ABSTRACT

Near Field Communication or NFC, is a short-range high frequency wireless communication technology which enables the exchange of data between devices over about a 10 centimeter (around 4 inches) distance. The technology is a simple extension of the ISO 14443 proximity-card standard (contactless card, RFID) that combines the interface of a smartcard and a reader into a single device. An NFC device can communicate with both existing ISO 14443 smartcards and readers, as well as with other NFC devices, and is thereby compatible with existing contactless infrastructure already in use for public transportation and payment. NFC is primarily aimed at usage in mobile phones. Near-field Communication (NFC) is characterized as a very short-range radio communication technology with a lot of potential, especially when applied to mobile handsets. Imagine yourself using your cell phone to interact with posters, magazines, and even with products while at the store, and with such interaction initiating a request or search for related information in real-time. Other usages of NFC include the electronic wallet to make payments using your handset, the same way you do with your credit card. With NFC all this is possible. But NFC is still a young technology.

CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Technology Focus 3. Modes of Communication 4. Terminology 5. The contactless communication API 5.1 Anatomy of a contactless communication API MIDlet 6. Comparison with existing technologies 7. Functioning 7.1 Modes of operation of the NFC 7.2 The signal Interface 7.3 7.4 Using contactless communication API Hardware and Basics 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 9 10 11 11 13 14 15 17 19 20

8. Advantages and Disadvantages 9. Applications 10. Devices which use the NFC technology 11. Conclusion 12. References

INTRODUCTION Near Field Communication or NFC is a short-range high frequency wireless communication technology which enables the exchange of data between devices over about a 10 centimetre (around 4 inches) distance. An NFC device can communicate with both existing ISO 14443 smartcards and readers. and is thereby compatible with existing contactless infrastructure already in use for public transportation and payment. RFID) that combines the interface of a smartcard and a reader into a single device. Near-field Communication (NFC) is characterized as a very short-range radio communication technology with a lot of potential. With NFC all this is possible. That said. as well as with other NFC devices. This report explores NFC and how you can leverage it in your Java application by using the Contactless Communications API. magazines. especially when applied to mobile handsets. and with such interaction initiating a request or search for related information in real-time. 1 . the same way you do with your credit card. Imagine yourself using your cell phone to interact with posters.1. NFC-enabled handsets are being introduced into the market. and deployments and pilots around the world are occurring. The technology is a simple extension of the ISO 14443 proximity-card standard (contactless card. But NFC is still a young technology. NFC is primarily aimed at usage in mobile phones. and even with products while at the store. Other usages of NFC include the electronic wallet to make payments using your handset.

Touch and Confirm: Applications such as mobile payment where the user has to confirm the interaction by entering a password or just accepting the transaction. The underlying layers of NFC technology are ISO. exchanging images or synchronizing address books. NFC applications can be split into the following four basic categories: 1. TECHNOLOGY FOCUS Near Field Communication is a standards-based. 3.56 MHz in close proximity with a reader antenna. ECMA. 4. and ETSI standards. Touch and Go: Applications such as access control or transport/event ticketing. Also.2. Touch and Explore: NFC devices may offer more than one possible function. for simple data capture applications. The consumer will be able to explore a device's capabilities to find out which functionalities and services are offered. NFC STANDARDS NFC is a standard. such as picking up an Internet URL from a smart label on a poster. where the user needs only to bring the device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader. Touch and Connect: Linking two NFC-enabled devices to enable peer to peer transfer of data such as downloading music. 2. short-range wireless connectivity technology that enables convenient short-range communication between electronic devices. 2 . The ISO 14443 Type A and Type B standards + FeliCa is a four-part international standard for contact-less smart cards operating at 13. and is ISO standards-based. The ISO 18092 standard defines communication modes for NFC Interface and Protocol.

This mode is supported the Contactless Communication API. This mode is supported by the Contactless Communication API.3. MODES OF COMMUNICATION NFC has three modes of communication Peer-to-Peer mode is defined for device to device link-level communication. Note that this mode is not supported by the Contactless Communication API. Fig. This mode is secure. NFC Card Emulation mode allows the NFC-handset behave as a standard Smartcard.1 Modes of communication 3 . Note that this mode is not secure. Read/Write mode allows applications for the transmission of NFC Forum-defined messages. 3.

An NFC-specific record type and type name which may be carried in an NDEF record. and between NFC Forum-compliant devices and tags.NFC Data Exchange Format . TERMINOLOGY • NDEF .standard exchange formats for URI.The application data carried within an NDEF record. It contains the rules for constructing a valid NDEF message as an ordered and unbroken collection of NDEF records. it defines the mechanism for specifying the types of application data encapsulated in NDEF records. Additionally.Basic message construct defined by this specification. and an optional identifier. • RTD . The NDEF specification describes a common data exchange format for NFC Forum- compliant devices and NFC Forum-compliant tags.Contains a payload described by a type. An NDEF message contains one or more NDEF records NDEF record . 4 . NDEF payload . • • • NDEF message . RTD provides guidelines for specifying well-known record types for inclusion in NDEF messages exchanged between NFC Forum-compliant devices. Smart Posters etc. a length.4.Record Type Definition .

microedition.contac tless.sc An optional package for communicating with external smartcards javax.contac tless. as follows: java package Interfaces Tag Connection Target Listener Target Properties Transaction Listener NDEF Record Listener NDEFTagCon nection Classes Tag Connection Target Listener Target Properties Transaction Listener NDEF Message NDEF Record NDEF Record Type Exception s Contactless Exception javax. defines a set of APIs for proximity. . The API consists of five Java packages. contactless-based communication.5.microedition. THE CONTACTLESS COMMUNICATION API The Contactless Communication API Java specification. This is illustrated next where we have the following typical elements: 5 1. led by Nokia and defined under the Java Community Process as JSR-257.visual An optional package for reading and generating visual tags Plain Tag Connection ISO14443Con nection Image Properties Visual Tag Connection Symbology Manager Visual Tag Coding Exception 5.contactl ess. The Java Runtime with JSR-257 implementation.contac tless.microedition.1ANATOMY OF A CONTACTLESS API MIDlet Let's now cover the elements of a typical mobile Java application (MIDlet) that uses the Contactless Communication API looks.microedition.microedition.ndf An optional package for communicating with NDEF formatted data tags javax.contac tless A mandatory package that contains all the target discovery and classes common to all targets javax.rf An optional package for communicating with RFID (no NDEF formatted data) tags javax.

and baseband. The MIDlet application running on a handset. MIDlets can access secure elements by using the Security and Trust Services API (SATSA). 4. RFID/NFC transponder. or Smartcards. A SIM card. external radio. 6 . as well as secure and external elements. 3. ticketing systems on transportation systems. External readers access internal secure elements directly via the RFID circuitry (using the Card Emulation mode).1 Anatomy of a contactless API MIDlet External Readers External readers include contactless payment readers in Point of Sale stations. RFID and barcodes. controllers. visual tags such as NFC. Fig 5. and/or the Contactless Communication API (JSR 257). Secure Elements Secure elements (SE) can be internal or external elements. example of a secure element is a Java Card-based smartcard.2.

NFC technology could be effectively leveraged in the near-to-mid term for payment and security/access applications. Like VDC these market leaders believe there is room for a simple. some argue that introducing a new standard. with the ever-increasing complexity and cost of adding Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. price could become a major deciding factor for OEMs and manufacturers. • RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is an automatic identification method. line-of-sight communication standard for exchange for industrial and residential applications within a +100-meter range. In fact. And. such as NFC. some would argue that they do not think NFC really steps on Bluetooth or Wi-Fi.11 and Bluetooth products. less-expensive solution. At 212 kilobits per second. or as a WLAN. IrDA interfaces are frequently used in computers and mobile phones. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES THE PRESENT USAGES OF CONTACTLESS TECHNOLOGIES • Bluetooth wireless technology was designed to replace cables between cell phones. NFC’s data rate is nearer a 55K modem than the 1. relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags. and other computing and communication devices within a 10-meter range. which allow communications at distances up to 10 cm. . both Sony and Philips have 802. They simply do not see NFC being used to download pictures from digital cameras. • Wi-Fi technology was designed and optimized for Local Area Networks (LAN). Although there is always room for more wireless technology.11 and Bluetooth may prove to be an uphill battle. with each insisting the NFC standard would complement the more established wireless networks. of data over infrared light. Examples of contactless smart card communications are ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa. alongside 802. on one hand. laptops. • • ZigBee wireless technology is a standard enabling control and monitoring capabilities IrDA is a short range (< 1 meter).6. NFC reportedly would cost 20¢ per chip.or 7-Mbps speeds of either Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. • Contactless smart cards incorporate a chip (microprocessor) that communicates with a card reader through RFID technology. NFC is demonstrably too slow. An RFID tag is a small object that can be attached to or incorporated into a product. If the promise of affordable chips is realized. it provides an extension or replacement of wired networks for dozens of computing devices within a +100-meter range. On the other hand. Bluetooth is expected to drop to $4-5 per radio. RFID tags contain silicon chips to enable them to receive and respond to queries from an RFID reader/writer.

11 and Bluetooth markets. however.Along with affordability. VDC sees NFC-enabled devices connecting myriad unpowered items such as RFID tags and smart-cards within the next three to five years. NFC hopes to stand out against the rest. ‘power drain’ issues have become of utmost importance within 802. are quick to dismiss any notion of NFC being a giant killer. rather than a battery. While Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have a range anywhere between 33-300 ft.1 Comparison of NFC with existing technologies 8 . Table 6. As a result. Others. NFC deals in inches. By using a chip.

mobile devices. and more.7. including credit cards as well as train tickets. FUNCTIONING Many products and devices will soon be NFC enabled. applications developers. coming from a broad range of backgrounds: manufacturers. Since new technologies always need to develop new markets. Operators are the primary customers for handsets and. therefore. mobile operators do seem increasingly positive that NFC will bring new revenues. While it had just 4 members in 2004. an NFC equipped mobile costs around an additional $20 to $25 per unit. The increasing interest in NFC technology is shown by the rising number of members of the NFC Forum Association. all working together to promote the use of NFC technology in consumer electronics. Such a wide group of business and technology experts is essential. and they need to be shaped by professionals from many fields to assess the best operational standards in order to ensure seamless interoperability between devices and a good level of security for users. and PCs. Yet. Currently. financial services institutions. The future applications are very diverse.1 Functioning of NFC enabled devices . the industry needs to create high consumption volumes in order to reduce the cost of NFC implementation to mobile handsets. are the gatekeepers who will decide when NFC is to be integrated into the handsets they subsidize for their customers. Fig 7. so wireless operators need to secure revenues in return for their investment. it now has over 130. But the mobile handset is the first target for NFC applications.

7.1 ACTIVE MODE : In this mode both the initiator and the target are using their own generated RF fields to enable communication. Motorola. The initiator generates the RF field. 10 . PASSIVE MODE: In this mode the target answers to the initiator command in a load modulation scheme.1 MODES OF OPERATION OF THE NFC 7. which were first restricted to high-end devices. Samsung. NTT DoCoMo has used the FeliCa contactless technology.1. There are no great technological or cost barriers for NFC to be integrated quickly into a wide range of devices .2. which is now embedded in about 80% of the phones sold by NTT DoCoMo in Japan.As a sign of the times. LG.unlike cameras or Bluetooth. 7. all major handsets manufacturers are developing NFC handsets used in field trials and early commercial launches: Nokia. Sagem.1.

USING CONTACTLESS COMMUNICATION API The Contactless Communication API allows you to discover and exchange data with supported contactless radio and visual targets (tags).1: Signal Interface 7.7.representation and coding Fig 7.3.2. Applications using the Contactless Communication API typically follow the flow illustrated next: 11 .2 THE NFC SIGNAL INTERFACE The specification of signal interfaces for different communication transfer speeds: • • Modulation Bit.

there enable managed are many to Of also these by a around the world operate in different ways. communications. Fig 7. Its principal advantage is that it is convenient for CDMA handset manufacturers to implement quickly because it doesn’t require any standardization between the NFC chipset and SE. walled credentials. it is recommended by GSMA and supported by a standard for communication between SIM and NFC chipset.3. which was invented by Gemalto and is now standardised at ELSI. and is the preferred approach in GSM countries. numerous variations all and since of the these user applications on mobile markets to be has essential potential handsets: interface. .NFC technology dimensions. This has the advantage of portability. This is a separate chipset in the handset. mobile functionality with which applications controls using an manages and user and The SE hosts the fire security onboard and software. Embedded SE component. the Single Wire Protocol (SWP). This is a theoretical approach to create a removable separate chipset in the handset. A removable SE component. there are no standards and no concrete implementations. cryptography microprocessor and NFC standards. but two are enabling security course. In the The SE shares the NFC chipset. security is “secure element” (SE).1 Flowchart showing the flow of Applications using the Contactless Communication API There are three ways to implement the SE: In the SIM. options to addressed.

4 HARDWARE & BASICS NFC Device A device featuring different operating modes based on RF technology. NFC Near Field Communication: A communication technology standardized in ISO 18092 and ETSI allowing bidirectional communication between two devices based on RF technology. RFID Radio Frequency Identification: technology used to identify objects carrying RF transponders. The reader emits an electromagnetic field that powers a tag/transmitter by inductivity. Theses tags are based on the ISO14443 standard. but are powered by the electromagnetic field of the reader (PCD) 13 . NFC and RFID technology have overlapping standards and terminology. This is also refereed as the peer to peer (P2P) mode of NFC devices. Such tags do not have a power supply like a battery. PCD Proximity coupling device: a transmitter that can read tags based on ISO14443 (PICC). Communicates with PICC using load modulation scheme. PICC Proximity inductive coupling card: a transponder that can be read or written by a proximity reader. NFC Devices must implement at least mandatory parts of the NFC Protocol Stack. NFC peer to peer (NFC) and reader/writer mode (PCD). There are three modes: tag emulation (PICC). The NFC Devices' operating modes are defined by the NFC Forum.7.

7. Highest convenience for the user. store. 2.e. 212 kbps and 424kbps. Increased revenue from interactive services.56 MHz Allows communication. due to intuitive usage by simply holding two devices Complementary to existing wireless technologies Interoperable with compatible RFID systems at 13. Convenience is a strong differentiator and more convenient payment will drive adoption of contactless and NFC technology. 8.8. NFC-enabled devices drive consumption of rich media content. but they typically can choose how they pay. 2. both between two powered devices and between powered and Reduced cost of electronic issuance. 8. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 8. range i..2 DISADVANTAGES: 1. NFC will fuel the market for advanced personal devices that consumers use to purchase. 6. Users may have no choice about which ticket they use for a service. The system has the limitation that it can be operated only with devices under a short The data transfer rate is very less at about 106kbps. around 10 cm. Consumer preference for NFC-enabled services. 3. NFC surrounds the user with advertisements and valuable information within easy reach. play. Costly implementation on the electronic basis. Mobile network operators and content providers earn revenue when users choose to use value added services. 5. and share rich media content. operators or event ticketing operators see phenomenal cost reductions in electronic ticketing. 3. 14 . 4.1 ADVANTAGES: 1. Multi-issue ticketing operators like mass transport close to each other passive devices. Security-sensitive airlines have already moved to "e-ticketing" in order to reduce costs.

while its built-in security makes it ideal for mobile payment and financial transaction applications. Applications for NFC are broad reaching. Short-range. videos. and other files to NFCenabled handheld devices by touching NFC-enabled computers. NFC-enhanced consumer devices are also targeted at applications that exchange and store personal data such as messages. However. PDAs. exchanging images or synchronizing address books. MP3 files. Consumers are able to make online travel reservations using a PC and download reservations and/or tickets to a cell phone or PDA by bringing the mobile device in close proximity to the computer and checking-in for the trip or hotel stay by touching the handheld device to the terminal or kiosk at the departure gate or check-in station. software. APPLICATIONS NFC opens up myriad new opportunities. emerging cellphone multimedia capabilities could be leveraged to support NFC transactions such as the purchase and download of games. is required. Solution vendors argue that NFC’s intuitive operation makes it particularly easy for consumers to use. near-contact linking transactions–connecting two NFC-enabled devices to enable a P2P transfer of data such as downloading music. such as tickets and hotel receipts. It will enable people to effortlessly connect digital cameras. here are some example applications for NFC-enabled devices to consider: In addition to facilitating contactless smart-card-based transactions. and In order to provide a more complete understanding of the real-world potential for NFC. Also included are applications requiring simple data capture such as picking up an Internet URL from a smart label on a poster and advertisement. With NFC it is possible to connect any two devices to each other to exchange information or access content and services—easily and securely. music. Mobile payment called m-commerce and applications where the customer must confirm the financial transaction by entering a password or simply accepting the interaction. computers and mobile phones.9. No printing of documents. near-contact mobile transactions and applications such as access control or transport/event ticketing. Consequently VDC has grouped NFC-related applications into three basic categories: Short-range. . pictures. video set-top boxes. and the potential to support multiple applications via NFC exists. where the NFC-enabled device storing the access code or ticket is presented near a reader. and MP3 files.

Pictures can be taken using an NFC-enabled cell phone with an integrated digital camera. and advertisements with RFID transponders can be scanned/read using an NFC-enabled device to download more information. By integrating NFC applications with existing mobile services. make a purchase. such as a laptop and a desktop. and store other pertinent electronic data. large files can be transferred between two devices. 16 . simply by touching the two NFC-enabled devices together. Moreover. computer. chips can be used to store biometric information for identification. mobile operators could secure new revenue opportunities by: Applying service charges for adding value to the electronic cash value stored on a mobile phone via a mobile service. as it can be powered on/off or include a pass code or voice biometric code for higher-volume transactions. For applications that require tighter security and perhaps anti-counterfeiting measures. the increased use of mobile services benefiting from synergies with NFC is becoming more apparent. to transmit images for display and/or printing. signs. NFC-enabled devices add another level of security over the traditional smart-card. kiosk. the relatively short read range gives customers control over NFC and the applications. What about NFC and the potential for ‘theft by RF?’ First. and others. The device could then be presented/touched to a NFC-enabled television. such as paperless event tickets.Posters. and In conjunction with another wireless technology that may provide longer range and greater bandwidth.

(Phones + J2ME and SE-SDK available to NFC-Research) WIRELESS DYNAMICS Inc. 3. The SDK provides a full JSR257 implementation and a subset of JSR177. SDiD1020: The WDI SDiD1020 is an SDIO Card providing NFC functionality for PDA with a Windows Mobile operating system. house and garage doors . (SD-Card + SDK available to NFC-Research) SAMSUNG SGH-X700n: The Samsung SGH-X700n (brick) is the NFC edition of the SGHX700 phone. Tag). (Phones + J2ME and SE-SDK available to NFC-Research) 2. The SDK for the NFC and SE functionality is not available to public. This phone is used for the trial in Hagen berg. The phone itself supports TagEmulation with Mifare and JCOP. 7. The NFC platform inside the phone comes from NXP. NFC module was integrated in the removable cover of the cell phone. The IC in the SD-Card are a product of NXP. 5. allowing all three operating modes (P2P. R/W. Here are some examples: 1. as well as the Reader/Writer and the NFC Peer-to-Peer mode. The SDK has a basic implementation of the JSR257 and a proprietary implementation for the SE access. The SDK for J2ME application is available for free. The NFC controller inside is from NXP whereas the SE is a G&D (Venyon) one.10. (Phones + J2ME and SE-SDK available to NFC-Research) NOKIA 3220: The Nokia 3220 (brick + cover) was the first NFC handset available commercially. 6. Turnstiles Vending machines Parking meters Check-out cash registers or "point-of-sale" equipment ATMs Office. The SD-Cards come with a propriatary API for Tag-Emulation. R/W-Mode as well as P2P. The phone comes with a NXP NFC platform inside. The SDK is proprietary. There are different editions of the cover: one with a secure element and one without. 4. Mobile phones: NOKIA 6131NFC: The Nokia 6131NFC (clam cell) is commercially available since Q1/2007. DEVICES THAT USES THE NFC TECHNOLOGY A wide range of devices and machines are likely to become NFC enabled.

street signs. 9. local points of interest (with NFC-readable tags only) Product packaging 18 . 10. bus stops.8. Personal computers Posters.

are the gatekeepers who will decide when NFC is to be integrated into the handsets they subsidize for their customers.1. When compared to the other short-range radio technologies. Operators are the primary customers for handsets and. NFC is not a fashionable nice-to-have technology. CONCLUSION Many products and devices will soon be NFC enabled. But the mobile handset is the first target for NFC applications which are already implemented in a successful manner. Some of the other short-range communication technologies have similar characteristics. including credit cards as well as train tickets. 11. therefore. and easier to share data between devices. while others are completely different yet complimentary to NFC. easier to use public transport.1: Expected growth of NFC devices 19 . The NFC technology is expected to have a remarkable growth in the coming years. At the heart of NFC’s benefits is its simplicity of use – holding two objects together is intuitive for everyone. The figure below shows the expected growth of NFC devices. A good scenario of such compliment is the combination of NFC and Bluetooth.11. but actually a technology that makes peoples lives easier – easier to pay for goods and services.1 FUTURE SCOPE NFC is based on existing contactless infrastructure around the world that is already in use by millions of people on a daily basis. NFC is extremely short ranged and people-centric. so it has a very good chance to be valued and used for many years to come. for example RFID. where NFC is used for pairing (authenticating) a Bluetooth session used for the transfer of data. young or old. NFC is building on existing systems and human actins. for example Bluetooth and Infrared. Almost every mobile handset will have NFC incorporated in it. Fig 11.

org [2] http://www.com/index.html 20 .radio-electronics.html [5] www.com/nfc.com/near field communication.controleng. whatis.gemalto.com/nfc.techtarget.html [4] http://www.nxp.asp?layout=article& articleid=CA6289218&spacedesc=latest News [7] http://www.com/info/wireless/nfc/nfc_overview.com/news/content/file_1053. REFERENCES [1] http://www.nfc-forum.cnet.html [3] http://www.12. asia.php [6] http://www.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful