 1000 This question is similar to part a but slightly complicated by the two values which are subtracted. There is no single correct way of doing this. tenths. 62341 = 62.05. press 1 12. which is smaller than 0.QUESTION 2 3 6 4 a 20 + 7 + 10 + 100 + 1000 These numbers have been arranged in a familiar pattern – tens. but my approach was to break it down as follows: 60 – 3 = 57 20 13 3 2 7 7 1 − 1000 = 1000 − 1000 = 1000 = 100 + 1000 100 8 3 1 Solution: 57 + 10 + 100 + 1000 = 57. if you were unable to ﬁnd three-quarters of 100 in your head.341 1000 QUESTION 3 The only comment here is that you need to keep in mind the sequence of decimal places. Thus the number can be written down directly as 27.06. Diagnostic quiz 221 .’) Thus. The number 62341 has an invisible decimal point after the 1 (i. and so on.813 c 62341 1000 Division by 1000 has the effect of moving the decimal place three places to the left. ÷ 20 = Alternatively. use your calculator.364. as follows: Press 3 ÷ 4 × 100 = b Converting one-twentieth to a decimal: 1 One-twentieth as a decimal is 20 = 0. hundredths. which is larger than 70%.e. which are as follows: … thousands hundreds tens units • tenths hundredths thousandths … QUESTION 4 It is difﬁcult to compare numbers written as fractions and the best strategy is to convert the fractions to either decimals or percentages. Incidentally. units.

a 450 ml. which is larger than 8%. 96 hours. written here in the order in which they were originally given in the question. Once this has been done.4.5.c Converting two-ﬁfths to a decimal: 2 Two-ﬁfths as a decimal is 5 = 0. Alternatively. then getting out a tape measure. press 1 ÷ 10 × 100 = QUESTION 5 There are no comments on this question except to suggest that you could develop your estimation skills by guessing some measures around the house. 87. 750 ml b 175 cm. 500 ml. Alternatively. the key thing is to convert all the measurements to the same units. QUESTION 7 As with most estimation questions. placing them in order of size becomes a trivial task. weighing scales. and checking how good your guesses were. 95 hours. Alternatively. there is no single correct method. QUESTION 6 As is the case for all questions about comparison of measures. 30 cm c 84 hours. 120 000 cm. which is smaller than 0. which is larger 2 8 than 10%. 222 . press 1 ÷ 8 × 100 = e Converting a tenth to a percentage: 1 A tenth as a percentage is 10 × 100 = 10%.6 hours. as each person draws on their own past knowledge and experience. 18 cm. 568 ml. Suitable conversions are set out below for the measures. thermometer and so on. press 2 ÷ 5 = d Converting an eighth to a percentage: An eighth as a percentage is 1 × 100 = 12 1 %. It is surprising how quickly these skills do improve with practice.

I know from experience that 4 mph represents a fairly brisk walk. This has been shown in separate stages below. Diagnostic quiz 223 . the sprinter would travel 100 × 6 m In 1 hour. so I allowed a range of between 3 and 5 mph. The conversions to km/h were done as above in part a. the sprinter’s speed is 36 km/h. In ×6 the case of the fraction 1001000× 60 . the sprinter travels 100 m In 1 minute. 5 90 mph = 90 × 8 km/h = 144 km/h. so I decided to do a calculation instead. (Contd) 12. Pressing the calculator sequence 100 × 6 × 60 ÷ 1000 = gives the answer 36. it means dividing out the tens and hundreds. 5 b As with the previous part. In 10 seconds. I rounded this to 145 km/h. These seemed to be convenient numbers. so I chose to work in metric units this time and converted to imperial afterwards. I rounded this to 110 km/h. c This time I had no idea how fast a top sprinter could run. An aside on cancelling out fractions There is an alternative method of working out this last answer which involves ‘cancelling’ out the fraction. So my ﬁrst estimate here will be in these imperial units of miles per hour and then I will use my calculator (pressing 70 × 8 ÷ 5 = ) to convert to the metric equivalent. cancelling out a fraction means dividing numbers in the top and bottom parts of the fraction by factors that they have in common. drawing on my past experience. the sprinter would travel 100 × 6 × 60 100 × 6 × 60 m = 1000 km. This has the effect of simplifying the fraction before it is evaluated. In other words.a My experience of motorway driving is that trafﬁc on the outside lane seems to travel at around 80 mph (most drivers in the outside lane tend to break the speed limit of 70 mph unless there happens to be a police vehicle in the vicinity). In general. thus: 70 mph = 70 × 8 km/h = 112 km/h. I know that a good time for the 100 m is around 10 seconds. Again.

And. 5 30 km/h = 30 × 8 mph = 18. On the basis of this ﬁgure of 36 km/h. I allowed you to mark yourself correct if your answer fell within the range 30–40 km/h. I remembered that the speed of sound is around 760 mph.75 mph. depending on such 224 .) Finally. giving the following: 1 100 × 6 × 60 1000 10 1 6 There is still further scope for cancelling. thus: This can be tidied up and simpliﬁed as follows: 100 × 6 × 60 1000 10 1 1×6×6 = 36 1 So. divide top and bottom of the fraction by 100. press 40 × 5 ÷ 8 = d This again was a fact that I happened to have stored away in my brain. (Incidentally. which required no further rounding. having been brought up from childhood with imperial units. If you had absolutely no idea. but calculating someone’s speed in mph or kmph does not necessarily imply that they continue to travel for an hour. try looking up ‘speed of sound’ in a web search engine. I can convert to mph as follows. Again.First. press 30 × 5 ÷ 8 = 5 40 km/h = 40 × 8 mph = 25 mph. the result. press 100 × 6 × 60 ÷ 1000 = . There is no need for any greater accuracy than this because the speed of sound varies. Alternatively. if you wanted to use your calculator for this calculation. so divide the 60 on the top and the remaining 10 on the bottom by 10. as before. is 36 km/h. even though my wording above suggests that they do. I rounded this to 20 mph. in practice no sprinter could possibly sprint at this speed for an hour. Alternatively.

Press 760 × 8 ÷ 5 = I rounded the calculator result of 1216 km/h to 1200 km/h. QUESTION 8 There are no additional comments on this question. We know that 19.) c This ﬁnal part is an exercise in proportion. and so on.2 ÷ 19. which I rounded to £5b.2 . On the calculator.2b So. press 9. Only North America ﬁts the bill here. But clearly there needs to be a sensible upper limit to your answer – say. On my calculator. 12.2b Then 10 million visitors should spend 19. £9. Diagnostic quiz 225 .2b.2 . so the annual spending represented by this slice would be almost half of £9.5b.2 × 10. As before. You can see that the slice corresponding to Europe takes up almost half of the pie.7916666.2b represents the 2 following fraction of the pie: 9. So I am looking for a slice which is slightly bigger than one ﬁfth of the pie. or roughly £4. Supersonic aircraft travel at speeds greater than 760 mph or 1200 km/h. QUESTION 9 There are no additional comments on this question. this gives a decimal value of just over 0. 1 million visitors should spend 19.2b.2 × 10 = giving the result 4.2. b A spending of £2b out of a total spending of £9. (If you imagine four more slices the same size as North America. the air temperature at the time. or roughly one ﬁfth. it seems reasonable that ﬁve of these slices would together make a complete pie. £9. 2000 mph or 3000 km/h. QUESTION 10 a The task here is to try to estimate what fraction each slice is of the total. the conversion to km/h is easy with a calculator.2 million visitors spent £9.things as the nature of the gas that it is passing through.

c and d There are no additional comments on these parts. This is the annual tax bill. On the calculator. QUESTION 12 a There are no additional comments on this part. which I rounded to the nearest penny. so simply press × 0. c Petra’s weekly earnings net of tax can be calculated as follows. I rounded this to the nearest penny. Next multiply the result by 0. giving £109. the price differences between John Lewis and Toys R Us are so small that John Lewis could possibly come out cheapest if three different toys were chosen. this ﬁrst question was easy to answer. There is no need to re-enter the 2450 as it is already on the calculator display.4230769.2.80769. giving £9. it is impossible to come up with a clear answer to this question.81. 226 . b (i) First you must subtract Petra’s tax allowances from her annual income. However.2 = (ii) The previous result of £490 should still be on your calculator display. this is done as 6200 − 3750 = giving the result 2450. Her annual earnings net of tax: Press 6200 − 490 = Her weekly earnings net of tax: Press ÷ 52 = giving the result 109. which was Toys R Us.42. b There isn’t an obvious method for answering this question. giving the result 9. but I decided to calculate the total price of all three items and select as the cheapest the store with the smallest total. Based only on data from three toys. To calculate this in weekly terms you must divide by 52.QUESTION 11 a Since the prices in Hamleys were the highest for each of the three toys listed. so simply press ÷ 52 = .

Part two Mathematics in action (appendices) .

most supermarket purchases are made available in packs of different sizes and prices.’ ‘In our household a small pack of cornﬂakes lasts about two days so I always buy the largest one.’ But in many situations you simply want to buy the size which gives the best value for money. Example Cornflakes Cornflakes Cornflakes Cornflakes Net weight 500 g Net weight 750 g Net weight 1 kg £1. Sometimes you choose the size for practical reasons – here are some examples. ‘The larger toothpaste tubes always fall out of our bathroom mug so I tend to buy the smallest one.Appendix Calculating a best buy A Whether you are buying potato crisps. rice or shampoo.04 This one’s the cheapest … but it contains the least amount This one’s the dearest … but it contains the most amount Appendix A. Calculating a best buy 229 .49 £2.08 £1.

Remember that your calculator will do the arithmetic.90 I Choose the size with the largest number of grams per penny. There are two possible methods.Note: You can’t compare the prices directly because each packet contains different amounts of cornﬂakes. Note: In Method A you end up choosing the packet which produces the largest answer to your calculation. All you have to do is three things. which in this case is the medium packet with 5. P The calculation is set out in the table below. Size Small Medium Large Price (p) 108 149 204 Weight (g) 500 750 1000 Grams per p (to 3 ﬁgures) 500 ÷ 108 = 4. So the weights will be measured in grams and the price in pence. For each packet: A calculate the weight of cornﬂakes per penny and then choose the packet which works out at the largest weight per penny B calculate the cost in pence of cornﬂakes per gram and then choose the packet which works out cheapest per gram. it makes sense to use the same units for weight and price for each packet.63 750 ÷ 149 = 5. Method A Calculating the weight per penny D The calculation needed here is division. the weights divided by the price of each packet. while Method B involves choosing the packet which produces the smallest answer. You need to ﬁnd a way of comparing like with like.03 1000 ÷ 204 = 4. 230 . summarized by the letters DPI: D Decide what calculations to do and understand why you are doing them P Press the right buttons in the correct order I Interpret the answers sensibly.03 grams per penny. To avoid confusion.

P The calculation is set out in the table below. Calculating a best buy 231 .199 204 ÷ 1000 = 0.Method B Calculating the price per gram D As with Method A. Remember that you want to pay small pence and you want to receive large quantities.199 pence per gram. Whichever method you adopt determines whether you will choose the packet whose calculation yields the largest value or the smallest value. You just need to be clear which one you have chosen and make sure to use the same method throughout.204 I This time we are looking for the size with the cheapest price per gram. As before.216 149 ÷ 750 = 0. Size Small Medium Large Price (p) 108 149 204 Weight (g) 500 750 1000 Pence per g (to 3 ﬁgures) 108 ÷ 500 = 0. but this time the division is the other way round – price divided by weight. we select the medium packet with 0. Thus: For the calculation … grams per p pence per g you want … large grams small pence so you choose… the largest one the smallest one Appendix A. Ensure that the units of measure match up – don’t calculate one pack size priced in pence and another in pounds. Points to note in value-for-money calculations It doesn’t matter which method you use (calculating weight per penny or price per gram). the calculation required is division.

prestige. For example. durability. all factors which are much more difﬁcult to measure and calculate with. not necessarily to a single gram or pound. Note also that the meat has been unit priced in both imperial and metric units for the customer’s convenience. Unit pricing is a practice followed by most supermarkets. price unit price Notice that when supermarkets give a unit price. the basic unit for sardines was taken to be 100 g. while that for lamb steaks is both lb and kg. you may also wish to take account of quality. and so on. In the examples above.We have only looked at a simple example where the goods being compared were identical in every respect except size and price. 232 . For most purchases. As well as including on the label of each item the price and the size (weight or capacity. there are many other factors to take into account when deciding on value for money and it is altogether more complicated than these calculations suggest. as appropriate). This allows you to compare the relative value of products across different pack sizes. The reason for this is to avoid having to use prices written as awkward decimal numbers that people ﬁnd hard to make sense of. Here are some examples. recyclability. the ‘unit price’ is also included. they usually reduce the price to a suitable unit.

a vinyl record player produces musical sound in a mechanical way in that. For example. Analogue devices are so called because of their mechanical way of working: the mechanism is the device.e. as the record spins. digits) encoded in the compact disc or digital audio tape. It is these numbers that are then transformed into sound. the needle moves about inside the grooves. a record is analogue a CD is digital Appendix B. Reading the 24-hour clock 233 .Appendix Reading the 24-hour clock Analogue and digital B The world is divided into two types of device – analogue and digital. Contrast that with digital sound where a laser reading device merely scans a long list of numbers (i. That movement is then translated into sound.

14. marking out the time. Alternatively.m. are shown on the display.00 4 a.m.). …) on the 24-hour system. Digital clocks and watches. most digital clocks can be set to display time in cycles of 24 hours. there is a moving mechanism that physically marks out a circular path which we interpret in terms of time passing.m. 8.m.00 8 a.00 12 p. 234 . 12-hour time a.00 p. on the other hand.e. period) the 12-hour and 24-hour times are exactly the same. simply produce numbers.m. 4. Two circuits of the clock face by the hour hand gives a full day of 24 hours. 15. 20.m. However. in which case the letters a.Another example of this analogue and digital distinction is with clocks and watches. 0.) and afternoon time (p.00 4 p. after 12 noon.m. As with the record player. the times roll back to zero on the 12-hour system.m. an analogue clock a digital clock The old-fashioned analogue clocks tend to have a circular face numbered 1 to 12 and hands that sweep round. during the a.00 24-hour time As you can see.m. 16.m. for the ﬁrst 12 hours in a day (i. whereas they simply continue (13.00 12 noon 12. 0 a.m. These numbers can be organized in 12-hour cycles. 24. or p.m. One complete circuit of the clock face by the hour hand represents the passing of 12 hours. 8 p.m. The chart below shows how 12-hour and 24-hour times are related. We use common sense to distinguish between morning time (a.

15 18.00 12-hour time 1. 12-hour time 3. 5.00 + 12.55 16.15 a.00 – 12. p. So: …if it is a.. time).m.52 p.m.33 more than 12? yes yes no no yes – 12 hours? – 12.m. Here are some examples. 4.07 Converting from 24-hour time to 12-hour time Remember that any time after 12 noon is p.m.m.Converting from 12-hour time to 24-hour time Remember that 24-hour time is a measure of how long it is since the previous midnight. 4. p.00 24-hour time 3.m.00 + 12. Reading the 24-hour clock 235 .m.. + 12 hours? + 12. 11.00 Appendix B. 9. you have to add 12 hours. 11. and …if it is p.07 p.m.. a.e.50 21.00 a.55 p. a.m.33 p. and for afternoon times the 12-hour clock rolls back to zero. if it is a p. p.m.m.m.m.m. Here are some examples. 24-hour time 13. 6. the 24-hour and the 12-hour times are the same.08 11.44 p.m.m.50 a.? a.m.m. or p. This means that. you must subtract 12 to ﬁnd the 12-hour time.40 p.m. 4.08 a. if the 24-hour time is greater than 12 (i.00 23.52 5.m. – 12.40 4.44 16.m.

m.m.? NO Is the time more than 12. From 12-hour to 24-hour time START From 24-hour to 12-hour time START Is the time p.m. here are some diagrams to help you sort out what to do when converting between 12-hour and 24-hour time.. subtract 12 and call it p. If the time is p. add 12 hours. a. otherwise it is the same time.m. otherwise it is the same 12-hour time 24-hour time If the hours are greater than 12.00? YES NO YES add 12 hours subtract 12 hours this is the 24-hour time this is the 12-hour time 236 ..Finally.

but you get the general point!) Appendix B. Reading the 24-hour clock 237 . over the ﬁrst ten years of the introduction of the 24-hour clock in their timetables. it makes sense to use a system which is not prone to confusion. or p. ‘Excuse me.m. rail staff costs fell by nearly £8 million in today’s terms.m.m. (Actually. or 4 o’clock p.Why? Why can’t we stick to the good old-fashioned 12-hour clocks? The chief virtue of the 24-hour system is that it automatically does away with the need to specify whether the time is a. bus and airline timetables. but when consulting train. I just made that last ‘fact’ up. due to dispensing with the need to pursue interminable conversations with customers along the lines of. It has been estimated that. Is that 4 o’clock a. this may not seem very important.m. For most everyday purposes.?’ etc.

Appendix
Bus and railway timetables

C

Bus, railway and aeroplane timetables are invariably written in terms of the 24-hour clock. Before proceeding with this appendix, make sure you understand and can use the 24-hour clock (see Appendix B on page 234). Two extracts from a railway timetable are shown here. Notice that both timetables are labelled Table 5 but each one has a network map above it showing the direction of travel. The second timetable shows the journey to London Euston (which will be the outward journey for our purposes) while the ﬁrst timetable covers the return journey from Euston station. It is a Tuesday morning and you are in Wilmslow. You have arranged to meet a friend in a cafe in London at 12 noon. You should allow about half an hour to travel by tube from Euston station to get to the cafe. You want to be home by 7 p.m. that evening (you live about 45 minutes from Wilmslow station). Now try to answer the following questions. a What train should you catch if you want to be certain of arriving at the cafe before your friend? How long are you likely to have to wait at the cafe if you catch this train? b What is the most sensible train to catch? Is this a direct service or will you have to change trains? If you have to change, where are you likely to have to change and how long may you have to wait for that connection? At what time would you estimate arriving at the cafe? 238

Appendix C. Bus and railway timetables

Source: A Guide to Intercity Services © British Railways Board.

239

240

Source: A Guide to Intercity Services © British Railways Board.

c What train will you catch to return home? Will you be able to eat on this train? d What are the train journey times each way? SOLUTION a For the outward journey, you need the second timetable. The 0727, which gets into London Euston at 0944, should get you to the cafe by 1015 – an hour and three-quarters before the agreed time, so not very satisfactory! b It’s a bit tight, but you should just about make your assignation if you catch the next train from Wilmslow, the 0850, getting into London Euston at 1136. The 0850 departure is not a direct service. You can tell this because of the light printing of the departure time of 0850. As you can see from the explanation at the bottom of the page, ‘Light printed timings indicate connecting service’, so this will require a change of trains. In this case you will have to change at Crewe, which is the next main station. Note that the times 0850 (in light printing) and 0925 (in bold) are the departure times from Wilmslow and Crewe, respectively. Since you will be changing at Crewe, you will expect to arrive there some time before the 0925 departs. You can make an intelligent guess at your arrival time in Crewe by looking at a previous column of ﬁgures. Notice that the 0536 from Wilmslow gets into Crewe at 0557, suggesting a journey time of 21 minutes. Assuming the 0850 travels at the same speed, it should get into Crewe by 0911, allowing you ample time (14 minutes, in fact) to make your connection on the 0925. This should get you to the cafe just a few minutes after 12 noon. c To choose the homeward train, you need to work backwards from when you want to get home, as follows: Getting home by 7 p.m. means arriving at Wilmslow station by 6.15 p.m., i.e. by 1815. According to the ﬁrst timetable, there is an ideal train which departs from London Euston at 1600 and gets into

Appendix C. Bus and railway timetables

241

Wilmslow at 1808. Note: According to the codes at the top of the column, this train is a First Class Pullman (called the Manchester Pullman – see note A on the timetable) with a Silver Standard, but with no Restaurant facilities. So, you will be able to eat on this train, but not in high style! d The journey times are shown in the table below Depart Wilmslow London Euston Arrive 0850 London Euston 1600 Wilmslow 1136 1808 Journey time 2 hours 46 mins 2 hours 08 mins

So, the return journey is quicker by some 38 minutes. You may have gone wrong calculating journey times on your calculator. For example, the outward journey ran from 0850 to 1136, so pressing 1136 − 0850 = gives 286 (i.e. 2 hours and 86 mins) and not 246 (or 2 hours 46 mins) as shown above. Calculating journey times cannot easily be done on a calculator. The complication is that there are 60, not 100, minutes in one hour. There are many commonsense ways of tackling this problem. Here is how I worked out the journey time between 0850 and 1136. First, I added ten minutes to 0850 to bring it up to the next exact hour (0900). This shortens the journey time by ten minutes, but I’ll add these on later. Next, I calculated the journey time from 0900 to 1136 – this is easy to do in your head, the answer being 2 hours 36 minutes. Finally, I need to remember that I shortened the journey time by ten minutes, so I must now add these on. So, 2 hours 36 mins + 10 mins gives the answer, 2 hours 46 minutes.

242

Appendix

D

Checking the supermarket bill
Most people simply haven’t got the time or the energy to check their weekly supermarket bill item by item. In general, we tend to assume that the machine has got it right. Where errors occur, sometimes they are to the customer’s advantage and sometimes to the store’s advantage, but it is likely that, taken over the long term, errors tend to average themselves out. Typically, the item will be scanned at the checkout with a barcode reader. Occasionally the barcode is read incorrectly but barcodes have a built-in ‘checksum’ that bleeps when there is an error – this is explained in Appendix K. However, errors do occur, and it is worth being awake to that possibility at the checkout to avoid it costing you money. The key thing is to know when to check the bill in detail and how to do so if you have to. Here are a few guidelines.

What does my bill usually come to?
First of all, it is helpful to know roughly what your bill is likely to come to. If you do a regular weekly shopping at the same store, you may be able to do this with some accuracy. For example, your typical bill may come to, say, around £55, so anything less than £40 or more than £70 in a particular week ought to make you suspicious.

Appendix D. Checking the supermarket bill

243

Are there any unusual and expensive items this week? If you have bought some untypical and expensive items (for example. How many items did I buy? Most supermarket receipts state the total number of goods bought.77 0.59 1.69 0. alcohol.98 0. P PERKINS PLC THE BUTTS WARWICK CV21 3FL Telephone no. That way you will know what you can expect your bill to come to.69 0. make an estimate of these and add them to your typical bill. roughly.13 4356 601364 645355431 244 .56 1.69 1. I spent about £90.23 11. or kitchen or electrical goods).85 1. 01926 334215 £ Custard powder Apple jce 2L PP County spread PP H-gran stick Baking potatoes PP Earl Grey tea PP Earl Grey tea PP Lentils 500g Orange jce 1L PP Eggs small Baked beans 11 Bal Due 0. In a recent large shopping spree for groceries.19 0.89 0.

say.19 0. the ﬁrst item.56 1. which has the effect of rounding down the pounds. 40 items. which is 85p. if there are. otherwise ignore the pence. This works out at just over £1 per item. Where the amount of the pence is 50p or more. say. There is no single correct method of rounding – you could round to the nearest 10 pence or 50 pence. . This strategy might allow you to pick up situations where £69 was recorded instead of 69p.98 . . round up to the next whole number of pounds. will be rounded up to £1 because the pence (85p) is greater than 50p. Checking the supermarket bill 245 . Thus. . for a bag of apples. On the other hand. an average of about £1 per item is fairly typical and using this fact might provide you with a quick check that the overall bill is in line with the contents of your trolley. Rounded price (£) 1 2 1 1 2 (Contd) Appendix D.85 1. I might expect my bill to be around £50–£60. buying.19 is rounded down to £1 because the pence (19p) is less than 50p. a sum of £1. then this is perfectly possible. For example. only 11 or 12 items. Adopting this procedure. the costs of the 11 items are rounded as follows: Item Custard powder Apple jce 2L PP County spread PP H-gran stick Baking potatoes Actual price (£) 0.69 1. . The method below is more approximate and is based on rounding the prices to the nearest £.having bought 73 items. The method is based on looking at the pence part of the price. Can I do a quick mental check of the bill? If there is a huge number of items on your bill – as many as 73. say. For most supermarket bills. However. for example – it isn’t realistic to do a mental check.

77 0. . Rounded price (£) 1 1 1 2 1 0 £13 In this particular case. the rounding method has produced an answer which is too high – by roughly £2. .69 0.23 Rounded total . . However.89 0. .Item PP Earl Grey tea PP Earl Grey tea PP Lentils 500g Orange jce 1L PP Eggs small Baked beans Actual price (£) 0. the object of the exercise has been to produce a rough ‘order of magnitude’ answer to check whether the total is more or less correct.59 1. .69 0. rather than to get a precise answer. 246 .

29 0786543 TULIPS 2.95 2 BAL DUE 6. 534 5644 89 THANK YOU FOR SHOPPING WITH DEVLIN Please retain your receipt Appendix E.00 CHANGE 3. you could do a lot worse than to practise your skills uncovering the hidden mysteries of a lowly shop receipt. Understanding a shop receipt 247 .Appendix Understanding a shop receipt E If you’ve ever fancied yourself as a latter-day Poirot or Sherlock Holmes. 01926 435268 SALES VOUCHER: CUSTOMER’S COPY 0873456 D/WASH LIQ LEM 3. You may be surprised to discover how much you can tell about a person simply by rummaging around in their discarded plastic bags and ﬁshing out the sordid details of their last shopping transaction – which might look something like the receipt below… S DEVLIN PLC THE SHIRES PARK DODDINGTON CV11 4RR TELEPHONE NO.24 CASH 10.76 503 24 1032 16:26 24DEC08 VAT NO.

At precisely ____________. We might like to go a little further here and speculate what sort of person this was. crackers. presents. namely a _______________ and a _______________.As you can see. assuming that they own the dishwasher in question. Note the date. Now most people who celebrate this festival are still frantically buying the basics on Christmas Eve (in a few homes the turkey. This individual has clearly got the whole Christmas thing totally under control if he or she is making a special trip for tulips and dishwasher liquid on Christmas Eve! Also. Police ﬁle We have reason to believe that the suspect entered the premises of _________________ (shop) at ___________________ (address) in the town of ________________ on the afternoon of ____________ in the year ______. In short. For the completed ﬁle see opposite page. try completing the blanks in the police ﬁle below. who wants to relax this Christmas with no plans to be hand-washing dishes in the sink! 248 . certainly well organized. ‘when’ and ‘what’ of the transaction. balloons. etc. you might suppose that they aren’t exactly in the bottom income bracket. A £______ note was submitted to the cashier and £_________ in change was received. have still to be bought). You might like to reconstruct part of that story. _____items were purchased. sorting out in your mind the objective facts involved – the ‘where’. this piece of evidence tells its own story about the transaction that took place. which was Christmas Eve. costing £_________and £__________respectively. one has a picture of someone who is reasonably well off. To help you.

2 items were purchased. I have focused on what information they provide for the customer. costing £3.29 and £2. A £10 note was submitted to the cashier and £3.26 p. Understanding a shop receipt 249 . You might like to ﬁnd various tickets and receipts of your own and see if you can crack all the codes they contain. What additional information do they provide for the management? How might they be used for stock control? Follow up Appendix E.76 in change was received. At precisely 4. namely a bottle of dishwasher liquid and a bunch of tulips.m.Completed police ﬁle from Appendix E We have reason to believe that the suspect entered the premises of Devlin’s shop at The Shires Park in the town of Doddington on the afternoon of 24th Dec in the year 2008.95 respectively..

50 Below is a simpliﬁed receipt from a plumbing centre where I recently bought the wherewithal to install a ventilator into an external wall of my kitchen.70 38.13 4.13 602047 1 Stadium BM720 17. bringing the total to £117. In other words: This is what the customer pays Net value £100. for every £100 net value. the VAT charge is £17. For many years.Appendix Checking the VAT F Value added tax (VAT) is charged on many of the goods bought in the UK.50 = = Gross value £117. 800160 Qty. VAT in the UK was at a rate of 17. but that’s another story!) Catalogue No.59 5.5 cement – 3kg 28. (In the event I failed disastrously to complete the job without professional help.50. What this means is that.00 + + VAT £17.5%.46 Subtotal VAT (17½%) Total 4.5 black hole ventilator Supaset rapid set 17.50.29 250 . Ordered 1 Description VAT Price Total net 28.46 32.

we can see that the two items cost £28. Rounding this answer to the nearest penny gives the result 5.175) and multiplying this by 32.70 − . Pressing 28. Understanding a shop receipt 251 . is correct? You are quite correct – it is not necessary to ﬁnd the VAT ﬁrst and then add it on! The VAT-inclusive bill can be found directly by multiplying the net bill by 1.46.70.59. you should ﬁnd that this calculation conﬁrms the ﬁnal bill of £38. after rounding. conﬁrming the ﬁnal bill of £38. c Is the total of £38. As was explained in Chapter 6.29 correct? Adding the net subtotal and the VAT should give the overall gross total. Appendix F.70325.59 + 5.29.5% to its decimal form (giving 0. thus: 32.5% of 32. In order to check the VAT.175.59.175 × 32. giving an answer 5. thus: 0. £5.13 + 4. i. inclusive of VAT.e.59 = Again. a Is the subtotal of £32. which conﬁrms the value in the VAT box.70 correct? Notice that in this receipt the net totals are added ﬁrst and then the overall VAT is calculated at the end.46 = on the calculator conﬁrms the answer given in the subtotal box. £32.29.70.175 × 32. respectively.59 = .Let’s check that the basic arithmetic is correct. thus: 1. this is found by converting 17.59 correct? From the right-hand column.59. you must ﬁnd 17. Some additional questions Surely it’s not necessary to work out the VAT on its own if I simply want to check that the overall bill.13 and £4. b Is the VAT of £5.

because the fraction 3 = 60%. Try pressing these sequences and see what you get 100 + 8 100 + 8 100 × 8 100 × 8 % % % % = = On some calculators you will simply not get a satisfactory result to this calculation. For example. if you are trying things out on a calculator to see how it works. some seem to operate in a most bizarre way! You may need to consult your calculator manual to check this for yourself.My calculator has a percentage key marked on one of the buttons. thus: 3 ÷ 5 % produces the answer 60. say. you really don’t need such a key. the % key has been set up solely to convert fractions to percentages. However. Incidentally. knowing that the answer should be 108. choose simple numbers! I suggest that you try to add. How can I use it to work out VAT? Unfortunately not all calculator percentage keys are designed to work in the same way. the percentage key is a bit of a mixed blessing! It may be useful in VAT calculations. provided you understand how to convert a percentage to a decimal. on one of my calculators. 5 Overall. here are some suggestions for things to try. but. then. 8% on to 100. 252 . Indeed.

How do teaspoons. lbs. Measurements in cooking these days tend to be much more precise. a standard American cup will Appendix G. and so on. This section covers one or two speciﬁc questions that often present themselves in the kitchen which require some mathematics. I remember watching my grandmother baking soda bread on a griddle. tablespoons. ‘Oh. ‘But how do you know when you’ve got exactly a gopin?’ I asked. Measuring. litres.’ she replied. drops. these were explained in Chapter 7. Cooking with ﬁgures 253 .’ she said. For example. The imperial measures are based on British weights and liquid measures. as well as in more informal units such as teaspoons. I asked her how she did it. Note that American measures are different. ‘you start by taking two gopins of ﬂour …’ She then had to explain to me that a ‘gopin’ was a double handful.Appendix Cooking with ﬁgures G As a child living in Ireland. ‘Well. you just know by the feel of your hand. pints and litres match up? Most recipes published in the UK tend to be stated in both imperial and metric units. etc. Recipes are usually stated in formal units like grams.

In cooking. Similarly. The tables below give accurate and approximate conversions between imperial and metric measures.0022 2. 1 teaspoon 3 teaspoons 1 tablespoonful 1 teacupful 1 breakfastcupful = 5 ml = 1 tablespoon (tbsp) = 15 ml = 1 pint = 7 ﬂuid ounces = 190 ml 3 = 1 pint = 10 ﬂuid ounces = 280 ml 2 There is no exact whole number conversion between metric and imperial measures.350 453.4536 0.2 254 . The table below summarizes the approximate capacities of the informal measures around the kitchen. and indeed you wouldn’t be able to weigh out ingredients to great accuracy anyway.592 0.0353 0. the needs for accuracy are usually not great.hold 4 oz of sifted ﬂour as compared with a standard British cup of 5 oz.0022 2.035 0. Weight To convert Accurate ﬁgure Ounces to grams Pounds to grams Pounds to kilograms Grams to ounces Grams to pounds Kilograms to pounds 28. so whatever value you choose will depend on how accurate you need to be.45 0. there are roughly 3 British tablespoons of sifted ﬂour to the ounce as compared with 4 American tablespoons to the ounce.2046 Multiply by Cooking approximation 25 450 0.

it isn’t critical if you don’t use the exact proportions stated in the recipe book. a subtle sauce (creamy paprika dressing.00176 1.25 ml) 4 Serves 4 255 Appendix G.75 0. raisins & currants 2 oz (50 g) Fresh milk 3 pt (426 ml) 4 Free-range eggs 2 Ground cinnamon 1 tsp (1.4 0.25 ml) 4 Nutmeg 1 tsp (1. and see if you can spot some sources of error in the measurement of these ingredients.0017 1. But if you are making. With some recipes. Cooking with ﬁgures .Liquid measures To convert Accurate ﬁgure Pints to millilitres (ml) Pints to litres (l) Fluid ounces to ml Fluid ounces to litres Millilitres to pints Litres to pints Millilitres to ﬂuid ounces Litres to ﬂuid ounces 568 0. say.760 0.55 25 0. as given in my recipe book.0284 0. for example vegetable soup or a salad mix.035 35 How accurate do I need to be in my cooking? This is a difﬁcult question to answer precisely.21 Multiply by Cooking approximation 550 0.025 0.568 28. Have a look now at the basic ingredients for bread and butter pudding. for example) the ﬂavour could be affected by even a small error in one of the ingredients.0352 35. Bread and butter pudding Thin slices of wholemeal bread 4 (about 4 oz/100 g) Butter or margarine 1 oz (25 g) Raw brown sugar 1 tbsp (15 ml) Mixed sultanas.

which weighs. as follows. depending on whether or not they are keen on these ﬂavours in their bread and butter pudding. say. it isn’t necessary to do so. are too small to weigh on kitchen scales. It is actually unclear what this looks like. so an ordinary teaspoonful is somewhere between the two. a Certain tiny amounts. The standard method is to take a fresh pack of butter or margarine. Recipes sometimes talk about a ‘ﬂat teaspoonful’ and a ‘heaped teaspoonful’. b Butter and margarine are rarely weighed out. from ‘very large’ (73 g and over) down to ‘small’ (53 g and under). Apart from the fact that they are difﬁcult to weigh out as they tend to smear the weighing pan.25 ml of nutmeg and ground cinnamon.Here are a few points to note. like the 1. The truth is that this sort of measure is very approximate indeed and cooks will put in a variable amount of cinnamon and nutmeg. and mark it out into ﬁve equal sections. Measuring out a quarter of one of those is no easy task. c The amount of egg in the pudding will depend on the size of eggs used and egg size is not speciﬁed in the recipe. There is a considerable variation in egg weight. thus: 50 g 25 g 25 g Each main section will therefore be 100 g. So you really 1 will need to resort to using the informal measure of 4 tsp. Then take half and half again of one 100 g strip and this is 25 g. Size Very large Large Medium Small Weight 73 g and over 63 – 73 g 53 – 63 g 53 g and under 100 g 256 . Egg sizes are classiﬁed into four weight bands. 500 g.

accurately. but I often cook for seven. like the 3 pt of milk. As was explained earlier. three ‘small’ eggs weigh roughly the same as two ‘very large’ eggs.35 g 3.4 113. Of course. contain no evidence of 4 error. d Finally. have a look at the imperial and metric measures in this recipe (and others in your own recipe book).35 g 426 ml 0 ml 284 ml 16 ml 453. This requires having to multiply each amount by the fraction 7 .If you assume that a given ‘very large’ egg weighs 75 g and a given ‘small’ egg weighs 50 g.4 × 100 = 12% 12% 0% 6% 0. But just how approximate are they? The answer is that some are more approximate than others. Cooking with ﬁgures 257 .592 g 13.4 g 13. Looking at it another way. the standard conversion from ounces to grams is 12% out) while others. there is 50% more in the ‘very large’ egg than in the ‘small’ egg. Imperial Stated metric 100 g 25 g 426 ml 300 ml 450 g Actual metric Error Error (%) 4 oz 1 oz 3 pt 4 1 pt 2 1 lb 113. to measure out exactly 426 ml of milk in your measuring jug is another question! How do I scale up a recipe? The recipe for bread and butter pudding given earlier serves four people.) The results can then be rounded sensibly. the conversions are only approximate.4 g 28. It is possible to calculate the percentage error of the conversions and this is shown in the table below.8% As is clear from the table. Appendix G. some conversions contain a substantial error (for example. (Using the calculator constant was explained in Chapter 3. The easiest way to do this is to set 4 the calculator constant to × 1.75.592 g 3. whether you are able.

75 = 26. you just have one size of egg in your fridge and so you are stuck with what you’ve got! 258 .75 = 175 g or 7 × 4 (original slices) 4 25 × 1. raisins and currants 2 oz (50 g) 3 Fresh milk 4 pt (426 ml) Free-range eggs 2 1 Ground cinnamon 4 tsp (1.75 = 745.Original recipe Thin slices of wholemeal bread 4 (about 4 oz/100 g) Butter or margarine 1 oz (25 g) Raw brown sugar 1 tbsp (15 ml) Mixed sultanas. But if you are like me. With ingredients like eggs.25 ml) Scaled up 100 × 1.5 ml 2 × 1.75 g 15 × 1.75 = 87.5 g 426 × 1.25 ml) 1 Nutmeg 4 tsp (1. in this case. 3.5 1 4 1 4 7 × 7 = 16 tsp 4 7 × 7 = 16 tsp 4 Rounded 175 g 7 slices 50 g 25 ml 100 g 750 ml 4 small/ 3 large 1 2 tsp 1 2 tsp Note: Sensible rounding of the larger metric numbers means rounding to the nearest 25 g or 25 ml.75 = 43.75 = 3.5 eggs may approximate to either 4 small eggs or 3 large ones. you can’t easily add fractions of an egg.25 ml 50 × 1. but you may have some ﬂexibility over the size of eggs you use – for example.

08 = £350. if either. of these ﬁgures to believe.08 260 .34 Hmm. so I’m not quite sure which. thus: 21 × 2.2 × 350 = 18 × 15. Something else worth checking here is the claim that this method of payment by monthly instalments really does represent 0% interest.56 TOTAL = £70 = £280. This result of 53.56 = 0. All such measurements refer to the length of the diagonal of the screen. measured from corner to corner. It is given separately both in imperial units (21 inches) and metric units (51 cm).99 20% deposit & 18 direct debit monthly payments of £15. Now.54 = 53. Deposit = 20% of £350 18 monthly payments of £15.SONY 21" Widescreen HD LCD Television 51 cm visible screen size Superb Dolby surround sound HD ready 18 months 0% interest Price £349.56 Before checking the interest payments. To convert from inches to centimetres.54. for convenience.34 cm doesn’t match up very well with the 51 cm ﬁgure I was expecting. let’s conﬁrm that 21 inches and 51 cm really are the same length. we multiply by 2. let’s just consider how the ‘size’ of this television set has been described in the advertisement. let’s round up the price of the TV set to £350. The ﬁgures can be checked as follows: First.

08. after-sales service.99). In general. It is useful to know exactly how much you are being charged. In recent years. insurance. quality. Appendix H. In other words. Stores offering such deals may actually have higher prices for similar products than their rivals who may be offering a higher interest rate. Buying a TV set 261 . The APR is the percentage cost of the loan. using a measure called the ‘annual percentage rate’ or APR. As a result. an APR of 32% means that you pay out more than with an APR of 27%. all other things being equal (such as price. as compared with £349. but usually there is some interest charge when paying on credit. the cost of the loan may be included in the price. and to be able to compare the ‘real’ interest rate between different shops. Dealers charge a variety of different interest rates. By the way. This conﬁrms the claim that this method of payment does represent 0% interest. For example. so you pay an extra 9 pence (£350. subject to the size of the deposit and the length of the repayment period. don’t assume that the 0% interest deal is always the best. and so on) look for the deal offering the lowest APR. The main thing to remember about APR is that a higher rate means that you pay more. calculated over a year. It is quite difﬁcult to calculate as the buyer pays a bit back at a time. APR 0% interest is good when you can get it.OK. this problem has been solved by the fact that all retailers are legally required to publish the effective interest rate of each deal on offer. but basically the total amount paid out by the instalment method is the same as the cash price. it can be difﬁcult to compare the actual interest being applied from one dealer to another.

Ideally. and not after! Moving house is another situation where questions of arranging the furniture have to be made. table. ideally. are often closely linked to the questions ‘Where will I put it?’ and ‘Will it ﬁt?’. You will need the following resources: several sheets of squared paper or graph paper scissors tape measure ruler. or kitchen unit. A useful strategy for helping you to decide where items of furniture should go is to produce a scale drawing of the various rooms and to make paper cutout models of the sofa. made sensibly and. TV. like a sofa. cabinet. This enables you to try things out without any of the sweat of trying out the objects themselves in situ. etc. pencil and access to the back-of-an-envelope! 262 .Appendix Will it ﬁt? I Purchases of large household items. these questions are sorted out before you have parted with your money. The task of producing scale models and a scale drawing is actually quite straightforward and fun to do. shelving unit. made in advance of removal day.

to scale. etc. Ideally the ﬁnal drawing should take up most of this sheet of paper (if the drawing is too small. chimney breast. and make a note of ‘ﬁxed points’ like electric sockets. you won’t have much conﬁdence in decisions where the ﬁt is rather tight).7 m door Appendix I. measured the dimensions and marked them on. doors. of each item on another sheet of squared or graph paper.Then follow the steps below. 3 Get some squared paper or graph paper and decide on a suitable scale. as shown below. and then cut the models out.’. the bedroom. You are now ready to ‘play’! Here is how I went about it for one room in my ‘des. 4 Measure the length and the width of each major item of furniture that might go in the room. Make a 2D drawing. Make the scale drawing on the squared or graph paper. Will it ﬁt? 263 . measure all the lengths of the room or rooms that you think you will need for your scale drawing. You are recommended to use metric units (metres and centimetres) as these are easier to deal with on the drawing.. 2 Using a tape measure. 1 & 2 I made a sketch of my bedroom. 1 Draw a rough ‘back-of-an-envelope’ sketch of the room. 3. etc. res. TV aerial. marking on the signiﬁcant features – windows. Write the name of each item on its appropriate scale drawing.5 m window 3.

For example.7 m long and 3.3 My squared paper is marked out in half centimetre squares.95 m long by 1. the bed is 1.60 m wide. again to ensure that it is not obstructed. this results in a cutout rectangle of 19. This meant that the room would be contained in a drawing of 37 squares by 35 squares.5 m wide. 4 The bedroom furniture was duly measured and again the same scale was applied. The other items of furniture were cut out in the same way.) I decided to let 1 m = 10 squares. Using the scale of 1 m = 10 squares. I need to make a sensible judgement about the scale. Note: Care needs to be taken with cupboards and cabinets in order that they are placed so that the doors are able to swing open. WINDOW CUPBOARD DOOR BEDROOM BED BEDSIDE CABINET BEDSIDE CABINET 264 . Since the bedroom is 3.5 × 16 squares. it is helpful to mark the way the bedroom door opens. Similarly. (This is the only slightly tricky part of the job. It is roughly 60 squares long and 40 squares wide.

So water is 0° proof and Appendix J. The classic symptoms of the drug are a feeling of well-being. it is sensible to know something about the alcoholic content of drinks and what sort of sensible limits are recommended by doctors. Taken in excess. so bad! There is little doubt that.g. there are two main ways of measuring how much alcohol there is in drink. Not everyone drinks alcohol. chemical formula C2H5OH. like cigarettes. you will be aware of its effects. associated with a slowing down of the thought processes and reduced ability to react quickly. So far. if alcohol were invented today it would never be legalized! If you or someone close to you does drink alcohol. alcohol can damage the liver and cause problems of overweight. The old-fashioned measure of alcoholic strength is the degrees proof (e. Alcoholic content of drinks Confusingly. 75° proof). an essence or spirit obtained by distillation. This is measured in the range between a minimum of 0 and a maximum of 175. Measures of alcohol 265 . but whether you do or not.Appendix Measures of alcohol J Ethyl alcohol.

neat alcohol would be measured at 175° proof. The diagram below shows how to convert between these two measures.75 percentage of alcohol divide by 1. However. Drink White or red wine Black Bush Irish Whiskey Beauregard Napoleon Brandy Safeway Vintage Port Carlsberg Special (extra strength) Newcastle Brown Ale (strong ale) Woodpecker Cider (average cider) Tuborg Lager (ordinary lager) Degrees proof Approximate % alcohol 14 40 37. neat alcohol would be measured at 100%. lager and other drinks with a relatively low alcohol content. most supermarkets and large retailers now use this method for spirits also.7 266 .2 7.g.5 20 9. 8%). bottles and cans of alcoholic drink are marked in terms of the percentage of alcohol in the drink (e. see if you can make some general comparisons between the strengths of different alcoholic drinks. This measure has traditionally been applied to beers. multiply by 1. This measure used to be applied to spirits and other drinks with a high alcohol content. but it is less commonly used these days.75 degrees proof You might like to try the following exercise of converting between the two types of measure. And when you have completed the table. Calculated in this way.5 5. Increasingly. cider.5 3.

you should be able to work out how much of their favourite tipple various individuals should limit themselves to. 2 Marti.7 Approximate % alcohol 14 40 37. How do drinking habits vary around the UK? The recommended maximum sensible amounts of alcohol are 21 units per week for men and 14 units per week for women.5 3. With this information and the data given in the table above.3 4.5 5. Measures of alcohol 267 . Appendix J. She drinks average strength cider. a strong ale like Newcastle Brown contains twice as much alcohol as an ordinary lager.5 70 65. as ordinary lager. One unit is the equivalent of half a pint of ordinary strength beer or lager.5 20 5. by volume. This means that drinking three pints of Newcastle Brown is equivalent to drinking six pints of Tuborg.3 3. two pints of Carlsberg Special is roughly equivalent to ﬁve pints of Tuborg Lager. He drinks Carlsberg Special extra strength lager.6 35 9. in terms of alcohol content. you can see that spirits like whiskey and brandy are nearly 20 times as strong.1 There are a few interesting points to emerge from the table. a single measure of spirits. how many should the following individuals set as their upper weekly limits? 1 Hamish. Also. or a glass of wine. For example. Also.SOLUTION Drink White or red wine Black Bush Irish Whiskey Beauregard Napoleon Brandy Safeway Vintage Port Carlsberg Special (extra strength) Newcastle Brown Ale (strong ale) Woodpecker Cider (average cider) Tuborg Lager (ordinary lager) Degrees proof 24. Running your eye down the ﬁnal column of the completed table.1 2.2 7.

However.SOLUTION 1 Hamish’s rations 1 Extra strength lager is roughly 2 2 times as strong as ordinary lager or beer (you can work this out by dividing the percentage alcohol content of extra strength lager. In other words. You may be wondering to what extent people do restrict their drinking within these upper limits. To calculate how much stronger. In general.e. Marti is allowed 7 pints (i. 2.1 = 1. 268 . three nights a week.3. he should 2. 14 units) of ordinary lager or beer. the equivalent number of pints of extra strength lager is calculated as 10. cider is stronger than lager.7 pints. as the graph below shows. three half pints per night.1 7 The equivalent number of pints of cider is calculated as 1. while Hamish would be able to drink 10.5 limit himself to a couple of pints per night.5 pints (21 units or half pints) of ordinary lager. women are more responsible in their drinking than men. In other words.5 = 4.5 (approximately) 2. 2 Marti’s rations As a woman.5 = 4. So.1). say. There are also quite wide variations by region around the UK.2 pints. two nights a week. by the percentage alcohol content of ordinary lager. 5. we must do the following calculation: 3. she should limit herself to.

Appendix J. Since alcohol is distributed through the body ﬂuids. A second reason is that a woman’s liver is more likely to suffer damage through alcohol poisoning than a man’s. Measures of alcohol 269 . between 45 and 55 per cent of their body weight is made up of water. In women. so in men the alcohol is more ‘diluted’ than it is in women. and 15 or more units for females. GB. per week) by sex and region. Source: Social trends. 24 Insight: The difference between men and women One of the reasons that women are more affected by drink than men is that the water content of their bodies is differently constituted.Scotland Wales North West West Midlands South West Rest of South East Greater London East Anglia East Midlands Yorkshire & Humberside North Females Males 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Percentages Typical consumption of alcohol above sensible limits (Persons aged 16 and over. the corresponding percentage is between 55 and 65. For men. consuming 22 units or more for males.

most items are manufactured with a barcode included on the packaging. etc. 9 780340 644188 Barcoded items are scanned electronically. The beauty of the system is that the computer is able to log in much more 270 . Looking back. substituting a cheaper one for a more expensive one before taking it through the check-out.Appendix Understanding barcodes K Up until the 1970s. a process which is almost error-free. A barcode looks something like this. say. their baked beans. Secondly. the system was open to abuse from dishonest customers who could switch price labels. if the store decided to increase the price of. each item had to be individually entered manually into the till at the check-out – a time-consuming task that was prone to error and abuse. it is clear that this system had a number of drawbacks.. supermarket goods were individually priced. someone was required to collect all existing tins on the shelves. Thirdly. Instead of a price label being attached to each tin of beans or bag of muesli. remove the existing labels and reprice each tin individually. So any information that is encoded in the barcode is transferred via the scanner into the computerized till. Firstly. Barcodes changed all that.

Also. There are different barcode systems. Sales over many months and years provide a valuable database of information from which the store can predict seasonal patterns and so ﬁne-tune their reorders. So. The next ﬁve digits refer to the manufacturer. the number allocated to all Heinz products is 00157. 50 00157 00418 The ﬁrst two digits indicate the country of origin. the 13 digits split into four basic components. Precision in reordering is an important component in running a successful and competitive supermarket. which are explained below. each tin of beans that passes across the scanner is sold to a customer. item by item. Here is a 13-digit barcode for a 450 g tin of Heinz baked beans. on the shelves. Appendix K. the 5. price changes of an entire line can be entered as a single instruction on the store’s computer without staff having to reprice existing stock. This is how the human eye sees the number. At the end of each day they can then reorder new stocks of beans with some degree of precision. In terms of what information the computer needs. Heinz have allocated these ﬁve digits to refer to a 450 g tin of Heinz baked beans. For example. As you can see if you examine any barcode. on its own and the remaining 12 digits split into two groups of six. some have just 8 digits while others have 13. The next ﬁve digits indicate the particular product.information than simply the item’s price. Understanding barcodes 271 . When the electronic scanner ‘reads’ the bars. but the computer scanner groups them differently. the bars are written alongside a row of numbers. in this case 50 means the UK. Ordering insufﬁcient tins of beans means the store may run out next day. Ordering too many results in a warehousing problem in storing the crates of surplus beans. This fact is automatically logged into the computer so that the store has a running count of their stock at any given time. the information being inputted is actually these numbers in coded form. 5 000157 004185 These 13 digits have been grouped rather oddly with the ﬁrst digit.

and so on. *Note: If Stage 4 had produced the result 82. 5. The checksum is based on a formula applied to the previous 12 digits which should produce a single digit – in this case the number 5. which in this case is 70. Its purpose is to conﬁrm that the digits recorded so far by the scanner are consistent and therefore likely to be correct. Add together all the oddnumbered digits. The formula used for calculating this checksum is explained below. the 17. In the case where the formula produces a result ending in zero (say 60) then subtract it from itself. a result of 56 would have to be subtracted from 60. producing a checksum of 0 (60 – 60). which becomes the 13th digit. Now add the result of Stage 2. you would subtract this number from 90. This one is calculated by completing the following stages. The checksum There are different ways of calculating checksums.5 The ﬁnal digit is known as a ‘checksum’. Subtract the result of Stage 4 from the next bigger multiple of ten*. followed by any digit other than 5. 272 . Stage 1 2 3 4 Number the ﬁrst 12 digits from 1 to 12. to three times the result of Stage 3. Example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 0 0 0 1 5 7 0 0 4 1 8 5 + 0 + 1 + 7 + 0 + 1 = 14 0 + 0 + 5 + 0 + 4 + 8 = 17 14 + 3 × 17 = 65 5 70 – 65 = 5 This gives the checksum. If the scanner should read the ﬁrst 12 digits given above. Add together all the evennumbered digits. the computer will record an error (usually sounding a bleep) and the operator will know to rescan that item. the 14. The reason for setting up Stage 5 of the calculation in this form is to ensure a single-digit answer for the checksum.

then look at page 270 where one is reproduced. The only other differences in the codes are in the 12th digits. How likely is it that the checksum would turn out to be correct for the incorrectly scanned number by chance alone? SOLUTION a The ﬁnal digits of these barcodes are the checksums. while those for 26 June are 30772. b The checksums are calculated as follows. If you can’t immediately lay your hands on any examples of 13-digit barcodes. a difference of 3. there is a one in ten chance of the checksum being accepted even if the previous digits were scanned incorrectly. Appendix K. 110 – 110 = 0 Check! c Finally. c Suppose that a scanner misreads the ﬁrst 12 digits of a barcode. This is because there are ten possible digits available and there is therefore a one in ten chance that the checksum digit scanned happened to match the other 12 by chance alone. Understanding barcodes 273 . And here are two more to investigate. Source Guardian newspaper. Notice that digits 8 to 12 inclusive of the barcode for the Guardian of 29 June are 30775. 29 June 2001 Barcode 9 770261 307729 9 770261 307750 a Which digits indicate that these newspapers were sold three days apart? b Conﬁrm that each checksum is correct. 26 June 2001 Guardian newspaper.You might like to explore this now for yourself. 110 – 101 = 9 Check! 29 June (9 + 7 + 2 + 1 + 0 + 7) + 3 × (7 + 0 + 6 + 3 + 7 + 5) = 26 + 84 = 110. 26 June (9 + 7 + 2 + 1 + 0 + 7) + 3 × (7 + 0 + 6 + 3 + 7 + 2) = 26 + 75 = 101.

Further reading of the small print will no doubt reveal that things are not quite that simple. and it’s a fair bet that you will be. especially when they take the form of unsolicited junk mail. A good example of this came through my door recently. If you should be successful. You only need to complete the form and send away for big prizes. Many of the offers that arrive on your mat are packaged in the form of a game of chance which you are invited to play. The game card took the form of a 3 × 3 grid. Each cell in the grid was covered by a tear-off tab. This revealed a number in each cell. so I was clearly in luck. you qualify for their amazing free offer by being one of the very few lucky winners.Appendix Junk mail and free offers L They say there is no such thing as a free lunch and the same principle probably applies to free offers. I couldn’t resist tearing off the other six tabs (thereby making my game card 274 . The punter is asked to pull three tabs only. If the numbers revealed added up to 6 ……… claim 1 gift 7 ……… claim 2 gifts 8 ……… claim 3 gifts My score came to 10. ‘Play this game and see how many mystery gifts you can claim!’ the card read. However.

Thus. because each of these selections is the same as a number of other selections taken in a different order. There are 9 possible ways of choosing the ﬁrst cell. we conclude that the ﬁgure of 504 is actually six times too large if you wish to count only the number of possible combinations. In other words. which guaranteed two prizes. without taking account of order. we go through each choice of cell in turn.void. Junk mail and free offers 275 . Any other combination guaranteed the maximum of three prizes. The nine un-tabbed cells produced the following contents. If you aren’t convinced of this. ABC ACB BAC BCA CAB CBA So. The second worst score I could get was 1 + 2 + 4 = 7. consider a selection of the letters ABC. The six different ways of ordering these are as follows. we need to be careful here. but then that’s life. However. the number of possible selections that I could have chosen is 9 × 8 × 7 = 504. 8 possible ways of choosing the second and 7 possible ways of choosing the third. there are six possible orderings. 2 4 5 5 5 3 1 5 5 What this revealed was that the worst possible score I could get was 1 + 2 + 3 = 6. This gives a ﬁnal ﬁgure of 504 = 84 6 possible combinations from the game card. But just how many combinations are there altogether? To calculate the number of possible selections. Appendix L. I couldn’t fail to win at least one prize. In fact for any selection of three things. eh!).

assuming the punters really do choose their tabs randomly. out of every 84 tries.6% of 84 punters will get the thrill of hitting the jackpot on this game. Put another way. the organizers could expect 1 person to win one prize. or 97. Hmm! Maybe I wasn’t quite as lucky as I thought! 276 . 1 to win two prizes and 82 to win all three.976. something like 82 = 0. it seems that.So.

with a much-hyped launch on TV. most of which was total nonsense. You choose six numbers between 1 and 49. If at least three of the numbers you choose match any of the six main numbers drawn. Winning on the National Lottery 277 . Appendix M. the prizes are: Winning selections Jackpot. Numbers from 1 to 49 inclusive are printed out on a ‘pay slip’. Match 6 main numbers Match 5 main numbers plus the bonus number Match 5 main numbers Match 4 main numbers Match 3 main numbers Most countries run national lotteries. Prizes vary depending on how many numbers you can match. They provide a lot of fun and fantasy for the punters and. you are a winner. Lottery fever hit the UK in November 1994. are nice little earners for the government. radio and the press. At the time of writing.Appendix M Expected prize 2 million £100 000 £1500 £65 £10 Winning on the National Lottery In case you have never bought a lottery ticket. A lot of advice and information was offered to the great British public. here is how it works. of course.

avoid so-called ‘lucky’ numbers like 7. She also has a son. a clairvoyant. 11 and 13. Wow! Other papers offered yet more advice. charged with lucky psychic energy. The Sun provided some evidence from the USA (where lucky spots were ﬁrst devised) for this claim. Readers were invited to touch the lucky spot. named The Voxx. Apparently. Can you think of any rational explanation for this? So. of Irish or Scottish background. 278 . that should narrow it down to a few hundred thousand people! The Sun newspaper helpfully printed a giant dot.On the Jonathan Ross television show. The second is to do with the way the numbers are chosen. came up with a photo-ﬁt of the winner: ‘…in her forties with strawberry blond hair. For example. mathematics can provide insights to some of the parts that even lottery spottery cannot reach! Let’s try to sort out some of the fact from the ﬁction.’ Well. Two key ideas will be explained below. possibly dyed. who is to be believed and is there a ‘best strategy’ for playing the lottery? Fortunately in answering these questions. both by the lottery ‘random number generator’ (the name for the machine that spits out the winning numbers) and how the numbers are selected by the paying. ‘thousands of people said they only won because of their special power’. playing punters. close their eyes and the numbers would just come to them by the sheer power of the ‘Lottery spottery’. has travelled extensively and has had a tough time in love but there is someone in her life at the moment. and avoid choosing numbers relating to birthdays or anniversaries. The ﬁrst explores the chance of winning – what sort of odds you are really up against.

you would expect. So. the device for choosing the numbers is designed so that each number has an equal chance of coming up.e. The reality is that you will almost certainly not win one of the monster prizes. In terms of return on your investment. So for this prize. it is explained on page 282. say. if you bought. but then again you just might. you could expect. Appendix M. this is pretty thin gruel. Winning on the National Lottery 279 . there is one chance in 57 of winning a £10 guaranteed prize – i. According to the promoters. At the other end of the winnings scale. say.What are my chances? Roughly half of the money paid into the lottery is given back in prizes. By the way. The only thing that would prevent that from happening is if the random number generator was programmed to generate numbers in a different way. coins. on average.e. to have to lay out £14 million to win back £2 million. on average. if you are interested in how this ﬁgure of 14 million is calculated. and so on). But then that would be cheating. on average to lay out £57 to win back £10. Numbers which have an equal chance of coming up are known as random numbers (for example. But then again. to lose about £500. you would expect. the odds against winning the jackpot of. whichever way you serve it up. £2 million (although this ﬁgure depends on how many people play) are about 14 million to one. £1000 worth of lottery tickets over your lifetime. a key principle of the lottery is equal likelihood – i. taking a very long term view. tossing dice. what keeps most of us losing money on such foolishness is that we might just win that big one! How are the numbers chosen? As with Bingo.

15. ﬁve chose ‘2’. the selection 1. the winnings have to be shared among ﬁve winners. choose a number in the range 1 to 6. Clearly. of course. 280 . and so on. So this is where a bit of mind reading comes in. 2. The punters’ choices are shown below. since lottery numbers are chosen at random. then. A simpliﬁed lottery example Twenty punters. 18. of people 2 5 4 5 3 1 In other words. where did the other £10 go?’ To the lottery organizers. And. just as unlikely would be more appropriate) as a mixed bag of numbers like 32. A die is tossed and the £10 winnings1 are shared among those who chose the winning number. 6 is just as likely (well. you have no control over whether or not your numbers win. Selection 1 2 3 4 5 6 No. 4. 41. 1 ‘Hey. so each of these winning punters gets £10 = £2. and that doesn’t come cheap.So. they need to train their staff to toss it and see fair play all round. For example. In fact. paying £1 each to play. A simple example may make this clearer. in which case the lucky winner scoops the lot. 6. 9. Now. notice that if the die shows up ‘2’ or ‘4’. 3. Then they have to buy the die. ‘6’ would be a good choice here. 5. two punters chose ‘1’. But what about sharing your winnings with others? Here you can exercise your skill and judgement by anticipating what numbers other punters are likely to choose. four chose ‘3’. Basically. because (due to negative experiences playing board games) people tend to avoid this number in the mistaken belief that it is less likely to come up than any other. of course. But it is just as likely that the winning number 5 turns out to be ‘6’. no number or combination of numbers is more or less likely to come up than any other. they have huge advertising and administrative costs. if you come up with a winning combination. you will share it with fewer people if you pick numbers that others are less likely to pick. There are so many expenses.

it seems. Winning on the National Lottery 281 . 7. note that these strategies are only successful if we have successfully predicted how the other punters will choose their numbers (i. like 3. In fact all the indications are that this is indeed what people do. 11. as can be seen. In other words avoid all numbers of 31 or below (days in a month) and particularly avoid numbers of 12 or below (months in a year). A good overall strategy Avoid Avoid people’s ‘lucky’ numbers.8 million as the number of small-scale winners became known. numbers linked to birthdays or anniversaries. rather than avoid them as the naive players will. Camelot. Go for numbers above 31. avoid numbers in sequence. and so on). Go for numbers in a sequence (many people mistakenly think that these are less likely than numbers which ‘look random’). 14. at a certain point. was that most of the players did pick numbers relating to birthdays and. Of course. is to choose numbers above 31 and opt for strings. a good overall strategy is to avoid numbers that other people are likely to choose and to go for numbers that they are unlikely to choose. 5. that they will tend to go for numbers less than 31.e. best strategy at the time of writing. it may be the case that the informed punters will Appendix M. the jackpot had to be scaled down from an estimated £7 million to £5. So. 22. 30 and 44 (10 was the bonus number) To the great disappointment of the organizers. The reason. when enough people have read this book.So. Camelot staff had not expected there to be as many as the one million players who would pick up the guaranteed £10 prize pay-out for three correct numbers. ﬁve of the six winning numbers were below 31. Finally. Evidence for this emerged from the very ﬁrst UK national lottery in November 1994 which produced the following winning numbers: 3.

there are 49 × 48 ways of choosing the ﬁrst two numbers. Following the same line of argument. you shouldn’t! As I suggested earlier. 282 . Choosing the second number means choosing from the 48 remaining numbers. 4. Similarly. 2. So. there are 49 × 48 × 47 ways of choosing the ﬁrst three numbers. There are 49 to choose from so there are clearly 49 choices. imagine that the ﬁrst set of six numbers you chose was: 1. To convince you of this. for each of the 49 ﬁrst choices there are 48 second choices. I certainly won’t need to waste my time or money on a dumb lottery! How is the ﬁgure of 14 million to one calculated? It is correctly claimed by the lottery organizers that if you choose six numbers at random from a list of 49. if this knowledge is brought about by my book selling more than 5 million copies. 3. which I will now correct. as a result of which this answer is too large. you may feel it appropriate to change your strategy accordingly. the odds are about 14 million to one against your selecting the six winning numbers. but I will sort that out at the end! Start by choosing the ﬁrst number. In other words. So will you take my word for it that this is the correct answer? Well. The calculation is explained below based on an initial slight incorrect assumption.outnumber the naive ones. When that happy state arrives. The error is that I have included each combination of numbers many times. there is an error in the reasoning here. and so on. Me? Well. most basic calculators are unable to perform this calculation because it produces a result too big for the calculator to display. 5 and 6. it would seem that the number of ways of choosing the ﬁrst six numbers correctly are: 49 × 48 × 47 × 46 × 45 × 44 Unfortunately.

So. 5. 3. Winning on the National Lottery 283 . the number of ways of ordering six things is 6 × 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 720. and so on. the number of separate combinations is 49× 48× 47 × 46× 45× 44 . 2. A sneaky way out of this is to divide by the 720 sooner rather than later in the calculation. There are six ways of ordering the ﬁrst number. four ways of ordering the third. if you calculate the top line ﬁrst before dividing by 720. So. ﬁve ways of ordering the second. 4. 6 or 6. The number of ways of ordering six things is more complicated and can be calculated as follows. This last discussion suggests that each combination of numbers contained in the calculation 49 × 48 × 47 × 46 × 45 × 44 is actually included 720 times. back to the plot. And now. But just how many orderings are there? This question was explored in Appendix L: Junk mail and free offers. 3. There we ordered three things and found that there were six possible orderings. One snag is that. which isn’t all that far away from the result we were hoping for of 14 million. 2. 1 or any ordering you can think of. I pressed the following: 49 ÷ 720 × 48 × 47 × 46 × 45 × 44 = This produces the answer 13 983 816. Appendix M. 5. you will almost certainly cause the calculator to overﬂow. 4.This same combination of numbers could also crop up as 1. For example. 720 Now we can punch this out on the calculator and hope we get the answer 14 million.

8 Using this comparison. it seems that road travel is roughly ten times as dangerous as rail travel. in round ﬁgures. thus: Rail passenger death rate = Road passenger death rate = 70 100 4628 590 = 0.4 Source: Department of Transport So. according to this measure. Mode Air Water Rail Bus or coach Car Van Motorcycles Pedal cyclists Foot Rate per billion passenger kilometres 0. Typical annual rail passenger transport use Typical annual road passenger transport use = 100 billion passenger km = 590 billion passenger km To calculate the accident rate per billion passenger kilometres. air travel really is the safest form of transport and motorcycling is by far the most dangerous.2 97.4 53.4 3.6 2.7 0.7 = 7. we divide the number of deaths in a year by the number of billion passenger kilometres. Appendix N.1 0.kilometre is recorded when one passenger travels one kilometre. a total of 50 passenger kilometres will be recorded. Typical annual ﬁgures for Great Britain are as follows. However. It is interesting to look at other forms of transport.5 0. based on this comparison of the number of deaths per billion passenger kilometres. If ﬁve passengers each travel 10 kilometres.0 43. Safe travel 285 .

it should be stressed that all measures have their drawbacks and this is just one possible measure. Thus. As a result. A weakness in the measure used here is that it favours modes of travel which are fast over the slower methods. provided this aspect is borne in mind. a hundred kilometres in just a few minutes. air travel can allow you to cover. using the number of deaths per billion passenger kilometres is probably the fairest comparison available. whereas you would take days on foot to cover this sort of distance. for a given number of passenger kilometres. the exposure to risk on foot is much greater merely due to the fact that there is a longer period of time during which an accident can happen. say. 286 . However.

What is the current population of the world? Clearly it is changing all the time. Assuming they are all standing up (and breathing in) let’s guess that ten people could be squeezed into such a space.Appendix World population O It used to be said that everyone in the world could just ﬁt onto the Isle of Wight if they all squeezed up a bit. this is 380 sq km (147 sq miles). Social Trends. for example?). it is impossible to prove or disprove such a claim with absolute certainty – for one thing. Finally. How could you check a claim like this? Clearly. Next. First. the estimate of the world’s population in 2007 was about 6. but we can look it up in a reference book.6 billion. World population 287 . Appendix O. let us establish what information is needed to make the calculation. According to the UK government publication. But there is some fun to be had in making sensible guesses and doing an ‘order of magnitude’ calculation. we need to make a sensible guess as to how many people could be ﬁtted into one square metre of space. the facts and ﬁgures needed are simply not available with perfect accuracy and there are too many practical difﬁculties (are we allowed to knock down all the buildings and trees. what is the area of the Isle of Wight? According to the Macmillan Encyclopedia.

it simply couldn’t be done. the answer would appear to be that.18 instead of multiplying. thus: 6. even if all the trees.74 billion 1967 estimate = 4. to make an estimate of the population in 2017. Total area.02 billion ÷ 1. the claim wasn’t entirely preposterous.59 billion ÷ 1.02 billion ÷ 1.6 billion × 1.18 = 4. For example. This means that estimates of future world populations.18 = 4. now for the calculation. decade by decade.18.8 billion We can make backward projections in a similar way.So.6 billion who are estimated to populate the globe. And there might even have been enough room for the cows! 288 . can be made by multiplying the present estimate by 1.8 billion Since this ﬁgure is less than the 6.18 = 5. over which period the world’s population has grown considerably. in square metres Number of people who would ﬁt into this area = 380 × 1 000 000 = 380 × 1 000 000 × 10 = 3. it is worth pointing out that this claim has been around for many decades.6 billion 1987 estimate = 5.18 = 3.59 billion 1977 estimate = 4. multiply by 1.74 billion ÷ 1. houses.18 = 7.18.41 billion So it would seem that. cows and lamp-posts were to be removed. It is estimated that the population is increasing at a rate of roughly 18 per cent each decade. An estimate of the population in 1997. but dividing by 1. 1987 and so on can be found as follows: 1997 estimate = 6. As a footnote to this investigation. in 1967.

who write and publish mathematics books for use with a graphics calculator www.uk/C13/MSC/default.ac.aspx Mathematical Association (UK) www.uk The author’s and Roger Duke’s free collection of maths applets www.uk/ The author’s personal website. Enter the ‘Maths Portal’ for even more mathematical treats! www.AplusB.uk Association of Teachers of Mathematics (UK) www.m-a.uk/ Mathpuzzle contains a range of puzzles and other maths resources www.uk/html/applets.atm.coventry.bmth.co.mathpuzzle.uk Bournemouth University applets (computer animations) demonstrating mathematical principles http://mathinsite.ac.org.Taking it further Websites and organizations A+B Books.me.co.alantgraham.html Coventry University Mathematics Support Centre for Mathematics Education https://cuportal.com/ Taking it further 289 .org.mathsapplets.

with many useful resources and links to other sites worldwide http://www. Examples of mathematics in everyday life.mathematics. books and software http://www.html Reading list Barrow.uk/ University of Plymouth Mathematics support materials www. John D.open. 290 .org Open University Mathematics courses www.plym.argonet.uk/oundlesch/mlink. Thinking and Being (London: Penguin.nctm.html UK National Statistics online http://www.uk Oundle School site. old and new.ac...mathsnet. Rob and Wyndham.statistics. Eastaway. 2002). 1993).MathsNet contains a wide range of puzzles. An exploration of where maths comes from and how it is performed. 2005). Eastaway. Mathematics in the real world – both funny and highly informative.uk/maths/resources/PDFLaTeX/mathaid.ac. David. Mindbenders and Brainteasers (London: Robson Books. A collection of 100 puzzles and conundrums. and Dilnot. Blastland.co. A.net/ National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (USA) www. The Tiger That Isn’t: Seeing Through a World of Numbers (London: Proﬁle Books. M.gov. Rob and Wells. 2008). Pi in the Sky: Counting. How Long is a Piece of String? (London: Robson Books. Jeremy.tech.

1998). 2008). 1970). Applications in art and nature of the ‘Golden Ratio’. Taking it further 291 .Eastaway. The combination of written and DVD formats should give you that extra leg up which you may not get from a book alone. beauty products. including probability. 2009). Haighton. Georges. Improve Your Maths (Teach Yourself Your Evening Class) (London: Hodder Education. One of the best books I’ve come across for debunking myths about medicine. H. Maths: the Basic Skills (Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. Practical uses for various mathematical topics. 2000). Goldacre. Graham. Graham. The Divine Proportion. This book should be on the National Curriculum. homeopathy and much more. Venn diagrams and prime numbers. Sarah.E. Rob and Wyndham. The Universal History of Numbers (London: The Harvill Press. Flannery. 2004). A detailed book (translated from French) about the history of numbers and counting from prehistory to the age of the computer. Alan. Why Do Buses Come in Threes? (London: Robson Books. Study in Mathematical Beauty (New York: Dover. June et al. A traditional textbook on basic mathematics based on the Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum. Huntley. Ifrah. Ben. based on the author’s experiences of growing up in a mathematical home.. Jeremy. In Code: A Mathematical Journey (London: Proﬁle Books.. A straightforward and accessible account of the big ideas of statistics with a minimum of hard mathematics. Teach Yourself Statistics (London: Hodder Education. Alan. 2008). A collection of problems with solutions and explanations. brain-training. Bad Science (London: Harper Perennial. 1998).

1996). Pólya. Stewart.. An introduction to how mathematical ideas are developing today. A classic text on mathematical problem solving that is well known around the world. A romp through school mathematics that takes in puzzles and gambling. Ian.Paulos. Ian. 2000). 1990). Lawrence. How to Solve It (London: Penguin. What the author wishes he had known about mathematics when he was a student. Simon. Mathematics Minus Fear (London: Marion Boyars Publishers Ltd. An account of Andrew Wiles’ proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem. 2008). Stewart. Simon. Taming the Inﬁnite (London: Quercus Publishing plc. Ian. Innumeracy – Mathematical Illiteracy and its Consequences (London: Penguin. The Code Book (London: Fourth Estate. Fermat’s Last Theorem (London: Fourth Estate. 292 . An introduction to the theory and practice of chaos and fractals. Singh. A history of codes and ciphers and their modern applications in electronic security. Stewart. Real-world examples of innumeracy.. John Allen. 1997). G. A clear and interesting account of the history of mathematics. aimed at the non-technical reader. 1998). risk perception and election statistics. Ian. Potter. 1990). Letters to a Young Mathematician (New York: Basic Books. Stewart. 2006). Singh. Does God Play Dice? (London: Penguin. 2006). including stock scams. but also outlining some problems that have interested mathematicians over many centuries. From Here to Inﬁnity (Oxford: Oxford University Press.

64–5 ratio and proportion. 80–1 dividing fractions. 84–5 equivalent fractions. 62–4 free offers. 265–9 equivalent fractions. puzzles gold pieces (puzzle). 67–9 answers to exercises. 274–6 furniture. 84–5 four rules with decimals. 50–2. 177 four rules. 66–7 even and odd numbers. 262–4 games see diagnostic quiz. measuring. 210–15 comments on the solutions. 82–3 overview. 27–8 explore and explain the pattern (puzzle).decimal point. measures of alcohol. 82–3 fractions. 215–18 see also puzzles digital clocks. 48–9 picturing division. 84–5 mental division. 161–4 four 4s (puzzle). 234 diversions see diagnostic quiz. the 24-hour clock. 171 guess the number (puzzle). 46–7 decimal fractions. 181 hundreds. 66–7 multiplying and dividing. 178 ﬁnger tables (puzzle). 70–2 what is a fraction?. 157–61 is algebra irrelevant?. 80–1 decimals. 97–8 decimal fractions. 172 formulas (algebra). 180 grams. and junk mail. 89–92 decimal fractions. 48 multiplying and dividing. 151–68 algebra as shorthand. 9 ﬁnance. 85–9 diagnostic quiz. 178 fear of numbers. 76–93 answers to exercises. 73–4 changing into percentages. 231 graphs see statistical graphs guess my number (puzzle). 46–50 calculator division. 165–7 calculations with formulas. 31. 69–70 the number line. 218–26 solutions. puzzles division. calculating price per gram. 153–7 answers to exercises. 151–3 proving with algebra. 69–70 pencil and paper division. 259–61 see also shopping ﬁnd the numbers (puzzle). 77–80 dividing decimal fractions. 65–6 picturing a fraction. 47–8 drinking. 21–3 294 . 77–80 the decimal point. 61–75 adding and subtracting. buying on credit.

6. 243–6 metric and imperial units. 43–4 pencil and paper multiplication. 139–43 logically speaking (puzzle). and free offers. 24. 43 National Lottery tickets. 173 magic triangles (puzzle). for mathematics. 53–4 Nim (puzzle). 181 interest. 8–9 measures of alcohol. 265–9 measuring. 24–5 the counting numbers. thousands and beyond. 17–18 organizations. 119–22 answers to exercises. 262–4 what to measure. 202–3 numbers. 182 number line. 289–90 Index 295 . 15 money see shopping motivation. 130–2 how to measure. 180 length. 48 multiplication. 113–15 why measure?. 125–6 conversion between. metric and imperial units. 174 mathematical stimulation. 277–83 magic squares (puzzle). 18–20 odd and even numbers. 69–70 mental multiplication. 27–31 random numbers. 43–4 subtraction. 274–6 large and small sums (puzzle). 37–8 supermarket bills. 124–5 line graphs and scattergraphs. 117–19 metric and imperial units. 277–83 negative numbers. 11–13 tens and units. 123–30 volume. 33–4 division. 11–26 answers to exercises. 123–30 rooms and furniture. 126–7 minus. 259–61 junk mail. spreadsheets for. 115–17 mental calculations addition. 124–5 measuring. 128–30 length. 65–6 number sequences. 15–17 hundreds. 44–6 picturing multiplication. 27–8 ordering numbers. 279–82 real life examples. 25 children and numbers. 123–30 area. 175 lottery tickets.imperial units see metric and imperial units initially speaking (puzzle). 17–18 properties of. buying on credit. 113–33 accurate measuring. 8–9 multiplication calculator multiplication. 21–3 ordering numbers. 42–3 and division.