by Radhakrishnan


(Gcorgc Alien & Unwin)

(Clarenclon Press, Oxford)

(Oxford University Press)

(Hind, Bombay) Edited by Radhakrishnan

Edited by Radhakrishnan and J. 1-J. M 'ltirhead

by A. N. M arlow

(George Alien & U nwin) Edited by Radhakrishnan and C. A. Moore

(Princeton Universit'y Press)

The Brahma Sutra



Ruskin House





This book is copy1'ight under the Berne Convention. Apart from any fair dealing for the puypose of private study, ~earch, criticism or review, as permitted undtr the Copyright Act, 1956, no portion may be reproduced·· by any process without written permission. Inquiry should be made to the Publishers


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PREFACE book is not a product of purely scholarly interests. It has grown out of vital urges and under the pressure of a concrete historical situation. \V c are in the midst of one of the great crises in human history, groping for a way out of fear, anxiety and darkness, wandering in search of a new pattern in which we can begin life over again. Andre :Malraux makes a prophecy: 'The principal problem of the end of. the century will be the religious problem-in a form as unlike any that we now know as Christianity was from the religions of antiquity-but it will not be the problem of Being.' He refers to 'the discovery of what true Hindu thought is'. 1 Hindu thought whether or not we agree with its transcendental claims has survived the storms of the world for over three thousand years. It has seen en1pires come and go, has watched economic and political systems flourish and fade. It has seen these happen more than once. Recent events have ruffled but not diverted the march of India's history. The culture of India has changed a great deal and yet has remained the satne for over three millennia. Fresh springs bubble up, fresh streams cut their own channels through the landscape, but sooner or later each rivulet, each stream merges into one of the great rivers which has been nourishing the Indian soil for centuries. When we speak of Indian philosophy or Eastern philosophy, we n1can the philosophy that has developed in a certain region of the earth. We do not Inean that the truth which science or philosophy ain1s at is of a provincial character. The search for truth may be conditioned, even restricted by the mental attitudes and traditions of different countries, but the aim of philosophy is to reach truth which is universal. 2 One of the chief

Partisan Review (Spring 1955), p. 170. 'By Universal History I understand that which is distinct from the combined history of all countries, which is not a rope of sand, but a continuous development, and is not a burden on the memory, but an illumination of the soul. It moves in a succession to which the nations are subsidiary. The-ir story will be told, not for their own sake, but in reference and subordination to a higher series, according to the time and degree in which they contribute to the common fortunes of Mankind.' Lord Acton-A letter to the contributors to the Cambridge Modern History, dated March 12, 1898.



The Brahma Sutra

features of philosophical thought today is the growing universality of outlook. Even Western thinkers arc slowly giving up their provincial outlook and are admitting that thinkers outside their cultural traditions have grappled with the central problems of philosophy and a study of their writings may be helpful to students of philosophy. In Bunyan's story there is the house of the interpreter which is always kept open. No one understands the mission of the life of the mind in our time who does not wish to have some part in keeping open a house of the interpreter between East and West. Since our ideals and destinies are largely the same, it is essential that mutual acquaintance should grow. To the creative interpreters are confided the hopes of a better world. The truth which claims to be universal requires to be continually re-created. It cannot be something already possessed that only needs to be re-transmitted. In every generation, it has to he renewed. 1 Otherwise it tends to become dogma which soothes us and induces complacency but does not encourage the supreme personal adventure. Tradition should be a principle not of conservatism but of growth and regeneration. We cannot keep the rays of the sun while we put out the sun itself. Petrified tradition is a disease from which societies seldom recover. By the free use of reason and experience we appropriate truth and keep tradition in a continuous process of evolution. If it is to have a hold on people's minds, it must reckon with the vast reorientation of thought that has taken place. By reintrcpreting the past afresh, each generation stamps it with something of its own problems and preoccupations. Every age emphasises that particular point of view which is most consonant with its own prejudices. Fifty years ago the main issues which dominated schools of philosophy were those connected with religion, faith and doubt, the relation of philosophy and theology. Today new intellectual interests have arisen. 2 Philosophy is no more 'a science of things transcendental' but
Cf. M. Loisy: 'I am of the religion that is in the making and I am quite willing not to belong to the one that is dying.' 1 See Professor Gilbert Ryle's Introduction to The Revolution in Philosophy (1956), p. 4·

9 has become scientific and secular in its outlook. It has become an arid professionalism made only for the philosophers. 'We know too much and are convinced of too little.' Many people have no kind of contact with any form of religion or its modes of thought. Even in countries where church attendance has increased, there has not been any growth of religious feeling. The majority of people do not see any reason why religion should play any part in their lives. Many of them are not actually atheist; fewer still have qualified by sober reflection to be called agnostic. They have grown up outside any kind of religious organisation and are simply ignorant of the terms and meaning of religion, though they profess a creed which they have adopted from habit or because of the social advantages it brings then1 or n1erely for the sake of good form and convenience. For them the creative fire has departed from religion. We cannot say that they adopt a materialist creed and believe that somehow through science and technology mankind can be perfected. Perhaps a few leaders tnay adopt this creed but the vast majority live fron1 day to day with a hope that does not extend far beyond the immediate future. We live in an age of hectic hurry, of deafening noise where we have no time or inclination for anything beyond the passing hour. True life grows frmn inside. It is in the inner solitude that a seeker finds his solace; yet our modern life is unwilling to grant us this privilege. Not all of us, however, are defrauded of this right and if there is to be a creative movement some of us at least have to reflect on the hopes and disillusionments of the people. The unrest of the people is due to the thwarted desire for religion. 1 :Man is a religious animal. He is prepared to worship anything and many systems compete for his spiritual suffrage, fragmentary faiths, unaesthetic arts, and attractive panaceas. If he cuts himself away from his spiritual din1ension, it is an act of perfidy, of alienation from his own nature. We do not realise that religion, if real, implies a complete revolution, a total overcoming of our unregenerate nature, the death of the old man
Dr. C. G. Jung in his Modern Man in Search of a Soul (1933} writes of his middle-aged patients: 'Every one of them fell ill because he bad lost that which the living religions of every age have given to their followers, and none of them has been really healed who did not regain his religious outlook. •




The Brahma Sutra

and the birthofthenew. 1 Man'snatureistransformedorreformed to a pattern of excellence, because his being is pervaded by the power of truth. Unfortunately, philosophy today is detached and specialised and is not aware of the peril to the human spirit. It does not seem to realise its responsibility for the time in which it is set. Even those who have a religious allegiance do not seem to feel a religious responsibility. Plato once remarked that when the modes of music change, the walls of the city are shaken. A change in our philosophy of life is the first symptom of instability that will presently manifest itself in material, political and economic ways leading to the shaking of walls. Though India has impressive achievements to her credit in art and architecture, literature and morals, science and medicine, all these derive their inspiration from philosophy as love of wisdom or the life of spirit. Its aim is to produce not wise Hindus or Christians but wise men. If the spiritual orientation of the country is undermined or disturbed, the nature of the civilisation will change. The contemporary situation is a challenge to the philosopher of religion. Distances have so shrunk in the modern world that not only people but ideas travel fast. The great religions of the world arc interconnected. They face the same dangers and difficulties. That which threatens one will sooner or later endanger another. We have to develop a scheme of life which is at once rational, ethical and spiritual. It will not be wise to look upon ancestral wisdom as infallible. It may be liable to error even as contemporary fashions are. We have to find out what is vital in it. Many centuries ago Cicero said that there is nothing so foolish and so vain which has not been said by some philosopher. In India the threefold canon of religion, prasthana-traya, consists of the Upani$ads, the Bhagavadgitii and the Brahma Sutra. These texts are not only bound up with an historic past but are also a living force in the present. The problems which they raise and attempt to solve are not dissimilar to those which
The answer to Nicodemus's question whether a spiritual rebirth is possible is in] ohn iii. 7-8: 'Marvel not that I have said unto thee, ye must be born again. The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth; so is everyone that is born of the Spirit. •



engage thinkers in other parts of the world. I have written on the Upani!}ads and the Bhagavadgitii and this study of the Brahma Sutra may be a small contribution to the development of solidarity in thought to which the modern world is committed. While taking note of the traditional interpretations, I have also in mind the problems of our age. It is my endeavour to present a reasoned faith which deals justly with the old Indian tradition and the demands of modern thought. A commentator has ample scope to explain the Brahma S£Ura in relation to the religious milieu he represents. His purpose should be not simply to interpret the Brah1na Stttra but re-establish it in the minds and hearts of the people and restore the unity of religion and philosophy. The classics should be not only guardians of the past hut heralds of the future. They are dead if they are mechanically and unthinkingly accepted. They are alive if each generation consciously decides to receive them. Any system of thought should satisfy two basic requirements; it should state the truth and interpret it for each new generation. It must move back and forth between these two poles, the eternal and the temporal. Truth is expressed in a human language formed by human thinking. The consciousness of this leads to a continual clarifying and fuller understanding of the truths. The author of the Brahma Sutra deals with the problems raised by his contemporaries with their views on cosmology but these dated answers are not the essentials of its teaching. We may not accept the scientific thought of those days, hut the suggestions about the ultimate questions of philosophy and religion which they set forth with philosophic depth and emancipation from the transient preoccupations of the current hour are of value to us even today. While the Brahma Siitra represents intellectual effort spread over generations, it has also become the starting point of intense reflection. Commentaries and independent treatises have been produced from early times and there does not seem to be any slackening of effort even today. In this book I have followed principally Sarhkara's commentary which is accepted generally by others except in those places where doctrinal differences are indicated. In stating the


The Brahma Stitra

views of the commentators I have omitted the minor details which have no direct bearing on the general interpretation. I have avoided scholastic discussions found in the commentarit>s since they are not of much contemporary interest. Since the Upani$ads, the Bhagavadgitii, and the Brahma Siitra are said to have unity of purpose and meaning aikcirth_va, I have indicated wJ1at, to my mind, is this general purport. Mv views are based on experience, authority and n:flection. Tl{e commentator himself is a product of his times. He looks at the past from his own point of view. Just as rach indivi<~ual strives to organise his memory, we have to organise our past. Our picture of the n1arch of centuries determines our attitude and outlook. Though the conditions of modern life have become different and are in some ways better, we cannot say that we are superior to the ancients in spiritual depth or moral strength to grapple with difficulties. It is possible that some may think that my method of treatment is inadequate and imperfect. But whatever the shortcomings may be, it is not, I hope, lacking in great respect for the traditional interpretations. The Bibliography is by no means exhaustive but I hope it will provide a sufficient guide to the student. I am indebted to Professor Siddhesvar Bhattacarya of V isva-bhiirati for his kindness in reading the proofs and making many valuable suggestions. Mr. V. Y. Kulkarni of the Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, very kindly prepared the Index.

New Delhi, I959·

S. R.

G.cbirth and Pre-existence Some Objections to the Hypothesis of Rebirth F. The \Vay of Bhakt£ or Devotion The Way of Dhyiina or Meditation H. D. 7 IS 16 INTRODUCTION I The Brahm. 151 167 175 183 198 207 PART TWO: TRANSLATION AND NOTES 227 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY GI~OSSARY OF SANSKRIT TERMS INDEX . The Individual Self 7. E. ].a A. D. C. The \Vay of J(arma or Life B. The Status of the ~Vorld 6. E. K. The H' ay to ]Jerfcction A. F. Reason and Revelation 4· The N aturc of Reality 103 118 135 144 151 5.. Life Eternal TEXT.entators Sarilkara Bhftskara Yadava-prakilsa Hatnilnuja Madhva Srikal).CONTENTS PHEFACE SCHEME OF TRANSLITERATION LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS PAJ{T ONE: I. I. The Comm.tha Nirhharka Sripati Vallahha Suka Vijfiana-bhik~u z5 28 Baladeva 39 45 46 6o 66 78 82 88 93 94 97 3. C. L. H. s utra 9 2. H.

l Consonants gtttturals k kh g gh n.SCHEME OF TRANSLITERATION Vowels anusviira vtsarga a ai i u fi r f l e ai o au m l. c eh J jh fi palatals cerebrals t th ~1 cJh 1) t th d dh n dentals labials p ph b bh m 1 V semi-vowels y r sibilants s palatal sibilant pronounced like the soft s of Russian ~ cerebral sibilant as in shun s as In sun aspirate h .

P.U.G. S. R. S.B.U.v. s. M. K.U. I. R.U. M.G. R. B.U.U.B.U.P. T.B. u.B.LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Bhagavadgitii Brahma S'17tra Upan-i$ad Chii ndogya V pan-i$ad Ind-ian Philosophy by Radhakrishnan J{au{itaki upani$ad Jfahcibhiirata M iintjiikya Upani$ad AIututaka Upan£$ad The Principal Upani$ads by Radhakrishnan Ramanuja Ramanuja's commentary on the Brahma S iitra Ramanuja's commentary on the Bhagavadgitii Samkara Samkara's commentary on the Rrahma S ittra ~arhkara's commentary on the Bhagavadgitii Svetiisvatara Upani$ad Taittiriya Upani$ad Upan.S. V.J>urii~la Brhad-iira·~zyaka B. . Ma.B. P. B.i$ad V i$1J1t. C. s.G.




In early times they were not written down but were handed down from preceptor to pupil. Each of them has four sections -samhita. 3· 94· sam: together. I.G. forest treatises which dispense with elaborate sacrifices but prescribe meditations on symbols. Sama and Atharvan. f.B. cp. rather than with the path of work. Brahmat. ceti viprakar~a!J.U.CHAPTER I The Brahma Sutra The Vedas THE V edas have rernained for centuries the highest religious authority for all sections of the Hindus.g.' 1 Pii~zini liT. Yajus. 1 or collection of hymns addressed to the different deities. They were literally heard by the pupils and are called sruti. jniina. They are the statements of their metaphysical experience. on the other hand. pratyak~iidi-pramiirt-iinupalabdhe hi vi$aye . the authoritativeness of personal views.1yakas. hita: put. 1 3 S. ' srutis ea no atfndriya-vi~aye vijnanotpattau nimittam: S. 3 The Vedas are the authoritative utterances of inspired seers claiming contact with transc('ndental truth. Ara1.?.. puru$a-vacasiim tu muliintariipek~am vaktr-smrti-vyavahitatit. There are four V edas. I. Smrti will have to reckon with the sruti and should be consistent with it. which deal with the path of knowledge. is of an altogether different kind since it depends on the validity of the sruti and is mediated by a chain of teachers and tradition. Sruti has no authority in the realm of the perceptible.aye. 2 Sruti and Smrti The authoritativeness of the Vedas in regard to the matters stated in them is independent and direct.B.~rufeb priimar~-ya1h na pt-atyak$adi-vi$aye. . which describe sacrificial ceremonies and discuss their value. karma. just as the light of the sun is the direct means of our knowledge of form and colour. II. and the Upani$ads. It is the source of knowledge in matters transcending senseexperience. vedasya hi nirapek$am sviirthe priimii1)yam t-aver iva ritpa-vi:. on T. also S. 66.

Kiisika on Pa~ini IV. It is said that the niistikas are the deniers of a world beyond the present. Haribhadra in his $a4-dar. Every utterance is a weak attempt to deal justly with the mystery. The scholastic developn1ents are also called darsanas. Ved{inta. for the most appropriate response to the spiritual experience is silence or poetry. Jaya. 13. D. means looking at something.Se$ika SiUra IX. This suggests that the astika is one who believes in the other world. tad-viparJto nastika[a •· pramii~iinupiitinf yasya matib sa di$/ikab. 4· 6o. l'lyc"iya and V aise$Z:ka. The niistika or the unorthodox systems do not regard the Vcdas as infallible. 1 1. the nastika is one who does not believe in the other world.: 'astikyam niima vedokta-dharmiidharmefu visvasab. The Upani$ads which relate these visions or experiences use the language of meditation. 5 Vai. The former or the orthodox schools arc six in number. from which the word speculation is derived. Sii:Jitkhya.ditya makes out that an listika is one who believes in the existence of the other world. Sa~rjilya U. ' para-lokab astUi yasya mati. while the di~tika is a fatalist. They all accept the authority of the Vedas. to see. a ncistika is one who does not believe in its existence and a d£$/ika is one who believes only in what can be logically demonstrated. 1 2 .20 The Brahma Sutra Darsana A system of thought is called a darsana 1 from the root drs.. 4· 6o. 2 It is a vision of truth. It is difficult to express the truths of experience through logical propositions. or Sanskrit dr!iti derived from the same root drs. Astika and N iistika Systems of thought are distinguished into iistika and 1uistika. It is not creation or construction but vision or insight.5ana-samuccaya (fifth century A. l\1imamsii. Commenting on Pa-~zini. The Buddhists refer to views as ditthi. Cp. The conclusions of the past are brought into agreement with the findings of the present. Speculari. A great deal of passion and ingenuity has been spent on the task of resolving contradictions and reconciling seemingly conflicting statements. 2. samiidh£bha$ii. the meaning which has been attained. asti-niisti-di${am matib.asti sa astikab .) and Madhava (fourteenth century) in his Sarva-darsana-sathgraha use darsana for a system of thought. Yoga.' li Veda-nindaka II. 4 Manu holds that he who repudiates Vedic doctrines is a nastika. 3 Patafijali n1akes out that {tstika is one who thinks that it exists and nii$lika one who thinks that it does not exist. 8 IV.

In the orthodox Hindu tradition. It is an attempt to systematise the various strands of the Upani!}ads which form the background of the orthodox systems of thought. It is also called Uttara-mimii'lizsii or the mimiimsii or the investigation of the later part of the Vedas.Introduction 21 M ok!}a-sastra Every system of philosophy is a mok!}a-siistra and teaches the way to release from sa1hsara or bondage to time. knowledge. All the commentators on the IJrahma Sutra agree that the Brahma Sutra was intended to be a summary of the teaching of the 1 ananta-sastram bahu veditavyam alpas ea kalo bakavas ea vigltnab yat sara-bhulam tad upiisitavyam ha1hso yathii k~lram ivambu-mi. life in God. the knowledge to be derived from them is immense but the time is little and the obstacles are many. dissolution.ram. the Pi7rvamimd1nsci by J aimini which is concerned with the correct interpretation of the Vedic ritual and Uttara-mimii1ilsti by Badarayal)a which is called Brahma-mimiims('i or Siirirakamimii?itsii which deals chiefly with the nature of Brahman. is assigned to asastra called thellfimii?nsa which means investigation or inquiry. So we have to choose the essential Scriptures and study them even as the swan takes in on]y the milk which is mixed with water. enlightenment. Mima1nsii is divided into two systems. positively the accounts differ. insensibility. /iicina. is the cause of bondage. lead to release. as distinguished frmn the mimiimsii of the earlier part of the Vedas and the Briihmat. 1 The task of reconciling the different Vcdic texts. vidyii. Negatively all these views are agreed that release is from time. The nature of release has been various]y conceived. the status of the world and the individual self. indicating their mutual relations. They are all united that ignorance. Av£dyii is not intellectual ignorance but spiritual blindness.tas which deal with ritual or karma-kii~uja. The Brahma St"Ura is the exposition of the philosophy of the Upani!jads. . avidyii. Since it attempts to determine the exact nature of these entities it is also called nir~ziiyaka-siistra. Mimiintsa \Ve are told that the Scriptures are endless. isolation.

G. IJI. The Upani~ads are s·mti.G. 6 ]acobi thinks that the B. literally the arranger. and is concerned with the later parts of Vedic literature. 29. is called . I. I. Ratnaprabhii.c. Auc. See journal ofthe American Oriental Society XXXI. its date cannot be very early.G. I The body is .a was the teacher and Jaimini the pupil..S. Asma. Kar~r. and the B.S. Jaimini I. As smrti it supports sruti. dealing as it does with ritual. p. It is generally believed that BadarayaiJ. 8 Atreya Ill. 31.lulomi I. Date and Author The author of the Brahma Sutra is Badarayai)a. 37· 'of the sages I am Vyasa'. Badarayar. I. Cp. 2.B. The references to the views of earlier teachers6 show how the author took into account other efforts at interpretation extending over many generations and summarised them.D.B. 2. is smrti. Even in the Brahmat. ' According to Sabara.a I.1ajini III.' Since B. As the Uttaramimiimsii deals not with practice but with knowledge. 2. refers to almost all other Indian systems. 9· BadarayaiJ.S. the B.S. l· 33· 1 . the self. 200 and 450. a He is sometimes said to be Vyasa. B. arose at a very early period. It is a part of the M. X. the B. 30. 4· 6. and clarifies its meaning. IV.Sarfra. 4· 22. what resides in it is the sarJraka. 4· 45. 28.c. It was composed about the second century B. a commentary on S.22 The Brahma Sutra Upani$ads. 1. holds that the B. He is said to have arranged the Vedas in their present form.ta literature. 4· 21. The ancient teachers quoted The Vedanta philosophy takes its stand on the Upani$ads. Badari I.. a part of the Veda.msii in connection with the discussions of contested points of ritual.ta was respected by Jaimini who quotes him in support of his view of the self-evident character of knowledge.arfraka as it deals with the Brahman-hood of the individual soul: siirlrako jJvas tasya brahmatvavicaro mfmamsa. 29.rathya I. we find mention of the word mimii. The Brahma Siitra is also called the Vediinta Sutra1 or Sariraka Sutra. 3· 31. Brahman is embodied sarfra since the whole universe is the body of the Lord. 3· 26. 2 It takes into account the systems of thought known at that time. 5 There have been several attempts to represent the teaching of the Upani$ads in a consistent way and Badarayal}a in his Siitra gives us the results of these attempts. 3 It may be assumed that the Pz"irva-mimihnsii. There are cross-references to Jaimini and Badarayal}a in the Purvamimii.msii Sutra and the Brahma St"Ura. 4· 20. Baladeva adopts a different view. was composed sometime between A. 4· 44· Kasakrtsna I. it may have been formulated a little later than the Purva-mimiimsa.

4· . also alpiik$aram asandigdham saravat visvatomukham astobham anavadyam ea sutram siitra-vido vidulJ. I. Madhva quotes it in his commentary on I. 1. the commentators adopt the principles formulated in the wellknown verse: that the beginning. 1 It should be concise. the objective. Cp. Siltra is a thread. 3 In determining the purport of a sutra.J:l. 4 Introduction Contents of the Brahma Sutra The B.a seem to have entertained different views on important points of doctrine. the repetition. Sutra The sutra style which aims at clarity and conciseness is adopted in all the philosophical systems as also in works on other subjects like domestic ceremonies.S. bahvartha-siicaniit. B. It tries to avoid unnecessary repetitions. 2. English suture. 1. has four chapters or adhyiiyas and each of them is divided into four padas or parts. 2 In the anxiety for economy of words which is carried to an excess the s· itras are not intelligible without a i commentary.B. in every way meaningful. Each of these piidas is subdivided into adhikarat)as or sections made up of sittras or 1 Madhva on I. states the teaching of the Veda according to BadarayaQ.S. I. grammar and metres. The B. Latin sutiira.S. They are like shorthand notes of the teaching of the preceptor to the pupils. the novelty. I. S. They arc packed with meaning which is inexhaustible. 1. Such are what the wise ones called s1itras or aphorisms. strings together the V edanta texts like flowers. 1.tha on I. a string. See also Srikal}. the glorifications and the argument-which are the canons for determining the purport.23 by Badaraya. (composed) of few letters and words. • vedanta-vakya-kusuma-grathanarthatviit siitrci~am. • laghiini sucitarthani svalpak$ara-padiini ea sarvatab sara-bhutiini sutrii~y ahur ma1~J#~a(J. Cp. indicative of its purport. ' upakramopasamharav abhyiiso 'p urvata phalam artha-viidopapam ea lingam tatparya-nirttaye. Bhiimatf I. A sutra is so called because it suggests wide meaning.a and defends the interpretation adopted. I. 4· as from Brhat-samhitii. the end.

the first is the chief. (2) visaya. gu~za. they reckoned with other views and objections from rival schools. Truth would not be sought so industriously if it had no rivals to contend against. The commentary is a reasoned statement of objections. Sometimes one si:ttra is read as two or two as one. criticises the views of others and commends its own. The·commentators. The third chapter deals with siidhanii and is devoted to an exposition of the means for the realisation of Brahman. Sometimes the last word of a siitra is added to the beginning of the next one. (4) s£ddlu"inta or established conclusion or the final truth of an argument. The first chapter deals with samanvaya. Each section according to the commentators deals with a specific point. and answers. our philosophy and our religion must become integral parts of a general pattern of thought. We cannot be content with disconnected scraps of knowledge. 'Some declare these sutras. mukhya. statement of an objection. (S) sa1izgati or connection between the different sections. which I look upon as setting forth the siddhanta. It attempts to offer a coherent interpretation of the different texts of the Upani$ads.ta has five factors: (1) vi$aya. uttara-pak$a or siddhiinta.24 The Brahma S utra aphoristic statements. do not vary much with regard to the arrangement of the topics or the meaning of the sutras or the reference to the sources or texts intended. 3· 7-14. Commenting on IV. ptirva-pak$a. The second chapter deals with avirodha and shows that the interpretation offered in the first chapter is not inconsistent with the writings of other sages and views of other systems. says. to state . These variations lead to divergent interpretations. every section or adhikara~. doubt or uncertainty. The method of reconciliation requires today to be extended to the living faiths of the world. The number of sutras in each adhikara1. If an adhikara·~ta has more than one siitra. According to the Piirvamfmiimsii. (3) prtrva-pak5a or the prima facie view. to it. in spite of their different philosophical allegiances. The fourth deals with phala or the fruit of knowledge.Ja varies with the nature of the topic dealt therein. Our science. and the others are subordinate. Even when the sutras were formulated. subject-matter. the final view.S. S. There are slight variations in the readings of the sutras in B. the vz"$aya-viikyas.

8. We have adopted S. 2. I I.Introduction merely the ptirva-pak$a or the opponent's view'. 4· 20. mentions different interpretations of the teaching of the Upani$ads. in the value of knowledge and love.lulomi 2 holds that the individual soul is altogether different from Brahrnan up to the time of release. Since the sii. Auc. The bhedlibheda theory has received n1anifold expression among the commentators of the B. devotion and service as means to the fulfilment of human even as the sparks are neither different nor non-different fron1 fire. Vijfiana-bhik~u believe in the reality of the universe as well as its divine origin. 4· 45. IV.U. But the released soul is no longer different from the Highest Self since there is no further cause of difference.U..tras admit of varied interpretations one can honestly admit their validity and sti11 pursue one's own independent line of reflection. Bhartr-prapafica. The soul is neither different nor nondifferent from Brahm. The soul is merged in Brahman when it obtains release. Bhaskara. The relation between the two is not one of absolute identity but of cause and effect. 29. 4· 6. R. Yadavaprakasa. I2. Nimharka.'s reading as the standard and noted the divergences fr01n it. The acceptance of the st"Uras may have a tendency to cripple the discovery of new and fruitful methods of approach but as a matter of fact it has not been so. .S. 2. moral freedom and responsibility and faith in a personal God. 4· 21. Ill.ADARAYA~A I. 3. VIII. Asmarathya1 adopts the bhedabheda relation. III. I. Bhiimatf quotes the following from the Pa1icaratra agama: 'Up to the moment of reaching emancipation the individual soul and the Highest Self are different. M. This view seems to be based on C. His numbering of the sutras is adopted.' 1 B. CHAPTER 2 The Commentaries in the B. in the distinctiveness of individual souls which are treated as centres of divine manifestation.

. Madhva Haya-griva-brahma-vidyii and Sripati Agastya-vrtti. notable among them being those by SrikaQtha. They establish the relevancy of the B. Vijfiana-bhik~u and Baladeva. Yamunacarya mentions in his Siddhi-traya the names of Tanka.S. Kasakrtsna1 holds that the individual soul is absolutely nondifferent from Brahman. H. to their age. Many other commentaries were written after Madhva' s time. S. taking into account the standards and criticisms of their time.S.26 The Brahma Sutra The difference or non-difference of the two depends on the difference of condition. Bhaskara and R.lulomi's doctrine is known as satya-bheda-viida.G. Madhva. Nimbarka and Vallabha. Auc. the B. Indian thinkers. Brahma-datta. Bodhiiyana-vrtti. even when they advance new views. 1\fany of these commentaries are not in the strict sense commentaries but are systematic expositions of varying doctrines. though only a few have come down to us. They all follow one or the other of the ancient traditions.S. Nin1barka.. Sripati. Bhartrprapanca.. They use all their ingenuity to discover their views in these works or modify the views expressed in them or even reinterpret the obvious views which they find difficult to maintain. The aim of the commentators is to give a coherent interpretation of the B. do so in the name of an old tradition. The chief systematic interpretations of the V ediinta are the Advaita. is said to have followed V aniha-sahodaravrt#. Dvaita.S.S. S. the Upani$ads. 4· 22. there were different views about the teaching of the Upani!}ads. There have been many commentaries on the B. Bhartr-hari. The individual soul and the Highest Self are one. and Bhaskara. bondage or release.. S. and the B. It is clear that even before BadarayaQa composed the B. Even the most original of thinkers do not claim to expound a new system of thought but write commentaries on the three great works. Bhartr-mitra. though only three of them are known to us. 2 NarayaQa PaQ~it in his flrfadhvavijaya-bluiva-prakiisikli mentions twenty-one commentators who preceded Madhva.. . Bhediibheda and Suddhiidvat"ta associated with the names of S. They have a sense of humility and would endorse Hemacandra's statement 1 2 I. R. Vallabha. Visi$tiidvaita.

1400 (8) Sripati visi$tadvaita (g) Vallabha A. The B. etc.D.D. 1000 Bhaskara Yadava Prakasa A.S. Saiva-visi$!iidvaita A. 1238 l\1adhva latter half of Nimbarka thirteenth cenDvaitiidvaita tury A. \Vhen the different systems claim to represent accurately the 1neaning of the texts. The views of the different commentators have been accepted by son1e sections of the people who look upon their teachers as infallible and their teachings above doubt and dispute.D. 1479-1544 Suddhiidva£ta A.D. 788-820 N irv£se$iidvaita Bhediibheda Bhediibheda V £si$!cidvaita Dvaita On each of these commentaries there are sub-comn1entaries.D. 1725 Acintya-bhediibheda (12) Baladeva (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) S.D.D. 16oo Atma-bralmzaikva(11) VijiUina-bhik!?u "' bheda-viida A.D. Bodhayana was perhaps the first commentator but his work is not now available. The following commentaries on the B.S.Introduction pramii1.S. instead of cherishing ill-will. . will have to be taken note of:A. 1140 R.ta-siddhiinta-viruddham atra yat ldncid uktam mati-miindya-do$iil miitsaryam utsiiryya tad iirya-c£ttii~t prasiidam iidhiiya viSodhayantu.D. A. glosses. we have to exa1nine them before we accept or reject them. 1000 A.D. 1550 Bheda-viida (1o) Suka A. 1270 (7) Srikal). is held in such high esteem that anyone setting forth a new systen1 of religious and philosophic thought is at pains to show that his views are consistent with the meaning of the B.D. A. 27 May the noble-minded scholars. kindly correct any errors here committed through dullness of intellect in the way of wrong statements and interpretations.tha B hediibhediitmakaA.D.

Four of the mutts he established are well known.D.D. S. Anandagiri. called the M ii~ujiikya-Kiirt'kii.'s bha$ya on the B. . Dvaraka in the West.B. 's bha§ya as lucid and profound. 1 S.B.B. 1\fal}<}ana Misra (A. a disciple of S.. refers to the views of another commentator on the B. is said to be the incarnation of Siva on carth. goo) Samk$epa-siiriraka states the main teachings of S. Padmapada.S. called }lyiiya-nir~zaya and Govindananda wrote another commentary called Ratna-prabha. was a naisthika-brahma-carin . 780 Gau~lapada wrote a con1mentary on the JJf a~uji"tkya U. It deals only with the first four sutras. VidyaraQya wrote V ivaratta-prameya-samgraha elaborating the ideas of PaJica-piidikii-vivara~~a.. SAMKARA Sathkara About A. 841) wrote a commentary on S.S. Vacaspati J\1isra (A.. 12oo) wrote a commentary on Pafzca-piidika known as Paficapadika-vivara1Ja. Badri in the North and Sp1geri in the South. Another disciple of S.B. Boo). (A. discussion and organisation. Vacaspati praises S. Prakasatman (A. prasanna-gambhJt'a. Piiri in the East.n.B. 788-820). was followed by a series of studies.D.D. wrote a conunentary on S. A dva£ta V ediinta Literature S. 2 S. Madhusiidana Sarasvati's Advaita-siddhi 1 1 sambhor murtis carati bhuvane samkaracarya-rupii.The Brahma S litra A. assumed the name of Suresvara and wrote his famous work Nai$karmya-siddhi. and his life was spent in exposition. when he became converted to Advaita Vediinta. An1aHinanda (thirteenth century) wrote his Kalpa-taru on it and Appaya Dik~ita (sixteenth century) wrote the Kalpa-taru-parimala on the J(alpa-taru. Sarvajfiatma-muni's (A. known as Pancapadika. His disciple Govinda was the teacher of S. wrote a commentary on S. His commentary is well known for its profundity of spirit and subtlety of speculation. His ]ivan-mukti-viveka deals with the Advaita doctrine of release or mokfia and his Panca-dasi is a popular treatise on Advaita Vedanta. It is an independent work on S.D. called Bhiimati. and his followers arc of the view that this other is the V rtti-kara.

3 Duality is a distinction imposed on the nondual (advaita) reality by mayii. They are produced only apparently. 99· I IV. 98. Cp. He holds that anyone who adopts any view without full inquiry will miss his aim of beatitude and incur grievous loss. 4 The one is the unborn. Causality is a false idea. When that notion ceases there is no samsiira. the unmoved. Gauf!apiida GauQapada's M ii~1£/. Dependent existence is not real existence..B. There are many other learned treatises developing the logical side of A dvaz'ta V ediinta. in his commentary on Gauf!apiida Kiirikii gives GauQ.1-tkya J{aril~ii may be said to be the first formulation of Advaita Vediinta. Brahman is kutastha. 1 tatra avicayya yat kincit pratipadyamano nil). Gau(lapada holds that all appearances (dharma) are like the vacuous sky (gaganopama). The real does not suffer any change. Whatever has a beginning and an end is unreal. All things are produced from a relative point of view (samvrti). 6 aspar sa-yogo vai nama sarva-sattva-sukho hital). unchanging. 2. 2 He holds the doctrine of ajiiti. S.Introduction 29 is an important work on A dvaita V ediinta. 'How can that which is never in the same state be anything'. tries to show that the Upani$ad passages could be coherently interpreted only on the basis of non-dualism and that any other interpretation of the ideas of the Upani$ads is open to IV.ispute with anyone. has no Q. 4 1 . avivado afliruddhas ea desitas tam namamy aham.apada the credit for developing the true meaning of the Ma. Ig. and is not hostile to anyone. So long as we think of it we suffer birth and rebirth. 1. 1. Amara-kosa says: eka-rupataya tu yah kala-vyap~ sa kutasthal). immobil<>. S. 1 There is no such thing as cmning into being. not a thing (avastutva) and tranquil (siintab-}. U. 5 Reason and Experience S. I. Cratyll's 439E. GauQ. not in reality.apada ·says of A dvaita Vediinta that it is pleasing to all. 6 S. 4· I IV.sreyasat pyatihanyeta. anartham ceyat. attempts to build a spiritual view of life on rational foundations. His other works include V ediinta-kalpa-latikii and Siddhiinta-bindu.

tat-tvam-asfty asamsiiryiitmaJvapt-atipattau satyam samsiiryatmatva vyiivfttep. 1 S. and the Upani$ads that he is controverting dualistic interpretations of the teaching of the Upani$ads. anubhaviivastinam eva vidyli-phalam. When we look at the created world. according to S. Brahman. This is the aim of religion. I. is Isvara who is engaged in creating and maintaining the world. Brahman is the intelligent source. These transformations are appearances of name and shape. Even when we deny it.30 The Brahma St"'itra objections. Reason is employed for the discovery of the real purport of the Upani$ads.B. 2 Knowledge and renunciation lead to the experience of self. It is obvious from S. in commenting on C. Ill. The end of all knowledge is spiritual realisation. (2) The world is so orderly that it could not have come forth from a non-intelligent source. Truth cannot contradict reason and experience. which consists of many agents and enjoyers: 3 (r) This world must have been produced as the modification of something which is itself unproduced. we will have anavasthii or regressus ad infinitunt.U. we affirm it.'s commentaries on the B.S.Hidirya. Brah11ian Brahman. The 1 S. iitmaillafva. 10.a) as well as the efficient cause (nimitta-kiira~ta) of the world. niima-rt''lpa. says that he is attempting the comn1entary to demonstrate the unity of the Self. There is no difference between cause and effect. These experiences are recorded in the Upani$ads. S. 2. is the cause of the origination. 4· 14.. 3 S. I. Brahman is at once the material cause (upiidiina-kiira1J. . atroktal' parihiira'b aciiryaib and Ananda-giri mentions that the iiciirya referred to is Dravic. Clay is the cause and jugs and jars are the effects. 11 pratyak~iivagamaJil cedam phalam. Brahman is the source and if it is produced from something else. sviinubhava or iitmiinubhava. A znere intellectual understanding of reality is not enough. (3) This Brahman is the immediate consciousness (siik#n) which shines as the self and also through the objects of cognition which the self knows. associated with the principle of 1niiyii or creative power. subsistence and dissolution of the world which is extended in names and forms. 4 refers to an explanation offered by an acarya.B. Brahman is viewed as lsvara. I.

Scriptures describe Brahman as reality. consciousness and infinity. but only empirically true. Our experience is based on an identification of the Self with the body. anantam brah1na. This is affirmed on the authority of the Upani$ads. When the knowledge of Self arises it is destroyed.31 world of experience is not the ultimate reality. The Self cannot be reduced to a series of passing ideas. Surcsvara in Nai$karmya Siddhi says that ignorance of the nature of Self is the cause of all unhappiness. I. 1 atas $at'Vanartha-hetur iitmanavabodha eva. These are not qualities which belong to Brahman but are one with Brahman. when we are free from phenomenal notions. cin-miitra. the nature of our true state as blessedness is partially realised. 8. 2 S. etc. Brahman is devoid of qualities. On such a view it would be impossible to account for the recognition of mental states and adau lwahmaham asmfty anubhava udite khalv ida1h brahma pascal. the senses. This is the beginningless miiyii. Whatever qualities are conceivable can only be denied of it: eko brahma dvitiyo nasi£. ultimate reality is pure intelligence. The Buddhist view that there is no permanent Self cannot account for the feeling of self-identity. 43· 1 su~uptakhya'til 1 Introduction . In spiritual experience we feel the identity of subject and object. tamo'jnanath bfjam svapna-prabodhaynll svatma-bodha Pl'adagdhan' syad bfjam dagdham yathabhavam. these differences which hide the true nature of reality disappear. 3 The root cause of all bondage is present in SU$upti which leads to dream and waking states. satyam. S. The differences of knower. For S. opens his commentary with the statentent of the existence of the pure Self free from any impurity as the ultin1ate truth. Cp. In our waking life we identify the Self with many unreal things but in dreamless sleep. 1 The Supreme Brahman which is one with the inmost Self is pure being. When the reality is known. known and knowledge are imposed on it. it is not piiramiirthika. awareness and bliss. j11iinam. They constitute the very nature of Brahrnan. In the Sata-sloki it is said that we first have the experience of the identity of the Self with Brahman and then the experience of the world as Brahman. argues that the Self is of the nature of pure consciousness and it is permanent and not momentary. also IV. devoid of all forms. vyavaharika.

Vediinta-paribhii$ii II. Otherwise we cannot distinguish between experiences which are our own and those of others. Drg-drsya-viveka I. Whateve1 is cognised is not-self. sva-pralliisa. All other things are drsya or objects of consciousness. The mind with its modifications is perceived and the witness is verily the perceiver. while Brahman is the dra$tii. rupam drsyam locanam drk tad drsyam drk tu manasam drsya dhr. It neither rises nor sets. The Status of the vV orld Brahman is self-luminous. It is derived from and dependent on Brahman nodeti nastamety eka sariwid C$ii svayari1-prabha.1ya in his PaFzca-dasi states that there is no moment when there is no consciousness whether in our awakened states or dreams or in our dreamless condition. The form is perceived and the eye is its perceivcr. it is not the object of any other consciousness. But the witness is not perceived (by any other). 7· Cp. In different ways the Advaitin establishes the supren1e reality of a transcendental principle of pure consciousness. the pure consciousness which comprehends all objects. aniitma-vastu.-vrttayas sak~t drg cva na tu drsyate. Vidyarar. like a jar. The world does not exist of itself. The Self is directly and immediately intuited. 1 The Self is pure bliss. sviirtha. 2 1 . unlimited and infinite. We cannot say with the Naiyayika that the self is the inferred object to which cognitions. 2 The world of notself. The light of consciousness is ultimately real. The self-revealing character belongs to the Self which is one with knowledge. feelings and volitions belong. derives its meaning from the Self of which it becomes an object. Whatever is not-self is an appearance like shell-silver. Only the Self exists for itself. Apart from Self or consciousness the world of objects is non-existent. The body is not the self for it is knowable. It (the eye) is perceived and the mind is its perceivcr. The world of objects exists for another. \Ve do not infer the self as the possessor of any experiences hut intuit it. brahma-bhinnam sarvam m-ithyii brahma-bhinnatvat sukti-rojatavat. deJw natma drsyatvilt ghajqvat. Even in dreamless sleep there is consciousness for later we remember the experience of the dreamless state.32 The Brahma Sutra their differences. which. is yet the underlying principle which can explain a11 the facts of our experience. pariirtha. I. impersonal. The Self is pure consciousness. It is self-luminous. though always untouched and unattached in its own nature.

aveneti. The rope which is perceived as snake is contradicted when the perception of snake disappears. II. The relation of consciousness and its objects is difficult to explain. We cannot be sure that it will not be contradicted at some later stage. it is asat for it does not exist for all tiine. 2 This is merely to indicate the one-sided dependence of the world on Brahman. it is not true. B 1 1 . Since the world-appearance is found to be non-existing at the rise of right knowledge. suggests that the world is an appearance due to ignorance and so this appearance does not affect the cause in any way. sat and not its forms. of all experience. non-being. But the world does not disappear.Introduction 33 and so is less real than Brahman. Reality is one and the world of many is not real.-atftib. regards du1'ghalatvam avidyiiyii bhu~a~Jam. Our normal behaviour is based on the world. We cannot describe it as existent or non-existent. Something is perceived though it is interpreted wrongly. It is vyavaharika. which is contradicted by later experiences. adhi#hana. • . Yet consciousness is related to objects. A thing is said to be true only so long as it is not contradicted. The world is not contradicted on the empirical stage. 3 Being is the basis. S. S. What really persists in all experience is being. nor as at. We have to accept the facts as given and describe them and not try to establish them by logic. The world is not of the nature of an illusion. We cannot say that an illusion is non-existent.-asaritayii '"ayaya mayavf t1'i$vapi kale~u na sa1izsprsyate avastutvat . l~ta-siddhi I. That Brahman appears to be connected with the three conditions of the world is as illusory as the appearance of a snake in a rope.B. It cannot be sarhyoga or contact or samavaya or inherence.priitibha$ika. being. \Vhen the appearance of the world is said to be anirvacaniya. 1 ekenaiva sarvanugatena sarvatra sat-p. It is the undefinable cause owing to which this world of distinct individual existences arises. The world is said to be sad-asadvilak$a~ta and not non-existent. 140. fvf ay a is neither sat. all that is meant is that it is unique. 1 S. I.asanam rajjva iva sarpadi-bh. yathii svayam p. g. The world is sat because it exists for a time. mayamatra1n hy etat yat paramatmano' 'vastha-trayatmanavabh. even as a magician is not affected by the illusion he creates for others. This being forms the substratum of all objective forms.

The concrete appearances arc impositions on this unchanging reality. avidyii. It has no other independent existence except the fact of its perception. They are not the effects of Brahman. It lasts so long as avidyii lasts.Zraka. Prakasatman and Madhava hold that Brahman in association with miiya. The question how 1niiyii becomes associated with Brahman cannot be raised for the association does not begin in time either with reference to the cosmos or with reference to the individual persons.Zyii. It is dissolved when the truth is known. Brahman is the ultimate truth underlying the world-appearance.34 The Brahma Sittra the world as miiyii which is wrongly translated as illusion. In fact there is no real association for the unchangeable truth is not affected. SarvajiHi. Brahman being the unchanging cause and miiya the changing cause. sometimes says that the world does not exist in reality and its manifestation disappears when the reality is known. It has Brahman for its basis. The world appearance is miiyii. Brahman with avidyii is the upadiina or the . thinks that Brahman is the material cause through the instrumentality of miiyti.tma-muni and his followers think that pure Brahman should be regarded as the causal substance. for Brahman is not the upadiina or the material cause of the world of objects. The world is unreal when viewed apart from its basis in the ultin1ate reality or Brahman. in his Samk$epa-sar. When viewed in its relation to Brahman.e. Vacaspati attempts to interpret the relation in a nondualistic way. of the world. S. i. upiidana. It exists as it is perceived. Son1etimes it is said that the world is like a dream or an illusory cognition. M iiyii is not a real entity. we find that all this is Brahman: sarvam khalv £dam brahma. is the cause of the world. The author of Padartha-nir1Jaya thinks that Brahman and miiyii are jointly the cause of the world. M ayii cannot be said to be either existent or nonexistent. It is only wrong knowledge. tattviinyatviibhyiim anirvacan. Vacaspati Misra is of the view that the mayii resting in jiva as associated with Brahman produces the world. The clement of change and diversity is due to mayii. Sarvajiiatma-muni. I svara. There are different views on this matter among the followers of S. that makes the appearance.

ya compares the world-appearance to a painting. the dark colour for the dispenser of the crude elements (s·utriibnan) and the coloration for the dispenser of the concrete elemental world.Introduction 35 material cause of the world in which the world is grounded and absorbed. 2 Brahman is the vivarta cause and maya is the pari'l}ama cause. pp. the sakti and its transformation cannot be regarded as unreal or false. the white poster for the inner controller. 12-13 . 1. If miiyii is regarded as the power or sakti of Brahman. I. Brahman reflected through miiyii assumes various forms and characters. 1 Siddhanta-lesa. In association with the intelligence of Brahman maya acts as an intelligent power which is responsible for the orderliness of all qualities of things and their interrelations. . where the white canvas stands for the pure Brahman. Through this association it transforms itself into various elements and their modifications. 2. Ignorance. 38. sad-asadanirvacaniyii and it ceases when Brahman is known. an accessory cause. so long as the possessor of sakti is regarded as real and absolute. This self which is consciousness and bliss according to Vidyaral). 8 1 saktir asti aisvarf kacit sarva-vastu niyamika. All objects of the world are the products of Brahman and mayii. 3 Vidyaral). Bhamatt I. av£dya or mayii. The pure Self appears as many individuals and as God through the veil of 1-niiya. 1 Vacaspati looks upon Brahman as the real vivaria cause and mayii as only saha-kiiri. This power. It is true that in our ordinary experience we perceive multiplicity and avidya-sahita·brahmopadiinariz jagat b1·ahmatly eviisti tatraiva ea lfyate. Pancadasf III. antaryiimin. The author of S£ddhiinta-muktavali is of the opinion that the miiyii-sakti is the real material cause and not Brahman who is beyond cause and effect.ya is obscured to us by miiya which is described as the power by which is produced the manifold world-appearance. produces the world of appearance. virat and the figures that are manifested thereon are the living beings and other objects of the world. cannot be regarded either as absolutely real or as unreal. It is associated only with a part of Brahman and not 'vith the whole of it. It cannot be said to be existent or non-existent. sakti.1aya regulates all relations and order of the universe.

the sense-organs. (2) disinclination to the enjoyment of the pleasures . the Lord retracts the whole world. Even according to S. They believe in their own finiteness and not in the Infinite dwelling in them. Instead of recognising themselves to be one with Ultimate Reality. worship. But as the consequences of their former deeds are not yet exhausted they re-enter embodied existence when the Lord sends forth a new world. They become agents and enjoyers. The scriptural texts which speak of Brahman as the one and only reality have greater validity than those which imply the existence of plurality. nityiinityavastu-viveka.. The world is the play of Brahman. the world is not non-existent.The Brahma Sutra the Vedic injunctions imply the existence of plurality. it is not absolutely real. The Individual Self The jiva is the phenomenal self which feels. his miiyii. etc. ritual are intended for a lower class of aspirants and jniina or wisdom is the path pursued by the higher class of aspirants who have no desire for earthly prosperity or heavenly joy. the material world is merged in the non-distinct prakrti while the individual souls free for the time from actual connection with their upiidhis or adjuncts lie in deep sleep. empirical existence. undergo a series of embodied existences. The qualifications necessary for a man intending to study the Vediinta are :-(r) discriminative knowledge of what is eternal and non-eternal. Brahman with m'iyii or sakti as its power is the cause of the world. The world has a relative. But the many are not always aware of the Supreme imrnanent in them. they identify themselves with the body. It is the expression of the urge in Brahman to become many. accumulate merit and demerit. The individual self is a phenomenon while the truth is Brahman. Meditation. suffers and is affected by the experiences of the world. Perfection and the Way to it To recognise the highest truth as Brahman is to attain release. At the end of each of the world periods called kalpas. his viliisa. The Lord as the dispenser of our destiny allots to each soul the form of embodiment earned by its previous actions. as it were.

dhyanena ceta~z-paratii hatii te stutyiinayii vak-paratii hata te. my three great sins. karnta. I. ihiimutra-phala-bhoga-viraga. 0 Siva. The former is the result of jnana or wisdon1. sama-damiidi-siidhana-sampat. and the path of wisdom. renunciation. brahma-jiianam. he will know the identity of self and Brahman and be liberated. S. sadyomukti or instantaneous release and llrama-mukti or gradual liberation. He prays to Visva-natha in Kasi: yiitrii mayii sarva-gatii hata te.Introduction 37 of this world or the next. \Vhile S. Ibid. are intended for different classes of seekers. deep concentration and faith. 1 and (4) desire for release. Forgive me. na ca»U$/hii~antariipek$ii. 4 There arc two kinds of release. 3 The knowledge of the ever-existent Brahman does not depend on human activity. asks us to give up any complacency and fight against the fall in moral standards: yato vina$fir mahati dharmasyatra prajayatc mandyam sa1iztyajya evatra dak~yam eva samasrayet. 1 jilana-karma-samuccayabhava/. k$anta11yam etat trayam eva sambho. as the body desires food and drink. jiiiina. I. tnumuk$utva. 8 abhyudaya-phalam dharma-jiiiinam taccanu$/haniipek$am. . he had great faith in bhaldi or devotion to a personal God. When a person with these qualifications studies the Upani$ads. in 1 S. Origen speaks of (that unspeakable longing with which the mind burns to learn the design of those things which we perceive to have been made by God'. I came on a pilgrimage to Kasi forgetting that you are omnipresent. 1lil)sreyasaphalarh tu. the latter of upiisanii or worship and prayer. self-restraint. holds that the path of work. Prosperity is the result of religious duty while knowledge of Brahman has release for its result and does not depend on any other observance. This is the passion for liberation. As the eye naturally demands light and colour. (3) attainment of tranquillity.B.1. I. S. patience. is an absolute non-dualist in his metaphysics. The two cannot be pursued together. 2 Ceremonial piety can only lead to new forms of embodied existence. so the soul cherishes a natural desire to know God's truth and free itse1f from falsehood. 4 iha tu bhutaril brahma-jijiiasyarh nitya-vrttatviin na puru$a-vyiipara-tautram.

in praying to you I forget that you are beyond words. is said to have composed a prayer to the Buddha: dharii-baddha padmasanasthamghriya$1if:t. S. who is blessed with long flowing hair. The wave belongs to the ocean and not the ocean to the wave. 1 He prays to Vi!?Q. I know thee. . 1 Cp. I clutch thee. I forget that you are beyond thougi1t. While the Absolute is beyond words human nature brings it within the limits of its comprehension by making it into a personal God.ayiirdriim kare jiiiina-rwudrlim kalabhir vinidriim kalapail. Prayer and worship of the Supreme as i svara do not lead to final release. who is ever watchful. S. The devotee gets into brahma-loka where he dwells as a distinct individual enjoying great power and knowledge. I view thee.ilam nyasta nasagra-dr$#1. I constantly worship my mother. 0 world unknowable. the goddess of learning who is soft with compassion in her looks. adopts a catholic view with regard to these personal conceptions. prays to Sarada-devi: katiik$e tf. Inapprehensible. S.U: satyapi bhediipagame niitha taviiham na miimakinas tvam samudro hi tara1igal. subhadriin·t purastrim vinidrii1n purastungabhadriim bhaje siiradiimbiim ajasram mad-ambiim. in front of whom flows the Tuilga-bhadra. even after realising that there is no real difference between the individual soul and Brahman I beg to state that I am yours and not that you are mine. who is bright with all the arts.The Brahma Siitra thinking about you. who has the jniina-mudrii in her hand. kvacana samudro na taraitgalt 0 Lord.. 0 world intangible. niyamyii. the siiradiimbii. I touch thee. n ya iiste kale yoginiirh cakravarti sa buddhal. prabuddho' stu mac cittavarti. Francis Thomsen's words: 0 world invisible.

Reason must follow scriptural evidence. Brahman is the supreme reality. 1 B.'s work on the subject. 200. vyiivarttayanto lokan vyiimohaya. I. 7 Brahman has two etad viniisiibhidluinam niitmocchediibhipriiyam. 1I..~ti. I. material and efficient. release can take the form of the attainment of the nature of i svara and not identity with Brahman. c vigftam vicchinna-mulam miihayanika-bauddka-giithitam miiya-viidam 6 6 I..S.'s miiyii-viida.S. p. who criticises it. 1 Udayana in his Nyaya-kusum. Until the final redemption of all takes place. 4· 20-1. I. 1 viSe~a-vijniina-vinasiibhiprriyam sutriibhipraya-samvrtya svabhipraya-prakiisanat vyakhyatam yair iddm sastram vyiikhyeyam tan-nivrttaye. there is no more specific cognition or objective knowlcdge. tad etat sarvam sruti-prasiddham eva tasman niitra niriikara~'Jyam pasyamah. 4· 25.D.D.. 8 .S. See P. 4 I-Ie is of the view that both difference and non-difference. 4· 7 This is the view of the Pancariitras who look upon Vasudeva as both the material and the efficient cause of the world and so he does not find anything to criticise in their doctrine.iinjali refers to Bhaskara's commentary on the B. The lJhediibheda-viida was popular even before S. which is a criticism of S. At the very beginning of his commentary he says that he is writing his work to refute those who express their own opinions. S. Bhaskara does not seem to know of R. who argues that only non-difference is real and not difference. bhcda and abheda. are real unlike S. He may be assigned to the ninth century A. makes out that the identity with the Higher Self is not destruction of the soul. 6 Ultimate Realt'ty For Bhaskara. 996-1061.S. V iisudeva eva upii. 2 .p.diina-kara~am jagato 1timitta-kiira~am ceti te manyante . He is the cause of the universe. Some hold that he lived from A. There are references to it in the B.. suppressing the real purport of the B. 3 He holds that those who adopt the maya-viida are really Buddhist in their outlook.. 5 Pramii~tas Scripture is our guide with regard to the knowledge of supersensible objects.Introduction 39 When he gains knowledge of Brahman he obtains final release. BHASKARA Bhaskara 2 wrote his commentary on the B.U.

I. It is a difference between what is real for ever. 4· 3 C. mere names. • bheda-fnanam api jiianam eva. If it is said that the knowledge of duality is false because the person who hears the dualist texts of the Scriptures is under the influence of avidyii. VI. a matter of direct experience6 and cannot be dismissed as unreal. II. Bhaskara ho1ds that a real object need not be permanent. Only they come and go. The account of avidyii as indescribable cannot be accepted for it is the very basis of our world of practical behaviour. 14. I. 14. viiccirambhat. his knowledge of non-duality is also identifies the real with the permanent.' The difference between what is svabhavika or natural and what is aupadhika or adventitious is not a difference between what is real and what is unreal. nitya. anitya. and so is adventitious. I. vaca kevalam arabhyate vikara-jatam na tu tattvato'sti yato niimadheya-matram etat . 4· ato bhinniibhinna-svarupam brahmeti sthitam. The effect is a statement of the cause and so is both identical with the cause and different from it. upadhis. 2. they are transitory whereas the cause is permanent as the ground of all the modifications. and the effect. Bhamatf says that clay alone is real and the objects made of clay do not exist at all. karya-rupa. I. II. & Il. But the latter is also real. That difference and non-difference coexist is a fact of experience. Cause and effect cannot be identical.. 2 The causal form is the original.U. karat. While S. and what is real for a time. vikara. mere expressions of speech. 1 It is one as cause and multiple as effect even as gold is one as gold and many as bracelets. I. for Bhaskara. I. The effects are the modifications of the cause itself. 14. cigantuka. the causal. namadheyam. A cow is different from a horse but it is not different from it in so far as it tat karatJtitmanii karyatmana dvi-rupetJa avasthitam. 5 The fact of difference is. 1 yasya~ karyam idam krtsnarh vyavahiiriiya kalpate nirvaktuth sa na sakyeti vacanarh vacaniirthakam. 1 1 .a-riipa. The effect world is the basis of our experience and conduct. without any real basis. S. vastu-M:lnyo vikalpa iti. I.. 1. argues that when clay is known all objects made of clay are known because they are all modifications. 3 Bhaskara does not agree with this interpretation. natural form while the effect form is due to limiting adjuncts. since in reading the non-dualist texts of the Scriptures he is under the influence of avidya.The Brahma St:itra forms.

1. and aceta·na-pari~tiima or transformation as matter. He is the t!rst-born who manifests himself as a variety of conscious and nonconscious beings according to the moral needs of the individual souls. In the causal state. If it is existent. Brahmii springs frorn Brahman's creative power and is the totality of selves. If avidyii is beginningless and endless there can be no liberation. and the second bhogya-sakti or the power as the enjoyed. I. When Brahman manifests himself in the effects. A non-existent entity cannot bring bondage. one of the followers of Nimbarka. The first is the bhoktr-sakti. Creation means the manifestation of Brahman's powers by which he produces the world of the enjoyed (bhogya) and the enjoyers (bhoktr). Brahman and the universe are one.Introduction 41 is an existent animal. He is not affected by the defects of the world. Brahman and the universe are different. Brahman's immanence in the created effects is not his actual transformation into the effects. To say that it is both existent and non-existent involves us in contradiction. 27. Sundara-bhatta. 4· 25. refers to Bhaskara as the upholder of the aupiidhika-bhediibheda-viida while Nimbarka supports sviibhiivika-bhediibheda-viida. he does not himself become the universe. It is the powers of Brahman that are modified but he remains unchanged in his own purity. In the 1 See II. without forfeiting his uature. He remains unchanged in his nature even as a spider remains unchanged though weaving its web out of itself. Unity and multiplicity are both real and coexist. Brahman has a second to it. It is only his abiding within the universe and in the hearts of men as their inner controller. Brahman has a twofold power known as fiva-pari~tiima. even as the sun sends out his rays and collects them back. 1 According to Bhaskara. in the effect state. transformation as the individual soul. B* . The universe is grounded in the nature of the Absolute. The Absolute puts on a multiplicity of names and forms in sr$/i or creation as subjects and objects of experience and withdraws it in the state of pralaya or dissolution. the power as the enjoyer. 'Vhile Brahman is manifested in the world there is also the formless Brahman which is transcendent to the world. The world is the expression of Brahman. ni$-praparzca.

a-rahitam dravyam asti. and iinanda. 1 Brahman is pure being. consciousness. His qualities like knowledge and the rest are nondifferent from him even as heat. 'ltpiidhis. The qualities of the soul are not natural and are due to limiting adjuncts. yet he is a knower possessing knowledge as his quality. He has also othP-r qualities. The Individual Soul The individual soul is knowledge by nature. 2. 23. and omnipotent. the soul becomes identical with Brahman. na hi gurz.. such as freedom from fear. the unconditioned Brahman on account of the adjuncts exists as the individual soul. sal-lall$a~ta. It is atomic in size. III. 23. Though Brahman is characterised as sat. bliss. na dravya-rahito gurz. etc. 23. is non-different from fire. the soul is different from Brahman. The universe has no existence apart from Brah-man but Brahman is not exhausted by the universe. the sense-organs. He has many other aspects beyond the universe. sarvasaktimiin. these do not refer to different entities. sarvajiia. which is the quality of fire. an enjoyer and an active agent. and pure knowledge.The Brahma St"Ura 42 state of samsiira. na dharma-dharmi-bhedena svarupa-bheda iti. The qualities of the soul are not natural for then the soul would always continue in samsiira on account of action and enjoyment. Bhaskara rejects the theory of the four vy£ihas. The soul is an agent when it 1 2 a Ill. . We have an infinite number of souls. 2. 2 A substance does not become different by reason of its qualities. 2. In the causal state. He is omniscient. cit. Like the infinite space that is enclosed in jars. Brahman is free from all distinctions. 3 The universe has Brahman for its essence but Brahman has not the universe for his essence. Ill. They last only so long as the limiting adjuncts last. They are qualities of Brahman which is the substance possessing the qualities. No substance can remain without its qualities and no qualities can remain without their substancc. a knower. In the condition of release when the adjuncts fall away. He has no internal differences for his powers remain merged in him even as salt in the sea.. being.aP. freedom from sin. bodha-lak$atta. on account of the limiting adjuncts of the body.

3· 40 . and their qualities. The nondifference of the soul from Brahman is natural. Cp. etc. real and lasting.43 has body. when these disappear the soul is no longer an agent. but something to be obtained. The soul is only different and non-different. identifying itself with the upadhis. 2 The upiidhi or the limiting adjunct cannot make the individual soul absolutely different from Brahman even as the spark is not absolutely different from the fire or the ether in the jar is not absolutely different from the universal ether. or as the waves are not absolutely different from the ocean. . from Brahman during the state of bondage. attachment based on self-sense. iipya. II. the soul becomes one with Brahntan. So long as the individual soul is under the influence of avt:dyii and regards itself as absolutely different from Brahman. sviibh. sense-organs. body.. internal organ.. Liberation is not a state of pure consciousness jfva-parayos ea svabhavikab abhedab aupadhikas tu bhedab. \Vhen the up(idhis are removed. the agency of the soul is real. the difference from Brahman is aupadht~ka.ivika. 3· 20. Upadhis are not false or illusory. atyanta-bk£nna. II. real but not lasting. The individual soul is different and non-different from Brahman during the state of samsiira. 3 The 1tpiidhis are beginningless. sa tan-1zivrtta14 nivartate. also: dehiidi~u viparUa-pratipattifl brahma-svarupiipratipattis ea avidyii. 4 So long as this relation to upiidhis exists. they are buddhi. 1 Introduction . Brahm-an is not something to be produced. 1. The atomicity of the soul is also aupiidhika or adventitious for Brahman is all-pervading by nature and the soul is non-different from Brahman. 4· 20. bhinniibh£nna. it is non-different from Brahman in the state of release. yiivad ayam iitma kevalena dvaita-dar sanena sa1hsarati tiivat-kiilabhavf buddhyiidy-upiidhi-yogab. IV. 4· 4· z I. omniscient. the internal organ. it acts in a selfish spirit. utpiidya. senses. Bhaskara criticises Au<. I. During the state of mundane existence the individual soul as a part and an ef1ect of Brahman is non-different fron1 Brahman. omnipotent and all-pervading. 1 The soul's knowledge and its quality as knower are not aupiidhika for Brahman himself is knowledge and knowcr.ddhi.lulOini's view that the soul is absolutely different. bu. IV. a na caupadhikariz kartrtvam apiiramarthikam. at the same time it is different from Brahman because of the uplidhi or the limiting adjunct which separates it from Brahman.

This is immediate release. 2 7. The individual soul becomes absolutely identical with Brahman. I. ' vakyiirtha-jnana-matrii:n na samsarika-nivrtti-bhavo' vagamyate. 4· 7. 4· 22. 2.-aptil). Salvation can be attained only after the destruction of the earthly body. is to be studied after the performance of the duties enjoined in the Purva-mimiimsiist1tra. u. To attain liberation we must act in the world with knowledge. 8 IV. 2 Nature of Release Bhaskara does not adn1it the conception of jivan-mukti. 4· 7· muktall karaJ.. Cp.u. realisation arises. 4· 7 See C.tya-garbha. tadvad eva sarvajnab sarva-saktilJ. siistra-sampradiiya-pravartaka. Il. . r.44 The Brahma Siitra but of bliss also. 3 By mere knowledge of texts \VC cannot attain liberation. IV. IV. Bhaskara adopts the distinction between sadyomukt£ or immediate release and krama-mukti or gradual release. omnipotent and one with all souls as God himself.latmanant praptalJ.U. 6 Bhaskara adopts jiiiina-karma-samuccaya-viida. we get to his world and having attained supreme knowledge in that world. 4 When knowledge is combined with work. maintaining and destroying the 'vati~lhate. If we meditate on the ]{{erya Brahman or Hira~tya-garblta. Mere actions are useless but they become fruitful when they are combined with knowledge. also atma-jnanadhikrtasya karmabhir vina apavarganupapatter jnanen-'karma samuccfyate. I. !Sa U. on the dissolution of this world. 4· 12. I. 1 Liberation is not the result of the removal of avidyii. 23. 1. When we are in the world of Hira?Jya-garbha. In this view Bhaskara follows Upavar$iiciirya whom he calls the founder of the school. 1 2 Abhinava-gupta and Ananda-vardhana adopt this view. we remain distinct from Brahman and do not have the power of creating. IV. the co-ordination of knowledge and action. we attain to Supreme Brahman. n. The liberated soul may or may not assume a body as it chooses. 7 The proper performance of daily mukto pa~aJ. along with Hira1. 6 The B.S. for a state of pure consciousness is not much different from a state of pure unconsciousness. This is gradual release. 6 I. It is omniscient. If we meditate on the Supreme Brahman we become one with it and become free at once. 6 atra hi jnana-karma-samuccayat mok~a-p. it is the attainment of something new. II.

Sudarsanadirya's Tiitparyadfpikii. Yadava Prakasa assigns the same status to both individual souls and matter. passion. The Absolute by its own potential energy sakti becomes God and the world of conscious and non-conscious objects. etc. 2 While Bhaskara believes that the individual soul is one with Brahman and the \Vorld of matter. endowed with three distinct powers as consciousness. attachment.. on Sa-gu~ta Brahman or the manifested Brahman and on pratikas or symbols. 1 yadava-p.vam api cetanam eva.. acit. Brahman exists as God or isvara. C. while knowledge of identity with Brahman removes all traces of avidya. The Absolute is God and the finite centres and not God alone. is both different and non-different from Brahman. 4· 20 which is said to be one of bhedabheda. He does not recognise any fundamental distinction between cit and acit..:a~ sa bandhahetu}. the formless Brahman. 1 .akasamate sa.J. matter and God. I.. 1 Knowledge leads to meditation. Y ADAVA PRAKASA Yadava Prakasa who succeeded Bhaskara made his theory more realistic.Introduction 45 and occasional duties removes the traces of past karmas. Through these powers Brahman passes through 1'ago hi pa. For him Brahman the Absolute is of the nature of pure universal being. acit. We have different forms of meditation on Nir-gu1Ja Brahman.amatma-vi~ayo ya~ sa mukti-hetu~ vi~aya-vi~ayo . and individual souls or cit and the world or matter. tat. acit is only cit in an unmanifested state.S. Sudarsanabhatta in his Srutaprakasikii says that Yadava Prakasa adopts the views attributed to Asmarathya in B. The Absolute is trinitarian. cit and acit. sarviitmakam sad-rupant brahma. When we desire union with the Highest Brahman we reach release. He accepts brahma-pari1Jiima-viida or the theory of the transformation of Brahman into the world. when we desire the objects of this world we are subject to bondage. The finite world is not unreal but an integral expression of the and the world. Yadava Prakasa postulates both difference and non-difference as the essential relation between Brahm. All these have limited results while meditation on the Highest Brahman leads to release.a gha{iides caitanyiinabhivyaktimatram eveti na cid-acid-vibhiiga~.


B. tan-matiinusiire~a sutriik$arii~i vyakh)'ayante. We find in R. does not draw much on the Paficariitra Agamas but urges that Badarayal)a does not condcxnn them. Subala and others are sectarian.'s interpretation of the B. Siva or Sa!?ti. 's doctrine develops an old and established's system a synthesis of the early prabandha literature of the Alviirs and the theistic current of the Upanh. Tailka. is influenced by the Bhagavata doctrines and the bhakti cult of the Alvr'lrs. IOI7-1127) became an ascetic after he had lived a married life for some years. 4 It is clear that the Rhligavatas reached a considerable degree of importance at the time the B. Sri-bhii$ Ill.S.ta5vatara. Bharuci and quotations from them are to be found in Sri-bhii$ya and Vedrirtha-samgraha. He mentions several ancient teachers. R. 4o-3. Kapardin. J(aivalya. and Bhagavad-aradhana-krama. R. Guha-deva.B. R. 3· 53· Vedanta Desika in his Tattva-lfka says that Upavar!?a is the name of Bodhayana.B. 3· 28. was greatly influenced by Yamunadirya though he sometimes differed from his views. 1 They are referred to in the B.'s chief works are Gadya-traya. I . • Some Upani~ads like Svr. however. 2 They are theistic systems which affirm one Supreme Personal God VZ:$t1U. Literature R. was commented on among others by Sudarsana Siiri in his Sruta-prakasikii. The Vrtti-kara of R. R. While the Brahman of the Upani$ads is universal and non-sectarian. 1 . Some of these may have preceded S.S.G.Introduction 47 Ramiinuja Ramanuja (A. 5 Vedartha-satitgraha. ascetics. ' See R. Drami<. The Pancaratra and the Pasupata systems are mentioned in the M. is sometimes identified with Upavar!?a whom S. 1 II. Vrtti -karasya bodhayanasyaiva hi u. 6 bhagavad-bodhayana-krtam vistfr'IJiim brahma-sutra-vrttim purvaciiryal) sa1hcik$iputz.. mentions in S.pavat~a iti syan nama.D. 63-7. 3 the iigamas appeal to special classes of worshippers.B. 2. Il. was cmnposed. A tharva-sikha. The heads of religious centres founded by him are not. a brief commentary on the B. by Venkata-natha (or Vedanta Desika. It is obvious that R. Vediinta-siira. based on Bodhiiyana-vrtti. Vedanta-dipa. See :Proceedings of the Third Oriental Conjcre1zce. a commentary on the B. Madras 1924. So:nti-parva: chapter 350. 2.S.


The liberated souls enter into God. XI. Prakrti. V aikut. XIV. 2 The Supreme has not only the powers of creation. XXXVII. He is pure consciousness and yet is regarded as possessing knowledge as a quality. V iisudeva. Ill. friendliness even to one's enemies. or Lak$mi. He is devoid of all that is evil and the abode of all that is good. Prapatti or sarat. Vi$~tu-sakt£. 6 ' See Ahirbudlmya-sa#zhita. Though he has no unrealised desires and is utterly independent. They separate out at the time of the new creation. sakti.tii-gati is complete selfoffering to God leaving nothing to oneself.49 speech and mind. 5 it is said that the devotees of V i$~'tu will appear in the South on the banks of T atnrapar~ti 1 jagat-prakrti-bhavo yab sa saktib parikfrtitii. Cp. 5· 38-4o. He adopts the adoration of God and service of man as the way to the achievement of perfection. 2. He is known by many names. he acts like a king just as he wishes in his playful activity. II. maintenance and destruction but also favour (anugraha) and disfavour (nigraha). Introduction Alvars In the Bhiigavata Puriitza. 59· a sarvair ananuyojyam tat sviitantryam divyam-isitub avapta-v·isva-kamopi krfc/ate riijavad vaSf. khelati brahma1:ute bhagavan. though they do not become one with him.l When Brahman resolves to split himself into many he is called Sudarsana. That by which he creates the world is his power. God is always engaged in creative activity. Avyakta. He performs actions leading to beneficial and harmful results. 13. Param-iitman. It has for its accompaniment universal charity. The universe is a manifestation of God's power. With this power of God. . Through the grace of God he aims at emancipation. 57· • satatam kurvato jagat. God's sakti exists undifferentiated from him as the moonbeam from the moon. Ahirbudhnya-samlzita. 4 Absolute dependence on God and a sense of utter helplessness of oneself arc the marks of prapatti. ignorant and ineffective. 27-8. 3 The jfvas enter into God at the dissolution and remain in a potential form in hiln. The jiva appears as atomic.ttha. Pradhiina. Bhagaviin. He is thus subject to rebirths according to his conduct. They have an independent existence in the abode of V i$1JU.

z2. Stotra-ratna. 2 na dharma-ni{$ko'smi. Their writings in Tamil. in his A ~tiidasa-bkeda-nirrtaya says: krpa svat'iipato nirhetukab. he does so in practice only as a reward to the virtuous. It gives ecstatic accounts of the emotion of love for God as V i$~tu. God's mercy is both without cause and with cause. M a~zavii{a ma-muni says that the earliest of the Alvtirs flourished at the time of the Pallavas who came to Kafici about the fourth century A. It is said that he was in direct contact with Namma!var or Sathagopa. Release from bondage is attained through deYotion to God. rak~at:ta­ samaye cetana-krta-sukrtena sa-hetttka bhiitva rak~ati. na bhaktim. 1 Stotra-ratna.iin~s tvac-carat:tciravinde .'s time and are called Ntil-iiyira-divya-praban. was the son of Yamunacarya's sister Kantimati born in R. according to him. the Alagiyas had in addition to devotion learning and scholarship.. 2 He advocates the doctrine of prapatti. He wrote six works. Agama-pramii~1ya which establishes the authority of the Paiicaratra Agamas.D. were collected perhaps in H. Their influence was great about the seventh and the eighth centuries A. Gitiirtha-samgraha and M ahii-puru$ The Brahma Siitra Krtamala (Vaz'gai). Yamunacarya otherwise called A!avandar belonged to the paftcariitra tradition which R. Payasvini (Piilcir). Yamunadirya gave philosophical expression to the devotional thoughts of the Alviirs and emphasised the concept of bhal~ti. H. Catu~z-sloki.D. Nan1ma!var. Kiiveri a~d llfa~iinadi (Periyar). accepted. Yamunacarya invested his disciples with the five Vai!j~zava samskiiras.aya. The reierence is to the Alviirs. He is deeply devoted to the Lord and realises his utter helplessness without his grace. The Alviirs hold that the grace of God is spontaneous and does not depend on the effort or merit of the devotee. na ciitma-vedf. Siddhi-traya. about 4. the ancient Vat$~ava saints of the South.000 hy1nns. a-kincano niinyagatis sarartye tvat-piida-mUlam sararta'rit prapadye. Nathamuni. Natha-muni (tenth century) was the first of them.l The human soul and the universe are entirely dependent on God. . \Vhile the Alvars were inspired devotees. Others hold that God's grace depends on the virtuous actions of the devotees: Possibly while God is free to extend his rnercy to all.dharn which is treated by the V ai$'~lavas as of great authority. In his Siddhitraya he argues for the existence of the individual soul independent of God.

XV. Manu says. To my mind these traditions are not exclusive of each other but complementary. however. In accordance with this.'s views and develops a theistic interpretation with great feeling. I.B. IJ. he adds intuitive or yogic knowledge. must. proximity and compatibility throughout requires to be assisted by tarka . Perception.D. All means of knowledge equally stand in need of tarka: Scripture. 1 Difference on such a vital point did not incline S. S. there exists One All-embracing Being called Brahman. 3· rg. explains his Yiew that the individual soul as such cannot claim any reality except in so far as it is identical with Brahman but adds. 1 In R. takes into account S. commenting on B. Pramii~·zas R.' 3 Supreme Reality For R.G. to exclude its upholders fron1 his own community of Vedantins. represent two uninterrupted traditions in Indian thought. I svara in his nature is free from apare tu viidina~ piiramiirthikam eva jaivanz rti-pam iti mauyante asmad!yiiS ea kecit.I n!toductlon SI circa A. 2 R. and R. the authoritative character of which specially depends on expectancy. 'there are other thinkers and among them some of us who are of the view that the individual soul as such is real'. Vedanta Desika includes yogic knowledge under perception. He received his training fron1 Yadava Prakasa who advocated a system of monism. he would not have rejected them. jliiinam. 1.. come to terms with tarka (ratiocination). for all the different means of knowledge can in many cases help us to arrive at a decisive conclusion only if they arc supported by ratiocination. the Highest Self or the Lord. ror7. S. Inference and scriptural testimony. R. • R. and R. he who investigates by means of reasoning only knows religious duty and none othcr. admits three pramii~tas. writes: 'Scripture.S. although not dependent on anything else and concerned with objects which are non-perceptible. If he had lived to see the later developments of the Vedanta. vast learning and brilliant logic.D. S. 4· 1 . For example. 15. indrivalingiigama-yogajo vastu-niscaya[l. all the same.

R. I. I M. I. I. We do not notice the other qualities on account of our defects in the organs. nir-vise$a. omnipotence.' All knowledge refers to an object. 2.U.'s view that Brahman as Ultimate Reality is absolutely unqualified. all-pervading. we still cognise what is. all-powerful.U.52 The Brahma Sutra all impurities and possesses all the auspicious qualities. He argues that we have no means of proving such a reality for all knowledge is of qualified objects. II. The texts which refer to Brahman as pure being 1 or as transccndent2 or as truth and knowledge 3 do not indicate that Brahman is devoid of qualities but as possessing many auspicious qualities of on1niscience. It refers to the silver element existing in a conchshell. all-merciful. 1 . Even in what we call illusion there is an element of reality. ' ji!ana-svarupasyaiva tasya jil. ~That one thing is called silver and another ~~shell" has its reason in the relative preponderance of the one or the other element.anasrayatvam matzi-dyuma?Ji-pradlpadivad ity uktam eva. • Cp. When we mistake a conchshell for silver. all-pervasiveness and the like.tmatva-pratftitab.' In mistaking one for the other. I. this being produced for the enjoyment of souls in accordance with c. I. 5· 8 T. Brah-man being of the essence of knowledge may also be considered to be the possessor of knowledge even as a lamp which is of the nature of light may also be regarded as possessing rays of light. Things we know are all the result of trivrt-kara'l)a and everything contains in it elements of everything else.u. Brahman is one in the sense that there is no second cause of the world. it is because the conchshell resembles silver in a sense. holds that all cognitions are of the real and dreams and illusions are not an exception to the rule. not what is not. The knowledge of silver in a conchshell is not unreal but real. I. I. R. yathartham sarva-viji!iinam iti veda-vidam matam sruti-smrtibhyab sarvasya sarvii. R. I. scriptural texts which point to an absolutely differenceless reality cannot be accepted for Scriptures are based on the assumption of plurality. VI. nor something which neither is nor is not. He is all-knowing. s Even the dreams which arc momentary and appear only to the dreamer are produced by the Lord. repudiates S. If plurality is false. In dreams we perceive what is real though transient.

R. They exist in two different periodically alternating conditions. 3 They are entirely dependent on and subservient to the Lord who pervades and rules all things. 7. Scriptures do not testify to the existence of a characterless reality. In pralaya state. Uvaras-cid-acic-ceti padartha-tritayam hari!J. 224-30. there dwells an inward ruler. Ill. / svara is to be admitted on the authority of scriptural texts. We do not directly experience pure consciousness for all experience is of qualified entities. matter with its varjous modifications and souls of different classes and degrees. distinctions of names and forms disappear. mind and the external world. kiira1Jiivastha.Aniruddha who control the individual souls. all souls. Cit (soul) and acit (matter) are the body of the Lord.U.. when Brahman is said to be in a causal condition. (1953). all sense-organs. which are said to be Brahman indicate characteristics of Brahman.U. sense-organs and souls are. see P. Brahman comprises within himself all elements of plurality. There is no knowledge which has no object. Reality. These are real constituents of Brahman. antaryiimin. etc. 1 Vedanta Desika mentions three modified forms of V iisudeva. material and immaterial as their inmost self. These arc not three separate entities but are one Lord conceived differently according to his functions. 323. :Matter 1 1 3 vede riimiiya~te caiva purarte bhiirate tathii iidiiv ante ea madhye ea viHat!J sarvatra glyate. . The existence of God cannot be established by perception or inference. whose body these elements. Even freedom from qualification is a quality. The Supreme as A ntaryiimin R. Pradyumna and . Hari-vm-izsa. Even in sleep or swoon. Their individual existence has been there from all eternity and will never be entirely resolved into Brah1nan. takes his stand on the A ntaryiimin Braltma~ta 2 which says that within all elements. Brahman is I svara called N iirtiya~ta or V i$1Jtt. pp.I ntrodt-tction 53 their merit or demerit. consciousness. Ill. we have the direct experience of the self and not the formless experience of pure consciousness. 94· B. does not n1ake any distinction between Brahman and j svara. Consciousness is always revealed to a knower or the self. namely Sa1itkar$a~ta. which occurs at the end of each world-period.

2 Acit is prakrti or primal matter and its modifications. attributes or Vise$a~as of God.<arfra atma. aprthaldva. The san1e is the case with Brahntan and souls and matter. yet they arc inseparably connected and form a whole. his powers or saktis. constitutes its body. individual souls are not attached to bodies and their intelligence is in a state of contraction. I Nimbarka calls this aprlikrta. For R. I. Brahman then is in effect condition. The soul and body.' 1 Ac£t According to R. Cause and effect are different names for different conditions or changes. The favour or disfavour of j svara works in accordance with the past conduct of man. evam ea StJa-vyatirikta-cetanacetana-vastu-jiitam sva-sarlram iti sa eva nirupadhika!J . while that self alone is the non-conditioned en1bodied self. avyakta. says: ~Everything different from the Highest Self. 13. J>rakrti with its three qualities passes through many stages and manifests itself as the phenomenal world. competent persons designate this doctrine which has the highest Brahman for its subject-matter slirfraka. the world and the souls apart from Brahman are not real. pari~tc'ima. whether of conscious or non-conscious nature.. H.e. producing happiness or misery in accordance with man's good or bad deeds. unmanifested matter becomes gross and evident to the senses and the souls enter into connection with material bodies corresponding to their accumulated merit and demerit and their intelligence undergoes expansion. The relation between Brahman and souls and n1atter is analogous to that between soul and body or substance and attribute. It is one of non-separation. Nimbarka looks upon them as living parts of the Lord. ata evedam param-brahmadhikrtya pravrttam sastratn sarfrakatn ity abhiyuktaiY abhidhlyate. there are three kinds of acit. kiiryavastha. 1 . Even then Brahman contains within itself matter and souls in a bTja or seed condition.. kcUa or time and suddha-tattva or pure matter.The Brahma St"'itra 54 is unmanifested. I. While R. looks upon individual souls and the world of matter as modes. For this very reason. substance and attribute are different from one another. v£kiisa. When owing to an act of volition on the part of the Lord pralaya is succeeded by sr#i or creation. prakrti or matter. i. the doctrine of the embodied self. samkoca.

It is a knower. II. assisted by 2 I. He grants good and evil fruits according to our good and evil deeds. Inisunderstanding of characteristics. The soul realises itself as forming the body of Brahman. 4 In an etnboclied self it is in a contracted state through the influence of its actions. an agent. since it is as self-revealing as consciousness. 2 Consciousness. I. The soul is atomic in size but spreads out its knowledge all over the body like the rays of a la1np. acit. 6 j svara exists in us all as the inner controller. is cut away. I. the self becomes freed frmn avidyii and is emancipated. The Self is a k~ower. To those who are attached to him he is well disposed and produces in them desires by which they can win him. so the souls exist for God. 6 samkoca-vikiisiirham. though unlimited of itself 3 can contract as well as expand. acit. The Self. A v£dyii or ignorance is lack of knowledge. an enjoyer. a svayam aparicchinnam eva jiiiinam. 3· 40-1. and also possesses the quality of consciousness and knowledgel even as light exists both as the light and as the rays emanating from it. The text 'That thou art' is interpreted by 1~.Introduction Cit 55 The individual soul is often called jiiiina or consciousness. 4 ·matti-prabhrti~iiJn prabhiisrayatvam iva jiiii1tiisrayatvam api aviruddham. R. as expressing oneness without losing the distinctive characters denoted by the two words That and Thou. Whoever cognises and meditates on the Supreme. though pure in itself. God is thC' goal (se$a) for which the soul exists as the object of his control and support (se$£n). if the released soul does not survive in its distinctive individuality. speaks of the souls as being the body of j svara but Lokadirya argues that as the external material objects exist for the sake of the souls. It desires things according to its free will and the \Vill of God does not interfere with it. Yamunadirya obsen•es that release from the ills of bondage has no n1eaning or attraction. false knowledge. . It reveals all objects when it comes into contact with them through the senses. When the association with matter. becomes associated with ignorance and selfish desires through its contact with n1attcr. His control over us does not deprive us of our freedom.

See R. 2 This bhakti is based on knowledge and arises from six essential prerequisites. Cp. According to R. aham artha vinasas cen mok$a ity adhyavasyati apasarpedasau mok $a-katha-prastava-matratab. jfiiina-vise$a. is a species of knowledge. there enjoys blissful existence from which there is no return to the world of samsiira. Bhakti is supreme selfsurrender Vt·hich one develops when the prescribed duties are performed and true knowledge is obtained from the study of the scistras. criticises the view of release as a refunding into Brahman as an earthen vessel is refunded into its own causal substance.. bhakti is the means of salvation.The Braltma Sutra the grace of the Lord attains at death final emancipation.. 1 For R. not a worthy end for a human being. lasts for ever and even in release enjoys its individuality. continued practice (abhyiisa). discrimination (viveka). 4· 21. The human soul participates in the qualities of 1svara except those of the creation and control of the world and the grant of freedom to other souls. 1 . Freedom according to Vedanta Desika is siiyujya or sameness of nature with lsvara. mukti or release is a state when the individual is freed from avidJ!{i ~nd has the intuition of the Supreme. 2 evam-rupa dhruvanusmrtir eva bhakti-sabdenabhidhfyate. He passes through the different stages of the path of the gods up to the world of Brahmii. This would rncan nothing else but complete annihilation. Bhakti is ~tpiisan(i or meditation. Prapatti or complete surrender to ghafadivat kara~a-prapter vinasa-rupatvena mok~asyapuru$arthatvac ea. virtuous conduct like truthfulness and the rest (kalyii~ta) and freedom from dejection (anavasada). which according toR. R.J{arma andjnana help to purify the mind and prepare it for bhakti. complete disregard for worldly objects (vimoka). Release The individual for R. I. M ukti for Vedanta Desika is servitude to God. The state of kaivalya or realisation of one's own self as the Highest is a lower form of emancipation.B. Without bhakti mere knowledge cannot lead us to freedom. performance of rites (kriyii). The JYay to Release The way to freedom is through bhakti.

power to the weak. G.radvaja-sa1hhita. They emphasise respectively devotion with pr. 23. The fanner adopts the markata-nyiiya which holds that the devotee collaborates with God even as a young monkey clings to the back of its mother while the latter adopts the miirjiira-nyiiya. 3 R. he was catholic in his views and admitted into the Vai$~tava fold ] ains. B. Vaija-galai and Ten-galai. XVIII.57 God is described in the Saravagati-gadya. Buddhists. Sttdras and even untouchables. • Cp. develops the concept of karu1Jr7. that God alone is active and carries the surrendering devotee to his goal even as a cat carries a kitten. p. adopted Vedic rituals of initiation and worship. sarva-dharmii. Cp. Though R. 2 He who adopts prapatti does not aim at emancipation. He gives knowledge to the ignorant. 1 .rsonal endeavour or bhakti and complete dependence on God or prapatti. associated with Vedanta Desika and Pillai Lokadirya. 66. Through the concept of Lak$mf who intercedes on behalf of the sinners and persuades Vi$~tu to bestow his grace for the good of the devotees. Pillai Lokacarya points out that God moves us all to our actions and fulfils our desires according to our karmas. Introduction Later Developments R. mercy to the sufferers and goodness of heart to the wicked.. brahma-k$atra-visal) st"ldral) striyas cantara-jatayal) sarva eva pyapadyeran sarva-dhiitiiram acyutam.nta-caratza1t saratza'h te vrajan vibho. R. not for ea saJi1tyajya sarva-kamams ea sak$aran loka-vikrii. in his work on A$!a-dasa-rahasyiirtha-vivara~ta makes out that he who is devoted entirely to God need not follow the ordinary code of duties. He enjoys servitude to God. Vedic ritual alone does not lead to emancipation. 1 It elevates all irrespective of caste restrictions. 1 jnii.'s Vi~H#iidvaita developed into two schools. His qualities are for the sake of others. For$/ho virakto va mad-bhakto hi anapek$akal) sa litigiln ii. The scriptural duties are not binding on him. R. God has vcUsalya or filial affection which moves him to remove the su fferings of others. Bhii. Devotion to Vi$1J·U in the company of Lall$mf is the central feature of his scheme of salvation. seems to have modified this view in his bhii$ya.Sramiin tyaktva cared avidhi-gocaral). The Brahma Slttra Many religious leaders have been influenced by the Visi$!iidva£ta doctrines. and Mira. . aChamar. preference for the worship of Riima. Ramananda (A. Kahir. Dadu (A. a barber. He condemned the superstitious practices of the people and fostered faith in the unity of God which could be accepted both by the Hindus and the Muslims. jfUinesvar substituted Kr~t)a in the form of Vitthala and RukmiQi. Alliih and 1 ramante yogina!J yasmin sa rtima[J. Ramananda established an ascetic order which had a large membership. Kabir. He was a personal friend of Nam-deva. Rai-das. a Muslim. Tulasi-das (A.D. According to Ramananda. 1275--1296) was a life-long celibate. was brought up by a Muslim weaver and became the disciple of Ramananda. D. He had a . He had four sons and a daughter. He had a number of disciples of whom the famous were Sen. 1 though he mentions Kr$·~za as a principal object of adoration. Nam-deva (A. He lived for only 21 years. D. JiUinesvara (A. Riim. 1527-1623) and the Mahratta saint Tukaram. He used different names for God. The Personal God is not the phenomenal appearance of the Absolute but is the Absolute itself which has in it the principle of plurality.avite movement of which the chief ~xponents were Kabir (A. D.D.. He was a tailor by profession and wrote a number of hymns in Marathi and Hindi. a ]at.a and Radha. Ramananda gave a systematic account of the theory of avatiiras. For Kr~Q. of uncertain parentage. Though a follower of the Advaita of S. Nanak (A. anyone can attain release through bhakti or devotion. His ] iiancsvari was written in A. 1360-1450) was born at Melkote and went to the north and started the Vai~l). the princess of Jodhpur. According to the Mahara~tra tradition his great-grandfather was a disciple of Gorakhnatha. 1544-1603). Dhana. He did not recognise any caste distinctions. 1269-1295) born in Satara was a devotee of Vitthoba of Pandharpur. Later varieties of I<r$~ta-worship give this place to Riidhii. The world is not the expression of mii:yli but is the outcome of divine love and joy.. 1440-1518). 1290.D. In his worship of Kr$~la he looked upon Rukmi1Ji as his sakti or energy. The two chief arc those of Riima and Krsna.D. he encouraged worship of a Personal God. 1469-1538)..

• The opening verse of the Rama-carita-manasa begins with these words: ncina-pura~a-nigamiigama-sammatam. denounced caste distinctions. N anak ridiculed superstition. service of saints and insistence on the greatness of the name are stressed in Sikhism. He lived a normal home life. rose above the concepts of philosophy and the names of religion. II (1957). . had a son and a daughter. Devotion to the guru. D. Nanak says: Introduction There are ignoble amongst the noblest And pure amongst the despised The former shalt thon avoid And be the dust under the foot of the other. He affirmed equality of sexes. Nanak composed/apji which is a collection of verses arranged for daily use by the Sikhs for prayer and praise. D. 364-77. devoid of qualities. Tulasi-das composed his great work Riima-carita-miinasa in A. He is the unrevealed and the unrevealable. Nothing was found of his body except a heap of flowers. taught a life of brotherhood. of which each took a share and burned or buried it. He thought that his account was faithful to the originals.59 others. She is the half of a full life and the doorway to liberation. The holy men took the place of the avatliras or the incarnations of Hinduism. 2 He lived in Banaras till his death in A.a and Adhyiitma Riimaya1). Though essentially a mystic who. according to Nanak. Kabir exercised great influence on Nanak. 1604 and includes Nanak's utterances as well as those of other religious teachers. The Supreme. For Nanak woman is ardh-sar-iri and mokh-dvari. Vol. is n:irgu~ta. After his death both Hindus and Muslims claimed him. He laid stress on the inner purity of life without which fasts. Many of Kabir's hymns are included in it. IS74· It is the most popular classic of religion and morals in North India. pp. he taught a simple faith in a God of love. The Adigranth1 of the Sikhs was con1posed by the fifth guru Arjun in A. pilgrimages and rites were of no avail.a and adapted it to his purposes.D. He took the story from Valmiki's Riimiiya1). Though he had great faith 1 See Occasional Speeches and Writings. in his state of rapture. 1623.

V i$1JU. Rama-carita-manasa Ill.D.S. 2 who was for Madhva the purport of the Sittras. 1197-1273) while still a bachelor bccan1e an ascetic of the 8a1nkara school. MADHVA Madhva Madhva (A. 1 Madhusiidana Sarasvati (A. Siirya and Ga~z. asatpadesan sad-asad-viviktam mayakhyaya satnvrtim abhyadatta brahmapy akha'tl4am bala sunya-sidhyai..S. 1 . which is a brief The unfortunate suspicion of women lingers even in our noblest souls. his spiritual leanings were for the non-dualism of S.G.tl1. fVorks Madhva is said to have written thirty-seven works of which the chief are the commentaries on some of the principal Upani$ads. the B. Durgii. .. pracchanna-bauddhoyam atal.<. he yet espoused the worship of Kr$1Ja. 3 He was a disciple of Acyuta-prek~a and received the natne of Purl)aprajfia at the time of initiation. I.D. He popularised the worship of Rama.litacarya. sii. In his Vittaya-patrika the poet shows his catholicity of outlook by inculcating the worship of the five gods. a Naraya1. which is not different from materialism or Buddhism. He is also kno\vn as Anandatirtha. a work of the fourteenth century. called the followers of S.trartha/:J. 1 naraya'tlam guttaib sarvair udfr'tlam do$a-varjitam. He soon developed a theistic interpretation of the B. Tulasi-das makes Sita insinuate wrong motives to Lak!?ma. the B.1a Pal).t)a: marma bacana sUa jaba holi hari prerita lakp1za'tla mati doli.u-bha$ya. in his Madhva Vijaya..s prasiddha[l. 1540-1623) wrote a book called Advaita-siddhi. pracchana-bauddhab.esa. defending non-dualism against its critics. and identified the Supreme with Vi$~U or Naraya1}a. Legend has it that Madhva was an incarnation of V iiyu for the purpose of destroying the A dvaita V ediinta. E. Siva.6o The Brahma S£itra in devotion. All the three paths to spiritual freedom are commcndcd though bhakti is the simplest and the easiest. 51.

Scripture. an inquiry starts. according to Madhva. nir-do$a. I.ana. The Padma Purii~ta mentions that Madhva is connected with the Brahtna-sampradaya even as R.'s nondualism received great support from its principal exponents like Vacaspati. Since the Supreme Being full of auspicious qualities cannot be understood by finite minds. M ahiibhiiratatiitparya-nir?Jaya. in which Madhva lived. That Brahman is the cause of the world can be understood only by Scripture and scriptural texts can be reconciled only by the recognition of difference or bheda. Jaya-tirtha's Nyliyasu. Anu-vyakhyiina and Vyasa-tirtha's Nyiiyamrta are important works which defend Maclhva's theistic dualism against ~. devoid of defects. vVe cannot say that the commands proceed from an omniscient 1 iitma-viikyatayii tena sruti-tn. impersonal. The Vedas are not produced by any human being. Madhva and his followers. he followed scriptural texts. Jaya-tirtha. adopts the Sr'i-sampradaya. was written to repudiate the nondualistic interpretation. Vyasa-tirtha and others did their best to repudiate the doctrine of non-dualism and establish the reality of a Personal God. the Vedas. self-evident. Madhva's system is called dvaita or dualism. l\1adhva says that the B. the plurality of the world and the difference between Brahman and the self. svata!z. summary of the SiUra-bha~ya. Snresvara and The second sutra declares that the Supreme cannot be identified with the individual self as he is the source and support of the world. .as Madhva says that in writing the A ~zu-vyiikhyiina. If we do not admit the impersonal origin of the Vedas. By the thirteenth century. Prakasatman. 1 One can know God not by perception and inference but only by Scripture. ethical and religious duties will not have validity. and apauru$eya.S. the V edas and logical reasoning. 's non-dualism. S.Ulatayii tathii yukti-mulatayii caiva prama~tyam trividham mahat. is nitya. The Pramii1. eternal.Introduction 6r A nu-vyakhyana.dhii. Bhiigavata-tiitparya-nir?Jaya and M ayii-viidakhat. It claims ancient authority. l.

' He is the author of the eight acts of creation. ignorance.t-tattva-vinin. He is sa gu1Ja in that he ad1nits the presence of auspicious spiritual qualities.Jab. iti pippalada-srutil). at the beginning of each creation. 5 He is absolutely free. 1 . Hence it is that they are called Veda. sarva-svatantra~t. Their validity is self-evident. l\fadhva proceeds by way of inference to establish the reality of a Personal God who is omniscient and omnipotent. z sarva-sabdiivacyasya lak~arzayuktel) kenapi sabdenavacyasya lak~artayam api pramiir:am nasti. V i~~1. In that case he cannot be the subject-matter of Scriptures. Madhva says in his Vi$~1. 6 8 srstyady-a~la karta. nanumanam veda hy evainam vedayanti tasmad ahul) vedal). The Supreme cannot be avacya or indescribable. 3 brahma-sabdopi hi gurza-purtim eva vadaty ayam. Madhva repudiates the view that though words cannot describe. 3 Each one of his qualities is boundless. 'Neither sense perception nor infeencc reveals to us the nature of God. who. When he is said to be nir gu~za.The Brahma S1~tra being. all that is meant is that he is not associated with the qualities and attributes of prakrti. bondage and release. ' pratyekam niravadhikananta-gur:a-pari-purrtatva. Brahtnan is one in whom there is the fullness of qualities. The impersonal origin of the V edas is valid because we do not know of anyone who has composed and uttered them.'/. remembered the instructions of their previous birth. knowledge. preservation. destruction. A r:u-vyakhyana I I. I. The world being of the nature of an effect must have an intelligent cause.aya. they may suggest or indicate. brhanto hi asmin gu1. 2 Brahman is pari-piir~za-gu1Ja.' 1 The Scriptures refer to Narclya1Ja as the omniscient creator of all things. The Vedas exist in their own nature and have been perceived by God and revealed to the seers. He has many qualities. a maker who is God. 6 The acceptance of difference between Brahman and nendriyiir:i. for the existence of an omniscient being cannot be known apart from the Scriptures. Supreme Reality The teaching of the Scriptures gains strength by what is known fron1 other pranul~tas . governance. It is only through the Vedas that we can know him.u is the all-perfect one.

of mental activities. then we will have dualism of Brahman and ignorance. Brahman is not devoid of all determination or vise$a. 2 The Scriptures do not declare the falsity of the world. the meaning is that the object of kno\vlcdgc is one. Even the denial of determination is itself a determination which the non-dualists will have to deny. 1 The nondualists treat it as unspeakable and unknowable. When the Upanz'$ad says that when one is known all is known. If he is conditioned by upiidhis he cannot be released from them for his association with the upiidhis will be permanent. The world. There is no jiva without ajniina. 3 We cannot say that Brahman is one but appears as many because of ttpiidhis or limiting cnnditions. there is no ajniina without jiva. There is no difference between the qualityless Brahman and the si"inya of the Madhyamika system. . without any distortion. or that one alone is the cause. prabha-sunyam manas-s unyam buddhi-sunyath niramayam sarva-sunya1h ·niriibhasa1n samadhis tasya. If they were different. we arc in a vicious circle. 8-g. the knowledge of all false things would be derived from the knowledge of the truth. If upiidhis are the product of ignorance. Uttara-gilii 14. Scriptures assert difference between the individual souls and Brah-man. free from defects.'s syste1n as cryptoBuddhism. No one feels that he is ornnipotent and omniscient. a B. The text tat tvam asi is used with illustrations which affirm the difference between Brahman and the souls. Were it so. Madhva looks upon S. of understanding. If it is argued that ignorance or ajiuina is a quality of jiva. though all knowledge refers to it.G. XVI. A non-existent universe cannot affect anyone favourably or adversely. It does not mean that the other things are false. lak{•a~zam. our experience and bondage are all real.I ntrodttction the souls does not limit the nature of Brahman. If all difference is due to ignorance. then God who is free from ignorance will perceive hitnself as one with all individual selves and experience their sufferings. devoid of all. If all selves 'Were identical then there would be no difference between the emancipated and the une1nancipated ones.: The state of samadhi is void of modifications. 2 na h'i satya-jiiiinena mithyii-fiiiinam bhavati. 1 Cp. Madhva believes in a Personal God endowed with qualities and characters. then ignorance will be of the nature of Brahman.

' dravvam karma ea kalas ea svabhavo jfva eva ea yad-anugrahata~ santi na santi yad-upek~ayii. pu. viz. Prakrti. I. between matter and matter and between matter and self. Only in Madhva's system do we In this Madhva agrees with the Pasupatas: mahdvaras tu manyante pasupatir Hvaro nimitta-kara~tam iti. Vi~'l)u Pura1)a I. etc. finite selves. Bhiigavata II.aya Madhva declares that all those who proclain1 the unity of the self with Brahman either in bondage or in release are wrong.m ea na hlyante tii. The jivas are of three kinds. zo. 6 fsvara~ fJrakrtir jfvo jat]am ceti eatu$/ayam padii. these do not exist by their own right but by the will of the Supreme. jivdayor bhida eaiva jiva-bheda~ paraspa'l'am jat/. karma. or the individual soul. They are para-tantra while God alone is sva-tantra. God. all belong to the world of living beings. 8 jagat-pravahat~ satyo'yam panca.ratamya1h ea sarvada. 37· 1 vasudevam aniiradhya na mok~am samavapnuyat.The Brahma Sidra Brahman is the efllcient cause of the universe 1 and the giver of salvation. ordinary men pass through cycles of births and rebirths and the worst are damned in hell. jiva. that between the se1f and God. miinu. prakrti. svabhiiva are dependent. jarja.esayor ja(/iinath ea jat/a-jfva-bheda tathii panea-bhedii ime nityiib sarvavasthasu nityasa~ muktanii.. between the selves themselves. The eternally liberated and those cursed in hell are not subject to birth and rebirth.$a. 3 Though the physical world and the individual souls are real they are not independent of the Supreme. S.B. The world is real with its fivefold difference. deva. There is no hope for the wicked in hell. jiva-riisi. 2. 1 . between matter and God.$a and diinava. exist as subordinate to the central Reality of God.bheda-samanvita~. All. 5 The Individual Soul From Brahmii to the grass tip. There are four categories. 4 The Supreme is the only independent real that exists in its own right. 4· 18. u. 2 Even in the lt1 alui-bhiirata-tiitparya-nirt. II. Karma and Release The best men attain salvation through knowledge and grace of God.rthiiniim sannidhiiniit tatrdo vi~1Jur ucyate. others. and matter. 69-71. Though eternal.

love of God will save us. aparoll:fa-ji"i(-lna1n vi$~W~z. c/c srti-yogycis tadaiva hi adhama nirayiiyaiva danaviis tu tamo-layiil}. 2 dhyiinam ea itara-tiras/{iira-j> iirvaka-bhagavad-m:. Siilokya is residence in heaven where the freed souls have the satisfaction of the continual sight of God.tparya-ninzaya. s.pya. Only deities have this kind of liberation..(i. Siistra is aparijnc~ya or of transcendental origin and its injunctions are absolutely S(7mTpya is continual residence near God as enjoyed by the sages. This may he produced in different ways. resignation to God. \Vorship is of h\·o kinds. association with good teachers. trividhii jiva-sa1i1ghiis tu dcva-miin u :~a-diinat. Bondage is due to attachment and liberation is produced by the direct realisation of God. The only desires we may have are for greater knowledge and greater devotion. renunciation of the desire for the enjoyxnent of pleasures in this world or in another.ayak(ik ha~zcta-sm rti b 1\. realisation of the five differences. dhJ1(tJla. 502. siiriipya and sayuiva. c . S/iriipya is enjoyed by God's attendants who have outward fonns sin1ilar to those 1 Cp.iil} tatra dt?viil} mukti-yogrii miinu!jc~ftttamiis tathii madhyamil manu. They can at will con1e out of God and remain separate from him. The latter is continual thinking of God.zyujya is the cntranC(' of the freed souls into the hody of God where tlwv share in the enjoymcut of God in his own body. God is pleased only with bhald£ and he alone can save us. Even if we cmnmit the worst sin. study and 1ncditation. p.Introduction have the doctrine of eternal damnation. study. self-control and self-discipline. \Vithout bhakti the performance of duties does not help. M ahii-bh{irata-tii. When God is pleased we attain salvation. leaving all other things aside. st"i. 1 ]{arma is to be performed since the scistras require it. con1pany of good n1en. ignorance is dispelled. experience of the sorrows of worldly existence. Karmas are to be performed without any desire for fruit. 2 Bhaktz: consists of a continual How of love for the Lord which overcmnes all obstacles.fadhz•a-sidclhiinta-stim. Individual souls are sdf-lmninous in the1nselves but their intelligence becon1es veiled by avidyt"i. \:Vhen the direct knowledge of God arises. The state of liberation is of fonr kinds siilokya.

4-21. which has been obscured by other tcachers.$cim brahma-darsane p-iirvaca:ryaiJ. \\Tote a comn1entary on SrikaQtha's bhii$ya called Siviirka-ma~t£-dip£l~a. 4 They may be S.S. 1 The doctrine of absolute equality. sixteenth century. kalu~~ita1iz srtka'l:lthena prasadyate sarva-vediiuta-siirasya saurab h iisviida -modi niim iiryiit. etc. The freed souls are different from one another. 3· 42. 3· 19. II. Jaya-t-irtha con1menting on IV. lltf ahii-bhii1·ata-tiitparya nin1aya. SH. Sec 11. F. Harnadasa (A.iKA~THA Srikai~tha's date is uncertain.a-jFul1ta-bodlza. The freed soul con1es close to God hut does not becon1e one vvith hin1. mul·diini'ith ea 1za hfyante taratamyath ea sarvadii. he is a step below hin1 (avara) and so is excluded frmn world-creation.vasya ea parasya ea muktasya tu na bhedo' sti bheda-ltetor abhiivatab.imya. He was perhaps a contemporary of R. l\Iadhva's philosophy had a great influence on Bengal Vai~~1avisn1. and Bhaskara whose views arc criticised by ~rikm)tha. r6o8. Il.66 The Rrahma Sutra which God possesses. 4· 2 Cp. l\Iadhva believes in jivan-mul:ti. 3· 49· 1 . 4· 17 says that. 's co1n1nentary follows that of Srikat) tha. Even the liberated enjoy bliss through devotion. Bhamati which quotes a verse from the paJicariU·r ikas: i:imukter bhcda eva syaj jt. r.1i. 2 There is also gradation in the state of release. 3 ~rikai~tha introduces his comn1entary with a staten1ent that he is attempting to clarify the purpose of the B.tiim siva-ni$/hilnam bha$yam etan maha-'lzidhib. Difference is real and ultirnate and does not disappear in the state of release.I(>Hz) the adviser of Sivaji fo1lowed Madhva's teacl1ing.D. Appaya Dik~ita suggests that I~. the author of the Tamil translation of tlJe Sanskrit \\-·ork Siz. 4 vycisa-sutram ida1n netram vidu. is not exclusive of difference.. 3 tad-auukrti-sara1. I.. p. paratna-st. though the released soul is God's own (svakiya). Smne scholars hold that he liYed in the thirteenth century and was a conternporary of Meykanda-dcva. 6 Appaya Dik~ita.

The Saiva-siddluinta is basetl on the Agamas and the earliest Tamil exponent of this system is Tiru-miilar wlw \ras followed by later teachers. Jiiana-sambandhar and Sundarar. 2 The Saiva Siddlu"inta system which claims to be based on the Agamas purports to expound the teaching of the Vedas. Makutiigama. Agama means texts which have come down to us. 1 But the Agamas themselves claim the support of the Vcdas. The Pasupata and the Pa. 1cariitra Agamas in which bhakti is the criterion of faith 1 are criticised by Badarayal)a in the B. In the Mohenjo-daro excavations we have a statuette in the form of 8iva seated on a bull. This is perhaps Siva as Pasu-pati. veda-siiram ida. from the beginnings of Indian philosophic speculation. Whatever may be the origin of the Agamas it is clear that they do not insist on sacri11cial religion but support a personal religion in which V i$~lll or S'-iva or Sakti is equated with the Highest Reality. Maktt{agama. It also has support in the Upani.tha holds that the v· edas and the Agamas are of equal authority. on enquiry. Suprabhediigama. 1\Hil)ikka-. menrullana nadattttrai 1:vai nadilira~tlandam bhedamadenbar periyorkkabhBdame. '4 Srikat). but to the great ones they are non-different. It is developed in the thirteenth century by Meykanda-deva and his pupils. Appar.Introduction The Vedas and the Agamas SrikaDtha tried to reconcile the Saivism based on the V cdas with that of the Agamas.~ads. sidd}uinto vrda-siiratviit. surrounded by animals. Evidently there have been two currents of thought.JI. Arulnandi and Umapati. only \vhile the former are studied by men of the three upper castes.·c"icagar. the Vedic and the Agamic. the latter may be 1 2 3 n. vediintiirtham idatil jniina1n siddhiintam parama1n subham. . 'The V cda with the Agama is the truth. they are taken to be different as giving rise to hvo different srts of conclusions. Tiru-mUlar holds that the V cdas and the Agamas are the creation of the Lord and they are both true. ' vedamodiigamam meyya miraivam'U odum sirappum poduvu. 3 It relates itself to the theistic tendencies of the Upani$ads.z.S.m tantmm. they arc the word of the Lord: these revelations of the Lord are to be studied as the general and the special doctrines.

c. In the releas<'cl condition the individual soul shakes off weaknc·ss and ignorance and attains boundless knowledge and power of action.1 samam vaise$ikiiniim tattve tu vidyate asau nidarsyate. Quoted in . While ~rikaQtha's system has many II.supata school which dates frmn the second century n.Siva-jniina-siddhi. is acquainted with it.~a-ptisupata. The J ain writer }{aja-sckhara (fourteenth century) calls the Sahra system a yo~a-mata. c dcvatii-vi. adopts a dualistic view. 4 The Saiva . S. 2 it tnay be inferred that BadarayatJa knew about the Sahra system. siimiinyam misrakam caiva suddham vJram yathiikramam. the Sai1ra and the PratyabhifJ1d systems. 6 samskrtaib prakrtair viikyaiY yas ea si~yiinurupafab desa-bhii$iidyupiiyaiS ea bodhayet sa gurub smrta'-'. 38. The Agamic Sai1Jism is found in South India. n They are available in Sanskrit and Dra\'idian languages like Tclugu. the J>iisupata systetn in Gujerat. saivam catur-vidham proktam samiisiie ehrt. In Madhava's sarva-darsana-sa1hgraha we find a treatment of ~Vtllwli.c.:tfitaka. At any rate. 2. Saivisnt From ~. atha yoga-matam brihnalt. 1 3 . thr J>ratyabh£j1i{t in Ka~mir and other parts of North India. . Tamil and Kannada. and Vira-saiv£sm developed by Basava (twelfth century) in Kan. 3 He is of the view that theNaiyiiyikas like Jayanta. 1 The Hindu tendency to reconcile different traditions of thought is evident in grikaQtha's commentary.ayo bhedo niisti naiyayikai/. • n. p. Prakrit and local dialects according to S£va-dharmottara.lyiiya and the Vaise$ika systems adopt the same divinity.tu $at.68 The Brahma St""itra studied by all. In this school re1ease is siimipya or proximity to God and not identity with God. He explains his vie\vs as conformable to reason and Vedic authority. 3s-B. Haribhadra in his $acj-darsanasamuccaya ·makes out that the followers of the J. Udayana and Bhasarvajfia and the V aise$ikas vvere followers of Sa£vism.Agamas were vvritten in Sanskrit. p. 8. According to it the Supreme and the individual souls are distinct entities and prakrt£ is the constituent cause of the world.{aivam iti apariibhidam.'s cmnmentary.tmukha. 2. 6 The Pcl. 266. 8 Viituliigama mentions the different varieties of Saivism.

125. Supreme Real£ty and the }Vorld The Supren1e is identified with Siva and there is sufficient support for it in the early Scriptures.ya sivii.a or tetnporary quality of Bralnnan. looks upon it as an atten1pt to reconcile apparently contradictory statements of the Upani~ads.-n infinite bliss. treats I. 3 Siva is the cause of the creation. sthiti. anugraha and t£robluiva. I. and the concealrnent of the essential nature of the soul thus causing bondage. 5'i7:a is possessed of an inflnitc number of attributes and inconceivable pO\vers. Rudra because he removes the sorrmvs of the \\~orld. He is free from all defects and faults. z as a statetnent of the nature of Brahman. V. He is also an enjoycr. l-Ie has a (:elcstial non-tnatcrial body which is free frotn subjection to lwrma.Introduction 6g points in con1mon with the Visi$1iidvaita of R. I.1tha argues that God is inferred as the primal source and the supren1e Lord of the whole of the tnaterial and spiritual universe. They indicate the nature of Brahman but do not disclose his true nature. Srika1.')iras U. of the liberation of souls through the cessation of bondage by his grace. sac-c'id-iinanda-ni.{u-pati. S. 2 He is called Bhava because he exists everywhere and at all titnes. and the S'aiva Siddhiinta. Brahman exists 1 See R. not of the fruits of karm.! Brahman is Siva who is to be meditated on by all those who seek release. 7: Atharva. maintenance and dissolution of the 'vorld. 8 2. 3· 1 aum namo' halll-padii!' /h(tya lokiin(iri1 siddh i-hetave I. janma.ya pammiifmaJ?C. it has distinctive features of its own. Shm is adored by SrikaTJtha as b~ing of the nature of self-substance in his invocation. The rnanifested world is the tatastha-lak$a~z. the lord of all creatures. 4· . I. All these qualities belong to the world of manifestation and do not constitute the essential nature of Siva and so do not limit him.a but of his ov. When miiyii transfonns itself into the world by the grace of God. X.V.-. Siva b<~cause he is free from all taints and is supren1ely auspicious. may in a sense be regarded also as the n1aterial cause of the world though he ren1ains outside miiya in his transcendence. p1'alaya.pii. I. Sarva because he destroys everything. being eternally associated with mliyii. H. He is gracious towards his devotees. Pa. God himself.

The world is said to be both unborn and an effect. he wishes to be many. 36-8. Then the subtle powers of the sentient and the non-sentient become 1nanifest. 2. abides as a cause. absolute. it is an effect in the sense that during creation it is manifested in gross forms. 1. as well as cause. his energy undergoes transformation in the creation and dissolution of the world.a or vise~a~za.l and material cause of the world. kiira1Ja. I. It is the same with regard to substance. self-luminous. 3 The relation between Brahman and the universe is analogous to that between the soul and the body. He has within him the energy of consciousness and the energy of materiality.kalam ni?hriyam ityiidi-srutibhir nirvikaratvam apy upapadyate. When there arises in him the supreme power of knowledge removing the darkness around. of his power. being. no sun or moon.r. The soul (sarfrin) and the body (sarira) are non-different in the sense that the soul cannot exist without the body and vice versa. g~t~z. this would contradict the Yie\v of the Upan£$ads that Brahman was devoid of action. he is unaffected by the changes of the latter. Everything is enveloped in darkness and the Lord with all powers withdraws. kiirya. no nan1cs and shapes. 4· ro. ja~ad-upiidiina-n i mitta-bh utasyiipi . and attribute. and effect. or that between substance and attribute or that between cause and effect. The various epithets of Brahman. Brahman cannot exist 1 1 3 para'meSvarasya ni . 1 God is both the transcendent Supreme and the active cause of the world. It is unborn since it abides as a subtle po\ver of the Lord. cid-acit-fwapaiica-rupa-sakti-visi#atvam svabhiivikam eva brahmattab. For this would n1ean that Brahman was changeable. If Bralwwn were of the nature of consciousness he could not have transformed hin1self into the material world. He does not depend on any external aid for the execution . one \vithout a second.70 The Brahma Sittra in a transcendent n1anner apart from the individual souls and the n1aterial world. anapell~ita-biilzya-l~ara~ta. ni$kriya. Though Brahman is absolutely unchangeable in hi1nself. no sentient and non-sentient objects. no day or night. Sec II. While God is the instru1nenta. gu~tin or vise!iya. consciousness and bliss arc qualities and not substance of Brahman. Brahma·n is not pure consciousness but is endowed with omniscience. 2 During the uni\'ersal dissolution there is nothing.

water. 2._ 1 prapaiica-brahma~tcw 1 ll. 22. This sakti is of the very being of God. 6 These two together consisting of eight forn1s constitute the body of the Lord. ' 11. kr(vt"i. 2. 1.. 9· • n. It is not an attribute of God or limb of God wh<'n~ all activities are dependent on the will of God as H. ./muli t•-ijiiiiyatr. upiidiina-nimittayo'Y avastha-bhedam antare~1a svanipa11 IV.ltha. ancl1a-citl-ac-in-H(Viimaha·lil bra. are the powers of the Lord. earth. the sentient and the non-sentient. £cchci. 22. just as fire cannot exist without heat or a blue lotus without blueness. suggests nor is the relation of the 'vorld to God of the nature of waves to the sea. 8 Subordinate to ]\i"artiya~za is Hira?Jya-garbha or the aggregate of souls of effects. I.•a-rahiiaivam. 4 Cit and acit. He is subordinate to 8hJa though non-different from him. 3 • 11.u-sivayor bhedo niisti. 2 This peculiar relation enables them to form one whole where one cannot exist without the other. 1 Difference means difference of nature. or the attributes of the Lord qualifying him as the body qualifies the soul or as the colour blue qualifies the blue lotus. 3· 1 4 . Non-difference 1neans essential and mutual interdependence and not actual identity. 3· 2 9 . Brahman is the control1cr of al1 sC'ntient entities and nonsentient world. 1. prapaiica-rripa. 6.n even as an earthen jar cannot exist without clay. 5 Cit-sakt-i consists of three factors. For Sri"kat. 9 The Lord is both the eiEcient and the matC'rial cause of thc~ universe which is the result of the transforn1ation of lJralzman. 35-8. and action. 2. He criticises the vie\vs of those . The Lord has the universe for his form or body. Appaya Di"k~ita says that God hirnself is not transfonncd into the form of the world hut his saldi or energv rnanifests itself as . l. Siva is both the material and the cfftcient cause of the universe. 3 He is hoth knowledge and know cr.lntroductz'on 71 without the universe which ever exists in him as his power. I. volition. fire. he is called Niiriiya~za or Vi$~1u. The universe cannot exist 'vithout Bralmta. II.~aiva sects which look upon the Lord as merely the efiicient cause and not the material cause. the world. 8 ananyatvam ncima vinii-bhiit. a 1. kncnvlcdgf'. 7 When Siva is the material cause through his mliyii or icclu7sakti. This transformation does not in1ply any change or defect in \.. air and ether. 3· 14. I. The wurld is not an illusion. The acit-sakti consists of the elements. j-Jl{ina. yato vi~tz..

the energy of consciousness. This Yi{'W is called by SrikaDtha 1'i. i. cid-acid-prapanca-vi~§i. Brahman is unchanging and unaffected by the transformation through cit-sakt£. Brahman and cit-saldi are distinguishable aspects and not separate entities. 1. DiffPrence is subordinate to non-di11erence. The first manifestation of cit-saldi is N/iraya~za who is the material cause of the world. Bralmtan as different from dt-sakti is only the operative cause. lie is of the form of the universe. Brahman himself who is Siva is the efficient cause. Brahman associated with mtiyii.e.tam. This is R.~i$!a1it brahma kiira1. Brahman's par£~u"ima or transformation to his dt-st. \Vhilc for Nimharka non-difference and difff•rcnce are on the same kvd. sentient and non-sentient. for SrikaiJtha non-difference is the principal which is qnali11ed by difference. and SrikaDtha adopt the same view of causation.tat- karyam bhavati. Cit-stlld£ The senti<'nt and the non-sentient world is the result of the transformation of the cil-sakti or the energy of consciousness of the Supren1e Lord who is non-different from it.~£${a-sivt"i£hraita-vt'ida. subtle consciousness and subtle materiality. On account of the relationship to the Lord 1 sitk$ma·cid-acid-vi. Brahn~an. I. 1 Brahman and the universe are non-different but not identical. visvc"illara. The beings sentient and non-sentient are already thPre in a suhtlc condition indistinguishable hy name and shape. . the san1e is the effect in its gross manifestation. 2. sthula-cid-acid-viSi$/a1i1. Brahman as creator is to he viewed as endowed with rit-sakti. even as the body is subordinate to the soul which it qualifies. Bra/mum is qualified b:v the world. is the cause.~kli.~fa. Sometimes miiyii is said to be the primal matter or prakrti. Between Brahman and c£t-sakti there is non-difference. Si1'a is qualiftcd by the sentient and the non-sentient even as the soul is qualified by the body.72 The B1'ahma Sittra relates only the material cause which takes on the form of the world. The process is not the changing of one thing into another hut the transforming of the satne reality frorn a subtle to a gross condition. The n1anifcstation of nmnes and shapes marks the transformation of cause into effect.

the view that there is both non-difference and difference for this goes against facts of direct experience. na ea bhedablwda-vadinab.tyanta-bheda-viidino ghata-pa{ayor iva tadvirvdhat. consciousness and bliss of the Supreme. nor do we declare the illusoriness of one of thern as in the case of silver and mother-of-pearl. (ii) atyantc"ibheda-7)(/da. the view that there is absolute nondifierence between the Lord and the soul. \Ve are. we speak of it as flre. Brahman is a concrete universal. the view that there is an absolute difference between the Lord and the soul as between a jar and a piece of cloth because this conflicts with scriptural texts V~·hich deny difference. 1 that being opposed to the texts which declare difference between their natural qualities. having matter and consciousness always associated with him and controlled by hin1 as the limbs of a person are controlled by the person brahnza-prapa1irayor na vayam a. Particular things are a fraction of the existence of Brahman and their knowledge and bliss are fragments of the knowledge and bliss of Drahman. na catycmtiibhcda-vadina~.ida. The identity of Brahman and the finite self is not to be taken literally. and we are not of those who maintain their absolute non-difference. tat sviiblu'i. the world partakes of the thn. or between a quality and the qualified. The relationship is of the nature binding the body and the ctnbodied.'l' c1ualities of being. of those who rnaintain the non-dualism of the distinct. 1 I ntroduc#on ananyatva-para-. as exists between body and the embodied.~ruti c* .vika-guJJa-bheda-para-. vastu-virodhiit.ta-gu~inor iva ea viSi~tadvaita-vadina!z.wr iva guJ. Nor are we of those who posit both difference and non-difference. Srikal)tha says: '\Ve arc not among those who maintain absolute difference between Brahman and the world as between a jar and a cloth. that being opposed to the texts which declare their non-distinctness. the pervaded and the pervader. that relationship being opposed to fact.' For R. Difference and non-difference are mutually contradictory and cannot coexist.73 through cit-sakti.ruti-vzrudhiit. V isi$ta-s£vt"idvaita Srikai~tha warns us against three possible views: (i) atyantabheda-vc. vVhen the faggot is lit by fire. (iii) abhedc"i-bheda-viida. because this conflicts with scriptural texts \vhich ad1nit difference between the two. kirh tu sarlra-sartri1. na vii sukti-rajatayof' ivaikataratnithyiUva-vadinab. however.

tathii ea paYamesvarakiirita-pii.aita-nir~zaya Appaya Dik~ita argues against the identification of Srikal). a knower. Though kanna does not directly lead to salvation. Appaya Dik~ita makes God completely responsible.tha's philosophy with that of 1~. It is only when by their own deeds the veil of ignorance and impurity is removed that the mercy of God manifests itself in the liberation of the soul.-. It possesses knowledge as its pem1anent quality. God only helps the realisation of each one's wishes. 's vi. they are not absolutely Jiffcrent. cit-.1tha's views argues that Drahman differs from the sentient (cctana) and non-sentient (acctana). Appaya Dik~ita commenting on Srika1.t/~c. He argues that ~rikaJ)tha's systc1n was essentially a non-dualism.ltidz. He cannot be charged with cruelty or partiality. Though 1'he souls and the Lord are different. They are the qualities of God and have no existence separate frorn the nature of God. he cannot remove the sorrows of all. In his Siviidz. The soul is atmnic and is not of the nature of pure consciousness. By the proper and disinterested performance of duties we purify the mind and help the rise of knowledge. it is an indirect means. The soul though intelligent is not mnniscient.rva-karma-mt'Ua-svecchadhfne yatne. paramesvartidhfnatvam na htyate. It has limited knowledge and is suhj{·ct to defects and faults.~akti or energy of consciousness which is responsible for conscious beings and jacjasakti which transforms itself in the form of the tnaterial universe under the.aita. doing things by themselves. By our good deeds we earn the mercy of God. 1 Even though Siva is all-merciful. 1 . atomic in size.:ho are incapable of con1prehending the absolute non-dual Brahman. It is a real part of Brahma· and not a false appearance due to limitations n of causes and conditions. does but expounds the theistic position. The soul is an eternal and real substance. for it gives rise to knowledge which leads to meditation and meditation leads to salvation. The individual souls are active agents. Srikal)tlla does not criticise tlw fl dvaz'ta doctrine as R. Advaita. Both these arc manifestations of the energy of God. The laws of nature are the manifestation of the grace of God.74 The Bralnna SiUra himself. though he offers the visifitddvaita view for the benelit of those v. These qualities pertain to the very nature of the soul and endure in bondage as in release.alit y of LJrahman. These are two forms of energy. instrumeut. an enjoyer and an active agent.

5 The freed soul Lccomes similar to the Lord and not identical with hin1. lt is distinct from the Lord since it is atornic while the Lord is allpervading. the supreme self is. "Siva is other than myself".Introduction Kinds of Meditation 75 There are various kinds of meditation . . r 3· 8 piisa-viccheda and pasutva-nivrtti. 3· 57· ' sanzsii. 18. maintain and destroy the universe which only the Lord has. non-n1aterial sense-organs and mind by which it 1 Siva-ananya-siilt~iitkiira-pa!ala. 3· 8. Give up the thought of difference.'ntia. 6 It is the fnll developn1ent of the souF and not absorption in Siva. yas sivas so' ham evet-i hy advayarh bhuva_vet sadii. independent.1·e ki1iJcijj1iafvam muktate sarvajiiatvam iti j1iiitii eva utm. TV. I am the self. Siva. This cgoity is not like the pt'ukrta aha1n-kura which is narrow but embraces the whole world prapancavagahin. possessed of all his auspicious qualities and free· frmn all defects. 19. IV.' 1 Then~ is meditation on Ni'iriiya1Ja which leads to the attainment of Nc7riiya~ta and then to that of the Lord 81>va. contetnplate them always as not-dual. I 2. The freed soul bccmnes omniscicnt 4 and independent. 8 pari-pun. Liberation is severance of the bondage of \Vorldly existencc 3 and attaining to a similarity '''ith S£va.l prerequisite of salvation. 4· 17. The Lord is meditat{'d on as identical with the self of the devotee which helps to rcn1ove the pasutva or bondage of the soul and leads to the attainment of Sz'vatva. Sarvajfianottara says: 'He who thinks. III.Meditation of the Lord in his own nature leads to liberation directly and inlmC'cliatcly. I. . different or he who because of delusion meditates thus does not attain s£vatva. 7 8 6 IV.iihant bhiiva1i1 praka(am auubhavati. \Vhilc the soul is under the contro1 of the Lord in the state of bondage. indeed.ii. 8 It possesses pure. 4· g. but in the form. 1 aham iUma sivohy anyab paramiilmcti :valt Slnrtalt evam yopasayen mohiit na sivatvam avcipnuyat sivo'nyas tv aham eviiuya!t Prthag-bhava1i1 vivarjayet. it becomes free in the state of release. 2 Release The grace of the Lord is an C'SSf. 4· 21. what is Siva that is tnyself. The freed soul shares all the divine p1casures with the Lord. It lacks the power to create.

tha sometimes says that there is no need for the devotees of the non-related. Sa-gu?Ja Brahman. Past karmas which have begun to take effect have to run their course till the end of this life.The Brahma Sutra enjoys pleasures. It perceives the diversity of the universe. niranvayoptisakas to travel by this path of the gods. All karmas which are ripe for producing fruits will continue to give fruits and do so until the present body falls away.1tha on IV.ka~Itha there is no fivan-muk#. Nir-gu~za Brahman. 18. 3 Some like Appaya Dik!?ita argue that Srika:t). Srikal)tha seems to admit the existence of Brahman without determinations. Srika:t). though his main purpose is to foster faith in and devotion to Personal God. but he admits that those who seek release should meditate on the Lord as one with the self and not as standing in the relationship of the embodied to thf' body. 2.-prapanca. The liberated soul can remain without a body and enjoy all experiences through mind alone or he can at the same time animate or recreate many spiritual bodies which transcend the laws of prakrt£ and through them enjoy any happiness he wishes to have. The expression niranvaya is understood by Appaya Dik$ita as ni::. IV. 2 For Sri. 2. Salvation is a positive state of supreme and unsurpassed bliss and knowledge. In that state we attain knowledge but not liberation. It can be attained only after the death of the earthly body. It is not a state of mere unconsciousness. SrikaQtha asks us to look upon the Lord as master in relation to servants and adopt the path of service. vividham vastu-jiitam pasyanti. the diisa miirga. 1 It is united with the Lord in blissful experience and perceives his form. There are hvo kinds of salvation. I 1 . immediate and gradual. 28. Those who meditate on the Lord as sentient and non-sentient or on N iiriiya?Ja who is the Lord in the form of the material cause of the universe first go to N ariiya1:za and then to Siva. he has no rebirth but he retains his personality possessing perfect resemblance with God. He is not subject to the law of karma. 16.tha was at heart a non-dualist. vimrsanti cid yasya sa~. Those who meditate on the Supreme Lord in his own nature go directly to the Lord and becon1e free at once. III. Srika1. liberation in this life. 1 kecin niranvayopiisakanam iha sar!rapata eva muktir iti arciradi-gatim aniyahim ahul). siirilpya.

mentions the name of Siddhiinta-siistra cmnposed by Siva himse1f. Saiva S£ddhiinta makes a distinction between cit-saldi and mtlyii. the soul is pure consciousness (cinmiitra) covered \vith iinpurities. Uma-pati \vho lived in the early half of the fourteenth century says that Sh. Its nature is both j1i./ntu is called a1'idy(t by Srika~1tha. The pati is Siva who is called Rudra. effect (kiirya).a is the Supretne Being who is neither permanently manifested nor unn1anifested. the lord. the piHas with which it is covered. 1 He refers to the three categories of pati. These views were adopted by the S'aiva Siddhiinta and the Piisupata schools. 2 Between grikaDtha's view and the Sah'a Siddluinta there are son1c differences. Srikar. and pt"isa. 1t is pure consciousness which appears as distinct on account of the itnpurities. The Naiyciyikas and the l'aisc$ikas adopt a sin1ilar view of God's causality. the Lord. Anandagiri's . For this system Pasu-pati. It is all-pervading in space and time and goes through the cycle of birth and rebirth. substance and attribute. pasu. 37· . II. Srikat)tha accc'pts the hidiitm)'a view that the One Reality appears as guuin and gu~z. union \vith God (yoga). without qualities. For hirn. vibku.ina and kriy(/. 2. \Vhile the Saiva S£ddhiinta n1eans by Uidtltmya the close connection of two things which might be regarded as one. he is also the n1atcrial cause. the cause (luira~za).1tha does not adopt the view attributed to Saivagamas that God is only the instrumental cause. The (f ·~zava mala or the power which obscures of the Saivtl S£ddlt.~mhkara-vlj'aya mentions the Kapalikas as being outside ihe pale of the Vedas.a. mentions Ktif>iilikas and 1\ii/a-mukhas as being sects of ~caivismwhich are of an anti. without impurities. The soul is atomic. as we have seen. For Saiva S'iddluinta. for grikat)ta while for --~ai<'a Siddluinta it is all-pervading. the bond.Introduction Saiva Siddhiinta 77 S. The P("isupata system deals with five categories. the creature. God is the instrumental cause of the world. The pasu is in bondage and the piisa can be scotched only by union with pati.Vedic character (veda-biihya). rules of conduct (vidhi) and end of sorrow (duhklz/inta). The purpose of creation is to enable the souls to purify and perfect theinselves. a1Ju. The 1nalas or impurities do not affect the purity of 1 s R.

His date may be about the latter half of the thirteenth century. The malas bind us differently on account of different kinds of llarma. which is his cmnmentary on the B. 1 He was a lifelong celibate. Literature Nimbarka's main works are Vediinta-ptirijtita-saurabha. Acit or non-sentient reality is of 1 There is also a view that he was born in Brindavana on the Yamuna river. bhogya. According to Nimbarka there are three equally real and coeternal realities (tr£-tattva). Dasa-sloki or Siddhantaratna and Sa-vise$a-nir-v£se$a sri-l{r$~za-stava-raja. cit and acit. l?hedabheda-viida There are texts which affirm duality between Brahman and the individual souls and others which affirm their non-duality. It is only the removal of the impurities.The Brahma Siitra the consciousness even as gold is not affected by the dross with which it is associated. Kesava Ka!?mirin wrote a work on Vediinta-/{austubha called the V edlinta-K austubha-prablui. Liberation does not mean transformation. He seems to be indebted largely to H. While Brahman is the controller. the 1nalas on account of which the different individual entities pass through the cycle of smizsiira.S.~austubha.. cit is the enjoyer. G.'s bltri$ya and criticises SrikaDtha's views.. His direct disciple Srinivasa wrote a commentary on Nimbarka's work. bhoktr. He has also written a nun1ber of stotras. nai$1hika-brahma-ciirin. We can reconcile these conflicting texts by adopting the bhedtibheda or the dvaitadvaita-viida to which we have references in the B. niyantr. The impurities can be removed not by kno\vledge but by the grace of Siva. and ac£t is the enjoyed.S. . called Vediinta-J. NIMBARKA Nimbarka was a Trlugu Bralunan who was born in Nimba or Nimbapura in the Hellary district but lived in Brindavana. The obscurations of mala diffl'rentiate the different souls which are all basically one with Siva. Brahman.

e.rka identifies J-5rahman with J(r$~Za. 13. Brahman has a kr'ira~t. full of divine beauty and grace. avibhiigepi samudra-latmigayor iva si'irya-tat-prabhayor iva t'il>hiigas syiit. i. nrahman assumes . He is bhakta-vatsala.. para-tantra-tattva. a pure unity or a bare identity. I. a god of love and grace. during the tin1e of universal dissolution.i. They coexist but do not contradict each other. They retain their specific natures. Cit and acit. Nin1h:l. They retain their individuality and separateness even during salvation and dissolution. the cause of th<: origin. exist in Brahman from all eternity and do not become separate from him even when manifested. The relation between the one and the many is like the sea and its waves 1 or the sun and its rays. possessed of a celestial hody. For R. \Vhilc R.'s Vi$~lll and Lah$mi. sustenance and destruction of the universe. he is not absolutely undifferenccd or n£1'-visc!ja. is apprehended through the authority of Scripture. the souls and the universe. God is separated from everything and inseparable frmn everything. Cit and acit are never absolutely merged in Brahman. svar{ipa-bhcda. possessed of inconceivable energies. Even in the causal state. There is a difference of nature between them. have a dependent reality. Brahman is always sa-vise$a. earthly forms to help the \Vor]:.79 three kinds.a-rrtpa when he is pure cause without producing any effects. He is all-powerful and allInerciful. Brahman is gracious to his devotees and helps them to have a direct vision of hi1nsclf. Brahntan is the omniscient. V\Te cannot knm\T the truth 1 II. we have in Ni1nharka Krs11a and Rcidlu"i. . Brahman is personal. Nimbfirka lays stress on the sweetness (madhurya). Nimbarka adopts the view of s7Jiibhlivika-bhedcibheda. Brahman is both transcendent and imtnanent. cit and acit. Souls and matter.. Difference and non-difference are both equally real. insists on the incomparable greatness (aisvarya) of the Lord. (ii) apriikrta or what is not derived from prakrti but derived from a non-n1atcrial substance of which the world of Brahman is made and (iii) kala or time. (i) prakrta or what is derived from prakrti or primal matter. I ntrod~tction Scriptural Authority Brah1nan.

The impure cit and acit cannot be parts of Brahman. In pralaya or dissolution they remain in a subtle state and in S!$ti or creation they become manifest. Brahman is the material and efficient cause of the universe of souls and matter. In his Vediinta-ratnamanj11$ii.Bo The Brahma St"Ura of things by our own limited powers of perception and inference. pari~ziinza. Prakrti is said to be the cause of all material objects. We have to rely on Scripture for our knowledge of Brahman. The soul is atomic in size and is said to pass out of the body through such small openings as the eye. 1 The material and efficient causes are ordinarily different from one another. no unfulfilled desire create the world? Nimbarka says that he does so in sport. out of the abundance of his joy. of Brahman. doer (kartr) and enjoyer (bhoktr). Creation does not indicate any insufficiency in Brahman. its attribute of knowledge pervades the whole body and is capable of experiencing the various states of 1 C. 3· . who can have no motive. The presence of cit and acit in Brahman does not affect his nature.. etc. Scripture is the record of the experiences of great seers who have attained the power to realise God directly. Acit is prakrti or primal matter. prakyti is said to be a power or sallti of Brahntan. The word lilii or sport does not indicate any arbitrariness or irrationality. Why should the perfect Brahman. Each of them is a distinctive agent. Puru~ottama observes that creation is the manifestation of the subtle powers of ct't and acit in the form of gross effects. but is that of cause and effect. But according to Ni1nbarka's follower. VI. a know er (jfulfr). The universe is a real transformation. Brahman is greater than the world which is not a complete or exhaustive manifestation of Brahman. Though atomic in size. In the case of the jar made of clay. Brahman and the lVorld Brahman's relation to cit and acit is not one of substance and attribute as is the case ·with R. clay is the material cause and the potter is the efficient cause. 2.U. Souls and their destiny Nimbarka believes in an infinite number of souls. Puru~ottama.

1 Freedom is the attainment of the nature of !Jrahman. Even in the state of release the soul has the power to move about freely and realise its aims. '· 8! the body even as a sma1llamp can flood a large room with its light. There are three kinds of destiny for the soul. when it wiiJ have eternal nonperception and there will not be anything outside to bring about any connection. \Vhcn the soul attains its full development. It has the attributes of bring. consciousness and bliss and is free from the defects of sin. The freed soul has not the power to create. IV. If it were so we would have eternal perception or eternal non-perception. parama-puru~ab svasya atmaiveua dhycya!1. 1zaral\a nr hell and apavarga or release. It is still atomic in size while Brahman is all-pervading. Either it is in connection with all objects when it will have eternal perception or it is not in connection with all objects. As the difference between Urahman and the soul is natural and eternal. Souls in bondage are attached to material bodies and are subject to rebirth according to their past deeds. Thc:y ar{' the released souls. In the state of release the individual is not merged in God. The goal is fellowship with the Supreme through the bond of mutual love. the virtuous go to heaven and the knowers go to the \vorld of J. It is different because its individuality is not lost. Nimbarka criticises the doctrine of the all-pervasiven{~ss of the soul. Human individuals undergo experiences in accordance with their past conduct. The freed soul is both different ~md non-different from Brahman.a. iitma-s1. pain and suffering. it is nondifferent because it is dependent on and an organic part of Brahman. One attains freedom by the ceaseless reflection on Brahman as the deepest self of the individual soul. Heleasc is not the annihilation of the individual but is the full development of one's nature. tadbhli1Jiipatti or brahma-svariipa-liiblza..I nlroduction . it becomes similar to and not o11e with the Supreme.riipa-hrbha. 1 nw1utth~u~ui. The sinners go to hell. maintain and dissolve the world. The released souls are freed from connectim1 with karma and arc not liahlc to he born in the world of smhslira.:rahman and are not hound to return any more to smizstira. 3· . it persists even in the state of release. 1. svarga or heaYcn. not in the sense of absolute identity hut in the sense of identity in difference.

~c!dvaita d1'aitc1dvaitiibhidhana.r$ua along with Rt7dhii. 3 bralwz.'se rt'sults of lwrma are different from eternal bliss we aHf'rnpt. 4 and wrote a comrncntar~· on the B. to attain J!ralmuw through the grace of God. 1 Whrn we realise that th<. '1J1ere is no fi1Jan-muk# according to Nimbftrka. lived about the latter ltalf of the fourteenth ccntury. One can undertake the inquiry into lJralzman only after a study of the Vedic duties leading to different kinds of beneficial results. 8 and is therefore later than Srikantha. The function of karma is to purify the n1ind and help the rise of knowledge. Fediinta-llau. release is not possible. 22 . surrender to God and obedience to the spiritual preceptor. devotion and meditation. I. Thr \\'ay to salvation is by means of the ftve siidhanas. and on both difference and non-diffcrcnce in Nirnbarka.Stilra Release is possible only after death. and l\imbarka hold that the world is real like lJralnnan and is both different and non-different from it./bh in no pi lr 5ctraj1ia!l sva-svarupato bhinna eva. Vidyftpati (A. knowledge. work.ia/Nidiui Jwrmii~1i fmlln·a-1'rfolJhir all?t~fheytini iti siddham. It is different from tasmtit vidyodn. an Andhra Brahmin of Vijaya\'acla. bhedabhed/itmaka and is opposed to I 'clsupata dualism. 2. the various duties of the different stages of life have to he obscrved.for union with the Divine through the love of RJi. 2 \Vhile hoth H. SRlPATI Sr1pati Pm)dit. He ca11s his doctrine 'i'/sc. 13f>8-1475) was his follower in poetry though not in religion..dha and }(nJ:ta..Bz 7'he Brahnta . tapo\ . II. defendin~ dva-it/idvaita. 111. ' Sripati n:fers to Srikar. the en1phasis is n1orc on non-cliff<'rencc in H.P. Jayadeva had remarkable skill in blending sounds and feelings. rama-lwrmlign i ltotra4i-riiparh grhasthena.ttha's bhii~ya on B. . The soul which is divine in its essence longs for union with the Divine from which it is separated by the feeling of individuality and it yearns to return to its original source.S. unity in duality. 2 1 This view is to be found not in l"t'danta-plirijiUa-saurabha but in Dasa- HoM. So long as the Inaterial body persists. Brahman is to be nwdit at<'rl on as I\.stubhaprablllt.S.viiya svu . ] ayaLlC'va (twelfth century) dcscrihecl in his GUa-govinda the longing of the human soul . 3 11. Even after the rise of knowledge.

2 Sr1pati is a vira-saiva. bhii$yam etad viracitam baladt~vcna dhimatii sr·i -govirz. . He adopts pari~ziima or transfonnation as against vivarta or appearance. ~­ criticises a sin1ilar theory attributed to Bhartr-prapaflca.eality for . 3 paribha~ii.1 Sripati's bhli$ya is called Srllwrct-blui!_iya for Sripati wrote it not in his own name but in tlw name of Srikara or ~ivakara. 1. Vira-saivas accept the twentyeight Saiva Agantas and the 8£va-gi"hi. H. for 8£1'a is said to have inspired him to write this work. Baladcva's commentary is called Govinda-bltii~ya for he says that it was written at the command of Govinda.-pradltiina-riimiinuja-sasfraJh veda-·m iilatviibhiivtit ava. The relation of Brahman to the \vorld is analogous to that of snake and its coils or the sun and its radiance. Sripati's dew cmnbincs the bhcda and the abhcda views on the· analogy uf tlw SlT}wnt and its coils or the sun and its rays. 2.ition of tlic H. \\'C 1nust adopt dvaitcidvaita. doe:-:.Bhartr-prapaiica is bhedcibheda or diff<. Hiriyanna. V.Introduct/on pari~uima-viida and 71ivarta-vrida. Bhartr-prap~u-1ca adopts jrulnukarma-sanzuccaya or co-ordination of knowledge and work as the means to liberation. Bhaskara and u 1 Cp. If we are not to violate the two sets of texts.:rence and wm-diffcrcncc. wlw is one \vithout a second. The jfva or the individual soul is a B1<JLlc of Brahman and not an illusory appearance. vi-sabda1it vii vikalpfi1'ihc ra-sabdo raliitiirtltakab viltalpa-rahitath . 42. The cause is inm1anent in the ctiect.S. \rhich H. Srir)at i does not acn·pt the validity of the Tantric /igamas and rit<:s. 4 piinca-ratradivat piisupatyiigamiiniim niJ'astatviit.~aivmn vfra-~ail1a1it prara/ajulc.. This doctrine co-ordinates experience and Scripture.. 1. a He is also opposed to the Tantric doctrines of J>t"i.da-niddcna govindiillhyii.U. becomes 1svara. It goes back to a period prior to the compo~. Brahman. His \\'ork is the philosophical hdsis of l' i1'asaivism.liigho$ab.supatas:1 [l n£/y in D·uality This doctrine of unity in duality has had a long history. on B. 1 • SeeS. 5 According to Professor M. \Vc have pramci· a-samuccaya. God and the worlds of souls ~l1ld n1atcrial objects. Tlwre are whhl-ita texts like tat tvam asi and dvm:ta texts like two birds dwdling on the sanw tree.rmz iti ghat.m a{iiit tata)t.idi/. II.

sivcidhlna-pra. though endowed with the three gu~z. prior to creation. the world also must have had a builder. 6 bhl·diibhedlitmikci saldil. II.a \Vh~n. \Vhen the idea of creation rnoves hi1n he separates the living beings and Inakes then1 different. 6 God is indistinguishable from his energies even as the sun cannot be distinguished fron1 his rays. Even as a ternple has a builder. ' abhin11a-nimittufJiidii. 4 Siva. who adopt varieties of this doctrine. brahma-ni~fha sanatanf. and the world of multiplicity existed in a subtle form wholly indistinguishable from hitn. Everything we see in the world is real and has Siva for his substratum. he is sa-gu ·~za when he expands the powers and is about to create the world.zas. The two are non-different but not one. Life cannot be a product of non-life. creates the world. on B. Criticism of Af iiyii Sripati criticises the view of the differenceless Brahman and the world-appearance. Siva is the efficient and rnaterial cause of the world. are criticised by R. 15. as Siva. In the latter he has pradhiina. Brahman is diHcrent frmn the world of gross and subtle forms. ' sarva-kcira1. or trigtt~tiibnaka-helt-t­ bhzita-pradhana-sakli. 5 The energy that manifests itself is in Brahman. If 1 The differenccless Brahman can be established only on the authority of Scripture or inference but these are included within the conceptual world of distinctions and cannot take us beyond it to a differenceless Brahman. he withdraws all his powers within himself. 1 3 . being associated with different kinds of karma. is different frmn the three gu1. The ~at-sthala para-siva Brahman is the priinal cause of everything. Siva is nir-gu~z. I. 1 Sr'ipati attacks the materialist (ciirvcika) view that life is a product of material forces. Vedic texts declare the reality of Brahman. or the threefold creative power. 2 Brahman is identified with Para-siva or Parama-siva who has two forrns undivided (a-dvitTya) and divided (dvitrya) Brahma Sittra Yadava Prakasa. 3 Siva. through his cit-sakt£. In the original state when there was no world God alone existed. R. vedanta-vedya.dhana-vikiisa-sad-bhave. purva-paramnla-~a(-sthala-para-siva-brah· maiva.atvam na tu eka-kiira'Jatvam.1a.

is a reflection in nuiyii or avidya. An apparent object cannot bestow benefits or be the object of devotion. Even deep sleep. 1 repudiates the idea of the non-existence of an c~xtcrnal world. S1-wupti. It exists and fulfils our needs. How can a formless Brahman be reflected through miiyii or avidyii? If the Personal God. 2 The manifold world which has come out of Brahman is one with him.Introduction ss Brahman has avidyii as its quality it would cease to he Brahman. It is not something which appears without an underlying reality. The world has a definite order and system. 2. \Vhcn we wake up wr rcmeinber our past. . it is in reality nothing but Siva. I. \Ve must admit that Bralvnan appears in two forms as pure consciousness and as the world. then the destruction of the latter will mean the destruction of God and the individual soul. Even dream experiences arc real. In whatever form the world may appear. If the appearance is regarded as different from the substratum. The world and Brahman are distinct from each other and one cannot be said to be a part of the other. there ought to he some other entity by whose action avidyii is removed. It cannot be regarded as the body of Brahman for the Scriptures declare that in the beginning only pure being existed. If avidyii belongs to Brahman. i svara. The texts that speak of the world as being made up of names and shapes do not lead to the view that Brahman alone is real and the world is an appearance. The texts teach 1 II. 27-8. we fall into the error of duality. Scriptural texts support Brahman with forn1 and without form. is produced by God when we enter into the network of nerves in the heart.S. The world has a substratum. They are creat<'d by God and are not wholly unrelated to the objects of life. sivopiidcinatvat 1. There is nothing that can establish the fact of the worldappearance. x. na ea mithytitvam. B. I Vcictirambha~ta-srutfnam prapaficasya tad-ttidatmya- bodhakatvam vidMyate. They are not created by the individual through his personal effort. So a differencelcss nrahman is a wrong assumption. There are many texts which speak of a Personal God. They indicate luck or ill-luck in life. \Ve do not become merged in Brahman. It is the basis of our knowledge and behaviour. The Personal God cannot be mere appearance.

aton1ic (a~m). jTva. 1 Sripati takes his stand on the bhed{ibheda texts used also by Bhaskara and R. 2 parcchinna-.1as. 's theory of world-appearance and formless Brahman as unworthy of acceptance. The individual soul. S£va remains unaltered in all the three stages of titne. 2 He is beyond all worlds and is possessed of all powers: There is nothing impossible for him. So long as the fi?Hl is fettered.86 T ltc Brahma S zitra both duality and non-duality. I. The pradhiina power is treated as a bh.~i~fe n-iravayave jlvtitmani sva-manas-saktyii vicitraniina-vidha-brahmi11JrjrJ.. The greater part of hin1 is transcendent.rnsara (ghora-apiira-nisscirasa#zsiira-t~Vti}tira). leading to attachment and anger (kiima-krodha) resulting in happiness and misery (suklza-du~t. The jt:va has power of understanding and can act independently. Commenting on I. aniidi.~a·~t4iin 1 smiirtiin sart~a-mata-bhra!}(iin . which state that the relation between God and the world is si1nilar to that between the ocean and the waves. I. is bcginningless.-!wlpaniim upapannam. The world is different from and identical \Yith Brahman. sthital). a kiila-trayepi eka-rupatay(i. Then the advaita state prevails. caught in the \Vhirl of sa. 3 Though God transforms himself into the material world he does not exhaust hirnself in creation. snhjrct to the three kinds of passion (ttipatraya) and so subject to birth and death (niinii-sarira-pravesanirgarna). ga~ti!(ticiira-sampanniin pci. The world exists in a subtle form and is developed into gross existence through the power of 8i7J(l.cda view of Kasakrtsna. 4· 22 Sripati says that Badarayal)a's view is tlw bhcdiiMz. it is freed and hecon1esonewith8iva. It is possessed of self-conceit (abh£miina-v£s£$!a). The freed soul has no body subject jagan-mithyatva-sadkakiin pari-varjayet. boun<l dcnvn by nuiyii (1niiyli-pcisa-baddha).~akti-vi. It has the capacity to realise Brahman.kha). he is separate from S£va and the dvaita condition is true. There is no question of the false imposition of the one on the other. Release \Vhen the jh'a is freed from the fetters of the three gu1. 20.inna-sakti while the cit sakti is said to be abhinna-sakt£. Sripati repudiates S.

:ana. . 4 tadvad abkimzail•am.·athinyavad dirya-mmigala-vigralza-dharasya mahesvarasya murtamiirta-prapaJica-kalpane apy ado:r. taltva-praptim upaddiit. The grace of God and the grace of the guru are also needed. 6 Those who worship Si·iJa go to 8i'iHl. tho~c who worship other fonns of JJrahman than . u sraddhii-bkakti-dhyana-yogiid avchi' ityadau bhramara-Mtar•at f'aramdvaropasanatmaka-dhyana j.J. satya-sa1hkalpa and has no lord over him.. The freed souls assume the form of Siva (s£va-st"iriipya). They have . 1 a go to th(_·m. I. the jfva is not diifcrent frmn l1rahman. 8 bhaManugrahartham ghrta-!. s Devotees \vho n1eclitate on the miirta and am iirta forms of Brahman realise both these states. anan:_}'tidhipati. si·vavat svatantrafz.i. The body which he assumes to attain lmihi~a is non-natural and effulgent like that of Paramcsvara 1 and is free from causes that make for unhappiness. 5 l~y 'upd . 4• 1 .lVfla-ka·utlza the supreme three-eyed Lord helped by Umii. Ry ntt•ditating on . 2 na dubkha-hetu.~·if. cannot be had by a study of the ['pani~ads.vara-sarira7.. 1. dluira~za and jncrna the earthly sheath is cast off and Sivatva is reached. By knowledgl' and devotion \Ve n1ay attain to the supreme statc. are omniscient and free from self-conceit (ablzimlina). 7 Sripati quotes the following smrti text: sivam bhaja11ti ye narii~ siva1i1 vrajanti tc narii~ sivt:larant bhajanti ye sivdaJ'a1'h vrajanti te. brahma-sclli0r'itkdra. In the interests of devotees God takes all the forms in \Yhich we find him. devotion and meditation. 1.~ of bondagc. the saint \Vill aprakrta-jyotir-mayatvena paramef. :z. • Ill. sa-gu~wptisanii. 4· 2. I.a's own forrn but still worship hin1 even in thr state of release. dhyiina. Caste distinctions are not insisted on by the Vira-sai·vas. 6 jnana1i1 vastu paricchctti dhyiina1it tat-bluiva-kiira~wm tasmat jtvo bhavet sambhttb krimivalllifa-cintaucit . ]iva and Brahman arc different frorn each oth(·r in the state.~·Z1. the individual soul attains the 11ature of 8iva. 3 in the state of release.ya. 8 svabluivika-bhinnatvam.. v·edic duties arc cmnpulsory in all stages of life. He is as independent as Siva himself. by faith. 9 The formless Brahman can he obtained by means of the worship of personal forms. 2 He is of true resolve.'at.'1 The intuition of !Jnzhman.a~.I ntroductz"on to karma. Sripati points out that on the analogy of bhramara-/dfa-ny£l.aua-vasiit jfvasya siva .

~iintam dhytitvii munir gacchati bh 1tta-yoni1il. Kaivalya U. This is the essence of the V eda1~ta. the meaning oi atyiisrama of the sruti. 2 !jat-sthala is the connecting link between the individual soul and the Supreme Reality. Siva is worshipped as li1iga. H arada t Uicarya 's work on 11ari-hara-tiiratamyam is a case in point. 4 He wrote a conunentary on the B. While the worship of H ari and H ara. 1479-1531 or qSI-1533· 1 . aillya. 1224- I.~rama if i srutilt. L 3· 3 lfyante yatra bhfittini nir-~acrhanti puna!) puna!). still in son1e periods rivalries were pronou.nced.88 1'/tt: Bralmta S{itra attain Siva. They are named bhakti. or the large com1nentary. samasta-siik!filil tamasalJ parastiit. which has not come down to us.1 The six positions in the progress of the aspirant aiming at the attainrncnt of freedon1 frotn bondage are said to be $at-sthala. VALLABHA Vallabha belongs to the latter part of the fifteenth century. the small conunentary as distinct frorn the Brhad-bhii$ya. Anyone initiated in the Pii!mpata-vrata wears not only bhasrna but li1iga: lingiin~ta-sa:tiginiim caiva punar-ianma na vidyate ye~ii pasupato yogalt pa. tena lingam paraliz vyoma ni$kalal) paramas sival). 7· 2 1. He wrote a comtnentary on it called the umii-sahiiyam paramdvaram prabhwh tri-locana1h nlla-ka~z!ltarh pra. This wearing of the linga is the pakupata yo~a by which we destroy the animal created by bondage. who is J:>eyond darkness.. Vi~~1-u and Siva was generally adopted. He who wears the litiga on his body will have no more rebirth.n. Like Madhva and Jiva Gosvamin. Vallabha holds the 13/u"igavata Pztrii~za in high esteem. prasiida. the unseen background of the universe.D. called the A ~tu-bhii$ya. mahesa. It marks the six stages which signify the acquisition of knowledge which leads to slimarasya or equality with Brahutan. 3 the syn1bol which is said to transcend space.~u-pasa nivrtt{tye SUYVlJ-Vedanta-saroyam atyO. The joint worship of V1:Hzu and Siva in the fon11 of H ar£-hara is advised in the well-known Devangcre inscription dated A. prli~ta-h1iga sarana.S. • His dates are given as A. Li1i~am Unam gamayati yat. the origin of created things.

a and prakrti and includes innumerable worlds. being. 2 Va11abha's suddht"idvaita is distinct from S. Possibly Vi~t)u-svamin lived about the end of the thirteenth ccnturv. In his conunentary on the nlz£i~a7. There is a legend that Vi:. 37· te ea siimpratarh vi~·~m . which is the object of meditation which is regarded as the abode of 1\r:)~la. He follows Maclhva's Yicws except that he advocates the worship of 1\iidhii. along \vith that of J('!$ called Sar?'afJ!a-sii!?ta. There arc three forms of Bralzman: (i) Para-!Jrahman. \Vhile Puru$otlama is the highest. Tri-locana and Vallahha. the principle dwelling in the finite souls. (3) karman or action. 32.'ata Purii~ta called . It is supra-sensible and is inferred from the nature of effects. k£iryiinumcya. Vi~ryu-svflrnin is said to have written a commentary on th<' B.t:tn-svamin's succ0. 1 Val1abha stat0s the Yicw of Vi~t)n­ svamin as propounding a distinction between JJralmum and the world through the qualities of satt1•a. V ltimate Reali(y For Vallabha. It is the first cause that disturbs the equilibrium of the gu~1. The Ak!}ara appears as prakrti anclj>urw. (4) S1'abhi'i1ra or nature.stem which he regards as irnpure on account of its use of the doctrine of nllivii. (ii) . internal or external.'ubodhiui.G. He is free fron1 all diffen·nces. It is allpervasive and the cause and support of all things. Nama-rleva.a-vlidi no nimiinu. Ak$ara Brahman is one expression of it. (iii) Ak. Time is regarded as a form of God.. Ill.<. the Snpren1e is f{t$~ta. 33 and it 'vas completed by his second son Vittala-natha. one without a second. kno\\'n as !Jra/z. In his A ~tu-bhii$ya. svcimy-anusiiri!w !z latlt.Introduction 8g Subodh£ni. 2.:lntar-_vlimin. (z) kiila or time. awareness and bliss.diUic ea naiJ'glt~tya-viirlasya. the in the Upan-i$ads. It appears in four forms: (r) ak$ara. It is higher than purm.~ ea tamo-rajas-sattvair bhin11a asmat. he uses not only the Upani!}ads.S.'s sy. His commentary is available only up to III. He himself was a follower of Vi~l)u-svamin (fourteenth century) who is reputed to be the founder of Visuddlziidvaita.a and is the cause of everything..ssors were jf1ana-cleva.S. rajas and lamas \\'hi le he holds that T:rahman is devoicl of qualities. I 1 .~ara .fa. and the B. but also the 1-JhiigaPata.P''atipii. sac-cid-iinanda.J-:ralzman. Puru$otlama or 1\r:j·~za.

h<'ing. Inanimate objects have only sat or being. I\r$~Ul. Tattviirtha-dlpa. God has the pO\vcr to become anything at any time through what is kt1own as his nuiy/i-sakt£. p. consciousness and bliss. Brahman. He is not sa-gu~za or possessed of qualities for the si1nplc reason that the qualities do not stand against him depriving him of his independenc:e. He is both sa-gu~za and nir-gu~za. has all the three qualities. the world. God is both agent and non-agent. The animate creationjiva has being and consciousness hut not bliss.ziima-hetutva1it tal-lak~a~w. consciousness and bliss. he becorncs manifest and the object of comprehension.: yet is he known when he wills. consciousness and bliss are absent.i~zas . vi-jatfyii jat/.ii. The world being a manifestation of Brahman is never destroyed 1 1 pari?. He is the controller of the qualities and so their existence and nonexistence depend on hitn.m. are the same./:1.aviin anusy17tas tri-rupas ea bhavatlti. sa-jiilfya-vi-jat'lya-sva-gata-dvaila-varjitam sa-jatiyii jfva.p·i bhagavac-chaktitvena saktimad-abhinnatviit. sva-gata antar-yii. I. 1\1 i'iyd is the po\ver of nralzman and is not di fft>rcn t fr01n Brahman:' The cause.mina. He is the samaviiya and the nimitta-kiira~ta of the world. Vallabha holds that Brahman is the inherent cause or sanzavliyf.-kt'ira~w since Brahman exists everywhere in his tripartite nature as being. . It is that which produces change. 4· 4 mii. and the effect. soul and Rrahman. Brahman manifests his three characters in different proportions in matter.. M~ultiplicity does not involve any change for it is the one identity that is manifested in Yarying forms. fri~v api bha. the Supreme Being. He cannot be knuwn through the pram. Puru~ottama's Prastltii1la-ratnaka1'rt. a I. The souls. A third category is svabhci'va. 1 These are eternal principles which are one \vith God. It manifests itself as different actions in different n1en. Though unmanifest and transcendent hy creating the world. T59. l.The BraJuna Sutra Karma or action is also universal. He is thl' creator of c\'erything and is the rnatcrial and efficient cause of the world. Hf' is present in his fullness in all objects though he manifests his qualities in different degrees.yiiyii. God is the changeable as well as the unchangeable. the material world and the indwelling spirit are three forms of Gocl and not di ffcrent from him. ! tair nirapita1iz dvaita1-h hhedas tad-varjitam. 3 God does not create by using prakrti but through his own nature. 2 The universe consists of these thn~c elements.


rst class are the chosen ones who enjoy the grace of God and are ardently devoted to hi111. one being the support and the other the supported. Bhakti produces sarviitma-bhiiva. love and service. l t does not become iinanda-mava for then it would be the cn'ator of worlds like Hralmzan. The last arc engrosseJ in worldly desires ami do not think of liod. they pervade the whole body by their intelligence. for Vallabha. If the self were not naturally free. If knowledge is associated with devotion the seeker is absorbed in P1tYU$otlama. the attained and the attainer. They share the joy of his company. There is a still higher stage where the Lord gives to some souls divine bliss. nitya-lUa. The notion of the self as doer and enjoyer is due to misconception. It is not iinanda-maya but \V hen it attains brahma-knowlcdgc it enjoys linanda. it is necessary that it should possess all attributes as Brahman. . Though atomic in sizl>. The second arc c_kvoted to God and worship hin1 through the study of the Scriptures. The Supreme who is (tJZanda-maya giYes bliss to the fivas and cannot itself be the jiva. The state of bhakti when we enjoy God with all our senses and mind is better even than release. pu~ti. The self is one though it appears as many when it becomes associated with diverse kinds of ignorance and litnits itself by the objects of knowledge. marytida and pravt"ihu.92 The Bralnna Si"Ura of the fiva are under the control of Bralmtan. They are of three classes. it would not be possihlc to liberate it by any means. The jfva is n1ade in the irnage of Brahman. For the jl7'a to enjoy all blessings along with J)rahman. for they are all tnanifestations of God. l>hakti. ~- Release and the n·ay to it Vallabha holds that the knower of Brahman is absorbed in Ak$ara Brahman and not in Puru$oltama. There is always a distinction between the giver ancl the recei\·cr. The souls are eternal parts of ])ralzman. is prcmii and sevii. By it we reach release from birth and rebirth. For the individual to know itself as pure intelligence. yoga or knowledge by special \'ision is essential. The fl. is the only 1neans to salvation. of \vhich Vallabha gives a detailed analysis. Bhakti. Through intense attachment to the Supreme one perceives him in all things. Brahn~an and jiva arc real.

The purpose of jijfziisii or inquiry is for the attainment of release. sa11nihitatr•am asti. Vallabha adopts the latter position. The world is real. nir-vise$a Brahman but a qualifwd. j"iva. He admits differences to be real bet\veen the individual soul. 4· 17. 1498--1573) in her songs brought out the full implications of the worship of Rlidhr7-T<r$~W.1563) was Vallahha's chief disciple and he popularised Vallabha's teaching. The Those who adopt this way gain release through the grace of the Supreme.n. he is full of auspicious qualities. rajas and tamas. 1rtOk$a-llibha. Vallabha does not advocate renunciation or samnyrl.I ntroducl'ion 93 There are two forms of bltal~ti. f1va and prakrti. The way of bhaldi is preferable. 1 jagat-janmadi-kara~1atva1it para-brahma1. Mira Bai (A. 1nar:yiida-bhaldi which is attainable by one's own efforts and pu${i-bhaA·ti which is attainable by the grace of God alone. J. 2 The released soul is para-tantra. gives us not an unqualified. Suka follows Madhva's teaching on this point. N iiriiya~ta. 14R3. They are eh'cted by God whether they l1ave acquired the requisite qualifications or not. and the Lord. The path of knowledge brings its results after many births. Renunciation follows from bhaldi out of necessity and not out of a sense of duty. \Vhilc ParaRrahman is nir-gu~za in so far as he is absolutely free from sattva. She put herself in the place of Rcidhii and addressed her songs to ]{!$~la. grants mok$a or liberation.-'lNrda. 1sa. out of his grace. IV. Sur Vas (A. iinmTdiid£-sadgu~tas. maintenance and destruction of the universe. The B. Suka believes in a1.S.. He is the source of the creation. I bhagavat-prastida-labdhasya pratyag-tilmana. 1 B·ralzman in the fonn of SrT H ari. sa -vi5e$a Brahman.rii~w.D. . This way demands complete surn~nder to the Supretne. He bases his views on the Bhiigmmta Pu.1o mol~$asya lak$at:Jam bhavalfti praha janmlidyasya iti.'atiiras which are said to be equal. I<r$~la is to be adored. SUKA From the quotations in other comn1entaries we find that Suka (sixteenth century) is an advocate of bhcda. without one's own effort.

their mutual association is due to the operation of God. VIJNANA-BHIK$U a native of Bengal. For in himself God is only pure consciousness. Bralmzan is pure consciousness and unchangeable. according to Vijfiana-bhik. It is akha~uJa. called l'"tj11iiniimrta-blul~ya.2. it is only the substratum or the ground cause. Prakrti acts as the upiidhi of God with its pure sattva. 's view and con1plains that he reduces Bralwu~n to the . The relation between the upadhi and prakrti is one of the controller and the controlled.94 The Brahma Sz"Ura subordinate to Paramiitman. it has a relative vyiivahcir£ka existence. I>rahman is not directly the material cause of the world. !(ala and adr$ta are also parts of prakrtt:. wrote a commentary on the B. 1svara possesses energies constituting pralqti and pu.S. Brahman is possessed of sakti. Vijnana-bhik~u.u. protests against S. He disrnisses teachers of non-dualisn1 as J(u-kalpakas.Ja kriyate. He enjoys bliss in association with the Supreme Lord. i svara is the instrumental and material cause. Though therefore the world has no permanent reality. . He attempts to reconcile the Vediinta and the SciJizklzya systerns.. who lived about the beginning of the seventeenth century. Through the instrument of prakrti. impartible. I. adh£$/hiina-lu'ira~ta. which develops a theistic Sa1izkh_va. atyanta-sammisra-riipe~za. 2 asmiibhis tu prakyti-Ptt1'U$a-samyoga ISvareJ. There are two forms of the Supreme. Brahman and I svara.1.{iinya of the Buddhists. \Vhile in the Siiniklz~ya systcn1 prakrt£ is associated with puru$as through an inner tdPology. I. while Brahman is pure consciousness. Bhagavan or Absolute God is different 1 1. 1 Brahman Brahn1an has many qualities. For Vijfiana-bhik~u. He supports the personal individuality of souls. 2 Prakrti is the 'ltpiidhi of 1s~'iHlra. K. Prakrti and puru$a have no existence apart frorn God. God is able to think or will.

Its association with pral.void of any connection (asa. the reality of the individual souls is not denied. I. \Vhile God creates changes. He is tnore real than pur·w. body..95 from N iiriiya1. ~ bhedabhedau vibhilgavibhaga-rupau kala-bhedcna avinuldhau aii)'01t)'iibluiNls 1 ea jfva~lwahmatzor atyantika eva. 1. 2 The Supreme Self does not undergo any change or transformation. he explains that is a part of God even as the son is part of the father: atm kr~~w t'i.a and buddh£. 3. The Individual Soul Introduction The self is dt. . While the individual souls and Brahman are indistinguishable in character (avibluiga).za or V isnu who are his manifestations even as sons are of the father. r.~zub svayam paramdva1·as tasya putravat siiA· ~iid a~11. 1 Brahntan as God is responsible for the creation. It is the reflection of the pure soul in the conditioning factors which turn it into a jfva or the individual. I IV. The self is pure consciousness and knowledge of objects is possible through the changes of anta1z-kara~z. Kr~~Jas tu ld~agavan svayam.a-maya. Puru$a and prakr# merge in the end in i s·vara by whose will the crl'ative process begins in prakrti at the end of each pralaya.~a and pral~rh which arc already potentially exist«:nt in God and connects the prakrti with purtt$a.a or pralqti and its c\·olutes. They arc moved by God for the production of the universe which is experienced and enjoyed by the purU$llS who are ultimately led to liberation beyond bondage.. 3 ll' 3' 5. different from Brahntan. maintenance and destruction of the world.nahhik~u states that the world is real and eternal. The ultimate principle is not 1S?Hlra which is the manifestation of pure consciousness in satt?.{a ity at·thab. nt'tya. Commenting on I. God is all-pervasive. I. 2. They arc said to be derived from God as sparks from fire. 4 While the S(hhkhya system recognises Kr~rta Quoting the Bhiigavata. Vijfla. JJrahman as 1s11ara brings into being puru. 2. he is not affected by thern. Prakrti and purw~as are entities which abide outside God and arc coexistent with him. 3 The j'ivas arc not unreal. Though they resen1ble God in so far as they are of the nature of pure consciousness. the cause of all and the inner controller.iga). they retain their individuality on account of their association with limiting conditions and so they appear as finite and lin1ited.·rti is not direct contact.

It is the happiness of living near God. 1 To get to the presence of 1-Jralzman is the highest reward for the devotee.-bhik~u holds that the seekers nuty reach bralnnatva but they cannot attain para-brc~hmafml.leased soul does not possess the powers of creation. It is a state of non-difference with it. At the time of release the individuals are not connected with any content of knowledge and are therefore devoid of any consciousness. To know Brahman.Brahman. his false attachment to the ego disappears. attaining Brahmariipa and not aikya or oneness vvith Bralmtan. hy which he is tnaintained and to which he will ultimately return. 3 \Vhcn the seeker realises his nature as pure consciousness and that God is the being frmn which he has derived his existence. Those who attain to l~tira~za-Drulunan have no return. etc. Brahman is the final goal of jiva but jiva is not one with Brahman.ya systctn is essential. in spite of their separateness. After the completion of enjoy1nent with Bralunan. 2 the~· S('Cure release frmn rebirth. they enter into the great soul even as rivers enter into the ocean.a-miitra. The rr. 1 . which are the prerogatives of j ~~vara. The ultimate state of realisation is entry into the ultimate being. 9· 20. writes mad-darsanam eva sarva-sreyasiim phalam iti. Cp.nrahman and not to kiira~ta.g6 The Bralzma Siitra the individuality and separateness of the souls (puru$as) Vijfiana-bhik~u maintains that. Vijiianabhik~u holds that one can get to !?tir)'a. Vijaya-dhvaja. The released soul is an atizsa. VijiUina.. not an arhsin. the aid of the Slhhkh. I Vijfi1ina-bhik$l1 quotes from Vyasa-smrti: suddhiitma-tattva-vijnana1n samkhyam ity abltidhiyate. they are one in essence with Brahman and have sprung out of it. Bha/di as love is the way to the highest realisation. saha-vtisa-blwf!. the commentator. pari/. Even in the state of dissolution. Bhiigavata TI.riima!l pu~nstlm mad-darsaniivadhil). The goal is st1yujya. 1 tad-bhoga-samapty-anantaram. they will be merged in Brahman. vara·1iz varaya bhadra~h te vare5am mabhiva1ichitam sarva srryalz. \\Then their destiny is fulfilled.

D.hyiinam na nama-sadrsaJil phalam. Gftii-hhz~~a~za. His views are based on the doctrines of . The chanting of the Divine nan1e is exalted.eda. Siddluinta-ratna.. (7) Release consists in the attainment of the Lord. It etnphasises not only the transcendent majesty (aisvar_ya) of the Lord. (8) \Vorship of the Lord is the cause of release. perception.. but also his sweetness of Inotivc (miidhur_ya-rfipa). Madhva's influence is found in Baladeva's insistence on the concept of vise$a and the difference between i.Jiva Gosvamin. which is a commentary · on the B. . inference and Scripture. He is the author of 1nany works of which the chief are his cmnmcntary on the B. (5) The individual souls are real and are servants of the Lord. 1 . He also wrote a work called l{r$U·acaitan_vli. (3) The universe is real. BALADEVA 97 Baladeva Baladeva is said to have lived about the beginning of the eighteenth century. j'iva and the world. tathil hi Hvara.Vladhva and the teachings of Caitanya.mrta which sets out the essence of Caitanya's teaching.meyas or propositions: (r) The Lord is the highest reality. Baladcva followed Suka's commentary on the same work.Introduction L. 2 Pra. Caitanya's doctrine is not pure dualistn but what is called acintya-bhcdiib/z. (g) There arc three sources of knowledge. and Pramc_va-ratnii. Cp . na niima-sadrsath jfzanam na nama-sadrsa1il vratam 'ta nama-sadrsatil tf.S.meyaratnlival£ lays do·wn nine pra. (2) He is known from Scripture alone.~vara. Rupa Gosvamin and Baladeva are among the followers of Caitanya. In his comtnentary on the B.l.S. The Supreme Bengal Vat'$~lav£sm developed by Caitanya (A.. known as Govindablui$ya. Siddhcinta-ratna speaks of five tattvas or realities which are the satne as those admitted by Hari-vyasa-deva. (4) The difference between the Lord and the individual souls is real. 1 I 465. the last being the most authoritative and reliable.G. (6) The individual souls are different from one another and there are five grades of souls. 1485-1533) is greatly influenced by the teachings of Maclhva.vali.lfdi-pura~ta D .jfva-prakrti-kala-karmii~ti pailt"a-tattva1ti sruyante.

He is of the size of a span. apar{t-. 2. and n1ysterious.· itntnea~urahlc and yet measured. He is pure consciousness and bliss. acintya. He has great solicitude for his devotees.g8 The Bra/una St7tra Brahman is I\r$~la. • Ill. yet the substratun1 of light. 28. 3 III.~al. He is the creator of all and yet is hin1srlf unmodified. roots and leaves. dwelling actually in the heart of his devotees. nu'iyii or tamas.:ti and avidyii-saldi. 8 The parti-sakt-i is threefold. 1 His powers and attributes are inconceivable. He is mighty and n1ajcstic and yet sweet and lo\·ely. • III. 4 The Lord is both knowledge and knower. The Lord is all-pervading. 8 vi~tttt-sakti!l para proktii k~etraj. 1 I . sa-gu~la in that he has innmnerable auspicious qualities. He is nir-gu~za in the sense that he is free frmn the three gu~zas of prakrt£.7 The Lord has three powers. 7 III. 2. so is it with the attribute's of the Lorcl. 28. Ill. they are nothing except the Lord himself. without any parts and yet possessed of parts. 29. separate from him and as such every one of the1n is full. He is just and impartial and yet shows special grace to his devotees. 2 The attributes of the Lord arc not different fron1 the Lord. He is one essence throughout and every one of his attributes is identical with him and not a part. 5 The Lord has no internal differences. 2. substance and attribute. flO\vcrs. He is the Personal God possessed of infinite auspicious qualities. is yet the substratum of the knowledge as well. perfect and unchangeable. 27. so the Lord though essentially of the nature of knowledge. Through the first the Lord who is knowledge knows vidyayii paritu~to haris svabhaldiiya iitmiiJ~aH~ dadiiti. Prameya-ratnavali I.iyii-sakti. as a tree is a concrete whole of fruits. yet aton1ic. \vhich is the power that gives bliss.lakhya tathapara avidya-karma-samjfianyii tytfya saktir i~yate. sannidhi or bala-sakti or the power that gives existence and hliidini or la. Even as the coil constitutes the serpent and is not separated from it but is yet the attribute of the serpent. The first is Vi$~tu-sakti or svariipa-sakti. Il. samvit or jfiiina-sakti or the power of consciousness. 3· 13. I. 2. Vt"$~ltt or Hari. 4· 1. 30. & III. the second f{$elrafita and the third karma. He gives his own self to thc1n. parli-sakti. 3 Or as the sun is essentially· light. 6 He is not a concrete whole of different attributes.

tad-anya-sakti-dvayadvaraiva. The Lord is possessed of a celestial nonmaterial form or body.Introduction 99 himself and imparts knowledge to the souls. tatradyam pa. The world is real. The three substances. He creates the world strictly in accordance with the past deeds of ihc souls. 3 The form or body of the Lord is not different from the Lord but is identical with him. tin1e and ka. Though the Lord is ordinarily imperceptible to the senses. I. 2. matter.rma are coeternal with ihe Lord and subordinate to him. Through the third. It is originally the equilibrium of the three gu~zas but it is set in motion by a glance of the Lord. The aparii-sakti and avidyii-sakti consist respectively of souls and matter. 24-7· . God is not capricious. the Lord existent by nature gives existence to space.khyii saktimad. God's actions are not in any way detern1ined by motives but they flow spontaneously from his own essential nature through his enjoyment of his O\-vn nature as bliss. 1 \Vhen the latter powers are manifested in gross forms. non-intelligent substance. During praluya or dissolution souls and matter remain merged in the Lord. • III.·J. 4· 26. the Lord who is blissful by nature enjoys himself. 2 which has the attributes of being. 1 I 11. for God who is reality cannot produce anything which is unreal. as the n1aterial cause he is subject to tnodification or pari~1iima. It is only as an aid to meditation that the tasya nimittat71am ~lpadanatvat1cabhidllfyate. The world is an effect. consciousness. As the operative cause the Lord is unchangeable. He is the efficient cause through his part. 31. in absorbed devotion he is perceptible to the senses of the devotee. The Lord in the act of creation takes account of them. dvitfyam t11. I. the development of pralqti which is also called mliyii or avid_yli. Through the second.apet)a. time. matter. a power of the Lord without beginning and enrl. bliss and all-pervasiveness. The Lord is both the efficient and the material cause of the universe. The devotee sees him with his purified mind even as he sees external objects. the universe of souls and matter arises. Time is said to be an eternal. The changes are effected in his powers but he remains unchanged.i-sakh and is the material cause through his aparii and av£dyii saktis. and gives bliss to others. 1\arma is also an important factor. souls and karma.

6 Cp.·cr. the soul. various kinds of energies and the Lord are in\·olved. there are certain exalted souls like N~irada and Sanat-Kumara who are called tivesiivatiiras. When the Lord is said to be forn1less. They are not to be worshipped since they do not possess all the attributes of the Lord. 6 He leaves it to the free wi11 of the individual. 3· 21. however. it can shape its future. II.IOO The Brahma S utra devotees conceive of his body as distinct fron1 him. 3· 15. it 1neans that he does not possess the form but is the form itself. God determines the souls in accordance with their nature.e. Though God is capable of changing the nature of the individuals he does not do so. an effect and a power of the Lord and is both different and nondifferent from him. an independent agent like the Lord. 2. 5 The soul is not. Some of the incarnations are partial and some fulL In Kr$Fa we have a fuii incarnation. It is both knowledge and knower. Besides this essential form of Kr$~ta. 23. he is fully manifest in each one of them. Ill. Free will on the part of the agent is assured. Vasudcva.3 The Supreme appears in many places and this is possible on account of his marvellous powers. . sthanani bhagavad-avirbhiivaspadiini tad-vividha-l'ilasraya-bhutani vividhabhavavanto bhaktas ea. Ill. • na ea karma-sapek~atvena fSvarasya asvatantram . Though the Lord is not limited by these fonns. the different scnsr-organs. 14.~aktya yugapat sarvatravabhaty eko'pi san. I 1. . It is not a part as a chip cut off from the 2 8 Ill. Ill. 1 The Lord has a multitude of forms through which he n1anifests himself. ·viliisa-riipa such as Naraya1)a. B. 2 Besides the full and partial incarnations. 4 ekam eva svarupam acintya-. 2. These arc his avatiiras or incarnations. an cnjoyer and an actin:· agent. howe.G. These qualities belong to the soul in bondage and release. It is not. anadi-jtvasvabhavanusare~a hi karma karayati svabhiivam anyatha-kartum samartho'pi llasyapi na karoti. i. without beginning and without end and self-luminous. 4 The I ndiv£dual Soul The indiYidual soul is by nature eternal. In every act. The soul is a part. Sarhkar~al)a and Aniruddha. 1. an automaton. 35· 1 . 14. XVIII. the body. the Lord has also other energy forms. Even as the acts of the soul in the present life are determined by those in former lives.

In one sense the individual soul and the world arc different from Bralunan. I-5· a sa.I ntrod. separate from him and yet related to him as the created and the ruled. Baladeva recognises difference between the Lord and the soul for it is the basis of all devotion bnt does not make the difference absolute like :!\fadh\'a for the eHect cannot be absolutely different fron1 the cause. The world is real. Thf~Y are produced through the will of God and disappear through his will in the waking stage. The rdation of unity of the Lord to the plurality of the world is be~rund our grasp. There arc differences among souls owing to their past deeds an<l aspiratious. attains his nature and attributes t II. resides in the same world as the Lord. 2 \Vhat is the relation between the Lord. . the bound. 2. 3 Bondage results frmn turning one's face away from the Lord resulting in the obscuration of OIH"'s real nature. 1 There are three kinds of souls. the non-sentient matter? The latter are the effects of the Lord and so an~ non-diff~_!rent from hin1. The soul is atomic in size and we have a plurality of souls. It is a part in the sense of being subordinate to the Lord. They are also different because they are ruled anJ supported by the Lord. The world and the souls belong to God. Release consists in turning one's face to\vards the Lord. The relationship of difference-non-difference is incomprehensible by intellect and is known only through the Scriptun:s. Even the freed souls are different from one another on account of the difference in the quality of their devotion. and the sentient souls and. Even dream creations are not falst>. the freed and the ever-free souls.·valra tadlyalz·a-jliiinarthall. The freed soul is in union with the Lord.ction IOI rock is a part of the rock. 3· 42· I Ill. in anotlwr sense they arc non-different as effects of Brahman. Release The freed soul is different from the Lord in that it is atmnic while the Lord is all-pervading and it lacks the power of creation which belongs only to the Lord. The freed souls are collaborators of the Lord and can assume many forms.u. The union of Rl~dhii and I\r!J1:Za symbolises the intimate communion between 1nan and God. The freed soul has a distinctive individuality and is under the control of the Lord.

Rhakt£ Bhakti is the sole and direct cause of salvation. \Vhen God is worshipped in a litnited fonn. ucyate. however. though he rcn1ains as the allpervasive being. vijii/ina which is obtained fron1 the study of the Scriptures and prafJiii or intuitive knO\vledge or intin1atc realisation. loveliness. . Baladeva does not admit jivan-mukti. Vidya is devotion preceded by knowledge. 33. It is a means to the rise of knowlellge and devotion and is not by itself the cause of salvation. The grace of the Lord leads to the direct intuition or vision of the Supreme. etc.vaka bhakti. 3· 48. omnipotence. 1 It. According to Balade\·a. The grace of the Lord is not arbitrary. 36. vait('igya and prenui. dhylina or n1editation is one forn1 of bhakti. 4· 8. he reveals himself in that same fonn to the devotee. It depends on the devotion of the souls themselves. The former is produced by the knowledge of the imperfection and transitoriness of all worldly objects and the knowledge that attachment to thern produces endless rebirths while the latter is engendered by the knowledge of the Lord and his attributes of omniscience. Only jftiina or vidyii is the cause of salvation. karma is no longer necessary even as a horse is necessary for accomplishing a journey but is no longer necessary when the journey is acconlplished. IV. Bhakti is prcmrl or intense love and not up(isana or tneditation.ana-pu. Ill.2 Baladeva rejects the theory of jfuina-karma-samuccaya.102 The Brahma Sittra and is in proximity to hitn. Devotion is based on knowledge of the self and the world and of the Lord.t distinguishes between two kinds of knowledge. 4· 4· • vidya-sabdena fii. When once knowledge and devotion arise. 1 I Ill. Bhal\-ti invoh·cs negatively a strong dislike for all objects other than the Lord and positively an intense love of God. Man cannot reach salvation by his unaided effort. Baladcv<. Bhakti is jFziina-vise$a. s The grace of the Lord is essential. The performance of the duties relating to one's own stage of life helps to purify the mind. The Lord chooses those who are wholeheartedly devoted to him. retains its separate individuality.

As his knowledge increasf's and he bccmnes familiar ·with the regularity and inevitability of natural forces. Thr full stature of . He wishes to be saved fron1 the dangers of existence. The conflict in us is indicated by the myth of original sin. The process of evolution has been at work from the inorganic to tlw organic. frmn the organic to the sentient. Tlwre is a subth~ intenYo\·enncss \Yith the realities of the spiritual world. A new phase is ahead of us. from the treacherous forc('S of nature. fron1 the snares of's physical life is 110t a perfect realisation of an idea. opens with the \Vords 'now thrrefore an cnc1uiry into B1'ahman'. a life as far above the purely rational as the rational is above the sentient. his confused interpretations of nature's striking manifestations ixnpel him to propitiate the forces that govern the universe. a kinship brtween Atma n and Brahman.Introduction CHAPTER 103 J Reason and Revelation Rational Inquiry EvEN those \'Vho feel that religion is an illusion have to investigate religion as a natural phenomenon. It is reason that provokes the religious quest.rishcs to have a programme of salvation. l\. It is the perfected product that gives us the key to the understanding and interpretation of the imperfect. Philosoph~' as brahma-jifJiiist"i is a consistent effort of reflection. The B. to the God-n1an. The ethical emphasis is possible when \VC recognise the transcendent world of spirit. Man '~. His ignorance of laws governing natural phenomena. \Ve must love our neigh hour and serve him. Ideas n1anifest thetnsclves in diffen'nt stages of development and "·c can understand these stages only in the light of the full de\·Plopmcnt. Through effort and discipline tlw rational man has to grow to the spiritual n1an. \Ve escape frorn blind servitude to passional experience when we achieve frtc(lnm that lies in the inner intuitive vision of the transcendent spirit. he understands the conditions under which nature can be controlled and turned to his use. Nor is hun1an life a simple biological process. from the sentient to the rational.S. Attention shifts fron1 the natural to the ethical realm.

2 that the Supreme is the basis of the whole world process. its origin. and Descartcs. It is essential in this age of science that religious belief should be shown to be reasonable.m iti advaita-prakara1Jarh prarabhyate. his completion as man. Yet it is the ultimate presupposition which is indubitable. There are limitations of scientific knowledge. Knmvledge of that n1ystery is not derh·rd or derivable from any empirical observation or rational analysis of the facts observed. He has to struggle and evolve to this higher stage. 1 Yet reasoning is not all. it is adopting the attitude of natural religion. We must get down to the bedrock. tat l~atha. wisdom and the life of spirit are beyond it. 1 . Moral values. J. according to~.Valltral Religion The view of God which we obtain from the employment of reason is what is called in modern theology <natural religion'. Heraclcitus felt that there was a mystery which the human mind cannot comprehend. S. an incomprehensible and unfathomable clement \Vhich human thought cannot fully penetrate. Plato inscribed the warning above the door of his Academy: 'Nobody untrained in mathematics may cross this my threshold. maintenance and dissolution. \Vhen the B. Self-awareness is not a proposition to be proved true or false by scientific tests. is reached when he becomes a God-man. Nature will not do this work for n1an.104 The Brahma Sutra man. the point at which we know our own infinitude. The much abused term existential means that philosophy is not a matter of abstract thinking. the advaita1h kim iigama-miif1'qla pratipattavyam ahosuit tarkc~u2pi ity ata a/la sakyate tarkcn(tpi jliiitum. The meaning of existence. The tree of the knowledge of good and evil does not grow from the soil of science. I. stretching forward and backward in time and upwards to eternity. How it is possible to prove the validity of advaita by reasoning is shown in the chapter on Advaita. but is rooted in the inward soul. argues in I.' In his co1nmcntary on the ltft"ituUik_va J{iirikii Ill. There is a realm where it has no sway.S. raisrs the question whether the non-dualist doctrine can be established only hy scriptural evidence or whether it can be proved by reasoning as well. Socrates was a great advocate of reason but yet a profoundly religious man with mystical feeling.

Introduction I05 nature of the spirit of man lies in a realn1 of n1ystery and we can live human lives only by a commitment of faith. he says. only he means by intellect intuitive knowing. From that security we must go our way and fuHil our destiny. adopts the srune threefold classification. 'are not two powers. it will be inadequate. without any preconceived ideas. the schism between the free questioning attitude widely dii1used among the educated people all oyer the world and the insights of religion should be healed. If it is lacking in wonder. discursive thought and spiritual knowledge. The Hindu thinkers do not share Barth's utter conte1npt for nature ana reason. soul and spirit. Plotinus. The philosopher of religion also accepts the facts. logical understanding and intuitive insight. 'Intellect and reason'. J(eligion for the Hindu thinkers should con1mend itself to reason even while transcending it. Even the scientist accepts that the \Vorld works rationally and uniformly. and by reason discursive thinking. sense perception. In his works Thomas Aquinas tried to demonstrate that the doctrines held to be revealed ·were also reasonable. but it is not inconsistent with the findings of science. This is an act of faith though the scientist calls it a working hypothesis. lets reason go wherever the facts lead it. 'Ne cannot make a science of God for God is not an object like other objects of thought. Belief in God is not a scientific conclusion. In smne of his later writings Barth made smne concessions to a more humanistic outlook but they have not been integrated with his earlier outlook. The scientist uses his reason to interpret the raw material of kno\vledge provided by the senses. Aquinas distinguishes between intellect and reason. Intuition compldcs and transforn1s reason. M odes of Consc£ousness Three modes of consciousness are recognised by the Upani$ads. He notes the facts and finds that there must be a spiritual background to life. who regards the human individual as a trinity of body. It is sometimes argued that science examines facts with an open mind. sense perception. If religion is to survive. Philosophy is a school of wisdom and a school of wonder. His interpretation may be \vrong. D* .

Letters published in Bergson by Jacques Chevalier. Bradlcy is clear that \Ve have a different mode of apprehension by which \Ve can acquire a knowledge of the Absolute.. The real for him is not the rational and cannot be reduced to an 'unearthly ballet of bloodless categories'. because I believed 1 must restrict the sense of the word "intelligence". the possibility of a suprasensible intuition. It is independent of perception and inference.'a or rational intuition. the reason enquiry and discourse. F.. It is inarticulate and cannot be readily translated into conceptual terms. 1920. . Spinoza distinguishes iinagination. Henri Bergson wrote to Jacques Chevalier: •You arc perfectly right in saying that all the philosophy I have expounded since my first Essay affirms. originally destined to think of matter. taking the word "intelligence" in the very broad meaning given it by Kant. I could call "intellectual" the intuition I speak of. Bradley. ratz'o or reasoning-. against Kant. But I should prefer to designate it as "supra-intellectual". 2 It is synoptic not analytic.' Near the end of his life Thomas Aquinas laid aside his writing and refused to c01nplete his Summa saying that he had seen that \vhich n1ade the writing of books a small and insignificant thing. embraces everything and completes everything. heard and handled the word of life. 1 Intuitive consciousness is called pratibhii or iir$a-jfiana or para-satnvit. sc£entia intui#7. H.. While divine wisdom is eternal and is always possessed by God. who is inclined to follow Kant in his account of logical thought. and has the characteristics of immediacy and clarity. The intellect means an intimate penetration of truth. though it can become articulate. and therefore I reserve this name for the set of discursive faculties of the rnind. noetic not discursive. a suprarelational experience of which an earnest is found in the immediacy of feeling. Intuition bears toward spirit'. See Yoga Sutra Ill. The religious experience of God confinns and illuminates man's consciousness of the ultimate as the mystery that permeates everything. The seers are those who have seen. 84. The two types of knowledge are not incompatible though distinguishable.106 The Brahma Sutra but distinct as the perfect fron1 the imperfect . intuitive 1 1 April 28. argues that thought is inadequate to the grasp of reality.

on B.' Spiritual Experience Man is not saved by metaphysics. It is creativity. The nature of the object is then fully revealed. 3 I have called it intuition or integral insight. Spiritual life involves a change of consciousness. The subject and the object in intuition tend to coalesce. It is a vital process which is more an exertion of the will than a play of the intellect. 5· . 1 Cp. It lies at the basis of sense and logical knowledge. Visva-natha in Bhii~ii-pariccheda 1 describes yogic intuition as twofold. The ego disappears. S. mathematical and logical reasoning. 1 yuktasya sarvadii. It comes in a flash as distinct from patient observation or logical analysis.S. manam.Introduction 107 consciousness is brought into existence by a mental process. It is what Rousseau calls 'sovereign intelligence which sees in a twinkle of an eye the truth of all things in contrast tt' vain knowledge'. It deals with the reality and not the appearance of the object. and contemplation for the understanding of eternal wisdom. I. I. Reason and all other forms of a\vareness depend on it. inadequate and always uncertain cognition or idea derived from the sense-perception or logical reasoning. When we develop yogic intuition we have direct knowledge of objects. It reveals the central feature of the intuited object. This is the supra-rational diYine madness of Plato. Gauss struggling with a mathematical problem reported: 'I succeeded not on account of my painful efforts. \Ve thus gain an unmediated immediate knowledge and not the mediated. that of yukta-_yogin who mirrors the eternal light in which the totality of things remains perpetually il1umincd 2 and that of yu·Jijana-yogin who requires the aid of reHection. When mind by gradual training is freed from the influences of the concepts and memory images of the past (vikalpas) it merges itself in the object (dhyeya) and is absorbed and pervaded by it. Like a sudden flash of lightning the riddle happened to be solved. The individual becomes the instrument of the universal lifted above the limitations of the ego. Wisdom. past and future. We cannot foresee it or consciously prepare for it. 1 66. It is different from sense-observation. but by the grace of God. I myself cannot say what was the conducting thread which connected what I previously knew with what made my success possible.

right seeing. is different from knowledge. Dialogues II.108 The Brahma S1~tra gnosis. p. a rebornness.' 2 Justin Martyr says that 'the aim of platonism is to see God face to face'. It is an experiencing of that which cannot be known by reason. It arises out of a conflict between doubt and belief. It does not strive after logical certainty but adores the mystery. Cp. It is none of these but something beyond then1 all and has an element of quite inexpressible strangeness.' Through the power of intellect man can grasp truths which are higher than those accessible to reason. It becomes transparent in illumination. 6. Psalm xxxiv 8: '0 taste and sec that the Lord is good. \Vhat we aim at is not thinking hut secing. ecstasy and awe at what is too great to be realised by intellect. which is revealed to the seeker when he enters the inner sanctuary where the bustle of the mind is stilled and truth The first step in the Buddha's eightfold path is samma-dassana. Transcendent Being is never given as an object. • A. In early Christian thought. This reconciliation of contraries is beyond reason. It is experienced directly in the very failure of discursive reason to reach it. 1 . It is capable of intuiting knowledge that is beyond the reach of reason. anublzava or interior awareness. But "proof'' is one of the routes by which self-evidence is often obtained. N. 'Final and perfect bliss can only consist in the vision of divine being. 'Self-evidence is the basic fact on which all greatness supports itself.ariipa-slik$titkiira or the realisation of the Supreme is the goal of human existence. 66. 3 Thomas Aquinas in Sum·na Theologica: ultima et pe?'fecta beatitudo non potest esse nisi in visionc diuinae essentiae. 1 It is a change of being. 2 It is an experience which is a blend of wonder. intellect is rated higher than reason. It is the power to recognise absolute values through the spirit in us without the n1ediation of sense-perception or logical analysis. Whitehead: Modes of Thought (1938). The sphere of logical thought is exceeded by that of the mind's possible experience of reality.' 4 Faith is not belief. Brahma-st. The development of intellect takes place through initiation. It is not a conceptual elaboration of data that reach us through sense-experience.' 3 Nicholas of Cusa writes: 'It is reason (which is much lower than intellect) that gives names to things in order to distinguish them from one another.

his acts in the great drama of the world which moves through pain and death to the ultimate kingdom of truth and love. will be enkindled in the soul. 5 \Visdon1 affirms that there is God and . Ill. Epicurus. \\'ithout the succour of the Divine the whole world will instantly crurnblc into nothingness. They seek to help us to rise in our spiritual stature by forms of worship and service to living creation through whom God works. a total conversion. flashes through the soul like lightning and offers itself in a single moment's experience to apprehension and vision.' 1 'Suddenly there shone fron1 heaven a great light. This was also the view of some philosophers of the \V est like Pythagoras. We begin to expound and argue about it and get back to it continually for refreshment and renewal. Cp.Introduction rog shines by its own light.' 2 Plutarch writes: 'The principle of knowledge that is conceptual. It is derived from the Greek word 'I close' and 1 Epistle 7· 1 Acts xxii.G. the Stoics. \Ve have to think out our faith and use words to communicate our thoughts to others. pure and sitnple. Socrates gave up the study of physical science in ordcr to seek cmnmunion with the spiritual power that inforn1s and governs the universc. Boehn1e and Schopenhauer. But one cannot stay there all the time and when one leaves it one finds that its light is reflected in the restless world of sense and of thought.' 1 fool~ . B. Plotinus. Augustine.lcdge enquires into his ways. his manifestations.. 24 where Kn7J. 4 The religious soul is not concerned with arguments for the existence of God. The primary concern of philosophy in India has not been doctrine as change of nature. Plato says: 'Suddenly a light. though the latter may prepare the mind for intuition. He is alive to God's presence in every manifestation of life. 77· • Sf'c J>hacdo: 9t>-7. Saints do not prove the existence of God for they have apprehended the Divine. 6.' 3 At a critical point in his life. in every impulse in1planted by grace in the depths of his heart. Plato. as if from a leaping fire.knov.a says : 'If I should cease to work these ·worlds would fall in ruin. Empedocles. Mysticism Sometimes the word mysticism is used to define spiritual apprehension. For all these truth is recognised and not created by intellectual activity. a JJe !side Ch.

they were sometimes treated as exclusive of each other.1 The \Vorld becomes the raw n1aterial for transfiguration. sarvam khalv idam brahma. hearing and speech but to open the inner eye to spiritual realities. \Ve have the strictly solitary who seeks to liberate his consciousness from the \vhole burden of materiality. not to renounce his powers of sight. The seer is as one 'who. closes the avenues of communication with the outside world. 'Hast thou seen thy brother? Then thou hast seen God. capture the sounds that come from the world above the ordinary one and sing in silence the hymn of praise to the Supreme Being. For the Upani$ads they are only t\:vo sides. \Ve should recognise that there are two strands in tnysticism. though some view these as two different types of mysticism. In order to see in the world of spiritual reality. This shutting of the senses is the prerequisite of spiritual perception.' Early Christians had this motto as reported by Clement of 1 Meister Eckhart. God's divine radiance shines on the world and humanity. While these two phases are organically bound up with each other. St Paul and Augustine use the world to rise to the maker of the world. \Ve try to overcome the world and see in it the invisible splendour. All this is God. who leads it through zealous purification and inner elevation to beatific reunion with the One Eternal. we realise our oneness with the whole universe. instruments for the higher life. having looked upon the sun. Porphyry in his Life of Plotinus describes the attitude of the sensitive and receptive spirit who felt ashamed at being clad in a body. henct·fonvard sees the sun in all things' . To hear the rnelodies of the spiritual world we must close our ears to the noise of the world. It is by a purely personal effort that we can achieve purification and it does not matter if the living reality of the outside \Vorld did not exist at all. . in the East as well as in the \Vest. we must close our eyes to the world in which we ordinarily live. eyes and lips. When once we discover the oneness of our deepest self with the Supreme. our feeling for the flesh become aids.IIO The Brahma SiUra suggests the shutting of the ears. A seer is one who wraps himself in the mantle of seclusion. Our physical frame. \Ve do not negate the world hut negate what is base and worthless in it.

C ontcm. All great works of art and science. writes: 'llntil Apollo calls a poet to his sacred sacrHicc he is vulgarly silent. and not think. 4 Cp. January 1957· 2 Pushkin. their faith is not irrational. the more elaborate and complex it becomes. the great Russian poet. London Maga:inr.' 1 . literature and philosophy spring from the conten1plativc spirit. the enlightened. that of Rmne law and order. \Ve tend to lose ourselves in the anonymity of the human tnass. 1 If it is said that the contribution of Greece is primarily science and the arts. tends to crush out of existence whatever is human. a crime against the spirit. feel and act with insight and conviction. think what others think. his soul is asleCc'p. and among the insignificant children of the world he is perhaps the most trifling. Some of the greatest seers of Asia and Europe have also been some of the greatest philosophers. He is bored amidst amusements of the world. he is a stranger to the gossips of the mob. of China humanism and social peace. Judea. l\1.' 4 In Afysticism and Logic Hcrtrand Russell writes: 'The greatest men who have been philosophers have felt the need both of science and mysticism.plation The contemplative life is not easy to realise. who in his Oxford address on Poetry and Invisibility points out that 'the hc~ctic hurr~· of our age contributes to the crime of inattentiveness. idol. it may be remembered that all these arc products of the contemplative spirit and creatiYc action.' 3 Prophet£c Religion Those who have attained wisdom arc called T$iS or seers. the Buddhas or the awakened 0nes. It is becoming more and more difficult in our age. ethics and religion. The spiritual should interpenetrate and renew the life of the world. become mere tools of an increasingly efficient social organisation which. While they identify the ultimate with the ground of all being. We arc inclined to do what others do.Introduction Ill Alexandria and Tertullian. 2 '\Visdom cometh by the opportunity of leisure. There is a constant struggle between the biological impulse to adapt to the enviromnent and the human creative impulse. They were outstanding in thrir clarity. he does not bend his proud head to the feet of the popular 3 Ecrlcsiaslicus. consistency and comprehension. Jean Coctcau. indeed against the soul'. But as soon as the Divine wortl touches his sensitive ear. creative and spiritual in us. the poet's soul rouses as an awakened eagle.

While all these prophets were deified by their followers. also 'Revelation is never revelation in general. He claimed that he received revelations from God through the Archangel Gabricl and on the night of power he had ascended unto heaven and in the seventh heaven had been admitted into God's presence. It is knowledge revealed to us in our highest consciousness.c. 4· Cp. There is a reciprocity of inward and outward. Sin1on Maccabaeus in the second century B. Other leaders in Jewry both before and after Jesus were identified with the Messiah as Jesus was: for example. It is always revelation for someone and for a group in a definite 1 .112 The Brahma SiUra Religion is founded on illumination.D. The Buddha became the enlightened one and his followers felt that he was a superhuman being and expressed their feeling in a set of birth stories. Muhan1macl did not claim to be superhuman. It is possible that we may have different interpretations of what is revealed but all religions are based on the personal experiences of their founders and prophets.nd of time from the seed of David. 1 'The basic error of fundamentalism is that it overlooks the contribution of the receptive side in the revclatory situation and consequently identifies one individual and conditioned form of receiving the divine with the divine itself. Among the Hebrews there arc evident indications of a mystical faith such as the experiences of the great prophets. Revelation and its reception are inseparably united. the visions they saw and the voices they heard. and Bar Kokhba in the second century A. The religions of the Buddha. orthodox Christians affirm that Jesus is the final selfmanifestation of the Divine. p. Every revtaled Scripture is at once both divine self-manifestation and the way in which human beings have received it. Zarathustra did not claim for himself to b~ more than a man but he was transfigured by his followers when they came to believe that a superhuman· sa vi our Saoshyant was to be begotten of Zarathustra's seed at the end of time. Jesus and l\iuhammad were reflections of their expencnces. He said that he was the latest of the prophets and the last of them that was ever to be.' Paul Tillich: Biblical Religion and the Search for Ultimate Reality (1955). Jesus was identified by his followers with the Messiah who was expected by the Jews to be begotten at the r. There is however a tendency to deify the founders of religions. however universal its claim may be.

the sayings of the inspired and the 1\1ahiiycina systems. 3-4· 1 Biblical Religion and the Search for Ultimate Reality (1955). They speak to n1en in their concrete situations. states that siistra is the source of divine knowledge.~tftarit vacanam tipta-?.'acanam. it is in a concrete. who have time and again been illuminated by the light of God. 3 the B. 3· . yet his discourses attained the sanctity of Scripture. The word of the Buddha. p. The Scriptures register the experiences of seers. 6 et. purviipurva-sargiinusarerta vediin viracayan na svatantrap. they arc lipta-·vacana. Our own form of reception cannot be confused with 'an assumcdly undiluted and untransformed revelation' in Professor Paul Tillich's words. p. 5· 1 Pratyak$a or sense-perception. The records of the experiences of the great seers \vho have expressed thrir sense of the inner meaning of the \vor]d through their intense insight and deep imagination are the Scriptures. or a miraculous revelation in the past. The claim to the possession of a special revelation of the Jews. upamlina or sargantare$vapfti. anwniina or inference. It is not necessary for us to close the door to future revelations. the Buddha did not r<>sort to any authority Vedic or non-V~dic.' 1 Scr£ptural Testimony The V ediinta adopts six pram{l'~tas of which scriptural testimony is one. 'Wherever the divine is manifest in flesh. sabda or Scripture. 3 While the Hindu thinkers accepted the authoritativeness of the l' edas. 4 The Vedas are received by men. At a time when it has become difficult for the educated person to rest his faith on the infallibility of the Scriptures. See V edanta-paribhii\~(i.S. tad-anurodhiit. sarvajiio'pi sarva-saktir api. Bhamatr I. 112. 1. Therefore.' pp. Christians and l'vluslims is on the same level. aptena pra. he who receives revelation witnesses to it in terms of his individuality and in terms of the social and spiritual conditions in which the revelation has been manifested to him. it is said that even God is not completely free but has to reckon with the nature of truth.Introduction 113 We are the receptacles of the revelation. an-upalabdlzi or negation.a. bttddha-vacana. Even when the Scriptures are traced to divine authorship. 1 Prameya-kamala-martii:l:tl/. under unique circumstances. 2 In I. r. physical and historical reality. arthiipatti or implication. the ultimate basis of religious environment. became the authority for both the Ilinayii.

says: 'To seek divinity merely in books and writings is to seek the living among the dead. save that I have seen the fullness of Divine wisdom wherein is all goodness. seek for God within thine own soul.' 'If I could only show you a tithe of that Love in which I dwell. suddenly a light. 1 34IC. Expcri<'JtCC and Interpretation No adequate hirmulations in logical propositions are possible of experiences which are of an intuitive character. a preceptor is a dik$ii guru. These form a great body of witness to humanity's experience of God. Astronomies change but the stars abide. 'This does not admit of exposition like other branches of knowledge.114 The Brahma Sutra trust tnust be found in personal experience.' St Angelo of Foligno says: 'I beheld the ineffable fullness of God. but I can relate nothing of it. John Smith. and beheld with the eye of the soul the light that never changes. All of them agree with the Upani$ad writers that the experience baffles linguistic and logical description. powers of speech and organs of apprehension. Plato in his Seventh Letter n1akes out that the knowledge of essential truth cannot be reduced to writing. not an encyclopaedia of what religious books teach. after much discourse about the matter itself and a life lived together. and thereafter sustains itself.' 1 St Augustine said: 'I entered. These may vary. The true teacher is a live coal from the altar. They alone can inaugurate an age of spiritual vitality and fervour. above the eye of the soul. Eternal Truth.' All these are in the presence of an experience which surpasses ordinary levels of feeling. \Ve learn the truth not from books but from a teacher. \Ve require today a spiritual religion which can be dcvdoped only by souls of large. spiritual compass and moral power. the Cambridge Platonist. A teacher is a sik$Ci ft1tY1t. .' St Catherine of Siena observes: 'I now know for certain. that Thou wilt not despise the desire of the petitions I have made unto Thee.' Bc1icf in God must grow out of our own consciousness. as it were. where his truth too often is not so much enshrined as entombed. No. we do but in vain seek God many tin1es in these. above my intelligence. is kindled in one soul by a flame that leaps to it from another. but.

'the tin1elessness of the dharma' of the Buddhists. It is pure inwardness of which no conceptual description is possible. H. \Ve think of reality. There is a difference between psychology and philosophy. No symbol can be taken as final. Scriptures are not infallible in all they say. rightly or wrongly. Scriptures contain many survivals of crude. Scriptural statements reveal the philosophic vision of those in wh01u the light is kindled. There is a difference bctvvcl'n the vehicle of thought and the meaning of thought. Our 1nental states. Pure kno\vledge cannot be transmitted except through syntbols. imperfect and .Introductio-n II5 The spiritual experience cannot be adequately described in words. Images are facts. Even though spiritual experience arises with a self-evident certitude. Through poetry and paradox the seers suggest something of the nature of that which surpasses the bounds of logic. while 111C'anillgs arc capable of being true or false of reality. It is beyond the grasp of empirical thought. Psychology is a factual enquiry and philosophy is conceptual analysis. A psychologist n1ay be interested in the private experiences of individuals but a philosopher is investigating what our experiences mean. The eternity of the Vedas. Bradley makes a distinction bchveen in1ages and meanings. the eternity of the Divine word of the Christians refer not to the texts but to the truths enshrined in thcn1. They recognise a profounder reality than that of human life and seek to establish a true harn1ony between the two. Experience is never immediate. Revelation is not found outside son1e mind. Truth is eternal in validity and is timeless apart from the texts which may be dated. ideas. impressions and feelings are the subject-matter of psychology but what we think is not a matter of what takes place in our minds. The truths which are apprehended are tin1dess though the act of apprehension like all activity is a temporal <~vent. the interpretations we give to it require rational scn1tiny. neither true nor false. F. It is mixed up with interpretation and tradition. The superhuman wisdotn which transcends time is gi\·cn to us in time. Philosophy is interested in discussing what images mean and not what they are. It is covered as by a veil though it becomes transparent to those who desire and know how to look beyond it.

Those who feel the spiritual urge in thetn sometimes feel the oppressive weight of dogtnas. We cannot accept the verbal inspiration of the Scriptures.II6 The Brahma S iitra undeveloped images. The two are not necessarily in conflict. But beliefs become moribund when they lack the inward experience which renews their meaning. These are to be refined and improved in the light of our present knowledge. Those who live by faith. Even if we have a direct knowledge of God we must establish it on other Cp. Srava~la or hearing the Scriptures is the first step to spiritual realisation. manana. one tnay miss one's way. vvhich results in iitma-darsana or vision of the Self. This experience must be open to reason and not at any rate contrary to it. he who seeks in this wise has stepped beyond the pale of Christian piety. It is safe to cling to a system of beliefs. An act of faith involves a surrender to the creative intuition which transcends the limited awareness of the intellectual self. 1 . Indian thought assigns a place to belief in the developn1ent of religious experience. Faith and Belief There is a difference between faith and belief. and contemplation. Sometimes these beliefs are more a barrier than an aid to the unfolding of the creative experience.' The Comnnmion of the Christian with God. The orthodox theologians of different religions do not accept experience or immediate knowledge as final. Dogmas and usages tend to stifle the spirit in us. To become organic expressions of faith they must be reborn and continually renewed in personal experience. He leaves Christ and Christ's Kingdom altogether. When we rise to the highest experience we abandon the defences. Belief should set us on to reflection. 1 We may have a feeling of certainty hut not certainty itself. If we end with beliefs we preserve safety at the cost of life itself. nididhya. lest in seeking reality for oneself. Hermann : 'When the influence of God upon the soul is found solely in an inward experience of the individual. who had a personal encounter with the Supreme need not abandon the traditional formulations of belief in which they have been reared. for these beliefs were also originally born in the mind of man. there must be an answering witness within the soul.sana. Even when we admit revelation.

that man only is to be condemned and despised who is not in a state of transition. In that city which is still out of sight. in that homeland of the spirit. We cannot be content with stating that the experience is ineffable. Taylor writes: 'What we have a right to demand of the theologian is that the matter upon which his thought works shall be something genuinely given . The authoritative character of the V cdas which include the Upani$ads is not inconsistent with philosophy as a criticism of categories. Vol. The seers give utterance to their visions of Ultimate Reality. 1 . accepting truth from whatsoever source it appeared and discarding erroneous forms of expression. its truth is his revelation. For nature is of God. to relate their account of reality with the nature of reality given by science and common sense. is an enquiry into the nature of reality revealed by the seers of the Upani$ads.' The Faith of a Moralisl. 1 Today unbelief in the form of certain conviction is yielding to unbelief in the form of doubt. The theological doctrines of different religions have been adapting themselves to the intellectual temper of the world.S. E. no groups organised in accordance with ecclesiastical articles and rules.Introduction II7 grounds. The author of the B. All those who are aware that future salvation does not depend on mechanical or technological development or regulation of economic and social life but solely on the revival of a world of spiritual values which evade empirical analysis but reveal themselves only to faith and hope should band together and work for the world community. we will understand one another. I do not see that we have a right to demand more. 'The B.S. p . Michael Faraday said : 'In knowledge. II (2nd edition). systematises them and has referred to oral traditions of their significance. its study is his service. The spiritual community of the future needs for its foundation no geographically limited writings.' With sincerity and impartiality we should endeavour to seek solutions of religious questions. It is its function to interpret the experiences of the seers so as to give a coherent view. The view that Scriptures of all religions have a claim to our allegiance in so far as their statements are not dated has the support of Indian religious classics. 390. and that in his reflective elaboration of it he shall be true to it. Every period of history nurses in its bosom certain unavowed Professor A.

free from the distinctions of subject and object. The experience is a compelling vision or intuitive realisation of the reality of the Supreme. An interpretation of the great Scriptures of the world on the lines outlined here may perhaps provide the basis for such a consummation.II8 The Brahma S'i"itra and unana. The Supreme is nondual. The seers have an ·overpowering conviction of the presence of Spiritual Reality.The Nature of Reality Brahman the Absolute IN spiritual experience. Our generation is aiming at human unity and brotherhood and the establishment of the one and only universal Church. an attitude of faith or reverence toward what William James calls the more that lies beyond subjectivity. Religion is a living creative power because Ultimate Reality manifests itself to the human spirit.lysed assun1ptions which constitute the key to the interpretation of that period. It is the presence behind the phenomena and transcendent to them. Ultimate Reality impinges on the hutnan spirit. Whether we mean by religion adherence to sect or dogma. that Platonic pure reason of which Colcridge wrote that it is not 'something which is in us. it brings us into contact with something out there. The Supreme is completely different from the contingent things of the world. CHAPTER 4 . It emphasises the incommensurability of the infinite and the finite. When logical categories are . If religion arises at the point where Ultimate Reality manifests itself to the human spirit. The principle of via negativa makes out that Brahman cannot be the object of rational knowledge. but something in which we are'. our view of religion will be determined by the view we take of the nature of Ultimate Reality and of the relationship with the human spirit into which it enters. Religion is the self-manifestation of Ultimate Reality in man.

To use Kantian terminology the reality of spirit is that of freedmn rather than that of nature. 16--r7. and Thou in truth art hid . self and not-self. He alone Is manifest.' Thou art but the glass. It is all and nothing. Exempt from !' or Thou'-ness and apart from all duality. Nicholson in his article on Sujis 1 quotes: In solitude where Being signless dwelt. formlessness and form. ~He is all-beautiful. Spirit exists only in the subject but it is not in the least subjective for the distinction of subject and object as correlatives has meaning only on the logical plane but spirit is reality of another kind. which casts Its image on the mirror.. pp. And He the face confronting it. XII. If steadfastly Thou canst regard. it only means that it is not an objective existent or a logical category. And we His lovers. Being as such is free fron1 static or dynamic implications. One Being was. Be\vare! say not. an immeasurably greater and n1ore primal one. \Ve cannot describe the Supreme in personal tcrn1s when the nondual. It is devoid of and is antecedent to any special qualifications. And all the universe still dormant lay In Selfishness. Professor R. A.Introduction 119 denied of the Supreme Spirit. activity and n·st. thou wilt at length perceiYe He is the n1irror also·. 1 1 Subject and object. the unknown knowcr in which a11 things 1 Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. It points to the original fact that there is something and not nothing and to the power of that which resists non-being. I and Thou have no place there. The central mystery is that of Being itself. We cannot define Being since it is the presupposition of all definition. . In it is the coincidence of opposites. advaita aspect is in view. He alike The Treasure and the Casket. There is nothing else than the Absolute which is the presupposition of all else.. We should not think that emphasis on Being overlooks the fact of becon1ing.

and. Every spoken word narrows down Being. then no entity is left. i. Ill. for example. dost love and smile. of Thyself comprehended and Thyself comprehending. 5· 1 .120 The Brahma Sutra are known. And in eternity there is neither past nor future but only present. 3 anadyam tarn pa. aparisi$yamiirte canyasmin yal) itaral) pari$eddhum arabhyate.' Cp. the denial of some other entity which \VC may wish to undertake becomes impossible. It is this sense that is translated into the argument from the radical contingency of the world to an absolute self-subsistent. the void from which all fullness flows. the perfect being from which all existent things derive their being and nature. only Thyself dost comprehend. avacane ea brakma proviica. ever pouring forth in creation and for ever undiminished in itself. non-contingent being as its source.B.' 2 We teach nrahman without speaking about it. tacca parisi~yamiirte kasmims' cidbhave'vakalpate. We can say only that Being is itself.' I kam cidd/zi paramartham alambya aparamarthal) prati$iddhyate. is negatived with reference to the real rope. the otherncss of the Transcendent Absolute. 1 The primacy of Being is argued on a rational basis. 'Whenever we deny something unreal.e. Apart from this Transcendent Reality existent things neither exist nor persist. 3 Silence is the only language of worship. There is the ontological otherness. krtsna-prati$edhetu tu ko'nyo bhaval) parisi$yeta. the archetype of time . Only the Lord Niiriiyatza knows him. we do so with reference to something real. mh brahma. 22. 2. the latter entity becon1cs real and cannot be negatiYed. absolute Brahman is not known by gods or sages. If everything is denied. na deva na r$ayo vidul) r ekas lad veda bhagavan dltiita 11ariiya1. S. The unreal snake. yatha rajjvadi~u sarpadayal).tal) prabhul). tasyaiva paramarthatvapatte/:1 prati$edhanupapattil). says. source of all existent things. The conten1plation of finite things leads to a direct discernment of the Supreme as their absolute source. S. The sense of the absolute dependence of all existent things is central to piety. Worship is not servile cringing before absolute power but worship or adoration. and if no entity is left. 1. Dante: '0 Light Eternal who only in Thyself abidest. 'How can he who holds all be brought into a temple? How can he who is the basis of all be confined Philo observes: 'God is withdrawn from both ends of time. Beginningless. Vijnanamrta-bha~ya I. But this is possible only if some entity is left. for his life is not Time but Eternity.

natib. It is this kinship that 1nakes con1munion with him possible.asya aviihana1iz kutra. as Transcendent Reality.'idvaita-vivarj£tant Smne prekr non-duality. The other-ness of God does not exclude the possibility of comn1unity of being bchv<'en God and man. There is an element of non-otherness. 2 There is an incomprehensible other-ness of God as the source of all. 3 The Upani~ads hold that the Absolute can be described only as not this. others prefer duality. The Avadhztla GUii says: ad1'aitam Jwdd £cchanti dvaitam icchant£ ciipare sa·ma. pradak~i~ui 1 . free from duality and non-duality. The Supreme Principle is conceived in the Vcdas not only as the substance of the world and of all beings but also as that which transcends them 'by three quarters' existing as the 'In1mortal in the heavens'. I. sustains. Augustine: 'What is that which gleams through me and smites my heart without wounding it? I am both a-shudrlcr. advayasya kutab. pi"Jr'J. 4 Asai1ga says: na san na ciisan na tathii na ciinyathii na j/iyatc ?Jyeti na ccivah'iyate na vardhatc niipi visuddlzyate puna[t V1:suddhyate tat paramiirtha-lak$a~zam.? 1 Cp.Introduction 12I to a spot? How can there he the circling round of the Infinite? How can there be prostration to him who is our very self?' 1 There is the other-ncss of God felt in the act of worship. C. na iti. 8 . In the act of worship we have a sense of the othcrness of God as well as a sense of wonder that he has bestowed on us a nature akin to his own.U. not this.g Veda X.m tattvam. na iti. na v£ndauti dvait(. 36. A-shudder in so far as I am unlike it. we ern ploy the negative 1nethod. and a-glow. an othcr-ness which God himself discloses to the soul of rnan. a-glow in so far as I am like it. sets limits to his con1munity of being with the world and transcends it. Ill. 3. go. g.•ssions XI. He cannot be wholly other for then it would be in1possiblc to kno\v anything about hirn even on the basis of his own self-revelation.' The Conf.IJ. 12. 6. \Vhen we refer to the Supreme as Dralzman. ' I. sarvfldharasya ea asanam ea anantasya hi. God is both transcendent to and i1nn1anent in the world. They do not understand the Truth which is the same. He originates.


The Brah1na Sutra

It is not existent, nor non-existent; it is not thus, it is not otherwise; it is not born, it does not decay or die or grow, nor does it purify. The ever-pure is the mark of the Ultimate Hcality. Nagarjuna declares:
anirodlwm, auutpiidam, anuccludam, asciS7..'atam a1lcktirtham, andnlirtham, anligamam, anirgamam ua sau m!srm na sad-asan na cliPJ' anubhaytltmakam cal?!slwti-'<'lJiirmuldlnit tatt1'am miidhvamilui viduh. 1 . . .
NitTal)a is dc:;cribed in sirnilar terms:
aj>r<Ili"iumn, asamprliptam, an.ucc/zinnam, as/is7.'atam all iruddl;am, a nutpcidam clan nir1't1yarn ucyrrtc.

Theologia Gcnnrmica says: '\Vhere this Light is, the n1an's end and aim is not this or that, I or Thou, or the like, but only the One, who is neither I nor Thou, this nor that, but is above all I and Thou, this and that; and in him all Good is loved as one

Good.' Henry Vaughan writes: There is in God (smne say) A deep ln1t dazzling darkness; as men here Say it is late and dusky, because they See not all clear; 0 for that night! where I in hitn l\fight Jive invisible and dim. 2
The Atman The Supreme Reality is not out there but is one with our deep<>st self. nrakman is Atman, the Universal Spirit. Tat tvam
Mt"idhyamika-/(arikii. Cp. namostu ,\ iinyata-ga1·bha sarva-santkalpa-varjita sarvajfia jtir"ina-sandoha jt1iina-murte namostu. te sa1illmddhii bodhisattviH ca(tvatta/:1.) piiramitiigurtiilt sambhavanti sadii niitha bodhi-citla namostu te. Hail to thee the birthplace of the void, who art free of all conceits, omniscient one, thou mass of knowledge, knowledge personified, all hail to thee. From you, 0 Lord, there ever rise into existence Buddhas and Bodhisattvas who po~sess as their good qualities the great perfections, 0 the thought of enlightenment, hail to thee. Prajnopiiya-viniscaya-sitldhi Ill. 9 and I I.



asi. 1 The self is an independent entity underlying the conscious
personality and the physical frarne. The natural n1an is alienated from the self in hirn. All that we know and express about the self belongs to the world of change, of tirne and space but the self is for ever changeless, beyond the \Vorld of space, time and cause. In all the countless n1onths, years and aeons, past and to con1c, what does not rise or set, that is the one sclf-lmninous consciousness. 2 TheDevi Dhiiga<'ata says:'Break of this consciousnC'ss is never seen. If it is ever seen, then the seer remains behind en1bodied as that same consciousnt'ss.' 3 San'i/($cpa-s{7rfralw says: 'This unique undivided sclfconsciousness is subject and ohj<::ct at once.' 4 This self is unseizable as an object of thought. 'It is never known but it is the knower.' av1j'lliita1il vijil/itr.r. The self is the point where scirnce and every objective method of approach becmnc inapplicable." When the Upanh;ad thinkl'r says I atn Rrahman, ahant brahnuismi, when the Buddha declares that he is wisdom or enlightemnent, ·when Jesus says, 'I am the Truth', ,,·hat is the ~I' which is said to be the real and the true? No \Vestern philosopher before Socrates is so interesting as Heracleitus. His 'I sought for rnyself' expresses the highest consciousness of the problern of philosophy. We cannot seek the 'I' by logical analysis or intellectual observation. A new world is revealed when the soul turns to conten1plate itself. Hf'racleitus says: 'Travel over every road, you cannot discover the frontiers of
The author of the ltuitation puts into the mouth of Jesus: '\\'hen you think that you arc far from me, then, often am I nearest to you.'
2 miisitl,da-yuga-kalpe~u galti~Jam-i~r;u.

nodcti niistameti


aue/{adhii sa1i1Vid cllii svaymit-prabhii. Pailca -daS! I. 7.

sa1irvido vyabhicaras tu naiva dr~fo'sti karhicit yadi dr~talt tada dra 1'ifa sz~r;!ab sa1iwid vaput~ svayam.
Ill. 32.



nir-viblzaga-citir eva kevala. 13.U. Ill. 4· 2. 6 Cp. Max Planck: 'Science cannot solve the ultimate mystery of nature. And that is because in the last analysis, we ourselves are part. of nature and therefore part of the mystery we are trying to solve. The most penetrating eye cannot see itself any more than a working instrument can work upon itsrlf.' Where is Scie·nce Going?


The Brakma S-iitra

the soul-it has so deep a logos.' 1 For conceptual thinking the soul is boundless. Transcendence is the only means of reaching the soul's deeper stratum. The power to transcend is the property of the subject 'I'. It always goes beyond the 'me'. It is greater than the series of empirical selves. In a prayer to J(r$~1.a, Drahmti says: 'vVe imagine things outside ourselves and look upon our Self as a stranger to us and seek for hin1 outside ourselves. Look at the ignorance of the uncnlightened. ' 2 S. opens his cmnn1entary on the B.S. with a distinction between subject and object, iitman and an-iitman, \vith the formulation of the absolute disparity between I and Thou, asmat and yu~ma~. The pure subject is distinguished frmn the ego, the psychological or sociological self whi eh is a part of the objective world. The latter is a fragn1ent of nature. In his o\vn depths, in the very core of his existence, the self continues to be himself. This Self, S. says, 'the unconditioned, Inarkless, free fron1 the characters of existent and non-existent, is real tnetaphysically'. 3 'There are two sights', says S. 'One is eternal and unseen viz. the sight of the seer: the other is non-eternal and seen.'" 'By his ever-present eternal sight which is his own nature knO\vn as the self-shining one, the seer sees the other evanescent sight in the waking state and in dreams, consisting of desires and cognitions.' 5 The perceptible is limited to space and time; the infcrrible is also limited but the pure subject is devoid of allli1nitations and is known immediately though not objectivc1y. 6 If the Self were not immediately n1anifested the whole world would become blind. 7 Consciousness is the very essence of self as heat is of fire according to S. 8 While the content of experience changes, the consciousness does not. Even when there are no objects to be known as in deep sleep, consciousness is present. For its positive manifestation, consciousness like light needs objects but it is never absent. 9
Fragment 45· 2 tvam ii.tmiinam param matvii paramiitmiinam cva ea. iitmii PU1'lar bahir mrgya!J aho'jnajanatii.fjiatii. 1 tasya nirupiidhikasya, aliitgasya, sad-asiidi-Vi$ayatva-varjitasya iitmanal~ tattva-blzavo bhavati. S. on Katha U. VI. I 3· 5 S. on B.U. I. 4· 10. ~ dve dr~<;tz dra~fur nityii adr$ya. anya'nitya drsyet, . i 8 aparok~<;a/viic ea pratyag-iitmii prasiddel}. S.: Introduction to S.B. 7 Vacaspati in his l3hiimali. jagad-iindhya-prasaitgiit. 8 S.B. I. 4· 10. 8 vi~ayabkiiviid iyam acetayamtinata, na caita,~yabhaval. S.B. II. 20. 3·



The Sii1itkh_ya systen1 distinguishes between puru$a and prakrti. Objectivity is foreignness to subjectivity. Object is av£vcllin; it cannot distinguish itself from subjectivity. Rather it is subjectivity that posits the object as the other. Ohject is acetana. It is not self-revealing. It is revealed by something else, the subjcct. 1 We have to rise to pure subjectivity by gradual stages. 'fhrough the subjective realisation of the body as perceived by the senses, of the subject as ego, aha1h-k/ira, as reflective intelligence, buddh£, we get to pun' subjectivity or purtt$a. For Eckhart, the ground of the soul is the inner citadel in the hidden depths of man's being. It is the uncrcated, eternal, pure essence at the centre of n1an's inmost life. The existentialist philosophers hold that truth is not external and impersonal hut is in11nediate and experienced. It is not so Jnuch knowing the truth as being it. Kierkegaard says: 'Truth in its very nature is not the duplication of being in terms of thought .... No, in its very being it is the reduplication in me, in you, in him, so that tny, your, his life, is striving to attain it ... is the very being of truth, is a life. ' 2 The Self is experienced as the Absolute Reality in the state of turfya. It is raised above the distinction of subject and object. 3 In su$u.pti or deep sleep, the n1ind with all its modes is inactive. In sa-vikalpa samiidhi the mind is concentrated on one object with which it becomes identified. In it we have the consciousness of determinate reality. The consciousness of duality is absent in this state and the self enjoys undifferenced bliss. In both these states the seeds of knowledge and action, vidyii and karma, are present. In nir-vikalpa samlidhi we have the intuition of reality transcending all detcrminations. This is the highest stage, the truth, Brahntan. 'Desireless, fim1, immortal, self-existent, contented with the essence, he is lacking nothing. One fears not death who has known him, the self, serene, ageless, youthful. ' 4 Even worship becomes irrelevant when the realisation occurs.
samiinya-prasava-dharmin. 1 See P. U., pp. 75ff. Training in Christianity, pp. 201--2. ' akiimo dhfro amrta~ svayambhu rasena trptena na kutascanonalz tam 1va vidviin na bibhaya mrtyor atma11am dhfram ajaram yuvanam. Atharva Veda X. 8. 44·
1 parata~-prakasa-Vi$aya,


The Brahma Sutra

To whom shall I offer my salutation? I am one, free from defects. 1 \Vithout our participation in the Divine, neither knowledge of God nor love of God is possible. It is the Divine which drives the soul through all levels of reality to Ultimate Reality. To know this Self and make this knowledge effective in hun1an life has been the aim of man, according to the V cdiinia system.

! svara or Persnnal God
The l i pan.£$ads are not content with a mystery hidden in a cloud of negative phrases. They do not reduce the Absolute deprived of all dcterminations to a bare abstraction by the ruthless logic of the negative method. The Absolute is a living reality with a creative urge. When this aspect is stressed, the Absolute becomes a Personal God, i s·vara. In religious experience personal encounter is as real as the encounter of subject and object in cognitive experience. \Ve meet a 'Thou' whom we can influence by prayer and worship. While nrahman is the trans-personal ground and abyss of everything personal, i svara is the Personal God. While Brahman is the object of nir-vikalpa samadhi, I svara is the object of sa-vilwlpa santadhi. In the concept of I svara the Absolute is brought into closer relationship with the world. There is continuity between the values discerned in God and the values discernible and realisable in human life. God in his perfection is the ultimate source of all values whatsoever which derive from him. On the human level, person is individuality with selfrelatedncss and world-relatedncss and therefore with rationality, freedom and responsibility. Brahman and 1svara are not distinct entities but different aspects of the same Reality. Brahman is I svara when viewed as creative powcr. 2 It is wrong to imagine that the absolutistic doctrine is for the philosophically initiated and the theistic doctrine for others. Even in S.'s thought the apprehension of God as personal is a living factor. Theism arises out of the comkasyapy aho namas-kt4ryam aham eko nirafijanatJ. A vadhuta Gfta I. 3· brahmaiva SVa-sakti-prakrtyabhidheyam asf'itya lokan sr$/Va niyanl(tfliid ISvaratJ.



pulsions of the human spirit. It is not a question of higher and lower knowledge. The view that the representation of 11raltman as l svara is a concession to the weakness of the hurnan miud as some Advaitins hold is not supported by the B.S. 1 As Brahn~an answers to the content of the turzva or the transcendental consciousness, l svara answers to the su~upti or the consciousness of deep sleep. The principle of objectivity is present in the state of deep sleep. It has the seed of both dream and waking states. 2 The principle of objectivity is called prakr#, the umnanifested, irnperceptiblc all but nothing which receives existence, form and meaning. It is the li1nit of the downward move1nent, the lowest forn1 which is all but nonexistent. There is nothing in the actual world which is completely devoid of form. Prakrti is the potentiality of a11 things. The supra-real one and the infra-real matter answer to pure being and pure non-being. The Supreme self-conscious Lord is the wisdom of Solomon which svveetly ordereth all things. It is said that the Divine Wisdom acts through its opposite avidyli, non-wisdmn. Brahman with twidyii is Brahman as subject-object which is the basis of the whole world. According to later Advaita Vediinta, Hrahntan with am'dyii is the n1aterial cause of the world. The world is grounded in such a Brahman and is absorbed in it. 3 A vidyii is also regarded as mtiyii and the joint causality of Brahman and mayii is conceiYed in a threefold manner. The two are twisted together as two threads into one or that Brahman with miiyii as its power or sakti is the cause of the world or Brahma·n being the support of miiyii is indirectly the cause of the world.
Ralpa-taru states that 'the demonstration of Brahma11 as with attrilmtes is out of compassion for those dull-wittccl persons who have not the capacity to intuit the Supreme Brahman without attributes; having thereby directed their minds to the pursuit of the Brahman with attributes, Brahman devoid of all duality directly manifests itself'. nirvise~am param brahma s(ih~iit kartum ani.~varii~ ye ma1~das te'mtkampyautt? savise~aniriiparzail;l vasfkrte ·manasy e $iim 5agurza-brahma-silanat. tad eviivirbhavet sak#id abhedopadhi-kalpanam. 1 S'U$uptakhyam tamo-'jiui.1~am bijam svapna-prabodhayo~. S. on Upade5asiihasrf. Suresvara in Nai$karmya-siddhi says: tasmiit stt:~upte ajru"inam abhyupagantavyam. 8 avidya-sahita-brahmopadana1i-t jagat brahma~i evasti tatraiva ea liyate. Bhamatf I. 1. 2.


The Brahma SzJtra

In all creation there is the union of the male and the female. They are two aspects, co-partners of the Supreme Being. The Supreme transcends all opposites but also includes them. Darkness is not the mere negation of light or light of darkness. Each is a necessary condition of the other. The darkness and passivity of the Divine is as real as the light and activity of the Divine. God is father-n1other. The inseparable union of being and non-being is the creative mystery. The Supren1c is regarded as the Universal Mother, jagad-ambii. In one of the hyn1ns attributed to g,, she is said to have her abode in the form of energy in all things. 1 The }Jg V eda describes the Supreme as an inconceivable wonder, a sublime ·unity, a totality frorn which light shoots forth to generate out of d<1rkncss and emptiness a living universe. The Absolute appears in a double aspect, eternity and time. Though apparently opposed they are one in reality. They are seen1ingly antagonistic but really completnentary aspects of the Absolute. The cosmic process is the interaction between the t\vo principles. It is the supreme Puru$a or God working on prakrti or matter. In the image of A rdha-uiifisvara the two opposed hut cmnple1nentary principles are shown as one cornpldc organism. Radhii and !{?'$~la are said to be one integral whole. 2 \Ve do not have a metaphysical dualis1n for the principle of non-being is dependent on Being. It is that without which no effort would be possible or necessary. It is a necessary moment in reality for the unfolding of the Supreme. If the world is what it is, it is because of the tension. The world of time and change is ever striving to reach perfection. Non-being which is responsible for the imperfection is a necessary element here; it is the material in which the ideas of God are actualised. Because as Proclus says matter is a 'child of God', it is aiming at transformation into spirit.
ya devl sarva-bhufe$u sakti-rupe~a sa1izsthita. Cp. Siima-veda-rahasya: aniidyo'yam puru$a eka evasti, tad evam rupam dvidha vidhiiya sarvan rasan samaharati: hyayam eva nayfkaruparit vidhiiya samaradhana-tat-jJaro' bhutasmat tam riidhiim rasilu~nandcim veda-vido vadanti. KrHza says, according to Niirada-paiicat'atra, that his grace is available only to those who meditate on Riidltii. satyam satya1il punab satyariz satyam eva punal• punab radhii-namna vina lake mat-prasado na vidyate.
1 2



God is the infinite mind whose mode of being is at once the consciousness of self and constitutive of what is other than self. For Hegel God realises hirnself in and through the universe. As the universe proceeds from God it belongs essentially to his own being. When the Divine Subject objectifies itself in this way in the universe, the essential unconditioned freedom of the spirit becomes involved in conditions and limitations which contradict this freedom. Nevertheless it is through this contradiction that the spirit is able to realise itself and return to itself, not now simply as the One but as the One that is in all. In this integration the spirit takes up its opposite into itself and achieves a richer consciousness, a fuller harmony. The goal of attainn1ent is spirit in its completeness. Judaism, Christianity and Islam look upon Hcality as a person and the approach to the Supreme is through prayer and worship. The mystics of these religions, however, look upon the highest goal as union with Reality in which the distinction between subject and object fades away. For them the vision of Reality is a unitive, undifferentiated state of being. So also Inany Hindu and Buddhist thinkers approach Reality in its super-personal forn1 and their aim is ntok$a or nz'rva1}a which can be attained through the spiritual activity of meditation. But there are large nmnbers in the Hindu and the Buddhist faiths who look upon the Supreme as a Person and insist on prayer and worship to him. The Saiva, the V ai$~lava and the Sakta cults as well as JJf ahiiyiina Buddh£sm represent the theistic tendency. Though the emphases may be different, all these religions, J udaism, Christianity and Islam as well as Hinduism and Buddhisn1, admit the vision of Heality as a super-personal state of being and as Personal God. The latter look upon them as two poises of the same Reality. All these religions are aware of personal savi our gods. 1svara in the form of V i$1JU is said to be the source, the transcendent God of the created worlds. The waters of life which feed creation are the elementary material aspects, the first tangible emanation of the Divine, which, though beyond form, yet evolves and comprehends all forms. In sculptural representations they are symbolised in the coils of the huge serpent whose dwelling is the cosmic abyss and whose name is ananta,


The Brahma Sutra

endless. God as V ir~;t:u reclines on this immeasurable body from which temporal existences spring. A nanta supports in his expanded hoods both the terrestrial and the celestial spheres. He is the ever-living cosmic ocean from out of which the world and its forn1s emerge. He rests in the ocean which is perpetually transfonning its moven1cnt and its colour. He is also called Se$a or the remainder for he is the abysmal water that has not become transformed into creatures but rc1nains at the bottom of the universe as its prin1al life-force, the original substance feeding all. Ultimately J nanta is identical with Vl$~Ut himself who, in his human fonn, is S<'en recumbent on his coils. Vi$~-u and A nanta are subject and object, 1svara and prakrti. These are the dual n1anifestations of a single divine presence which, by and in itself, is beyond the forn1s it assumes when bringing the world-process into action. The supre1ne I svara is often identified with Siva, and there are symbolic representations of Siva as Nata-nija, the King of dancers. N ata-riija is the manifestation of the eternal energy in five activities, pa? (i) sr$ti or pouring forth, creation; (ii) sth£ti or n1aintenancc; (iii) samhiira or taking back, destruction; (iv) tirobhiiva or concealing, veiling, hiding the transcendental reality behind appearances; (v) anugraha or favouring, bestowing grace through manifestations that accept devotees. N a.fa-riija is represented as dancing on the dwarfish body of the demon apasmara-puru$a, forgetfulness, loss of memory, ignorance the destruction of which brings enlightenment which effects release from the bondage of mundane existence. In the figure of N iita-raja we see the contrast between the movement of his limbs and the tranquillity of his face. It symbolises the paradox of time and eternity, of mortal existence and indestructible being. Smnetimes, the Supreme is identified with Sakti. This type of worship is not unknown to the West. \Vhen the pagan temples were closed, the cult of Virgin Mary replaced that of Virgin Athen e. The act of creation, the relationship between God and man is the revelation of the divine drama of which time and history are the inner content. I svara is the guide and controller of the world.



Even the avatiiras or incarnations are identified with the Supreme 1svara. Tulasi Das, in his Riimiiya1Ja, makes Siva tell Piirvati: 'The Riima on whom gods, sages and seers from Brahmii downwards meditate in their devotions is not the Riima of history, the son of King Dasaratha, the ruler of Ayodhya. He is the eternal, the unborn, the one without a second, timeless, formless, stainless.' bhaktiiniim anukamparthmit devo ·vigrahaviin bhavet. Out of compassion for the devotees the Supreme assumes a human form. Jesus of history is represented as the incarnation of the Supreme. He assumed human form for the sake of saving us. St Paul says: 'Our Lord Jesus Christ, though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through your poverty might be rich.' 1 Irenaeus expresses the view more directly: 'Our Lord Jesus Christ did through his transcendent love become what we are, that we might become what he is.' 'He was made man', said Athanasius, 'that we might be made God.' 2 Jesus asks his disciples to be united with him. 'Abide in me, and I in you. ' 3 Even as there is no existence apart from him there is no salvation apart from union with God. Jesus is the forerunner, the first born of many brethren and the first fruits of them that slept.' The different representations of the Supreme as Vi$~zu, Siva, Sakti take into account the traditional beliefs of the different people. They are not cold abstractions but symbolise different ways of communion and fellowship. The spread of Hinduism in India has resulted in the assimilation of the divinities worshipped by the people. I svara is not the ultimate ideal. A Personal God even when theologically sublimated is only a realisation of that which is beyond both being and its opposite non-being. We must leave behind the categories of religious thought and have a direct ascent. In the concept of I svara, we objectify what is essentially non-objective. We try to naturalise what is beyond nature. There are many analogies to the conception of Brahntan and Isvara, Absolute and God in Western religious thought. To give one example, for Plotinus God is super-being or
1 1 De Incarnatione LV. 4· 3· II CoYinthians viii. 9· ' Hebrews vi. zo; Romans viii. 29; I Corintltia.ns xv. 20.

John xv. 4·


The Brahma Slitra

nothing, if being is something. In the sphere of the nnus, the relation of subject and object exists. While the one for Plotinus is the absolute Godhead, the intellectual principle is God.
Brahmii Brahma or llira'l}ya-garbha is the first-born emanation of the supreme j svara, who controls the processes of cosmic evolution. i svara is infinite, has all possibilities in him without limitation. There are inexhaustible ranges of being and value in him which have not yet received realisation. They belong solely to the distinctive being and perfection of God. Brahm{i is creat~d and this world is perishable. 1 Manu says: 'From the Highest N iiriiyatta, there was born the four-faced one.' 2 He says: 'This universe existed in the shape of darkness . . . . The Supreme desiring to create beings of many kinds from his own body, first with a thought created the waters and placed his seed in them. That seed became a golden egg equal to the sun in brilliancy; in that he himself was born as Brahmii, the progenitor of the whole world.' 3 Hira1;1ya-garbha is a manifestation of 1svara. S. says that in the Katha U. 1 the mahan atman is llira1Jya-garbha and his buddhi is the basis of all intellects. 5 According toR., there are four classes of creatures (godmen, men, animals and plants), and the difference of these classes depends on the individual selves which are attached to various
yo brahmii:~am vidadhati purvam. S.U. VI. x8. According to the writings of the Egyptians there was a time when neither heaven nor earth existed, and when nothing had being except the boundless primeval water which was, however, shrouded with thick darkness. At length, the spirit of the primeval water felt the desire for creative activity, and having uttered the word, the world sprang straightway into being in the form which had already been depicted, in the mind of the spirit before he spoke the word which resulted in the creation. The next act of creation was the formation of a germ or egg from which sprang Ra, the Sun-God within whose shining form was embodied the almighty power of the divine Spirit. E. A. WalJis Budge: Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, pp. 22-3. I paro naraya-vo devas tasmaj jatas Catur-mukhal}. 8 tad a-v4am abhavaddhaimam sahasramsu-sama-prabham tasmin jajne svayam bt'ahma sarva-loka-pitamahal}. I. I. s, 8-g. & J. 3· Io-II. r; ya prathamajasya hira-vya-garbhasya buddhis sti saroasam buddhfnam parama prati~lha. S.B. I. 4· 1.



bodies enabling them to experience the results of their works in the world beginning with Brahmii and ending with non-moving objects. 1 By the interaction of subject and object the cosmic process gradually realises the values of spirit in its upward ascent from nothingness to the Kingdom of God or brahma-loka under divine inspiration and influence. The changing historical process is not coextensive with reality. It is a limited manifestation of the Supren1e. Hira~tya­ garbha is not only the world-soul but also the highest of all beings in the world. 'For as in the series of beings, though having the common attributes of being animated, from man to a blade of grass, a successive diminution of knowledge, po\vcr and so on is observed, so in the [ascending] series [extending] from man to Hira~tya-garbha, a gradually increasing n1anifestation of knowledge, power and so on takes p1ace.' 2 We cannot say that the Absolute changes into l svara or j svara into 1/ira~lya-garbha. The objection to the par£~zama or change theory is put in several ways. Vacaspati asks: does it change as a whole or in part? If it changes as a whok, how can there be no destruction of old nature; if it changes in part, is the part different from the whole or non-different? If it be different, how can the transformation be of the original reality, for when one thing is changed a different thing is not also changed as that would be an undue extension. Or if it he non-different, how can the transformation be not of the whole? 3

V isva-rt"i-pa The world is a concretisation of the 'vorld purpose. It is the viriit-svarupa. The Vcdic gods were representations of pron1inent aspects of nature. Dyaus, from div, to shine, is the lord of the heavenly light, the source of strength, splendour and knowledge.
brahmadi-sthavaranta1h catur-vidha1i1 bhuta-jata1it tat-tat-kannocita-sarfra1it tad-ucita-nama-bhakcakarod ity uktam. R.B. I. 3· 26. 1 yathli hi prii1)itvlivise~e'pi manu~yiidi-stamba-paryante~u jiiiinaisvaryiidi pratibandha/.r. pareJJ,a pareJJ,a bhfiyiitJ bhavan drsyalc, tathii mantt$ytidi$V cva hira1)ya-garbha-pa.ryanlefu jfzanaiSvaryiidy-abhivyaktir api pareJJ,a pare~ta bhuyasf bhavati. S.B. I. 3· 30. 1 tat sarvtitmanii vii pari1)amate eka-dese vti!J sarviitmanti pari1;Ztime katha1-h na tattva-vyiihati~? eka-de.~a-pari1J.ame vii sa eka-deJas tato bhinno vii abhinno vii? bhinnas cet katllam tasya pari1;Ziima~? na hy anyasmin pari1)'nya{r.pari1;Ziimati ati-prasangiit abhede vii katha1il na sarviitmanii pari1JiimaJ.r,?


r IJfJ 1 . The Hindu and the Buddhist systen-ts accept the fact of sa1itsiira.tn1s toya-taran~a-bha1it. It also means taking what comes contentedly as all part of the process [Cnnlillltr. and that means keeping the spirit within us unspoiled and undishonoured.l punar na dit•astil.l on f>ar. life a war and a sojourning in a far country. the days that are past do not return. The goddess of wealth is as unsteady as waves in a river. his one aim would be to fly away from earth to heaven'. the spiritual element dreams and vapour. The universe is not a static one. tvam-rak$a rak$adhuna. Therefore. never acting unthinkingly or deceitfully or insincerely..a-capalii. its consciousness a vortex.Introduction 135 misrepresenting what is presented in a unitary way. seeking refuge in thee. Plato says that 'if man had eyes to Hce Divine Beauty.~wda. ' 2 Transiency is the character not only of human life but of the very structure of reality. not clogged with the pollutions of mortality and all the colours and varieties of human life.U. \Vhat can see us through? One thing and one only-Philosophy. See P. Time devours the world. pp. Hira~tya-garbha and Vt'riit-ritpa arc four poises of the one Reality . its substance in perpetual flux. this very instant. Bhartrhari says: 'We see that life is being wasted every day. the material element is a rolling stream. In the PhaedJ·us. its destiny dark. 0 Lord. its physical organism perishable.aya1it yauvanam pratyiiyiinti gatii/. 'Human life! Its duration is momentary. its repute uncertain-in fact.1 CHAPTEH 5 'The Status of the World Sa1izsiira The world in Indian thought as in rnany other systerns is said to be a perpetual procession of events where nothing abides. Youth is approaching its end. It is a succession of states. Life is as fleeting as lightning itself. Brahman. save me. It is an endless process of becon1ing and not a state. The actual world is a process whose possibilities are infinite. pure and clean and unalloycd. vidyuc-cala1i1 jlvitam tasmiin miith sara~tii~ata1i1 Jara. its senses dim.}'ll'' nasyati pasyatiilil prati-dinaliz _witi k::. not giving way to pleasure or pain.z k(ilo Jagad-bhak$akal} lak:r. 701 -· 5· 2 ii. what Plato calls 'the vv·orld of corning into being and passing away'. fame oblivion. and never being dependent on the moral support of others. l svara.

decay and death is not the Ultimate Reality.' 1 The world subject to change. humanity may lapse into long nights of reaction. 'when its measures are accomplished will pass away. If the constant is real. Enlightened ideas have a transforming power.. Yet. We cannot account for the order and progress we discern in the world. 3· 5· . Their perpetual transformation does not hurt the atoms. if it is treated as self-sufficient. It is marching towards freedom. and. As we shall see. wrote Augustine in the fourth century A. There is a relation between the self-conscious spirit of man and the reality at the heart of things. the moving image of eternity. it means facing Death calmlytaking it simply as a dissolution of the atoms of which every living organism is composed.' Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. so why should one mind the whole organism being transformed and dissolved? It is a law of Nature. why is there a world at all and what are we all doing in it? Before we are able to answer these questions. it moves on towards an ideal state of happiness. slowly. and Natural Law can never be wrong. relapses. in Plato's words. the human individual can shape the future. Human life is not an accident in a blind impersonal process. It is said that this entire triad of worlds would have become blind darkness if the light known as Continued from pag~ IJS] to which we owe our own being. Even Buddhistn which stresses the transiency of life allows the rule of law.D. but inexorably. 'All this most lovely fabric of things exceeding good'. Each state is determined by what went before it. they have their morning and their evening. It is not altogether a world of woe. Time and Eternity Though everything is subject to the law of time. If we do not have men of sufficient courage. The path is not smooth or straight. Samsiira has a pattern The problem for philosophy is. above all.The Brahma Sutra When we speak of the world as mayii we refer to the feeling of the vanity of life. Meditations Book II ad fin. truth. There are blind alleys. we n~ust know the nature of the world.. time itself is. 1 Confessions XII I. This world is not a wasteland. the changing is less than real. strength and dedication. The world process has a pattern and a goal. painfully. beauty and goodness.

to be an object. form and action'. drsya. If we immerse the light in darkness. To be perceived. not to be identified with the Eternal. To see into the abyss and yet to believe that God is merciful and by his grace man can right his course even when he has strayed is the teaching of the B. Its character is indeterminate. objectified or known being is dual. an abyss and a night descends on the depths of the human spirit. neither real nor unreal. There is nothing to idam andham tamab krstna1h jaycta bhuvana-t1'ayam yadi . The B. The waking and the dream worlds are both unreal in the strict n1etaphysical sense in that they involve duality and are objective but this is not to reduce a waking experience to a dream state. 1 If there were no God there would not be anything else. • This was inscribed by Akbar on the Bulwand Darwaza.' 3 These three support one another and are really one. shadow in every sunshine. the world becomes a void. 1571. Both Nagarjuna and ~. however. The temporal is. objective existence. I. 8 completed by him A. I. admits that the world is anitya. 'name. 2 Jvfaya To look upon the ten1poral process apart from the eternal background is to mistake the nature of the world. 1 E* .Introduction 137 Word had not been shining in it. There is bitterness at the bottom of every cup. 'trayam vii idam niima ri:tparit karma. The world is not apart from Brahman. painful. Both of them affirm that it is not ultimate.admit the factual nature of the pluralistic world. B. pass over it. Concepts and categories are only a means of apprehending Dasein or being in the world. the lofty gateway into the palace of . but build no house upon it. Eternal Being is non-dual. Time is a fundamental form of the objectification of human existence. 1 'Jesus.G. a nothingness. is to forfeit ultin1ate reality.G. The objective universe consists of three things. son of Mary (on whom be peace) said: The world is a bridge.Fatehpur Sikri. The world is not self-sufficient or selfexplanatory nor is it meaningless or unintelligible.~abdahvayatiz jyotira sa1hsiira1il 1za dtpyatc. and asukha. 6. but there is the eternal underlying it. non-eternal. anirvacan'iya. blight in every flower. God is time as well as eternity.D. To look upon the world as selfsufficient is to be caught in miiya.U.

If it is imagination that creates the world. The object seen is independent of perception. takes pains to repudiate the view of mentalism advocated by the Vtj1i. I V. Whatever the outside world depends on. It is shared by all human beings. S. The sensation cblue' is different from the sensation (red'. Even if the world be an illusion. 2 The idea of the created world is not our dream but is put into our heads by the Divine Being. 10. rivers. no soul apart from the Lord possesses the power of evolution. ye~v api casti siimarthya1iz te~v api paramdvarayattam eva tat. it does not depend on the human mind. S. ' S. 1 1 s. ~. I. 4· 20. ·miiyiitit tu prakrti1it viddhi mtiyinam tu mahesvaram. . na ra giri-nadi-samudriidi 1m naniividhe~u namarupe~v anfSvarasya. ananta. such as mountains. The tangible objects which we see around us arc not the objects of our imagination. artha-jiiiinayor bheda/. does not favour the modern atte1npt to dissolve concrete realities like stars and aton1s into mathematical equations or n1ental states. anadi.The Brahma Sutra support the view that the entire manifold universe is illusory in character. the maker of the illusion is not the individual subjrct but the divine Lord. clearly makes out that the individual soul is not responsible for the world of objects: 'with regard to the manifold names and forms. The world is distinguished from such self-contradictory entities as the son of a barren woman and dreams and illusions. It is just the same whether we are aware of it or not.J. n. jfvasya vyiikararza-siimarthyam asti. etc. 2. I. oceans.B. and if any have such power it is dependent on the Highest Lord' .3 If life is an illusion it is one that lasts endlessly. IV. 1 The object of consciousness is not the same as the consciousness of the object and the manner of the existence of the one is not like the n1anner of the existence of the other.' It is difficult to draw a distinction between such an illusion and reality. S. The object 'blue' can exist without requiring that the consciousness of 'blue' should exist. it is the cosmic imagination and not any private one. 20.iina-viidins. I. Commenting on II. He argues against the subjcctivist theory which asserts that everything exists only so far as it is known or is a content of consciousness..B. Awareness of something 'blue' and the object 'blue' are not identical. because the objects given to the sensing consciousness are different. sarva-loka-pratyak~a.

but aspires to be that. What we come across in this world appears to us as real but we soon realise that its reality is only transitory. Ill. '[God] givcth to all life and breath. says Proclus.As a spider moves along the thread (it produces). The world of becoming is not authentic being. all gods. historical. though he is not far from each one of us. II. 3· S. The vital force is truth and it is the truth of that (prii1)ii vai satyam. as certain even of your own poets have said.. for we are also his offspring. Historical objectification is the path of division which man must tread. existent. te$iim e$a satyam).. move. The world is a different kind of existence. The objective universe is not the subject but is yet derived from it. . Our finiteness is the condition of our awareness. and everything. persists and perishes. so from this Self emanate all organs. Our limitation gives us the scope and the opportunity to glimpse the Unlimited. 14. The world is. 3 1 TaittirJya Arattyaka. thou hast penetrated diverse things. and have our being. 2. for in him we live. a degraded form when compared to the Supreme Being.The one Lord is hidden in all beings. that they should seek God . and as from a fire tiny sparks fly in all directions.U. He knows that he belongs to it and is now separate from it. and find him. . but its truth is in the Self.All things pray except the Supreme'. Whatever is known is a reflection of the Self in limiting adjuncts.' Acts xvii. Its secret name (upan£$ad) is lithe truth of truth" (satyasya satyam). all worlds.. a passage from existence to reality. 20. and he made of one blood every nation of men . He must face his destiny by which he may rediscover his alienation from his self. 1. The world is to help human beings realise their destiny. Cf.' 8 There is not any radical separation between the Supreme B.. A being who does not realise that he is finite cannot ask because he does not go beyond himself. 25-8. verily. Man cannot avoid asking the question because he belongs to being from which he is separated.' 2 .139 Each entity is a mixture of being and non-being. 1 Introduction . It was and is no more. Our temporality gives us a chance of knowing the eternal.U. V f. all-pervading and the Self of all. . In his finitude the human individual asks the question of the nature of being. He who is infinite does not ask the question of being for he is being completely. and all beings. In the Self alone all the world takes its rise.Although one. ' 1 The world is actual.

The Advaita Vedanta cm. A realm of subsistent being altogether unrelated to the realm of actual existcnts is meaningless. inward existence. Cp. the oneness of the subject. though it may be difficult to account fur this fact. That is the purpose of human life. Even those who look upon values as belonging to a realtn of being which is different from that of actual existents assert that values are realised in actual entities. 1 . an incarnate Spirit. Existent objects exen1plify subsistent values. letting loose. Embodi('dncss has positive value for the evolution of the soul and every form of life should be respected. still reveals something of the reality despite its divorce from intimate. it is not to be compared with illusory appearances. why should the world be what it is? Though the world is a n1anifestation of Spirit. there is no spiritual freedom in it. also jantiina~n nara-janma durlabham. though it apprehends an already degraded being. It js not a bare multiplicity which would be unthinkable. 1 The cosmic process is not a meaningless one but aims at the realisation of an ideal. Though the world has not absolute reality. Creatt'on The Sanskrit word sr#i means literally emanation. We speak of beautiful pictures. mahata putzya-pat:tyena krfto'yam kayanaus tatha para1il duhkhodadhai1' gantum taYaf yavan na bhidyate. scenes and persons.The Rrahma S1"l-tra Spirit and the actual world. The world is dependent on Brahman but this dependence does not take away from the integrity and independence of A popular verse says that you have acquired this body as the result of great goodness. It is a manifestation or objcctification of Spirit. the realisation of authentic being.phasises the unity of being. existentially rather than objectively. Our objective knowledge. Why should real being suffer the accident of objectification? We n1ay as well ask. It has selves which are both subjects and objects. We must realise Spirit. Man has Spirit but he must become Spirit. the creation of reality over symbol. The final triumph of Spirit would mean the annihilation of the non-authentic objective world. On the contrary the values of spirit are surprisingly exen1plified in the world of existent fact. Cross this ocean of temporal becoming before the body breaks. But the object is discrete but not illusory.

there is an object which is misinterprl'ted. God need not have made a world 1 sarva-sarapyc hi dr$/iinta-diir~tantika-bhavoccheda et'a syiit. He has two sides. as immanent he is the determiner of miiyii.Introduction Brahman. I svara is conceived as devoid of tniiy{i. S. Since the appearance is not factual. He is also the living creative God. givPs. As transcendent he is free from nuiyii. it is sometimes imagined that the world is not factual. the rope does not depend on the appearance of the snake. i svara is not a mere symbol ~tdoptcd for upasanii or worship. he is entirely free with regard to the exercise of his will. The existence of the world is altogether contingent. While God can create a world if he wills to do so. 20. They are similar only in some intended point. How is the Eternal Logos related to the contents of the world-process? The classical answer is that the essences or potentialities of the world are eternal in the Divine Mind. The world is a manifestation. with his miiya-sakti or power of determination without any impairment of his being. As transcendent. the absolute dependence of creation and the distance between thetn. si]ver which turns out to be mother-of-pearl or a human being who turns out to be a post. He is Brahman with the principle of self-manifestation. real and unreal. There is thus a double contingency with regard to the world. trfgu~u'it'ita. God is absolutely free in respect of creation. He has a double fonn. It does not flow necessarily from the existence of God. 2. Though the latter depends on the rope. The onesided dependence of the world on Brahman is sometimes illustrated by the analogy of the rope which gives rise to the appearance of the snake. But S. other than the world put forth by him. transcendent when he is one with Brahman. one with Brahman. immanent when he produces the world. I svara is Brahman with creative power. 1 When one thing is cmnpared with another it does not follow that they arc similar in all respects. hitnself explains that the illustrations have only a limited application and are not to be extended to all points. real as Brahman and unreal when viewed apart from Brah1nan.B. Even in the instances which S. Not all of them are manifested in the world. . Creation of the world out of nothing describes the absolute independence of God as Creator. liT.

He need not have made this particular world which he has made. I. Bradley observes: 'That experience should take place in finite centres and should wear the form of finite this-ness is in the end inexplicable. The world should become an ordered beauty. The individuals lie in it without any self-awakening. It is not simply imagined in him. God's will is the meaning of the world and it is sovereign over both nature and history. H. They are therefore not born again. They hold that the power which rules the costnic energies is the determiner of human destiny. If we do not accept such a subtle power abiding in God. 4.2 Bhiimati says that there are different avidyiis associated with different selves. When any individual gains wisdom the avidya associated with him is destroyed. The term avyakta relates to avidya in a generic sense. It is just the unmanifested na vyakta. the primal state of the existence of the universe. While 1 1 bhedabhedatmika saktir brahma-ni. kutap vidyaya tasya bfja-sakter dahat. I. as stated in the previous section. The energy that manifests itself in Brahman is one with and ditierent from Bralm-tan. muktanam ea punar an-utpattilJ. It is just the subtle cause. He is described as the poet. God cannot be a creator.says that avyakta is not to be confused with pradhiina or prakrti. F. The potency of this power is destroyed by knowledge in the case of the emancipated beings. 1 The doctrine of creation out of nothing insists th_ t God is not limited by a pre-existent matter a or by any conditions external to himself. He cannot move towards creation. It is dependent on God and is not an absolute reality. 4· 3· . The Upani$ads do not countenance any dualism.' We have to accept it as the given datum and cannot derive it from the definition of God. Commenting on I. is associated with the principle of objectivity.~lha sanatanf. The creative thought: 'let me be many' belongs to Brahman. The other avidyas associated with other individuals remain the same and produce the world. ~.The Brahma Sutra at all. This avyakta is avidya or miiya depending on God. the creator of order out of chaos. 1svara. Why we have this world and not another is something for which we cannot offer an explanation.

These are the conceptions to which we are led by an examination of the given experience.1ya-garbha is seeking complete expression in the world. and the world virat-svarupa. Hira1. it is the manifestation of Hira~tya-garbha. it is yet dependent on God who is its agent and object. Nothingness is most intimately united with Being. While the world is dependent on Brahman and not vice versa. . world-soul Hira1. All fonns of evolving life are born and grow of the marriage of the Prirne mover and the primal darkness. The world is an appearance of Brah1nan. There is nothing but God and by his will the universe is made ceaselessly. The support of avidyli is Brahman. God has torn himself apart. There is a tearing apart. The act of creation is an act of sacrifice. an aberration and the end of the cosn1ic process is a return to the Spirit. Being conceals itself behind nothingness. as selfhood enters non-self. Nothingness is the veil of Being according to Heideggcr. Though the real nature of the selves is Brahman. while it is the expression of the creative energy of God. a partial manifestation of I svara and an organic manifestation of Hirat. In creation it is as if the Primordial Light while ren1aining pure and undivided in itself enters as light into its own divine darkness. It proceeds out of Being and yet conceals it. God lsvara. The Purtt$a-sukta of the ~g V eda makes out that in the original act of creation.1ya-garbha. Being good and the giver of all.tya garbha. If we are unable to reconcile these different views it does not mean that there is an inner contradiction in the nature of the Supreme but that there is a limit to our powers of comprehension. Spirit and matter arc aspects of the Uncreated Light from which all crt:>ation flows. Being perfect he needs nothing for himself but desires recipients of his love.Introduction 143 it rests in the individual. The emancipated souls understand the fourfold status of reality. they do not realise their true nature. it is still in the process of completion. so long as they are surrounded by avt'dyii. the Absolute Brahman. God gives out himself through countless forms that they may all share his life of infinite bliss. The world is not a completed act.. The world-spirit exists in the human spirit and can attain to a consciousness of itself.

When we look within. The naturalistic world view reduces man to an object utterly insignificant in the vast magnitudes of space-time. psychologists say. adopt a view of the self which reminds us of Hume's account. Most of the time we struggle through life completely unaware of what we are doing. a chain of events. desires. Anitnals cannot ask this question and redeemed spirits know the self and do not pose the question. We are not aware of the changing for it is continuous and what is constant. The permanence of the name produces the illusion of unity. They both change. human n1ind would be like the animal. the body somewhat more slowly than the mind. but not a permanent self. Man is not exhausted by body and mind. imaginings. is the name. Any change which may spell decay for the body or even for mind may yet be irrelevant for the spirit which is essentially man himself. emotions and other responses to impressions received from outside. We are at the mercy of all chance happenings. The self is a mental construction.144 The Brahma Sutra CHAPTER 6 The Individual Self DuaUty in httman nature The question of the nature of the self is raised only by human beings. relatively speaking. mechanical. man is nothing more than a sequence of physical and mental processes. Many of our acts. Men are. The Upan£$ads look upon the individual as a composite of physical and mental traits. responding to external stimuli in an automatic way. emotions. The Emp£rical Self Buddha and ~. niima-rt~pa. machines and many men do not realise that it is possible for them to overcome their automatism. are automatic. for the most part. perceptions. If this were all. But we know that there is a fundamental difference . we con1e across an endless procession of thoughts. Strictly speaking. The waxing years and the waning strength are quite powerless to dim the brightness of spirit. a series of thoughts. In the complex of personality there is something which uses both and yet is neither.

puru!ja. \Ve generally pass our time awake. 1 Cp. The human individual hPlongs to the ohject side. Wait Whitman. Every individual is a composite. they do not lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins. This is not materialism for matter itself is invested with a new quality. in efficacy is in rational creatures in another way than in irrational.Introduction 145 between the two. Animals are unities of complex mental eletnents. is all everywhere equally. The diff('rcnce between n1aterial things and living organisms is one of the degree of individuality. dreaming or sleeping but we are not selfaware. they do not make me sick discussing their duty to God. human speech gives us more than immediacy. It cmnmunicatcs ideas which transcend immediacy. It is awareness of thinking. Consciousness cannot be defined. not one kneels to another. in his simple substance. 2 There is a greater unity of behaviour. and in good rational creatures in another way than in the bad. there is consciousness without thought. who describes the life of animals thus: 'they are so placid and self-contained. is objective. nor to his kind that lived thousands of years ago. We are rarely aware of our selves standing apart from all that surrounds us. The more individual we are. prakyti. animal sounds register immediate impulses. But the vivid moments of life arc those in which man is aware of himself. a unity in n1ultiplicity.' 1 . nut one is dissatisfied. There are four states of consciousness according to the M ii~uj. nevertheless. In this state. The Siimkhya system argues that all except tlw pure self. and the transcendental consciousness called tttriya. they do not sweat and whine about their condition. an element in the perpetual procession we call the universe. not one is demented with the mania of owning things. For example. There is always and everywhere creative tnovement and the universe is no exception to it. We arc aware of tables and chairs or in drean1s of horses and chariots or we are in sound sleep. imagining.i"ikya U. He can be comprehended by knowledge. however. by all rational creatures. the intelligent and the non-intelligent are divisions within the object side. without any dream or perception. St Bernard: 'God who. physically or mentally. mental and non-tnental. waking. non-self. dream and sleep.. the deeper is the unity and the larger the complexity. All the divisions of organic and inorganic. not one is respectable or unhappy over the whole earth'. 1 The rise of reflective thought at the human level raises new problems. sensing. The possibility Cp. but only by the good is He also comprehended by "love". He is in irrational creatures in such a way as not to be comprehended by them.

We philosophise because we are finite and we know that we are f1nite. It is the eternity in us which makt~s us aware of time. In his non-being man cannot help but aspire to being. ]fva and At1nan The human individual has reason. For Sartre. limited by an environment. The body is that which dissolves itself. our utter helplessness. Our views and opinions. Our choices may be conditioned by circumstances over which we have no control. They are capable of controlling their conduct by general principles and judgments of value. life is absurdity. So he cries out for the light from which he has hidden himself. When we wake up we realise our nothingness. our tastes and thoughts are not our own. Human beings are self-conscious and self-directing. Their spontaneity becomes transformed into creative freedom. In our nature the temporal and the eternal meet. nothingness and each one has to make of it something meaningful. self-consciousness. 1 It is that which burns itself out. our mechanisation. . he can say 'I'. The sign of hope is that we realise our non-being. 2 dahyate iti deha. This conditioning may be a limitation on our freedom. yet in some sense we arc capable of acting freely.The Brahma Sutra of self-knowledge arises. can be regarded as a sum of states or experiences. The unseizability of the self has been a commonplace of 1 ~lryate iti ~arfram. His self stands against the ego which is a part of nature. \Vc must cease to be mechanical and become conscious. The 'I' transcends the 'me' which is subject to moods. 1t is then the real 'I' appears. Unlike the rest of nature. He is not content with the sandy wastes of the human spirit deprived of God. \Ve are aware that we arc a mixture of being and notbeing. They are borrowed from elsewhere. It knows that it is finite and incomplete. freedom. He anticipates the death of the ego and runs ahead of himself. \Ve cannot account for this knowledge of ourselves as finite and imperfect except on the assutnption of the infinite and the perfect in us of which we are dimly aware./J. In some small measure man has governance over himself. 2 The human self as a centre in the objective series can be analysed into its components. natural and social.

It is. Each individual is a spark from a grC'at flame. and Spirit. that man is not a mere object. As a centre of action. from the region of discord and hostility to that of love and union. finite beings though endowed with a spark of divinity is to work and sufier in an effort to reach a state of perfection. using it as a tool with which to gather experience for the purposes of the growth of the soul. as we have seen. the perishable personality behind which it operates. Atman is the foundation of the ego. Personality is not merely body and mind but Spirit. the kernel of the personality. a ray of the one Light. penetrating existence and . At the present stage of its unfoldment it uses on the physical plane a form which includes the mental. the self is an activity and an activity cannot be seized. The psychological ego implies the individuation of the Universal Spirit by the non-conscious or material principle. that his spiritual nature is not on the same level as his psychic and corporeal. It is the Universal Self active in every ego even as it is the universal source of all things. The threefold conception of man as body. The text 'That thou art' means that the Divine is all that we are capable of becoming and we must strive on and on till our life becomes an expression of the Divine. The Self in us expresses itself by the power to transcend every objectified form of psychic life. When philosophers speak of self-knowledge they do not refer to psychological introspection. It is the primal reality more authentic than anything reflected in the objective world. ernotional and physical bodies. as it were.Introduction 147 philosophic thought. Man can pass from the order of nature to that of freedom. These are collectively called the persona or mask. is. Hume in one way and Heidegger in another maintain that the self remains inaccessible to thought. The task of human individuals who are weak. The oneness of the Transcendent or Super-temporal subject is not in conflict with the plurality of empirical selves. differentiated within the body of the Cosmic Spirit. The Self is pure spirit. a divine breath. that his soul and body can participate in a new higher order of spiritual existence. The spark is an encloser of divine potentialities which becmne manifest through life in the empirical world. mind and spirit implies an important truth.

not a sum of parts. it fashions and creates itself. though it would reduce itself to an object if it passively submitted to these limitations. Each individual attempts to become a real whole. Man's salvation is dearly bought for he has to gather his soul into his hands and let the Universal manifest through it. For us in the objective world. to divinise the empirical ego. As it is not an objective datum. the divine purpose concerning the individual. the hutnan individual attempts at becoming a historical reality. a double-edged s'\vorcl. Personality is the union of our acts and potentialities. The individual is unique and unpredictable. The whole attempt of creation is to lift up the phenomenon to the level of the subject. Suffering is the result of alienation from reality and when we get back to it suffering disappears. an end in itself. Yet it is enjoined on us to live it. A unique and indivisible destiny is its essential constituent. of a constant and unique form created in the midst of incessant flux. Freedom vouchsafed to us is like all gifts. Selfhood involves the possibility of moral failure. the . It is the symbol of human integrity. the Self has an autonomous validity which prevents its being converted into a means. mind and spirit. His function lies in his participation in this continually creative act. We cannot say that the non-successive is real and the successive is unreal. with an inner independence and unity. Creative action and self-conquest are derived from the Self in us. but that is no reason for ceasing to use it. a progress in which joy is inseparable from suffering. not a means to an end. As Spirit is opposed to the world of things or of objects or of phenomena. a complex unity of body. Though it has a material content and foundation. Life's course is tragic. there is set up the attempt to realise the idea. The power of free choice is its essential feature. The self is spirit and body. It is the image and likeness of God in Man. It would dissolve itself into nothing as soon as it discarded its limitations and supports.The Brahma St""itra endorsing it with the highest dignity. The Spirit hidden in the depths of being is made manifest by a slow conquest achieved in course of time. By the impact of the Spirit with the psychophysical organism. one and unique. achieving a unity of originality and value. it includes the super-temporal subject and the temporal experiences. despite its multiplicity of functions.

however. They are all parts of the objectified universe. from the sociological viewpoint he is a small unit of society. The empirical individuals are not really subsistent subjects hut are parts of the objective world. through enabling each individual to realise his personality. Reality is one with many planes. of which one must be discarded and the other accepted. His knowledge of the world is perfect and his love for it profound and he works through creation to effect its consummation. If existence is a degradation. Salvation comes only through realising or establishing truth in human relationships. abstractions made for practical purposes from the concrete reality of history. It aims above all at the Kingdom of God. It is incorrect to imagine that the objective process has in it two opposite natures. an existent among existents in no way to be identified with the whole creation though closely concerned with it. he is real and free.I 11 tradu-Ction 149 super-temporal has no existence apart from the temporal. spiritual and material. it is one in which the whole from God to matter shares. Their separate existence and self-control are limited. God is. It has need of time to realise its potentialities to the full. The material looks upward to the spiritual and finds in it its true meaning. Tin1e is in us as pure subjects and we are in time as empirical egos. Both are true though neither is true by itself. It always endeavours to resolve contradictions. none of which completely contains his true self. Similarly the spiritual leans to the physical in order to find itself. One principle acts throughout the cosmic process though it assumes special . It must conquer the world and transforn1 it instead of denying and abandoning it to its fate. From the naturalist point of view. Every aspect of existence has in it these two in different measures. man is only a minute part of nature. These worlds are not separate and hostile. In man is an intersection of several worlds. It will not do if the spirit establishes unity and control within the nature of the ego. It exists on several planes and is permanently in a process of creative change. The physical world seems to be the first statement of the conditions from which there is a progressive evolution of spirit. though the latter cannot be conceived apart from the former. Eternal Brahman is a living God in relation to the temporal world. from the spiritual point of view.

But man is also involved in . Great religions retain the notion of a state of original innocence in which human beings or at least a couple of them according to the Je\\'S. knowledge and bliss. Jainism holds that man's nature is dual. There arc stages in the soul's journey to God. It has both material and spiritual content. as he is. In non-living things also we have the distinction of form and n1atter. In human beings as in the world there is both being and non-being. So man. By this spiritual nature 1nan can control his material nature and when he succeeds in doing it he becomes a jina or conqueror. Man's real being. A world wholly given over to the Devil is the result of pure transcendence. there is no departure from it. those who have attained nirvci:~ta and those who are still embodied. So pure matter is never found in itself. The Kingdom of God is the fulfilled transfigured life of this world. God is both immanent and transcendent. Clement of Alexandria and Origen hold in the spirit of the Upani$ads and of Plato that God created man in his own image. If absolute immanence is accepted. Philo. These souls are of two kinds. Until the purpose of the Spirit in this manifestation is perfectly fulfilled. there is no work for man to do. As a concrete existent. They are the ji1. it consists of infinite perception. The self comes from God and goes back to him. The soul's true nature is perfection. It is the lower limit of the range of being. his spiritual being partakes of the nature of God. Matter is pure potentiality and such a pure potentiality without an actual character or behaviour is just non-existence. Theophilus of Antioch. a liberated soul. Supporters of extreme doctrines of transcendence like Karl Earth believe that the distance from the state of innocence is so great that the divine spark in us 1nay be supposed to be completely extinguished and can only be relit by an act of vicarious grace. The complete self-finding of Spirit in the cosmic life is the terminus. Both these views are unsatisfactory.'anmuktas. it is both being and non-being. When it is unencumbered by error.The Brahma Siitra forms in special regions. It is different in living things and in non-living. is not perfect but he can attain perfection. Christians and Muslims lived in direct communion with God. The latter are called arhats.

Origen says: 'The 1nan who was 1nade in God's itnage is the inner man.' 1 Jean Danielou: Origen (IIJ55). which contains in itself the principles of all that happens. the incorporeal.Introduction ISI the life of the senses which is alien to his nature.' 2 l\1an loses his likeness to God when he sins. 295. 1 . the flowering tree.rpose of lluman Life Everything that lives aims at its o\vn specific perfection. to be hurt or healed. p. Spiritual life consists in the process of returning to one's true nature. Cp. in this its state of liberation. the flying bird. discern the future in those antecedent principles which will make that future what it is to be. Then. To go down into non-entity and to rise again later is the law of growth for every seed of spirit. as one emancipated. He Inust realise what he is. the running deer. CHAPTER 7 l'he Way to Perfection A. a lower and a higher. You will find a Christ there without fail. each one strives to reach the perfection of its nature. While the sub-hun1an species work according to a predetermined pattern.fA OR LIFE The Pu. on account of the possession of Iarnblichus writes: 'The soul has a twofold life. who can be surprised that the miud. To be helped or hindered. should. man. he forgets his true nature. itnmortal one. The purpose of this existence is to ascend to the light of creative consciousness. as the noble faculty which beholds objects as they are-the objects in the world of intelligence-stirs within. The blade of grass. If from any human soul you lift the veil. Claudefield: In each human heart is a Christ concealed. THE WAY OF J{AHt. and awakens in its power. In sleep that soul is freed from the constraint of the body and enters. on its divine life of intelligence. The nobler part of the soul is thus limited by abstraction to higher natures. A fall is the descent of spirit into 1nattcr. 1 \Vhen he tries to mould hitnsclf in the pattern of the animal life. It is the condition of earthly existence. 1nust recover his real nature by destroying the hold of the animal nature. Comn1enting on Genesis. and becomes a participant in the wisdom and foreknowledge of the gods. incorruptihlc.

the artistic and the ethical. This is a life-time job. emotions arc suddenly aroused and become dominant and soon they give way to others which in turn try to govern us. 0. l'ulke Grcville. a scrap heap of units. Descartes reduced the human self to the status of an object for purposes of scientific understanding. mental states were also subject to a strict determinism. the anguish for beatitude. emotions and notions. commanded to be sound. perhaps a job for n1any lives. Man is not completely a victim of circumstances. External events impinge on us. a mob of individuals. 1 . Spinoza felt that if bodily states were strictly determined. that it is determined ultimately by unconscious impulses or relations of economic production. and yet forbidden vanity. The activities of the human spirit are interrelated. There is a strain in human life which impels us to introduce peace and order into the swarm of impulses. Oh. What meaneth Nature by these diverse laws? Passion and Reason. edited by A. higher level. Mind and body became objects of scientific treatment only on the condition of a universal determinism. You ask how can that be? I know not but I feel the agony. mind and soul into a whole. the religious Catullus says : I hate and I love.I 52 The Brahma Sutra creative will. Prickard (1918).' Concerning the Delphi. to another bound. Man can deliberately reject satisfaction at one level for the sake of satisfaction at another. Each individual is not one but many. He can create a new nature in which the different elements of his being are harmonised. an assemblage of different factors. incongruous and often contradictory. There is in tnan the ache for unity. Plutarch says: 'Each one of us is made up of ten thousand different and successive states. wearisome condition of humanity! Born under one law. He can say 'no' to life whereas the anin1al always says 'yes' even when he is in the throes of terror and revulsion. for him. self-division's cause. Vainly begot. has to achieve his fulfilment by his effort and will. a counterpart of the body. The self was. Man's quest for perfection consists in organising the things of body. Created sick. Freud and l\tTarx adopt a similar objective view of the human self. 1 He must reach unity through inner development. He can impose discipline on his nature and check the drive of desire.

tnan has to take another step in his evolution. There is a revealing story in Sa-di: 'A righteous man saw in a dream a l~ing in Paradise and a devotee in Hell He enquired: "What is the reason for the exaltation of the former and the degradation of the latter? For I used to think it would be the other way round. 15. the dhyanamiirga. is a transitional being. unwillingness to recognise the truth.e. for his is the sin of the dr. the !?arma-mlirga. The Lord is merciful to the sins of the flesh but wrathful against those of the spirit.epest dye. and the devotee is in Hell because of his attachment to kings". It is also true that there is so much in common among human beings that we can distinguish certain broad ways to man's realisation. piipam caure'l. \Vhen Jesus attacks the Pharisee. There is only one thing of which we have to be ashamed. our actions are confused and contradictory. Man is a miniature of the universe in which he lives. thought. he is attacking the n1an of pretences who keeps up appearances.t n There is an old saying that tht"re are as many ways to God as there are souls on earth. So long as our nature is not integrated. an unfinished experiment. Plato's description of the just man in his Republic IV. speech and action are of one piece. 1 yo anyathii santam atmiinam anyathii pratipadyate kint te12a na krta1n. i. All yoga is one and includes the different aspects of work~ devotion and knowledge. All these lead to jtiiina. The lie is the great evil of which the Pharisees are guilty. .I ntroduc#on 153 and the rational. Each person is unique and his way to fulfilment is also unique. In an integrated man. manasy eka1h vacasy rkam llarma~y ekarh mahiitmanii:m manasy anyad vacasy anyad karma~y anyad duriitmauiim. Cp." A voice came saying: "The King is in Paradise because of his kindness to the poor. he is at peace with himself. he thinks and acts in a new way.liitmiipahiiri~ii. The Kingdom of Heav(·n is the highest state attainable by man. says that there is no thief so dangerous 2 as the hypocrite who says one thing and does another. the way of meditation.B. For this awakening. the way of devotion. We must recognise that evil is in us though such a recognition may wound and shame our pride and presumption. as he is. the way of work~ bhakti-marga. Man. Different H'ays to Fu1filrne.' Gulistan 1 II. who pretends to be good when he is not. 1 The M. \Vhcn he is awakened. wisdom or enlightenment.

t param balam niisti j1i(iniit paro bandhur niiham --kii.-jiianiiniim ea icchanti. defect and illusory knowledge.. II. XIV. to Brahmatzas and ascetics. :yani yatna-sadhyiim siidhaniini lak$a~iini ea bhavanti tiini. The spiritual goal and the ethical means are bound up with each other and not externally related. gifts to friends and relatives. Their relationship is not adventitious. In his Rock Edict 7. no enemy greater than self-conceit. 3 In Sanskrit it reads sarvf' te samyama1i1 ea bhiiva-suddhi. Samh ita it is said: nristi mciyii.G. 1 The Prhnacy of Ethics Man is the bridge behveen nature and spirit. 55 · sarvatraiva hi adhyiitma-siistre . To reach the goal is to perfect the means to it. 25. Nyiiya S1itra I.. Almost all the religious classics of India insist on ethical conduct as an indispensable means for spiritual life. Through agonies and ecstasies he has to reach his fulfilment. Ethics is the basis of spiritual life and its substance. S. Asoka says that 'all sects wish [to acquire] self-control and purity of tnind' . 1 . 2 Cp. Sec also S.. :l. there is no strength higher than that of yoga. for example. I.3 He calls those without these qualities mean indeed. by the destruction of each subsequent one there is the destruction of each earlier one and consequently final release.H. Rock Edict I I says there is no such gift as dharma-dana. activity. His destiny drives him on to the spirit.' dubkha-janma-pravrtti-do$a-mithy(i.G. Asoka's dharma.hich leads people out of the woes of the world and flxes them in the highest bliss. n'icii!l·. not creed or doctrine. S. 'Of misery. Cf. In Ghera~uja. birth. samam pi'Ham niisti yogii. there is no friend higher than knowledge.154 The Brahma Sutra Dharma in a' wide sense is used to connote all the means for the achievement of the different ends of life. There is no bond equal to that of miiyii.B. Moral discipline n1akcs for spiritual insight. non-killing of creatures. Samantabhadra says that dharma is that v. etnphasiscs sila or conduct. The progran1me of duties laid down in dharma siistras is intended to help Inan to reach his goal. The moral law within us is evidence of our citizenship in the world of spirit. 2 \Ve cannot bypass the ethical. Dkarma is defined as proper behaviour towards slaves and servants.paye tcld-anantarapayiid apavarga}J. respect for father and mother. worship or ceremony. says that one should undertake enquiry into Brahman only sarilsib·a-du}Jkhatal~ sattvan yo dharati uttame sukhe.rat paro ripu}J.

ostentatious and attached to the senses though he bathed in all places of pilgrimage. Evil is there because we son1etimes abuse free will. If he is unsupported in mid-air he must fall to the ground like a stone. no failure. 4 There is a general insistence on truth in inward nature and not merely conformity in outward conduct. These laws 1 tasmiit yathokta -stidhana-samJJ(lfy-a na ntaram bm hma-_i ijfirisii ka1'tar1yii. Kuruk~etra. S. 1 3 na punanti vedii~. Evil is not passivity but activity. 2 Speaking the truth is n1uch better than performing many sacrificcs. then the hun1an individual has no n1caning. 1f the world is a machine. There is no animal delinquency. Man is subjected to different sets of la. $at-sampatti and mumu. yo lubdha~ pisuna~ kriiro diimbhiko vi~ayiitmikal} sarva-tfrthe~vapi sniita~z pflpo malina eva sa~. God could have eliminated evil if he had so wished by denying us freedom of choice. M. While animals are creatures men are creature-creators. .B. hypercritical. God permits evil because he does not interfere with human choice. If God had desired to create a world of auton1ata there would have been no evil. 3· asvamedha-sahasriit tu satyam ekarit visirvatr. cruel. 3 There is a popular Ycrse \Vhich says that people want the fruits of dhanna and not dhanna itsel£. etc. of l· ill V The integration of the individual has to be achieved hy a conscious effort. vairiigya. detachment.iilrat:tya or Pu!. Naimi!. He cannot disobey the law of gravitation. Man in so far as he is made in the image of God is a creator. I. I. what he calls viveka. that place is for him. Without creative freedom man cannot produce either a paradise or a desolation on earth. l'asi~fha Dharma-sutra VI.. The latter is of no use to those who are morally i1npure. nigrhftendriya-griimo yatraiva ea vasen nara~ tatra tasya /wru-k$rfra1ir 1wimi$a1i1 pu~kariini ea.Introduction 155 after he acquires self-control. Cp. Freedom. 4 purtyasya phalam icchanti pu~zya1it 11ecchanti miinavii~. 1 Moral life is an essential condition for the pursuit of wisdom.k!}utva. As a living organistn he is subject to various biological laws which he cannot violate. 8. iiciira-hfnan~ One who controls his senses wherever he stays. Ethical conduct is different from ceremonial piety.. He is not free until he is capable of creative activity. is still sinful and impure.vs. He who is covetous.B.ikara.

It is the law of dharma or right and wrong. Cp. Some existentialists like Jaspers and Marccl. emphasises the finiteness and contingency of man's condition. In Hindu thought. 3 dr~lim jiiiina~mayfm krtvii pasyed brahma-mayath jagat. says that after f1lling our sight with wisdon1 let us sec the world as Brah1nan. changeable. (1950). p. it is not founded on Hindu metaphysics but is inconsistent with it. following the lead of Kierkegaard. jagat satyam. pp. Human life is a brief span of existence between original nothingness and death. I Cp. satyiid bhutiini jiitiini satyatit bhuta-mayath jagat. 3 The world of multiplicity is acknowledged even by those who attempt to explain it away. 206-7. E. If the Hindu adopts an exalted morality. So it is said that the good of man consists not in transforming the world which is a vale of woe but in transcending it. ] ohn McKenzie: 'The duties of social life cannot be deduced from the ultimate goal of attainment as the orthodox understand it. Since the Supreme is the basis of the world the world cannot be unreal. tia dr:'~ti~ paramodarii na nasiigravalokinl. nor can they be shown to stand in any vital relation to it. 1 . The Complaint of TVorld-ncgation It is said that for the Hindu all true existence is non-material. Religion is essentially a passion for righteousness.B. unchangeable and eternal and therefore the material. for example. The threat of nothingness is the source of that fundamental anguish which the existentialists emphasise. 1 The world is not a deceptive fa\·adc of something underlying it. miiyii is not so much Albert Schwcitzer says: 'World. Such a vision is fruitful. It is not his aim to change the world but turn away from it. It is real though imperfect. M.and life-negation if consistently thought out and developed does not produce ethics but reduces ethics to impotence. brahma satyam.' Hindu Ethics (1922). temporal existence is false.T. It is constantly passing away and tends to return to non-being. not the vision which looks solely at the tip of the nose.The Brahma Sutra he shares with the animals but there is a law which he does not share with animals.' The Philosophy of Civilisation. S. satyam caiva prajii~pati[a. 288. 2 M liyii has a standing in the world of reality. a law which he can disobey if he so chooses. find the counterpoise to the world of nothingness in the reality of God. Heidegger.

Our best attempts arc incapable of remedying the disease of which we are all obscurely aware. Materialism is the height of unintelligence. extraverted mass-state. the superficial materialism. Society is approaching what seems to be the final stage of economic evolution. the pastoral. The concept of brahma-loka. we must achieve perfection. Unfortunately. \Ve must work for better conditions for the material and spiritual development of human beings. the agricultural and the industrial stages with their different phases. The B. the contemporary world situation where two rival power systems are facing each other is leading to the emergence of a narrowly secular.Introduction 157 a veil as the dress of God. Man is a social animal. for civilisation is material and spiritual progress for both the individual and society. the Hebrew prophets and Zarathustra. We have passed beyond the hunting and the fishing stages. when it calls upon us to work for a world community. Latterly the small social groups have been broken up by the forces of industrialism but new opportunities for larger groups are now available. We must renounce self-interest and dedicate ourselves to the doing of good.. Such a faith will help us to bring love where there is hatred. the lack of creative vision and the uncontrolled technocracy which are the alarming symptoms of a disease eating at the heart of our modern way of life. Sensitive people deplore the disintegration. in other words a healing of the divorce between the outward resources of power which are assuming frightening proportions and the inward resources of the spirit which are decaying or dead. The destiny of the world is to be transformed into the perfect state of the Kingdom of God. the Kingdom of God. materialistic. hope where . He loves those with whom he lives in close association. The whole of society requires to be reconstructed on the principle of social solidarity. a new and transforming contact with the inner sources of spiritual inspiration which once animated the soul of our civilisation and produced and maintained its indefeasible unity of consciousness. is known to the Vedic seers. calls us back to the Indwelling Spirit which is in us as in others.G. in the words of the B. The crisis which faces us is a spiritual one and what we need is a recovery of spiritual awareness.G. If we are to share the new existence. The aim is luka-sarhgraha.

' 1 The goal is a reorientation of htunan personality. kartavyo dharma-sa1hgraha~. The kind of life one leads has an importance both for oneself and the world. our prosperity is fleeting. Therefore one should tak~ to dharma. It is through time that time is conquered. This world is our home and our lives are dedicated to action.. 3 anityani sarf1'ct~zi. akutsite karma~zi ya~ pravartate. We should not be preoccupied with our own salvation. Each individual appears to be isolated but we soon realise that there is a living substance from which all emerge. The soul is bound so long as it has a sense of mineness. d1•c padr ba~zdha . light where there is darkness. integrated. The sense of mincness binds the creature. 20 .The Braltma S1~tra there is despair. Cp. however. it is not essential to become a samnyiisin. For the cultivation of detachment. death is always near to us. Two words maJ<e for bondage and release: freedom from minencss and mmenPss.. Cp.. nit.mok$iibhyiirit nirmameti manzeti ea. We arc called upon to act in a disinterested way. free from egotism. his fulfilment./e must give if we wish to receive. 2 If God is to live in us pride must die in us. nivrtta-ragasya grham tapovanam. where the self assumes control over cravings and desires. mameti badhyate jantu~ nirmameti vimucyate.Msvatal£. ll itopadesa : grMta iva kde~u mrtyuna dharmam acaret. The transitorincss of earthly possessions is used to emphasise the imperative necessity of the practice of dharma. freedom from mineness produces release. I V.i~ziim grhel~u pancendriya-nigrahas tapa~. We shall be able to serve if we are ourselves saved. We are called upon to participate in the life of the \vorld. 2 l'ahigala U. There is a well-known verse which reads: 'Our bodies are not permanent. what 1\r~rza says to Uddhava in the nth skandha of the Bhiigavata: 'A spiritual aspirant should not only give up the company of 1 . vibhavo naiva . V. The world is the place where the human individual has to attain his integration. joy where there is sorrow. These latter are not to be destroyed but transformed. We should not become victims of material interests and vulgar appetites.Jairagya or detachment even as houscholders.v(t~il samnihito mrtyu~. with the absence of the sense of mineness it is liberated. It is possible to cultivate 7. 1 : vane'pi do 1~ii!z prabhavanti rii-. We are not strangers in the world required to develop indifference to it..

~ cintayen nuinz atandrita!1. 2 LXI\·. love. verily AlHih is also forgiving and merciful. If we believe in God. they say "peace" . tat-sa1iginiint smigmi1 tyaktva dftrala iitmavii11 k$ema1i1.1a1il. When we realise that the Divine is cxpr . If we adopt fasting and other physical discipline. care for the poor and put an end to injustice wherever we see it. non-ethical creative po\ver and as ethical conscious~ ness in human life.Introduction I 59 There is a popular impression that Hindu ethics rerp1ires us to treat the body \Vith contempt. justice. The Quran says: 'The servants of the merciful arc those who 1neekly walk upon this earth and if the fools speak to them. VVe are again brought back to it. It helps us to see the needs of pcnple. The body must he disciplined in order that it may serve the ends of righteousness. . self-control are not separate qualities but are the different facets of the personality. \Ve must be ready to cast off unnecessary burdens and travel light. and life of compassion. free from dang<'r and meditate on me. are the two principal sides of a spiritual life. we will adopt the principle of ahitits/i. 64. XXV.' 1 Again 'If you forgive and practise forbearance and pardon. it does not mean that the fasts and the physical exercises are ends in then1selves. vivikta iislna. Inward awarf'ness.' 1 strf1. con1passion. dharmastidhanam. \Ve are not called upon to fear bodily desires or hate the body. To know the truth we are taken out of the world but only temporarily. . The Divine is exprrssed in nature as an impersonal. ahithsii. Thereby the individual spirit becomes enriched. active devotion to and a sense of union with all that exists. lt is well known that the body is regarded as the instrument for righteous living. and undertake fresh acts of service. satya. Bodily discipline helps us to see the face of God and hear his voice. 14.~ssed in us as in others we feel the obligation to help others. The practitioners of 11 atha yoga arc not the exponents of the best type of sanctity. There is no infinite being except being in its infinite manifestations. Ahi#~sa is reverence for all life. ' 2 The women but even the company of householders and sit in solitude. We must be truthful in our words and deeds. visit the sick. Ethical Rules The different virtues of fortitude.


Therefore we see non-unity among customs at ail tin1es. dharmal.kid iiciin'}J. M.Sauryam. There is no single law for all tin1e. satya and ahimsli. because they relate us to others. dharmo hi fivasthika}J. jiiiinam agarvam.~aye. Ibid. sa!z apam1i1 biidhatc puna}J. These Inust be flexible enough to be altered to suit progress in human thought.. insignificant. these four are difficult to attain. or fear to fall.I ntroductiott 161 courage with forbearance and wealth with renunciation. Therefore it is changed for one that seems better and it is again found harn1ful demanding change. 4 dda-kiila·nimittiinii1it bltcdair dharmo vibltidyatc anyal. Lord of himself. Siiulijlarva. sanutstlwsya vi$amastlws_va m apara~ na hy eva aikiintiko dharma~t. yet hath all. time and circu1nstance cause changes in dharma also. It is said that many perni~ious customs pass for religious duties under the influence of ignorant persons of had character. durlabham etac catur·bhadram. stnrtab.s·lla·puru$a-pravarlital. So we adhere to absurd and degrading customs. sampravarlatt tasmiid anya}J. but they make for man's progress.e. though not of lands And haYing nothing. 4 diinam priya·viik-sahitam. 3 more often out of inertia. their application depends on the concrete situation. F 1 . Medhatithi on Manu. J:. 2 murkha-dul. The main obstacle to social progress in India is conformity. na hi sarva-hita}J. vittam tyiiga··sametam. 3 lobhi'in mantra-fa1lfriidi$U j>ravartalc. There is one law for Incn in time of peace and another in time of distress. No law has brcn found which is of help to all. ka. are absolute. iiciiriiruim anaikiigrya1iz tasmiit sarvat1'a lak. k$amiinvitanz . There is a Christian hymn written by Henry \Votton which ends with the lines: This man is freed from servile bonds Of hope to ri::. Changes of place. So dharma is known to depend on circmnstances. Unless we belong to a social whole we feel that we are powerless. We \vish to belong and not be isolated or lonely.l Social Institutions Whereas the utterances of the founders of religions have a claitn on our allegicnce this is not true of the institutions built round them. prabhavati. 2 They are generally adopted out of greed. \Vhcreas the principal demands of truth and love.

I. a laf'al:z .V1ilz S'l'lt1. Devaki.' 3 Some of the great leaders of Indian civilisation were of rnixed origin.hma~ul. kunua-lcriyii-!Jhcdc 11a ciit !fr-t•cn~~ya1il prati5!hiium. in spite of his ll.. "I consider to be a l:Jriihmau. According to the Hebrew Scriptures. Siinti parva rHz. K f~l)a Vasudeva Var~r_1cya \ras the son of a k~atr(\'a prince.1'hc llralzma .·a. He is jn!.·a. The M. asked an outcastc to clear the v·:ay for hin1. by his conduct. \' ' 5 There is a story that when S. ~ cka11ar~w111 .)'iitra The Caste Svshwt The vocation of a person is that which n1anifests his inn(•r nature.!.•hyuJil yv hlno jiiti-tm'ihma~za eva sal:z.. Aranya fJallltJ .'il u ul Y•l. Adam. birth.flc'i. he who lacks austerity and learning is a JJr.'.a is not a lJrt'ihmaFa. 8.ment.yi!(: . ui:b· . M.1 1 Vrt. 1 In its origin the caste systen1 represented the division of n1cn into classC'S according to their capacity and function. lo·. 1 y as tu s1id1'0 dame ~atyc dlzarme ea $lllulu/thital1 tau·.ral~cml tapab .a that Siidra who is ever endowed \\·ith self-restraint. the outcaste who was God .~·zldra and if they be not found in a JJrii. the sister of Karhsa. says: 'Austerity.i'fl-g71 !I a-kar111ii11 USlll C~lll r. 2 Later it became rnixvd up with heredity.i. . hi bhavcd dui)alt. thcsP 1nakc the Br..B...-Janu : Un<' is born as a.!OIJ . has nothing to do with race.'ihmanam tlliwu wanye vrtteuu. 1t 1nnst accord with his tcn1pera.S [idra. and a non-~\ryan princess.\'ir:tli!rt. truthfulness and righteousness. Today it injures the spirit of hurnanity and violates human dignity. A rnan bcc01ncs a /)riihma~za.'Y((~/ i.-k. Kr~t)a DYaipayana Vyasa was the son of a lJrlihma~za father and a non-Aryan 1nothcr. gu~za and karma.\ ztdre cuitad bhavel lak~ya 1i1 d-vije ea ita n na vidyate lla Vai ~· ftdi'O bhavec chudro urahma1)-0 Ha Ca urahma~zat.:./nna~za by birth alone.ruta:il ea youd ccty clad bl'iilzmcu:za. . M."ihma~za. then such a Szidra is not a Sitdra and such a Urtifz. :.a~l scnizsldit·itt d :·i_ia ucyalc r•tdcitihy.B. idam f'ttrvwil r•duam tisid yadhir!him. lcaruing. "·1 If these characteristics be found in a .B. 1\. By the study of the Vedc£s he becomes a vipra bnt by the knowl~dge <•f Nwhi!:au he lwcomps a f/1'cilnna~w. not of defilement. Cp . nationalLt~· or rdigion. ja J: n ·allci jii_ vatc (zid.rutil. but through the (performance of) riles he becomes a twice-horu.'isiit lihaz•£'1 vi pro bra}mza jcinliti briilzmm. the parent of all mankin<J.t a human bC'ing. To offer a cup of water is a sign of frienllship. The systcn1 of caste whatever its historical significance has no conternporary value.

itanytJ. 11 ki1il tu mala111.-ililln-ahi garrl''' r.T. the use of dirt. Ynl.. The state of the householder is an exalted one.cnchcli. what of fervour? Seek a son.\rfiui. renounce the world and all its ways and thus freeze the human spirit. n1arriagc has been treated as a sacrainent and its purpose has been the production of offspring.)h) writes: 'Certain men of distorted mind have spoken against the good of sexual moderation . the deer-skin. Pspecially a SOIL In the A itareya Braltma~?a. llarvm'd Orit!Hia. 5· 4 iya~h sflci ma1-na suta saha-dharma-rat·f. he asks him to treat her as his companion in a11 dutics.quinas in a passage in his Summa Cvnfra Gcntilrs (111. He denied to then1 one particular n1ethod of attaining twna-mayam ulhat•ti ra. I. . of what [goocl arc they]? 0 Brt'ihma~z.le Keith gi\·cs the following E. kim tapa!1. He who. 300.lcl dfi. l. the unshaven hair.~llla. 0 Brahmin This is the world's advice.rl-lwrtu1f1 t'riiichasi 1. 1 tlllllll-11111Vc7cl . without discharging [them]. To this may he added the Lord's commandment to our flrst parents: "Be fruitful anJ multiply and fill the earth": 3 Vl. J>rofes~or Bernieda.m t'l'a cailrwyiit dJ •JjU-i-'1. p./. kimu ../ ~"irrics. He \·crily is the blameless source of enjoy1ncnt. tm•a prancc:ha cainiitit bhadra1h te pii:~.a. \Vomen were not treatc·d with fairness and dignity. j •utram lmil:mafla icchad}wam sn t•a-i !okn'vadrivada!r. \Vhat i:-. Hut this is more divine than tht> good of tlw individual. \Vhen Janaka gives Sitft to Rama.Introduction hin1self asked: 'Do you wish my body to leave your body or my spirit to leave your spirit?' 1 If democracy is to be seriously itnplemented.' 3 In son1e periods of our history. 4 It \Vould be wrong to hold that Madhva denied mol~~a or final release to women. XXXl I. lFonwn and Family L1jc \Ve are not called upon to suppress human desires. Thomas . austerities. 25. desire a son..tilil grh1~va prhliniim. From early times.' 2 Manu says: 'One should direct one's rnind to renunciation after discharging the three debts. howevPr. has been one of perfect equality. reject human pleasures. we read: 'Of what good is dirt. The dominant ideal. what of the guat-sl-:iu. For the union of man and woman is ordained for the good of the species. kith ajiuam. practises renunciation goes bclow. then caste and untouchability should go. 70. 'What of long hair..t\.. 8 iidras and fallen 1lrtlhma · as and nonu Hindus.

ye'nye ea pripii yad-upLisrayii!t sudyanti tasmai prabhavi$~tave sakiidaya/.1. Madhva confined the pursuit of Vedic knowledge to the three upper classes. of course. is not the proper spirit. art ha and kiima. whatever justification it rnay have had at the time tlw conuuentarics were People's lives \Vere directed beyond the quest of wealth and pleasure. Dharma i~ a witll<'SS to this as also the wise.The Brahma Siitra relcase. There are some who take to samnyiisa when they feel lonely. The true samny(tsins realise human unity and brotherhood in their souls. lak$myii jfva-kotitvam ity evam mata-visel<. Again : strl-s udra-bra.l Other ways were prescribed for them which will lead to the same goal of final release. This does not seem to be correct.. Samn_vt1sa is sometimes prescribed as a preparation for service. There was a tirne when it was taken for granted.1.a says: muhurtam api samnyasya labhatc paramiim gatim na samnyiisiit paro dharmo vartate mukti-kara llam. That. bhaktiiuiim viprii~tiim eva mok~a!z . \Ve cannot grow as individuals apart from one another. X.hma-bandlz uniilit trayf na sruti-gucarii itibhiiratam iikhyiinarh krpayii muninri krtam .ny(lsins presents itself to the modern world as a scandal. They. ·nama/. refers to Mauhva's doctrine and says that according to it only Briihma~zas were eligible for mok$a. Ibid. . has no excuse today.'idytidhikt"ira. The order of the sanz. L 4· 24. It is said in the Uralzma Pur/i~ul that a wmnan who is addressed as mother in speech should be truly looked upon as rnothcr. lJhiigavata II. and devoted to an invisible God. inadequate and incomplete and in their shock of loneliness and isolation wish to turn back on the world. bralz ma-7.3 •' \Vhat is meant is the spirit of renunciation. 4· r8. commenting on Jiva-Gosvamin's ~at-sandarbha. 1 Brhad-dharma-puriiJJ. had a right to brahmakno\\'lcclgc.(ri abhira ka1ikci. 2 Samnviisa ··-· sometinu~s renunciation of the world is exalted. Baladeva. however. In the F£'das we find reference to won1Pn seers who are brahma-v/idinis. yava~lti!l Cp. 2 miitar-ity eva sabdena yii1h ea sambhii~ate nara~ sa matru-tulyii satyena dharma -siik$f satiim api. is insisted on. kiriUa -Jzziniindhra-pulinda puklla. so. EvC'n a par£vrt'ijaka who ahanclons the world absolutely has to sustain his life and do the duties that are I vaidika-brrzhma-vidyiidhikrira. Hrahma-caJ~Wl. This exclusion. or chastity of body and mind.

. 2 alankiiro lty ay am as1willam. he points out that our conduct should he not one of mere conformity to dnty with an effort.~arirasya . 1 The samnyiis£ns \vork in the \vorld so long as their fellow-men are insensitive and irresponsible and so are unfree. Io-q . 18. Beyond Ethics When one attains the spiritual level.i John stands for salvation through Inoral life.i. Thcotimus. iii. spontaneous way. 4· 20. S. 5 \Vhen Jesus tells us that our righteousness should be different frotn that of the Scribes and thC' Pharisees.v ad bra lmuitmiir•afiala u salyii 1i1 sarva-llartavyatii- hanifa krta-krtyata ceti. \Ve become different and act i10t from expectation of reward or fear of consequences but bf'causc the act is good in itself. were alive and could speak and declare its condition.' 3 'If ye he led of the Spirit. not that he repudiates it hut he transcends it. The Father that chvc11eth in me. woulcl it not cry out with great joy:"() mortals I live indeed but I live not myself. St Fran«. there is a change in the inward 1nan which makes us practise good in an effortless.G. Jesus says of John the Baptist that he is the highl'St n1an born of woman hut the least in the Kingdmn of HeaYen is greater than he. if a drop of water. Lu. he doeth the works. He telJs us what to do but we 1 Cf. • Galatians v. says 'this is indeed an ornament to us that. Freedom from obligation is only for those who have cast off their self-sense. .B.' 5 1 Jolln iii. In a sense until all tnen become free no one is absolutely free. ua-:miilw-bhik ~'>ii{anlidi kanna kiiyikaJil t1acikam mii11asanz tarctt aparihiiryam dhriyamii~w-. 1. XV .ois De Salt'S says : 'Tell me. xiv . 1. 10 . he rises above the ethical. 4· Sec S. thrown into an ocean of some priceless <'Ssence. 6 \Ve must ccas<' to he n1en of external piety and become rnen of inn('r understanding. q. ye are not under the law . 20. 1 pray you.' 4 \Vhoever is born of God cannot sin.B.2 \Vhen we undergo the ethical discipline. there is the destruction of al1 obligations and the accomplislunent of everything that is to be accomplished'. when there is the realisation of JJralunan. 28. 7 Matthew iii.Introduction allotted to him. . but this ocean lives in me and my life is hidden in this abyss".zo. 3 John viii. 'I do nothing of myself. 2. G Matfhl'W v. S. Bhiiskara: pat·ivriijakasyapi saucamt. Then we break the inertia of habit.

Uhogavata X . There is a stage in which we accept the world. Tht:rc is nothing.uti iajJas. a third in which \VC accept it.' Fire may consun1e a forest or S'iva drink poison without any hannful consequences. forests and woods and wild beasts. It is easier to fight non-human rlcltinum.!66 The JJrahma Siitra cannot gain release unless \Ve change our nature. . These are not faults atnong those with tcjas or radiance. \Ve have to develop the power of will. 0 Parvati. A great artist rnay be a great moral force.1 He \vho is lacking in such control [anTsvanib] should not even think of imitating such conduct for it can on]y bring destruction to him even like swallowing poison in imitation of Siva.ras or n1asters arc son1ctinws seen to transgress rules of conduct with courage. become different. sanity and sanctity. The ethical man. says: taf)(. 33. even as the all-devouring 11rc is not affected [by the impurities it consun1es] . Those who have full n1astery over their natures son1etirnes do things which n1ay appear 'Wrong to the conventional people.uelt $arvu-blwjo yatl111. An ideal personality would be all these.'::t'miilzihi. a man of wisdom and holiness. it helps us to attain knowledge. \Ve cannot extinguish selfish desire by the mere force of intellect.-t . It is more difficult to fight the passions.~iiya vah. Dut ordinary men cannot transgress rules until they have shaken off all selfishness and established control over their nature. 30. This is a Inore arduous struggle. These values are con1plemcntary. John the Baptist was uneasy when he heard that Jesus and his disciples ate and drank and did not fast. do. gratefully acknowledging its place in the divine scherrtc. They plucked the ears of corn on the Sabbath day. the economic man and the artistic man are all abstractions obtained by our intellect from the concrete unity of our being. The Bhiigavata says: 'lsva. the subrational elen1ents in human nature.i durluf. that tapas cannot give men. dadlit1 suubhtlgywu tapo vidyc'i111 /ll'llyaa/. lgasly.Juoil l~nin lt nasli bhci. John asks us to becon1e better men and Jesus asks us to become new men. 2 The different elements in human nature arc divided in a disintegrated man but in an integrated life they are held in hannony. Tapas gives us wdfart'. another in which we reject it. An integrated personality is incapable of doing anything wrong. are in\vardly transformed. 1 tcjfyasari' na 2 .

if we may ca11 it hy that narnc. R luifaNtla. The reality of God does not.:tidii. 58-66. not philosophical discourses. depend on our views. It is possible for atheists and agnostics to lead virtuous lives. the Divine. it mf•ans that it has a purpose. hmn'Ycr. 1 2 .rs. l-Ie nntst ha. \Vhat a man hdieves has a determining influence on his character. {istrai[l a/am makhai!t \ alr11i1 jiilina-katJuUiif'ai~ bhaktir rkait~a mul.lnfrodu. Existentialists of the school of Sartre struggle to seck some rneaning for human life in a godless universe. Our irreligion does not entail the suspension of divine acting. for the growth of tl1e individual into a person would be unintelligible unless we have a Divine Personality.' a alwil kalau vrataU1 lirlhai~ yo~-:ai~~ . It is said 'in this world.·e some object or person or cause on which to fix his devotion. only devotion can give us freedom'. 3 Sec B. 2 Bhakti Bhaldi is conscious recognition of and wholehearted response to the source of al1 goodness.G. an idf'al that touches the deepest springs of tnan's inner life. St. not vows. for the direct apprehension of value which transforms the individual into a person implies an ideal personality who embodies the value apprehended. may become pcrvcrt~d and abused hut the need is there. Augustine: 'Thou hast always been with nw but I have nnt <1lways been with myself. Cp. If \\'C grant that the world has n1eaning.J I ii luit . It must he turned to an ideal which is genuine. not pilgrimages.uya. pp. THE \VAY OF JUfAICJ1 OR I>EVOTION 1 Need for Helig£ous DevoNon It is often said that man is incurably religious. McTaggart's notion of a community of p(~rsonalities living in a kind of spiritual void is not tenable. not yoga practir.. The instinct. They rnay be unaware or unmindful of the divine source of all. not sacrificial rites. not study of Scriptures. There arc some thinkers hoth in the East and the West who feel that man's capacity for integration. grounded in truth.ction B.

~as tu f>anui. Love of n1an and woman is used to illustrate love of man for God. See l'i.G.' 3 '\Vhen the lovers are together. danam ity iihu!z kalau bhaktir garfyasi. 2 One must find one's supreme pleasure in God. X. and will sup with him and he with me. 9· 3 yuvalfnii1il yatha yi4ni yiina1i1 ea yuvatau yatha mana!z abhiramate tadvar mana!t me ramatcl. 1. 1 5· 2 yii prUir aviveltiinariz vi. ' 1 As we have seen. so may n1y mind rejoice in Ther. Cp. He helps his devotees to act in this \vorld as partners in his divine work. Manu: tapa!l parva1ii krta-yuge ft·t'fiiyiilit yajnam eva ra df!iiparr. 19: see also B. Bhakti-marla?J. ity et•am nalu yiinti 1nnk!5a-padat1lm sri-krs~w-l)haldith vinii.uena yu!tto balwl.168 The Brahma Siitra The Bhagavata Pur/b.l· a Prahlada expresses the wish u that he may have that attach1nent to God that is experienced with regard to scnsc-ohjects.o. He takes up human creatures into his range of action if they respond to his call. 'As maid delights in youth and youth in tnaid.a hy Gope!:ivara: adr$te dar5anotka?J!hii dr!'fe visle~a-bhfruta nadr ~tena na dr$tena bhavata labhyate sukham.1it tvayi. they are afraid of being separated. A wl'll-known Sanskrit verse reads: miua!t .a is treated as the standard work on bhakt£. Our one prayer is that God should increase in us true religion. anab 11ira\T khalrt piil•alwlt pmti-dinarn . 'Behold. 17. 13. \vhen tlwy are not together. 'It is the quintessence of the Vediinta philosophy. 1 sarva-vediinta-siirarh hi sri-bhiigavalam i~yate tad-rasamrta-trJ>tasya niinyatra syiid rati~ kvacit. they have a painful desire for union.' God is the reward of those who \Vait on him. XI I.~~w Purii~a VI.. He who has tasted its nectar-like juice will not be attracted by anything else.ika!l 2.t:/.~ayc~v anapayini tvam anu-smarata~t sa tne hrdayiin miipasarpat14./. part'inurald£. while God is transcendently infinite he is also greatly loving. St'i~ujilya Slitra says bhald£ is the highest attachm(•nt to God.\de /life mii. ' 4 Continued fro In f>IH:e 167] Cp. If any man shall hear my voice and open to me the door. 4 bhasmoddluilafalparopi ea ldwra!t dhyii. I will come in to hi1n. 20.miina-paral:z phrwl f'!INtna-Mwk mc. In the Vi$~1lt Pur. . I stand at the gate and knock.

sli. I know no one else than thcm. .vayati ea bhaktatz 8o. regards bhaldi as a kind of knowledge. There is a popular verse which says: 'In vain does the devotee worry about food and other necessities of life. Bt'ahma-smnhitii .nowlcdgc opens the way to illun1ination . M.' 5 · bhojaniirchiidtmc rinhi1i1 t' rdlzii km'Vallli r'ai:~~zavii~ yo'sau vi.n tvaham mad-anyat tc tJa ji'hwnti niiha.Introduction 169 The clean of heart shall see Gocl. Devotion implies obedience to the will of the Supreme in all our activities.u niisti tr :~am amai1galam < )'f $iilil h rdisth 0 bJtagatJii H n1a1iga fc"i.~vanz-bharo d!?lmb sa ki1i1 dasiinuf>t>k :~alc. ' 3 Pra-ise of the De1'otcc Bhaldt~ The devotee is praised as tlw highest of all. In the natne of God he does service to the world. '\Vhat speciality is there in being horn a 1nember of the highest class? \Vhat does it matter even if one posseSS(>S learning that includes enquiry into all the systems of thought? In all the three worlds \vho is there n1ore blessed than the person whose heart is always steeped in deYotion to the Supreme Lord?'" The Bhiigavata Purti·~za says: 'The devotPes arc my heart and I am the heart of the devotees.tyii? yasyiisti cetasi sadii. ' kim jaJZmauii sakala-vartla}anottamena? k1·m vidy1J)'ti sakala-Histm-viciirava.tanam hari fl. 4· 8. sarvadii sarua-k{ilc: . Can God who sustains the whole creation ever forget his own devotees?' 1 A devotee is not elated by praise or depressed by censure. pammda-bhakti!z t 2 8 ko'nyas tatas tri-bhuvam 6 P~tru~o ' sti'ya-viidnza jnatfuiim tu haromy altam.. If we sin against the light we will be left in darkness. diisyam aih. It brings deliverance from anxiety about the necessities of life. Cp. Niirada Bhakti . 2 Bhakti and 1\.B.1i1 tebhyo maniigapi. IX.ya. sa kfrtyanui'lab 5fghram eviivirbhavati anublui. H.. They know no one else than me.dhavo hrdayam mahyam sadhunii1it hrdaya.')iitra sa~'s: '\Vhcn adored with love God speedily 1nanifests himself and gives his devotees perception.

also his verse wht!l'C he realises the Absolute JJrahman m the blue dtulgeucc th<.~amaya vi::aya-mrga-tr 1sl:zc"im. the great teacher of nm1-dualisn1..thila ltt:!-~. yan J : 1rgu~1a1h lli!jk. the blessed Buddha or an~' saint._:·.·u·w. 4 to Siva.k 1~a.(.n. it is addressed to the l:ltimate }{t·ality.pi ta.' 2 t:i~~zur-vri. tn. \\'hen organised it cripples the individual mind and prc\"Ults it from gro\ving. hut the truth is with (.(.170 Liberty <~ll'l'orship From early· days Hindu tradition has held that truth is a pathless land and cannot be organised.Moon. the spirit of free adYenture is checked.' 2 S.\yanti pasyanfu te asmfil. !!f tiH: Y:•!t11:i: dl.m jyu!tb /1i i'icana _::o. rz:$~ZU or Si7ra.bMi! piliimbanid aru~ta--bi mlm.ko hha<Htfu 1!a...a-dve ~a-vi ~iirti -muha-rahitalz saltviin u/campodyato yalz sarvai~z saha sa1hskrto gu ua-~:a~tai~ tasmai nama~ sarvaclii. li sanzsiira-dubkha-gahantij jagadi~a ra.ftmm altam na }i'tne. ' 6 The :\faharastrian saint-pod Eknath identifies V#hoba of Pandharpur with the !Juddha.t mu•a-niradJ..1tldit llr>~uit para 1h k i m a. 1 The different aspects we adore are pointers. 3 to Vt·~~zu. braltmci. that one who is free frmn the disease of being poisoned by craving and hatred. not halting places. says: 'I know not what truth there is beyond l\r$~Za. \\"hoever he bC'.i11o yadi ja1ram pa.:atis tvam tvam el~a /. to hirn I bow down always. 5 l\Iadhusudana Sarasvati. llrahmii or lndra.od alone. Spiritual life is the end. manifests a spirit of devotion to the different aspects of the Godhead.}wviini.-iyrr. who is endowed with all nobl<' q ualit ics and is ever ready to act coinpassionately towards all cn:atures. There are devotional hymns ascribed to him to Bhavdni.~ita-kaJ . 3 gatis tvam r. 6 1 vam . surcndro'that'ii. Ja. \Vhaten'r nanw w~ ma~· give to the Suprcrnt'.J. '1 do not Il1illd \\"hO he is. \Vhen our rninds get incarcerated within the narrow confines of dogrna. Cp. the Sun or the .atena mtozas. .thut . hhiinur-vii.~i-viblllf.j. That is why the Hindu pcrn1its each individual to worship the aspect of Godhead which appt•als to him n1ost. Lessing in his letter to Rimarius says: 'Each one says what he thinks is the truth.-au tu lad cz:a loca::a-wmafki"iriiya bhuyiic ciram kalutd!-pulinodare kim api yan nilam nzaho dhiivati..•L ~pc•rts on tlw l!Ltllk::. " ar!ina_yam aflanaya vi 1s~:o damaya ma11a(1 . Tlw radiance of reality is 111irrored various! y according to the 1nedimns in which it is reflected. Devotion to the Supreme opens our hearts to the ne\v life..urlillla. a great teacher of Advaita.f)ltaludh an pri 1 nnulu-s 11 ndaht-mrtlduid ara7:iudtl-.~a-lak~a~w'tha bhagav(ill lmtldho'Jlw s1dtl/w'lhavii riir.

Christ is not limited to the historic personality of Jesus. Justin says: 'Everything good and beautiful taught by thinkers and poets is ours."f>irit 4 Love.'•.I ntrndu cti on 171 Mystics of other religions and son1e leading thinkers tend to adopt an attitude of respect for other forms of worship than their own. Socrates and his own contemporary 1\1 usonius all belong to the Christian fold. . especially the Stoic. By imitating Christ the Logos. not for tlle Jlrst and last ti111e at BethlchcJn but from the moment man \vas horn into the world in the likeness of the divine i1nage and as such distinct from other creatures. Before all creation. the divine wisdom of Proverbs viii.·inc. partakers of a divine life 1 The . He spoke through the Prophets and manifested his action also outside Israel. from the indefinable Father and Lord of the universe a force crnanated called Logos \vllirh means \Vord and Heason. They believe in the Eternal Logos. Justin Martyr in his Apologia and Dialugue 1vith Trypho presents God as the Prin1ordial Cause of the world. He is the eternal Logos who cmnes to birth in men \vhenever they arc inwardly united with God. If the~· \rere ca11ed atheists and c~mck~tnnetl to death.1 He argues: 'Hence it was that so many eminent spirits. unchangeahle and accessible to reason.' For all that is Christian i:. They speak ahont the ultimate oneness of God and man. To justify uniYersal claims for the Logos. The \Vord came and lhvdt among us. in a Biblical garb. everyone can obtain the same power as the Logos. For many Christian rnystics. J ustin argues that those outside the Biblical tradition who have de\'eloped spiritual life like HcracJeitus. thl~ Christians also snff<'n·d the same fate. Every individual attains his fulfilment through unification with the Logos. This Logos is the Son generated hdorc all creation. William Law says that the Christ of God is 'the light and life and holiness of every creature that is holy' . Both Clen1ent and Origen were Christian thinkers vvho wished to express Christian truth through Greek philosophical cat<=•gorics. As Eternal \Visdom it was anu is before all creation in its pure crl'ativeness. Justin presents Christianity as a philosnphical religion \Yhich uses Grc·ek ideas. eternal. due to the working of the Logos. The deepest self of all rational beings is di.

Christ probably would not have understood it. They ranked after the Brahma~las and as equals of the Naya. Fosdick in his The Liv-ing of These Days (1956).s. p.. these are the sons of God. Loisy thinks that St Paul was chiefly responsible for imposing an alien mythology on the life and teaching of Jesus. Whitehead observes : 'It would be impossible to imagine anything more unchristian than Chri~tian theology. 94· A. E. Reason should teach us to doubt our own infallibility.' Existentialism aud Hmnanism. 'It was in consequence of this position that the St Thomas Christians. The Spirit of Prayer. From ancient times. to spiritual pride. He did not find it necessary to identify himself with any religious faith but was df'voted to spiritual realisation.' quoted by H . Kari Jaspers says: 'Theology turns the alternative "God or Nothing" into a very different one : "Christ or Nothing" with Christ promptly made synonymous with the doctrine of some Church. If \VC arc conYinced of the absolute truth of our revelation and the falsity of others. p. M. was that they were accepted as a caste. Religious intolerance does not make for world unity.4 1 Of the Supet--sensual Life. how can we tolerate those who spread error and lead others astray? It is essential for us to note that while we are convinced of the infallibility of the truth we adopt. N. 4 'The result of the honourable place given by the rajas to the Christians.' 3 Kabir says that he is 'a child of Allah and Riinz'.' 1 'As many as are led by the Spirit of God. Many Christians would claim that there was Brahmar. 268. Religions which aim at the conversion of the whole world to their own doctrines aim at the religion of pow(•r which amounts to sacred egoism.T. The goal of life is to enter into the realisation of this hidden unity. • Even Karl Barth admits that 'our concepts are not adequate to grasp the treasure of our experience'. Hinduism adopted a view which would not hurt the religious susceptibilities of others. It enabled the Hindus to welcome the Jews.a convert blood in the community and that for this reason they were superior to N iiyars. the Christians. others may be equally convinced of the infallibility of their own doctrin('S.. (1952).172 The Bralzma Stitra have appeared in so many parts of the heathen world . and often thought of their community in this way. E. These were the apostles of a Christ within. and of their assimilation in social custom to their Hindu neighbours. and obedience to God equally obedience to that Church and its dogmas. the Parsecs and the Muslims... There is a gap between Jesus of the Gospels and the redeemer of St Paul. so far 1 . Boehme asks 'were we not in the beginning made out of God's substance? \Vhy should we not also abide therein?' 2 \Villiam Penn said: 'It is better to be of no Church than to be bitter for any. Unless we do it there is no chance for toleration in the world.' Man in his deepest being is one with God.

there are characteristic differences among the great religions. the recognition that the Kingdmn of Heaven lies within man. Image lVorship There is such a thing as prati!wpl'isa1lli or syn1bol worship. behind them all is the san1e fire. \Ve need not a new religion but a creative vitality in the practice of the old. But these differences are not enough to justify discord and strife. 1 Many of the living faiths arc passing through selfcriticisnl. varied as all these religions are. They do not all teach the satne doctrines of God or of man or of the world or provide the same kind of ritual.' sarvan deviin namasyanti sarva-dharmchits ea srtzvate ye sraddhadhanab Sli. never attempted to bring their non-Christian neighbours to a knowledge of Christ and so into the Christian Church. I ntroduct£on . in his inmost truth. This is an aid to worship.173 The Hindu believes that. but the Indian Church itself was not aroused to share this work. They all speak of the one realm of spiritual being. 2 Cp. There n1ay be mutual education among religions if they peacefully coexist and there is no doubt that all the religions have helped to produce saints of an exalted character. M. 18. Brown: Thl' lndian Christians of St Thomas (1956). 2 The sytnbolic is not the imaginary. so much so that they had to defend their action before the Raja of Travancore. carries the satne message. even bhafJanarthaya pratinui{l· parikalpitii~. Many of the leaders regard themselves as the priests of a ne\v religion. in his integrity. 1 'Those who bow to all the gods.S' ea durga. if we denied the high character of sanctity in other religions than our own. who listen to the doctrine of all the religions. 173. 'A further consequence of acceptance as a caste was that untouchability was observed by Christians as by Hindus. God is the potentiality of every Inan.y ati-tarant-i te. though it speaks with many tongues.nt?i. who have faith and who arc possessed of tranquil minds. in his ckpths. p. Of course. The experience of the fire.ana. get over all difficulties. are getting infected with secularism and humanism and the loss of the vision of God.' L.cs did his best tu create a sense of evangelistic responsibility among the lndian Christians by preaching to the Hindus whenever he could. myth or norm of behaviour. Sauti Parva ex. and the eighteenth-century Cannelites had a number of baptisms from the heathen every year. as our evid<•nt:c goes. \Ve should be lacking in charity. ajil. \V. The Portuguese Archbishop Mene7.B.

is t!Je l1ighc· :~ t.·l vahirtZs The theory of avai<1ras assumes di.T.<J blui.i/ i! .tt/. ~.:. 5 1 2 ta1i1 yathii.I74 Tilt T>rahma S fitra Slowly we get beyond the sytnbol to the object symbolised. Tlw in1ages arc alllifdess. mr~ditation is tiH· tnithllc way.. !Ji. rrali~ation that I am he is the best. \\'illiam Law ::. ut!Ltmli mti. \Vhcn the Light in us comes to possess our heiHg we speak of the birth of God in us. 2 'hnage worship is the first.:rg(•d in Urahnwn. I have sePn.l (. our part is to open our being to the Divine Light which is c\·r·r shining in us. l. are tnerc \\·ords.· ld1•aila l·edii11la it is acn·pted as a preparation f. not in a stable at T~c:tlllchcm in Jnrlaca. lifting up the curtain. doing japa and chanting mantras is the middlP.n. according to our airns and objects. but when the sun arises they cease to be of any help. 1 i1altii-n11'l'tl!U1 1'autra XI V. Until we reach the Highest.i.i. the means fall away. The 1tJcarnation is not a special event but a continuous process of self-renewal. :1c'ali .. S. _ 1\'. ' 3 Image worship is a tncans to realisation. yathof'. 11. I know for I have cried aloud to tht'm. ' 4 The . Kahir sings: 'There is nothing hut water at the holy bathing places. Tu remain prayer to God and repctitiou of his name arc lhl· low~_·st and l'Xtl'rna. Tantra-siira says: jmillwm a pratinu"i. Evc:·n in . good is mental worship.llu llu ·.. observes that on account of our imperfections we connect the Omnipresent Lord with lirnited abodes.·inc ccncent for hmnan endeavour.. u lfam o brc. nH.f j ) ttjti su 'Jw111 J•ti}ti ut!alltntfu?: /(i. the middle~ way is rcpcti\ ion of the nt.'ad{Jft£( i:u dh_\' tilla-Mui ~·a ::.:gl' Wf!rship . C. \Vhen \"VC gain our ends. hut to the hirth of ]<'SUS in the dark <. reflection on one's own true nature is the highest of all.i J> luda. for I have bathed in thc1n.rtb . T .\alt' t./ulir jupu (u/haJJ . •q. . Lamps are useful so long as we live in darkness.:.zad h_] ·anui utfallui mcinasi-piiji"i su'ham pii_jo'tamo llama.·y cannot speak.tlsc• !·.!} ii_j(i ja pa -slofriid i J.rli~la anLl tlw ()urtin. and I know that they are useless. ·o lJt.i. God is the light in the soul. The Spirit of h ·ayer. we gain rewards great or smal1. 1 S.r pure contem· plation.:entre of thy own fallen soul'. ' Rauindranat h Ta~on : 's E.tin/(i-f•zijii jaj>ab stc )tl'lil. n1editation or mPn1al worship is superior. . r. fa 111adhyan.l wurship is lower than Uw lowc~t. I .ilnc and prL: yer .ays that the desire for God 'will lead thee to the lJirth of Jesus.thift -J•iijc'i adlta:lltidhaw . Tlte Pu.zi 11uulhyamii I I. First comes im. 3 pralhnmii pra..

~it•tidvaila-nir~zaya. Hlima says: 'I look upon rnyself as a man.' 8 iitmiinam manu ~am m a 11_l'l' 1·ii n. t' ~a trika(1.hc Imitatio Christi ought to aim at dcvL·Ioping and raising une's own inner man. Bluigal'afa J. l:Jhiigavala. Great souls appear for the well-being and spiritual enlightenment of creatun~s. so says Kabir. seeking outside. precisely thwugh the veneration of its object.Introduction 175 The a7Jattiras arc horn not only to put down evil but to teach us mortals. 1 They tell us ho\v to remould our lives so as to serve the purposr~ of the Divine. • ata ez•a bhagavatalr kr\'i~las_voptisauii-kurma~ty-abhyctS(i/ dnt-niranlarailt'li{. He realises the meaning of his rxistence.l')'ti. must you ascend the minaret? God is not deaf. are inJerior 1 blt~Uci~zam k..A OR MEDITATION }·oga S)'stcm If we study the history of religions we will note that there is a broad stream of spiritual knowledge which requires us to grow to a higher level of being.. It is said that devotion to the Supreme. 6 bhakti/:1 pardiinubJwmlz virald1)1 mryatm ra.~~za hy the n·1wat<'rl practice of meditation.f brakma-siik !fttfkti1'C~2a tadvat jagad-·aiSvmya-j>1'ii. r.J•a 1 ung in hi~ J ea bhaviiya ea.. May the Lord il5rah1Jul] tdl me who I am.AN. experience of the HiglH'st and detachment from other things.~emii. I I-1 :.iunaya tat-pral~ti .ake do you call to prayer Look for Him in thy heart. I 20. 5 C.:ztii. 6 The All-pervading Self abides in c\·ery heart. 6 \Vhy Mullah.·am dasaratluitmaja m yo'ham yas_1•a yata.ptylim at'. attaining through intuition of Brahman lordship similar to his over the world is seen to reveal that to Arjuna in the r. but it is made h~· superficial believers . He becomes what he is call('d to be. rka-kctlab. prevents tht' soul from being affected in its depths and transformed into a whole. where I belong and whence I come. by uninterrupted concentration for a long period. all th~se three occur at the same tin1c. Ps. 2 Deification is the transfusion of human nature l>y the Indwelling Spirit of the Divine.~a11a1il gftiisu drsyale. h(' hears thee here.' 3 1'\r. Those who turn from hin1. Appaya Dik~ita : . For His 1.whology and A lrhcmy says: 'The call for t. Rlima. Yl. 4 The devotee is slowly transforn1ed into the likeness of the Divine. the son of Dasaratha.\ rc~liam Mwgm•iilils fad brat•ftzt me. THE \V:\ Y OF DH1. . which. It refers to an inner quickening and growth in our nature. 13. into an cxternLJl object of worship.

Yet it is neither before nor after. 1 'God is neither in temple nor in mosque'. \Ve n1ust be awakened out of the sleep of the natural world-Yiew. the kingdom of truth. the abode of eternal life. XIV. we should not be bound to the shadows of the cave but get to see the reality. unhistorical being itself. \Ve must break through the surface in which we live and move. enclose it within categories.B.The Brahma St"'Ura creatures. 3 To use Plato's words. For it does not depend on the will of man.' 2 A rigorous discipline of mind. a saving transformation is necessary.nti bahir vi~~tum nari'idhamii~. before all time and which is equally after all phenomena and all time. By discipline of mind we shou1d strive to apprehend the Real. It is that which does not become. St Augustine says: '\Vhy do we go forth and run to the heights of the heavens and the lowest parts of the earth. heart and will is necessary. He would add today: 'neither in Church nor in synagogue'. 2 I. For this an illuminating revelation. but tnerely on what really and unalterably must grasp the real which is before all phenomena. Ill. 27. The M. 'True knowledge which is produced by the rr1eans of true knowledge and is comparable to its object can neither be brought about by hundreds of injunctions nor be ch('cked by hundreds of prohibitions. He is found in the heart of man. God is not doonwd to be perpetually ovenvhelmed hy an uncmnprehending darkness. Imprisoned in history we becon1e restricted to the narrow limits of existence. 'Lead us from darkness into light' is the prayer of the Upani~ads. v. 8 svargam dvliram sustUt~ma~il lam tu pasyanti puru$li fitakrodhli~ jitendriyab. images and verbal structures. \Vc cannot get this experit'nce by detached sarvasya·iva janasyiisya vi~1J·U~ abhyantare stJzitai. says the Supreme is visible only to those who have overcome anger and mastered their senses. 84-5. an opening of the eyes is essential. real. 1 . \Ve cannot think it. that which is.B. 2. if we wish to be with Him?' 2 S. But we know more than we can think and rxprcss in historical forms.J lam parityajya te yii. says Kabir. seeking Him who is within us. Nanak says that we should ascend to the satya-luka. \Ve must be lifted out of this confinement and become aware of our historicity. Our vision becmnes obscure if it is dimmed by vice or weakness.

bhiimi~t. Sf'lf-control. nn. a trust that sustains us in the most terrible catastroplws.'-. practised for long. \Vt' acquire a trust in the foundations of things. As the Upant~$ads declare the state can be gained by of All Things makes the disciple ask the master what prevents hin1 frmn appreh~. participate in the Ultimate Mystery. austerity.·nding the ultimate truth and the master answers that it is his 'thinking of Self and his wi1ling of Self'. a f1rm 1oya1ty to truth in the midst of passions and lures. and nididhyiisana or roncentration. \\'ithout reading or listening to the radio or other pre-occupation. q.~nu P11rii~1a. It is in moments of meditation that \VC hecon1e self-aware. by correcting their character (the active and d~· namil. faith. E. 3 Boehn1e in his imaginary' dialogue lwtween a di~cipk nnd his master in The . and hy freeing the intellect from the obstacles which arise from bndilv natun·. constant tneclitation. The Yo~a system dcscrilw:-. nnintl'rmittent1~: . Our confusion of the rt'al Self with the outward selves prevents onr awareness of the true Sdf. b('forc the nh·in<> Glor):.: l'go). H is to be able to he alone with mwsdf. tridhii prakalpayan praj1iii1i1 labhate yogam uttamam . 2 Dhydna is anavaratiinusandhiina. l. (ICJ5-I). ceremonial pict~· -j is the sure means of rf'alising Htr· trnth ·.>s 1hat tlw Su/i' an~ 'those who seek knowledgt". 1 \Ve must encounter truth as a matter of existential concern.I ntrodu. J 1 i.ction 1 77 observation. . \\"hen this sul>stanct' is'rla dJtyat~i'ihh1'clSII-1"aSCIIa ea ri.esented. manana. reflection.. not by reflection and speculation (like the t hcologians and philosophers).-u~d with satluiras [i. hearing. Frithjof Schnon: Spiritual Prrspechvr.P. p. The 1·oga . It is not an int(·llectual state· hut a state of being when we are filled with the Spiritual Presence. thr processes by which our consciousness grows into the life di\·ine by the control of the thinking mind. logical analysis and inferencc. then the !intellectual and principial] models of the [mental and manift·stt~d] lmowledgl' will snrel~· be revealed in this other world fof transcendent Hcality]'.'·.va~za. The cultivation of states of n1ind and bod~· which permits the full rC'alisation of tlw ultitnate truth rrquires disciplined effort. To learn concentration one should learn to he alone with onf'self. Boehme said that Omar Khayyam in hi~ Treatisr on i'lfttaphysir sa. but by purifying their soul (tlw passin~ and stati~ e~o). \V(' do not lose the sense of the eternal in the incvitahl(' distractions of•ilo tlrc:fha .T. 3 sa tu dlrghalui!a-naimnlar.litra says 'that L disciJ )line of n1ental functionin.s and J-lumcm Farts..

3 mananiit trtiyate yastu mantra ity ahhidhiyate tasmiit mautrerza tan-miirtim bltakti-piirvpta dhf. bralmza~1y avastlzitir ya sa samadhi~ pralyag·iitmana!J. God is the soul's guide on the journey with the purgative. It is a personal adventure. 68). p. dhiyo yo na(1 pracodaylit. Patanjali makes uut that the repetition of the name should be accompanied by reflection on t. The soul shoulcl realise the nothingness of temporal things an cl lc-·arn to understand that the spiritual world alone is real. Sabda-kalpa-dru. spiritual freedom occurs. 1 . other.t (Tantra-sara.hc meaning. taj-japas tad-artha-bhavanam. p. It is dinicnlt to reach it. 306. The soul n1nst pa~:-. Speculation is vision. foreign. vidhlincna mantrocciira~tam. 28. but one shoul<l concentratl' on that which exists of itself above and continues to be such as it is in itself.1'atam.178 The Brahma Si!tra we could come into a ne. outer world. \Yith tllr practice of detachment. 3 The Ga_vatri \\'e must strip mYa~7 the merely natural life and wake up to the importance of the spiritual Jife. an intuitin~ mode of says that samiidhi is equanimity. 2 \Ve must steady the mind. the illuminative and the unitivc stages. \Ve must become free and unattachc·d. ]apa is ah$ariivrttil.' Comnzrntary Ol't Romans. its fragments jostling one anoth<'r. It is not irresponsible meandering of the mind.. they find this unobservaLic inner '"'orld met hy the tangible. 2 smniidh i ~ samatiivastlui flvatma-paramiitmano/:1. because hearing within them an invisible world. concentrate on the truth hy \vhich one is intellectually convinced until it culn1inates in direct experience. The categories of metaphysics arr verified by statt·s of conscionstwss. 1 The aim of } ~oga is to help us to discern the being that is at th(' back of all becoming. Stages (i the . The stripping process begins \\·itlt thl' \\·ithdrawal from the hustle of earthly things. Y. Tantra-sara-agama.r rrality of our being and perceive everything in a nc\v relation 'if we can stand still from selfthinking and self-willing and stop the \\·heel of imagination and the senscs'. dcsperatdy Yisible. Ycij'llm•alk. rcp<·tition of letters..Journey The ascent to union with the Supn·me is l1ard and steep. I. yet mightily powerful and strangely menacing and hostile. By contemplation on a particular fonn we become one with it. inspire our understanding.S. dislocated. is J\:arl Rarth says: 'l\len suffer. through the period of purgation. It must be repeated according to rules.

shut the door on everything outer and pray from that inner self . In nir-vil~alpa smniidhi. 'But thou. 5· ' sviibhip1·iiya-ltflmft lwrma vat-ki1ici_i _iniina-vwjilam krfl/ii-karmeva baliiuci·1f1 tat-sartrmilni~"-prayojanam. ion in a monastery or a hermitage hut tllis do('s llo1 rrwan a turJJing away from life. \Vhen the seeker sees the truth he becomes spiritua1ly free. when thou prayt•st./>ariblttt!itl-prdkci.inlarc'f'i.\at.' M altht·w vi.voga should be practi~cd.G. the deepest self in one which is also the 1 iitmaika-bodht~lla a VI. 1 Solitary AI cd-itat£un There is an emplwsis on a soli tan· life of nwdii al. Let a man lift. enter into thine inner chamber and ha. \Ve do not sed~ for rewards but aim at transforming our natnrc. the reality is snper-prrsonal.J It is said of l\iuhammad that in his fortit. pray to thy Father which is in secret and thy Father which sccth in secret shall recompense thee.\lount Hira near l\lccca and practised religious austcritiL'S.. himself b~· himself.:th yc·ar he ciesin'd ~o)itude. viuii ra mu/.·ing sltut thy door. no release is pussiblc eYen in many ages.·th· na siddln·ali brahHw-. \VhatPvcr action we perfonn is illmuined by knowledge and dedicated to the glory of God. whatcn~r one does out of his own personal desire is like child's play and un1wcvssary:1 \Ve must get into the house of our iunl'rmost self. 3 l'Tr . 5 . He witltdre\\' to a cave· on . blwkt i and dl. The truth lies in our experience of it when it enters into us. Samadh£ when it is sa-1'llwlpa is a statl' of contact with a Personal Being not evident to the senses.Smrti to the effect that cxn~pling efforts for attaining self-knowleclgl'. a Person discerned as'ina. 2 speaks to us of tlw way in which dllyrrna . the mind gets purified and truth dawns and ineffable peace is experienced. 6. \Vithout the knowledge of one's self. 3 uddlwrrd iitmanii/mciuam.I utroduction 179 meditated on so that we may see the truth. B. nnitroda_)'a. VI. By undergoing the disciplines of karma. \Ve do not pro\'(' th(~ truth of an idea by In<·rdy den1onstrating that its author Jin·d centuries ago and was of a saintly disposition.· l1igz'ra~1 .~a quot<'-S . All experience becomes ordcrf'd and unified. the one that changes not.

There is neither rising nor setting of it. he is emphasising that the distinction between time and ekrnity is a qualitative one.' The original meaning of theory is vision . All profound world-view is mysticism. p. . 'The sun of consciousness shines always in the sky of the heart. Time is everlasting but Reality is eternal.. For this darkness..' The Philosophy of Civilisation. for example. The fcstiYal of Easter. spiritual selfdevotion to the mysterious infinite will which is continuously manifested in the universe.. To know the Self we . we are reborn into the world of spirit. anll though beyond touch and sight. Though we n1ay spend all our life doing good deeds. \Ve are then released from the rules of conventional religion. . A glimpse of etcrnitv is different from an endless series of finite things. 79· 2 1 cidiidityo hrdiikfiSe sada bhati nirantaram udayiistamayo niisti katham sandhyam upiismahe. was a pagan one marking the awakening of nature to new life. How shall I perforn1 the sandhya prescribtd in the stistras? ' 2 Dionysius the Areopagite says: 'Th(' simple. though of deepest obscurity. is yet radiantly clear. serenity and transcendent peace. it has a meaning that Cp. Our thought n1ust be lifted to another order of being. Religion by the use of symbols and n1etaphors indicates to us the goal of our quest. . 1 The state is one of unalterable bliss. says that no amount of temporal activity can take us to the heart of the Eternal. \Vhen S. Schweilz<'r: Rational thinking which is free from assumptions ends in mysticism . the essence of which is just this: 'that nut of my unsophisticated and naive existence in the world there comes. it more than fills our unseeing tninds with splendours of transcendent beauty. Those who attain sam/idhi claim that their experience is far richer and deeper than the most intense satisfaction of this world. freedom from self-sense. By means of the three methods of work. absolute and immutable mysteries of DiYine Truth are hidden in the superluminous darkness of that silence which revealeth in secret. devotion and contemplation (which are not exclusive of each other). as a result of thought about self and the world.T. E. we do not cross from ti1ne to eternity.must leap into another dinwnsion.180 The Brahma Si"ttra Eternal. The Christian Easter refers to the resurrection of Jesus.Every philosophy is the exposition and justiflcation of an experience. But even for those who are not disposed to accept the historical evidence.

Introduct-ion 181 we can all be made new. \Ve n1ust grow from the status of the creature. The cosmic process has for its goal the Kingdom of free spirits where the son of man becomes the son of God. distractedness. and renew a steadfast spirit v.' 2 'A newheartwilll give you.' 1 'Create me a clean heart. Orpheus believed that the soul was 'the son of the starry heaven'. Aristotle observes 'The initiated do not learn anything so 1nuch as feel certain emotions and are put in a certain frame of mind'. .' 3 'Turn n1e. our self-alienation. 3off. given to inPrtia. its earthly life was a source of corruption and its natural ai1n was to transcend this life. 26. 0 Lord. ro.' 5 When the Lord lights the candl('. • E:::rkiel xxxvi. To live one must first die to his old life. 'Heturn ye and make you a new heart and a new spirit. This view is at the heart of Plato's idPalism. One philosopher shattered his fetters and saw the sun shining of which the fire in the cave was a small reflection. integration. The Festival of Easter is not a commemoration of a past event but the recognition of a present reality. the Huddha speaks of human fulfilment as the transition frotn ignorance and craving to enlightenment and con1passion. 2 7. Speaking of the mystery religions oi Greece. Prove1'ns xx. that its dwelling in a body was a form of original sin.~ithin n1e. Tlw aiin of religion is to release US from the tornncss of our life. We rnust become what we arc. selfishness to integrality with its unswerving devotion. In the spirit of the l'cdtinla. and a new spirit will I put within you. self-estrangement is gone. 0 God. t Ezckicl xviii. Plato tells us in his image of the cave in the Republic that we arc all prisoners living in shadows. The Jews te11 us that sin is the isolation of the selfish individual. da1kncss disappears. r. \\then we turn away fron1 it. The first fruits of the new species of spiritual personality are already manifest on earth in the saints and the sages of the different religions who have ris<'n fron1 tlw disruption of being to its articulation. All the darkness in the world cannot put out the light of the candle. Each hun1an being is a reflection of the celestial light and has his roots below. it is lovelcssnr~ss. 'The spirit of man is the candle of the Lord. corruption. For the Jews. ' Lamentations v. that I may turn. 2 1• • Psalm li.'" Heligion is a question of turning and renewal.

. hn·c aud pmn-r of th<· Snpn. labour to make all one glow of beauty and ncn~T cease chiselling your statne.·idnal shonJd pass beyond the restlessness of this life.l1at each indi. which is unity. the fine fio·wer of serenity. The descent of the spirit at Jesus' baptism or his temptation in the wilderness 1nust have been the story of his innc·r experience. is the love of wisdom. and if you do not tl. The prisoners.nd yourself beautiful yd. In Christianity we arc ca1led upon to follow the 3 I 1 J'r.' 1 'Christ in yon.·ork. The inner meaning of crucilixion and resurrection is the story of man's dying to the pun·Iy physicd ~nd egoistic existence. author of the Fonrth Gospel makes Jesus say. Plotinus says: '\Vithdraw into yourself and look. 'I arn the Truth'. act as does the creator of a statue' that is to be n1ade beautiful: he cuts away here. until a lovely face has grown upon his . It is the drarnatisation of man's deli\'crance from the tomh of living death in which fear. He returns to the ca\'(' antl te1ls the prison('rs shackll. pride ha\'e imprisoned him and his free ascent into the frf'cdom of his diYinc nature. this other purer. 4. until )YOU shall see the perfC'ct goorlnl'Ss surely established in the stainless shrine. when he is resurrected into thf' spiritual a\ran'n<"ss of his oneness with the life. So do you also: cut away a11 that is ('xcessive. bring light to all that is overcast.' He argues t.-1 tu re.' 2 Christ is the divine self within.'d there that what they take fnr reality is only a shadmr cast h:v the light they do not see. straighten all that is crooked. waiting to be released and expressC'<l \Vhen the rebirth takes place we bccmnc 'partakers of the divinP nature'. its prf'cariousncss. The religion of tn1th is based on spiritual inwardness. hate. greed. its fragmentariness. its di~cordance. not having seen the light. for Plato.ter i. 3 Thr. . take the shado\IVS to be the only realit:v and think that the philosopher is insane. he stnoothes there. In their present form they are externalised..·n1('. St Paul said: 'Jesus Christ is in you. Plato's philosopher does not rf'main content with his own revelation.The Rrahma S lilra After having seen the great light. \Ye have to pass through i he depth of the struggle to gain the peace of tlw One. until there shall shine out on you from it the godlike splt~ndour of virtue. the hope of glory. \Vhen we die to th<' old n. \H' an~ reborn to the new. Philosophy. pure and sin1plc. he makes this line lighter.

' Jesus asks us to free ourselves from priestly control. Thos(~ \vho practise the goodness and love illustrated in Jesus' life hec01nc sharers in the eternal Kingdom of spirit. only he who is born out of hirnself sees the other world. rebirth is the universal aim of all religions. 1 On a question of truth however. Some belil'\'l'd implkitly and \Vt're g-lad. his desire of doing God's will. qucsti1>nnain~ was st•nt out IJy the Society for Psychical Research and it elicited very different views about the fact as well as the desirability of survival. the known and the knower. I am wisdmn.D. This universality is often urged as proof in itself of the validity of belief in future lifc.E-EXISTENCE Future Ltfe Belief in son1e kind of sun·ival is very nearly universal. A. Out of different origins and backgrounds we are reaching out to the one goal. 2 But while a strong wish is Many years ago a. REBlH. born of the spirit of Trutll. Even the prilnitive peoples of whose habits of life we ha\·e knowh~dge assun1e it as thdr funerary custon1s indicate. I have overcome the world. There is no country or creed in \vhich the great hope of survival has not supported men in the prospect of death and rnitigated the grief of bereaven1cnt.uddha and Jesus tell us: 'Be of good courage. others were sceptical and were quite satisfied.' (6o. \Villian1 Law says: 'To have salvation front Christ is nothing else Lut to be tnade like unto him. his love of God.t•Jwwal. Gorgias 4 72. neither learn war any n1ore. Ayn al-qudat at Hamadhani (d. They strive to raise the vvorld to a more stable \vay and further the tinw when nation shall not take up sword against nation. a fellowship of rcdcerncd rncn who live both in time and bcvond time. 1 . 16. Apparently men do not seem to think about 2 Cp. A Suji 1nystic (twelfth century). w • D. \Ve arc to be rnadc like unto hin1 by bringing our natural desires and expectations into subjection to the Universal Purpose.' H.) Both the lJ.' IlJn'Arabi (thirteenth C(~ntury) says: 'l atn knowledge. r 131) says: 'Hr who is born from the wornb sees only this world. 4 74· it unless it be in crises. suffrage is not conclusive. it is to have his hurnility and meekness. \Vc 1nust be born again.TH AND PH. and undergo spiritual growth. the wise 1nan and his wisencss.Introduction exan1ple of Jesus.

The Egyptians looked upon their celestial home as replete with rich whcatfields and harvests produced without labour. This question of survival has significance only in reference to Ruysbroek: 'As hunger presupposes bread so does man's longing after God presuppose God. crude and dreary conceptions are found side by side \Vith abstract and exalted notions. It may not be too n1uch to assume that the instincts of mankind prophesy a fulfiln1ent even as those of the bee and the ant ·who lay up stores for a wintcr. and the cars of tbe deaf shall he unstopped. that it migrates into innumerable forms of plants and animals. the lame Inan leap as an hart and the tongue of the dumb sing'. that it repeats indd!nitely its main occupations here. 1 Besides. The dead do not wholly cease to be. that it sings for ever hymns in heavens. that it is tortured in hells for sins. The intellectual demand common to the vivid pictorial forms is to secure for human personality some significance that transcends the world of the senses.' 1 . At any rate it is a fact sufficiently impressive to make it worth while to investigate the belief in question. 'the eyes of the l>lincl shall be opened. 'vVhy should not eternity be a little bathhouse covered with spiders?' \Vc have believed that the soul lives like a pale shadow craving blood to feed it. For Isaiah. Vnfortunately the consensus of agn•en1cnt disappears when we examine the nature of survival.The Bral11na Siitra not in itself evidence. in the l~ingdmn of God irnpotencc and infinnitics shall be done awa:v. The Red Indians dreamed of happy hunting grounds with plenty of game and unending sport. The activities of heaven change with our earthly aspirations. Dante's picture of hell as a pendant to heaven is well known. the consensus of feeling seems to attest a natural instinct. Strang{' and terrifying forms of beliefs. the concurrence of many thinkers in one conclusion is probably the most convincing kind of evidence ·which is possible on questions of n1orality and religion. to maintain that life is not a formless flux but has a pattern which is not exhausted by this brief span. The ancient Teutonic peoples conceived of a Valhalla ·with endless scope for military exercises and stores of beer to be drunk from the skulls of fanner cnenlies. Dostoicvsky makes one of his characters say.

attainable here and now by an escape frmn the flux of ti1ne. According to Jesus we can have eternal life while still in the flesh. he that hcareth my word. and \vhosoever livcth and hrlicveth in me. which arc projected into the future in addition to the doctrine of an unseen world which is more real than the present one. for exatnple. In Plato. survival after death or immortality. There is the other doctrine of the }J/wcdo in\'olving pre-existence and postexistence \\'hich are concepts possessing n1eaning only with regard to the temporal life of the soul. 'Verily. There is the doctrine of the S~vmposium. . shall never die. the divine mode of existence which we may enjoy here and no>vv. Sun•h. verily. though he die. \Ve find it also in some of the philosophies of the \Vest. and belicveth hiin who sent me. 23-6. lt is a higher state of being \vhich knows nothing of past or future. he that belicvcth in nw. According to the latter Yicw. not a rernote state. \Vhen 1\fartha says about her brother 'I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day'. Perpetuity which is a form of time is differ<'nt frorn et crnity which is timelessness. in quality and not quantity. 'The distinction between rebirth (fmnar-janma) and release (nwk$a) is familiar to all systems of Hindu thought. Jesus said to her 'I am the resurrection and the life. Son1c materialist thinkers have believed that atoms are absolutely everlasting hut they do not speak of them as having future life or immortality because they are not selves. I say unto you. we have these two conceptions. In one passage Jesus substitutes the idea of the present eternal life of individuals for the hope of a general resurrection of the and l::tcrnal Lljc The term 'future life' is an1biguous and means either durational continuance or eternal life. Ete>rnallifc differs from life in time. In the New Testament \Ve have the eschatological teaching with its pictures of the judgment and the Kingdom of God to which the faithful dead shall rise. yet shall he live. heaven is a subsisting reality. 'the last day'. hath eternal 1 John xi.Introduction human beings. ' 1 He apparently substitutes the conception of a present eternal life which is unaltered by death for a resurrection at some future date. which is not of a future life but of timeless existence.

\V hat tlw A dvaita Vediinta calls S7Ja-praki~a­ ca£tanva. The spiritual point of view is different. 'The actual end woul<.ei\·ed in two \\rays. 4 It is the distinction between the ethical and the spiritual points of view. and cometh not into judgment. the srlf-luminous consciousness in us n1av be ""' •' 2 Timothy vi. T~ant. the immutable presence. we are concerned with the individual hmnan soul. 'He that helic\·eth in the Son hath cternallifc.' The Life Eltrnal. but hath passed out of death into lifc. 127. th0 yielding np of thf' pf'rsC>m lity to the divine life. and this kind of communion or union cannot be ended Ly death. • Ennrads 11 I.:! Sirnilarly in the Fourth Cnspl'l.nre of the Johannine discnursc an<. It is no comfort to kno\v that there is the Divine in man and it is immortaL The lJivine.' <. v. \\·c have an infinite progress toward an ideal that is never cmnpletcly realised.. and a confluence of the finite wills in love. hody. we have the concq>tiun of eternal life· though the 1\fcssianic expPctation is not discarded. Tht' end of the ethical process is. gains intercourse. believed in future life as a postulate of the practical rc<tson. it can only be realised under the form of an <>ndless progrc~~s towards perfection.hange from tin1e to eternity. either as a prolongation of this earthly Jiff~ or as a complete r. (>. communion. union with the souls it knows: tbal this is what. By the identification of tlH~ finite self with the divine order.l its concluding prayer : that eternal life is here aml now an cl always and cvcrywlH~re: t bat sonl or spirit entering the eternal state.. 3 1 . 6 E.' 1 St Paul anirms that God 'alone hath itnmortali ty'.' 3 For Philo. So ethical consciousness justifies the assumption of infinite tirne to work out infinite perfection. Hcrt and Now. the supreme good is achic. John iii. 24. If the holy will is unn:alisahlc here. l>r .Juoted in Hraham : Oursrl•·cs and Ut'ality (1929). however./ nlm . p. time is the moving succession of ever-shifting phenomena \vhile eh~rnity is the motionless duration of unalterable being..·ed. (.od. for example.r86 The lJrahma Sfttra life.\lexanucr Kairne: 'This then is the assura. the complete disappearance of thf' pt'rfectf'cl incliviclnaJc. p. \Vhen we raise the question of future life. In Plotinus we have the distinction of m\·akcning frmn the hody which is not awakening with the. the identification of thl' creature with c.l thus be the complete unity of will with the diYine will eventually achieved in this fnrther dcvdopm<'nt after death. Trocltsch tells us that thf"re is a future life or lives involving a continuous process of moral purification and an ever-increasing identification of the human will with the clivinP. Cp. our affection for one another means and dep·~nds upon. At the ethical level. 5 Thus in the his1ory of thought. 173.onr. future Jif<• has been r. 3h. r6.

1 Its continuance after the disintegration of the con1plex of eletnents which constitute personal existence is not of rnuch interest. he is suggesting by the passing thought the present state of the continuously developing self. and who methodises each part of the discourse. the jiviitman. that is changing as long as it is alive. 'I cannot persuade Cri to.I ntruduction insusceptible to change but it does not affect the status of the human self. and asks how he should bury me. 'Soul is substance and substance is indestructible'. But when Plato speaks of the nature of soul-substance. is con1mon to all individuals. . It is i1nmortal because its very idea and essence is the sdf-nwved and sdf-n1oving. hut he thinks that I am he whom he will shortly behold dead. \Vhen \iVil1iam Jamcs n1akes out that the passing thought is the only thinker. that it belongs to the invisible \\·orld of changeless reality. In Plato \Ve have the idea of an indiscerptible soul-substance immortal in its own right. 16.' 2 1 . my friends. according to A dva. which represents in itsrlf all Katha U. An unchanging self outside of the succession and supposed to bring connection and unity into otherwise unrelated tern1s is not the human self in whose survival we arc interested. This soul may be lost if it rebels against the higher principl<. a system of psychological and ethical energies.£ta V cdrinta. to think immortal thoughts and identify itself \Vith the eternal \Vorld by entering into it. The soul is what makes us what we arc. the complex composite organisrn which suffers a crisis at death. Yet \Ve f1nd in Plato the view that the soul is not quite eternal like the divine ideas. He says in the Republic. that I am that Socrates who is now conversing with you. II. It partakes in tlwir nature but it tnust train itself. by exercising its highest faculties. " Modern psychology is inclined to view the individual as a perpetual becoming. His proofs in the Phacdo frmn recollection and fron1 the soul's kinship with God prove the eternity of in1personal reason and not of the individual self. that it was never born and · will never die and that body is part of the unreal world of becoming 2 and not the object of true knowledge. he is reatt1nning that the Divine in n1an is imn1ortal. For the N eoplatonists the higher soul has life and being in itself and can neither be born nor die and the fate of the lower soul depends on the manner of living. The eternal litman.

It takes up in itself the previous n1mncnt. It is the unity of tb(• conscious experiences of a particular individual centrl'. The states are not detached and the self is not apart from the succession. and finding it "warm" in the way we have described. the inheritor of the past and the growing point of the future.' Principles of Psychology (I8<)o). supposed by its relating activity to bring unity an~.188 The Brahma S zitra thoughts and states that went before. All states occur as belonging to this unity. as elements in a growing self-integrating whol<·. Aristotle and the 'Each pulse of cognitive consciousness. Soul is the name of the composite natun' which one knows as oneself and which functions as one person though it passl~S frcm1 life to life or body to body. Immortality has point only if it refers to the lnu11an person and his capacity to attain it by consciously n·alising his unity with the timeless or eternal self. The passiHg thought is a resume or a sum-total of all its predecessors. The self is constituted by its experienc<~. each thought dies away and is replaced by another. the final outcome of the age-long organic process tnust l>e smnetlling better and less ephemeral than 1nan as \Ve know him i11 ourselves and others--doomed to death. The conscious self is shaped by all one's experiences. knows its own predecessor. The other. Vol. 339· 1 . It is not an abstraction. We cannot destroy a self and retain thoughts and emotions. p. Each self enjqys a kind of unity and continuity. The unity of thr individual is of a functional rather than of a substantiY<~ character. and part of the same self with me". greets it. its individuality is the result of the discipline of time. I. lt is not a si1nple atomic unit hut a complex living structure. 1 It is the actual self quite distinct from the unchanging self outside of the succession altogether. The unity of self is not a mechanical one. Plato. The self is a different kind of unity where fonn and content arc closely united. saying: "Thou art mine. \Vc can destroy a wa11 and retain the bricks. If we are to save the rationality of the universe we must assume that the transition from selfconsciousness to God-consciousness is the ai1n of organic evolution. a unity in multiplicity._l connection into a series of otherwise unrelated iten1s. It is the organised or consolidated unity of alJ experience. If the world is rational. When the Hindu thinkers. makes it its own and gives it up to the next moment of cxperience. among the things it knows.

The thread in the \vcaver's loon1 is not cut. 15. 2 A disen1bodiecl state of existence is not admitted. for the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them and lead them into living fountains of water. They are thC' ideals we strive for. sar·lrittam vikrtfr jfvanam ucyate budhai~. The human individual is not a false appearance. There is an ancient saying that death is natural to embodied heings. they have in mind the possibility of realising the divine quality through the apparatus of 1ninrl and body. 1 The conditio11s which detern1inc the individual unity are organic since every soul knO\vn to us is an embodiPd soul. neither shall the sun light on them. 1 mara~1am 1 .' 'And there shall be no more death. the agent as well as the offspring of the creative process. Actsxxiv. Their belief in personal imrnortality vva~ always belief in the resurrection of dead persons as wholes. neither Pra. His personality is continuously enriched and changed by his experiences and there is no break. 8 J Corinlhiansxv. never thought of the soul as distinct from the body or of the body as the prison-house of the soul so far as they escaped Grt'ck ini1uenccs. the unity of the hun1an soul arc not obvious. for example. that there shall he a Resurrection both of the just and the unjust'. The presence of the Universal Spirit operates as th(_' ideal to which the organism strives. Ka vikulacakra vartin. St Paul expresses the faith in which hC' had been bred thus 'having hope towards God '"·hich these also [1ny Jewish adversaries] themselves look for. The Jews.krtil. it disappt'ars fron1 our vision. By n1eans of self-variation tlw Spirit manifests itself as the universe without at tlw san1e tinw suffering any derogation from its original status. nor any heat. St Paul raises the question 'How are the dead raised? With what n1anner of body do they comc?' 3 Heaven seems to be an organisation which does not undergo decay. The uni\·ersc· is essentially dynarrtic and the human individual is the growing point of the future. The simplicity of the hmnan individual.r. it is life that is unnatural. and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes. neither thirst any more. It was not an imrnortality of bare souls. We have argued that tlw process of becoming is not unreal. 'They shall hunger no more.Introduction 189 Neoplatonists affirm the reality of the Divine in man.

Death has no meaning except as a process of life. Tertullian takes the extreme position that the soul is nothing if it is not body. Bodilrss beings are not known. unity in so far as each state is a present transforn1ation represrntative of all those which are past as it will be the producer of all future transformation potentially involved in it. There is. It would be a Yiolation of the rhyth1n of nature. The self of man is not a mere effect of its body or a forn1 of its activity. The individual is constantly changing in his rr1ind as "·ell as in his body. a fragmentary presr·nt without a past. This view admits that every manifestation of life must have its own . Inure cmnplcte and permanent than any achieved by any individual being.190 The JJrahma Siifra sorrow nor crying. mind and spirit. its appropriate means of expression. Though based on the body. the characteristic unity of the self is spiritual. an effect \vithout cause. Justin considers the doctrine that the soul is taken to h(~aven at the death of the body to he unchristian. or embodiment. It cannot he regarded as smnething which mysteriously appears at or about birth and disappears equally 1nysteriously at or about death. Death is a condition. Disintegration of substance and change of form are constant l_ .:ithout any past. neither shall there be any more pain. The assumption of body is called birth and it is essential for the manifestation of the individual on the physical plane. sudden cmbodi1ncnt of conscious life would be n1caningless and inconsequential. It follows that the self existed before it hcgan to animate the body of this life and will exist after it ceases to animate it. The development of a coherent mind and character is thr aim of self-conscious life and it is the reality \vhich the body in its structure and organisation exists to actualise. a slow development. Rebirth In this world body is the basis and starting point for the development of life. Those who have tasted sorrow and sern the shadow of death are told that these things will not be. Life is a term in a series. however. But it cannot be an isolated accident or sudden excursion into physicality v.' It seems to he a simple sche1ne where \Ve will have life with its goods and not its ills. though it requires the body for its work in this world. not a denial of life. In an ordered world.

If the inequalities are to be traced to God. though they are fortuitously connected \'\'ith them. The souls are made to assmnc bodies with their qualities. why should it be created sinful? Nutahlc Christian thinkers like Paul. As a living organis1n. Individual souls follow their courS(! and their present fortunes depend on the past in an organic and indissoluble tnanner. If there are other Jives they rnust be continuous "·ith thl' presPHt one. Augustine and Calvin adopt the view of original sin. the opportunities not made use of in one life \vill be rencwl~d in other liYcs till the spirit f1nds its fulfilment. A single life. if every titne a baby is born a new soul is created. God's love J)cing unliinited. involving a succession of alternate births and deaths. lt nn1st he horn free though it may forge for itself chains later. capacities and defects made fur then1 and for the use of which they are n1adc responsible. Smne arc born from birth ddonned and tortured witlt disease or into circtnnstancl~S of extrcn1c squalor and n1isery while others are horn into lives of health. plants and anilnals do not co1ne into . One span of life ends tu gi vc place to annth('r. The soul rnust at least he horn without sin vvhatever it rnay make of itself later. \Ve start on an unequal level. Life here is an episode in a larger life. The forn1s and properties of Inatter. is not enough fur achieving perfection. If every soul is created at birth. the best explanation we can think of is that the physical act provides a body for a soul which awaits rebirth. which is htrgcly detern1ined hy what vvc are originally. he cannot be freed fr01n the accusations of partiality and favouritism. in 1nany cases. Growth is the character of the soul. Again. Though the rise of human souls n1ay be a rnystery of faith. the uni\·crsc will be capable of infinite 111crease. easl' and happinl'SS.lnlrodudion Iyl processes of all living beings. The soul is not smncthing created at birth. He n1ade the best of his bad equipnwnt. It uHends our logical and ethical sense to assmne that a Socrates and a sinner are cndmved with different constitutions to strive for eternal life. it is modified by the life it chooses and the way it acts. \\re are n1ade helpless by what -vve arc and are held accountable for \vhat wc shall be. and if the sinner fails it cannot be a 1natter for surprise.

'When the speech of a dead person enters into fire. The belief that we will recognise our friends in another .a.•~atapalha Brahma1.. The persistence of the results of experience is different from the resuscitation of personality. the mind into the moon.1. the individual and the world. physical and mental. the eye into the sun. Man is born into the world which he has rnack. which is con1pacted of qualities. It is logical to assume that the soul has developed continuously frorn almost nothing at the earlier lirnit of time like a ripple spreading out frmn a centre. if it is not the body? When Yajfiavalkya was asked. coexist and subsist together. nature takes up its past and transfonns it into the stuff of its Ile\V dcvclopnlC'nt. the soul into 1 2 krta1h loka1i1 puru~o'bkijciyate . it is diflicult to say which part of this organism. The objects of nature develop from stage to stage and. at every stage. A bhidharma-lwsa. 1 The varil't \' of the world is " born of karma. 2. . inherited and acquired would be preserved. Human nature is not an exception to this rule. Disappearance of body makes a difiercnce to the subtle body as there are psychic elements which have no function except in relation to the body. his own natural environment. karmaja1h loka-vaicitryam. the breath into air. we think of his body and character. The two. What is it that survives death.The Bra/una Szttra existence all of a sudden. 27. Hebirth Ineans that there is change in the physical and even some 1nental characteristics. Each soul would appear to be coeval not only with the universe but with tin1e itsPlf. VI. \Vhen it is attached to another body or set do\vn in another time and place. that which ans\vers to his character.vorld assmnes that personal characteristics are immortal but if by personality we mean the psychophysical organism which was born at a certain date and grew up for a number of years and died at a certain date. I V. 2 Survival of Death and Ptrsmw/ hw1wrtah('v When we think of a person. 2. thoughts and feelings which are comwctcd with and conditioned by the body. the hearing into the quarters. It is this fact that binds him with the physical and organic conditions of the world. Frmn the first the world is equally real with hirnself. The individual is placed in an enviroru~cnt which he has chosen.

Rebirth is not an eternal recurrence leading nowhere but a movement from man the animal to man the divine. • Lessing asks: 'Why should not every inrlividual man have existed more than once upon this world? Is this hypothesis laughable merely because it is the oldest? . a unique beginning to a unique end. 13. Why should I not come back as often as I am capable of acquiring fresh knowledge. 'Verily man consists of purpose [llratu-maya] and according to the c01npleteness of his understanding when he departs this world. we arrive with them in the next state. fresh expertness?' G 1 1 . 4 B. Ill. Even in the material world. We cannot say that the wheel turns ceaselessly. thus he becomes after having passed away. 2.a X. Manu says 'The only friend who follows men even after death is dltarma. See also C.' 3 He will find himself in an cnviron1nent similar to that to which he i~ adjusted here. The knowledge we painfully acquire and the character we develop are carried over to the next life. what then becomes of this person?'.. 1.1 Whatever our character and knowledge in the flesh may be. The scribes and the pharisees have their reward for ambition and self-seeking and the craven soul in emptiness of spirit. and cast ourselves afresh on the adventure of life. his own ancestor.U. Revelation xiv. from wild life in the jungle to a future Kingdom of God. . for everything else is lost at the same time when the body perishes' . 51-SI. bad by bad actions'. 13. high and noble or petty and shameful. Cp. 14. .Introduction 193 the ether . Ma-nu VIII. we have not got mere mechanical recurrence. W c must accept our wages.U. We become what we love and care about. creating souls whose ideal is to cease to exist. 2 They are the all-commanding things that ultitnately matter. a growth into light. he leaves behind a seed from which a new plant grows. Our rank in the scale of being depends on the powers which we exercise and the objects which we contemplate. Life is not a mechanical recurrence but a significant process. 7: see also XI. he answered 'verily one becomes good by good actions. Man is his own heir. Man grows and flourishes and when at the end of a single life he dies. 6.' 1 Satapatha Brahmarz. Ill. 3· 1. The lessons learnt at any stage are carried over into the next.. The soul is constantly performing the miracle of self-embodiment which is a means for self-renewal. 'They rest from their labours and their works follow them.

our only absolute self. And this. Marcus Aurelius says: 'Of whatever colour are the thoughts you think often. M. IV. puru$alJ. Ill. 8 B. 1 1 . The law of /~arma governs the growth of the human individual. I. What we sow we will reap.' Biographia Literaria. a single thought should be loosened or lost from that living chain of causes with all the links of which the free will.B. good or evil. r6. IIg. so does the deed previously done follow after the doer. for the soul is dyed by its thoughts. An individual is full of desire. Our acts determine our character which in turn determines our acts.karayita. is coextensive and coprcsent.'« We can never separate ourselves from our past.karta kamala. B. The law of karma is not a blind necessity or a mechanical rule but simply the organic nature of life where each successive phase grows inevitably from kama-maya!J. There is. sincerely repent for a wrong deed but we bear for ever the scar of these events. each action has definitive consequences. The law of karma tells us that as in the physical world. 2 The law of karma emphasises the importance of conduct.. perchance. 6 The universe is ethically sound. is that dread book of judgment in the mysterious hieroglyphics of which every idle word is recorded. 4-5. kamala. The world is an ordered cosmos. s6. to that colour does your mind grow. 5 We may completely recover from a disease. those that are not experienced do not fade away even in hundreds of millions of ages. Colcridge: 'It may be more possible for heaven and earth to pass away than that a single act. n. Man is continually shaping his destiny.U. 2nd edition. Vol. 6 Cp. 1 Desire is said to be the agent of action. Even as the world would be a logical contradiction without the reign of law. what he does even so he becomes. 4 yatha dhenu-sahasre$tt vatso vindati mataram tatha purva-krtath karma kartaram anugacchati. g. p. the impeller of action.194 The Brahma Sutra The Law of Karma There is one law for the whole universe for all existence is one existence. A well-known verse in the Garuc!a Purii1Ja tells us that the results of our deeds.' 3 'As a calf finds its mother among a thousand cows. however. a persistent variety in existence. V. must be experienced. '\Vhat a man wills he does. in the mental and moral world also there is law. Each thought. Santi parva IS. it would be a moral chaos without the moral law. The piling up of the past goes on without interruption. I avasyam eva bhoktavya1n krtam karma subhasubham nabhukta1it k$lyate karma kalpa-koti-satair api.' Meditations V.

All the time our existence where law or karma prevails points and strives beyond itself. moral obliquity by which we abuse our creative powers. free self-determination will be replaced by rigid coercion. Man is one with the Supreme in his innermost being and the spirit in him is superior to his karma but when he mistakes himself for the ego his will is not altogether free. otherwise we are not true. we must admit our relation to the Supreme. Karma refers to the limiting force of our equipment and .Introduction 195 what has gone before. We must acknowledge the material needs of our existence. It is corruption. /( arma and F reedo1n If we reduce the spiritual to the animal. He is not altogether self-made. Evil is not disobedience. In man is the seed of all creation. The roots of our existence lie in the transcendent sphere. An objective account of human consciousness is not the whole truth about man. He is aware of himself as a free being. The individual will and personality are bound by many things physical and vital: heredity. if he were a mere mind described by psychology. But man is not just a natural and historical product. otherwise we are not alive. Mind. the active source of what he is and does. He exists by virtue of something other than himself. Every choice has an influence on our whole moral being not merely for this life but for ever. If man were a mere object of study in physiology. From this point of view the Transcendence speaks to us from our innermost depths. something transcendent to his existence. The law of l~arma intensifies our sense of the tremendous significance of every decision we make for the right or the wrong. it ceases to be bound by karma. his conduct would be governed by the law of necessity. There is in us the Eternal different from the limited chain of causes and effects in the phenomenal world. When the soul of man realises that it is one with the power of Self-existence which manifests the universe. life and body become its apparatus. past creation of our mental nature and environmental forces. but the soul is greater than its present form. through our freedom. :Man is aware of himself not only as an object in the world but as an individual subject.

is contradicted by the law of karma which affirms that by doing what is in our power we can dispose the mind to the love of the Eternal and attain salvation. the variety of possible development opening before a man endowed with a definite character. 'Destiny is nothing but what inevitably happens as the good or bad results of our efforts already put forth.a nivartayitum arhasi. daiviittam iti manyante ye hatas te kubuddhaya[J II. 9· 4· Destiny is the result of our past efforts. From the point of view of Spirit. of inertia over freedom. Man's instinctive Cp. Karma and Predestination The law of karma has nothing in common with the popular teaching that rewards and punishments are dependent on the arbitrary will of God. 1 . His past which he has built for hi1nself and his present environment may offer obstacles to him but they will all yield in the end to the will in him in proportion to its sincerity and insistence. man's original freedom congeals into bondage. All habits arc bad. 6. yathii yathii prayatnal) syiid bhaved asu phalam tathii iti pauru$am evasti daivam. so one achieves. It has entered into us and become a part of us. what has been done \vill rule completely what shall be done. Augustine's teaching that only a small fraction of humanity. All fixation is a victory of routine over initiative. Spirit is' the negation of all inertia. .the elect. praktanam pauru~am II. Karma is not predestination. 2. he can change what he has made. are destined to bliss while the many are 'reprobate'. it is no use bothering about what we do.196 The Brahma Sutra environment. 5· 12). 4· Even as one endeavours. 1 If the present state of man is the product of a long past. The fools who believe that everything is in the hands of destiny arc ruined. YogaviHistha. sttbhiisubhiirtha-sampattir daiva-sabdena kathyate. With every habit we form. astu tadeva ea. If God predestines us for weal or woe regardless of what we do. Life is a constant self-creation. 5· 29. What we have done is past an cl unalterable. there are no good habits and bad habits. predetermined to everlasting damnation. Character is destiny. II. II.' siddhasya pauru$eneha phalasya phala-siilinii. The present can overcome the past (II. 6. The Ramiiyarza asks us to overcome fate by human efforts: daivam puru$akiiret. freedom refers to human plasticity. Yogaviisistha. Human freedom has to reckon with the necessary law according to which character as modified up to date tends to express itself. If we do not exercise our creative choice.

so does God serve as the universal concomitant or the unvarying condition in the creation of human beings. II. I. God. God is the universal background providing for the multiple manifestation. argues that even as rain helps the growth of the different seeds into their own respective plants. is the only source and guarantee. 34· . to persuade us but we can resist him.B. the Lord blesses by himself creating in him a taste for such actions only as are a means to attaining him and are extremely good. The Law of Karma and Prayer If karma determines our future. if we are theistically-minded. no free gift of God to enable him to do so. we f1nd ourselves up against punishment. If his will is not arbitrary or capricious but wholly reasonable and right. This principle is worked into the mora] structure of things. its operations are rational and necessary. God has so ordered the world that if a man lives rightly he will achieve salvation but there is no grace. S. God seeks to draw us. If we are rationally-minded we say that the future life is a natural and necessary consequence of the first. If the law of karma is the will of the highest wisdom and God is the sovereign who works the law. while each one's karma determines what he grows into. 1 For him the rise of the world is due to moral necessity.Introduction 197 sense of justice is bewildered by the bland relegation of a large part of hun1anity to everlasting torment. The need for moral consummation and continuity brings the world into being. The accumulated karma of the past requires expiation. has prayer any use? Can God forgive in answer to prayer? R. the actualisation of the different possibilities. of course. \Vhen we resist him. It makes evil in the long run self-defeating. says: 'That man who acts with the determination to be wholly on the side of the Supreme Person. then our future may be regarded indifferently as either the fulfilment of the law or a gift of God. that it is due to the intervention of God who rewards the righteous and punishes the wicked in the manner of an earthly sovereign. But he punishes the man who acts with the determination to be wholly against him by creating in him a 1 S.

would it do you to become king of China on condition that you forget what you have been? Would it not be the same as if God. belief in karma steadies his nature. 3 Since R. when he finds that he cannot defy his fate and unfaltering despair overtakes him. When we see the long procession of men either deformed in body or warped in mind. 3· 4· I mrtyur atyanta-vismrti~. The future is not a finished product like the past. Our lives are self-begotten and self-born. in a play which does not interest us. It is open to us to remake our life even as we will have it. the soul or the ego of the individual drinks of the waters of Lethe. we cannot be said to profit by experience. we should not judge them harshly. SOME OBJECTIONS TO THE HYPOTHESIS OF REBIRTH Lack of Memory There is reason for the old belief that between each fresh life. Life to such may seem a dull proceeding and they may pass through it with a certain listlessness. The Bhiigavata Pura1Ja says that death is absolute forgetfulness. The principle of karma tells us that we earned this particular life. 1 1 . Sir.B. For most of us it may appear that we are playing a part that we have not chosen. 2 If we do not know that we enjoy or suffer in this life on account of our deeds in a previous life. 125. II. In other words memory of the past is obliterated by the transition from life on another plane to life on earth. quoting Leibniz. If what we are is due to what we did. E. p.' 1 Ethical Value of the Law of J(arma To those discouraged by life's disabilities. were to create a king of China. indeed we chose it. our suffering is not a safeguard against the repetition of our evil deeds. at the moment he destroyed you. When man is set alone against the vast background of his destiny.rg8 The Brahma S-iUra taste for such actions as stand in the way of attaining him and lead him downward. If we do not know why we suffer. Professor Pringle Pattison. we will be even as we now do.' Idea of Immortality. the doctrine of kar·ma teaches patience and persistent endeavour. writes: 'What good. with faint hearts and weak wills.

the reward or punishment cannot in any intelligible sense be experienced by him who has deserved it. Psychical dispositions arc for James Ward the basis of memory when the cerebral states arc shattered.Introduction 1 99 there is complete discontinuity of consciousness between one life and the next. When a new situation confronts us and the need for constructive action arises. Stout speaks of psychophysical dispositions. But for this eliminating power of the brain. The unconscious memories keep the unconscious part of our mind alive and occasionally by pressing . how it inheres and is perpetuated in this life. not active. The brain acts as a kind of sieve allowing only those memories to pass which have relevance to the present situation. how does it help? Our present lives may be continuous with past lives but it does not make any difference so long as we do not remember the fact. \Ve have no clear ideas about the mechanism of memory.fatter and 1. crowds of recollections which are irrelevant to the purpose in hand would overtake us. for him. not pictures hung up in the halls of the mind but active vibrant centres. F. In J. interpreting it. complete to the minutest details. Memories are. We do not know how precisely experiences are stored in the organism and by what means they arc revived. Bergson assumes that our experience as it develops itself leaves behind an integral record. Bergson holds that n1emories are indestructible psychical entities and as immaterial they have no particular location in space.1emory Bergson suggests that the true function of the brain is not to enable us to remember things but to forget them. If one who has abused his intellectual gifts is reborn as an idiot. G. The memories are the acted past and the present consciousness may be active in selecting but the memories themselves are acted. In Freud's view the constituents of the soul are not past actions but present active wishes repressed and more or less actively controlled but producing conflict in their struggle to rise to consciousness and reach fulfilment. memory images from the past attach themselves to the present perception. making it difficult for us to deal with immediate issues. These memories hang together in associated systen1s. William James makes memory 'a physiological quality given once for all with its organisations which we can never hope to change'..

In any experience we have two elements. Though at death we rnay lose the memory of the detailed knowledge and the skill and the habits. The ~rained musician plays with a mind free from all recollection of the details of the past labour of learning notes. Forgetting may perhaps be essential for making a fresh start. the bleeding. pp. (ii) the sense of pain. 127-37: The Nature of Existence. Much passes into oblivion even in this life. still we start our next life in consequence of having possessed these with more efficient dispositions and a greater power to reacquire the detailed knowledge and insight. Gradually even the second recedes into the background leaving behind not a direct men1ory as an event but an indirect memory or a tendency to be carcf ul in the handling of knives. the cut. pp. Vol. Wisdom does not consist in vast stores of knowledge but in the ability to profit by experience. 1 Active memory does not seem to be essential for personal identity. The first is in the background while the second holds the centre. Providence has heen more beneficent in bestowing on us the gift of forgetting. 11 (1927). 385--g6. Simply because the ego is not conscious of them we cannot deny their existence for they reveal themselves in and determine the See McTaggart: Some Dogmas of Religion (1go6). bring back varied associations into conscious memory. Individuality does not depend on memory.200 The Brahma Sz7tra through the boundary that separates the unconscious from the conscious. If the tendencies persist. Reflective knowledge results in an instinctive endowment. We do not deny our existence as an infant or an embryo simply because we do not reme1nber them. 1 . it does not matter if the memories lapse. The unconscious processes do not form a part of the conscious ego but belong to the totality of the individual. we do not believe that it is not we who had them. Simply because we forget the experiences of our infancy. Suppose we cut our finger we have (i) the series of events that produce the pain: the misadventure in handling the knife. Though we may not have conscious memory there is a persistence of dispositions and tendencies. His fingers remember them and his subconscious mind stores the experience. We cannot identify the infant with the grown-up man if tnemory of the earlier stage is regarded as essential.

remembered his past births: 'In recollection all former births passed before his eyes. See the B. then the individual has no past being independent of his ancestors. all his births and deaths he knew. absence of memory of previous lives need not be taken as a fatal objection. we need not postulate previous existences.Introduction 201 individual's behaviour. 1 Individual cases of men1ory of past lives are reported. the habit of judgment. and downwards to his present birth. IV. su through hundreds. Heredity means the transmission of physical form and biological characteristics from a previous life. the modifications The hypothesis of rebirth admits that there is a breach of consciousness and yet affirms continuity of self. r8. No continued stream of individuality survives the death of the Yoga Sutra II. not a horse or a tiger. Things transmitted are not only physical and biological but psychical also. Heredity expresses the large resemblance between parents and children.T. or future independent of his descendants. VI. according to Asvagho!. 2. the dispositions of character survive in the new individuality and form its basis. 5· The Buddha. we still think that the present life has positive value.' Buddhacarita. A lion generates a lion. 2. Samuel Beal's E. Upaskara on Vai. of such a name. He prolongs himself in his progeny and there is no rebirth for him. the attitude of mind. 16. 30. It is also held that the illumined by the development of psychic powers are able to recollect their past hirths. that the body and mind of the individual are only a continuation of the body and mind of his ancestors. It is not uncaused. myriads. Inequality is a law of nature which we find in plants and animals also. Born in such a place.~e#ka Sutra V. If we hold that man's whole nature is derived from his physical birth. 1 G* . Pre-existence need not be assumed. Compare also the romantic story of Apollonius of Tyana and the later legendary lives of Pythagoras. without a memory of our previous life. thousands. The nature of any organism is largely determined by that of its biological ancestors. however. mental powers and tendencies. The differences in natural endowment can all be traced to heredity. While memory fades. Inequalities tnay be due to Heredity Sitnply because we arc ignorant of the cause of the inequality of human circumstance. If.




a view prevailed in the West among the philosophers of the later Platonic school. 1 It is the product of a number of varying tendencies. (i) The view that animals have souls is held by many primitive tribes and when they were accepted in the Hindu fold, their view affected the eschatological speculations of the Hindus. (ii) An obscure sense of the unity of all creation and that the souls of all living things are of like nature helped to foster it. There is something which binds us to all the children of the earth. All forms of life are ultimately identical. (iii) As the hypothesis of rebirth in animal bodies tended to increase the respect for animal life, those who were sympathetically inclined towards it did not discountenance this doctrine. \Vhen one considers the wanton destruction and needless suffering we have inflicted on the animal creation, a doctrine which fosters a disinterested love of animals is not to be discouraged. Our general idea is tlw.t anirnals exist to provide food and clothes for men and women. To see and delight in an animal for its own sake involves a high development of charity and selflessness. These different tendencies found expression in this extravagance of the rebirth hypothesis. While we must be earnest with the idea of development, we must not pull down the higher or exalt the lower. While we must recognise the identity of principle in the whole universe, we must not abolish the wealth of varieties and stages of progress in which the single principle has found realisation. We must admit our kinship with the lower animals 2 but the difference is also fundamental. Release from rebirth is dependent on knowledge
The religious poem J{atharmoi of Empedoclcs speaks of the fall of the soul and the ways by which it may attain the purity which is necessary, if it is to return to its primitive state of blessedness. In the process, it is said, it may go through all kinds of mortal shapes including those of men, animals and plants. In the course of his Purifications, Empedocles states: 'I have already been a youth and a maid, a bush, a bird and a dumb fish of the sea.' Guthrie: Orpheus and Greek Religion (1935), p. 175. 1 Cp. Bradley: 'The frank recognition of a common parentage leaves us still the rulers of our poor relations, but breaks down the barrier which encourages our cruelty, our disregard for their miseries and contempt for their love. And when this moral prejudice is gone, our intellectual prejudice will not long survive. \Vc shall not study the lower animals with the view to make out a case or a claim, but for the pleasure of finding our own souls again in a diflcrcnt form; and for the sake, I may add, of understanding better our own development.' Principles of Logic, Vol. II, p. 514.


The Brahma Sittra

and conduct of which only human beings are capable and, if once we enter animal life, they become impossible. How can a soul which has once sunk down to an animal life become ethically deserving? When it is said that the hutnan soul suffers the indignity of animal life, the suggestion is figurative, not literal. It means that it is reborn to an irrational existence comparable to animal life, and not that it is actually attached to the body of an animal. 1 Those who so vehemently protest against the rebirth of human souls in animal bodies on the ground that it is incmnpatible with the organic relation between soul and body n1ust admit that this Vt:'ry organic conception requires us to assume that souls will acquire bodies sin1ilar to those which they have abandoned at death.
The Mechanism of Rebirth In regard to the modus operandi of rebirth, different views are held. McTaggart argues that 'souls somehow steer their way back to a suitable rebirth'. 'Each person enters into connection with the body that it is most fitted to be connected with.' 2 As there can be no continuity of life without continuity of organism, a subtle hody which carries the impress of its past tenrlencies3 is assumed. The gross body (sth'i"ila sarira) is supported by the physical life-force which courses through the whole nervous system and which distinguishes our bodily action from that of an inert mechanical being. It is only the outer instrument. When it disappears the soul is not formless. An individual existence is always conditioned by an organic substratum.
Dr E. B. Tylor writes: 'So it may seem that the original idea of transmigration was the straightforward and reasonable one of human souls being reborn in new human bodies .... The beast is the very incarnation of familiar qualities of man; and such names as lion, bear, fox, owl, parrot, viper, worm, when we apply them as epithets to men, condense into a word some leading feature of human life.' Primitive Culture (London, 1891), ii. 17. Dr L. A. Waddcll writes: 'The pig symbolises the ignorance of stupidity; the cock animal desire or lust; and the snake anger.' Gazetteer of Sikkim, cd. by H. H. Rislcy, p. 267. 1 Studies on 1/cgelian Cosmology, pp. 45ff. 1 What departs from the body at death is manas (mind), the five senses of knowledge and the five of action, the five subtle elements, life (pra~a) and merit (pu~ya} and demerit (papa}. C.U. V. 3· 3; V. 9· r. B.U. IV. 4· 3, 5 and 6; VI. 2. 4 and 15; Maitri U. VI. 10; B.G. XV. 7 and 8; Manu XII. xfr-17; B.S.






Human life is always attached to some vehicle and we need not assume that the forms of matter with which we are familiar arc the only forms that exist in the universe. When the gross body drops, the soul is accompanied by the subtle body, transparent and invisible though material. It is the basis for consciousness and memory. Wc cannot localise subtle bodies which survive physical death. The subtle body is the reflex image of our personality in all its phases. The linga-sarira is the carrier of karma and assumes a body which, though different from the present one, is not altogether discontinuous with it. It is sometimes said that when the self leaves the body, it leaves with vij1iiina which S. equates with determinate consciousness due to viisanii and v1:dyii, llarrna and pi'irva-jfuina. S. admits that the individual, when he passes from one body to another, possesses primary prii~la, senses, and manas, also avidy{i, karma and previous experience. The jiva carries with it the subtle elements forming the basis of the body. 1 In the story of Savitri, it is said that Y ama extracted from the gross body of Satyavan the self which is of the size of a thumb. 2 The subtle body is said to have form. At the point of death, as the servants of a king gather round him when he starts on a voyage, so all the vital functions and faculties of an individual gather around the living soul, when it is about to withdraw from its bodily form. 3 The atman or the Universal Self which is present as siik~in throughout successive experiences is a mere spectator.

History of the Doctrine Belief in rebirth is widespread in the East and is not unknown in the West. Pythagoras and Plato suggested this theory as an explanation for the inequalities of life. Plato in the famous myth of Er towards the end of his Republic shows the disciplinary value of suffering. Virgil, the Mystery religions, the Neoplatonists supported the theory of rebirth. Plotinus says: 'Such things as happen to the good without justice, as punishments,

dehabfjair, bhutasuk~maib sampari 1r;vaktab. B.S. Ill. 1. I. angUf/ha-miitram puru~am niScakarfa yamo baliit. M.B.
6. 16.



B.U. IV. 3· 28. The process of death and rebirth according to Tibetan Buddhism is given in The Tibetan Book of the Dead, ed. by W. Y. Evans\Vcntz, third edition ( 1957).


The Brahma Siitra

or poverty, or disease~ may be said to take place through offences committed in a former life. ' 1 Caesar reports that the Druids had a belief that 'the soul does not perish, but after death passes from one body to another'. The Cathari taught that the wicked would be reborn in the bodies of animals. Recent anthropological investigations reveal that many African peoples hold the belief in rebirth. Josephus tells us that 'pure and obedient souls obtain a most holy place in Heaven from whence in the revolution of the ages they are sent again in to pure bodies. ' 2 The general Jewish belief, however, is a resurrection to bodily life on earth. The case of the man born blind is used to ~uggest belief in pre-existence. If he is not born blind as the result of his own sin it should be due to his conduct in a previous life. Among Christian thinkers Origen believed in the pre-existence of the soul though he held that after death the soul passed into a resurrection body. Jerome believed in pre-existence. Augustine did not deny it, and there was hesitation about the doctrine till the time of Gregory the Great. The Second Council of Constantinople in A.D. 553 issued a pronunciamiento: 'Whoever shall support the mythical doctrine of the pre-existence of the soul and the consequent wonderful opinion of its return, let him be anathema.' Thereafter belief in rebirth became a heretical doctrine. In recent times owing to the spread of the knowledge of the teachings of Eastern religions a few Western thinkers have been attracted to this hypothesis. Schopenhauer admits the usefulness of this doctrine. 3 Sir William J ones, in his letter to Earl Spencer dated September 4, 1787, wrote: 'I am no Hindu; but I hold the doctrine of the Hindus concerning a future state to be incomparably more rational, more pious, and more likely to deter men from vice, than the horrid opinions inculcated by Christians on punishments without end.' 4 For 1\IcTaggart, the
T. Taylor: The Select Works of Plotinus (1914), p. 229. Antiquities XVIII. I. 3· 3 Cp. Wordsworth: 'Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting: Rosctti: 'I have been here before. Bnt where or how I cannot tell.' ' Sec Arberry: Asiatic ]ones (1946), p. 37· Cp. G. Lowes Dickinson: 'If we are to hold, as we must, I believe, if we are to be optimists, that there is some definite goal to be reached by all individuals in a temporal process, then the notion of a series of successive existences, in the
1 1



universe is not a person but a society of persons, eternal and perfect, each of whom is in love with one or more of the others. Moreover, it is probable that each human mind, as it really is, is identical with one of these persons. Each one of us is, therefore, eternal in reality and this eternity probably appears sttb specie tcmporis as persistence throughout the whole of past and future tin1e. This existence is split up into a sequence of many successive lives each beginning with a birth and ending with a death. Belief in rebirth seems to be the least unsatisfactory of the views held about the future of the human being after death.

Union with Brahman Release is life in spiritual consciousness; rebirth is life in becmning. Eternal life is a new life into which we are born by a direct contact with the Divine. It is not a prolongation of the natural life into an indefinitely extended future. Eternity is not endless continuity. As we have seen any attempt to describe spiritual experience in htnnan language involves the clothing of the truth in imagery borrowed from the thought-forms of time. Even as the Supreme Reality is envisaged in the four forms of the Absolute Brahman, Personal j svara, the world-soul and the world, the liberated has the feeling of oneness with Brahman, communion with / svara and co-operation with the world-soul for the betterment of the world. S. says that the highest goal of life is the realisation of Brahman. 1 Since the Absolute is indescribable the state of union with the Absolute is also indescribable. 2 The self realises its t"'Ue nature and its difference from the empirical order. It is
course of which all are gradually purified and made fit for the heaven they are ultimately to attain, would seem to be the one least open to objection. It is also, I think, the one which is gradually popularising itself among those, who, without being students of philosophy, feel an intimate interest in its problems, and are not satisf1ed with the Christian solution.' 1 brahmavagatir hi puru$artha1;J. S.B. I. I. r. 1 Cp. Sutta Nipata: 'He who (like the sun) has gone to rest is comparable to nothing whatsoever. The notions through which his reality can be expressed are simply not to be found. All ideas are nothing as bearing upon him; hence all modes of speech are, with respect to him, unavailing.' 5, 7, 8.


The Brahma SiUra

an individual realisation of the Supreme by the individual soul. This is not thinking but seeing, a change of being. 1 According to S., this realisation is a modification of the internal organ generated in the mind aided by the impressions produced by hearing, reflection, etc. This, while destroying the ignorance leading to the apprehension of the world as real, roots itself out as well, not being distinct from the universe. 2 S. makes out that the attainment of mok$a is not the destruction of the world but only the displacement of a false view of the world. 3 The world has Brahman for its true nature and not vice versa. The cognition of Brahman is effected by the dissolution of the -yiew of the reality of names and forms. Othenvise the first released person would have destroyed the world once for all so that at present the whole world would be empty, earth and all other substances having been finally annihilated. 4 The life of union with Brahman is described in different ways. It is said that nothing remains of the individual whether as to name or likeness (niima-ri'ipa) 5 but only the Universal Reality. He becomes the Self that seen1s to have been determined or
1 na brahma-jiiiina-miitram samsiirika-nivrtti-kiirat~-am api tu siik~iitkiira­ paryantam. Bhamati I. I. 4.; see also I. 1. I. I brahma-sak~atkaras ciintaflkaratra-vrtti-bheda!J sravat~-a-mananadi-janita­ samskiira-saciva matto-janmii. sa ea nikhila-prapaiica-mahendra-jiila-siik:5iilkiiram sa-mulam unmulayan iitmilnam api prapaiicatviivise:5iid unmUlayati. a brahma-svabhiivo hi prapatico na prapaiua-svabhiivam brahma, tena niima'Yupa-prapa,ica-praviliipanena brahma-tattviivabodho bhavati. • tkena ciidimuldena Prthivyiidi-pravilaya!J krta itfdiinfm Prtnivyadisunyam jagad abhavi~yat. S.B. Ill. 2. 21. 6 For a Buddhist version see Ailgultara Nikiiya IV. 1. 8. 'Just as the flowing streams that move towards the sea, on reaching it, are coming home, their name and shape are broken down and one speaks only of the sea, even so of this witness the sixteen parts that move towards the Person, when they reach the Person are coming home, their name and shape are broken down and one speaks only of the Person. As the drop becomes the ocean, so the soul is deified, losing her name and work, but not her essence.' Eckhart Pfeiffer's Edition, p. 314. Cp. Ruysbroek: 'All men who are exalted above their creatureliness into a contemplative life are with this Divine glory-yea, are that glory, and they see and feel and find in themselves by means of this Divine light that they are the same ground as to their uncreated nature. Wherefore ·contemplative men should rise above reason and distinction and gaze perpetually by the aid of their inborn light, and so they become transformed, and one wills the same light by means of which they see and which they are.' Quoted by Inge: Christian Mysticism, p. 189.



particularised but is in fact impartible. Any kind of embodiment or individuality is regarded as a descent from the truth of being, a bondage to ignorance and desire, a self-forgetfulness of spirit. Freedom is absolute identification of the finite with the Infinite. B.U. describes the state of liberation thus: 'As a man when in the ctnbracc of his beloved wife, knows nothing without or within, so the person when in the embrace of the Intelligent Self knows nothing without or within. That, verily, is his form in which his desire is fulfilled, in which the Self is his desire, in which he is without desire, free from any sorrow.' 1 According to the Prasna U. the freed individuals lose their specific individualities when they merge themselves in the Supreme Self, even as rivers that flow into the sea lose their names and forms in it. 'As on the destruction of the jar, etc., the rther enclosed in the jar, etc., 1nerges in the iikiisa [the vast expanse of ether], even so the individuals merge in the Universal Spirit.' 2
Commttnion with the Divine 1svara The released soul retains its distinct individuality and becomes a mover at will, kiima-ciirin, whose will indeed is no
1V. 3· 21. Gau4apada on Karika on P.fa. V. 111. 40. Mcistcr Eckhart says: 'If therefore 1 am changed into God and He makes me one with Himself, then, by the living God, there is no distinction between us . . . . Some people imagine that they arc going to see God, that they are going to see God as if He were standing yonder, and they here, but it is not to be so. God and I: we are one. By knowing God I take Him to myself. By loving God, I penetrate Him.' Meister Eckhart, E.T. by H. B. Bla.kney (19.p), pp. 181-2. St Catherinc of Genoa cried: 'My one is God, nor do I recognise any other one except my God himself.' St John of the Cross likened the soul in search of God to a log of wood which is consumed by fire in which the fire only is operative. 'The soul that is in a state of transformation of love may be said to be, in its ordinary habit, like to the Jog of wood that is continually assailed by the fire; and the acts of this soul are the flame that arises from the ftre of love: the more intense is the fire of union, the more vehemently does its tlame issue forth. In the which flame the acts of the will arc united and rise upward, being carried away and absorbed in the flame of the Holy Spirit, even as the angel rose upward to God in the flame of the sacrifice of Manue. In this state, therefore, the soul can perform no acts, but it is the Holy Spirit that moves it to perform them; wherefore all its acts arc Divine, since it is impelled and moved to them by God. Hence it seems to the soul that whensoever this flame breaks forth, causing it to love with the Divine temper and sweetness, it is granting it eternal life, since it raises it to the operation of God in God.' The Living Flame of Love, tr. by E. Allison Peers (1953), pp. 18-19.


The Rrahma StJtra

longer his own. M.U. says that he attains divine likeness. 1 For R., the distinction between the individual soul and the Universal Self is real and so the two can never become one. Eternal life is love of God. It is essentially restful because the soul rests in God who is sufficient in himself and good unconditionally. Its only desire is to make its love more and more intense and absorbing. There is not with R. any question of the identity of the individual soul with God for such an absorption is not permissible in his philosophy. Love depends on a relation between two persons. The released soul has all the exalted qualities of the Divine except a few special prerogatives such as those of creatorship, etc. For Madhva life eternal is life in the presence of the Deity. For him difference is fundamental and obtains even in the state of release. For S., liberation is identification with the Self, sa-atmaka; for R. it is direct contact with the Supreme, sa-yujyata; for Madhva it is proximity to the Supreme, sa-lokatii. The author of the B.S. denies to the released souls the right to participate in the cosmic functions of the Lord. Badarayal).a gives us the views of Jaimini and Augulon1i. Jaimini holds that the individual in the state of release becomes invested with the highest attributes of 1svara or the Personal God. 2 Release is regarded as the attainment of an unconditioned state where all traces of the manifested world disappear (prapaiicopasama). Augulomi maintains that the released soul attains the state of pure consciousness. The state of absolute release is oneness of the individual self with the Super-personal Absolute which is the substratum of the world of experience. The unreleased souls look upon it as one of identity with Godhead. All these views are characterised by the negative condition of freedom from rebirth. The state of liberation is one of freedom from the limitative conditions of individual human existence. It is freedom from subjection to time, from birth and death which are marks of time. 'Death, thou shalt die.' All views agree that eternal life is an absolute fulfilment of what we arc, the final affirmation of our progressive self-finding.,




IV. 4· 5·



The Self shines forth in its purity. 1 The Bhagavata describes the state of release as the attainment of the individual's natural state by relinquishing its imposed state. 2 The knowledge of God which is equivalent to the direct realisation of Ultimate Reality is the highest human good (parama-puru$artha). The self as part (amsa) attains the whole (amsin). It is brought into personal contact with the Personal God. It is not a question of attaining sameness or identity but attaining similarity. The views affirm the timelessness of our inmost being, an indestructibility without continuance in time, but in the cosmic process, individuation is the method. Until the cosmic process is consmnrnatcd, the individual centres will continue. Appaya Dik~ita in his S£ddhanta-lesa-samgraha writes: 'Liberation being the 1nanifestation of our nature and nothing adventitious, cannot be denied to or withheld from anyone. Universal liberation is more than a possibility; it is a logical necessity. Different souls will require a long or short period of time in proportion to their capacity to get rid of avidyii but its final removal is certain. So long as there is a single unrealised soul, miiya is not completely destroyed and there can be no absolute realisation for any other soul, however advanced it may be in the path of perfection.' Appaya Dik!?ita says that as long as the created world lasts, i.e. as long as liberation of all does not happen, the Supreme Brahman has the form of I svara. a So from the empirical viewpoint, the fruit of knowledge turns out to be of the form of the attaintnent of the nature of Paramesvara characterised by the possession of desires which come true and so on. The lordship manifested in those who have intuited Brahman may be said to be of the nature similar to Brahman because of the text 'the stainless one attains absolute equality with the Supreme'. 4
svena Yupe!ta abhini$padyate. C. U. iitma-svayupa-liibha or attaining one's own form is becoming like the Divine for Nimbarka. Sec Vedatlla-pii'YijatasauYabha. IV. 4· 1-2. 1 mukti,- hitvanyatha-Yupam, svayupetta vyavasthiti~. 3 tad eva nirvise~am bYahma yavat saroa-mukti sagut;t.esvarbhavam apadyavat(r;thata iti vyavaha'Ya-dr #ya satya-kiimatviidi-gu1Jaka paramesvara-bhaviipatti-Yupam api bhavati tat phalam. Siviidvaita-nirrzaya III. 235. 1. ' U. Ill. I. J: brahma-sak~atkiiravatam yad aisvaryam aviYbhavafi tad brahmasamya-rupam iti vaktavyam. nirafljanab payamam samyam upaiti. Siviidvaitanirrzaya.


The Brahma Sittra

Life eternal is not a denial of becoming but a victory over it. The saved souls devote their energies to the spiritualisation of the world, to raising it to its highest levels. They are engaged in the development of the human type into the spiritual. To be free is to live in the integral power of spirit, which does not consist in the repose of a featureless existence indifferent to activity but in the simultaneous possession of a transcendent reality and cosmic activity and existence without which the cosmos will cease to exist. W c are in bondage so long as the individual is confined to his superficial mind, ignorant of the spirit in hiin which is always free master of its world, its manifestation. In Yajiia-varaha-bhagavadgitii 42, it is said that to the ignorant the world is full of sorrow, to the awakened it is full of bliss even as the world is dark to the blind and is bright to the seeing. I Release (mukti) consists not in the shaking off of all bodily life or cosmic existence but in a recovery by the individual conscious being of its spiritual freedom. The spirit in us is the Divine enjoying the possible relations of his oneness in the multiplicity of souls. Individual existence in life is not a thing absolutely apart; it is part of the divine self-manifestation in the universe. The enlightened soul is one with the Divine in hin1self as well as the Divine in all. An exclusive emphasis on one side of the truth is misleading. The soul that has entered into that complete oneness with the Divine Being must, even as that Divine does, continue to be one with all being. The released souls live in the world though they are no more of the world. Their lives are lit by a steady spiritual flame imparting a new coherence, tranquillity and freedom. They are filled with peace though it is not a peace of the desert. They are vibrant with energy and engaged in meeting the demands of the world. Sudarsanacarya in his Sruti-sukti-miilii gives the following illustration of the contemplation of identity with Brahman: 'Padma-niibha is said to be the Supreme Brahman and the Supreme Real, the Supreme Light and the Supreme Lord, since delighting only in contemplation of Thee, he is non-different

ajiiasya du}J,khaugha-mayam jiiasyanandamayam jagat andha1il bhuvanam andhasya prakcdam tu su-cak~usab.



from Thee, as the magician by the contemplation of Garuc:,Ia is non-different from Garu<;Ia. 1

Unt:on zvith the JVorld-Spirit
These mukta-puru:jas or enfranchised souls are those in whose lives the temporal and the eternal interpenetrate. God's light streams not darkly as through a glass but undimmed as through an open window. 2 All the traces of egoism are dissolved and the limitations which condition individuality are extinct in them. They are untouched by the fear of death and untroubled by anxieties concerning the future of their temporal personalities. The divine principle in its eternal being is identical with one's own formless essence, beneath all the conscious and the unconscious qualifications of the personality. It is the nonparticular in us, the pure divine non-form, a nameless, shapeless power which sustains the whole personality. The released are not the solitary men cut off from society and severed frmn the empirical self retreating frmn the threatening \vorld. Such men of mere negation are sterile and unfruitful. The free souls are full n1en representing consistent and comprehensive affinnation of the Divine in life. After their enlightenment they get back to the world, love and serve their fellow-men in the light of their blessing. On the plane of spirit, there is an indivisible solidarity of the human race. The free spirits arc. persons without frontiers. They do not have any barriers of sex, class, race or nation between themselves and the rest of humanity. They are at home with men and women of all religions and no religion. They are the apostolate of the future. The marks of a liberated man are an earthen pot (for drinking water), the roots of trees (for food), coarse cloth, solitude, equanimity towards all. 3 The life of the liberated has two characteristics. It is free from the egoistic self and its tyrannous desires. It is convinced of the unity with all and so has love for others. The freed man works for the good of others. Though he wants nothing for
brahmocyate paramasau paramam ea tat-tvam jyotil;z param ea paramesvara padma-niibha'Q. tvad-bhiivanaika-rasikas tvad-ananyabhiiviin mantrf yathii garuf/,a-bhiivanaya 1 I CorinJhians xiii. 12. garutmiin. (42.) • kapalam vrk~a-mulani kucailam asahayatii samatataiva sarvasmin etad mttktasya lak~af:tam.


The Brahma Sutra

himself, he cannot see others immersed in ignorance and suffering. So long as we are seekers of the goal we do unselfish work by conscious effort; when we are free we do it effortlessly. So long as the cosmic process continues the liberated souls have work to perform. They co-operate with the divine purpose for this world and strive for the redemption of all. 1 According to V ais~tava philosophy they live in V aiku?Jtha and are unlike human beings in respect of their conditions. They are said to be devoid of bodies and organs of sense. 2 The appearance of the divine souls in the world gives light to those that live in darkness and in the shadow of death. 3 This is the view of S. as indicated by Appaya Dik$ita. The liberated souls are active wherever a tear falls, wherever an act of injustice or brutality is committed, wherever a heart is ·seized with despair. 4 In his hymn to the Supreme in the Bhiigavata, PrahHida criticises those performers of penance in the forests who strive for their own salvation indifferent to the sufferings of the erring mortals and he says that he does not desire his own salvation unless these erring people are taken along:
praye?Ja deva munaya/:t sva-vimukti-kamii.~t maunam caranti vipine na pariirtha-ni$/hii/:t naitan vihiiya krPa?Jan vimumuk$a eka/:t niinyam tvad asya cara1;am bhramato'nupasye.

Life is a continuous drama embracing the beginnings of existence and its end. The light suffers and struggles to overcome the darkness in which evil cloaks itself.
'For we are labourers together with God', fellow-workers with him. I Corinthians iii. g. Talmud (Sabbath, 10) says: 'Any judge who exercises rightful judgment even for one hour, of him Scriptures say that he becomes, as it were, a eo-worker with God in the work of Creation.' In the phrase of Dame J ulian of Norwich we are 'partakers in his good deed'. Revelations of Divine Love. 1 dehendriyasu-h!naniim vaikuntba-pura-vasinam. Bhiigavata VII. I. 34· 3 Luke i. 79· ' Pascal says that Jesus struggles with death until the end of the world. In this bonndless Gcthsemane which is the life of the universe, he struggles with death, as the personification of all suffering and sorrow.

Release is not a state after death but the supre1ne status of being in which the spirit knows itself to be superior to birth and death. that he is only a siidhaka and not a siddha. · It is wrong to think that a jivan-mukta is not wholly perfect. 1 prarabdha-karmaniim bhogiid cva k~~ayam. Those who are released in spirit become released in fact after death. 14. 1 I. To possess a body does not mean identification with it. 5 Embodiment may continue after the attainment of knowledge s. Every moment we stand on the frontier of time. There is no help for it. 4· 15. 13-15. Again: vimuktas ea vimucya. 1 anubhaviirut!kam eva ea vidyii-phalan~ na kriyii-phalavat kaliintarabhiivfti.te. I. VI.B. 'if your bonds be not broken whilst living. it follows that release is obtained forthwith. ]ivan-mukti is not close proxin1ity to final release but it is final release. ' Cp. V. IV.Introduction 215 Jivan-mukti Liberation is not a state of existence to follow on physical death but an all-satisfying present experience. A released person continues to have individuality until the whole cosmic process is dissolved or redeemed. unconditioned by its manifestations. 1 Hindu systems of thought describe the state of those who are released while they are in an embodied condition as one of fivan-muldi. not a place or an environment. 2 But we can escape from those which have not begun to operate. . 3 Eternity is a state of mind. s See B.' When ignorance is destroyed by knowledge. The fruit of knowledge being present to intuition does not manifest itself at a later time only as the fruits of actions do. 2. It can be had even in life. Kabir asks. Cp. able to assume forms at its pleasure. I. But the freed soul does not become disembodied. when we gain wisdom. I. It is the condition of ]ivan-mukti. They feel that the result of llarmas which have begun to operate should be exhausted. Continuance till the dissolution of the primal elements is called imn1ortality.S. tasya tavad eva ciram yavan na vimok$ye atha sampatsye. C. what hope of deliverance in death?' Life eternal is not in the future of tin1e. iibhuta-samplavath sthanam amrtatvam hi bhii$yate. Quoted in Bhamati. III. There are passages which declare that only after physical death release is attained. tasyabhidhyaniid J'ojanat tattva-bhavat bhuyas cante visva-miiya-nivrtti[l.

Even after physical death. Suka was a renouncer. 4· IS.iiianinab samai. Even as i svara expresses himself in various forms to help suffering humanity. the released soul controls his individuality and is not bound by it as a limitation.' 3 To each is the way ordained by his nature. 2355. If ignorance persists release is not gained. 'Whether one is interested in renunciation or naivii.B.2!6 The Brahtna Sutra and therefore release. V asi$#/. We have to renounce not the things of the world but the desires of the heart. Janaka and Rama were kings. How can one's own intimate experience of the knowledge of Brahman existing together with embodiment be denied by another?' 1 Those who hold that all embodiment is the effect of ignorance contend that full release is possible only after death. S. 1 See Appayya Dik!?ita: Siddhanta-lesa-samgraha 3· 2351-3. S. The way of the householder is suited for some. These five kinds of knowers are to be regarded as equals. the released souls may assume forn1s to help the unregenerate. This action may take many forms. the creative dynamic side of Brahman. Even as lsvara controls his manifestation and is not bound by it.J. It does not depend on embodiment or non-embodiment. That is why it is sometimes said that the released soul becomes one with I svara. Katham hy ekasya sva-hrdaya-pratyayam brahma-vedanam deha· dhilranam capare~a pratik~eptu. A popular verse reads 'Kr$1Ja was an enjoyer. 2 Salvation is possible for all and till that consummation is attained.m sakyate. They assume that embodiment is a sign of ignorance and karma. Brahman-/svara. the individual souls work in the world with a feeling of identity with God. says: 'It should not be disputed whether the knower of Brahman is embodied for a time or is not embodied.ta was a performer of ceremonies. We are adepts and not perfected men. I. The individual soul becomes identical with lsvara and when the world process is redeemed. the released soul may assume individual form to work for the world. While possessing wisdom they may act in the world. It is the liberated people that teach us the truth. that of the houseless wanderer for others. Release relates to the frame of mind.tra vivaditavyam brahma-vidab kiiicit kalam ~arfyam dhriyate na dhriyata iti. he along with Brahmii or the World-spirit lapses into the Absolute-God. Bondage and release cannot coexist. 3 kr$~0 bhogf ~ukas tyag! nrpau janaka-raghavau vasi~thab karma-karta ea paiicaite . 1 .

~tabhya dhyeya-tyiiga-vilasinfm jfvan-mukta-taya svastho lake vihara riighava anta~ samtyakta-sarviUo vitarago vivasanalJ bahi}J sarva-samaciiro loke vihara raghava bahi~ krtrima-samrambho hrdi samrambha-varjita~ kartii balzir akartiinta~ lake vihara riighava tyaktiiharizllrtir iisuptamatir iikcUa-sobhana~ agrhfta-kalankii:nko loke vihara raghava ttdiira -pdaliiciira}J sarv(iciiriinuvrttimiin anta}J sarva-parityagf loke vihara riighava. ever untainted. but outwardly active in all affairs. he is isolated only in spirit. says a verse attributed to S. Hindu thought points out that what binds is not action hut the spirit in which it is done. 3 par?Jo dr~tim ava.' 3 The jfvan-mukta wears his life like a light garn1cnt. with mind detached as in sleep. Outwardly full of zeal in action but free from any zeal at heart. Vol. 2 He is detached but not isolated from the world.V asi$!ha tells us how a liberated soul should act in the world. VII. But so long as the yoga-rato t•ii blwga-rato va $anga-rato va sanga-vihina ~ yasya brahma~zi ramate citlam. behave in this world. Inwardly free from all desires.. 1 He looks upon all creation as equal. 1landaty eva. 0 Raghava. 0 Riighava. 0 Riiglzava. 0 Rtighava. 1 samatii $Q1'Va. inwardly cool but outwardly fervent. behave in this world. It is the desire for or aversion from the results that bind the individual soul. 1.~a~zam. reprinted in 1893· 1 . in company or in solitude. pure like the sky. dispassionate and detached..-bhtUe. William Law quotes: 'Do but suppose a man to know himself. that he comes into this world on no other errand but to arise out of the vanity of time . behave in this world. Conducting yourself nobly and with tenderness. t1a11dati. Free from egoism. 11andati.Introduction 217 enjoyment. prosperity and adversity have no difference because he receives them and uses them in the same spirit. 0 Riighava. he. p. Do but suppose him to govern his inward thought and outward action by this view of himself and then to him every day has lost all its evil. Unattached at heart but outwardly acting as if with attach1nent. he whose mind delights in the Supreme. antar nairiisyam iidaya bahir asonmukhe hitab bahis tapto'ntarasfto loke vihara riighava. conforming to the forms of society but inwardly renouncing all. behave in this world. 'Steady in the state of fullness which shines when all desires are given up and peaceful in the state of freedom in life. active in appearance but inwardly peaceful. rejoices'.~u ctaJz muldasya lak. behave in this world.' The Works of William Law (1749). Yoga.. if isolated. 0 Riighava. behave in this world. verily.

They live as universal men with no private attachments or personal feelings. The individual who is enlightened by knowledge does not renounce all activity. noon and evening]. it is one with the creative activity of God. the world would cease to exist. Individuals cannot be fully transformed in separation from each other. \Vhen the realised soul returns to the plane of conduct. He is free from selfish desire. Eckhart says: 'It is permissible to take life's blessings with both hands provided thou dost know thyself prepared in the opposite event to leave them just as gladly.218 The Brahrna SiUra action is performed in a selfless spirit. In a deeply spiritual sense there can be no other salvation. their sins removed go to the world of Brahma which is free from harm (literally disease]. the end is the transforn1ation of the individual and. 'That is right action which does not make for bondage. the transformation of all human relationships. It has no selfish motives behind it but is a manifestation of spiritual peace. The word sarva-mukti means the liberation of all.' sandhyam upasate ye tu satatam samsitavratal) vidhitta-papaiJ. without desire for fniit. 2 We are all \\rayfarers towards the Divine Kingdom and so cannot rest until the goal is reached. He who has attained truth which is its own fruition acts selflessly and with full freedom.' 2 Siddhanta-muktavali quotes a verse: 'Men who duly observe the rites. his action will neither add to nor detract from the value of his realisation. Without action. He is incapable of selfish action as his egoism is burnt out. te yanti brahma-lokam aniimayam.l Sarva-mukti \Vhatever pathway we take. In the Yoga system the sage is likened to one standing on the Cp. Action itself will be of a different kind. that is right knowledge which makes for liberation. a-kiima. Augustine observes: 'How could the city of God have a beginning or be developed or fulfil its destiny if the life of the saints were not a social life?' 1 . Brahma-loka or the Kingdom of God implies corporate salvation. _He acts to sustain his body and social relationships. who perform worship at the junctions of time [morning.' tat karma yan na bandhaya sa vidyii ya vimuktaye. as a result. We hear of many cases of liberated individuals who are engaged in the work of the world.

So long as the cosmic process continues. The liberated souls which obtain the first condition continue to work for the second. 2 In A1ahiiyiina Huddh£sm. \Vhcn the consummation of the world is reached. 1 praj. 'Strike me out of the Book of Life or forgive my people their trespass'. If anyone finds his end in himself he suffers defeat. life is not a resting but a going I. 2 iidividviin nirmii~acittam adhisthiiya ktiru~tyiid bhagavan paramar~ir iisuraye jig1ii'isanzaniiya tantra1it . A valokitesvara. The conception of the solidarity of mankind tells us that the saved souls and the sinning arc bound to one another. (i) inward perfection attained by intuition of self. in a spiritual selfless way by the saints. iirukya asocya!J socato janiiu bhi4m(<ifhan iva sailasthab sarvam priijno'nupasyati. Such a view of universal restoration questions the justice of eternal damnation. Y oga-bhii~c. It is impossible for any believer in God to assume that countless human souls could be for all time beyond the possibility of redemption. 3 So long as the cosmic plan is not fulfilled work will continue.1 This infinite compassion impels him to build for himself a new body and mind and teach the saving wisdom to the world.ya I. said Moses to God. 3 Cp. Two conditions are essential for final salvation. in a material selfish way by others. So long as there are unreleased souls. Yoga-bhii:~. beyond the reach of God's love. always straining forward for something that has not been but should be. Kapila is said to have taught Asuri out of compassion. The world is a whole where everything is necessary to all the rest. It goes on never pausing.Introduction 219 hilltop and looking down on the suffering multitude below . If the last vestige of succession and contingency is removed time will have disappeared with it. (ii) outer perfection possible only with the liberation of all. It means the ultimacy of evil and the defeat of God's purpose. 4 7. it lapses back into the Absolute. the future Buddha looks downwards on all less elevated beings helping and expecting them to rise. 25. the released souls will have work in the temporal order. always restless. Origen believed that God's infinite love would finally prevail over all evil and even Satan and his fallen angels would be ultimately redeemed. In the saved souls there is a never completely resolved strain of temporality which makes then1 members of the cosn1ic order. The former work on the latter by persuasion and love until they are transformed and reborn into spiritual souls alive with the life that grows more and more into life eternal.

a society of saved souls. For all things are transparent and there is nothing dark or resisting but everyone is manifest to everyone internally and all things are manifest. its fulfilments and frustrations. The world is not an adequate expression of reality and cannot therefore share the eternity which is characteristic of reality. Distinction does not any more mean opposition since all individuals strive for the same end and are inspired by the same ideal. dharma. is the cosmic destiny. have little to do with the new mode of living which is independent of time. In that cosmic harmony which is the destiny of the historical process. has an eternal value. The question of universal salvation is not to be confused with the realisation of finite purposes in time. This view is not bound up with the inevitability of progress as that term is understood by us.220 The Brahma Sutra Till the end is achieved the temporal process has a meaning and a value as the stage of soul-formation and growth. They all know even as they are known.' Enneads V. But the possibility of a spiritual life for the whole race is indicated by the theory of the indwelling of God. They all have a sense of ccnnmunion with the Cosmic Spirit and devote their lives to its purpose. It is a manifestation of one of its possibilities. Inner desolation and outward wealth may wdl go together. 8. The Absolute. so that all things are everywhere and all is all and each is all anu the splendour is infinite. The Kingdom of God. It is not a gradual accumulation of material comforts through the ages. The chances of time. It can only be an unending succession of transitory states. however. It deals with values of spirit which may be gained sometimes through convulsions of nature and history. For everyone has all things in himself and again sees in another all things. 1 The world-redemption (sarva-muld£) is not to be confused with cosmic millennia or earthlyparadises. It is one expression of the Absolute but not the Absolute itself. True individuality of human self is to be found in the achievement of the unity of the world. form or idea. 4· 1 . Each particular individual expresses the universal in its own way. We may well cherish the hope that the ascent of the soul to God achieved by several individuals during the course of human history may be an earnest of what humanity will one day attain. each individual has his distinct place. for light is manifest to light. 'They see themselves in others.

other possibilities may he realised in other frameworks.G. not thou nor these princes of men. A passage in the M. souls will exist as long as their existence has meaning for the universe. and purified themselves by methods of renunciation. Let us understand the implications of such a demand. Unless we regard imperfection as an end in itself. in cooperative union with God. love and service should not be allowed to disappear in some infinite sea of undifferentiated being.U.Introduction 221 is not limited by its manifestation in such a divine society. when the cosmic destiny is fulfilled. we have a dynamic fellowship of liberated spirits working for it. 4· 8. the creative freedom of the Absolute may find expression in forms of which we have no knowledge today. S. 's view of the final identification of the liberated with the Supren1c represents the state of the released. go to the world of Brahmii with whom they attain to final dissolution at the time of the great end' . As Lotze argues.1 The B. a state n1ay arise when there is nothing for human minds to know or human wills to do. a simple continuance of such a state becomes a useless luxury.U. II. when the integral revelation of the world possibility is achieved. spent infinite pains on their education only to get them disintegrated at the end. It may be said that it is an utterly futile business for the Creative Spirit to have brought individual souls into existence. The peace.' I IV. 2 Even Advaita Vedanta is not inconCp. There is support for the doctrine of the kingdom of spirit or brahma-loka in the Vpani$ads. nor verily shall we cease to be hereafter.'s account of the independent existence of the liberated souls represents the cosmic destiny. declares that ~those who have their intellects firmly rooted in the principles of the V edanta. 12: 'Nor at any time verily was I not. When this world order ends. the bliss and the oneness of the Absolute arc not constituted by or limited to the perfection of this cosmic process. Is all this difficult process of soul-making to end in their breaking up again? Personality. when it reaches its fulfilment. B. So long as the cosn1ic plan is in process of fulfilment. When the self-disclosure of personalities is accomplished. 1 . While R. says that the knowers of Brahman go to the world of heaven (svargam lokam). there is unity of substance.

It implies the disappearance of a false view of the world. Freedom consists in the attainment of a universality of spirit or sarvatma-bhiiva. is opposed to it.'s view of the jfvan-mukta condition makes out that inner perfection and work in the finite universe can go together. bondage should have terminated for all which is not the case. According to the doctrine that the whole universe including other finite selves is a creation of one's mind. Though some later Advaitins adopt the theory of eka-jfva. 21. S. 1 From the empirical standpoint a plurality of individuals is assumed by S. S. and many of his followers. not with Brahman but with jsvara. S. If all the different souls are only one jfva.G. On this view. then he is in a condition where there are no bound souls. .222 The Brahma SiUra sistent with this view. When anyone is released. though he realises mok$a or brahma-bhiiva. admits that the world appearance persists for the ]fvanmukta or the Sthita-prajna of the B. The appearance of multiplicity is not superseded. ·the body persists. If he is not aware of the existence of avidyii at all. the world manifestation still persists and engages his energies. Only it does not deceive the freed soul even as the mirage does not tempt one who has detected its unreal character. Though the spirit is released. he sees two. Full freedom demands the transfiguration of the world as well. salvation does not involve the destruction of the world. But this eka-jfva-vrida is not sustainable. the release of that one ego will mean the release of all. Embodiment continues after the rise of saving knowledge. it means that all souls are released. It is with him as with a patient suffering from timira that. what is the relation of the released soul to the aj1it"ina \vhich still binds others? His position is one of identity. 1 Ill. While the individual has attained inner harmony and freedom. then when for the first time any soul attains liberation. though he knows there is only one moon. 2. Thefivan-mukta. Either the release of all is a fact or his awareness is a delusion. does avid_yii continue to exist or not? If the answer is negative. It believes in the multiplicity of empirical selves. The consciousness of the ego arises and gets strengthened by its clash with other egos. if it is in the affirmative. still lives in the world.

but necessary in the interests of what is called world maintenance.a) for in it each spirit is a separate eternal entity which falls into subjection to prakrti (nature) and pursues its separate cycle of cosmic existence and works for its separate release./di or gradual release which is the aiin of those who are devoted to l\iiryaBrah1nii or Hirat. If the spirit is eternally free in itself and is also hound in the cosmos. There are Advaitins who argue that each soul is an individual existence trying to get away from its own self-deceiving. . 1t terminates only when all are released. If it gets rid of the deception it Inay be saved. persistence of individuality is held not only as possible by S. and for even such released souls. Such a view is more in accordance with the Siithkhya theory of a plurality of spirits (purw.ith the destiny of the cosn1os or other souls.{tna which is attainable here and now. The Sii1hkhya theory aff1rms a dualism between spirit and nature and we cannot be certain that the free spirit that has once fallen into subjection by the disturbance of the equilibrium will not again fall into subjection by a repetition of the disturbance. the world will persist as long as there are souls subject to bondage. g. but the continuance of the self-deception in myriads of other souls will make for the time process. In other words. in each soul separately the one spirit has assumed the form of individual being.e.ya-garbha. it is not enough for a few souls to release themselves from time to time out of this deception. They insist on the necessity for individual salvation and this has little to do v. According to the A dvaita V ediinta.Introduction 223 This view is not to be confused with krama-mu. absolute salvation is possible with world-redemption. i. is discussing not gradual rele~se but release consequent on brahma-ji/.




The latter is not dependent on human activity while the fruit of dlwrma is dependent on it. 1 nityalz. 'Verily. It may also mean 'then' signifying immediate succession. sama . indifference to objects.U. . it: is the Self that should be seen.. uparati.i. 4· 5· P.eligious duty has temporal prospt~rity for its goal while knowledge of Brahman leads to eternal bliss. Now thert. It cannot be the performance of religious duty. dehendriya-vi$ayadaya~ . nonattachment arises. pratyag-atma . . 1.khatmakam prasa1i1khyanam upavartate . asmin sa~izsiira­ matzrJale a1'tityasuci-dulz. ata~: therefore.. heard of. to enquire into. possession in abundance of the qualities of calmness.bhoga . p. . titik$. H. 1.damadi sadhana-sampat. equanimity and other such means. according to S. brahma-vit brahmaiva bhavati. to examine and test. faith in the truth.. 'Seek to know Brahman'.viraga~. dama. nonattachment to the enjoyment of fruit here or hereafter.. anantaryiirtltaft. bra/una: Ultimate Hc:ality. 2 When we know that the Self alone is eternal and all others non-eternal and contemplate the impermanence. The object of the study is indicated in this section.vivekaJ.' 1 Cp. The antecedent condition for the rise of the desire to know cannot be the study of the V cdas for that is necessary for the knowledge of both Brahman and dha1'ma. jijfiiisii: desire to know. control. While the result of the perfonnance of religious duty may lead to II.U. calmness.mutk$ttlvam . 197. and desire for release. S.U. The knowledge of Brahman results immediately in realisation. and H. . nityanitya . reflected on and meditated upon. mt. for one can have the desire to know Brahman by a study of the literature of the Vediinta. The desire to know Brahman has for its antecedent conditions the possession of the qualities of discrimination of things eternal and non-eternal. athato brall1na-jtjiiiisci.fore the desire to !mow Brahman (the Ultimate Reality).Section 1 (1) THE DESIRE TO KNOW BRAHMAN I.vastu .· anityalz. atha sabdena yathokta-sadhanasampaty-anantaryam upadiSyate. The word atha indicates that the desire to know Brahman arises subsequent to the fulfilment of these conditions. virago abhogatmikopek $(ibuddhip. impurity and painful character of the world. ihamutrartha . 3 Then follow sama. 1 1 . turning away from them and sraddha. B ha mall. The ?'i~aya-viikya or the text referred to is the passage in B. also T. atlta: Now. The word atha indicates that the desire to know Brahman arist~s subsequent to the fulfilment of certain conditions.

According to Madhva there are three stages of fitness for the study of the V ediinta. J aya-tirtha: kat'tavyam eva kiiryiirambhe mangalacarar~am krtam ea bhagavatii sutra-kat'et~a nivesitam ea granthiidau. we can obtain favours. interprets atha to denote temporal succe~sion to the study of the karma-kii1p. Cp. Suresvara holds that karma is an indirect means to liberation since it purifies the soul and helps the acquisition of knowledge. Madhva and his followers make out that the usr of atlta is for the sake of auspiciousness. Ritual is a means of liberation though it is not as effective as knowledge. The two cannot be regarded as complementary to each other. Madhva interprets it to mean 'through the bTface or kindness of the Lord Vi$1JU'. even residence in heaven. does not accept Pziina-karmasatnuccava-1. He adopts the doctrine of j11. the highest is he who is solely attached to the Lord and detached from the world which he knows to be transitory. • adhikli. The word atal. means that the knowledge of Brahman leads to release and so the enquiry into Brahman is justified. I 11 . The conditions whirh S. 3 matigaliit'thab. Madhva takes atha to indicate the beginning of a subject. S. In other words only those who are se1f-contro11ecl are eligible to undertake an enquiry into Brahman. Bhaskara holds that we enquire into the nature of religious duty and of Brahman since works and knowledge both play an important part in the achievement of of the Vedas.228 The Brahma St"itra earthly prosperity. Nyiiya-sudhrt. 3 He suggests that the study of the l' ediinta has to be undertaken after the attainment of certain preliminary qualifications and the acquisition of certain spiritual and moral qualities.rantaryiirthas ea. One has a right to know Brahman and obtain release only after one has discharged his three debts to the ancestors. and to the gods. A systematic sturly of religious duty is the necessary antecedent of the enquiry into Hralzman. 2 \Vhen we reach the knowledge that the result of mere works is limited and non-permanent we ~et the desire for final release. knowledge of Brahman leads to liberation from bondage. 1{. 1 Bhaskara is of the view that the enquiry regarding Brahman must be preceded by a study of the Pun'a l\fimii1itsii. lays down as essential for the enquiry into nralmtan presuppose an understanding of the nature of duty.iina-karma-samuccaya or a combination of knowledge and works. By a proper knowledge of him. The reason for the enquiry into the nature of Brahman is the grace of the Lord. 4 Those who have devotion are eligible for the enquiry into the nature of Brahman. to the seers. A studious person devoted to the Lord is the lowest: one endowed with the six moral qualifications is the next higher. The desire Sambandha-viirttika 1 133-r 134· karma-viciiriinantararh tata eva brahma-viciirab kartavyab.'iida.

Srikal)tha insists on the discipline of sacrificial duties as essential for such an enquiry. While~.1tha adopts the view that a knowledge of religious duties is a necessary antecedent to the enquiry into Brahman for the two stand in t. The distinction of the knowledge of the eternal and the non-eternal. Even fivan-muktas perform all karmas. speaks of the inner ~alues and qualities as qualifying one for the enquiry into Brahnzan. 2 For ~rikal)tha an enquiry into Brahman can begin only after a study of the nature of dharma. Appaya Dik~ita reconciles the two by arguing that the perfonnance of Vedic duties without any desire for fruit leads to the acquisition of the moral qualities insisted on by~. Nimharka holds that the lwnna and fiiiina-kii1Jtf.S.i. Knowledge of Brahman does not result in the cessation of activity. \Vorks purify the n1ind and help the growth oJ the knowledge of Brahman. Nimbarka says that one who has read the Veda. Translation and Notes 229 to know starts us on the path of enquiry. means. He also bolus that the word atha is used to signify the auspicious. speech and body._. must be preceded by the study of the Purva Alfmiimsii.iirhsiis.i is of three kinds.inantm·am. 29. 1 . <. Wherever there is doubt we have to use our reason to resolve the doubt. The performance of duty should precede knowledge of Brahman. The two mimii1nsiis tleal with the two qualities. who possesses innumerable divine qualities including kri_vii or sacrifice and j1iiina or knowledge. 3 \Vhcn the mind is purified by the performance of Vedic duties one becomes entitled to enquire into the nature of llralmzan. 1 Maclhva looks upon jijiiiisii not as desire to know but as viciira or enquiry to determine the nature of Brahman and his qualities. and iiriidhya.od. encl. who has studied the Purva AJimibnsii in order to remove such doubts and has a proper knowledge of karma and its fruits should try to acquire a knowledge of Brahman. whose mind is assailed by doubts about the results of actions. ~·hen the desire to learn is there. worship. daiva-mlmiiti1sa and karma-minui1i1sii and all the three should be fon11 a whole. deal with one topic. ~ripati makes atha mean 'afterwards' or 'then'. It is attained after the seeker frees himself from the three kinds of wordly sins. He makes out that it denotes the commencement of a new topic.> rl'lation of iiriidlta. and siidhya. mimibitsii. 2 sandigdham sa-prayojana1i·t ea vicaram arhat-i. 3 dharma-vicari. the worshipped. nityiinitya-vastuviveka cannot be a prerequisite for it is the ultimate goal. purva and uttara. there is adhikiira or fitness. Madhva says that mimii1nsi. Vallabha holds that both the mim. " vak{iyati ea karma-brahma-mfmu1hsayvr aikasiistryam. He also suggests that it is after In his Gitii-tiitparya. arising from mind. 4 The study of the B.. brakmamimil1ilsi. Jiia. siidlzana.nottama on Nai~karmya­ siddhi I. The two mimiimsiis form one whole.Text. and so qualihes those possessing them for !Jrahma-knowlctlge.

vedanta. It arises from the human situation.Sti. what is meant by saying that something is. . not by authority.bhakti-kriyii-jniina-kii:~uta-traya­ vihita -sth it/a. 1 Vijnana-bhik!?U says that atha indicates authority 2 and auspiciousness. Baladeva argues that the \·Vord atha means in1mediate sequence but contends that the mere knowledge of karma-mimii1itsii or the acquisition of the qualifications laid down by S. avagati-paryantam jniinam satt-viicyiiyii icchayii/. discussion about Brahman. . 3 The realisation of Brahman is the goal. If religion is to be scientific it must be found through reasoned processes rather than by revelations from external authorities. does not give us the desire to enquire into the nature of Brahman. dik!}iinantaram.l. • Cp.fana. ]ijiiiisa is the desire to know. in addition to all these. pra/di. bralmziivagatir hi puru:~iirtlw}. religion is content to experience. avidyii. Sripati gives a long passage about the preliminaries for the study of Brahman.sadguru -karur. since it destroys all evils.k$ma-cid-acit. Philosophy wishes to understand.ttbhaya. tasmat brahma jijniisitavyam. 2 adhikara-viicaka. The knowledge of Brahman is not a matter of faith but the result of enquiry.a~~!iivara~za. that one can enquire into the nature of Brahman. 6 j niitum ice ha jijniisii. The knowledge culminating in realisation is the object of the desire expressed by the sufllx san./.paticiiciira. The ultimate question is about the nature of being. seem to agree that a previous study of Purva Mimii1nsii is necessary before Uttara lllimiimsii is taken up and the two form one whole.diiyaka . The urge to metaphysical inquiry is a natural one. bahu-janma-krta.aka. Insistence on a logical approach to religious problems has been a persistent feature of the Indian tradition. a mangala-rupa.k$iitRara-kiira1J. The realisation of Brahman is the end of man.pra .vibhuti.a.lse$a-samsara-bljiividyiiy-iidy anartha-nibarha~zat.ziikafiik~ a -labdha-sakti -piitiidy-avacchinna-para-para-si ve :~!a-linga-dhiirarziitmaka­ piisupata-dfk$iinantaryam iti. all the seeds of rebirth. The objection is raised that an enquiry is unnecessary if Brahman is n igamagama. It is the love of wisdom.tray a .tam tvaupani\~adatiz puru$am Prcchiimi.siviirpita-yajana-yii.tapodhyiiniidy.. ni}. This discussion goes on till the realisation of Brahman is attained.pratipadita.1 karma . Therefore.'l seck to know the self mentioned in the Upani$ads'.~afstha/a · para-siva-sii. association with saintly people. \Vc need. S. If we use authority we do not use reason but memory as Leonardo da Vinci observes.prapanca:. All exceptS. 4 Brahma-jijiiiisii is brahma1Ja!t jijiiiisii. . It is a natural propensity of the human mind to seek the presuppositions of thought and experience. etc.aneka1 pu~ya-purva-phalaka-sarfra-traya-gata-mala-/raya-dhvam:~aka-kiirurzya-kalyiirza­ kaivalya.The Brahma Sutra obtaining initiation. Brahman is what is to be desired to be known. Science cothes by observation. 5 Philosophy is not mere logical analysis or cpisten1ological enquiry.

S. intellect. yatha kusumebhyab sutram. Bhiimatf. nonerroneous and immediate expcricnce. No one thinks that he does not exist. It is said to be the doer or the enjoycr.~ayinos tamab-prakasavad viruddha-svabhavayor itareta.Text.B. S. sarvasyiitmii. subtle and gross bodies. vyavahara(J. mind or intelligence. the intellect and all objects.rabhavamlpapattau siddh. 3 S. is made into an object. 7 The consciousness of 'I' is the consciousness of the Se1f limited by the adjuncts of body. the non-intelligent intellect. 4· 1 2 . The pratyaf{-iitman is in reality non-object since it is self-luminous. r.' 6 The Self is distinct from the body. the inward subjectivity.·ie superpose the qualities of the object on the subject and the subject on the object through non-discrimination. sense-organs. BhamatJ.. Desire to know can only be with reference to an object which is not definitely knovm. If Brahman is pure and absolute intelligence. 1 so that by reasoning and discussion we can reacl1 a definite conclusion.B. body and the objects arc the objects of cognition. 7 cit-svabhiiva iitnza vi 'iayf. Each one ·cognises the existence of himself. The Self which is of the nature of intelligence is the subject. & satyiinrte mithunfkrtya. thou and !. 5 ' : hatevcr experiences we pass v through. it is open only to direct intuition and is not a proper object for enquiry and discussion. a-viparyaya. a7'idyc'i. which are synonymous terms. the sense-organs. the individual self. that is different from the latter even as a string [is different] from the flowers [strung on it]. S. a-11iveka.. 2 Yet an enquiry into the nature of Brahman is essential since there are conflicting views about its nature. The empirical ego or agent is different from the Self present in all. tat sak~J sarva-bhiitastlzab sama ekab kutastha nityab puru~ab . the mind. sarvo hy atmastitva1i1 pratyeti na na aham asmi'iti. aparok~iinubhava. 3 Y. 4 The Ultimate Heality which is the pure Self. It becomes the object of the idea of the ego in so far as it is conditioned by the adjuncts of internal organ. a substance in empirical usage and this is the result of iiropa.iiyam. avam iit1nii brahma. 'this is minc'. 8 ye$U vyiiva1·tama~e$u yad anuvartate tat tebhyo bhinnam. Translation and Notes 231 known (a-sandigdha) and futile (a-prayojana) if it is not known. tlw sense-organs. sense-organs. the Self is constant and unchanging. 'aham idam' 'mamedam' iti naisargiko'yam loka6 a-sandigdha. 1 8 aham-pratyaya-vi \~aya-kartr-vyatirekena. We find in experience such expressions as 'I am this'. ajfiiina. and so we mix up the true and the untrue. etc. These definitions are due to a confusion between object and subject. opens his commentary with the words: yupnad-asmat-pratyaya-gocarayo vi~aya-vf. svayam-prakiisa. intellect. It is the consciousness of the ji1•a. 'That which is constant in whatever is variable. jada-svabhavil bu. Vacaspati argues that the Self is known through indubitable. senses. 8 jtiatmn iccha hi sa11digdha-vi~aye nir~ayaya bhavati. bhriiuti. Brahman is often confused with the body. I.ddhfndriya-dehavi~aya vi~aya[l. says that Brahtnan is known for Brahman is one's own self.

is a1'£d_yii. ignorance. cannot act and enjoy without the aid of inte11igcnce. Life in smnsiira is traceable to the non-experience of the true nature of Self and will end with the recognition of the Sclf. The whole world would cease to be manifest and become blind. 0 sarhsiiras ea iitma-yiithiitmyananubhava-nimitta iitma-yiithatmya-jiiiinena nivartaniya/J. nothing else can be manifested. limited to empirical perception and discursive thinking. of empirical knowledge but it is the object of the notion of 'I' and of immediate rea1isation. a1}-'lfm(itrC1:uipi. 7 tam etam rva1it-lak:. 7 'Superposition is the cognition as something of what is not that. iitmiiniitma11astu-1'i'l'eka. Bhiimatl. J t is the final cognition which is of the same type as what is removed by it. II. Bhiimatf.'~ The superimposition of the not-self on the inner Self is the cause of ignorance but this ignorance doPs not affect the Supreme even to the smallest extent. one. A vidyii is unillurnined knowledge. 1 t . vidJziprah$Cdfta-mnk$apara:tJi. 1 It is of the nature of light which is self-luminous. as agent and enjoyer. 6 na ea udasfnasya tasya kriyii-saktir bhoga-saktir viisambhavati.a:~:tam adhyiisam pattrtita avidyeti manyante. siistrii~zi. is the result of avidyii or ignorance or nondiscrimination between the Self and the non-self. 2 The Self is immediately perceived. 3 Vacaspati makes out that when the inner self is made into an object. 8 adhyaso 1~ama atasmin tad-buddhi!J. it becomes determinate. ' tathiipi an irvacanfyaniidy-avidyii-parikalpita-buddhi-manab-sitk $tna-sth ula-~arirendriyiivacchedaka-bhedena anavacchinno'pi vastuto 'vacchinna iva abhinno'pi bhi1tna iua. the organs. 4 The Pure Universal Self appears in the concept of the individual soul jiva. So the Self whose nature is intelligence linked with the body and the organs acquires the capacity to act and enjoy. pratyag-iitmii . kitJastho nityo nir-amsa/J 3 See M. tad-vivekena ea vastu-svaritpiivadhiirattam vidyiim iihu/J. S. 5 The body. and as distinct from that the dctennination of the nature of reality is vid:yii or knowledge.. not rt>al.. It is these· adjuncts that make for the differences among souls. immutable. . The discrimination between the Self and the not-self. though it is of a higher degree in so far as it requires asmat-pratyaya-vi~aJ•atviit.. wise men hold. For the Atman which is indifferent there cannot occur the capacity to act or to enjoy. The whole empirical universe with its distinctions of valid knowledge and means thereof and the sacred teachings relating to prPSCription. V idyii or knowledge referred to is the removal of avidyii or ignorance. aparok$alviic ea pratyag-iitmii prasiddhe/J. If it were not manifested.U. tad ayath. etc. at'z'$aya.232 Tlte Brahma Siitra The Self is a non-object. S. eternal. is essential for salvation. 2. prohibition and release. without parts. 1imitcd. and this limitation is appar<'nt. 6 S.~a eva svayam prakiisa eka~. caitan. akartap-i karteva abhoktapi bhokteva avi~ayo'pi asmat-pratyayavi~aya iva jlva-blu"ivam cipannab avabhiisate. II. observes that the supcrposition.

to grow. it ceases to have cognition. Even as the nacre is more real than the silver. Even when S. TranslaHon and Notes 233 nothing else for its own removal. Self is knowledge. derived from the root brh..Text. according to S.aya-rupal} kartrtva-bhoktrtva-pravartaka/:1. That cognition is spoken of as knowledge only figuratively. 7 The goal is the attainment of knowledge which is not to be confused with mere repetition of names or performance of ritcs.iiya iitmaikatva-vidyii-pratipaltaye sarvc vediinta arabhyante. praptil. avabhasal. so the Absolute is more real than its manifestation. The manifestation is not devoid of reality for it is the combination of the real and the non-real. sarvaloka-pratyak!}a. The final cognition removes the obscuration of the Self which is knowledge caused by a·vidyii. says that Brahman appears as the world even as nacre appears as silver or as a single moon appears as having a second.. they do not contradict the empirical reality of the world we perceive. 2 Even when the texts declare that the real is one and secondlcss.. sar11iinubhava-siddha. 6 suktikii hi t'ajatavad avabhiisate. satyiinrta-mithunam. They only say that the reality of the world is not of an ultimate or absolute character. mentions that all the Vediintas are set forth for the removal of the cause of evil and the attainment of the knowledge of the oneness of the Self. 1 tza hi aganza-fiUi. Later sutras repudiate any suggestion of treating the world as non-existent or dreamlike. Bhiimatf. api ttl tattvikam.iibhiivan na bhavet.a-pravrttir asti. and not eternity which is svanepiiniiditva. 3 It is however beginninglcss 4 and so is its cause. ananta. So long as the self is a knower it is an agent in n•spect of knowledge. tasyai. Bhamatf. ekas candral.a prama':f. The tendency to objectivisation of the pure subject is wrong but it does not follow that the objective universe is an apparition or illusion. means na ea pramatrtvam antare':f.1. sarvaloka-pratyak$a/. H* . The final cognition helps to reveal it and is knowledgP only secondarily. BhamaU. become great. S.. aniidi. Without knowcrship there can be no activity of the means of valid knowledge. 1 All knowledge belongs to the world of experience. 1 1 s. 5 he n1eans that the manifestation is terminablc. 6 The world is subject to changes. Brahman.nam samvyavaharikam pratyak$asya prii:mii':fyam upahanti yena kara1. evam ayam aniidir ananto naisat'giko'dhyaso mithya. 7 asyanartha-hctol. prahiitJ. aniidir ayam vyavahara/. S. The world of samsiira is bcgjnningless. • avasannal} avamato vii bhiisal. 8 It is not mere intel1ectual knowledge but intuitive realisation. sa-dvillyavad iti. pravahiiniiditva. na tu japa-matriiya. and endless.prat. 8 pratipattil. When it is knowledge itself. It has everlastingness.. The world is. non-discrimination between the Self and the not-self. c svabhavika/:1. For the Scriptures declare that 'all this is Brahman'. napi karmasu pravrttaye.

1 S. though unreal. there are the qualities of omnipotence. He is free from imperfections. 82. For R. preserving.iilmakam. Etienne Gilson says: '\Visdom is the prize. the one Supreme God who bears aB the names of the deities. 46. Its main features are being. to exceed at£sayana. pp.V. intelligence. Bondage is real. The Highest Reality is determinate and the world which is the manifestation of his power is real. Brahman is N iiriiya1Ja. 26. infinity and freedom. See M.U. Narayat). omniscience. Madhva holds that those who suffer from bondage wish to be released from it and so desire the knowledge of Bralm·tan. Brahman for Madhva is V i$1JU. but also of a conquest. omnipresence. is terminable.. He quotes H. p. derives Brahman from the root brhat£. 3 Even S. providing and ruling the universe. in support of his view. They are the tatastha-lak!}a1Ja. 6 The main emphasis of this sutra is that a candidate for spiritual knowledge and life should be morally pure. 8 History of Philosophy and Philosophical Education (1948). svarupalak$a1Ja.U. purity. His conduct should be upright. Though philosophy as brahma-jifiiiisa is a consistent effort of reflection it is not possible with indulgence in ways of life which show lack of restraint. These have a meaning when Brahman is looked at from the cosmic point of view. 1 mithyatvam api bandhasya naiva muktir apek$ale. 4 yo devana1n namadha eka eva..J.' God has a multiplicity of attributes. not only of a quest. lam samprasnarh bhuvana yanty anyci X. 1 1 . A~tu-vyakhyana. tad-vibhuti-bhutath jagad api paramarthil~am eva.a-gutJ.234 The Brahma St"ttra the Being of unlimited greatness. 3· 6 vedantartha-vijiiiinam mok$a-hetul. A life dedicated to the pursuit of wisdom must be an ethical life.. para-rh brahma sa-vise!jath. Ill. holds that bondage.a Pandit's Nyiiya-candrika sums up the substance of this section thus: atha-sabdenadkikaram ata ity amuna phalam brahma-sabdena vi$ayam siicayamasa sutra-krt. "''hile these are the primary qualities. ' 6 samasta-kalyii't. 6go-z. We all have to win it the hard way. P. The quarrel of many thinking men is not so much with the foundations of faith hut with the degradation in practice by its votaries. comprises within himself all auspicious qualities 2 and enjoys originating. supreme perfection. The Upani!jad asserts that the knowledge of the Vediinta is essential for release. It means eternity. consciousness. re-absorbing.

.U. The assumption of philosophy is that this universe makes sense. The Oxford group of scientists who founded the Royal Society of England were religious-minded. Etcetera means subsistence. that into which when departing they enter. by which it is maintained and ended.Text.e. I. Its first Secretary. seek to know. gives us an explanation which is still relevant to the scientific facts. and destruction. to cover 'janmasth:it£-pralaya tirobhiivanugraha-rupatiz kr(vam'. This faith is not unwarranted. 1 Srikal)tha extends i"idi.S. Bergson finds in the See V. (Ultimate Reality is that) from which origin. 5· Ill. 2 Our age has been greatly influenced by the emergence of the scientific world-view. sthiti. The world has a pattern. that by which when born they live. The relevant text is the Taittiriya Upani:jad passage 'That from which these beings arc born. This is sometimes said to be the scientific view of the universe. They were keen to make people religious-minded without making them intolerant. Science describes facts and interprets them but these interpretations have varied from time to time. Marxism accounts for history on the basis of economic forces. ~vata!J. janmadi: origin. Astronomy is said to present us with a mindless universe which is governed by impersonal. bandha (bondage) and mok$a (release). 553· Cp.: from which. The second section defines Brahman as the source from which the world proceeds. an Orphic saying quoted by Plato that God holds 'the beginning. Sprat. Freud and the Behaviourists explain away the soul. asya: of this. etc. j-1iiina (enlightenment). who was also its first historian. etc. That is Brahman'. Plato's Idea of the Good or Marx's economic development of history is a principle of explanation.S. subsistence and destruction) of tin's (u)Uuld proceed). There is a general impression that the spirit of science is opposed to a spiritual view of the world and supports materialism. We 1nay use the scientific instruments and know more about the nature of the world but what sees through them is the human eye and the achievements of science are the outcome of the human n1ind. P. Philosophers seek to find it. 1 1 . Science is one of the languages in which God can Le dE'scribed.. rose to be a Bishop. \Ve cannot believe unless our beliefs are consistent with the world we know and live in. janmiidy asya yatal. I. To these three Madhva adds niyati (control). The B. (i. Darwinism tells us that man is an animal. That. middle and end of all existence'. 2. III. etc. automatic forces. Translation and Notes Section 2 (2) 235 GOD THE WORLD-GROUND I. bhaizga. iiz•rti (ignorance). 2.

4 yat karyam tat sa~kartrkam. Vol. abhii. etad eviinumiina1n samsii. exceptional or so-called miraculous revelation . S.'a-{!. S. kfcit tu hirarzya-garbham sarhsarittam . 1 We build up a theory of ultimate being from empirically observable facts. IV.ritto vii. General Smuts the holistic tendency and A. yet not as demonstrated to our sight hut as a communication delivered for our belief'. 4 We cannot trace the world with its order and design to (non-sentient pradlziina. The next sutra "takes us to authoritative sources. Chap. N. '"''hen viewed as the creator and governor of the universe Brahman is said to be the personal God. The temporal world taken as a whole suggests a cosmic meaning and admits of a consistent interpretation.rvasakte}J. 1svara. I. a~tubhyo va. coherence and consummation. sarhsii. 6 Cp. Ananrlagi ri.Yivyatirikte. and is established in being. St Thomas Aquinas tells us of 'an ascent. Self-subsistent Mind to \vhose creative and ruling activities the world owes its existence. 1 .. of divine truth which exceeds the human intellect. through created things to the knowledge of God' and on the other hand of 'a descent. 6 pradhi'iniid acetanat. \Vhile science may explain how things happen.h who feel that rational 1 acintya-raca·na. From a study of the universe with its ordered growth and plan which tan not be conceived by the mind. 3 Udayana's /{ustn. '. Summa Contra Gentiles. From the nature of the world. There arc some like Karl Bart. to its own nature or to a human creator'. sat-prati!}tha. or atoms or non-being. Samuel Alexander the tti.Svartistitvadi-siidhanam manyante Hvara-kiirarza-viidinal). by the natural light of reason.The JJrahma S iitra world an Clan. Whitehead the Creative Advance of Nature..viid va. This sutra gives us what is called natural theology. By his bequest of 1887 Lord Gitlord founded his well-known lectureship in the four Scottish Universities for the promotion and diffusion of natural theology 'treated as a strictly natural science like astronomy or chemistry without reference to or reliance upon any supposed special. Personal. sad-c'isra_va. has its basis in being.hy they happen. san-m:ula. by the mode of revelation. 2 we infer the rf'ality of an omniscient and omnipotent causc. thinking is not relevant to the religious faith. . 5 It cannot be traced to the world-soul or Ht'ra~t_'l. S.~us.arblza for he is subject to the changes of the world. The earlier stages of the cosmic process arc adapted to the later ones. or a being subject to rebirth. it does not tell us 7. kararziid bhaoati... S. Only Isvara or God is the cause of the world. in his commentary brings together the cosmological and the teleological arguments. This being transcends all distinctions of subject and object and yet when we speak of Brah·man. 6 The uniYerse has its roots in being. jagad-hetum iicak~ate. 3 sarvajniit sa. we have to use empirical forms.~11ara are both valid forms of reality. we infer the existence of One Supreme. Every effect has a cause. utpadyii. nature.di sambhiit•ayitum sakyam na ea svabhavata}J. Brahman and !.~ii1ijali attempts to prove the existence of God by logical reasonmg.e. .

sarva}'nam satyasamkalpam sarva-sakti b.. If a crow sits on a house. quotes in his A ttu-bha$ya a verse from Skanda Purii' utpatti-sthiti-samhiira-niyatir jiiiinam avrtib bandha-mok$am ea puru$iid yasmtit sa harir eka-riit. emphasises the creative asp('ct and makes it the highest reality. says that the knowledge of Brahman may be gained on the ground of its characteristic marks such as its being the cause of the origination. niravadyam. Translation and Notes 237 When we work from the cosmic end. hi brahtnavagamyate. 1 Paficapiidikii-vivaraJ:la by Prakasatman. the pure spirit beyonrl the subject-object distinction. t vi$ttob sakasiid udbhutam. 1ziima-rupa-vikiira-bhedopiidlzi-visi#am. 6 The sutra differentiates God from souls and inanimate objects. omniscient. Brahman has infinite qualities and their possession forms Brahman's defining character. jagac ea sa[!. free from all evil. 222-3. tad-viparftath sarvopadhi-varjitam. 7 sarviinubhu/1.-tiisau jagato'sya. The definition of Brahman as creator is of the latter type since it is only in association with miiyii that Brahman can be said to be the cause of production. of the world. we get to the Supreme as the Lord who presides over the world. 1. Suresvara and his follower Sarvajfia in his Satitk!}epa-siiriraka argue that Brahman alone is the cause of the world.V.ana Misra believes that miiyti alone is the cause of the world.~pam . B. 8 ananta-gutta-sattvam eva brahmatto lak~attam. is not intended to give us a knowledge of Brahman without differences (n·irvise$a-bralzma). 107. 5· 19. all-powerful and so on.Text. ' atab sakala-jagaj-janmiidi-kiirattam. etc. 7 Madhva. 1{. 1 2 dvi-r. 1 Brahman. He quotes a verse from the Vi~1JU Purii't}a which reads: 'From Vi$1J'lt the world lms sprung. H. Padmapada contends that Brahma. p. the subject confronting the non-subject or object. of the world. who experiences all. Nyiiya-sudhii.-ahma lak$atlatab pratipattmit sakyata iti siddham. II..t~ and miiyii together constitute the cause. are the two fonns of one Reality. 2 Brahman has two kinds of qualities. tatastha-lak$a1Ja.S. many acute differences arose with regard to the causality of Brahman. Creativity is an essential defining quality of Brahman. B. Prakasananda following Mal)t). etc. and accidental. svarupa-lak$a1Ja.. 3 Among the Advaitins. pp. jagat tatraiva samsthitam I. in him it exists: he is the cause of the subsistence and dissolution of this world and the world is he.' 4 In the first sutra we reach the conclusion that we should enter on an enquiry into the nature of Brahman and the second sutra gives a description of that Brahman and not of something else. its association with the house is an accidental feature. 5 Madhva believes that the characteristics mentioned belong to the nature of Brahman. 35· sthiti-samyama-ka. and 1~~vara. J aya-tirtha refers to another interpretation of the sutra: janma-adyasya hirattya-garbhasya yatas tad brahma. S. essential..

its marvellous structure. The world tells its own story and offers its own suggestions.T. So the highest reality can account for the wl10le creation. 'the divine is not Plato commented on his times as fo11ows: 'They say that fire and water and earth and air all exist by nature and chance . Mr Otto observes of the Greeks... After this fashion and in this manner the whole heaven has been created as well as animals and plants . The elements arc severally moved by chance and some inherent force. I. If we wish to explain. 6.. as we find in the Homeric view of life. Ettneads. as they say.The Brahma Sutra Is the universe the result of an accident? Is the cosmic process where matter prepares the way for life and life for mind and mind for intelligence a long chain of accidents? 1 Look at the many favourable conditions that had to be provided for the advent of life and the preparations that had to be made in living conditions for the advent of mind. God is the illuminating. Not by the action of mind. Even if Homeric gods interfere in mortal affairs. Paracelsus looks upon Nature as a collection of books which are entire and perfect 'because God himself wrote. In this siUra we exclude the appeal to religious experience and take into account facts which are tlrmly established and universally acknowledged. that his art is 'to read the written characters of Nature which reveal order and law'. 2 C. Broad tells us that there has been only one plausible argument for supporting religious belief by science. D.' Mind can account for matter but matter cannot account for mind. is its acceptance of nature.. of hot and cold. If we have an understanding of the gradual evolution of intelligence. These laws give testimony of God's presence in the universe. we will be struck by the vast creative plan of the universe. or of dry with moist.. The spectacle of life emerging from primal matter at some distant point of time and space and developing into God-men gives us a sense of mystery. It is the existence of laws which govern the events of the world. made and bound them and has hung them from the chains of his library'. The most signiticant quality of early Greek religion. concerning the seer. does not play an important role. in the sense of transcending the natural order. The miraculous. To think that the mindless generates mind is as absurd as to think that a monkey given a typewriter and sunicient time would produce the plays of Kalidasa or Shakespeare. the higher can account for the lower and not vice versa. E. A priori it is not selfevident or even plausible that there should be such laws but science tells us that they exist. unifying interpretative principle. Ill. they do so. or of any god. but as I was saying.' 2 Cp. The belief that nature is ruled by laws is the content of what Einstein called 'cosmic religion'. but by participating in it. etc. 1 .. according to affinities amongst them. by chance alone. Plotinus who says. not by changing the natural course of events. Professor Planck writes: 'I regard matter as derivative ftom consciousness.

Otto: The Homeric Gods: The Spiritual Significance of Greek 1 Psalm xix. 8 Revelation xxii. Religion. corrects and leads us onward. strident. (1954). Translation and Notes 239 superimposed as a sovereign power over natural events. The atheist argues that there is no God. but incapable of love. that it has no concern with the moral aspirations of men. The early Grcc·ks apprehended divinity under different names in all fonns of heightened experience. the Greeks regarded as manifestations of the gods' . envy.' 4 '\Ve indeed created man. These decisive turns which. and that which is to come'. we are inclined to believe that we arc in the hands of chance.Text. see also i. we find that they always come at the critical moment when human powers suddenly converge. Such a view represents the mood of many people who have seen two wars in one generation. despairing. 'The heavens declare the glory of God.' 'I am Alpha and Omega. and with the last. as their very essence and being. 15. no dialectic of reality. it is revealed in the forms of the natural. on some insight. whithersoevcr you turn. 1 .' 3 God is defined as that 'which is. Plato and his successors could not believe in the physical reality of the Homeric gods and held that in momPnts of intellectual insight the human personality was irradiated with influences from another dimension of being.1 The Olympian gods. and we arc nearer to him than the jugular vein. 13. are regularly experienced in an active life. though they were symbols. the beginning and the end. When we think of our encounters with disease and death. There is no rational process of the world.' Belief in God is possible only if we draw a veil over the agony and suffering of the world. A distinction ·was drawn between nature and super-nature. some resolution. 'To God belong the East and the \Vest. disconsolate. They look upon the world as a ferment of fear. and we know what his soul whispers within him. 8. The era of fire from the sky may begin any day for Machiavelli seems to have penetrated deeply into human nature when he said: 'Men get discontented with the good. the first. there is the Face of God. • Quran 11. no moral duty to follow it. hatred and horror. that there is no providence which guides. a Ibid. and the finnament sheweth his handywork. the first ancl thelast. sick of the world.' 5 This virw repudiates the familiar pessimistic doctrine that the world of history is as indifferent to us as the physical world.' 2 'I the Lord. If he is benevolent. I am he. zog. The Jews and the Christians believed that the world was governed by an omnipotent deity who could be trusted to punish the \vicked and help the weak and the oppressed. If we look more closely at the occasions when these divine interventions take place. Plato looked upon material things as merely shadows of the divine ideas. evil is unthinkable. E. represented genuine aspects of human experience. J . some deed. We live in a world of universal caprice.T. 1. which was. as every attentive observer knows. \Ve cannot make God responsible only for the good and the creatures Waiter F. as if charged by electric current.

awareness and freedom. it will change for the better and the forces of the world will back us. The world moves: we cannot turn it backward or hold it where it is. ~. \Vhcn we limit our attention to the world which is one expression of the Creative I svara. The future is open. It either grows or degenerates. Goethe once wrote: 'A man who is unable to despair has no need to be alive. Such a God who takes the credit for the good and shirks the responsibility for evil is not what we mean by God. Stcndhal says: 'The only excuse for God is that he does not exist.a. yonitviit: from being the source or cause. For the laws of nature and God ro-opt·rate with one anc>ther and the darkness we now are in is a herald not of death but of the dawn of a new era..' We arc afraid that mankind will destroy itself. The first interpretation means that Brahman is the cause of the revelation of the V edas. The second interpretation means that only the V edas can prove to us that Brahman is the cause of the production. Section 3 (3) SOUHCE OF SCRIPTURE I. From zts being the source of Scripture or From Scripture being the source (of its knowledge). Nothing in it stands still. sastra -vonitviit. No one but an omniscient being could be their source. It is a perfecting process making towards perfection. This applies to cverv item in the universe from the aton1 to the stars. It is also evident that the world is not a transformation of I svara in the sense that I s11ara is obliged to express or manifest himself in this universe. if we are wise.' This siUra asks us to take a more universal and dispassionate view. the second is the creative side of the Absolute. sastra: the V eda and the other sacred books. s. ''. This last becomes. The world is not perpetual two interpretations: (i) siistra-yoni. This section affirn1s that Brahman is the source of the Veda. (ii) that of which Scripture is the cause or source of revelation or pramiit. The first is Absolute Being. . the second sutra refers to the same Brahman in another aspect.The Brahma SiUra responsible for evil. lt will yet become a family. \Vhatevcr becomes is neither pure being nor pure non-being. There is no inevitability about it. etc. 1. we begin to doubt and despair. 3. of the world. we get tlw concept of Hira1}_va-~arbha. thecauseoftheScripture. The first sutnt refers to Brahman. 1 1 sastriid eva pramartii jagato janmcidi-karartam brahma adhigamyate.hen wP face disaster. It \Vill change and.

ya and the V aise~ika systems.a vedan viracayan na svatantra/. p. Atharviingirasa. 1 sarvafiiopi sarva-saktir api pilrva-purva-sarganusaret. buddhi-purva vakya-krtir vede . I. P. I. verse's. 3 Even as the world is beginningless so are the J'edas. The relevant text is: 'As from a lighted fire laid with damp fuel. even so. 'A thousand Scriptures.U. 10. aphorisms. then Brah·man is subject to some necessities and is not independent. this suggests scriptural knowledge of Brahman. The sutra 1113Y also be constructed to mean that the Scripture is the source of the knowledge of Brahman. 5 To say that the Vcdas are produced by God by his deliberate desire would he to accept the views of the 1\ly(. Translation and Notes lsvara'scausalityoftheworldisconfinned in this sutra.' 1 I svara is the source of the siistra siistrasva vonih. my dear. the Sr7ma V cda. the Yajur Veda. creates the Vedas in accordance with what they were in earlier creations and has not freedom in regard to it. It will not show the omniscience of God.Text. 1 1 lUa-nya. explanations and commentaries. sastram yonifi. The Veda is said to be apaurtt$e_va. The Supreme Jsva~a is the source of the Veda.yena puru$a-ni/. On this both the fo11owers of Purva AJimiimsii and Vedanta agree. 2 The Supreme is omniscient.r. tac casmakam api samanam anyatrabhinivesat. do not affect the truth of the Vedas. various [clouds of] smok<' issue forth.5vara creates the Vedas admit that the Creator.1. however. etc. who are not its authors. l{eason as the regulator of human life must have a source which transcends it though it must conform to it. ancient lore. 199. the production of the Vedas would be involuntary as all breathing is. . 1. P· 199· n. indeed. his knowledge extends to all things. If he produces the V edas in the same onler in which they existed in the previous kalpa. I See. of the authors. history. 4 The authors of the V edas are only the seers of truth and not makers of it. The l)urva lHinu'imsti teaches the transmission of the eternal Veda through a succession of teachers and pupils. If the Vedas had come out of Brahman like the breath of a man.lsva. • puru 1<~asvatantrya-miitram capauru~eyatvam rocayante jaiminfya api. The defects. 11. Even a thousand t. 4.U.. He breathes J forth all knowledge effortlessly. S. 4· IO.savat. n. if any. P. are all these breathed forth. sciences. the Ijg Veda.tpani~ads cannot negative what is established by experience. If I. Bhiimatf. The texts cannot be opposed to experience. Scripture is the means of right knowledge through which we understand the nature of Brahman. karatJam pramatJant. though they use it for different purposes. From this. independent of human origin. like human breathing.u. ttpani$ads. 2 suggests mere inferential knowledgc 6 of Bralzman. The view of the eternity of the Vedas is then abandoned.. Vaise~ika Satra VI. on the analogy of play.u. Evt:>n those who hold that 1. • B. though omniscient and omnipotent.

I<eason reveals to us God as a matter of speculation. his glance the five elements. 1. That which happens can only be termed revelation. he writes: 'One becomes nothing but a medium for super-mighty influences. 15). tasting the bread that gives life (] ohn vi. a sense of touch which John used when he handled the 'word of life' (1 John i.k§itam etasya panca-bhiitani. Bhiimati says: 'The Vedas are his breath.). something becomes visible and audible and shakes and rends one to the depth of one's being. 22. 51 ff. I. of release from bondage. through nature and history and spiritual experience. like lightning a thought flashes out of necessity.' 2 Objects require proofs to establish their reality but proofs like perception and inference are different modes of knowledge based on consciousness. Hebrews vi. the sense of sme1l that made Paul say that he was 'the good odour of Christ' (II Corinthians ii. I. Consciousness is the rcvealer.The Brahma Sutra verily. I). 'The origin of a body of Scripture possessing the quality of omniscience cannot be sought elsewhere but in omniscience itself. with unutterable certainty and delicacy. In the state of creative inspiration.' Scripture is not a written text. 2. In spiritual experience which is registered in the S(istras we have a sense of power. 5· We have a sense of sight for perceiving non-corporeal things. It does not require any proof to prove it. 3 H. iitnza~siddhaye? • 'You wm discover a sense that will perceive the Divine.rii1Jas and other branches of learning. Nietzsche who describes the role of intuition or inspiration. I.Sritya pratyak§iidi pra.caram. One hears. of hearing voices that make no sound with air. in experience it ceases to be an object of speculation but becomes a present reality. nil:svasitam asya veda. vf.' Proverbs ii. 'l'£d_viisthiina. It is an experimental knowledge of the things of God. 11 S. that is to say. They reveal life's transcendental meaning. See also John i. that suddenly. The method of natural sciences is not the only instrument by which it is possible to discover truth. . the epics. S. 3 atmiinublzavam ii. one does not ask who it is that gives. the movable and immovable luniverse] is his smile and his sleep is the final deluge. It is not a subjective impression but cognition of an object. 14. asya ea suptam ·mahii-pralaya~. 4 The knowledge of Brahman culminates in experience and has an existent object for its content. 1. Romans vii.eason and experience are two different approaches in man's quest for God. smitam etasya carii. one does not seek.. includes the four Vedas. Both are responses of the human soul to God's self-disclosure. the pu. the proof of all things. 5 The knowledge of the true nature na hi ii~:amiib sahasram api gha{ant pafayitum Hate.. anubhiile~~ svata~'-siddhe~ 1 1 ka'prk~~a. It is eternal truth interpreted with the help of the doctrine of samam•ava. Spiritual experience has this in common with perceptual experiencetha tin both there is the recognition of something given. says that the source of knowledge is knowledge itself. can not convert a pot into a c1oth'. Siistra forS. 5. Cp. 1 says Vacaspati.B. Spiritual experience offers a valid proof for the existence of God. one takes.siddhyati.

pp. S. and for that which is you have no words. 24. then. can be any other way knowable in you or by you. \Villiam Law said: 'Away.i. 'How can one'. Everything happens in the highest degree im·oluntarily. We cannot make the experience intelligible to others. Disturbed by the attacks of modern knowledge and criticism. a state of being entirely outside oneself. It is inferred from the world or learnt from the texts or experienced by the individual. 121. We do not accept scriptural documents as books apart from other books. nor heaven. vastu-tantram eva tat.z. some people resort to what is called fundamentalism. p. 95. The problem of communication is difficult. Sec also S. nor the flesh. na ea brahma-vi~ayarz. indriyavi§ayatvcna. 1. of divinity.' 1 na vastu-yathatmya-jnanam puru$a-buddyapek$(llll . is only such knowledge of them as the blind man hath of the light that has never entered into him. .. Ibid. Ill. Kabir says: 'That which you see is not.' ' svabhavato vi$aya-vi~ayanfndri)'ani. 1 I. with the fictions and workings of discursive reason. This view is supported by S. asks. U. brahma-jniinam api vastu-tantram eva. of power. It is like a dumb person who tastes a sweet thing-how shall it be explained?' 5 The old days when the Scriptures were accepted on trust that God was their author are no more.Text. For neither God. 2. complete in form. nor the devil. 2 It is not an object of the senses. 3· 28. . whilst ignorant of God and insensible of its own nature and condition . 1 The knowledge of Brahman depends on the thing itself because its content is an existent thing. either for or against Christianity! They are only the wanton spirit of the mind. brahmapriipti. Translation and Notes 243 of a thing is not dependent on human intellection. beyond and without this self-evident sensibility of their birth within you. I I. freedom.. 1. It is a rapture . See also Katha U. 4· na ea parini$/hita-vastu-svarupatve'pi pratyak$iidi-vi$ayatvam brahma~~al.B.n. a forthright assertion of complete verbal inspiration coupled with a total rejection of all that modern knowledge has contributed to a real understanding of the Scriptures. It depends on the thing itself.. S. 1. S. as in a storm of feeling. P. The view that they are the inerrant word of God does not carry conviction. bhtita-vastu-vi$ayatvat. 1 Rabindranath Tagore: Kablr's Poems. I.. There is a new approach today. 3 By nature the senses have objects as their content and do not have Brahman as their content. those who had attained to a realisation of Brahman.B. . And any pretended knowledge of any of those things. cannot adequately express it through the limitations of language. 630. nor hclJ. 4 Brahman is not perceived by the senses. There is another view of the Veda as iipta-vacana or sayings of the wise. which are of a self-certifying character. unquestionable in their accuracy and advice. who makes out that the Sruti or Scripture is pratyak!ja6 or records of the direct experiences of the seers.' Again: 'It cannot be told by the words of the mouth. it cannot be written on paper. but by their own existence and manifestation in you.. 1 a .

a-dharmii anubh uyamiinii api sal~yii vaktum .J sakyii/.' The Threefold Life III. on B. 15. r.B.T. VI. milk and jaggery cannot. incommunicable.iidfniim madhura-rasa-bhedii}. This is admitted by the Vedic Scripture.' The self alone is witness to it. I. repudiates the idea of inferring the existence of an omniscient and omnipotent God from the nature of the world. II. 7· rg.~ Even those who look upon Urahman as personal God admit that his nature is inconceivable except through the Vedas. vouched for as it is by his heart's conviction?' 1 The experience is intimate. The difference in the sweetness of the sugar-cane.' 3 The experiences which we cannot know from perception or inference are described in the V cdas. a divine and spiritual light. I now see. 31. 'Wh('rcas I was blind.a : nendriyai/. Vacaspati says: 'the distinctive attributes of various things cannot. though experienced.J nanumanais ea na tarkai/. 6 Cp. devam veda-vedyam saniitanam. into the soul of man.B. C. By it the soul doth see spiritual things as truly as the corporal eye doth corporal things.. This is true even of ordinary immediate experiences of given objects. S. He holds that the reality of God cannot be known through any means of proof such as perception and inference.a in his introduction to the ]Jg Veda quotes a verse: pratyak$e1J. while hot. It is to be used as an aid for the interpretation of the Vediinta texts. It is an act of pure apprehension when our whole being is welded into one. U. etc. 1 1 . 3· ' SayaQ. Skanda pura1J. I. E .1. Madhva also believes that inference by itself cannot prove that Brahman is the cause of the production. 6 Mere inferential knowledge will not do for the realisation of Brahman. ineffable. See B. be declared.244 The Brahma Siitra 'contest the truth of another possessing knowledge of Brahman. 4· 8. 2. iitma-siik$ikam anutpannam.U. he given expression to. the other far excelling that. verily. He is known only through scriptural evidence. 2 The experience of Brahman cannot be adequately expressed in words. II. The Two .J sarasvatyiipy iikhyiitum. indeed. of the world. 2. 6 R. 227. 4· s. na khalu ik~-k#ra-gut/. Bergson says that religion represents 'the crystallisation of what mysticism has poured. S.anumitya va yas tupayo na drsyate enam uidanti vedena tasmii. S.asya vedata. 14. Francis Rous (seventeenth century) says : 'The semi has two eyes-one human reason.d vet/. IV. I. 1 srutyaiva ea sahayatvena tarkasyapy abhyupetatvat. p. 14. IV. an act of impassioned intuition which excludes all conceptual activities. even by the Goddess of Learning.tum niiriiya1J.J sakyate vibhum jnii. 1 na hi le te asiidhiira1. (1935). Through religion all men get a little of what a few privileged souls possessed in full'. hence their authoritativeness.Sources of Morality a'n d Religio11.U.

30.) St Thomas Aquinas states the rationality of the beliefs he holds. God becomes the light and life from which they act. Uttara Gitii 20. Men of faith are men of power who have assimilated the truth and made it into a creative principle. If they say that empirical science can give no knowledge of God or that our thoughts of God cannot be adequate to tl1e Divine Reality but fall inevitably into contradictions or that mere thinking is not a substitute for experience. sviinubht:ily anusiire~ta tarkyatiim mii kutarkyatiim. The wise man after studying the Scriptures and becoming devoted to wisdom and knowledge throws away the Scriptures even as one throws away the straw after collecting the grain.' (Credo ut intelligam. Ibid. Translation and Notes 245 Sripati holds that the Vedas were created by Siva and the texts were intended for the glorification of Siva.1imiirhsii view that the Vedas are eternal and uncreated. In faith we believe with our hearts while in science we believe with our minds. 22. The nature of Brahman can be understood not through discussion but through the testimony of the V edas. not mere reasoning. 3 grantham abhyasya medhav'l jiiilna-vijnana-tat-para/l paliilam iva dhiinyiirtM tyajet grantham ase~ata/l. Faith is not blind acquiescence in external authority. for my understanding is in no wise equal thereto. the strange power 1 'The wisdom of this world is foolishness with God.'" There arc those who have neither experience nor rational knowledge of (. '0 Lord. Vidyarat:tya says that reasoning in accord with experience is useful.Text. 1 . But the word faith has another meaning. This is against the Purva }. A rationalist takes the high a priori road and attempts to deduce the universe from a few fixed principles. Vallabha combines the second and the third sutriis in one. It is direct experience that is registered in the Scriptures. It is not merely acceptance of authority without proof or experience. It is the response of the whole man.od. The inadequacy of rational knowledge is accepted by all knowers of God.' 3 'When one knows the truth there is no need for the Vedas. He believes that we can know only on the evidence of the Scriptures that Brahman is the cause of the world. Not indeed that I seek to understand in order that I may believe. I do not dare to search into thy depths. 19. 2 The God one infers is an idea and does not give religious apprehension. Pa1icadaSl VI. They have faith in the Scriptures. but I believe in order that I may understand. Faith seeks understanding. see also ii.' I Corinthians iii. But highest experience is not irrational. ' vedair nilsti prayojanam. They have neither sight nor proof. St Anselm: Fides quaerens {ntellectttm. 11 Cp. which includes assent of intellect and energy of will. Yet I do yearn to understand something of thy truth which my heart believes. they arc not unreasonable. 1 There are religious leaders hoth in the East and in the West who demand a complete sacrifice of the intellect. 14.

This section declares that Brahman is the meaning of all scriptural passages. If the tradition is to be preserved we need men who illustrate it in their own experience. In these days when many n•gard themselves as the elect of <. The many passages have one purport. The word tu.3 The objection is raised that the Scriptures which are said to be the source of our knowledge of Brahman speak of Brahman in different ways. 1. the judgments has{'d on it should be subjected to logical analysis. ct•am eva samanvito hy aupani~ada[l pada-samudaya[l. it is essential to C'mphasise the continuity of reason and intuition and the predominantly rational character of religious insight. and possess a sublime confidence in their own infallibility. 2 Sectt'on 4 (4) HARMONY OF TEXTS I. according to S. Logical scrutiny is the one safeguard against mere caprice. The seers of the Upani$ads and the Buddha. as the chosen instruments of the Holy Spirit. The second and third sutras demonstrate the intimate connection and continuity of reason and intuition.. The greatest of the mystics arc particularly sensitive to the rational aspect of existence. Their differences are only apparent and are capab]e of reconciliation. tat tu samanvayat But that is the result of the ha11nony (of the different scriptural statements)._. We n1ust get the connected meaning of the different texts of the Upani$ads. . but. ma vibhe:5i vararohe bhaftiicaryo'sti bhutale. 1 Kumarila Bhatta reassured her that there was no need for iear as the great teacher was alive. Plato and Plotinus point to the validity of mystical experience on grounds of logical thought. R. tu: but. tu sabda~ purva-pak~a-vyavJiltyartha~.4 1 2 a 4 kitit karomi kva gacchami vedan ka uddhari~yati. 4. God is the name we give to that interior principle which exceeds us while forming the very centre of our being. \\''hen the Princess in the story cried out in despair as to what would happen to the Vcdic tradition.od.The Brahma SiUra beside which our own power is weakness. s. excludes the prima facie view. tat: that. They rise to the mystical elevation not only through intuition but through the strictly logical sequence of rational thought. As the experience has a cognitive quality about it. samanvayiit being the resu1t of the harmony of the different texts.

' Sahara on Purva Mfmiimsii I. 7 Cp. 25. contemplator. 2.i sambhavati. ~. contemplation cannot occur in the case of Brahman which is devoid of all differences and is to be known only through the Vedii-nta. 1. we have to note that contemplation. sambhavati. 7 tasmcit siddham brahmat.' Sahara on Purva Mtmiithsii I. also: pravrttir va nivrttir va nityena krtakena va pumsiim yeuopadisyeta tacehii.Mfmii1hsii I. not already understood and indubitable.Jai. \Vhen words come up fresh and breathless from the embrace of Reality they carry power and authority. Bhamatt.J.atvam pramii~­ anam. 'Its purport is indeed seen to be what is called the teaching of ritual.' Wittgcustcin says: 'There is. Though the mystery of Brahman is. the inexpressible. incommunicable. This shows itself: it is the mystical.' Traetatus Logico-Philosophicus (19H). also: tad bhutiinii1h kriyarthena samiimnayafl. it would be hidden and mute without some form of knowledge. an instrument and all instruments arc subject to imperfection. • Quoted in Bhamatf I. 6 abildhitiinadhigatiisandigdha-bodha-janakatvam hi pramii1J. 1.stram vidhii. 5 Though the generation of this kind of knowledge is known by the nature of presumptive implication from the nature of the effect. 'The [words] denoting those existent things are to be connected with [passages] whose purport is ritual. dr#o hi tasyiirtha/. which depends on the establishment of differences of the contemplatrd.· Purva . indeed.J. • tdrg-bodha-janakatvam ea kiirye vidhfnam. . kriyii-vi~ayatviid vidhr~~. Cp.6 The authority for Brahman is the sacred teaching. 'An injunction is a statement which prompts to action. I. The Vedas give us not only injunctions with regard to ritual but also Brahmaknowledge. it is not dependent on any other means of valid knowledge. 2 We cannot have an injunction with regard to a thing already existing. that by which these are taught to men is called sacred teaching. If it is said that the redas enjoin us to contemplate. 'Participation in activity or abstention from it in respect of the obligatory or the occasional. siistra-pramiit.rd: 'The perfect silence is heard in the perfect word. 1 s. yet in the generation of this knowledge. 2. Purva . at best. strictly speaking. the authoritativeness of the means of valid knowledge consists in their generating knowledge which is uncontradicted. 1.MfmaJizsii I. 1 Language is. Cp. 1. Translation and Notes 247 Even as there are order and harmony in the universe so in knowledge. Max Picn. 4 Though Vedic statements are generally treated as authoritative in relation to injunctions. 4· 1 na ea parini~thite vastu-svaru. Bhiim. Bhiimatf. t upiisyopiisakopasanadi-bheda-siddhyadhfnopiisanil na nirasta-samastabheda-prapance vediinta-vedye braJuna?. 1. 1 iimnciyasya kriyiirthatviid iinarthakyam atadarthiiniim.1 karmiivabodhanam nama.Text.atf. 3 and so the Vedas dealing as they do with ritual cannot be the source of the knowledge of Brahman. starts his discussion on this sutra by stating the objection that the V edas deal with ritual and the V edanta passages arc not in tended for ritual.Jatvam. Again: codaneti kriyiiyab pravartaka#~ vaeanam.

the iihavaniya fire.akam bra/lmabhyupagantavyam. though they are supra-mundane.nasya phalam. The state of final release which is non-embodiment is distinct from the fruit of ritual to be observed. ii. It is eternal.ya-karmat. 1 s. describes the state of mok$a.a samarpyante tadvat. As soon as yady api sastra-pramii:')akam brahma: tathapi pratipatti-Vi$ayatayaiva ~astret. unembodied. tatra manu$ya-lollam arabhya ii-brahma-lokat sukhasya taratamyam adhikii.arfratvam mok$ilkhyam. all-pervasive like the ether. unsurpassablc and being naturally established is eternal and unproduced. a mere statement of the truth of Brahman is not enough to give us the knowledge of Brahman. S. 1 karma-brahma-vidya-phalayor vailak~t. not the three times [past. 6 In eloquent phrases.a kalatrayam ea nopavartate. That is why one is asked to seck tl1e Self. immutably eternal. which merit and demerit together with their fruit do not approach. are happiness and misery. ' put. ata evanu$/heya-karma-pholla-vilak$attam mok$ii. etc. anatisayam svabhavasiddhatayii nityam al~aryam atma-jnii. tasya tasya sarva1h kii.dhikotkar~ab evam manu~~ya-lokam arabhya dulzkha-taratamyamacav·lci-lokii.' 6 If this is the nature of final release. I tasmat pratipatti-vidhi-Vi$ayatayaiva sastra-pramat. however.ol} phale sukha-duftkhe. self-luminous by nature. This eternal reality is not the fruit of an injunction whose content is contemplation. This is the non-embodiment called final release. 1 Even if it is said that there is a distinction between the fruit of the knowledge of Brahman and the fruit of the knowledge of religious duty. it is not something to be accomplished. nir-avayavam. in respect of their knowledge and fruit. nitya-trptam. All that is both produced and destructible.t. Though the Veda is the means of gaining a right knowledge of Brahman. tad etad a/. S.tyantikam tv asariratvam. desire to know the Self. are intimated by the sacred teaching (only) as subsidiary to an injunction. • idam tu paramarthikam kutastha-nitya-m. eternally contented. final.a brahma samarpyate.pi. sarvavikriya-rahitam. meritorious or simple. without parts. Bhamatf. yatra dharmiidharmau saha kiiryet. . vyomavat sarva-vyii. 3 The fruits of actions.khyam a. 6 Cp. There are gradations of happiness. 4 The fruit of the knowledge of the Self is. So the objector holds that Brahman should be acknowledged to have sacred teaching as authority only as the content of an injunction of realisation.The Brahma Sutra Another objection is raised.yiit.. yathii yupahavaniyiidfny-alaukikany api vidhi~e~atayii sastret. 2 It is said in reply that there is a difference in nature between ritual and Brahman. S. svayam-jyotil)-svabhavam. present and future]. Sin1ilarly there are degrees of misery from the world of men down to the hell known as a1•ici. 'This is absolute. devoid of all modifications. yet it suggests Brahman only as the object of certain injunctions even as the sacrificial post. S. or done.ryam ea vinc'Ui ea.yaput.~arfratvam nityam iti siddham. rising in degrees of excellence from the world of men to that of Brahmii.

1.ussell admits that great thinkers are sometimes led by mysticism (I. 3 It is not to be understood by anyone either through the ritual part of the Veda or logical reasoning.patviit. Translation and Notes 249 knowledge arises.. so that what philosophers say of geometry. 32. 8 Origcn writes t. quoted in Origen by Jean Daniclou (1955). Madhva argues that the Scriptures dec1are Vi~tzu to be Brahman. \Ve must express our beliefs in the context and shape of thC' real questions and search of modern men. As the author of the B. 1 S. Bralzmasiddhi. 2 It is not something to be attained: it is by nature attained by all. Hindu or Buddhist. There is no opposition between the two siistras. the categories which it has evolved. 3) and sometimes by science (I. 6 Alystic:ism and Logic (1918). for all the arduous uncertainty. The way in which faith has hitherto expressed itself. Bertrand H. there would have been no justiiication for two separate siistras. the ultimate cause of the world and not ~f)£11a. I hope that to that end you will take from Greek philosophy everything capable of serving as an introduction to Christianity and from geometry and astronomy all ideas useful in expounding the Holy Scriptures. 'the greatest men who have been philosophers have felt the need both of science and of mysticism. and what always must. to some minds.S. Dharma-mimiimsii and Hrahmamim.' Epistle Gregory 1. I.c"imsii were not different. a greater thing than either sciC'nce or religion.o his former pupil Grcgory t. 3 nityapta-svaru. Sikh or Muslim.'a Science and religion require to be reconciled. Hcligion concerns man as man and not man as Jew or Christian. the very nature of the world and the hope towards which faith directs its attention have lost their meaning and reality for the vidyodaya evavidyii-nivrttil). tried to reconcile the different doctrines prevalent in his time. 2) to the problems of philosophy. thP attempt to harmonise the two was what made their life. affinns that the knowledge of Brahman is not dependent on hutnan activity. grammar. na puru$a-vyiipara-tantrii brahma vidyii. Their very distinction makes out that the knowledge of Brahman is en joined for the purpose of final release even as sacrifices are enjoined for the purpose of obtaining the heavenly world and the like. we have to take into account the present state of our knowledge and evolve a coherent picture. S. S. 'But'. music. Today the samanvaya or harmonisation has to be extended to the living faiths of mankind.Text. make philosophy. p. he observes.he \Vonder-workcr: 'I should like to sec you use all the resources oi your mind on Christianity and make that your ultimate object. 6 Beliefs retain their Yigour for a long time after their roots have withered or their sources have silted up. 4 If the aims of the two siistras. rhetoric and astronomy-that they assist philosophy-we too may be able to say of philosophy itself in relation to Christianity.. ' vidhi-kiirute tarka-samaye vii kenacid adhigatal). 1 1 . 16. p. ignorance disappears.

2 Stromata IV. Augustine's views arc well known. The Logos or the \:Vord of God inspired all that is true and good in the religious thinking of men.'3 It is now admitted that in the course of its development 1 Apology I. \VC will not adopt an attitude of dogmatic exclusiveness. Clement and Origen.' '\Vhat is now called the Christian religion always existed in antiquity and was never absent from the beginning of the human race until Christ appeared in the flesh. They expressed Christianity in tenns familiar to the people trained in Greek thought. If we accept the view that the Scriptures of the world arc the records of the experiences of the great seers who have expressed their sense of the inner meaning of the world through their intense insight and deep imagination. even if they are generally accounted as atheists. At this time. 13. Symmachus in his controversy with St Ambrose said: 'It is impossible that so great a 1nystery should be approached by one road only. observes: 'God is sought in various ways and called by various names in the various religions . 46.' The view is in agreement with the concept of universal revelation that has the support of Justin. 'The salvation brought by the Christian religion has never been unavailable for any who was worthy of it. Samanvaya or reconciliation is the need of our age.thinf9S than mast~~ of nature. \Ve have to fashion a new type of man who uses the instruments he has devised with a renewctl awareness that he is capable of greater . Logos Spermatikos. 'a schoolmaster to lead us to Christ'. though they are not deviations from the nomml course of history. The early Fathers enriched Christian mysteries by using the ideas of Socrates and Plato. . The global. the true religion which was already there.The Brahma Sutra modern world. Justin proclaims: 'All who have Jived according to the Logos are Christians.' 1 Clement of Alexandria looked upon Greek philosophy as 'a preparation for Christ'. like Socrates and Heracleitus among the Greeks. 1 Retractions I.. Philosophy is not a mere inte1lcctual pursuit labelling and classifying the contents of thought but the creation of a new awareness of oneself and the world. the fellowship of man. he has sent various prophets and teachers in various ages to the various peoples. \Ve have to look beyond the political and economic arrangements to ultimate spiritual issues. began to be called Christianity. allcomprehensive changes which are taking place represent something new in the structure of human society. 32.. Our society is shaken to its foundations. The \vorld community which we envisage can be sustained only by a community of ideals. . Unfortunately nvalnes among rehgwns are rctardmg the growth of an international community.' Nicholas of Cusa. 2 He brought about the marriage between Platonism and Christianity. were scattered in all mankind. The conventional call on the part of religions to believe in God. 28. work for his glory and purpose has become open to question. The seeds of Logos.the prophet Muhammad. echoing the words of.

' 3 The Siimkltya thinkers argue that the non-intelligent matter pradlziina consisting of the three strands of sattva. we affirm a primary cause which itself is uncaused. forms and creeds in accordance with the accidents of our race. . others miiya. iksater niisabdam. we use them to help us to realise the presence of the Spirit in us. 1 Now that the religious environment has been world-wide and the living faiths are encountering one another the idea of fellowship among religions is gaining ground and a reconciliation or samanvaya is taking place. Scct£on 5 (5-ll) INADEQUACY OF NATUHALISM I.Text. tam iihuiJ prakrtim kecin mayam fJanye pare tv a~~un. na: not. pradhiina. asabdam: not founded on Scripture. endless valour. the primal miiyii. nation or training. 5. When you are gracious you are the cause of final emancipation. 1 niimarupa-vinirmuktam yasmin saritti§thate jagat. others atoms. some call pral~rti. rajas and tamas is the cause of the world. 1 8 Romans i. to avoid infinite regress. The primary matter. From the principle that every effect has a cause. Translation and Notes 251 Christianity has drawn upon Greek metaphysics and mystery religions. The first four MUras arc said to be the essence of the teaching of the B. By you all this is enchanted [confused]. This view is devoid of scriptural evidence. resides. Section 5 (5-11) suggests by various arguments that the cause of the world is conscious reality and cannot be identified with the non-conscious pradhiina or matter as the Sii-n"z. The religion of the New Testament according to St Paul is 'debtor both to Greeks and barbarians'. While we have to communicate our faith through words and symbols. 1. The great sages are symbols of the Spirit in which they arc one. il~~ate~: on account of seeing. we get not to a new faith but to the heart of all faith. If we strive with a sincere intent and a whole heart. divested of name and shape. is sometimes said to be the root cause of the world. 14.Varttika.khya system holds. Because of seeing (matter which z"s) not founded on the Scripture is not (the cause). Quoted from Brhad· Viisi$tha in the Patanjala-bhii§ya. You are the source of the universe.' 2 Devi M iihiitmya says: 'You are the power of V i$~U. 'That in which the world. tvam vai~~avf saktir ananta-vfryii visvasya bfjam paramasi nziiya sammohitanz devi samastam etat tva1h vai prasatmii bhuvi mukti-hctub.S.

4 According to SrikaDtha.' Thought is prior to all creation. S.iU questions ~. Siva qualified by $akti. mentioned by the Scripture] [he is] not inexpressible. ' saktib sivas ea sac-chabda-prakrti-pratyayoditau tau brahma-samarasyena samasta-jagad-atmakau.U. it is transcended by Brahman. He quotes from the Upani~ads many passages where prakrtt' is spoken of as the cause of the world. 4· 1. S. 1 'It saw. • brahma-vyatireketza karya-jatasyabhava iti gamyate. VI.pratiyate. Sakti and 5. may I grow forth. Personal God. that. then it would be more reasonable to assume that the all-knowing Brahman itself is the cause of the world.. 3· 1 1 2. There is no suggestion here of the unreality of the world.e. sec also Aitareya AraJJ. Vijfiana-bhik!. is Brahman.. According to Saivites. thinking is ascribed to the cause in the Scripture. 449. 3 If it is said that pradhiina possesses the quality of knowledge owing to the \vitncssing principle. saldi-visi!j/a-s£7•a. P.'i?. ·z. 5 It is clear that the Sfitrakara does not hold that the world is due to avidyii. though thus inforn1ed. Perception or desire cannot be attributed to unconscious prakrti. as the energy of God.U. R. J{.a of the Sathkhya system but of Brahman possessed of intelligence. 2 The Siimkhya thinkers may say that thought is a quality of the sattva (goodness) quality of the pradhiina.sagu1Ja. This sutra is used to suggest that the Ultimate l{eality is not n£rr:u1Ja-Brahman. for example. 2 nusak~ika suk ~-itvam asti.-akararte~vik$a-pt1rvikaiva sr~li!l. The effect is Brahman functioning through miiyii and is not non-existent. in the ~. the Lord. Baladcva gives a different interpretation: 'Since [Brahman is] seen [i. VI.'a are both Brahman and through their harmony they ensoul the world. develops his view that the universe of sentient and non-sentient beings constitutes the body of the Lord. for the quality of seeing.yaka 11. It is said that when the three gu1Jas arc in equipoise in the state of pradhiina knowledge which is a quality of goodness is not possible. but . holds that Brahman's power is miiyii.' Vijfiana-bhik~u points out that Brahman must be a person since it is said that he perceives or desires. 5 mayayii vyapara-nivrttir evavagamyate na nasafl. the magic power is in him. na cucetanasya pradhanasya . p. 3. The world is unreal apart from Brahman but is real as founded in Brahman. may I be many.'s assertion that the purport of the stttra is that pra/(rti is not the cause of the world since the idea of prakrti is un-Vedic. sattva-vrttir janati nabhidhzyate.The Brah-ma Stitra Pradhana cannot be the cause. The passage says tad ail~~ata baJtu syiim prajiiyeyeti. [thought]. There can be no knowledge without a witnessing principle of consciousness. He takes the problem of the creation of the world seriously and urges that the world is the product not of pradhiin. Even though the magician may withhold his magic. U. S. sarve~v api snti-p. 6 C. Prasna U. that it exists and functions only as residing in Brahman.

ea: and. It is the self that sees or thinks and there is no need to look upon seeing as figurative. figurativc1y. it is said in reply that release is possible only with concentration on Self which is intelligence. 1twl. VI. that water thought' . 1. cen: if. I. the answer is that the word 'self' is actua1ly cmployerl. Translation and Notes 253 I. Even those who advocate the view of pradlzii11a as the cause of the world do not maintain that he who is devoted to pradhiina attains rcJcase. Devotion to the non-1ntelligent principle is the cause of all suffering.a.1 and it mav he so treated here. 2.·~npaddiit: because of the instruction of release. 2 Ba1adeva gives a diHerent interpretation. heyah. This term 'self' can apply only to the nirgu1J. VI. tan-nz"#hasya: of him who concentrates on that Self (or Brahman). 4 Balacleva argues that salvation is promised to him who relies on n£rgu:1Ja-llrahman. sagu1Ja Brahman associated with the qualities of prakrti possessing the satt'i.Text. In the passages 'fire thought' or 'water thought' what thinks is the self acting through them. 7. In such a case C. ' pyadhilna-kiira1. 3· 2. t1gurative. that the real (sat) meant in the Upani~ad 3 is the nonintelligent matter. 1f it be said that the term 'self' may be used in n·gard to pradlu"ina. gau1JaJ:t: secondary.U. (the meaning of the zvord 'seein~') is not scco11dary (jigurativr). ta apa aik~anta.U.iivacaniic ea And because there is no statement that it has to be discarded.aU1Ja (i. free from the qualities of prakrt£. gau1Jas ccn nritma sahdiit On account r~f the ·word se~f (used for the cause).Brahman. VI. 3. 1 1 . tat satyam. 1.. 2£1.U. avacanat: because there is no statement. If it be said that the creator of the world is {!. the sutra says it cannot be on account of the tenn 'splf'. heyatva: the quality of being hi pradhana-ni#hasya mok~am nabhyupagac~ chanti. R. 4. na: not. If it is argued that the word 'seeing' is userl in a secondary or figurative sense in some passages 'That fire thought. iitma-sahdiit: on account of the word 'self'. The whole teaching in the Upani~ad is clear that release is possible for one who is devoted to the Real as self. 8. sa iitmii. p. The word sat has not been used to indicate pradhana even as a first step to the knowledge that the real is Brahman.U.e. 6. C.'a ~u1Ja). a C. tan-ni~thaS}'a mok!jopaddiit Because release is taught of him who takes his stand on (is dc1'oted to) that (Brahman). P. I. it cannot lead to relrasc. 449· tat teja aik~ata. I.

to the self but in that case there would have been a statement that the self is not of the nature of pradlu"ina but there is no such statement. then he has reached pure being. I. Nimbarka says [pradlziina] cannot be denoted by the terms Existent. iitman. It cannot be the pradlu'ina. I. I. and 1\imbarka have it as a separate s17tra \vhile S. etc. Bhaskara. P. 456. ' 2 Here the Real is said to be the Self. Ca for Bhaskara means contradiction of the original proposition. p. What is called arundhati-nyii_ya is adopted here. There are no statements that this view has to be discarded. . as it is called. VI. 8.u. Baladeva says that if sagu?Ja-Rrahman were the Creator of the world. we say. apyayiit: on account of entering. Scripture would have said that he was inferior and fit to be discarded. another sutra.. Later on.254 The Brahma Sutra there would have been instruction to discard the provisional definition of Brahmmt as pradhiina. prat£jiiii: initial statement. I c. we cannot know all things for conscious beings cannot be the effects of non-conscious principle. In some versions there is.pradlziina. he sleeps for he has gone to his own. fQr there is no [scriptural] statement of its having to be discarded. 1 From the knowledge of pradhiina. definite thesis. VI.. Therefore. Vallabha and Baladeva do not mention it. The initial statement is that through the knowledge of the one reality. sva : the Self.. Scripture does not give any other purpose for Scripture does not teach anything which does not fulfil a purpose. Pradhcina cannot be the Self for it is said 'When a person sleeps.U. If we are to point out the small star Arundhati. at this point.u. H. There would thus arise a contradiction of the view that through the knowledge of one. there would be the knowledge of all. Self. pratijiliivirodhiit. It is possible in the same way that the teacher may direct the pupil through the non-self. all things arc to be known. On account of the contradiction of the initial statc11zent. we withdraw the first direction and point to the real Arundhati. 9.. Pradhiina cannot serve the purpose of salvation. sviipyayiit On account (of the individual soul) entering the self. virodlziit: on account of the contradiction. we first direct attention to a big star near it and say 'that is Arundhati' though it is really not so. He has gone to his own. If we say that the word 'own' denotes pradhiina we will have the absurd position that an intelligent entity is being resolved into a t c. svatn apito bhavati. I.

Haladcva says that Scriptures unifonnly teach nirgu1Ja-13rahman and not sagu?Ja.naiva hi sarve§U vedante~u cetana-kii. gait": teaching.' Bahideva reads the sutra differently. and interprets it differrntly. '[The Creator is not the Personal (. The reference is to the S. R.t sva-sabodmocyeta. 3 There is no disagreement on this point.. primary meaning.niim api drsyate.Text. evam api cetano 'cetanam apyetfti. a non-conscious cause is not acceptable. llC ea And bt~Cause it is stated in the sruti (that the all-knowing Brahman is the cause of the world). i. · srutat·uiit: because it is stated in the sruti.tmlyatvii. avagati.eal-this is proved by [all creatures] entering into it and coming back out of it. The 1/ediinta texts are agreed in teaching that the cause of the world is the inte11igent Brakman. quotes the Vrttilliira to the effect: 'Then he becomes united with the H.Brahman. 6 where the All-knowing Lord is said to be the cause. 4 ~uka is of a different view. Vcdic Scripture. that Brahman alone is the cause and not any other.nam ii. ' mok~ahkye /aye tii. 9· samanatvat. Madhva holds that there is tiiratamya among the nine different kinds of dcvotees. 1. U. S. 10. I. 3· 21. Niii1harka. 2 B. a samii. . apprehension. pravrtti.ratamya1iz devii. For him those who practise bhaldi in the nine fonns mentioned in the Bhiigavata arc on a level.' I. gives a number of passages where the Supreme is described in 1 t pradhii. 1 There is also the other passage that in the state of dreamless sleep the Self is absorbed in the Self. I. siimiin_viit: on account of uniformity. 2 It cannot be absorbed in the non-conscious pradhiina.oci] because "he [the Creator] merges into himself" and sagu?Ja-Brahman merges into something other than himself. 11. H. Translation and Notes 255 non-intelligent one. gati-stimiin_viit On account of the uniform£ty of teaching (Brahman is to be trt~ated as the cause). srutal1. R.U. 6 tasmad anyatamapi navanii. ea: and.m api bhakHnam mok$a-rupa-phalasya 11 VI. says that the import of the scriptural texts is uniform.e. Afahabhii. sviipyiit. IV.ddham apadyeta. S. S.ra~iivagatifa. viru. 1.rata-tatparyanir~aya. 5 Nimbarka points out that as a conscious cause is indicated by all the scriptural texts.

From this section onwards to the end of the chapter. The witnessing character of the Supreme is inconsistent with the Absolute without detcrminations. 1 ata eva. cvam sahasraso vidyo:uidya-vi~aya-bhcdena brahma~o dvi-rupatam darsayanti vedanta-viikyiini. R. affirms that the Brahman which forms the object of enquiry possesses attributes such as thinking and so on in their real literal without dctermination. 1 R. The Sutrakiira in I. does not support tlte non-dualistic theory of Brahm. Though R.dluina is the creator of the world. he says that this section. He suggests that this dual description of Brahman is relative to our states of knowledge and ignorance.a.bhi]J.The Brahma Sutra negative tenus and others where he is said to be all-knowing. They indicate that from the cosmic end Brahman is viewed as Isvara and in himself as absolute being devoid of all detenninations. 1 . paramaYthika-mukhyek~a1J. 10 makes out that the teaching of the texts is unifom1.a-yogi jijfiiisyam brahmcti vyavasthapanilt. even the witnessing function of consciousness would be unreal. srutibhir niYastii veditavya!J. niYvise§avade hi sak§itvam apy aparamarthikam. 2 \Vhile this section (5-·ll) is viewed by the other commentators as dealing with the question whether Urahman or pra.ii. I. This whole section is viewed by Madhva not as repudiating the Siitnkhya view of pradhana but as critical of the Ad1'aita view of the indescribability of JJralmzan as being beyond the scope of Vedic utterances. If lirakman cannot be grasped and described by any of the pramii~tas. there would not be any proof of its existence. There are passages whkh describe Brah-man as devoid of determinations and others which describe Brahman as endowed with all auspicious qualities. On the theory that Bra/mum is nothing but distinctionless intelligence.Brahman is the creator of the world. we find a discussion c~f certain terms used in the Upani~ads. Baladeva discusses in this section the question whether nirgm. nirvise~a-cinmatra-brahma-vadino'jJi sutrakare1J.11il~hya systrm.iidi-gu1J. follows ~. The V pani~ads do not suggest any status of inferiority to one or the other. Section 6 (12-19) THE SUPI{EME AS BLISS It is now established that the cause of the world is an intelligent principle and cannot be identified with the non-intelligent pradhii.Brahman or sagu~za. na ciiSabdab:am itara-siddham. Brahman is described in the Scriptures for they enjoin that Brahman should be perceived. of the his interpretation of this section.

4 The objector quotes the text. It is not said of iinanda that there is another self inside it. 1. iinandamaya~: full of bliss. the individual soul or unintelligent matter. The individual self does not become iinatzdanzaya for then it would be the creator of the worlds like the Supreme.S) where wt> have a progressive definition of the nature of self as consisting of anna. II. the attained and the attainer. the reply is given that it is the Highest Self on account of frequent repetition in the Upani$ads. pp. \Vhcn it is said that Brahman is the puccha. sarviidhiira. 6 S. food. pp. 5· P. understanding. or the Absolute without dcterminations. gives a twofold explanation of the iinanda-mayiidlzikara1Ja. 6 • See S. mind and understanding..U. life. Gcorge Thibaut writes 'But that such an investigation is actually carried on in the remaining portion of the ftrst Adhyiiya. brahma puccham prati$tha :6 Brahman. xxxii-xxxiii. (18go). that it is the empirical self subject to rcbirth. P. 1 tasmiid va etasmad vijiiana-mayat anyo'ntara atma iinanda-maya/. 7 ato vijnii1Ja-mayiij jJvild anya eva parama:ma.U.a gives bliss to the individuals and cannot itself be an individual. If Brahman is the foundation. appears neither from the wording of the Sittras nor even from S. 1 I. says that the self of bliss is other than the individual soul. prii1Ja. The Supreme who is iinanda-ma. ~1 1 . iinanda cannot be Bralzman. 5. 12..Text. a sarizsary eviinanda-maya-iitmii. it is Brahman itself.'>. 11. manas. The text considered in this sutra is the second chapter of the T. and not that it is merely a limb (avayava) of ananda. we arc led on from one stage to another til1 we r<>ach the Highest. 2 If it be said that the Self consisting of bliss is a secondary and not the principal self.'sown treatment of the Vedic texts referred to in the SiUras'. Translat£on and Notes 257 whether they refer to the Supreme Lord. Then it is said 'different from and within that which consists of understanding is the self consisting of bliss'. lntroduction to Vol. p. because of repetition. life.. e para eva iitmii. For the purpose of logical exposition and easy comprehension.U.B. abhyiisat: because of repetition.. H. 546-7. as it was said of matter. since it is said to have joy and so forth for its limbs and as it is embodied. 1. I of the V edanta S iitras with the Commentary of .U. T. or the Absolute with determinations. Though it is a link in a series of selves. mind. the lower part is the foundation. 3 as it forms a link in a series of selves. The self consisting of bliss is the Supreme Self. I. iinandamayo' bhyiisiit (Brahman is) a being full of bliss.l. holds that the enquiry is continued to explain the distinction between Brahman. it is the innermost self of all. The first topic considered is the meaning of ananda or bliss in relation to the Supreme Reality. (1-. and sa-vise~a Brahman. 546. 7 He argues that the self consisting of knowledge is the nir-vise~a S. There is always a distinction between the giver and the receiver.. This accounts for the attribution of limbs and body to it. vijiiiina. Ig. it is meant that it is the foundation of all. R.

The Siitrakara refers to Brahman itself as the self of bliss since there is no fundamental difference between parii-sakti which is the attribute or dhanna of Brahman and that which possesses the dharma. Ill. it is not so on account of abundance.~vara-abhedaprasakti-gandho'pi iti niscJyate. See Jaya-tirtha's Nyaya-sudha I. vikiira-sabdiit: because of the word denoting modification. even as one who gives wealth to others must himself possess abundant wealth. vikara-sabdii·m~eti cen na priicuryiit If it is said (that anandamaya) does not (denote the highest Self) since it is a word denoti-ng modification. I. II.The Brakma Sutra individual self.3 ~uka says that it is the Supreme Self only that is primarily contemplated and there is not a suggestion of non-difference between the individual soul and the Supreme Self. 1.U.u.U.1tha. 14. 229. According to Srikar. T. tat: of it (bliss). . the self of bliss is cit-sakti. then it cannot apply to the Highest Self which is not a product or a modification. It is stated in reply that the word mayat need not always mean viktira or modification. I. 8. priic-uryiit: on account of abundance. that which consists of bliss is the Supreme Self alone and not the individual soul. p. the self of b1iss is the parii-sakti. The dlzarmin is referred to on account of its essential non-difference from dharma.U. a T. 25. it means that Brahman has no support outside itself. while the Brahman spoken of as the tail or the support is the Supreme Brahman. Brahman is rooted in itself. II. 1. the energy of consciousness.Silrfratvasya param-atmany eva paryavasanat na j~ve. • tasmiU iha . 7· 22. a product or a modification. 1 1 See n. P. The Self which causes bliss 5 must itself abound in bliss. For Niri1barka. while tl1e self consisting of bliss is the Highest Self. na: not so. 4· 2r. na iti cet: if it is held that it does not (refer to the Highest Self). taddhetu vyapadesiic ea And because (Brahman) is declared to be the cause of it (tlze bliss). hctu (cause). it mav also mean pracurya 2 or abundance. Brahman abounds in bliss and this bliss is immeasurable. 4 I. 7· Pa~ini V. If the word 'mayat' is taken to mean 'made of'. For ~rikal)tha.. otherwise called param-iiA:iisa of which Brahman is the support. ea: and. 5 C§a hy evanandayati. vyapaddiit: because (Brahman) is declared. 1 When Bralnnan is said to be the support. 13.

to deal with the question whether the Supreme Isvara is the cause of the world or someone else. Creation is an outflow from the Divine. U. R. S. S.. na: not. eva: the same. £tara: the other. 1. To think about things to be created and to create the things in such a way as to be non-different from himself are possible only for the Highest Self. says that it is impossible for the individual soul or any being other than the Highest Self. ea: and (hence). to emit.U.~am sra$/~~r avyatirekas sarva-vika'Ya-snlis ea na pa. For truly on getting the essence. netaro'nupapatteJ. anupapatteJ. 1 agree in referring to the same Brahman. is the essence of existence. 2 The Sanskrit word for creation is derived from srj. I and 5· tatra prak-charfrady"tpatter abhidhyiinam srjyamiiniinam vikiirat. a viin-manasayos tat1'iipYamar. 15. miintra-vartJikam: what is described in the mantra.. R. is not the cause of the world. 1 1 . to brood over himself before sending forth whatever there is. because of inappropriateness. verily. 17. 1 I. 1. explains that the higher self is not Brahman without determinations but the all-knowing. vyapadesiit: on account of the declaration.asmad iitmano'nyat. T. 4 6 na hi labdhaiva labdhavyo bhavati.. 4 'That. on account of inappropriateness. 548-g. Translation and Notes 259 I. ea: and. world-sou].zatiim vadet. 16.. A nandamaya is Brahman because the M antra and the BriihtnatJa portions of the T. It is not creation out of nothing. one becomes blissful. S.. (Anandamaya is) not the other.: because of inappropriateness. to discharge.' He who attains cannot be that which is attained. The clause from which speech returns along with mind' means that mind and speech are not means for the knowledge of Brahman. 6 II. bheda: clifference. etc. The individual soul and the Self of bliss are represented as different in the Upani$ad. Hira1Jya-garbha. 1.opapadyate. U . 7. viz. pp. He begins a new section here consisting of sutras 17-20. li. Prajii-pati in the context is equivalent to pasu-pati. mii:ntra-vartJikam e-va ea giyate And because the same (Brahman) which is described in the mantra is sung (£n the Briihmana). P. giyate: is sung. blissful Brahman. The individual soul is not capable of the activities of creation. bheda-vyapadc5ac ea And on account of the declaration of difference (between the two). J. 3 Srikal)tha makes out that HiratJya-garbha.Text.

pradhiina. though S. desire. R. i. Srika1. asya: of this. The desire 'to become many and to create' makes out that the non-intelligent pradhiina cannot be the cause of the world or be one with the Self of bliss for it is incapable of volition. 1. pradhiina. siisti: teaches. for in his view the two are the same. But the Supreme Self has no need to depend on any factor outside himself. \Vill is possible for a conscious being or for the Self of bliss and not for matter. 1 g_ gives another interpretation of these sutras (12-19). I. 18.ya-garbha.1tha points out that though Hirat. Scripture teaches the union or yoga of the individual soul with the Self of bliss. When the individual soul attains knowledge. tad-yogam: union with that. 1 s. suggests that this and the previous sutra relate to the difference between the Highest Self and the individual self. the two arc united. tasmad ananda-maya~ param-atmeti siddham. I. na pradhana-parigrahe jfva-parigrah~ va . The difference between the individual soul and the Absolute Self cannot be regarded as fictitious according to this sutra. etc. holds that there is no difference in reality between the individual soul and Brahman. (H. We cannot hold that the affix mayat means product or modification with reference to food. 19. Thought (I. na: not. R. there is no dependence on inference. and Nimbarka argue that if the individual soul is admitted to be the cause. 'abundance' when we come to iinanda.ya-garblza and the Supreme Lord. it must depend on a material cause. . siisti Besides. 1. anumiiniipck~ii: dependence on inference. kiim(lt: on account of.ya-garhha is said to have created the world. in this the union of this with that (Scripture) teaches. it is united with the Self of bliss. the Highest Self and not either pradhiina or the individual soul.tha says that the stltra states the difference between H irm. life. kiimiic ea niinumiiniipek~ii And on account of des£rt. ea: and. refers to another passage in the T. This is possible only if we understand by the Self of bliss. asminn asya ea tad yogatiz.U. it does not stand to reason for it is the Lord himself who is said to have created the world in the fom1 of Hira1J.z6o The Brahma Si"itra S. grika.I). 1.e. ea: and. in the state of release. The words belong tac ea param-atma-parigrahe ghatate. as a potter depends on clay. 5) and desire in this sutra suggest that the inference made by the Siirhkhya that pradlziina is the root cause of the world is wrong. mind and understanding and means something different. asmin: in this. 5) and holds that the difference between the individual soul and the Self of bliss is real.

4 S. I. Absolute ~nd God. limbs are attributed. 19.. urges that it refers to the determinate Brahman and not the Brahman without dctcrminations. 4 Ananda is the quality of Urahman qut not iinanda-maya. R. S. 6 tasmii. If iinanda-maya denotes Brahman. Translation and Notes 26! to one series and it would be wrong to suggest that only the last word of the series refers to Brahman. ~. param- .Text. I. I. but the two are co-ordinate though logical and not temporal priority may be given to the indeterminate Brahman for Brahman must be before it can create. S. to it and Brahman is said to be its lower part or support. I2. salvation. prati$1hii. The latter is the soul of this world. in spite of this.B. tasmad titma iti sthitam. i. 6 S.tya-garbha. Baladeva interprets tad-yngam as union with fearlessness. we still hold that iinanda-maya self is Brahman. 1 If it is argued that for other members. Vallabha and others. 6 rejects this view and holds that Brahman as the foundation is the indeterminate Brahman and iinanda-maya-iitmii is only the determinate Brahman. Kesava-Ka~mirin. It is not iinanda-maya that is Brahman hut its support is Brahman.. SrikaiJtha says that the Lord hin1self creates the world in the form of Hirat. I. • sa-viSe~am brahmabhyupagantavyam. S. after telling us that the ananda-mayaatmii or the Self of bliss is the Highest Self. ii. The first explanation that Brahman is iinanda-maya. relates to the relative superiority of Brahman and I svara. S.d anna-mayiidi~v iviinanda-maye'pi vikariirtha eva maya4 vijiieyo na 1 1 pracuryartha~.tam eka-nltjam. is accepted by S. even anna-maya should denote it. when we attempt to describe it we state it to be characterised by bliss anu the whole creation is an expression of this bliss or joy. Since this interpretation goes against the unqualified character of Brahman. 3 IV. The controversy raised by S. while no such inner self is mentioned for iinanda-mava. ~. Bhaskara interprets tad-yogam as union with the Lord.U. 3· 32.. there is an inward self. full of bliss.e. of1"crs a strained explanation that iinanda-maya is a vesture of Brahman. amla-mayiidfmim api tarhi brahmatva-prasanga~. 2 Puceha is to be taken as support or resting place. B. says: 'Only on a particle of this bliss [of Brahman] all other creatures live.nanda-maya~ para evatma iinanda-mayo bhavitum arhati. ' 3 If. parayat. So the affix mayat does not mean abundance but product or modification. While the indeterminate Brahman cannot be spoken of by words or concepts. The Siitrakara evidently means that Brahman is full of bliss.

The Upani$ads use this method. He is not all-pervading and his powers are limited. 5. 6.iko bhagavan. Freedom from sins is a feature of God and not any individual soul. This section purports to slww that the Golden Person seen within the sun and the Person seen within the eye1 do not refer to any individual soul of eminence but to the Supreme Brahman. deva-manu$yadi-samsthanath karoti: svecchayaiva paramakarut.l.J£tll1'n (appearing wt'thin the sun and the eye £s the highest God) because his qualities are uzentioned. a golden beard. calls conjecture. The Ultimate can be approached only asymptotically. they yet use this knowledge through symbol and similitude to approximate to the absolute truth. The sun which not only illumines but warms is the best image of the Divine used by the ancient Indians. 6).U. etc. and J. 20 antas tad-dharmopade5iit The person 7. says that the Golden Person represents the determinate Brahman who is the object of meditation. \\'hen it is said that those who sing unto him become wealthy (C. To this.. though without ever being able to attain it. answers that only the qualities of God are mentioned in regard to him. the Iranians and others.. The passages referred to are C.vikam eva nipam ttpasakanugrahe~ta tat pratipatyanugu~takaram. The person in the sun is calJed ut and is said to be free from all sins. however eminent. The objector argues that the person described as possessing fom1 and features. paramefvarasyapfccha-vaJan maya-mayath ruparit Sadhakanugrahartham. 7. the reference can only be to the Supreme. I. divine or otherwise so as to render it suitable for the apprehension of the devotee and then satisfy him. and is the cause of them all. etc. God by his power can assume any form for the sake of bestowing grace on his devotees.. S.The Brahma Sfitra Section 7 (20 and 21) THE GOLDEN PERSON IN THE SUN AND THE EYE I. antal. It can be apprehended in a sort of penumbra} manner by way of what Nicholas of Gusa.: within. 2 H.u. 3 Srikat)tha identifies the golden person within the sun with Siva c. 1 I .i. S. human. In Nicholas's view. 8 tad idam svabhii. 1. conjecture does not mean a guess at the truth or a hypothesis but actual though necessarily inadequate truth. cannot be Brahman without determinations. a distinguished thinker of the fiftt:~ent:h century. Siiman. \Vhile the Upani$ads stress the rel~tivity of all logical knowledge. The Person in the eye is declared to be 8ll. This view bears some resemblance to the Thomistic doctrine of Analogy.U I. 6ff. tad-dlzarma-upade5at: because his qualities are men tione<. 7. agrees with the view that the Supreme by his mere will can take any shape. I. S.

Besides. . I.. 7. 9. 1. Ill. ii/(lisa!J: space. though both these arc inadequate equivalents. The passage considered is B. The 1 P. life (is Brahman).-f$A (SPACE) AS BRA!lltf AN u.. vital breath. kha. This refers to the highest Brahman. space. I . I. . which holds that all beings origi_nate from iikiisa. anya!J: another. As all the prominent characteristics of Bral11nan are mentioned in regard to iikiisa.U. 4 and 5) prii'f}a or life refers to the vital principle or Brahman. sec also C. I. 2 usamatztiit kii. pp. I. bheda-vyapadesiic canya!J On account of the declaration of difference. 1. it cannot refer to the element iildisa. I 0. 226-7. for the same reason. arc used for Brahman. space. etc. atal. 14. VIII. 11. 9 which declares that the Self which resides and rules from within is different from the individual soul and the body of the sun or of any other being.Text. the synonyms used for akiisa. bheda: difference. Aluisa is equated with iinanda in T. 23.t: henc~. there is another (different from the indi1•idual souls residing in the sun. I. I. . Translation and Notes and accounts for the mention of two eyes only and not the third by saying that thf' third eye is ordinarily closed.U. -t I . but only to Hrahman. 21. lingiit: on account of characteristic marks.. ata eva priitJaiJ For the same reason. pra1Ja!t-: life.2 The word akiisa is translated by ether. . 7. 9.U. II. The passage considered here is C. vyoman. eva: also. The question arises whether in the passages (C. U. 1 Section 8 (22) AI\.. .). See Srini vasa's Vediinta-ktlUSiubha . AhiSa is that which shines e-verywhere. ea: and. The Supreme is the inward principle of all beings.uzga Akiisa (is Jh·ahman) since the clulracteristic marl~s (of Brahman) arc mentioned.sata iti iikiisafl. tat: that.U.1 .U. l'yapadesiit: on account of declaration. ?? a1wsas tall. Section 9 (23) LIFE AS BRAHltfAN I.

But meditation on Brahman gives us not these precarious goods but final release.U. To all these objections. 2 which is physical in character. is called life because he bestows the breath of life on all beings. Ill. To what does 'light' refer? The objector says that it refers to physical light. III. If it is suggested that the light mentioned is the original.U. tara~ta: feet. 6) 3 Brahman is spoken of as having four feet. etc. I. the reply is made that the word 'light' refers to Brahman since in the preceding passage (C.: Brahm. It cannot refer to Brahman which is devoid of colour. the light mentioned in C. The one topic discussed in this section of the U pani$ad as also atab pYaf!ayati sarvarti bhutanfti krtvil param brahmaiva pYarta-sabdenabhid8 anta/. 12.· abhidhiiniit: on account of the mention. Since a physical boundary is mentioned for light it cannot mean Brahman which is the self of a11 and has no boundary. 1. 12) deals with gii. pada . 7.U. invisible first principle of light. for example. The attributes 'beyond heaven' or 'on this side of heaven' cannot apply to Bralnnan \vhich has no sides or supports. The passage considered is C. One foot of it covers all beings: three feet of it are the immortal in heaven.7 is established to be not the physicalllgh:t but the highest Brahman. wood. The word 'shines' refers to sun and similar sources of light. 1 Section 10 {24-27) LIGHT AS BRAHAfAN In these sutras. a piido'sya sarva bhutiini.yatri alone and not with Brahman. R. Myate.U. Meditation on this light is said to make one celebrated and beautiful. 13. Ill. The previous section of the Upani~ad (C. This immortal in heaven cannot be the ordinary light.The Brahma SiUra same argument of the presence of characteristic marks is used here to make out that prii1Ja does not mean the life principle (or the fivefold vital breath) hut the Supreme Brahman. 1 . /vntis cara1Jiibhidhiiniit (The word) liglzt (indicates Brahman) ntt account of the mention of feet. 24. Ordinarily light and darkness arc opposed to each other and so light must mean the physical light.1 puyu~e jyoti/. No special characteristic marks of Brahman are given here. This light beyond the heaven cannot be identified with Brah-man as it is said to be the same as the light within the body. it cannot be made an object of devotion or used to dispel darkness. tripad asyamrtarh divi. states that life is not present in a11 things. Ill. jyoti~: light.1. it is not present in stones.

tathii: this. If it be objected that the passage considered in the previous sfUra refers to the giiyatri metre and not to Brahman.B. it£: so. worship of other symbolic representations of Brahman result in various rewards.' 2 brakmatr. IV.a (Ill. chanda!~: metre. Even on this view.~~. nigadiit: on account of being declared. 4· r6. They refer to Brahman in so far as it is characterised by the physical shining light which is its cffect. See also Taittir'tya Brahmatr. na: no. 1 In several passages (B. (the reply is) not so because the fixing of the mind (on Brahman by means of the metre) is declared. This also is seen (elsewhere). Nigama is a sacred precept or direction or instruction. S. arpa1Ja: fixing. I* 1 . on account of the fact that the gayatri and Brahman have both four feet or quarters. tathii: so. says that it is not contrary to reason for it serves the purpose of devout meditation. 4 I. R. chando'bhidhiiniin neti cen na. it is said in reply that the metre is to be used for fixing the mind on Brahman.U. na: not. 7): 'That by which the sun shines [f1rst] and illumincs others' "yena suryas tapati tejascddha" . H. 1. jyoti$iirfl. arc used as means for the meditation on Brahman.t: being mentioned. ceta!t: mind. 4· 16. 3 sarva-gatasyapi brahmat:a upasaniirthab pradesa-vi. S. For the same reason it is possible to attribute to Brahman a muJtiplicity of abodes.~e:'>a-payigraho na viYudhyate. etc. darsanam: being seen. metre. Light. IV. meditation on the Highcst Brahman as the Universal Self results in final release. 12. reads nigamiit for n·igadiit. 2 To the objection that the omnipresent Bralztnan cannot be viewed as being bounded by heaven. hi: also. Brahman is the light of lights. quotes the V rttiluira as holding that the giiyatri directly denotes Brahman.Text.U. g. it is futile to argue that the words 'light'. 3 So Scripture speaks of different kinds of devout meditation as specially connected with certain localities. ForS. S. cet: if. 6} whatever illuminates something else is spoken of as light and so Brahman which gives light to the entire world may be called light. IV. tathii ceto'rpa1Janigadiit tathii hi darsanam If it be said tlzat (Brahman is) not (mentioned) since the metre is 1nentioned.U. Baladeva means by darsanam consistency. 3. 5 and Taittir~ya Samhitii I. abh£dhi'im7. As the general topic considered is Brahman. For him tathii hi darsanam means: 'for by such an explanation alone the above passage gives a consistent meaning'. apply to physical light only and exclude reference to Hrahman. only Brahman is spoken of in this sutra. ' B. 25. Translation and Notes the preceding and the succeeding is Brahman. Even the fire in the body may be regarded as a symbol or outward appearance of l~rahman.. 'to shine'.opi caitanya-rupasya samasta-jagad-avabhasa-hetutvad upapanno jyoti~-sabdal~. jyoti!t-.

prat. u. piida: drsyate. 'Just as in ordinary language a falcon.z66 The Brahma Sutra I. though not in contact with the top of a tree. bhutadi-piida-vyapadesopapattes caivam Thus also (Brahman is the topic) for the indication that the beings. Ill. priit. 13. 27. (X. in the other as the boundary. S. 42). na: not. api: even: av£rvdluit: without contradiction.' 1 Another explanation is also offered. nothing contrary (to such recognz'tion) in both cases. See also B. etc.) I. is said to be above the top of the tree and also on the top of the tree. bhiUiidi: beings. In spite of it they both refer to Brahman. anugamiit: on account of (intelligible) connection. I.. vrk$iigYe syeno vrk$iigrii. tathii: in that way. 28. although in contact with the top of a tree.U. but also above the tree. even so Brahman though being in heaven is referred to here as being beyond heaven also.) on account of the difference in teachi-ng. ~.tparata~ syena iti ea. 6). the other is 'that light shines above this heaven'. 1 .as tathiinugamiit Life (is Brahman) on account of (intelligible) connection..ii}t: life. A connected consideration of the passages referring to life or yatha lolee vrk~agYerta sambaddho'pi . The passage considered is that 'all the beings are one foot [or quarter] of it'.G. 7). cet: an analogy for argument. There is thus a difference between the two. vyapadda: indication. 2 Section 11 (28-31) LIFE AS BRAHMAN (contd. 'Upadda-bhedanneti ccn twbhayasmintz apy avirodhiit If it be said that (Brahman cat~not be recognised as the same in the trm passages.papatte~: because of reasonableness. heaven is dt~signated as the abode.Syena ubhayathopadisyamano drsyate. 1. bhediit: on account of difference. A falcon. na: not. The objection states that the two passages are actually contradictory. etc. The passages arc: 'Three feet of it are what is immortal in heaven'. iti: so. 12. is not only said to be on the tree. ea: and. 26.Syena iti ea. In one. 1. Ill. (u'e reply that) £t is not so because there is. !Jg Veda (X. 90) mentions this verse with reference to Brahman. ubhayasmin: in both cases. 'Upadesa: teaching. I yatha loke vrk$iigYertasambaddho'pi syena ubhayathopadisyam/I.U. evam: thus.vad ata!t paro diva jyot£r dipyate' (C. atha . tripiidasyii'mrtatit divi: (C. vrk$iigre syeno vrk$agratparatas . I. are the feet is reasonable.

29. 6 Compare the famous statement. anugantum sakyate na mukhye ' prat~osmi miim eva vijan!hi. pp. lzy: because. (we reply that it is not so) for here (£n this Chapter) references to the inner se(( are numerous. Cp. sarvam etat parasmin brahmat~yiisrfyamii. the intelligent self' . 'It is without speech. t"t£: so. s''istra-dr$tyii: through the insight of Scripture. 1 requires us to look upon priitJa as Brahman. na: not. • Cp. The sage Varnadeva perceiving that Brahman is the inner 1 1 prat~e. I. It cannot be treated as breath or modification of air or the individual soul or the self of some divinity. l. atmopadesiit: because of reference to himself. 1. The objection considers Indra's statement 'Know me only' 3 and later on 'I am prii'l}a. The individual self Indra.U. 30. U. the sage Vamadeva attained the knowledge expressed in the words: 'I was Manu and Siirya. praj11atma. sambandha: refrrenccs (re]ationships). . siistra-dr§tyii tupaddo viimadeva-vat But tlze teaching (of lndra that he is one with Brahman) (is j1tstifiable) through the inst"ght of Scr£pture as in the case of V amadeva.U.4 Of Brahman. 8. By a similar intuition. 1tpade5li~: teaching.5 Indra praises himself by listing a number of his qualities. cct: if. janmiintara-krta-sravat~iidinii asmin jamnani svatas-siddhaJit dat'sa na m . ar:~am. U. 8). bhumii: numerous. valdu~: of the speaker. in accordance with his doctrine. bralmtavid brahmaiva bha1 1ati. viimadeva-vat: like Vamadeva. asmin: in this. 111.-t~e S. tu: but. 4· 10 . na vaktur iitmopadesiid iti ced adhyiitma-sambandhabhum-ii hy asmin If it be sa£d that (Brahman is) not (indicated) because the speaker refers to himsc((. B. 8. 2. 2 I.Text. The knower of Brahman becomes Brahman. adhyiitma: inner self. Prii'l}a cannot denote Brahman. 774ff. Translation and Notes priitJa (K. I. 8 P. ya evam veda aham brahmiismi. Ill. perceives through the intuition of transcendental truth that his self is identical with the Supreme Se1f and so instructs Pratardana about the Highest Self through the words 'Know me only'. it is said... R. without mincl' . The different passages can be construed as a whole only if they are viewed as referring to Brahman and not to vital air. 1. B. a avag amanii.' Intuitive insight is defined in Govindananda's Ratna-prabhii as the self-evident intuition rendered possible through the knowledge acquired in previous existences. makes out that the object of meditation is the Highest Self of which his own individual person is the body. 7 The individual in a supreme effort stretches towards the indefinable and adorable and in that condition he is lost and absorbed.

traividhviit: on account of threefoldness. (iii) meditation on Brahman with the objects and means of enjoyment for his body. mu/.a. in his own nature.. we have passages where life is treated as equivalent to Brahman. in holding that the three kinds of meditation on the Lord are (I) svarupet. (2) bhoktr-sariret. Bhaskara omits 'iisritatviid iha tad-yngc'it'. R. because (on this interpretation) three types of devotion (would result). on me as life. (ii) meditation on Brahman with the totality of the enjoying souls as his body. immortal'. It says 'Know me only' and then '1 am life. because (our 11iew) is accepted clseu)Jz. l£1igiit: on account of characteristic marks. So Brahman is the topic of this section.iin tzeti cen nopiisiit traividhyiid vogiit iisritah. R. ji?'a: individual soul. that all things constitute his body and that the meaning of words denoting a body extends up to the principle embodied.a. indeed. tad-_VO{!/it . iha: here. Manu. imperishable. the intelligf:'nt self.268 The Brahma Stttra self of all. Hpiist1t: on account of meditation. 1. the whole passage must be taken as referring to one and the same type of meditation. meclitatP.· and because (characta£stic marks of Brahman) arc connected (u·ith the passaf!. asritat'l•iit: because of acceptance-. denotes with the word 'I' the Highest Brahman to which he himself stands in the relation of a body and then predicates of this 'I'. parasya brahmartaJ:r. the characteristic marks of Brahman are assigned to life. ('lr'c say) no.~abdiinam sarfri~i paryavasanam pasyann aham iti svatma-sarirakam param brahma nirdisya tat samanadhikarartyena manu~ suryadiny vyapadisati. 31.e 'Under disc1tss£on). 2 Srika1. na: not. _jiva-muklz~va-priit. that the section aims at enjoining three kinds of meditation on Brahman as life.ere . bhoktr-varga~ sarlrakatvanusandhanam. bhogya~bhogopakararta-sarfrakatvanusandhanam. sarvantaratmatvanz sarvasya tacchartratva1il sarfraviicinariz . Besides. svarupe~anusandhiinam.1tha follows R. As the beginning and the conclusion are seen to be similar. it-i: so. as immortality' and concludes 'And that life. yatha viimadevaJ:r. 1 nikhila-kararta-bhutasya brahmartaJ:r. is that intf'lligcnt self. Again. eel: if. The V rttikiira gives a different interpretation. whether in its own nature or in the form of its two adjuncts of the individual soul and life.iid t'lta tad-_ If it is said that (Brahman) is not (meant) because the characteristic marks of the indi1. Siirya and other heings.·hJ·a-pra1Ja: chief breath. as intelJigent scJf and in itself. blessed. 1 . 1 I. The passage refers to a single type of meditation and so cannot l>e treated as suggesting rlifferent objects of argues that the threefold view of Brahman is quite appropriate: (i) meditation on Brahman in his own nature as the cause of the world.'£dual soul and the chief breath (are mentioned).' because of its connection with that.

(3) bhngya- rupc1Ja. Then we can know its full meaning and complete reality and feel the forces which pulsate through the whole body.egardccl from the outside. Translation and Notes as having the totality of enjoying souls for his body. however. a complex of varied forces.S.'e should not get imprisoned in our ideas as intellectuals do or in our flesh as sensualists do. . a congeries of contradictory elements. There is. it n1ay have the appearance of a confuseci mass of conflicting ideas. \V hen reason leads us to experience. we get an indication of the governing principle that gives life to the great structure of Hinduism. an identity. as having the objects and means of enjoyment for his body. not mechanical but organic.Text. we know the meaning of life. To understand it we must live in the Hindu life-stream. In this first part of the first chapter of the B. Enlightenment comes only with selfsurrender and we do not surrender ourselves so long as we cling to our ideas. This experic·nce is variedly interpreted but the interpretations are no subs tit utc for the experience. H. \\.

pure' . smaller than a grain of rice. sarvatra: everywhere. 'He to whom all works. prasiddha: well known. 2.Section 1 (1-8) MIND AS BRAHMAN Certain other passages which arc not clear about their reference to Brahman are taken into consideration in this part. The passage considered is C. He is satya-samlcalpa. 14. 2. is the inciividual soul. 1.U. 11. is not the individual soul but the Highest Brahman. maintain and dissolve the 1 1 1 M. is the individual soul or the Highest Brahman. vivall#ta-gu~wpapatte5 ea And because quali#es desired to be expressed are appropt·iate (in Brahman). 'He is my self within the heart.1 Since we are asked to meditate with a calm mind.U. without breath and without mind. mana-iiyattam jnanam prii1Jiiyattam sthitarh ea brahma1)o ni5edhati. 2. 2. etc. I. having true purpose. the object of meditation need not be Brahman. The object of meditation indicated by the qualities of 'consisting of mind'.U. Ill. etc. and not Brahman 'who is unborn. 68o. ea: and. vaktum i$la1il vivak$itam. The qualities useful in meditation belong to Brahman alone. etc. sarvatra prasiddhopade5iit (That wmich C01tsists of mi1td is Brahman) because of the teacln'ng of what is well known everywhere. This applies to the Highest Self which has unimpeded power to create. apply to the individual soul. upadesat: because of the teaching. For it is the individual soul that is connected with mind. smaller than a grain of barley'. ~tpapatte}J: because appropriate. vivak~·ita: desired or intended to be stated. etc.U.. The eight sutras of this first section show that the being which consists of mind.. mentioned in C. 14. The other descriptions. .... I.. H. 2 I. all desires belong'. whose body is breath. p. Ill. The objection is answered by the sutra which says that all the V cdiinta passages speak of the cause of the world. The doubt arises whether what is pointed out as the object of meditation by means of attributes such as 'consisting of mind'. 3 gtttta: qualities. P. says that the text which declares Brahman to be without mind and breath is meant to deny that the thought of Brahman does not depend on a mind and that its life does not depend on breath.

is something different from the attaining soul. which considers whether the passage in the Mahii-NiiriiyatJa U./iirc~vat. 4. The attributes of 'having true resolves'. It is omnipresent like iikiisa.: embodied one. siiriraJ. 3. vyapaddiit: being mentioned. sabda-vise$iit On account of the difference of words.hrti~v apratibaddha-saktitvat paramatmano'vakalpate. 2.G. I shall enter. 3) refers to J. satya-samkalpatvam hi sr$/i-sthiti-sa». 4. tu: but. But. It is true that God resides in the body but he is outside as well and is all-pervading. arc appropriate only to the Highest Lord and not the individual soul. vise$at: on account of difference. See C. III. 'The soul which obtains is the person meditating and the Highest Brahman that is to be obtained is the object of meditation.. 14. I. the self denoted by mano-maya. etc. 1 prapta jfva upasakal).). 1 s.. 1 Similarly in C. IV.Text. therefore. 2. etc. •' . Brahman. The individual soul resides in the body alone since he experiences the effects of his action in the form of pleasure and pain through the body. on departing hence. 14. space. The qualities of 'consisting of mind' and so on are applicable only to l>ralmum and not the individual soul. . na: not. ea: and. sabda: word. Ill.U.: not belonging to. an-upapattcJ. The passage considered here is C. :1. 13. Srikar~tha begins a new section (3-8) here. Translation and Notes 271 world. I.a or S£va. 'Into him. anupapattes tu na siiriraJ. as (the qualities des£red to be expressed) do not belo11g (to the individual soul. XIII. '2 Srika:tJtha suggests that the Supreme Self is Siva and not N iiriiyat. (VIII.a as he is the object to be worshipped and N iiriiyatJa is the worshipper. pt-apyanJ para?il brahmopasyam iti praptir anyad evedam iti vijflayate. kartr: agent. Brahman which possesses these qualities cannot be the embodied self. See also S. 7. Srika:tJtha concludes that it refers to Siva and not to N iircivana. B. 1) the Self is said to be 'free from sin'. puts it clearly. 5.U.. I.. 2.' Here the object of meditation is declared to be different from the meditator who is the individual souL One and the same thing cannot be both subject and object. karma-kartr-vyapadesiic ea And because activity and agent are (separateZy) mentioned. R. is not the embodied one. The embodied soul cannot possess the qualities mentioned in the Upani$ad.U. :~. U. karma: activity. (XI.

· and (this is to be understood) like space. He says that the Highest Self is free from al1 evil and is not subject to the effects of works as the individua] soul is. S. #i: so. ea: and. 3· 2. I. evam: thus. smrte(t: on account of smrti. tad-vat grht. III. na: not. \Vhen we grasp the truth that there is only one Universal Self. The passage considered is B. 6. smrtes ea And on account of smrti. XVIII. Space or iiluiSa. S. 1 yatha gha!a-karakady-upadhivasiit aparicchinnam api nabhab paricckinnavad avabhasate. . niiriiya1Jiil para·m brahma. ea: and. appears limited owing to certain adjuncts such as jars and other vessels. the omnipresent Brahman may be said to occupy a limited space.' 1 Here Brahman indicated by the word person in the nominative is distinct from the individual soul indicated by the locative. arbhakaukastviit: because of the abode being small: tat: that. there is an end to the whole practical view of the world with its distinctions of bondage. I.272 The Brahma Siitra The passage considered is in the Satapatha Brcihma1Ja. SrikaiJtha argues on scriptural authority that the Snpremc Being $i'l'a is other and higher than Niiriiya1Ja. the Lord is pleased when meditated upon as limited in. The difference is maintained bPtwecn the individual soul who is the meditating subject and the Highest Self which is the object of meditation. finds it easy to explain these sutras. 7. For the purposes of meditation. cet: if.J. vyapaddiit: being (so) designated. a siirirakam upiisakam param-iitmanatiz copasya1il smrtir dat'sayati. G. says. different from 5>h:a. for example.tetv atmaikatve bandha-mok$iidi-sarva-vyavahat'a-parisamaptir eva syiit. The two are different as they arc denoted by different words. arbhakaukastviit tad-vyapadesiie ea neti ccn 11a. ·uyomavat: like. akiisa. Although present everywhere. though in reality unlimited. 1. 2 R. X. 2.U. J. niciiyyatviit: being meditated.. l yatha vrihir va yavo va syiimako vii syiimiika-ta'tldulo vaivam ayam antat'iitman purtt$0 hiratlmaya!J.G. points out that the difference is not to be taken as real and that it is due to limiting adjuncts. nicliyyatvr"id evam 1yMnavac ea If it be said that (Brahman is) not (referred) because nf the smallness nf the abode and is so designated (we reply that t't is) not so because (Brahman) is to be meditated thus. na: not. 2. (Like a grain of rice or a grain of barley or a millet seed or the kernel of a millet seed thus that golden person is in the sc1f. Nimharka refers to C. 3 For ~rikaiJtha Niiriiyat. 3 and 4. 6.a is the worshipper. release and the like.

on account of the difference of nature between the individual soul and Brahman. whereas the Lord is not subject to it. Coexistence and consequent interrelationship do not imply the sharing of the same attributes. ~. na: not. 8.. it is aficcted by the imperfections of the different bodies. I. vaise$yiit If it be said that (because the 'individual soul and the Universal Self are one) there may arise experience (of pleasure and pain for the Universal Self also) it is not so si11ce there is difference in nature (of the two). . The individual soul undergoes pleasure and pain because it is subject to karma. acquires merit and demerit and is affected by pleasure and pain and so on. Bhaskara holds that simply because the Lord abides in the heart. it does not foJlow that he shares its experiences. though in connection with a burning place. I. vaisqyiit: on account of difference. means by vaise$yat.1 p. on account of the difference of the cause of en j oymcn t. Sec M. The ether. ata upasanartham eviilpatva-vyapadda/. The embodied self acts and enjoys. For H. On account of the difference between the two the experiences of the individual soul do not affect the Supreme Self. For S.l We worship the Supreme through an image. prapti/:t: attainment. sambhoga: experience.Text. 1 1 sarvagato'plsvaras tatropiisyamat. the Universal Self is of a different nature: it is free from all evil.1. so the Supreme Self abiding everywhere may very well be denoted as abiding within the hea.rt. cet: if. hetu. iti: so. So we cannot say that if Brahman has its abode in the heart and these heart-abodes are different in different bodies. R. 1. TranslaUon and Notes 2 73 connection with the eye of a needle. The Lord of the entire universe nmy be said to be the Lord of Ayodhyii. etc. satizbhoga-priipt£r iti cen na.-vaise$yfit.a/. Ill. yathii salaKrii11te hari/:t. for example. the limitations are not real. the Supreme Lord is designated to occupy a small abode only for purposes of meditation.U. does not burn itself. It is not living in the body but subjection to karma that involves a soul in the experiences of pleasure and pain. Nimbarka means by vaise$yiit. 2.-asfdati. 2 Balacleva remarks that the Lord may dwell in the heart of man because he is possessed of inconceivable powers.

guhiim: into the cave. tat: that. 621. 2 The Briihmat. 18. 1. attii carlicara-grahat. pravi$tau: who have entered. 1..U. guhiim pravi!}tiiviitmiinau hi tad-darsaniit The two who have entered into the cave are the selves (the indiv-idual soul and the Supreme Self) because that is seen.tiit The eater (is the llighest Self) on account of the taking in of (whatever is) movable and t'mmovable. The passage considered is Katha U. 2. 6 suggests fire and M. Are the two selves s. 2.274 SUPI~El\IE The Brahma Siitra Sec#on 2 (9-10) THE SELF AS THE EATER OF THE WORLD 1. Brahman is the eater because the movable and the immovable worlds are understood here as the food or because the two worlds arc taken in. p. 2. cariicara: movable and immovable. where the Briihmat. I.U. The general topic discussed in the Katha U. prakara1. iitmiittau: the (two) selves.1-iit: on account of the context. 4.U. Section 3 (11-12) THE SUPREME AND THE INDIVIDUAL SELVES IN THE CAVE I.tas and the Ksatrivas are treated as food and death itself as a sauce. 9. . grahattiit: on account of taking in. \Vhen the Upani$ad says that the Self does not eat but looks on. Against these objections. I. 22-23 is the Highest Self and so we should take it as the topic in that context. 2. ea: and. • P. (Ill. 11. 2. I.tas and the K$atriyas are mentioned as representatives of the whole world. 1 The doubt arises whether the eater is fire (agni) or the individual soul or the Highest Self. 2 sarva-vediinte ~u sr $/i-sthiti-samlzara-kiirat)atvena brahmataala prasiddhatviil. I) says that the Supreme Self looks on without eating. Graha1. hi: because. 25. I. I. 10. it means that the Self is not subject to actions.1-a may mean understanding or taking in or eating. The passage considered is Katha U. prakara1Jiic ea And on account of the topic under discussion. darsaniit: is seen. 3. the sutra affirms that the Supreme Self is the eater for he consumes or absorbs in himself the movable and the immovable worlds. B. attii: eater.

even as a group of men is described as having an umbrella though only one of them has it. See J{atha U.U. 2. (iii) The attribute of existing in the sphere of gootl works. ·vise$a~z£it: on account of distinctive qualities. 2. (I. the analogy of shade and light applies to the individual soul and intelligence. the other abstaining from eating but looking on. The dualism exists only within the sphere of experience. 23). the reference should be to the individual self and the Supreme Self and not to the inrliYidual soul and buddhi. Philosophers are not agreed about the 1 See P. S.. refers to the individual soul and the Suprc1nc Self. T. 9)1 speaks of the Highest Self as the abode of Vi$1J1t. When a man qualified for release dies and is released from bondage. 3.Text. belongs to the individual soul only and not to Brahm. (iv) The individual soul and the Supreme Self are correctly described as being disparate in nature. iitmiinau. ea: and. to final release. (Ill. 3 and 9) speaks of the body as the chariot and the individual soul as the charioteer making his journey from the world of becoming. The answer is given to these points: (i) As the two beings arc said to be of the same nature. and (ii) the individual soul and the Supreme Self and holds that the being which eats the fruit is the internal organ by means of which a man dreams and the being which merely looks on without eating is the individual soul. Another passage (I. I. (ii) If a special local position is assigned to the Omnipresent SPlf. no doubt. . 1. a doubt arises as to his existence or non-existence. 1. The passage from the M.U. refers to Katha U.U. jarja. 20 and says that the question raised by Naciketas relates to the problem of release. one eating the fruit. The opponent says that the reference is to the individual soul and intelligence: (i) For the cave is a small and special place and the Infinite Self cannot enter it. (ii) The statement that they enter the world of good deeds obviously refers to the individual soul and intelligence for they arc subject to the law of karma and not the Highest Self (B. 4. The two who have entered the cave have distinctive qualities. IV. They are not the same. it is for the purpose of meditation.U. 1 and 2) which refers to two birds. II. 3. smhsiira. I. quotes Pai1igi-rahasya Briihma?Ja which discredits the two interpretations of (i) the individual soul and buddhi. 1. Th(' individual soul is said to be the meditator and the Supreme Self the object of meditation. 1•ise~attiic ea And on accn11nt of the dist£1lct£ve qualities (tnen!z"oncd). for the former is intelligent and the latter buddhi is treated as non-intel1igent. J{af/za V. Translation and Notes 275 ~nt~ll~gence (buddhi) and ~he individual soul {jiva) or are they the md1v1dual soul and the H1ghest Self? Both alternatives seem to he possible. 12. R. (iii) Again. thougl1 it may apply to Brahman in a figurative \vay. 624-5. who is really not the enjoyer but the Supreme Brahman. pp.

6). or the sun. The other features mc'ntioned in C. sthiiniidi-vyapaddiic ea And on account of the statement of place and other things.U. Some hold that the Self is constituted by consciousness only and release consists in the total destruction of this essential nature of the Self.svarupasyavidyoccheda purvakasviibhavika-paramatmanubhavam cva mok$am acak$ate. I. or the individual soul who sees the forms of objects through the eye. the deity of the sense of sight which causes the eye to sec (B. ea: and. Ill. The answer is that it is not the only locality that is assigned to the Lord. the influence of the beginningless chain of works. 5. The objection is raised that the omnipre:sent Brahman cannot be confined to the eye. anye vitti-matrasyaiva satu'vidyastamayam. 2 Section 4 (13-17) THE PERSON WITHIN THE EYE IS BRAH . 1 R. sthiincidi: place and other things. 1. The point is raised that it may refer to the image of some person standing before the eye. declares that release consists in the intuition of the Highest Self which is the natural state of the individual souls and wh1ch follows on the destruction of ignorance. IV.The Brahma Sutra nature of release. 2. 15.U AN I.'idyii. 2 jfvasyanadi ·karma. 1 . 7.lJ. 6. The passage considered is C. Brahman.U.e. m:id_yii. I. IV. V. apare pa$ii1. though devoid of qualities. antara upapatte~ The Person within (the eye is Brahman) on account of aj)propriateness. 15. Release consists in a total removal of these qualities.: the Person within. the Self remaining in a state of pure isolation. 2). Not only place but name and form are attributed to Brahman (C. U. 2 apply only to God. antara). The sutra says that the Person in the eye is the Highest God for immortality and fearlessness are mentioned as his characteristics. upapatteh: on account of appropriateness. 2. It is sometimes said that the Self is itself nonconscious like a stone but possesses in the state of bondage certain distinctive qualities as knowledge and so on.U. 14. vyiipadesiit: on account of the statement. The eye is described as his abode. is spoken of as possessing qualities for purposes of kecid vitti-matrasy iitmana!z sva. 7. Earth and so on are mentioned as his residence (B. i. 13.. 3). Others deflne release as the passing away of ignorance.lakalpasyatmano jnanadyase$a-vai5e$ika-gurtoccheda-lak$artam kaivalya-rupam.-upocchitti-lak~artam mok$am acak$ate.tirohita. It cannot refer to Cod. a7.rupavidya.

. asambhaviit: because of impossibility. To the objection raised that the Person in the eye is either the reflection of someone standing before the eye. From all tlwse it follows that the person in the eye is no other than Brahtnan.I I. 4) is also referred to in the present passage. 10. ata!t: for that reason. IV. 2 H. I. here has another sutra which is not found in ~.Text.. I. sa: that.austu. l'Va: alone. it can only be Brahman. ea: also. that is Brahman. 5.k$ii. I.tkii:ra-vyapadeso'pi yogibhir drsyamanatvad upapadyate. fearlessness are ascribed to the Person in the eye. sukha: pleasure.. ata eva ea sa brahma: Also for that very reason. 24.. 10.U. 2. 17. abhidhiincit: on account of mention. srutopa n£~o. dc1•a-yiina.. na: not. 2. the beginning of the section (C. VIII. 2. The passage considered is Prasn. B. 15. Since immortality. U.a U. anavasthiter asambhavac ea nctara!z(The Person in the eye is) no other (than the Highest Self) because of the non-permanence (of others) and o1z account of tlze £mpossibiUty.afkagatyaoltidii m7c ea A !so un account l~( the tnottion of the path £if him u:/w has hcurd the Upani$ads. See also C. p. 15. Translation and Notes 277 meditation. Bhn. 413. ea: and or also. ea: and.bha. P. IV. 5. C. sruta 1tpanifjatka gati: the path of one who has heard the Upani~ads. since it serves the purpose of meditation.. 10 which describes the path of the gods. abhidhiiniit: on account of the mention. the answer is given that all these are nonpermanent. srutopanifjatl?a is one by whom the Upani~ad has been directly heard from a teacher. sukha-visi~tiibliidlziinad eva ea On account also of the moztion only (if what is characterised by pleasure. To assign a definite locality is not contrary to reason.:iisa which is denoted by kha is also Brahman. Hralmzan whicl~ is spoken of as being characterised by pleasure ai. Vediinta-1\.U. e1'a: only: ea: and. brahma: Rrahman. iiJ.mentions that the Highest is directly intuited by those who practisr )'Of!. IV. or the individual soul or the self of some deity. Nirhbarka and SrikarJtha have it.G. }{.skara and Baladeva. itara!z-: other. anavastkite!z: because of non-permanence.U. ·uisi~!a: characterised by.a or concentration of mincl. l G. SrikaiJtha takes this as a separate section dealing with the question whether the Person of the size of a thumb (AI iihiinariiya1Ja 1 1 sii.

U. sa paramatmaivopadhyavaccheda-kalpita-bheda/1. X. inclusive of the gods is an appropriate attribute of the Highest Self. antar_yamy adh£-daiviidht'-loklidi~u: The indwelling spirit of gods. 1 R. since omnipotence depends on the Omnipotent Ruler being the cause of all things. H. u.. I P. The qualities of selfhood and immortality belong to the Highest Self. antaryiimi: inner controller. quotes ~. 18.· dlzarma: defining or characteristic marks. (Ill. Vacaspati suggests that the Highest Self is not different from the individual self. 19) 'he secs without eye. 1 . If it is argued that the admission of an internal ruler in addition to the individual self will force us to assume again another and yet another ruler. ad infinitum. 7. 2. . 6. but the intuitive presentation of colour and sound. Ill. indwelling spirit. tat: his. He is decJarecl to be different from the deities of the earth.U. a11taryiimy adhidat't·iidi~u tad-dharma-vyapaddiit The Indwelling Spirit of gods and others (is the Self) for his (characteristic) marks are mentioned. BhamatJ. The objection that the Highest Self cannot be a ruler for he has no organs of action is untenable because organs of action may be ascribed to him since those whom he rules possess organs of action.The Brahma Stitra U. In the na canavasthii. The passage in question is B. or a _y·ngin who has acquired extraordinary powers or the Highest Self or some other being? The answer is given that it is the Highest Self for his qualities are mentioned. So the internal ruler is the Highest Self. Nimbarka read this sutra in a slight1y different wa}'. hi niyantrantaram tena niyamyate kith tu yo jfvo niyanttl alokasiddha~. hears without ear'2 and comments: what terms such as 'seeing' and 'hearing' really denote is not knowledge in so far as it is produced by the eye and the ear. 729··JO. the worlds and others. Section 5 {18-20) THE INDWELLING SPIHIT I. adltidaiviidi~u: in gods and others. \Vho lives inside and controls all? Is he the self of some deity. 3) is the Lord or someone else and concludes that he is the Lord and not any other on account of the non-permanence of others and the impossibility of any other view. dwelling within. the answer is that there is no ruler other than the Highest Self. it rules the entire aggregate of created beings. vyapadesiit: on account of mentioning. 1. etc. The universal rulership implied in the statement that.

eko hi pratyag-atmii bhavati. in the case of the Highest Self.taryiimitz01 bheda-vyapadeso na paramiirthikal. which is found at the hrginningof the next sutra in ~.believes that the dedaration of the difference between the embodied soul and the Indwelling Spirit has its reason in the limiting adjunct consisting of the organs of action prescntt:>d by ignorance.l~~l soul whose int_ellectual nature is obscured by R arman. ea: and. T.a-jatm1ii. 7. R. 19. a P. bhedena: as different. 1 . See B. na dvau. atat: not belonging to it. 4. smiirtam: assumed by the smrti. ubhaye: in both. 2 The KiitJvas read 'He who dwells in knowledge'. ~. But owing to its limiting adjunct the one Self is practically treated as if it were two. sa ea rupiidi-siik$iilkiiYal. api: also. on the other hand. 1 I. dharma: characteristics. For the ~df within is one only. enam: this. hi: for. yathii ghatiikiiso mahiikasa iti. abkiliipiit: on account of mention. the Supreme free from all cvi1:1 The two na ea darsana-sYavarzadi-sabdiU eak$1. it springs from its own nature. uses this to establish the difference between the individual soul and the Indwelling Spirit. for both the rescensions. 22. Translation and Notes 279 c~se of the ind_ivi<.and Nimbarka. Both refer to the individual soul and declare it to be different from the Indwelling Spirit. 229. U. na ea smiirtamatad-dharmiibhiliipiit And (the I ndwclling Spirit) is not that wln. the 1\. 20. parasya tu S'lJata eva. 3 R. sii. ea: and.rira'!z: the embodied self. R.dhi-krtal. To the suggestion that the Inchvelling Spirit is the (-'mbodied Self... na: not. Ill. and is not absolutely true. the sutra says that it cannot be.t1'iidi-ka1'a~zajaamano jniinasya viicakii api tu rftpiidi-srlk$iitkiirasya. and SrikaJJtha add to this sutra at the end siiriras ea. kayma-tirohita-svabhiivikajiiiinasya jtvasya cak$uriidi-kara'tl. 2. such mtmhve knowledge anses only through the mediation of the sense-organs. pratyag-atmiinau sambhavata/1. just as we make a distinction between the space in the jar and the universal space. ato atliaryiimf pratyag-atmano vilak~arzo'pahatapiipmii paramiitmii narayarza iti siddham. the Miidlzyandinas 'He who dwells in the self'. two internal selves are not possible. siirirascobhaye'pi hi bhedenainam adhiyate And the embodied soul Us not the I nd·welling Spirit) fur in both also it is taught as different. adhiyate: taught.iitJva and the JH iidkyandina describe the individual soul as different from the Indwelling Spirit. ekasyaiva tu blzeda-vyavahara-upii.clz -is assumed frv the smrti (the St7titkhya system) on account of the mention nf characteristics not bclouging to it (the pradhiina).Text. I avidyiipraty-upast/tiipita-kiirya-karatzopiidhi-n imitto' ya1iz siirtran. p.U. 2.

In I I. source. l. Ceremonial observances lead to worldly prosperity. 1. also. 1. Is bhuta-_von£. as the hair [grows] on the head and the body of a living person. ea: and. vise!Ja1Ja: distinctive qualities. the source of all existences. 3). 5-G. . 1. vise$a1Ja-bheda-vyapaddabhyii:lit ea netarau The two others (the individual soul and pradhiina) are not (the source of all beings) on account of the mention of distinctive qualities and d-ifference. The qualities mentioned belong to the pradhiina and the others like 'knowing a11' 'perceiving all' may refer to that which is higher than the pradhiina.280 The Brahma S£Ura are different because the individual soul is the abode and the Indwelling Spirit is the one who abides therein. then the embodied soul is the efficient cause. adrsyat·N'idigtt1Jako dharnwkte}:t That which possesses the qualities l~( inv-isibilt'ty and others (is Brahman) on account of the mention of the characteristics (peculiar to it). The imperishable source is spoken of as omniscient and the source of created things (I.~a. 22. The knowledge of pradhiina or the embodied soul does not produce knowledge of everything else. if the word yoni. I. everything else becomes known (I. the pradhlina. na: not. the embodied soul. bheda: difference. 2. 2. is taken as the efficient cause. 1 I. or Brahman? The opponent contends that the passag<: in the M. knowledge of Brahman leads to eternal life. Again. and lower knowledge. 1. 7): 'As a spider sends forth and draws in [its thread]. 1 adrsyatvadi-gu~ako bhiita-yonilJ paramevsara eva. The reference here is to the latter. 21. so from the imperishable arises here the universe' suggests that the world is produced by the non-intelligent pradhiina even though it may be guided by the intelligent puru. If Brahman is known. 2. So the reference in the passage is to Brahman and not to pradhiina or the embodied soul. adrsyat·viidi: invisibility and others. U. U. 7 and 9). itara!t: the two others. S. The passage considered is M. dharnwkte!z: on account of the mention of the characteristics. Section 6 (21-23) THE INVISIBLE AS BRAH!'r/ AlV I. The siUra refutes this view. as herbs grow on the earth. vyapadesiibhyiim: on account of the mention (of the two). The Upani5}ad distinguishes between higher knowledge. aparavidyii. para-vidyii. the same idea is under discussion. gu~zaka!z.: one who possesses the qualities. (I. the tirst leading to bliss and the second to worldly prosperity.

lasyaivopiidhi-bhtitam sarvasmiid vikiiriit paro. 23. is neither the pradhana nor the individual soul. I. yo' vikiirafz. niima-rupa-bija-sakti-rupam.U. etc.. makes out that the Imperishable is the unmanifcstecl entity which represents the seminal potentiality of all names and forms. imperishable' (II. 'Higher than the high. fsvartiSrayam. 4 R. forms limiting adjunct and being itself no effect is high when compared to other effects. distinguished by name and form and comprising all enjoying subjects and objects of enjoyment. imperishable. 1 .ratvena vi~va-rupatvam. enable the Highest Brahman to create and from the indestructible Highest Brahman. Imperishable' expresses a difference between the Imperishable and what is higher than that and so the reference is to the Highest Self. In M. rupa: form. svarupagutr-ai(a saha sarva-bhutiintariitmatayii viSva-~arf. 2) rules out these. S. has the character of devout meditation and consists in direct intuition of Rralzman. The qualities of omnisciencP. refers to the knowledge of the ~~f. Translation and Notes 28! Bhuta-yoni. 3-4. ' sarvajifiit satya-sarhkalpiit parasmiid b1'ahmarzo'k~ariid etad kiiryiikiiram brahma nama-rupa-vibhaktam bhoktr-bhogya-rupam ea jayate . and emits all things from itse1f. rupopanyii.siic ea Also. tasmiid viSva-sr $lim ea. for its outward form. • upasaniikhya1i·t brahma-sak ~~iitkiira-lak ~arzam bhakti-rupiipannarh jtiiinam.!. 1 R. 1. 2) and of difference 'higher than the high. 2. the source of all.U. .. bhuta-siik$mam. It pervades all effects.2 The apariividyii or lower knowledge mentioned in the M. I. . 6.Text. 1.U. may be explained etymo]ogically as either that which pcr\'ades (asnute) or that which does not pass away (a-k~·arati). 5 The term ak~ara. II. upan_yiisiit: on account of the description. avyakrtam. The Highest Self constitutes the Self of all things and has all things for its body.a) llrahman arises. develops his own view of the relation of God to the world in his commentary on this sutra. 1. 1 tat-priipti-lzelur jniinam ea karma coklam mahamune iigamottham vivekiic ea dvidhii jnanam tathocyate. it does not pass away or decay. the effect (luir_•. II. V cda up to the dharrna-. This prepares for the intuition of Brahman. for the mention of attributes 'all-pervading' (M. ea: also. on account of the description of (lzt"s) form. there is a description of the form which can ak$aram. contains the subtle parts of the material elements.{iistriis. darsayati. In eith{'r sense it applies to the Highrst Self. abides in the Lord. a brahma-siik fiitkiira-hetu-bh uta1fz parok $a-jniinam. 3 The higher kind of knowledge is called up(isanii. quotes Parasara to the effect that 'the cause of attaining him is knowlrdge and work and knowledge is twofold according as it is based on sacred tradition or arises from discrimination' . tasmiit paratafz para iti bhtdena vyapaddan param-iitmiinam iha vivak~itari. 1.

for the purposes of meditation.282 The Brakma Sutra belong to God alone and not to the individual soul or pradhiina. 1. H. the terms refer to the Highest Self. va£svii1lara!l: Vaisviinara. God possesses within him all the stages of all the effects and so the description of the several worlds and beings as the limbs of God is adequate. V. The question is raised whether the word Vaisviinara refers to the fire in the body. I. Pradhiina cannot be the self of all and the individual is of limited power. 4-9) describes the creation. who is the s~7. (X. Section 7 (24-32) VAISVANARA IS BRAHMAN I. Does the word self mean the individual soul or the Highest Self? The sutra says that though the words V aisviinara and Self have various meanings. or the element fire or the deity fire. Baladcva has a sutra here. 1 V aisviinara is the self of the worlds and is described as having head. 2. siidluira1Ja-sabda-vise~iit V a£sviinara . siidhiira1Ja: common. U. 'he eats the food in all worlds. This is not found in other commentaries. 3.' He n1ay be called the inner self of all beings. yena paramesvara-paratvam tayor avagamyate.U. eyes.U.. If the sftlra refers to l\1. 21.J. M. It means 'on account of the context'. 10). V. the breath of life in everything. 24. 1) says: 'H ira1Jya-garbha arose in the beginning. 1. So V a£svtinara refers to Brahman. The general topic of discussion is also Brahman. he was the one born lord of things existing. etc.U. V. (the H-ighest Self) on account of the distinction (qual1jying) common words.J tathapi vise~o drsyate. sabda: word.triitman of the later V cdiinta. The passage considered is C. the inner self of which is not the Highest Self but Hira~t_va-garblza. iitma-sabdd ea dvayoi. . (II. mentions an alternative view that the inner self of creation is H ira1J_va-garulza or Prajii-pati and not the Highest Self. 18. (II. beings and self' has meaning onJy with reference to God. viz. The statement regarding the result of meditation on Vaisviinara. 11. then the Highest Self is described. on account of the distinction mentioned. vaisviinaral. prakara1Jiit.. He estab1ishcd the earth and the sky. J yady apy etiivubhiivapy iitma-vaisviinara-sabdau siidhiirat~-a-sabdau vaisvanara-sabdas tu trayiit~-iim siidhli:rat~-ai. As the cause of all. vise$t'it: on account of the distinction. So also the passage in C. 24.

whose eye the sun. na: not. it must have a sruti text for its basis.1a na devatii bhutam ea For the same reason (the Vaisviinara) is neither the deity (of jirt~) nor the element (of fire). it is objected. 2. iti: because. upaddiit: because of the teaching. so the reference is only to the Supreme Self. bhutam: element. whose navel the ether. 4· 1 k~itil) . cet: if. ata e1. I.Text.B. sabdiidibhyo'ntaJ. whose feet the earth. thus. 'He whose mouth is fire. the Scripture speaks of Vaisviinara as abiding within. (we say) not so. 25.: on account of word. p1tru. reverence to him. etc. api: also. ea: and.U. anta~: within. 27. smaryamii1Jam: that which is stated in the smrti. Vaisviinara. Again. 18. Translation and Notes I. So he is not the Highest Self. 11. iti: so. sy{7d: may be. na: not. I.: Santi Parva 47: 65. The reply quotes passages where we are advised to look upon Va£sviinara as the symbol of Brahman. M. 6. 1. whose ears tl1e regions. 1. yasyiignir asyam dyaur murdha kham nabhis carattau suryas cak~ur disal) srotram tasmai lokii. prati#haniit: on account of abiding. See also M... V. 2. and on account of his abt'ding U. we arc taught by the Vajaseneyins to look upon V aisviinara not as residing within man but as a person. Again. The fom1 of punt$a or person cannot be assigned to the fire in the body. ea: and. puru$ant: person. 26. because of the teaching of the vist'on (of the Lord) thus. cnam: him. tathii dr~tyu­ paddiid asambhavad puru$am api cainam adhiyate If it be said that (Vaisviinara is the fire in the body and) not (the lNghest Self) on account of the words. 2).tmane namal).. ea: and. anumiinam: inference. etc. dr~ti: vision. tathii: in that way. devatii: deity.!itkin (which 'is the clzaractcristic of the fire residing in the body). asambhaviit: because of the impossibility. na: not. ataft: therefore. the self of the world. whose head the heavenly world.' 1 From the shape described in the smrti passage we infer a sruti text on which the smrti rests and that is the Chiindogya passage mentioned in the previous sutra. IJ. eva: also. The reference is to the passage in the Vi~1JU Purii1Ja.~a-vidham is puru~iiki'iram. is the ftre within the body because of several passages (Satapatha Briihma~ta X. on account of impossibility and because also they speak of him as the Person. C. adhiyate: is taught or studied. smaryamii:JJam anumiinam syiid iti Because that which is stated in the smrti is an inference. The attributes mentioned apply to the Highest Self and not to the fire in the body.U.-prati#hiinlicca ncti cen na.. Forpuru~am we read in some versions 'puru~a-vidha1'h'. 2. sabdiidibh_vaJ. Even if the smrti passage is taken as a eulogy.

ttha take abhivyakti to mean definiteness. 2. even if (the Highest Self is taken as the object of worship as Vaisviinara) directly. V. siik!jat: directly. I. darsayati: shows.. I. the Supreme is measured by a span (C. api: even. 1{. the same (Scripture) shows.: on account of imaginative identification. visvas ciiya~h naras ea visvavara!J. 2 I. this sutra answers that the Supreme though he transcends all measurements manifests himself for the beneftt of his devotees in limited forms.z. (iii) the ruler whose subjects are the souls. 31. visve~iim viiyam nat<ap. qbhi1Jyakte!t: on account of manifestation. explains the term Vaisviinara in three ways: (i) the Self of all things including the soul. 1 It means the Highest Self. 30. tathii hi darsayati According to Jaimini. avirodham: no contradiction. says ]aimi·ni.z.: on account of remembrance.The Brahma Stltra 1t has been shown that V aiS?Janara does not apply to the fire in the body. tathii hi: the same. 2. biidari~: Biidari. etc. For helping the thoughts of the devotees. So V aisviinara is the Highest Self. iti: so. 2. the Lord assumes definite fonns. I. 18. not as a symbol but as God himself. visve va nat'tJ asyeti visviinara!l pa. amtsmrter bci. 2. On account of remembrance (thinks) Biidari.: Jaimini. abhityakter ity iiSmarathya!t On account of mamfestation (thinks) Asmarathya.z. (God is said to be a span in length) on account of itnaginative identification. The Highest Self is said to be measured by a span since he is remembered by means of the mind located in the heart which is of the measure of a span. 28. 1 . If the objection is raised that according to the Scripture. anus1nrteJ.: Asmarathya. jaiminil. 29. here it is said that it cannot be the deity fire or the element fire. as the head of either of these. (There is) no contradiction.U.-am-atma sat<viitmakatviit. (ii) the cause of all modifications. We cannot call heaven. siik!jiid apy avirodhmn jaiminil. S. and Srikar.z.. sampatteJ. 1). tismarathyaJ. smnpatter iti jaimini!z. Or the Highest Self though not really measured by a span is to be remembered (meditated upon) as being of the measure of a span. 2 pradda-miitt<a-hrdaya-prati#hitena viiyam manasanusmaryate. Even if we worship Vaisviinara. tena pradesamatra ity ucyate. there is no contradiction.daril. jaimini!J: ] aemini.

abhi-vimimfte sarvam ity abhi-vimiina. 11-18) is the same in essentials. The text considered is]iibiila U. 11) and in the C. as the cause of the world. iimananti: (they) speak. 1. Translation and Notes The account of Vais1'(tnara in the Satapatlza Briihma1Ja (X. moreover. astm:n: in that. ea: and. The statement which ascribes to the Highest Self the measure of a span is appropriate. For him the Supreme is said to be of the measure of a span on account of his mysterious power..Text. 6. U . 32.. So J aimini says that it is appropriate to call the Highest Self pradda-miitra and the Scripture declares him to be so imagined for the purpose of meditation. The Highest is called abhi-vimiina 1 for the inward self of all. 895. creates it. he is directly measured or known by all sentient beings or the word may be explained as 'he who is near everywhere-as the inward self-and who at the same time is measureless'.U. enam: him.e. (V. I. 1 . who. abhigata~ ea vimiinas ea abhi-vimiinab: 2 See P.. measures it out.. Baladeva takes sampatt£ to mean mysterious power. By all this it is proved that Vaz's1•iinara is the Highest Lord. Both the passages use the expression 'measured by a span'. or else it may denote the Highest Lord as he. p. 2. amananti cainam asmin Moreover they (the Jabalas) speak ((~(the !Jighest Self) in that (the space between the forehead and the chin). i.l. I. 2 abhi vimtyate ity abhi-vimiinab.

The goal of the released is Brahman. It may be pradhiina or air (B. Atman is said to be sat or reality in C. 2. 8. 10. B. II.U. IV. II. II. mukta: the released. the earth and the rest (is Brahman) because of the 'l£'ord 'ou·n'. 4.U. 3. earth. U. VI. and whom the text declares to be the aim to be achieved by those who. 1 It is to be known as one homogeneous substance. This is said to be the bridge to immortality.U. 5 which speaks of the being 'in whom the sky. Bhamatf. upasrpya: to be attained. The Person therefore who is the abode of heaven.self. having freed themselves from good and evil. sva-sabdiit The support of the heaven. 11).U.Section 1 (1-7) BRAHlliAN IS THE SUPPORT OF HEAVEN. etc. R. holds that those freed from samsiira attain to Brahman for the state of satitsiira consists in the possession of name and form. and Nimbarka add 'ea' at the end of the sutra.. which is due to the connection with non-conscious matter. see also B. 7.U. ETC. II.rthato brahma 11a t'u yad brahma tat sarvam ity arthal. I. R. 4. 1. 3. 8. The passage considered is M. (I I. The word 'bridge' does not mean that there is anotl]('r bank. 2. Ill. and hence from all contact with matter. 4. denotes Brahman and not unintelligent matter or the individual soul. 12. abode. 8. in his comment on this sutra argues that the world and Brahman should not be regarded a~ separate from each other.ed by this world of manifold effects. Ill. IV. S. from the roots£. 2) or the individual soul. The Self is not to be regarded as many or as q ualifi. This is the implication of other passages in M. 2. muktopasrpya-vyapadesiit dyublzviid~viiyatanatiz. bht'l: earth. The use of the word iitma1l. Sl'a-sabdiit: because of the word 'own'. EARTH. the earth and the inter-space are woven as also the mind along with all the vital breaths'. 21. to bind.. attain supreme 1 yat sarvam avidyii. . It means only that the knowledge of Self is the means for attaining immortality. iiyatanam: support.. It holds together or lends support. 2. d_yu: heaven. And because it is mentioned as that to be attained by the released. such connection springing from good and evil works. lidi: and the rest. 7. See M. The point is raised that this being is different from Brahman which is said to be without end and without any other bank. I. 4.U. vyapadesiit: because it is mentioned. 2. I.ropita1h tat sarvam paramii.

1 tam evaikant janatha atmanam. words like omniscient. I.pair nira1ijanai!J prakrtisamsarga-rahitalz. The latter is the abode of heaven. The individual sou] i~ not the support of heaven. etc. 9). I. earth. anumiinam: what is inferred.S ea. on the other hand. I. a distinction is made between the knower and the known. pare1_1a brahmat. \Ve cannot infer that the support of heaven. I. ea: and. ~~. na: not. and ~r1kal)tha take this and the next siUra as one. bhedavyapadesiic ea And on account of the declaratio1t of difference. 11£inu11u'inam atacchabdat Not that 'l£'lziclz is inferred on account of there bet:ng no text to i-ndicate it. Though the individual soul is intelligent. 4. ato vidhl'ita-pu. 1 I.U. on any account. atac-chahdiit: on account of there being no text to indicate it. earth. Some readers omit 'ea' at the end. \Ve argue that every effect must have a cause and that cause another and so on until we reach an uncauscd first cause. 3.manipabhiiktvam eva hi sanuaralz. etc. is j>radluina or air since there is no word to suggest it. 2. (M. The individual soul seeking release is the knowcr and the Highest Self is the object of knowledge. 'Know him alone as the Self' 2 (M.U. it is not omniscient and aJl-pcrvading.1ya-p. 1 . priittabhrc ea (n.. 3.1.Text. R. It cannot. earth and the rest for thr: reason that there arc no texts to indicate it.. The individual soul may be taken as the instrumental cause of the world since its unseen store of merit and demerit requires the world for enjoying the fruits. 5)..1ya-papa niraiijanii na. he called the material cause of the world. Translation and Notes oneness with the Highest Brahman. t~'ipiihhylim sarhsiira-bandhad vimukta eva hi t'idh171a-pu1. etc. vimuktii. vyapade5iit: on account of the declaration. can be none other than the Highest Brahman itself. This is the reasoning adopted by the Siirhldzya systC'm to establish the reality of praclhiina. prii?Ja-bhrt: the bearer of the vital breaths. II. In the text. pu~zya-papa-nibandhano 'cttsa1'izsarga-prayukta-nli.1 pttru$ab param hrahmaiva.ii pm·am-siimyam-iipamzaib prii}>yataya nirdi~to dyu-prthifJyiidy-ayalana-bhuta/. Prad/ziina is arrived at by inference. 5.ot) tlze bearer of the vital breaths (the individual soul) too. ea: and. bhcda: difference. As the effects are non-conscious the cause is inferred to be non-conscious since the cause and the effect areassumrd to be of similar nature. indicate that the support is an intelligent being.

3. priit}a. Sec Srinivasa's V cdiinta }{austubha. suggests.ta. sam-prasiidat: to the state of serenity. The passage considered is C. one who eats and the other who looks on. VII. The whole chapter in M. 1.U. 6. priit. 7. prakarat}iit Ott account of the context. I. sthit_v-adaniibhyiim: on account of abiding and eating. considers here M. 23 and 24. the individual soul limited by the adjuncts is not the Highest Self and the latter alone is the support of heaven. The passage considered is M. The former is the individual soul. I. the latter is the Supreme Self. 8. 3.ta is affirmed to be the greatest of all and Bhuman is said to be priit. Even the statement that he sees nothing else. sthiti: abiding. Even if the two birds are taken to tnean buddhi or understanding and the individual soul devoid of upiidhis or adjuncts. 8. The bridge to immortality. as the Paingi U. hears nothing else and understands nothing else. 15. S. It must also be the topic here. or the Highest Se1f. Sanat-kumara tells Narada that Bhuman is that where one sees nothing else. bhumii: Bhuman. hears nothing else applies to a condition in which all the senses .ta is said to be an ati-viidin (VII. There are two birds. I.U. the support of heaven and the rest is the Supreme Self. ea: and. adlzi: additional to. discusses the nature of the Highest Self. I. bhumii sam-prasiidiid adhyupadesiit The Bhuman is Brahman since the instruction (about it) is additional to the state of serenity (deep sleep). Another reading sthityodaniiblzycim sthiti and odana. 2 and refers to the distinction between the bewildered and grieving individual soul and the detached Supreme Self. upadesat: on account of the instruction. Secl£on 2 (8-9) BHOJ\! AN IS BRAJJJ\f AN I.288 The Brahma SiUra R. both dwelling on the same tree. etc. adana: eating. the soul of all. Ill. 4). He who knows the priit. points out that the distinction between the individual soul and Brahman is no more real than that between the ether within a jar and the universal ether. sthity-adaniibhyiin·z ea And on account of (the tze'O conditions) abiding and eating.U. The doubt arises whether it is the life-principle. The objector makes out that Bhuman is priitJa for after a series of questions about what is greater and greater still. ~1. V.

III.. So Bhuman is the Highest Self. 2) indicates the non-attachedness of the self. omnipresence. ambara: sky or space. Satit-prasc"ida 1 is serenity and refers to the state of deep sleep as it is mentioned along with the states of waking and dream (B. 5. VII.U. K . 1).a is also treated as the self of all (C. I). Vll. dhrtcl. truth.a (C.a (sec Prasna V. 23. :~.a. upapattc~z: on account of appr<>JJriateness. It is spoken of asthenaveofthewheelinwhich all the spokes of the things in the world arc fixed. 2-l.a and Hhiiman is described as subsequent to prii1Jta an<l so must refer to an entity different from it. The qualities of immortality. self-existence and being the self of all apply to the Highest Self and Blziiman. 1). The absence of the activities of seeing. 1V. Sanat-Kumara Jeacls his pupil N arada by a series of steps beyond pra1J-a to Bhtiman. I. anta: end.U. The immortality of Bhuman can apply to prcit. 2) and only the priit. K. IS. dharma: attributes. is different from what is said about prii~z. sec also i~. Priit. It belongs to the priit. The answer to this is that Bhu11zan can represent the Highest Self. VII. I V.U. I). 3.U. 1 sam-prasidaty asminu iti sam-prasadaft. dharmopapattes ea And on account of tht? ajJpropriatencss of the attributes. I.U. 10. U. 3. IV. etc. in the state of deep sleep (Prasna U. Pni1Ja is a product since it is said to spring from the Self (C. Translation and Notes 289 become merged in priit. VII. I. 2-l. What is said about Bhutn.·dgc of truth.a keeps awake. The same topic is continued to the end of the chapter with the sole change of the word Self (iitman) for Bralzman.. U. ~i. 32. al~~aram ambart"intadhrte(e The Imperishable (is Brahman) on account of its supporting (all things) up to space. V11. ea: and. Hhiiman is said to reside in his own glory (C. S'cction 3 (I 0--12) THE IMPERISHABLE IN WHICH SPACE lS \\'OVEN IS BRAJ11HAN I. U. The statement regarding the ati-1•iidin is made not only with regard to the man who has the knowledge of prii~ta hut also later \Vith regard to one who has the knowh. Vll. 9. 15). IV.U. ak~aram: the imperishab1e. 2G. 2). 24. U. JS). B.Text. The attributes assigned to the Highest Self awl lUzuman agree (see C.: because it supports. The serenity of deep sleep applies to Hrahman or llht1man and not to prii~ta for it is said to he great and not little (C.

(II. If it is argued that the cause which supports all effects called the Imperishable is pradhana and not Bralnnan.aram). says that the supreme command through which all things in the universe are held apart cannot possibly belong to the individual soul in the state of either bondage or release. 17) says: 'It is called pra~tm'a because it is effective in restraining the senses and directing them to the Supreme Self. paramatmanariz pratJamayati iti etasmat pra?. says that the support of that pradhli-na cannot itself be tliC pradhana. sa: this. Ill.U. It is called prat. ' prasasanarit ea paramesvaram karma nacetanasya pradhanasya prasasanam sambhavati .J. 6 It belongs to the Supreme Person. which is allpervading (asnute) and so can refer to Brahman only. A um is used as a symbol for Brahma·n for purposes of meditation.tam baddha-muktobhayavasthasyapi pratyag-atmanal~ sambhavati. sa ea prasiisaniit And this (supporting) (belongs to the Highest Lord only) on account of cmrmuznd. Akiisa is referred to as being woven as warp and woof in Ak$ara in B. Ill. R. If it is suggested that the a'mbara may be the pradhiina. 8.The Brahma Siitra The passage considered is B.U. .sam sva-sasanadlzlna-sarva-vastu-vidhara?. The conclusion is that while all things find their support in akasa. Srinivasa accepts this position. Bhoja's Yoga-siUra-vrtti.tava because it is the best stotra. l t is also called pra~ava.tava!t. and the latter is cit-sakti. for non-conscious causes such as clay and the like are not capable of command3 with reference to their effects such as • Jars. Does ak~ara refer to the syllable or the Highest Self? The objector mentions the collection of fourteen sutras which Pii~tini is reported to have received from Sa:rilkara. 23. 8. akasa itself is supported by Ak!Jara. S. etc. prakar$e~a nuyate anena £ti prat. 1 prakr~tam sasanam: unrestricted commanding. Ill.J puru§ottamo eva prasiisitr 1 1 ak~aram.tavai.U. 7 and 8. C. 8. R. al?$ara-samamniiya.tha suggests that there is a di fferencc between the support and what is supported. atai. The former is lJralzman. 3. 11. prasiisanat: on account of command. (I. the answer is that it is the work of God alone and not non-conscious pradhiina (see B. 2 Brahman as the support of iikiisa is Brahman as Isvara. 11. Ak$ara is that which is not perishable (11a k:r. 6 na cedr.U. ea: and. I. It can only be the Brahman. Srikm. 4) mentions the syllable A um as the symbol of Brahman. 9). 1 Atharva-$ikha U. na hy acetananatit ghatadi-kara·~zanam mrdadinam gha{adi-vi~ayam prasasanam asti. pra:~zan sarvan. -1 R. the Self of all and worthy to be meditated upon.

Though it is possible that an object of meditation may be unreal. When it is said that there is no other seer but the Imperishable. Section 4 ( 13) THE SYLLABLE AUl\1 sal. The Imperishable is Brahman.ya-garbha the cosmic Person 3 including in him all the jivas.t: on account of exclusion. hearing and perceiving. without mind' (B. Anandagiri. bhiiva: nature. 3· 77. prii'l)ab sutrii. he (is the Highest Self).ya-garbha is the vital principle in all creatures. Ill. no other hearer. 3. When jiva-ghana is itself said to be transcendent. Pattini: IV. l~anna: action. as the use of the words para and puru$a indicate. it is only in the sense that it transcends the sense-organs and their objects. it is not a worthy reward for one who knows the Highest Self. From the 1 PiruJalf. sah: he. 1 3 . which pradhiina is not capable of (B. 5) but that which transcends it. Hirat.{na U. V.t On account of the mention as tlzc object of seeing. 1 To all this S. V.tmii. Translation and Notes I. anya: different. para-puru~a. 8. The I m perishable cannot be the pradhiina for the Ak!jara is said to be seeing. sthulo dehab. Scripture also holds that the Highest Person is Brahman. answers that the object of meditation is the object of sight. 3. samyag-darsana-vi$ayf-bhuta. ·~.U.. without ears. It is said that he will reach the Highest. anyabhiivavyiivrttes ea 291 And on account of the exclusion of a different nature. 8). Other alternatives are excluded. ik~ati-karma-vyapadesiit objector contends that as the reward promised is a limited one confined to brahma-loka.U. 8.Text. thinks that the passage (J>ra. 2) refers to Brahman without determinations and not Brahman with detenninations. Ill. ea: and. but this has reference only to the physical body. 1I). the man who meditates on the Aum with its three elements does not stop there but goes further along in attaining the vision of the Highest Self which exceeds the jiva-ghana and yet dwe1ls in them all. 13. the object of sight must be real and existing. Even the limiting adjuncts are excluded for the Imperishable is said to be 'without eyes. The I. 12. Or if jiva-ghana is taken as referring to the brahma-loka presided over by Brahnui or Hirat. 1')'apade8iit: on account of mention. without speech. ili:sati: seeing. The Highest Self is the object of meditation and perfected sight or intuition. milrttarh ghanab. S. 2 The object of meditation is not the jiva-ghana (Pra5na U. vyiivrttel. etc. individual souls arc excluded.

R. 1). VI. 1.iithipati. Section 5 (14-21) AK.ptib. S. dhyana-phalatviid fk$arz. 2 The doubt considered by R. who is constituted by the aggregate of the individual souls. R.iilambanena . it may be conceived as two. holds that the reference is to the Highest Person ls·uara and not Brahmii. one inside payamiitmiinam abhidhyayata}). kramerta ea samyag-darsanotpattir iti.yau. In the AdhikaratJa-ratna-miilii.s catur-mukha/1-. 3 as he who meditates on Aum as having one miitrii obtains the world of men. In other words. we pass to the meditation of the Indeterminate. 15. he who mcditatC's on it as having two miitriis. For the text savs that the object of seeing is the Highest Self (C.U. The objection is raised that it refers to Brahmii or H£rat._ya-garbha. 3. answers that the Highest Person is referred to and not Bralznui. 3 jiva-sama~ti-rupo·~uf. 18) and his world is perishable. phalam lwahma-loka-prii. It may mean the element (bhutiilliisa). S. Both these discuss the question whether iikiisa within the lotus of the heart is the element iikiisa or the individual soul or Brahman. 14. uttarebhya!z: on account of what follows. 1 R . it relates to I svara or Brah mii. obtains the world of the atmosphere and so those who meditate on it as having three syllables reach the world of Brahmii. one attains to freedom by debrrecs along with Bralmzii. The passage considered is C. says that the reference is to Brahman without detcrminations.4$A WITHIN THE HEART OF BRAHAJAN I. Though it is allpervading. This collective soul is higher than the many souls which are associated with the body and the . it is spoken of as small since it is located in the heart.t The small (space) (is Brahman) on account of what follows. dahara uttarebhyaJ. the sutras 14-21 are divided into two sections comprising 14-18 and 19-21. U. 1 tri-mii. dahara: small. krama-mukty abkipriiyam etad bhavi. U. H.sense-organs. VIII.~yati. I1rahmii is himself y"l1'a-ghana for he is created (S. the question relates to Brahman or I svara.asya. Though there is one iikiisa.tre~au?nkiirerz. is whether the Highest Person mentioned in the text is Hira'I}J'a~arbha or the Lord of all. a atya dhyiitfk~ati-sabdiiv eka-vi~a. The doubt arises whether 'small' here refers to the element iikiisa or the individual soul or Brahman. Hira~tya-garbha. IV. \Vhile for S.The Rrahma S'lilra worship of tlw determinate. for R. H. holds that meditation and seeing have the same sense as seeing is the result of devout meditation.

it cannot be said to be allpervading like iikiisa. V.U. 5. gati-sabdiibhyiim: on account of the movement and of the is the city of tl1c individual soul. we are told that Hralzman resides in the body in close proximity with the devotee even as the image of Vi$~'U is said to be accessible in the siilagriima stone. 1 I.Us sannihitab iti tadvat.U.•athii siilagriime ViHJ. 1 but is useful for its realisation. 5. S. it means the city of Brahman. ling am: reason for inference.answers these points. V. 3.U. If the reference is to the individual soul. 3). 15. 18. 1 athavii jfva-pura eviismin brahma sannihitam upadek:<.) This body is not only the abode of Uralmzan. 1.) I>ahara may also mean the quality of something else residing ·within the sma11 iikiisa in the heart and in no case can it apply to Brahman who is not connected with body. II. It is spoken of as small since it is compared to the point of a goad. (Prasna U. 2 When we fmd that the results of the knowledge of the dahara are imperishable as compared with the perishable nature of the results of works. 6. etc. Translation and Notes 293 and the other outside. The reference is to C.yate. These qualities cannot apply to the element iikiisa. where it is said that all creatures here go day after day into the Brahma-world. (S. 1) suggests that the seat is cit-saktz' and what is seated is Brahman.Text. U. Bhiimatf. (C.U. for the purpose of meditation and it is possible to compare them (C. 8. Brahma-loka is Brahma1t and not the world of the god Hrahmii. I. 2. 1.) SrikarJtha holds that the passage stating that what is within dahariikcisa is to be sought (C. gati-sabdiibhyii'li~ . VIII. VI. S. it is said that during sleep the individual soul becomes one with pure being. 8. Brahma-pura is the city in the form of the body and the Lord of the city is the individual souL The soul dwells in the lwart which is the seat of mind. U. Here the word 'creatures' is used for the individual souls and Bralzma-worid for the small one. tatlzii hi dr$/atit liizga'lit ea (The small is Brahman) on account of the movement and of the umrd for thus it is seen (elsewhere) and there is reason for inference as well. Even if bra/z. The space within is said to be as large as the space without. dr$fam: it is seen. The term 'world of upalabdher adhi~fhilnam brahma~a deha i~yate teniisadhiira~atve11a deho bfahma-puram bhavet. it is clear that dahara refers to the Highest Self and not to the individual soul. ea: too. VIII. Dahara does not refer to the element iikiisa. . VIII. VIII. It is free from sin. U. Brahma-pura need not mean the city in which the individual soul resides. in C. sec also B. tathii hi: for thus. 3. Again. I. for the teacher asks us to search and understand that which is in the heart and it cannot be the element iikiisa.

I.. cen: if. dhrte}J: because of support..: because it is found or observed. I. asambhaviit: for it is impossible. 8. Dahara is the Highest Self. that ·an these beings spring forth from iikiisa' (C. The objector takes up C. (we say) no for it is impossible. I. The greatness of the dahara or the small is indicated in B. itara-pariimarsiit sa iti cen niisambhaviit If it £s sa-id that on account of reference to the other (the ind. 3. vidual soul). (VIII. reference to the clement of iilliisa is rejected. 4. VIII.U. pariimarsiit: on account of reference.. 14). 4 and argues that sam-prasiida applies to the individual soul. 4. upalabdheJ. SrikaJ. na: no.U.ltha refers to passages in the 1H ahii U. qualities such as freedom from sin cannot apply to a being who is limited by adjuncts. they interpret the words differently. answers that the individual soul qualified by the adjuncts of buddhi. 22. i he is (the dahara). prasiddhe}J: because it is well-known. asmin: in him. asmin: in the small space. dhrtes ea mahimno'syiisminn upalabdhe}J (The small is Brahman) beca-use of support also and because his greatness is observed in him. 3. support and boundary which keeps the worlds apart. points out that the individual soul cannot be the dahara as the qualities attributed to it such as freedom from sin. cannot be compared with the unlimited iikiisa. 17. In the previous sutras. Again. 9. iikiisa cannot mean the element but only the Highest Self. iti: thus. asya: his (the Supreme Self's). When it is said that iikiisa alone manifests names and forms (C. where the Supreme Lord is said to be the object worshipped as abiding in the small lotus (of the heart). 3. The sutra reads: Because supporting the worlds is a greatness of him (the Lord) is observed in it (the small space). 9. reference to the individual soul is considered. S. 18. I. and Kaivalya U. 3. SrikaJ)tha and Baladeva adopt the same view. asya: of the Lord. See also IV. . sa: he (is the small). 1) declares that the Highest Self is the bridge. VIII. etc. 1). C. can apply only to the Supreme Lord.U. 'mahimnab: greatness. R.. ea: and.294 The Brahma Si7tra Brahmii' in apposition with the word which refers to the small one is an inferential mark that the small one is Brahman. R. etc. itara: other. ea: and. Ill. 16. In this and the following sutras. prasiddhes ea And because it is well known (that dahara is the Highest Self).U. U..

·the individual soul whose nature has become manifest is no longer the individual soul. Ill. If it be objected that if the true nature of the individual soul is Brahman. uttarat: on account of what is subsequent. If it has no such knowledge it remains an individual soul bound up with the upadhis. whiledeclaringthatheis teaching the truth of the Splf which is free from sin.: be said (tlzat dahara ·is the individual soul) on account of subt sequent (stale'ments). dream and sleep but the self which has manif<'sted its real nature. 1 paramatmano jfvad anyatvarh dra#aya. seeing. S. 31. 2. S. jfvas)•a tu na parasmad anyalvatn 1 pratipipadayi~ati.. 2. The moment discrimination arises.. Praja-pati gradually leads us on to the true nature of the individual soul as nothing but the Highest Self. He distinguishes the Highest Self from the individual soul but does not distinguish the individual soul from the Highest Se1f. the dream and sleep con<litions of the individual soul and it is the indiYidual soul which rises in the fonn of sam-prasiida from the body. sp<'aks only of the individual soul. Vlll. which comes after the daharavidyii between Indra and Virocana on the one hand and Praja-pati on the other. . According to S. 2 The latter as the support vivekavivekfimiitrct:zaivatmano' sarfratvam sa-sarfratvam ea. its rise from the body becomes meaningless. 7.ll. etc. avirbhiUa: become manifest. The objector takes up the dialogue.ti. 19.argues that just as a crystal which is white and transparent is not discerned to be separate from the adjunct of real or blue colour.U. sense and mincl and to be endowed with the activities of hearing. Katha U. (C. I. after rising beyond the consciousness of body into realisation of its oneness with Brahman. tu: but. Translation and Notes 295 I. XIII. 22.o£dual srml o11ly in so far as) t'ts real natttre has become manifest. It is this freed individual (M . all this <liscu~sion about its activities. 9) that is referred to by Praja-pati.1 notwithstanding the possession of body. on account of the lack of discrimination. S1'arupa~: one's real nature. the author of the sutras disproves the erroneous doctrine of the duality of the Highest Self and the individual soul. the soul is without the body if it has the knowledge that it is one with Brahman. See B. meets the Highest Light and appears in its own form.) Praja-pati. According to ~. the individual soul appears in its original fonn of the Self. 3. uttarac ced iiv£1·bhtUa-s1'arupas tu If . ~. G. old age. cet: if.lff. etc. points out that Praja-pati is not speaking of the individual soul qualified by the conditions of waking. when the crystal appears as white and transparent.Text. (·we say) (but tlze subse-quent passage refers to the indh. death. the individual soul which is pure consciousness or light appears to be of the nature of the upadhis or the adjuncts of body. The embodied or the disembodied condition of the soul is the result of the absence or presence of discriminative knowledge . the person seen in the eye.

21. uktam: (has been) said. alpa: stnall.: reference.. it has already been said that the Supreme. cet: if. 2. In I. ea: and. holds that Praja-pati's teaching and the statement about dalzara have different topics. 3. Nirnbarka holds that the reference to the individual soul is for showing that the Supreme Self is the cause of the manifestation of the real nature of the individual soul.The Braltma Sittra is different from the things imagined to exist but the imagined things cannot exist apart from the support on account of which they are imagined. And the reference to the individual soul has a different meaninf!. Here the reference to th(' individual soul is to make us aware of its real nature. we say that) that (point) has already been cons£dered.. iti: thus. an_ other. apare tu vadinafz paramarthikam eva jaivam rupam iti manyanle. tat: that. it goes heyond the consciousness of gross and subtle bodies. Nimbarka argues that the Highest SeH having his real nature ever manifest is the small one but not the individua] soul who has his real nature n1anifest. alpa-sruter iti cet tad uktam If it be said that (iikiisa cannot mean the Ht: ghest Self) on account of its being mentioned by the sruti as small. in deep sleep. It has also been said that the iikiisa within the heart is as large as the iikiisa without. S. It then reaches the highest light or Brahman and so appears in its own real nature. \Vhat refers to the dahara does not apply to the individual soul even \vhen it has freed itself from bondage and become free from sin. R. pariimarsa'f. is capable of being meditated upon. 1 For Bhaskara the statement of Praja-pati does not reft>r to the individual soul as such but to the soul which has attained the fom1 of the Supreme Self. I. artha~: meaning. though allpervading. also refers to some who belong to his own school of thought who hold that the individual soul as such is real. not always but only during release. asmadfyas ea kecit. 1 . as dwelling in the small heart. anyiirthas ea parc'imarsa'f. 3.. va: The reference to the individual soul in regard to smit-prasiida means that when the soul is tired of the activitiPs of waking and dream and becomes desirous of n •sting. 20. S. The rope exists by itself and is different from the serpent but the serpent which is imaginary cannot exist apart from the rope. I. srute~: on account of mention by sruti. 7.

2) says that his form is light. yet a red-hot iron ball burns things like the fire and the dust on the ground blows after the blowing wind. II. Translation and Notes Section 6 (22-23) 297 UNIVERSAL LIGHT AS BRAHJI. 14.Text. in B. 1. api: also (the same).. 12. (IV. 4. II. 'That splendour of the sun that i11umines this whole world.U. S. 2.f AN I. sarvam idam. The individual soul in Praja-pati's teaching is the imitator and Brahman which is imitated is the dahara. takes anu-krti to mean imitation and quotes M. 22. smaryate: is declared in smrti.: on account of acting after. nor are they disturbed at the time of dissolution. XV. 6. Obviously this does not refer to the physical light. 2. etc. 2. suggests that we may take it not merely as the cause of the light of the sun. 15. and Baladeva. moon. anu. III.' Nirhbarka accepts this interpretation. The reference here is to B. Srinivasa says: Smrti declares the equality of the individual soul. I.. 'Having resorted to this wisdom and become of like nature to me. they are not born at the time of creation. that splendour. His shining illumines all this world. 2. 11. ea: and. 23. 2. I I.U. 3. The word 'his' refers to the source of the light of the sun. 5. freed from all bondage. api ea smaryate And tlze same is declared in the smrti. Imitation does not depend on similarity.U. K* . there is no need for one to shine first and the others to follow.-krtes tasya ea And on accou. Iron is different from fire and dust is different from wind.). Luminosity being the common nature of all. 3. bharupaiJ. treats the two sutras 22 and 23 as a new section H. mentions B.' R. R. 6.' (Sec also M. 1 Niinbarka follows this interpretation.G. B. 1 ato'nukartii prajii-pati-viikye nirdi#o'nu-hiiryam brahma dahaf'iikilsa/1. 'Everything shines only after that shining light. that which is in the moon. B. The answer is that it is the Highest Se1f for C. moon. but as the cause of a11 this.) The doubt is raised whether this being is a luminous body or the Highest Self. tasya: his. 3. 2.U.U. ea: and. XIV. While S. holds that they do not start a new topic but furnish additional arguments for the conclusion reached in the preceding sutras.G. IV. 3. (See M.nt of acting (shining) after and (of the word) ht's. So it is established that the dahariikasa is none but the Supreme Self.U. XIV.) H. that which is in the fire.G. 16) says of him that he is the light of lights (jyoti$iim jyotil. anu-krtel. ea is omitted by H. (Ill. IV.. The passage considered is Katha V. know as mine.. 4.

does in reality entitle men only to act according to its precepts for they alone can act (according to the precepts). may be taken as being measured by a thumb. they alone are desirous (of the results of actions). 634-5· sastratiz hy avise~a-pravrttam api manu~yiineviidhikaroti saktatvad arthitviid aparyudastatvad upanayanadi-sastrac ceti. tu: however. The Scripture. pp.: is measured. however.rdi: in the heart. etc. though propounded without any distinction. I. 12-l~l 'The person of the size of a thumb resides in the middle of the body. the. The person is the Highest God and not the individual souJ. Yama is said to have dragged out forcibly by his noose the thumb-sized person from out of the body of Satyavan.lzest Self). one does not shrink (from him). what is measured (by a thumb) (is the Hi!!. eva: itself.~!AN On accou11 t of the text itself. 25. hrdyapek$ayti tu. After knowing him who is the lord of the past.298 The Brahma Sutra Sec#ott 7 (24-25) THE PERSON OF THE SIZE OF A THUMB IS I. This. sutra says it applies to men only. samsiiri-j'iva.' 1 The objector contends that the person referred to is the individual soul and not the Highest Self who cannot be measured.. 2-t.. is that. pramita!z. 1nanu. adhikaratviit: because of a right. apek!}ayii: with reference to. S.B. To the objection that the size of the heart varies in different classes of beings and so the measure of the size of a thumb cannot apply to all. 3. 1 1 . The passage considered is Katha U. as the ancestral seers are involved in the performance of P. sabdiid C'l'a pranzital. The soul limited by adjuncts. like a flame without smoke.$_yiidhikiiratviit In the reference to the heart. 2 Animals. gods and seers are excluded. they are not excluded by prohibitions and are subject to the precepts about upanayana ceremony. The person can be the Highest Self alone for none else can control the past and the future. The words 'this is that' are an answer to the question by Naciketas who is asking about Brahman. and the future. I.' 'The person of the size of a thumb resides in the middle of the bodv. is that.U. (the Supreme is said to be of the size of a thumb) beca~tse men have a right (to the study of the Veda).. II. But how can a measure be attributed to the Omnipresent Self? The sutra answers this doubt. He is the lord of the past and the future. This. manu!jya: man. BRAH. J. verily. He is the same toclay and the same tomorrow. verily. Gods cannot perform sacrifices for they involve offerings to the gods. In the M. Seers cannot perform sacrifices. 3. sabdfit: on account of the text.

api: also. Apek!Jayii is treated as a reference to the worshiP.U. R. The Scripture says that 'the person of the size of a thumb is the inner self. tad-upary api biidariiyatJaiJ sam. 1. The third and the fourth reason~ give the right only to the three higher castes and upanayana is prescribed as indispensable for the study of the Veda.per's wishes. See Purva Mfmamsa Satra VI. 4 1 P. II. It may be argued that gods cannot practise meditation since they do not have physical bodies and the God they meditate on should have a form. 17. biidarayatJaiJ: as Badarayal)a holds. as BadariiyatJa holds. those who desire release do not care for the perishable fruits -of sacrifices. Section 8 (26-33) GODS Al~E CAPABLE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF BRAH~lf AN In this section the question whether the gods are capable of the knowledge is answered in the aff1rn1ative but incidentally other problems are raised such as the relation of the different species of beings to the words denoting them. paramatmana upasanartham upasaka-hrdaye vartamanatvad upasaka hrdayasya'ligu$1ha-pramartatvat tad-apek ~ayedam angu$fha-pramitatvam upapadyate. 26. objects and powers are non-permanent. Again. the Lord manifests himself to be of the size of a thumb to please his devotees. I.': Katha U. some restrictions were imposed on certain sections of the people. 647-8. 3. 1 1 . Gods may have the desire for formal release caused by the reflection that all effects. Again. on account of possibil£~~'· tad: them. R. pp. 3 ~rini\·asa gives alternative explanations. argues that nwn are qualified for devout meditation.. and are to be followed by a11. etc.Text. so also gods who realise the transitoriness of even heavenlyenjoyments are led to worship the Supreme Lord. admits that Scriptures are of universal application. In so far as the Highest Self abides in the heart of the devotee-which heart is of the measure of a thumb-it may itself be viewed as having the measure of a thumb. If he can bC' said to be of three strides why not 'of the size of a thumb'.{e~a-devatii-dhiyam adllirohati. Translation and Notes 299 the sacrifices. Though S.bhaviit A !so beings abm 1e them (men) (are quahjied for the study of the V edas). upar£: above. Just as men are led to seek for salvation as the earthly rewards do not yield permanent fruits. 1 As the human body has a fixed size the heart also has a fixed size. 2 R. 3. • na hi nirvi. sambhaviit: on account of possibility. The Lord is said to be one who makes three strides (tri-vikrama) in reference to the three worlds.

karmat.U. lndra lived as a disciple of Jlraja-pati for 101 years (C. of the different kinds of pain and as they also know that supreme enjoyment is to be found in the Highest Brahman. How can God I ndra be present at many sacrifices. virodha~ karmat. na: Afimiimsii Sutra VI. (we say that) it ·£s not so because it is observed that (gods) assume many forms. it n1ay be measured by the thumb of a god. 10 says: 'Brahman. 27. have many experiences and take them all back into himself. 1 atmanam vai sahasrarzi bahuni bharatar~abha kuryad yogf balam prapya tais ea sarvair mahfm caret prapnuyad vi:~ayan kaiscit kaiscid ugram tapas caret samk~ipec ea punas tani suryo Yasmigat)an iva. 5) as there arc no other gods whom they have to please or other sages to whose families they would belong. even as it is measured in the case of men by the thumb of a man. 11. indeed. 1t is the same in the case of seers.i: in action. Therefore it became all. 3). prat£patte~: assumption. becomes that.B. if gods have bodies.U. (XII. can assume many forms. says that wish and capacity exist in the case of gods1 as they also are liable to suffering. It is mentioned in the M. who has acquired supernatural powers. 110--62) that a yogin. Whoever among the gods becomes awakened to this. 1-2) indicates that one and the same divine Self may at the same time appear in many forms. B. was this. aneka: many. they may be expected to be present like priests on the occasion of a sacrifice. Bhrgu approached his father Varul)a to teach him the knowledge of Brahman (T.U. 9.300 The Brahma s~etra Gods are known to possess bodies. indeed. cet: if. 1). \Ve know that they accept discipleship. iti: thus. The difftculty is mentioned that.Ui cen 1tiinekapratipatter darsaniit If it be said (that possession of bodies would result in) a contradiction to (sacrificial) works... Gods and sages may be incapable of action such as a sacrifice (sec P. U. 3. . the same in the case of men. which is untouched even by the shadow of imperfection and is full of auspicious qualities of the highest perfection. In their case there is no need for the upa1zayana ceremony since the V edas are open to them. 4. from paintings and images. So far as the knowledge of Brahman is concerned no action need be performed. So far as the size of the Person is concerned. It knew itself only as "I am Brahman". darsaniit: because it is observed. virodlza~: contradiction. B. in the beginning. I. VIII.' H. he. arising from the assaults hard to be endured. from the accounts of them we read in the epics and the purat. it is stated that one and the same deity can assume various forms at the same time. 2 1 arthitva-samarthyayob sambhavat. I. (Ill. 1. if they are performed at the same time? In answer. liT..

there exists a supersensuous entity called spho/a. so the eternal connection of the eternal word with a non-eternal thing is inconceivable. 2 which holds that Brahman is the origin of all things and. iti: so. prabhaviit: on account of origination. (we say) that it is not so because perception and £nference show the origination of everything from this (the word). Nimbarka answers the objection that embodiedness of the deity will result in a contrarliction with regard to work by 'the observation of the assumption' simultaneously of many bodies by one anrl the same deity. The embodiedness of gods is in no way a hindrance to their sacrificial activity.. In reply it is said that the words are connected with the jati. I. Words connote some permanent meanings on account of whose presence in individual objects. Srinivasa takes a different view. opposes the views of Upavar~a.t prabhaviit pratyak$iinttmiinii. a deity can without leaving his place be the common object of reverence of several persons who may at the same time give their offerings to him. In this sittra.' Just as one and the same teacher is found to be saluted simultaneously by many worshippers. It is in this sense 1 See Purva Mfmiimsa Sutra I. the objection is considered whether the authoritativeness of the V eda is not contradicted by the attribution of bodies to divinities. Translation and Notes 301 Another explanation is also possible. The possession of body subjects them to the changes of birth and death. Just as a BriihmatJa who cannot be fed by different people at the same time can nevertheless be saluted by them all at the same time. But this is not consistent with I. 3.Text. As the objects are transitory even the words or names are transitory and so cannot be self-valid and eternal. The problem of the relation in which the different species of beings stand to the words which denote them is taken up for consideration here. sabda: word. 28. sabda iti cen niital. 1. the Mimiimsaka according to whom the word is nothing but the aggregate of the letters which constitute it as well as the view of the grammarians who teach that over and above the aggregate of the letters. or the class which is eternal. so different performers of sacrifices may give their offerings to one and the same corporal deity who abides in his own place. again. 'Because of the observation of many worships. which is the direct cause of the apprehension of the meaning of a word. na: not. 1.bhyiim If it be said that (a contradiction will result in regard to) word. 1 The sittra answers it by saying that the world with the gods and other beings originates from the V eda. 5· .: from this. the word or name comes into existence after the object which is given the word or the name. cet: if. and not with the individuals which may be infinite in number and transitory. ataJ. S. pratyak~iinumiiniibhyiim: from perception and inference. the names are extended to them.

priima'J. like Brahman. How can prii:ma~yam prati sapel~$alviit. tathii praja-pater api sra:~tub sr $/cb purvam vaidikiis sabdii nzanasi pra. pas cat tadanugatan artha11 sasarjeti gamyate. Just as we make jars after conceiving the meaning of the word jar. The letters arc not shortlived because they are recognised to be the same. Vi~~u Purii?J. Tlwy are not different on different occasions. 6. 3 Gods. the material cause of the un1versc. quotes Afanu. Nimbarka quotes Taittiriya Briilmza~za (II.. Upavar:. The evidence for the view that the universe arises on account of the efficient cause of the word lies in perception and inference. \Vhether the word is of the nature of letters or class or sphofa. 4. R. a anadi-nidha1ta hy e~a vag utsr~lil svayambhuva iidau vcda-mayf d·i vya yata~ sarvil pras1itaya~'· 1 . a). 2. The grammarians contend that it is the sphota which arises in the mind: after the word is uttered and on account of it. cannot arise from the perishable words but only from the imperishable sphofa. 2. Cp. The letters of a word which succeed each other in a crrtain order give all the meaning they have to our intelligence in one single art of cognition.lyam praty anapel~!falvat: anumanmn smrtib S. etc. I. There is no need for the assumption of a splzofa. 2.B.. divine speech beginningless and endless-in the form of the Veda and from it originated all creatures'. M. the . The object of cognition is not sphota. sruti'n pasyanti munayab smaranti ea tathii smrtim. opposes this view and argues that there is no separate perception of the splwta over and above the perception of the letters. pratyak$am hi sruti(l. 1 api ea cikft'~ilam artham anuli$than tasya vacakam sabdam purvam smrtva pascal tam artham anuti$/hatfti sarve$iim nab pratyak$am etat. 2~~3. an additional something which is suddenly perceived after the accumulation of the successive impressions of the ll'tters. Bg l'eda IX. 21.ll1imiilnsalw. inference is smrti. Al anu I.durbabh uvub.harat sa bhumim asrjata. the meaning of the word hecomes known. tatha ea srutib: sa bhur it-i vya. Srinivasa also states the objection and answer. R. Taittirfya Briihma~a Il.U. 2 The question is raised about the nature of the word which causes the universe. Perception means sruti.302 The Brahma Siitra that the individuals are said to originate from words and not in the sense that the word is. The objection says that the gods who possess bodies which are non-eternal must themselves be non-eternal whereas the Vedic words which denote the gods arc eternal. for its validity it is not dependent on anything else. 'He evo1ved name and form by means of the Veda'. The sphota is the eternal entity and not the letters which perish as soon as th<:'y arc uttered. 1 S quoteS textS from SYUti and smrti.a. the Creator first conceives the words and then corresponding to them creates the univcrse. XII. 6. 4· 2. 2. the theory that the gods originate from the etcrna] words remains unaffected. 24 and 25.a and others. 'In the beginning there was sent forth by the Creator.

I. But the seers arc not really the authors or composers of the hymns which arc eternal. samiina-n. so also creations and dissolutions do not disturb the continuity. Sec also M. Ill.: from the smrti. Even as a man who has awakened from sleep goes on with his affairs even as he did before he went to sleep.U. ata~: therefore. the type is eternal. !Jg Veda (X. for this reason. eva: VC'ry or same. See K.Text. with the permission of the Self-born. samsiira is beginriingless and endless.·rti). 30. The non-eternal individuals are created at the beginning of each creation in accordance with the eternal types which are indicated by the eternal Vedic words. iivrttau: recurrence (repetition of cyc1es of births and deaths). their authors arc non-eternal. which says: •Formerly the great sages. 3. 29. nityatvam: eternity. ea: and. The eternity of the V edas is not affected even though there are new creations with new Indras and other gods because the names and fonns of each new creation are the same as those of the preceding world.' 1 The Vedic ma11tras or hymns are said to be composed by different seers like Visvamitra and so on. (as is clear) from what is perceived (sruti) and the smrti. . The Veda is the eternal source of the universe.B. smrtel. obtained through their penance the Vedas together with the epics. 3. I. It may be argued that the Vedic mantras are non-eternal a<. the eternity (nf the Vedas follows).tras and these reveal<'rs change from age to age. Translation and Notes there be an eternal connection between the non-eternal gods and the eternal Veclic words? The answer states that the individual gods are non-eternal but this does not show that the Vedic words are meaningless for they denote not the individual (vyakti) but the type (ii!. While the individual is non-eternal.. darsaniit: from what is perceived. which had been hidden at the close of the cosmic period. ata eva ea n£tyatvam And for this 11er_v reason. avirodha~: absence of contradiction. 3. api: even. In spite of periodical creations and dissolutions. 3) tells us that the eternal speech dwelling in the sages was found out by those who performed the sacrifice. 1 yugilnte'ntarhitan vedan setihasan mahar~ayab lebhire tapasa purvam anujiiatas svayambhuva. They only utter or reveal the Vedic man.ama-rupatviic ciivrtti"iv apy am"rodho darsaniit smrtes ea And on account of the similarity of name and form (there is) no contradiction (to the eternity of the word of the Veda) even with regard to the recun'ence (of the world). samiina-nama-rupatviit: on account of the similarity of name and form: ea: and. 71. ea: and.

eternal.e of) the honey and the rest they (the gods} are not qualified. 35-6. 31.ta !I. '\Vhoso findeth me [ ha vi $ii yajiimahe sa no dadhatu sukrtasya loke.Word marks the tran-sition from eternity to history. V ak is sometimes described as subtle. 8. madhviidi$u: in madhu (honey).The Brahma Sutra If the objection is raised that the dissolution or mahiipralaya is like death and not sleep and if continuity is kept up. the Makers of Hymns. Pu1. imperishable and incomprehensible to the senses. the gods remember the past even after dissolution. Besides. from actions to their results and from the results to desires. 8 says: \Vhom the Sages. the \Vord was with God. 190-3. Wisdom is represented as a preexistcnt divine associate of God in his creative activity. 3 In Proverbs viii. 3. madhviidi$V asambhaviid anadhikiiram jaimini!tOn account of the impossibility (of the gods having a r£ght to the knowled{!.m nityiim atindriyam viicam r§ayab mantradrsab pasyanti. it is because all men do not sleep at the same time. wisdom] findeth life and shaH obtain favour of the Lord. the Divine Speech. asambhavat: yiitn sitk§mii.. May She vouchsafe Welfare unto the \Vorld. Wisctom is said to have its origin in God and also its place beside God.' 4 St John's Prologue begins: 'In the beginning was the Word. the answer is that gods do not suffer from the defects which afflict men.l Those who meditate on V iik overcome death. 1 te mrtyum ati-vartante ye vai viic. with this Offering we pray. 2 Taittiriya-Briihmat. (so) ] aim£ni (thinks). There remains always a potentiality of the world to become actual through the same names and forms. And the Gods also.' The. By our present actions we prepare for future creation.e. 1 sak~iitkrta-dharmiirto . 6. I. knowledge and others. the world is nothing hut the results of the actions of beings done in the previous creation. But he that sinneth against me [i. See ~g 1/eda X. The new creation is not an effect without a cause. the Wise Ones. wisdom] wrongcth his own soul: all they that hate me love death. ' Proverbs viii.1yaraja on Vakyapadfya I.e. and Job xxYiii. a yam r§ayo mantrakrto manf~irtab anvaicchan devils tapasa sramerta tarh devim vii. So the world moves on perpetua11y from desires to actions. It provides opportunities for experiencing the pleasures and pains consequent on past conduct. so that those who are awake remind others of their previous lives. same desires and actions in spite of apparent dissolution. She was before the foundation of the world. sought with austerity and with Effort: upasate.

33. IT. for the gods themselves are involved in them. They cannot at once be the meditators and the objects of meditation.U. 1 Scripture says that the gods are qualified for Brahmayady api madhv-a. jyoti~i: in the sphere of light.di-vidyiisu devattidi-vyiimisriisu asambhavo' dhikarasya. 19. IV. they are not capable of or qualified for the knowledge of Brahman. anadhikiiram: no fitness or qualification. Other sources of knowledge which give personality to these luminous beings are not acceptable. the Vedic hymns the trees. In C. How can these be endowed with a bodily form or intelligence or choice? Since they arc not personal beings. j_voti~i bhii1'iic ea A 11d because (the words denoting the deities) are used in the sense (or sphere) of l-ight. may not be admitted. \Vind. the gods live on this honey. Though the qualification of the gods for madhu-vidyii. certain divinities like Fire. hi: certainly. tathiipi asti hi suddhiiyam brahma-vidyiiyiim sambhavalJ. Sun. it is not possible for gods to meditate on themselves. 3. R. Translation and Notes I.riiyat. the sky is the bee-hive. Text. III. IV. Nimbarka hold that the objection is that as the gods meditate on the light of lights. I. bhavam: existence. Again. ea: and. It is not possible that these sages should meditate on themselves. the qualification for the pure knowledge of Brahman need not be denied to them. 16). U. bhiiviit: because used. they are not entitled to the honey meditation and the rest. Ill. 3. 18. jaimin£~: Jaimini (thinks). I. 1. So jaimini holds that deities and sages are incapable of acquiring the knowledge of Brahman. asti: is.U. 32. so the objector contends that devas and similar beings are not qualified for the knowledge of Brahman. etc. Brahman (B. bhavam tu biidariiyat. 4). S. 4.) Similarly the right and the left cars are to be meditated on as Gautama and Bharadvaja respectively (B. biidarayat. Agn£. etc. The objection stated in the two previous sutras is repudiated here. Indra and others.a~: Badarayal)a. 1 .. tu: but. are the honey itself. milk. 2.305 on account of impossibility. Ill. Led by Agni. Adi~ya belong to the sphere of light. It is possible for men to meditate on the sun and not for gods.U.a (maintains) the existence (of qualification for Brahmaknowledge on the part of the deities) for there is certainly (evidence to show this). 3. (C.o' sti hi But Biida.. the sacrifices are the flowers and the offerings of soma. 2. it is said the sun is the honey of gods. Directions are each declared to be a foot (piida} of Brahman and as such are recommended to be the objects of meditation for men.

There is no scriptural prohibition as we have in the matter of offering sacrifices. iidravatJiit: because of running. Nimbarka holds that the gods are entitled not only to the knowledge of Brahman in general but also to the meditations in which they themselves are implicated. l. VII. The V<~dic injunctions presuppose certain characteristic shapes of the several divinities. sugasya tad-aniidara-srava1Jat tad iidrava1Jiit sucyate hi The grief which he (] iinasruti) felt on hearin~ the disrespectful 'lrords (about himself) made him run (to'l£'ard Raikva) for that alone is ·indt'cated.U. tuca gurum abhidudraveti sUdralz. The word 'Sudra' does not refer to caste. ·section 9 (34-38) THE DISQUALIFICATION OF ~. 3. sucam abhidudriiveti sQdral). Anandagiri. 7. I . 3) 1 samvarga-vidyii. though they refer to light. which is a part of Brahma-knowledge. tad: that. is admitted for Janasruti. SUCa abhidudruva iti sudrab. The reason which disqualifies the ~·udras for sacrifices is their being without the sacred fires but that is no disqualification for knowledge. 2. 401ff.U. 4. suk: grief. hamsa-vakyad atmano'nadaram srutva janaJrutel) sugutpannety etad eva katham gamyate yenasau sUdra-sabdena sacyate. C. (IV. tatraha sprsyate ceti. Whether Jana. It may refer to the grief of janasruti and not to Janasruti himself. In C. the word 'sudra'. B. The objector urges that the Sudras have a right to Brahmaknowledge for they desire that knowledge and are capable of it. tad-aniidara-sravatJiit: on hearing the disrespectful words. Words like Aditya. sucyate: indicated. Rhaskara thinks that there is scriptural evidence that the gods arc entitled to the honey meditation and the rest. I. convey the idea of certain divine persons endowed with intelligence and pre-eminent power.Sruti came to grief or grief fell on him or whether he rushed to Raikva on account of grief. 6).The Brahma Sutra knowledge. refers to one of these three things and not to caste. hi: alone. Sudras like Vidura are spoken of as possessing Brahma-knowledge. The answer is given that the SUdra who is not competent for the upanayana ceremony cannot study the Vedas and is therefore disqualified for Brahma-knowledge. asya: his.U. 10. 34. 2. By their power they reside within the light and assume any form they like.ODRAS FOR BRAH111 A-KNOWLEDGE I. The status of divinity is a stage leading to final emancipation. 2 1 P. U. I. pp. 'Therefore the Sudra is unfit for sacrificing' (Taittirfya Samht'tii VII..

I. Prasna U. Srinivasa. paramarsiit: on account of mention. 13). on account of the merit acquired in their previous lives. satizskaras like upanayana. 3. was overtaken by grief and resorted to Raikva who had Brahma-knowlcdge. 1). As we will sec. initiation. k$atr(yat1'a{!. ea: and. 3. In Satapatha Brahmatta (XI. Bhaskara reads k$atriyatva-gates ea. samskiiras: ceremonies.ti was not a sudra because his 1~$alriyahood is known from the inferential si~n (supplied by his having mentioned) later on with Caitraratha (who ·was a k$atriya). 321). (ii) uttaratra-liligiit. caitrarathena: with Caitraratha. which are not for the fourth caste. l1ave obtained Brahtna-knowledge. V. . All human beings by virtue of their humanity are entitled to Brahma-knowledge and salvation. says that Jana. R. (VII. C. 36.Sruti. others as k~<. 3. are found to possess Brahma-knowledge. 3. 1. abhava: absence.atr£yatva-avagatcs ea. ea: and. As Jilnasruti and Caitraratha are mentioned together we gather that ]anasruti was also a k$atriya. by listening to the Epics and the Purattas.Sruti as 'sudra'. makes out that Siita. on account of the strength of their merit previously acquired. 5. they attain to a knowledge of Brahman. IV. When Raikva addresses Jana. 5. 1). S. 35. ll$atriyatvagates cottaratra caitrarathena lingat (] anasru. (XII. ling at: because of the inferential sign. Sulabha carried on a highly learned discussion with Janaka. though born ~udras. The word sudra etyrnologically considered means he who grieves or sorrows (socati). are mentioned for the three twice-born castes. (C. when taunted by a flamingo for his lack of Brahma-knowledge. according to the M. 4. See J.1 anu X.) I. in his V edanta Kaustubha. and SrikaQtha divide this into two sutras: (i) k$atriyatvii gateS ea. he refers to Janasruti's sorrow and not to his being a member of the fourth caste. X.Text.. abhiliipat: on account of mention. Vidura and others. The author of Parimala argues that. in stating the objection mentions that Vidura and others as well as women like Sulabhil. uttaratra: later on. though the 8udras may not have a right to Vedic study. (I. 126. samskara-paramarsat tad-abhavabh£lapac ea On account of the mention of the ceremonies (purificatory in the case of the three twice-born castes) and the absence of mention of them (in the case of the fourth caste).B.atc?t: nature of a k$atriya being known. tad: its. Translation and Notes R. Thus knowledge of Brahman is open to all. The ways to it may he different for different people.U.

ea: and. 4. ea: and: pravrtteiJ. 5. • sudradlniim eva brahma-vidyiidhikiira!J su-sobhana/J. Such meditation by which we attain the grace of the Supreme can be 1 1 naitad a-brahma~o vivaktum arhati. R. his sudrahood). 3. and Nimbarka state smrtd ea as a separate sutra. R . concludes that the way to release is by means of devout meditation. who did not know his gotra or family name. prali$edhiit: because (it is) forbidden. argues that on the theory of A dvaita which holds that the sole Reality is Brahman of pure indeterminate intelligence and that bondage is ended by the mere cognition of the nature of Reality.' 1 It is obvious from the Chiindogya episode that character and not birth was the test of Brahminhood. is inevitable. Manu (IV." After attacking the Advaita doctrine. srava1}iidhyayaniirtha-prati$edhiit smrtd ea And because (the $udra) is forbidden by smrti from hearz'ng and study (of the Vedas) and (understanding their) meaning . 6. . was not a sudra because he possessed the qua1ity of speaking the truth and initiated him. 1). while S. tad abhiiva-nirdharatJe ea pravrtteJ. I. See Gautama Dharma-siistra (XII. And because of (Gautama's) proceeding (to £nit·iate ]iibiila) on the ascerta£nment of the absence of that (·viz. . and Dharmavyadha had Brahma-knowledge as the result of deeds in their previous births and the fruit of knowledge. tad-abhiiva-nt'rdhiirat}e: on the ascertainment of the absence of that.308 The Brahma Sutra I. Even a Sudra can free himself from the bondage as soon as the knowledge of the true nature of things has arisen in his mind through a statement resting on the traditional lore of men knowing the V eda. s. Gautama said: 'A non-Briihmat}a cannot speak thus.: because of proceeding. 37. (IV. 3 On this view the S'udras have a perfect right to the knowledge of Brahman. R. observes that Vidura. R.5) tells us that Gautama was satisfied that Jabala. Purva-krta-sathskiira-vasad vidura-dharmavyadhaprabhrtlnam jnanotpattis le$am na sakyate phala-praptib pratibaddhum. restrictions imposed on the Sudras cannot he justified. that is release. smrteiJ: by the smrti. X. artha: meaning. ~. 2 Gaining knowledge through Vedic study is forbidden but gaining knowledge through other means is encouraged.~rm'a1Ja: hearing: adhyayana: study. ] abala was given initiation because he did not deviate from truth. The knowers of truth will teach all for they are not bound by injunctions and prohibitions.. C. 1 sudrasyapi vedavit-sampradayavagata-vakyad vastu-yathatmya-jiianena jagad-bhrama-nivrttir api bhavi$yati.U. 38. 3. 80). Obviously uneasy about these prohibitions. jiianasyaikantika-phalatviit. 4.. Bhaskara and Baladeva treat the text given as one sutra.

18). the thunderbolt. and Nimbarka do not take it as a new section but only resume discussion of section 7. upasanti-Siistram copanayaniidi-sam. Translation and Notes learned from Scripture only. This is open only to those who are purified by such ceremonies as upanayana. kampaniit: on account of trembling. 3. 'Ne get back to the meaning of the Vedii. 2) 2 n speaks of the whole world as trembling in life. 15. The discussion of the right for Brahma-knowledge was a digression.U. Section 10 (39) LIFE PH.. Brahman is the life of life (B. yasya tu mok~a-sadhanatayii vediinta-viikyair vihitam jnanam upiisanarupam tac ea para-brahma-bhuta-parama-puru~a-prl~anam tac ea siistraikasamadhigamyam. meditation. 3. IV. In the context. I I. I.. (II.U.U. 642. The passage makes out that Brahman constitutes the abode of the whole world. Baladeva begins a new section and discusses the question whether vajra.skiira-samskrtiidMtasviidhyiiyajanitam jniina1'h viveka-vimokadi-siidhaniinugrhftam eva svopiiyalayii 1 P. R. 637-8. sex or occupation. it ea n only be Brahman. ta texts. 1). about the person measured as of the size of a thumb.TNCTPLE IN WHICH EVERYTHING TREMBLES IS BRAHMAN kampaniit On account of trembling (of the world. VI. . Katha U. 1 The different methods of gaining salvation. knowledge of air can give us a relative reward and not life eternal. is Brahman or not.Text. the methods for gaining release should be open to all. 1 ~~9. 8 P. If we take our stand on the potential divinity of a1l human beings. 1{. (II.U. the life-principle is Brahman). 3 Brahman is the cause of the great fear for it is said that the whole world carries on its many functions for fear of Brahman (T. 2. 4. p. 8.U. The doubt is raised whether this life-principle cannot be air. Katha U. race or religion. svlkaroti. whatever be their caste or class. Sec S. pp. The restrictions with regard to Vedic study cannot be defended. 5) says that there is another on which the two life-breaths (prii1Ja and apiina) depend. Again. devotion which lead to Urahma-knowiedgc are open to all.

sn. 3. R. 'That serene one when he rises up from this body and reaches the highest light appears in his own fom1. the release referred to in it is not the ultimate release which has nothing to do with going or departing. 5) speaks of a man to he released as going to the sun. VIII. p.: light.U. The doubt is raised whether the iikiisa cannot be the elemental ether. Nimbarka adopts this view and says that the measured person is the Supreme Being.. Bhaskara and Srikal)tha. arthantaratv-adi: being different in meaning and so on.Jtma S iUra Section ll (40) THE LIGHT IS BRAHA-!Al'l I. iikiiso 'rthiintaratviidi-vyapaddiit Space (is Brahman) since it is mentioned as something different in meaning and so on. U. having names and forms. jyo#!z. 12.U. 40.U.~a~: space or ether. The answer is given that it is Brahman. 3. and is not 1 P. It is only Brahman that is different from names and forms. This view is adopted by S.' 3 Does this light refer to the physical sun which dispels darkness or Brahman? It is Brahman because the topic of discussion fn)m VIII.310 The Bra. 6. . The light is spoken of as the 'highest light' and the 'highest Person'. 11 Sec P. 2 Akasa is said to be the cause of the manifestation of names and forms.. The passage considered is C. 1 spt>aks of freedom from body which is possible only in Brahman. 1t contains within it names and forms.U. The passage considered is C.. p. VIII. vyapadesat: since it is mentioned. 14. 41. VIII. 3. 1.f}tha-miitra-puru~a which speaks of a primary light can only be Brahman. 12. jyotir darsaniit The !tf:lzt (is Brahman) because it is see'n (in the scriptural pdssage). Baladcva argues that the Vajra or thunderbolt is the Lord because in a preceding passage he is called light. VIII. 509. 1 on\vards is the Self which is free from sin and is said to he the object of enquiry. the Self. Elemental ether belongs to the world of created things. darsaniit: because it is seen. iikci. Section 12 {41 ) AKASA IS BRAHA1AN I. To the objection that the Scripture (C. Such a one is the Supreme Person. These are contained in the immortal Brahman. 7. thinks that this section continues the preceding and makes out that the passage about the angu.

Section 13 (42-43) HE \VHO CONSISTS OF KNOWLEDGE IS BRAHA1 AN I. The sutra says that the Highest Self is mentioned as different from the embodied soul in the states of deep sleep and departure fro1n the body. So also with reference to departure. 42. shaking off the body as the moon frees itself from the mouth of Rahu. 1.' Does not this passage show that the released soul and Brahman are identical? The objection is raised that the because of di ffcrence. It applies to the source of all manifestations.U. takes these two sutras (42 and 43) as beginning a new topic. 1 - . Self' a11 refer to Reality.U. the creative power of Brahman is ultimately responsible. or the Supreme Self.Text. a perfected soul. the Highest Self. Nimbarka says that Brahman is something different even from the freed niraJiktdam na brahmano'nvatra sambhavati. obtain the uncreated Brahma-world.. it is said that 'the self in the body mounted by the self of intelligence moves creaking'.o'nyan namarupabhyam arthantaram sambhavati.upty-utkrcintyor bhedena (On account of the mention of the Highest Self) as different (from the -indiv£dual soul) z'n tlze states of sleep and departure from the body). 3. passage IV. The latter doubt arises from the fact that the released soul is the theme of the passage immediately preceding. 3. 22. or the soul freed from the bondage of mundane existence. The freed soul. it will be pointed out later. S. The reference to the conditions of sleep and na ea brahma1. takes the three sutras 41-~J as one section. in the state of deep sleep. \Vhilc S. Srinivasa raises the question whether the reference here is to elemental ether. 21). passage (VIII.U. su~upti-ut!?riintyo~: in the states of sleep and departure. For the manifestation of names and forms. yea. The words' Brahman. 14) refers to Brahman or the individual soul in the state of release. 'Shaking off evil as a horse his hairs. R. sarvasya vikara-jatasya nama-rupabhyiim eva vyakrtatvat. cannot cause creation. 2. Both the beginning and the end of the chapter deal with one topic. . it is held embraced by the all-knowing Highest Self (IV. immortal. viz. VI. etc. that it describes how. dealing with the question whether the ether in the C. bhcde. nama-rupayor api nirvaha1. of the world. 7 refers to the embodied soul. 1 See C. There is nothing to be gained by describing the nature of the embodied self which is already well known. 3. Translation and Notes 311 different from them. This sutra supports further what was said in I. su~r. I. I obtain it. being not conscious of anything. 3.

43. 2 asamsiirf paramdvara!J. fsiina!z. IV. On accmtnt of the 7. 1 1 . B. I. the Controller. states that we have here declarations of general unity.U. The quality of being neither great by good deeds nor small by evil deeds is not ascribable to any except God.312 The Brahma Sutra departure is used to note the difference of the Highest Self from such conditions. The sutra refers to the non-transmigrating supreme Lord. IV. R. 4. These cannot refer to the embodied soul. aikyopaddas tu sarvasya cid-acid-iitmakasya brahma-karyatvma tadiitmakatvam. that all conscious and non-conscious beings are effects of Brahman and have Brahman for their inner self. vasi.: on account of words. the great Lord. sabdebhya!z. 3. 22 uses words like adhipatil:z. paty-iidi: Lord and others. patyadi sabdebhya!z. 1 R.U. 14-16 and 22. See B. the Protector of all.£'ords. 3. lord and others.

I. By the practice of Yoga we reach it. darsavatt': shows. senses. unmanifested. S. 3. are used in the Sii?iddtya sense. the senses.r·s (this). a pi: too. S. But as there arc some texts which seem to favour the view that pradlziina is the cause. paramar#bhib kapila-prabhrtibhib parigrhftam iti prasajyate. 11inyasta: refc>rred. passage (T. 625. argues that the term avyakta has not the special meaning given to it by the ~'Si'i1iz/. (we say that) it is not so. \Ve ha\'e already seen that Brahman is the cause of the origin. argues that avyakta does not denote pradhana independent of Brahman but denotes the body represented as a chariot in the simile 1 See P. 4. for ~. na: not.. because (the term) nf understand£nr: U'hat is referred in the sim1:le of the body and (the text) shm. 2 The passage under discussion comes after another passage where the simile of the chariot is used (1. as also the gross body which is viewed as an cflect of the subtle one. etc. the st"Ul~ma sarircl. .. In al1 this.. 1 nasty atra para·Parikalpitasya pradhiinasyiivakiisafJ. 1. 10). we have to show that Brahman is the cause and not pradhiina.Section 1 (1-7) THE UNMANIFESTED DENOTES THE BODY I. Th!s s(•dicm discusses the Katha U. 5. there is no place for the hypothesis of pradhana. I kastt cicchilkhiiSU pradhiina-samarpa':liibhiisilniiriJ sabdiiniim sruyamaJ. that pradhiina is not the cause (I. elle~i'im: of some. the mind and the understanding are mentioned.U. 3. ai')'akta. while it is. sarira: body. even. By buddhi we may mean the human understanding and by malzan-atman the understanding of Brahmii or HiratJya-garbha for it is his buddhi that can be truly considered to be the support of all the buddhis of beings. maintenance and dissolution of the world (I. where m~vakta is a synonym for pradhiina. atafl pradhilnasya kiirat~atvam veda-siddham eva mahadbhib. p.:h:wt system but denotes the subtle body.. 3 R.. 1:ti cet: if it be said. /inumanikam ap_y cke~iim iti cen na sarira-rupaka-'lnnyastagrhitcr darsayati ea If 1:t be sm:d that what is derived by inference (pradhc'ina) too (is the avyakta. the &'Teat. I. I.: because of reality nothing but the Supreme Self. riipaka: simile. The whole section shows that the embodied soul is bound to body. In the passage it is only the body which can be identified with avyakta. In both the passages. mind. 3. 10 ami 11)1 where the terms malzat. The simile of the chariot shows that our final destiny is the abode of Vi$~ft (Katha V. contained.Jatviit. 12). after an daborate review of the topics mentioned in the Katha U. 2). linumanikam: what is derived by inference. grhitel. the 'Un'ntanifcsted) according to some. 3-4).

it is clear that the Katha U. H. Bhaskara holds that the subtle body is designated as subtle in navyakta-sabdeniibrahmlitmakam pradhlinam ihabhidhfyate ••. a1 1idyii. M. S. 2 I. . The potential primorciia] power of the Highest God is called hy ~. Even if it is taken as referring to the subtle body. R. it is neither different nor non-different from Brahman. miiyci.U. however. I. arhat1'c'it: because it is appropriate. interprets appropriateness in a different way. 11. 1 1 puru\~artha-slidhana-pravrtty-arhatvat. If it is said that the gross physical body (stlzula sarira) is v_vakta. on account of its wonderful power. 8. also points out the differences between the siimkhya view and the Upani~ad arrangement. See J. suk$mam tu tad arhatviit (The word avyakta means). artlzavat: has a mcamng. II. tad-a~kinatviit: on account of dependence on him. the subtle body is destroyed and release attained. 4.k~mam: (the subtle body). Sometimes it is said that the word av_vakta means the subt]e body only. when they cease to do so. m~vakta. VII. it has a meanin~. sfi.The Rrahrna Sutra 314 of the body. 1t is known as iikiisa because of its unlimited extent. and not a71_vakta. 1 R. manifested. 3. miiyii.U. iikasa and ak$ara. The unmanifcsted matter alone. The soul is in samsiira when the desires bind the subtle body.?g Feda (X. 12. tad: that. when it assumes the form of the effect (body) is fit to undertake activities furthering the purposes of man like the chariot. 46. the answer is given that the previous condition of the work] is not an independent cause but is dependent on the Hjghcst God. aksara because it does not cease to exist until there is knowledge. ~arfriikhya­ rupaka-vinyastasylivyakta-sabdena grhfte~. I. tad-adlzinatviid artltavat On account of dependence on him. passage has no reference to pradhiina. 4) where the present manifest world is referred to by the former non-manifest condition.U. See B. the sutra says that a1~vakta means the subtle body which consists of the subtle parts of the elements and it applies to its effect of the gross physical body. s. avyakta because being the power of Brahman. tu: however. avyakta also refers to both. 10. the subtle bod_y for this is the appropriate (meanin~) of that (u"ord). 2. 4. B.U. 4. To the question whether the non-manifest condition of the world may not be called pradhiina. The answer is given that even as the word chariot refers to both gross and subtle bodies. since the bondage and release of the soul are possible on account of this. IV. It is not uncommon to use the name of the effect for the cause.

. R. The Person is said to be the goal for there is nothing beyond him. these qualities are possible only with regard to the Highest Self. ea: and. prasna!J. without smell. passages avyakta is not mentioned as an object of knowledge or meditation. beyond the great. The word 'avyakta' is used incidentally for body after the passage of the chariot. evam: thus. jiieyatva: an object to be cognised. 4. 4. undecaying. £ti cet: if it be said. It applies to the Highest Intelligent Self.: question. Translation and Notes 315 reference to the gross body and it is rightly called unmanifest. eva: only. For SrikaQtha the soul. traya?Jam eva caivam upanyasa!z prasnas ea And thus there are statement and question about three (things) alo1te. ~~pauyasa!z: statement.Text. in the Katha U. Bondage and release have meaning in so far as they are dependent on the subtle body. Srinivasa makes out that the Samkhya pradhana cannot give rise to effects and so for producing effects it is dependent on Brahman. speaks of that 'which is without sound. knowledge of pradhana as distinct from puru$a is said to be essential for achieving the liberation of the soul. We can have a vision of him by the practice of selfcontrol. is mentioned. etc. without taste. to indicate the nature of the highest abode of V i$1JU. a-vacaniit: there being no mention. (we say that) it is not so for the intelliKent self (is meant) on account of the general subject-matter. also. without touch and without fonn. Even on the Siimkhya theory. jiieyatviivacanac ea Also because there is no mention of its being an object to the known. praj1ia!z: intelligent self. liberation is not possible by a mere knowledge of pradhiina. ea: and. 6. 4. without beginning.endcnt on the Lord. trayiittam: of three. vadatiti cen na prajiio hi prakara?Jat And if it be said that (pradhiina as the object of knowledge) is mentioned (in the sruti). Katha U. I. vadati: says. na: not. eternal. Avyakta and its effects constitute the body of the Lord who constitutes their self. I. It is possible only by a knowledge of puru§a as distinct from pradhiina. 5. hi: for. pral~ara?Jat: from the context. Whereas for the Siinildtya system. makes out that matter in its subtle states is meaningful and serves human ends only in so far as it is dependent on the Supreme Self. ea: and. This description cannot apply to pradhana. the body and the rest have a meaning as dev. abiding. by discerning that one is freed from the n10uth of death'. I. 4. In the V ediinta texts. without end.

mahadvac ea And like the U ord 'great'.1\\. is not pradhiina) because of the absence of special characteristics. Ratnaprabhii. avise$iit: because of the absence of special characteristics. 4. mahat-vat: like the word mahat . 2. U.. WHITE AND BLACK COLOURS IS NOT PRADHANA I. I. the unborn. here urges his theory of the-unity of the individual soul and the Highest Self. 5 2 and argue that ajii.. U. I. some souls are deluded and pass through sarhsiira.U. camasavad avise$iit As in the case of the bowl (the ajii. 22. 7. according !o S. Katha U.· ea: and. The word mahat does not refer to pradhiina.· others on account of discrimination and non-attachment attain release. See Katha U. ~. 8. S. I relate. The advocates of the pradhiina theory quote S. Pnijfia. camasa-vat: like the bow1. The Sutrakiira answers that there is no special reason why ajii avyakta-sabdo'pi na vaidike prayoge pradhiinam abhidhiitum arhati. 10 censures those who find a difference between what is here and what is there. 1. white and black colours which produces manifold offspring. 1 Sec P. iitmii mahiin ity iitmil.t \\\itt (\\\t~\\~n~ in tbe KatJta U. knowing whom there is an end to all sorrow. 8. 4. II.. 732. Again II. 1 and not pradhiina. p. On account of attachment to prallrti. ~o the fire sacrifices the individual soul and the H1ghest Self. 1 Section 2 (8-10) A]A (SHE-GOAT) OF RED. sabda-prayogiit. similar in fonn (to herself) refers to pradhiina which has the three qualities of sattva (white). The Vedic meaning of avyal\ta is puru$a or iitman. The denial of birth and death in the case of the individual soul suggests the non-difference of the soul and 1-Jralztnan. The Siimkhva uses the word mahat in the sense of sattii or lmddhi since it it the first product of pradhana. rajas (red) and tamas (black). Ill. and enables one to achieve both prosperity and freedom. I. S. 4 suggests that the Self which perceives both dream states and working states is clearly the inteJiigent Self. she-goat of reel. There ts no separate question and answer in regard to p_rac~lztina. IV. So it cannot be said to be either the object of knowledge or mdtcatcd by the word 'avyakta'. 1 .

upakramii. The prakrti inrlicated is brahmiitmikii. asks.a. 3 describes the power of the Supreme as the cause of the universe. So ajii is a creature of Brahma. C. if aja is taken to mean the three elements of the C. kalpanii-upadesiit: on account of the mention of the image. tu: however. VI.riiya~a V. a-t. passages also.' This by itself does not tc\\ us what bowl it is but the next passage provides the sense that the bowl refers to the head. ajii. . 2.for some read (the£r text) -in that manner. Garbha of prakrti.U. I I. V. h£: for.. The divine power is said to possess the three colours of the three elements of fire. From alJ these texts. tathii: in that manner. 4. 19-21. ]{. jyotir-upakramii tu tathii hy adhf_vata elr. S. \Ve need not give up these primary meanings and adopt secondary meanings of the three ~ut. Other passag(·s .e (Ajii). ea: and. means by ajii. there is no contradiction. (B. water and earth. Others have arisen from the highest (.U.. howe1. ]1 refers to the colours red. eke: some. 7.quotes CiU£kii ll. Translation and Notes should be t!eat_ed :. p. S. kalpanopadesc'ic ea madhviidivad avirodhal. So also the meaning of the word 'ajii' has to be understood from some other passage. 9·-10._ts cqn~va]~'n_t to pradhc"in. U. 10. 1 Sec P.U._vii. must have Brahman for its soul. water and earth. 16 and H. l~. 10.u-ii. 8-10. 5. XIV. 9. There arc no special features whtch 1ust1fy us m glVmg the meaning of pradhiina and not any other.U. Ill. 4. (3). unproduccd mii. 8. 4. madh. ln B. I. 1. S. (means the three elements) beginning with light. C.U. as in the case of honey and others.z And on account of the mention of the image.G. I.lJ.: beginning with. H.n and has its self in Brahman and this is the meaning of the S.di-vat: as in the case of honey and others.J. 11 indicate the causality of the Supreme Self. IX. concludes that aja is not prakrt£. 451. lt is dependent on Brahman.1\fahiinii. 1G. I.z: no contradiction. adki_vatl': study. 13. refers to the passages which refer to Brahman as the light of lights. 5. S. 4.U. IV. the unborn.) He quotes the . 10. (3-7) which teaches that the Supreme Person is the self of prakrti. white and black as those of the three elements of fire.'irodhal. jyotil. 7. VI.Text. X Ill.z: light. So the aja passage cannot suggest a different view in that context.U.od. Nimbarka suggests that the unborn one. !i there is the passage: 'There is a bowl with its mouth bP1ow and bottom which instructs us about the aggregate of things other than Brahman and yet originating fron1 Brahman.

R. white and black. It therefore stands to reason that ajii means fire. 8. the source of all things. Between these two conditions there is no contradiction. The world is unborn (ajii) in the causal condition and in the effect condition it divides itself into names and forms. atirekiit: due to excess.U. under~tanding. ea: and. it is for R. B. criticises the view that prakrti is to be imagined as the she-goat. kalpanii.. the primary causal matter from which the world is fashioned. water and earth taken together. It is imagining only. the Creator made sun and moon. the Immortal. takes kalpanii as formation as in the passage. . dhata yathii-purvam akalpayat'. appearing as reel. 9). Prakrti or pradhiina is not an effect.U.a U.. This view is followed by Bhaskara. Ill. sarhkhyii: number. VI. V. It is not literally unborn but only figuratively. na: not. and holds that no contradiction is involved in taking one and the same substratum of qualities as unborn and having at the same time Brahman for its material cause. prakrt£which consists of the water and the earth. is the power of the Lord from which the world springs. 4. V.. na samkhyopasarhgrahiid api niiniibhiiviid atirekiic ea :r-. The five groups of five make twenty-five and this is the number of the principles mentioned in the Samkhya Kiirikii (3). aham-kiira or the self-sense. IV. R. how can the three elements be conceived as having the form of the she-goat or be thought of as unproduced. 17 mentions 'that in which the five groups of five and space are established' is the Self. 'yathci surya-candramasau. since they are the products of miiyii? This sutra gives the answer. Even as the sun is imagined as honey or the speech as cow or the heavenly world as fire (C. 1: B.rot even on account of the mention of the number (can it be said that pradhiina has scriptural authority) on account of diversity (of the categories) and on account of excess (over the number of the categories). 1). M ahat or buddhi. Section 3 (11-13) THE FIVE GROUPS OF FIVE ARE NOT THE TWENTY-FIVE PRINCIPLES OF THE SAJiKHY A I. The unborn has Brahman for its self.. It represents prakrti. is imagined as the she-goat.318 The Brahma S iUra (VI. 11.. Nimbarka agrees with R. water and earth. api: even. 2. 7. Ajii is to be taken a. \Vhile ajii for S. At ahii-niiriiyat. 4. niiniibhiivat: on account of many differences.U. into fire. even so. upasarhgrahiit: on account of the mention. 4. denoting the causal state of the three elements. even as the sun which is not really honey is represented as such.

e. 18) reads: 'They who know the life of life. it is urged that pradhiina has the authority of sruti. it has obviously no connection with the Siimkltya categories. It may refer to any other group of twenty-five things. I. Paiica-jana indicates five distinct persons and not groups. 50). . the car of the ear and the mind of the mind. 2). Va£syas./lhya principles for the Self and·na are five in number as the beings known as saptar$i are seven in number. pro:ttadayo vakya-se$iit The life-principle and others (are the paiica-janiiM on account of the complementary passa{!. Again the word 'five. viikya-se$iit: from the complementary sentence (which follows). Puru~a or the self is neither effect nor cause. the eye of the eye. they have realised the ancient primordial lJrahman. atman and iikiisa. It has also been taken to mean: (i) the five beings of gods. I. 4. According to PatJini (II. the second word paiica is not independent but is a part of the compound paiica-jana as in the passage panciiniim t11ii paiica-janiiniitn (T aittir'iya Samhitii I. priitJadaya~: life-principle and others. IV. 12. are stated independently while they are included in the Samkhya twenty-five principles. five' (panca.' The word paiica-jana refers to the life-principle and other beings. 2. The Samldzya advocate asks about the interpretation of paiica-jana. pailca) need not he taken as indicating twenty-five for where it is possible to indicate the number directly as twenty-five it is not correct to say that it has been indicated indirectly as five groups of five. $udras with the Ni$adas added to them. So we cannot say that the word pai'ica is repeated twice. ]ana does not mean any princip1e or category. asuras and riik$asas or (ii) the four castes of Briihmat:tas. 6. Translation and Notes the five tanmiitras or subtle elements are the seven effects of prakrti but are causes too of the sixteen which arc effects only. It suggests that beings known as pafz.Text. the five gross elements and the eleven organs (indriyas). The sutra refutes this suggestion for each one of the twenty-five principles of the Siin~khya is different from the others. We cannot arbitrarily interpret the expression paiica pa1ica-jana as referring to the principles of the Sa1itkhya. The phrase palica paiica-jana cannot refer to the Siini. As the same number twenty-five is found in the Upani!jad passage and the Samkhya Kiirikii. but a particular class of beings. viz. The Siintlthya principles cannot be classed into five groups of five principles. words indicating direction or number arc compounded with other words and then mean only a name of something or person. fathers. K$atriyas.U. 4. Resides. there being no common quality among the members of any group. The word 'paiica-jana~' indicates not number five. gandharvas. The next passage (B. Whatever be the interpretation.

C. I. lord of all. This does not mean absolute non-existence.e. I. there is no such contradiction regarding the Creator. yathii: as. II. and G. the fifth number is light which is mentioned in the preceding passage IV. _iyoti!}ii: by light.Tapadi~toktc~ And on account of (Brahman) as described being declared to be the cause of space and the rest. cke!jiim: of some. ea: and.~atvena yathii-bhuto hy ekasmin vediinte sarvajnas sarvesvaras sarvatmaiko'dvitfyab vyapadi$1ab. the inner sou) of everything and as the one and only cause without a second. 1-3. Prasna U. samiikar$at On account of the connection samiikar$iit: on account of connecting or linking up.vathii-t.U. In the Kii1J1'a rcscension of the B. Srikal). 4. IV. 2. 4. . endowed with the attributes of omniscience.U. T.U. He is described in all passages as omniscient.U. 4. the objection raised rclatt>s to apparently conflicting passages which deal with creation. VI. C. anne: food. asati: when not present. 4. i'voti!jaike!jiim asaty anne l-V hen food -is not present (i.320 The Brahma Siitra I. 15. VI. 2. 4. omnipotence and the rest is the cause of the universe. 4. VI. The order of creation varies from passage to passage in B. 14.ena According to S. IJ.tha does not begin a new section here but continues the consideration of the five-tive people (B. karanatvena: as cause. I.tvas) (number jive is completed) by Hght. . Aitareya U.U.. S'cctirm 4 (14-15) NO CONFLICT IN . PASSAGES REGARDING BRAHJrJAN'S CAUSALITY ciikiisiidi!fu . 7. For the former. verily. There are passages which tell us that 'all this. 4. not mentz'oned) £n the case of some (the Kii1. These refer to the life-principle and the rest and not to the Siimkhya pradhiina. R.U. there is no mention of the being of food while the M iidhyand£na mentions it. I. was in the beginning non-being' (asat) (T. The sutra n1akes out that tl10ugh there may be contradictions in the order of creation. II. 1-3. 1). 1 See T. and Nimbarka also make out that the intention of the sutra is to affirm that the Highest Person alone. iikiisa-lidisu: of iikiisa and others . 13. 16. If sat indicates the being of Brahman with all the 1 kiirar. vyapadi$!okte~: declared as described.l.U.U. kiira~tab. I. 17).

. Ajata~atru failed to awaken a sleeping man by merely shouting at him. Translation and Notes 321 manifest names and fonns.U.U.a. L I 1 . verily. He roused him from his sleep when he pushed him with a stick. sadhyakl'iam eva jagato vyakriyatil darsayati.atvam brahma1. 7). we find in a later passage a characteristic mark of the individual soul. C. The individual soul and the selves in the sun and the moon are helping each other. comments on this section at the very beginning. It indicates the condition of the world prior to its manifestation. 9. 3. we will see that the previous passage speaks of the Self consisting of bliss (T. 16. PriitJa is said to be the creator of the persons in the sun. 20). III.Text. 4.s Section 5 (16-18) BRAHAfAN'S CAUSALITY I. viicitviit: because (it is) denoted. jagat: world. 7. he alone is to be known. The individual soul as the support of pratJa is itself called pra~r. Sec also B.U. 4. IV. It shows that the individual soul is different from the life-principle. 'He. 19. asat indicates the being of Brahman without names and forms. S. tatra idam aparam asankate . In a complementary passage (IV. he of whom all this is the work (llarma). (VI. B. I.' \\'hat is the object of knowledge? Is it the individual soul. I. muldzya-priit. It is the support of all activity or work. Besides. The text considered is K. the word 'pratJa' occurs. 1 If we read the passage about non-being in its context. The soul may be considered to be the cause of the persons in the sun.a. are set forth. • na pradhana-sankii-gandho'pfti bhaval). moon. and Bhaskara treat this section as dealing with the general question of the concordance of all texts with regard to Brahman. who is the maker of these persons. etc. 20.U. This is cvirlent from the way S. inasmuch as the sun. There arc also arguments in support of the view that the object of knowledge is the individual soul.' na janmadi-kara1. takes place under the supervision of the Omniscient Rnler. jagadviicitviit Because of the denoting of the world.U. or the chief vital breath or the Highest Self? Arguments for the chief vital breath. The evolution of the world. li.U. 9. Ill. the 1noon are said to be the sources of pleasure and pain to be experienced by the soul. 19. etc. 2 Nimbarka uses this sutra for the refutation of the Samkhya view of pradhiina. The work of the soul will mean its deeds of merit and demerit. There is another characteristic mark given in IV.0 brahmatli~ayatiJ va gati-samanyam vedanta-vakyanam pratipatt-uJit sakyam. The same interpretation should be given to C. 2) tells us.

who makes out that the work is the world and the Supreme Person is the sole cause of the world. The word karma does not indicate movement. 11yiikhyiitam: (is) already explained. Balaki begins his conversation with Ajatasatru with the offer: 'Let me declare Brahman to you. (we reply that) that has been already explained.. This view is controverted by H. as the creator of a special part of the world and as the creator of the whole remaining world. or merit or demerit accruing from it. 4.. deep sleep and waking. Though the origination of the world has for its condition the deeds of the individual souls. 1 . Only the Highest Lord is capable of being the maker of all those mentioned for he alone is truly independent. jiva: individual soul. na: not. that all the speech and other organs become one in prc'i1Ja in deep sleep clearly refers to the individual soul which alone passes through the states of dream..a-lz'itgiin 1teti cet tad vyiikhyiitam If z't be said that this is not so on account of the characteristic marks of the individual so·ul and the chief vital breath. R. 17. api tu sva-karmtinugu~yenesvara-sr~lam sarvam bhunkte. jagad-utpatter jfva-karma-nibandhanatve'pi na jfva(l sva-bhogyabhogopakarartiidei£ svayam utpadakafl.' The maker of all these individual souls cannot he a soul lower than Brahman for then the introductory offer would be meaningless. opposes the view which holds that the person to whom the work belongs is the enjoying soul. Karma cannot refer to the activity of producing the persons on the result of that activity for both these are included in the agent without whom they would not exist. The origination of this world is caused by the various actions of the individual souls. So it cannot refer to prii1Ja or the individual soul. yet those souls do not independently originate the means for their own retributive experience but experience only what the Lord has created to that end in agreement with their works. For work. 1 I. The explanation given by Ajatasatru to Balaki. who has been unable to say where the soul goes at the time of deep sleep. meritorious or the contrary. Bhaskara reads this sutra and the next as one section. etc. arc only a part of this wofld which is nothing but the work of God.a: vital breath. belongs to the individual soul only. The passage 'he of whom all this is the work' means that the entire world and the person in the sun. the ruler of prakrti. mukh:ya: chief. It cannot denote persons in the sun for puru$a is masculine and is used in genitive plural and karma is neuter and is used in the singular number. tad: that. R.. The passage sets forth the maker of the world in a twofold way.. jiva-mukhya-priir. priir.322 The Brahma Stttra Both these suggestions are refuted by the sutra. iti cet: if it be said. The generally accepted meaning of karma is good and evil actions. liitgiit: due to characteristic marks.

anyiirthmit tu jai11z£n£!z prasna-vyiikhyiini'iblzyiim api caivam eke But Jaimini thinks that (the reference to the individual soul) has another purport. 8. sviirajyam: independence. S. observes that when a text is ascertained. S. eke: some others. II. and from pratJa depart the gods and from gods the beings (K. JaiminiJ:t: Jaimini. we hear of a reward which relates itself only with meditations on Brahrnan by srai$thyam: eminence. anyiirtham: another purport. VIII. The word prat.U. I. the refutation has already been made in I. 1 I. 19 and 20). Translation and Notes 323 If it he said that the characteristic marks of the individual soul and the chief vital breath are given in the passage. api: also. we shall be justified in considering them as indicative of Brah-man. It is the Vediinta view that during sleep the soul becomes one with Brahman and it is from Brahman that the world and the prii1Ja proceed. 1 says that this small akiisa is nothing but the Highest Self. evam: so.' In the middle. in B. That in which the sleeping soul becomes devoid of cognition of the waking life and enjoys tranquillity is Brahman itself which is the object fit to be known. 4. C. IV. ea: and. . only the creation of the world was not there referred to Brahman. as referring to Brahman by a comprehensive consideration of the opening and the concluding clauses. and that it is from this Self alone that the pra1Jas depart to their abode. Again. Even assuming that there is a reference to the individual soul. VI. At the end again. 18. adhipat_yam: supren1acy. It is the 1 brahma-vi§ayntviid abhedabhiprayet~a yojayitavyam. When Ajatasatru asked as to where the person was asleep and whence he came back to the waking state. 1.U.ta is used with reference to Brahman in C. it is only to indicate the knowledge of Brahman. All other topics must be interpreted so as to conform to this main topic of Brahman. adds that whatever characteristic marks we may have about the individual soul.U. S. the clause 'of whom this is the work' refers to the Highest PPrson who is the cause of the whole world. Again. 2.U. at the outset it is said: 'Let me declare Brahman to you." prasnavyakhyaniibhyiim: on account of the question and the explanation. ott account of the question and the explanations and so some others too (read the text). all characteristic marks which point to other topics must be so interpreted as to fall in with the principal topic. 1. the reply given is that during dreamless sleep a person becomes one with this pri. tu: but. This is clear from the nature of the question and the explanatory answer given in this connection. 31.itJa (Brahman) alone. In the text under consid<~ration. since the jiva is identical with Brahman.Text. 16 and 17 it is said that the soul as distinct from the Highest Self 1ies in the akasa within the heart.

The passage considered is B. HEARD.U. 1. viik_va: sentence. The next passage that 'everything is the Self' tells us that the entire aggregate of existing things is non-different from the Self. then all this is known.ahood deserts him who knows Brahmal)ahood in anything else than the Self' and so on. I. 6. and jf:ua or the individual soul. 1 Section 6 (19-22) THE SELF TO BE SEEN. the individual soul and so the declaration that through the cognition of the Self....directs his attack on the San·tkltya theory of pradlu"ina. (ii) the sentence ~how should one know the knower?' can denote only the agent. 4. 20. heard. can only have in view the enjoying soul and so the self which is the object of sight and so on can only be the individual soul. All these lead to the conclusion that the Self exists beyond both prii1Ja. is the individual soul or the Highest Self.The Brahma Siitra source of all as the empirical selves are said to spring from it. IS THE HIGHEST SELF ON ACCOUNT OF THE CONNECTION OF TEXTS I. heard. verily. to be heard. to be meditated upon. ·while adopting the same view as ~. The similes of drum and so on confirm this view. Yajiiavalkya urges that ~ -' 1 punar api jfvat paramdvarasya anya-bhavam upapadayati. everything becomes known must be taken to mean that the world of the objects of enjoyment is known through its relation to the individual enjoying soul. wife. reflected on and known.tha holds that this section deals with the di ffcrence between the individual soul and Brahman. Maitreyi wishes to know that by which she can become immortal and this can be reached only by the knowledge of the Highest Self.' The doubt arises whether the Self to be seen. 19 viikv(invavat On account of the co1mect£on of sentences (tlzc Self to be seen. ETC. 5.. II. to be reflected on. etc. The answer is given that the reference is to the Highest Self on account of the meaning and mutual connection of passages. IV. The opponent contends that the reference is to the individual self: (i) because the objects of enjoyment. the Self is to be seen. £s the Hz:ghcst Self). husband. R. In subsequent passages it is said: 'Brahmat:J.. It means that all these have no independent existence apart from the Self.U. . 4· 16. etc. heard. ~verily. when. anvayiit: on account of the connected meaning. B. life-principle. the Self is seen. This view that the section deals with the general agreement of all texts with regard to Brahman is supported by Bhaskara. etc. Srika!). wealth..

pratijiiii: statement. then the individual soul and the Highest Self are non-different. H. Again. If the individual soul were different from the Highest Self. H. siddhel.U. He leads us to the same conclusion that the Self is the centre of the whole world with the objects. should be given up and only the Self should be sought. and which is a mere manifestation of the power of the Supreme Person. The world originates from the soul in its quality as the ruler of prakrt-i. Ill. pratijiiii-siddher lingam tismarathyal. 20. The causal power with regard to the entire world can belong to the Supreme Person only. everything cannot be known through the cognition of one individual soul only. R.Asmarathya. If the implications of this statement are to be realised.. then the knowledge of the latter will not involve the knowledge of the former and thus the statement that through the knowledge of one thing everything will be known would not be fulfilled. It is the Highest Self alone that makes objects dear. etc. lingam : indicatory sign. then the knowledge of the soul-being something distinct from Brahman-would not follow frorn the knowledge 1 tad eva pruaye bhutva punat· dub-khaya jiiyate tad eva kopaya yatab prasii.diiya ea jayate tasmiid dul)khatmakaril niisti na ea kincit sukhiitmal~am. See ~. According to the Siithkhya system. R. (so thinks) . asmarathya!z. (The reference to the individual soul as the object to be seen. that it is altogether a mass of knowledge. Hence there is nothing that is in itself of the nature either of pleasure or of pain. . the senses and the mind. argues that if the individual soul were not identical with Brahman as its effect. The knowledge of the true nature of the individual soul which obtains immortality. that it has neither inside nor outside.: of proof. 8. immortality is obtained through the cognition of the true nature of the soul viewed as free from all erroneous imputation to itself of the attributes of non-conscious matter. etc.' 1 I. wife. answers this objection by stating that the Self which Yajiiavalkya speaks of as the proper object of knowledge leading to immortality is the Highest Self. What was the cause of wrath later tends to peace. It is possible only through the knowledge of the Highest Self which is the self of all.. Translation and Notes the Highest Self is the cause of the world of names and forms and works. indicates the proof of the statement.: . heard. thinks that this sutra is an answer to the suggestion that the Siimkhya puru$a or soul is meant by the text. is useful for the cognition of the Supreme Person who brings about release and is not by itself instrumental for such release. All search for dear objects as husband.).Asmarathya. 4.Text. quotes Vi~~u Pttrii~a to the efiect: 'The same object which gave us delight later on becomes a source of grief.

2.The Brahma S t"itra of the Highest Self. ·t utkrami$yata!t: of one who rises up (to depart). (so thinks) A Z{lulomi. non-difference between the two is equally a fact. So through the knowledge of one. It is neither absolutely different nor non-different from Brahman. Sripati quotes B. I. 1). Vacaspati quotes a verse from the Paficaratrikas which states that . II. iti: thus. But since the effect is non-different from the cause. I.:ul omi!t (The identification of the individual soul with the Ht'gh. even so the knower. 8 reads: 'Just ali the flowing rivers disappear in the ocean casting off name and shape. 4. Auc. C.U. 6 says: 'That serene one when he rises up from this body and reaches the highest light appears in his own form. 1) as well as those which make out that the souls spring from and merge in Brahman (M. which connects the soul with Brahman as closely as a body is connected with its members. one with the Highest Self). The souls are one with Brahman in so far as they are its effects. attains to the divine person. Srinivasa points out that since the individual soul is reckoned among the effects of Brahman there is a difference between effect and cause. V. 4.U. utkrami$yata evam bhiiviid ity azuj. It is in view of the future condition that is acquired by the individual soul that it is described as non-different from the Highest Self. III. VIII. 4.est S'elf is possible) because the soul u'hen it will r£se (to depart from the body) is such (i. being born from it.ulomift: Au~ulorni.lulorni thinks that the reference to the individual soul as nondifferent from the Highest Self is appropriate. He quotes texts declaring the oneness of Brahman previous to creation (Aitareya Ara~yaka V. So it is possible for words denoting effects to denote the causes as well as in the case of the pot and the clay. 12.lulomi teaches that the soul is altogether different from Brahman up to the time of its final release when it is merged in Brahman.. When the cause is known the effects are known. Asmarathya considers both the doctrines of a-samyukta-bheda-viida which differentiates between the individual soul and Brahman as between a jar and a cloth and the doctrine of angaJigivat-samyuktabheda. bhiivat: because of being. 21. C. 4 and holds that 'if one is known all is known' is according to the nyiiya of dadhi-k~ira. I. evam: so.e. 1. Asmarathya holds that the soul stands to Brahman in the bhediibheda relation. as sparks are neither different nor non-different from fire. higher than the high.' So Auc. So between the individual soul and Brahman there is a natural relation of difference and non-difference. the knowledge of all is established. aurf. II.U.' M. freed from name and shape. 6. VI.U. II. curds resulting from milk. Thus the texts declaring duality are correct.

G. paramiitmaikyopapatti. See also C. points out that Asmarathya believes in the ~on-difference ~f the individual soul from the Highest Self but he does so to establish the possibility of the knowledge of all things as a result of the knowledge of the Highest Self. and Srikal)tha mean by it the state of the Supreme Self. AuQulomi admits the difference between the two in the state of bondage and identity in the state of release. But strictly even during the state of bondage the individual soul which is atomic in size and possesses very little knowledge.U. according to Srinivasa.:hatiikasa mahiildisavat. His belief in non-difference is relative and not absolute for he views the Highest Self and the individual soul as cause and effect. iti: thus.U. See C. 1 asyaiva pat·amatmano'nenapi vijiiii. jiva realises its identity with Urahman. Even so. even as a leaf is nondifferent from the tree. This difference-non-difference is admitted by Am. avastlziter t'ti kiisakrtsna~ (The identzjication of tlze individu.ifvasya ea parasya ea muktasya tuna bhedo'sti bheda-hetor abhavatab. kasakrtsna acaryo manyate. 4. paramiitma-bhiiva. Translation and Notes difference is real until release when it becomes extinct. the released soul becomes dear to all. 22. avasthiteh: because of existence. Kasakrtsna interprets tat tvam asi. When the erroneous knowledge of jiva is removed. VIII. S. 3. brahma-bhinnatviit sarvadii brahma-bhz'nnatayii jivopakrama~tam. kiisakftsnah: Kasakrtsna. it is also different from him. for the benefit of the dull-witted. 2. 3. in release.. it is non-different from him. 4. and Bhaskara mean by bhiiva identity with the Supreme Self. a ray from the lamp. VIII. an attribute from its substratum and the sense-organs from the vital principle. The individual soul is described as non-different from the Highest Self for it is the Highest Self that lives in the form of the soul. is yet non-difierent from him since it has no sPpara. though.nlitmabhavenavasthanad upapannam idam abhedabhidhanam iti. though different from Brahman who is all-pervasive. I. Bhamatf 1. I WhileS.lulomi suggests difference between the individual soul and Brahman in the state of bondage and non-difference in the state of release. XIV. T<. 4· 21. According to Baladrva. Sripati interprets the sutra thus: utkrami$yata}J. jivasya r. . Srinivasa develops Nimbarka's theory of difference-non-difference.Text. 12. Auc. 2 Kasakrtsna holds that tl~c soul is absolutely non-different from 1 amt4kler bheda eva syaj . it having no separate existence and soul with the Highest Self is possible) because (the ll£ghest Self) exists (in the condition of the individual soul). that thou art. (so thinks) Kiisakrtsna. sviim 11idyopadhim tyajataJ. in a proper way.te existence and activity. B.lulomi.

U. 2. sva-sarfra"bhiite jfvatmanyatmatayavastlzitc jfva"sabdena brahma pratipadanam iti kasakrtsna iiciiryo manyate sma. agrees with Kasakrtsna that the Highest Self itself appears as the individual soul. But S. 22. it perishes utterly. If the difference due to the adjuncts is not real. it means that the thing is completely destroyed. The individual soul abides in the Supreme. 2 See C. Wc cannot therefore insist on the distinction of the individual and the Highest Self. Nimbarka takes this section to be connected with the refutation of the Samkhya doctrine. The difference resides altogether in the adjuncts and so the soul is Brahman even before departure from the body. 3. 1 S. objects to the view that the soul. B. specific cognition which depended on it no longer takes place. which somehow presents itself as the individual soul.. mjniiniitma-bhiivena. interprets Kasakrtsna's view as meaning that Brahman abides as itself within the individual soul which thus constitutes Brahman's body. is it due to its essential nature or limiting adjuncts? If the former. If the difference before departure is due to limiting adjuncts. believes in absolute identity. it can never become Brahm. If there is obscuration. free. The adjuncts cannot introduce differences into Brahman which is without parts and incapable of difference. So Brahman's essential nature being manifest at all times. R. When light belongs to the essential nature of a thing. If the soul is not Brahman previous to its departure. and Bhaskara interpret the word avastltite~ as meaning 'because of Bral11nan' s abiding . By means of true knowledge there is effected its dissociation from the elements and the sense-organs which are the product of avidya.328 The Brahma Si'itra the abiding of one thing in another rather than identity.. When the connection is severed. then what is it that becomes Brahman on the departure of the soul? If it is said that Brahman's true nature is obscured by avidyii or for then its essential nature will be violatt. 1 2 Brahman. Brahman whose true nature is eternal. Ill. VI. The individual soul and the Highest Self differ only in name. becomes one with /Jrahman. the individual soul'. eko hy ayam iilma nama-miitra-bhedena bahudhiibhidhlyata iti. S.d. self-luminous intelligence cannot possibly be hidden by avidyii. when departing.U. The term avasthita suggests . I. S. it is Brahman even before departure and there is no point in saying that it becomes Brahman only when it departs. If it becomes Brahman. All the texts can be understood if we accept Kasakrtsna's view. there is no point in speaking of becoming Brahman at the time of departure. there cannot be any obscuration of it. The eternally unchanging Self which is one mass of knowledge does not perish. 7.

'As by one clod of clay all that is made of clay becomes known . All these prove that Brahman is the material cause of the world.U.fAN IS THE MATEIUAL AND THE EFFICIENT CAUSE OF THE WORLD I. R. The opponent holds that Brahman is the efficient cause of the world only and not the material cause. 10. IV. these beings are born.' (C. . T.Text. conch. irreproachable. Brahman first reflects before creating. VI. which is the material cause. 23. This is possible only with regard to the material cause for the effect is not different from the material cause. 10. We cannot say that of the efficient cause. We also know that the production of effects 1 jani kartub prakrti}).U. dr~tiinta: illustration. B. yataJ:t. the statement and the illustrations would become false. See Prasna U. Besides. the world is non-conscious. So Brahman is not the material cause. \Vhilc in the case of clay or gold. So Brahman alone is both the efficient and the material cause of the world. without activity. The knowledge of everything else would not follow from the knowledge of one thing. If there were. IV. he is the lord of the world and so possesses only efficient power. Ill. by one nugget of gold all that is made of gold becomes known. efficient causes like potters and goldsmiths are needed for turning clay or gold into vessels or ornaments. impure and consists of parts and so its cause also should be of the same nature. 5.U. the priidhiina of the Siimkhyas is the material cause and Brahman is only the efficient cause. prakrti~: material cause. anuparodhiit: because of non-contradiction. 4-8.parodhiit (Brahman £s) the material cause also. The illustrations given apply only to the material cause. 1 speaks of that from which. without blemish' (S. pratijnii: (initial) statement. 19). 9. 3 says that to know the Self is to know everything else. VI. Like kings of different places. But Brahman 'is without parts. for this view does not conflict with the (£nt"tz'al) statement and illustration.lJ. I.. I.) M. S. Something different from Brahman. 7 speaks of herbs growing on the earth.U. 4. Translation and Notes Section 7 (23-27) BRAH!.U. 1 ea: and. tranquil. etc. VI. prakrtis ea pratijnii-dr~tant{'inu.G. VI. 1. The answer to this objection is that it is the material cause also for C. B. In ordinary experience the material and the efficient causes are different. This indicates the material cause of the beings. 8ff. 4· 30.U. Pataiijali I. no other efficient cause of the world is possible than Brahman. holds that the purua-pak~a here is sesvara Siimkhya or theistic Siimkhya which holds that the Lord creates this world only in so far as he guides prakrti. gives i1lustrations of drum.. 3 and 4. I. IX.

names and forms are not evolved. Brahman is called an effect and manifold. 24. in ordinary experience. This highly subtle matter stands to Brahman in the relation of a mode (prakc'ira). answers this objection by using the same texts.'s view is adopted by Nimbarka and Srinivasa. the cause. 1 . (C. The Highest Brahman. 2 R. not the material cause of the world. abhidhya: volition. which is preceded by the Self's reflection. U. I. vibhaktaniima-rupam tadii tad eva bahutvena kiiryatvena cocyate. continues to exist in a highly subtle condition. As for the contention that. VI. having the whole aggregate of non-conscious and conscious beings for its body. while the material cause is the pradlziina guided by Bra. R. one and the same principle cannot be both the operative and the material cause and that effects cannot be brought about by one agency. II. it means that Brahman having non-conscious matter for its body. abhidhyopadesiic ea And because of the statement of volition (on the part of the Self). T.tma-bh iUam para m brahma kadiicid vibhakta-niima-rupam. not distinguished in Brahman. So it is urged that Brahman is only the operative.former it is called one. without a second. So the Self is the efficient cause. 'tad aili$ata. 2. 4. yadii vibhakta-namarupam tad-aikam-advitfyam karartam iti ea. or He reflected 'May I be many'. answers that prakrti in such passages denotes Brahman in its causal phase when names and forms are not yet distinguished for there is not any principle independent of Brahman. in the . at other times thPy are evolved. may I be many'. since the words 'May I be many' indicate that the reflective desire of multiplying itself has the inward Self for its object. 'He wished. 'soliiimayata. the state which consists of the three gutzas and is denoted by the form avyakta. 3. kadiicic cavibhakta-nama-Yupam 'yadii. is something effected. which show that the Self is an agent of independent activity. which declare prakrti to be eternal and the material cause of the world. bahusyiim praJ'iiyeyeti'. 1 sakaletara vilak ~artasya parasya brahmarta~' sarvasakteb sarvajnasy aikasyaiva sarvam upapadyate. unmanifested. R. There are passages like. \Vith reference to the difficulty caused by texts like those of cr~lika U. 1 As for the passage that the unevolved originates and passes away. bahusyiim prajiiyeyeti'. 6.) sarva-cid-acid-vastu-sarlratayii saroadii sarvci. In the latter state. Sometimes. are distinct. upadesat: because of statement. ea: and.hman. is the self of all. however. In total dissolution non-conscious matter having Brahtnan for its self.330 The Brahma Sittra requires invariably several instrumental agencies. It is also the material cause. U. R. this applies to ordinary forces and not to the Suprcme.

_T. It means that Brahman became sat and tyat (T.and Bhaskara. I tell you. as that from which the world comes into being and in which it is reabsorbed. the visible things of the earth like water and light and the invisible beings of air and iikcisa or the defintd and the undefined things. Brahman is stated in the sruti as the material cause of the world. ea: and. all changes exclusively belong to non-conscious matter. 4. pari?Jiimiit: because of transformation. and Niri1harka quote Taittiriya Briihma1Ja II. Hhaskara criticises S. 9. which is a mode of Brahman. supporting the worlds. ubhaya: both. is adopting a mahtiyiina view. 6). Translation and Notes 331 I. The effects cannot be absorbed by anything else than their material cause. and all imperfections and sufferings to the individual 1 mahiiyanil~a-bauddha-gathitam mayavadam vyavar1. 25. Bralm·Lan the tree from which they shaped the heaven and the earth. These beings abide in a subtle condition and become one with the Supreme Self in so far as they cannot be designated as something separate from him.Text. 7. I. iimniiyiit: because (of mention in) the sacred text. iitmaA']'te!~ pari1Jiimiit (Brahman is tltc mataial cause) on account of action referring to itself. 'tad iitmiinani svayam a!lUruta' makes out that 'that Atman (Self) transfonned itself into its own self'. See C. 'Brahman was the wood. siik:. When this Brahman resolves to become many. 7. 9. 1 Par£1Jlimiit is taken by 1{. 4. 1. I I. and ~rikal)tha as a separate sutra. Il.'s theory of adhyiisa by which everything is destructible. . 'Both' refers to the origin and the dissolution of the world. U.U. When Brahman undergoes change into the form of this world.' I. the Self got itself transformed into the things of the worlu.: on account of action concerning direct. siik$iiC cobhayiimniiyiit And because of the direct mention of both in the sacred text. iitma-krtciJ.'ayanto lokan vyamo- hayanti. This view is supported by ~. Brahman has become the whole world of effects. (This is possil. it invests itself with a body consisting of all conscious and non-conscious beings in their gross manifest state which admits of distinctions of name and form and thereupon transforms itself into the form of the world./c) o·wing to transformation. you wise ones. Bhaskara says that S. R. 26. 8. Even as clay is changed into its effects. l{.U. it stood on Brahman. holds that Brahman has for its body the entire universe with all its conscious and non-conscious beings and constitutes the Self of the universe. The word 'itself' excludes the possibility of any other cause.

brahma-yoni (Ill. 28. in that they suggest that the world is also an i11usion even as the appearance of snake is. N imbarka takes this section as directly connected with the refutation of the Siirhkhva view. 4.332 The Brahma S iitra souls which also are modes of Brahtnan. etena sarve vyakhyatiil. vyakhyiitiil. I. explained. The illustrations used are unfortunate. The Siithkhya doctrine of pradhana has been refuted.z Hereby all (the doctrines opposed to the Vedanta view) are explained. yoni!t: origin. 1 This does not mean that the world is as illusory as the snake. It is only the dependence of the world on Bra/mum. free fnnn all imperfection and change. bhuta-yoni (M. There are A dvaita V cdan#ns who hold such a view. vyiikhyatii!J: are explained. iyam copadana-paritzamiidi·bha$fi na vikarabhiprayena api tu yatha sarvasyopadiinam rajju}) evam brahma jagad·upadanam dra~Javyam. hi: because. l. Section 8 (28) THE EXPLANATION OF ALL I. 6). 3). The atomic and other views arc not founded on scriptural authority and arc contradicted by several V edic passages. It is also implied that the integrity of Brahman is not affected by the changes of the world. The repetition of 'explained' is to mark the end of the chapter.U. unlike many others. Bhamatf. Brah-man is described as the source of all beings. Brahman is the material cause of the world even as the rope is the basis of the appearance of snake. 27. The Siirhkhya system. nirvikiira. etena: by this. See M. Brah11·zan himself is nirdo$a. 7 where the spider is said to be the cause of the threads which he sends forth and draws in. 'Source' generally means the material cause. 1. So the Sutrakara attempted a refutation of the Samkhya theory of pradhana as the only cause of the world. 1 . It is taken up for special notice as it stands near to the Vediinta doctrine. I. yam's ea hi giyate And because (Brahman) is celebrated as the source. I. is anxious to prove that its views are warranted by scriptural authority. ea: and. 4. even as the rope is not affected by the changes in the apparent snake. 1. giyate: is sung. that is brought out. admits the non-difference of cause and effect and is also accepted by some of the authors of the dharma-sutras like Devala and others.U. sarve: all.

we have shown that the omniscient Brahman alone is the cause of the universe. He is the Self of all. prasa1igat: on account of the result. It is true that where smrtis conflict. anya: other. Again. the third and fourth parts show that the sruti passages do not contradict one another when they deal with cosmology. How are we to interpret them so as not to contradict the sruti passages? It is no answer to say that. the second part shows that opinions about pradhiina and others are based on defective reasoning. aval?iisa: room. do$a: defect. need not necessarily mean the author of the smrti. occasion: it£: that. 2. na: not. They claim to impart the knowledge of liberation.Section 1 (1-2) REPUDIATION OF Sl\f !jTI OPPOSED TO SRU11 II. with the aid of the sruti passages. those which follow the sruti are to be accepted and those which conflict with sruti are to be disregarded. The Sa1nkhya view that pradhiina is the cause of the universe is shown to be lacking in scriptural authority. Asuri and Paiicasikha. Manu who is mentioned with respect in Taittiriya Siirithitii (II. smrti: smrti texts.~a­ do$a-prasaizgiit If it be said that there will result the defect of not allowing room for certain smrtis (we say) not so. 10. an: not. for his experience of the transcendental reality is itself the result of religious practices based on the sruti injunctions. 1. 2) criticises the views of . the first part is devoted to show that there is no contradiction between the conclusions of the first chapter and the statements of certain smrtis. 3~ 3). Kapila-smrti has not got a sruti supporting it but is in conflict with the existing smrtis and so it should be rejected. 1. These are not like Manu smrti concerned with the duties and rules of lite. because there will result the defect of not allme·ing ro01n for some other smrtis. an: not. cet: if. He may be thE> Kapila who burnt the sons of Sagara. in the first chapter. etc. The opp~nent argues Kapila's Siiritkhya-smrti and the views of his followers. This is in accordance with the Purva Mimaritsii Sutra (I. urge that the cause of the universe is the independent non-conscious pradhiina.U. smrty-anavakiisa-do$a-prasaizga iti cen nanyasmrty-anavakii. smrti: smrti texts. individual soul and the sense-organs. sacraments. it is established that the omniscient Lord of all is the material and cflicient cause of the universe. non-contradiction. do$a: defect. the word KapiJa in the S. prasa1if{a~: result. avak/isa: room. Kapila's own intuitive experience cannot be said to be the authority for his smrti. In the second chapter known as a1•irodha. In the first chapter dealing with the concordance or harmony of texts.

there are others which support it. 1. 3. A smrti is accepted when it refers to things in our experience or mentioned in the sruti. The opponent continues.ya-garbha and not the great and pradhiina of the Siimkhya. The doctrine of Kapila is in conflict with the V eda and M anu-smrt£ which follows the V eda. 2. See/sa U. the sruti has to be accepted. nor are they mentioned in the sruti. How can his smrti be set aside? If there are certain smrtis which do not support Brahman's causality of the world. In M. 1. 360. (V. on the other hand. Kapila-smrti. also gives again the Siim-A·hya-yoga view (I. . i. one who was we11 instructed. I I.iis for a proper interpretation of them. VII. (I. itare$iim: of others. Apastamba Dharma Sutra I. 2. ordinary people look to the smrtis and the Pttriit.e. Baladeva holds that on account of the non-perception in Scripture of many other doctrines found in the S iimkhya system such as the doctrine that the souls are pure consciousness and all-pervading. the great. refers to things like mahat. 91). anupalabdhe~: on account of nonperception. while it is possible for men of great ability to interpret the sruti texts by means of their intellect.334 The Brahma SiUra Kapila and commends the person who has realised the Self in all things (XI I. it has been explained that these refer to the intellect and body of Hirat. l<i).B. They have great regard for sages like Kapila. (Siinti-parva 334. S. 8.G. 2 Nimbarka says that if persons 1ike Manu do not perceive that the Veda is concerned with pradhana. 1 Sec also B. 4. 23. S. 29) it is said that the pradhiina which consists of the three guttas comes intQ being and is absorbed in the indeterminate Person who alone is the Self and the knower of a11 that is created. ea: and. M. aham-kiira. 6.B. 7. pradhana. the smrti which is opposed to the V eda is unacceptable.U. itare$iitit ciinttpalabdhe~ And on account of the non-perception of others. 2) looks upon Kapi1a as the first among created beings. the self sense of which we have no experience. it follows that it cannot be trusted in the treatment of the cause also. karya-smrtcr a-pramattyat karatta-smrter apy a-prama~lyam yuktam ity 1 1 abhipraya~. If it is said that Katha U. If Kapila-smrti cannot be trusted in the treatment of the effects. 11) mentions malzat the great and avyakta the unmanifested. avyaktam Pm'u~e brahman ni~kriye sampraUyate. 2. in I.

26. Ill.e. This sutra states the opponent's viewpoint.Text. 1. their reconciliation is possible through reasoning. So one is likely to think that the Yo~a system. may be relied from Brahman) (is known) from Scripture. navedavin manute ta1n brhantam. sabdat: from Scripture.atviit: on account of difference of nature. (II. Taittiriya Briilmza~w says: 'No one who does not know the Veda knows the Highc_. asya: of this. tathut1•am: its being like this. 4.U. 3. Again. The }' oga philosophy maintains that pradht~na is the independent cause of the universe and the great one and self-sense are its effects. 1.II. The Yoga system with its eightfold discipline is not opposed to the Vedas. This view is refuted already. vVe accept the systems of .11. Translation and Notes l{EFUTATION OF THE YOGA DOCTRINE IT.' 1 See also H. If there are conflicting passages of sruti. as it is in partial agreement with the Veda.thiitvam ea sabdat (Brahman can) not (be the cause of the world) on account of difference of nature of tlzis (the world) and its bei1tg such ( Sclf. diffr. etc. brahma-vijnanam avidyiiya nivartakam mok~a sadhanam. 1 lld asya ta. If we apply our reason to the question of Brahman's causality of the world. B.18.U. g. 2 It is thus superior to srutt'.a in so far as they arc in conformity with t}l(~ sr·ut£ and reject them when they contradict sruti. etena: by this. \\'hat we need is knowledge of the Self. brahma-sak~atkarasya moksopayataya pradhanyat tatra sabdifd api parok 1<. S. ea. 1. 4. Ill. VI. na 1•ila1~$a~tat1. v£lak~fiatJ. Ill. clena yoga~ pratyukta~ 335 1'/zereb_v the Yoga (smrti) is refuted. S.II. B. 2. 9. 5) says that the Self is to be heard. na: not.lJ. 8. These observations apply also to other smrtis. Ill. the knowledge of Brahman through reasoning is said to culminate in an intuition of Brahman which dispels all ignorance and causes release. 8 t~lls us that Sii1hkhya knowledge of Yoga discipline is not enough.4. It is a way to the realisation oftheSelf. to be thought. 13 uphold the YoRa doctrine.easoning is also possible as a means of knowledge in the case of Brahman.ll. Anandagiri.<1. g. U. pratyukta~: is refuted. 1 1 . 7· anubhavavasana1St. _voga~t: the Y o~a smrti. S. Section 3 (4-11) BRAHA1AN'S NATURE IS NOT VIOLATED BY HIS CAUSALITY OF THE WOHLD li. ea: and. 2.Katha U.~·iiritkltya and Yor. H.II.agocarad aparok ~iirthdsadharmya-gocaras tarko' ntarangam iti tasyai va balavatvam ity arthal).

U. the prii1JaS quarrelled ($atapatha Briilnna1JaVI. the world is unconscious and impure. 2). (II. 3. wood and the rest. Baladeva gives an absolutely different interpretation. Gold ornaments are made of gold and not of earth. From man who is a conscious being. teeth and hair which are non-conscious things. though it is not manifest. 6) speaks of Brahman as manifesting itself in two forms. Cause and effect cannot be different in nature. answers the objection of the purva-pak$in that it is possible to imagine that there is consciousness in stones. If it is said that there are passages in the sruti such as the earth spoke.The Brahma Sutra we find that there is a difference of nature between Brahman the cause and the world the effect. . by saying that it is unreasonable to take what is known by direct perception to be incorrect on the ground of mere imagination. 2. necessary for the things of the world to be utterly unconscious to be useful to the soul as instruments of action and the relation between souls and objects may be one of superior to subordinate. this position. it cannot be of use to the conscious soul even as one lamp cannot be of use to another. 2 and 4. pain and infatuation (sukha-dubklza-mohiinvitam) is impure and its cause cannot be the pure Brahman. The sentient scorpion springs from the non-sentient dung and the non-sentient threads spring from the sentient spider.. C. 1. there arise nails. I~. VI.U. answers this objection by saying that in these instances the relation of cause and effect rests only on the non-sentient elements. Brahman is conscious and pure. fire thought.' The V eda is non-human in origin unlike the Samkhya and therefore it is authoritative. however. B. I<. The world is not conscious for it is an instrument of the conscious soul. following R. 3. 7. '[The ideaJis not [unauthoritative like the Samkhya and the rest] on account of its difference [from them] its being so is known from the text. this objection is answered in the next sutra by the Pur'l'tl-pak~in. earthen vessels are made of earth and not of gold. T. intelligent and non-intelligent (7n"jiiana1it ciivijtiiinam ea). 1 Srinivasa. 1. uses the same arguments but adds another objection that things of different essential characters stand to each other in the relation of cause and effect. If the universe were itself conscious.U. So this world which is non-conscious and comprises pleasure. He makes this sutra a separate section and gives it a new meaning. 3-4. 1 yatas tatrapy acetanamsa eva karya-karataa-bhava'/1. VI. which minimises the distinction between the conscious Brahman and the non-conscious world will not explain away the difference in nature between the two which the sruti asserts. I. If it is said that the world too may be conscious and the apparent absence of consciousness is due to a modification of consciousness itself as may appear in the condition of sleep and swoon and it is not .

Sec K.. 6. say between the element of earth in the body of the scorpion and the cow-dung.1ngcs of colour..a. the pun•a-pal\!}£n holds that . abhimcini-vyapaddas tu vise~anugatibhyam But the reference is to the presiding deities on account of the distinctive nature and relatedness. What exactly is the meaning of the difference in nature between Brahman and the world? (i) Does the opponent mean the nonoccurrence in the world of the entire characteristics of Brahman or (ii) the non-occurrence of a few characteristics or (iii) the nonoccurrence of the characteristic of intel1igence. or the cow-clung changes into the body of the scorpion. So this entire . 14. etc. 2: Aitareya V. That the world cannot proceed from Brahman because the two are different in nature cannot be accepted. though neither the cow-dung nor the hair and the nails are the abodes of it. 1. If there were complete identity between the two. the reference is not to the elements but to the deities which control them. But (t't) z's seen. etc. 'the fire thought'. the difference in nature still remains between the cause and the effect for it is the non-inte11igent body which is the abode of the intelligent soul. 5. If it be said that we cannot reconcile the sayings of th<' V erla as the Earth spoke and the l'ire wilJed. I. Translation and Notes 337 II.Text. form. In agreement with smrti confirmed by reasoning. there can be no causal relation at all. If a partial identity is allowed. 3.U. fierc the objection stated in siUras II. It is due to the presence of the sou] that the body undergoes ch. For non-intelligent hairs and nails proceed from intelligent beings like men and scorpions and other sentient beings spring from cow-dung. For unless thrrc is some difference between the two. 1. C. there can be no causal connection. tu: but. 2. the answer is that in these passages the reference is to the presiding deities. II.U.. . t1t: hut. Brahman cannot he its material cause. \Vhen it is said that 'the earth spoke'. vise$a-anugatibhyam: on account of distinctive nature and rclatedncss..Pradhiina is the universal material cause:'. 1I. So the objection holds that the world being different in nature. viz. the fact of existence itself. a similar identity in nature can be established between the world and Brahman. The second alterna6vc is not acceptable for the quality of existence is present in the world. before it manifests as the hair and the nails. The third is incapable of proof. If the first alternative is taken. Even if we say that they come out of the bodies and not souls. there would be no distinction of cause and effect. abhimiini-vyapadda!J: reference to presiding deities. VI.. satta-lak§at. 1. drsvatc tu. 4. Baladcva thinks that the sub·a states not the objection but the correct conclusion. 4 and 5 is refuted. drsvate: is seen.

The S'iinikhya system which believes that the non-intelligent pradlu"ina is the cause would not be ahle to make any sense of the sruti passage. Since during slcPp the individual soul becomes one with the Universal Self without the consciousness of the world. S. 1 Reasoning applied to sruti helps us to understand the sruti better. So it is to be known through the Vcdic teaching. etc. hair. prati$edha-matrat7'at: because it is a mere negation.The Brahma Sutra complex of things has Brahman for its material cause. If you negate the existence of the effect before its actual origination. J. you are negating something which 1 sruty anugrhfta eva hy atra tat'ko'nubhavangatvemiSrfyate. 2. Nimbarka and Srinivasa hold that the objection that the universe on account of its difference from Brahman cannot have Brahma·n for its material cause is not valid for 'it is seen' that nails. T. For being devoid of form and other sensible qualities Brahman is not the object of perception. na: not. The objection is raised that this view is violated. they arc exclusive of C'ach other. R. 9. It cannot be an object of inference or comparison because there is no perc(•ivable sign or similarity in it.. I.c. The Vediintin maintains the view that the effect exists in the cause already. 6 can be explained by those who believe in an intelligent cause of the world which is manifold and unmanifcsted in the two parts of the world cctana and acetana. 11.-existent. Baladcva adopts the same interpretation but looks upon this sutra as a separate section. it is reasoning which comes after the hearing of sruti and is favourable to it. the individual soul is in reality the Universal Self. 7. because the impure world which is the effect cannot exist in pure Brahman. (we reply) that it is not so because it is a mere negation (without an object which is to be negated). For example. The cause of the world is an intelligent being.'ll or spiritual experience. in spite of its being different from its effect. Since the world has arisen out of Brahrnan and the effect is not different from the cause. 1:~0. the world cannot be different from llrah·man.. The effect must be treated as non-existing before its actual origination. as ad iti cen na prati~edha-matratviit If it be said that (in that case the effect is) nmz. asat: non-existent. Scripture is the way to prove the reality of Brahman. iti cet: if it is said... 1f it is said that reasoning is useful for attaining the knowledge of the Scripture. G. arise from a person from whom they are different. See J{atha V. The answer is given in the sutra.U. Scripture supports this view. WC learn that the Self is not connected with ~he waking or dream conditions a. . !Jg Vcda X. It is reasoning which is subsc~rvient to anub1Ul1. I I.

however. Besides. limitation. apitau: in dissolution. This means that the world originates from what has no cxistcnr::e. apart from the cause.. So it cannot be said that the effect was non-existent before its actual beginning.339 does not exist. See B. impurity. the effect is not altogether different and separate from the cause.ala-hirattyayor iva dravyaikyam asty eva. Translation and Notes II. objects of enjoyment and so forth.U. when the effect becomes one with the cause. while cause and effect are not of the same nature. At the time of the dissolution. 8. If. apitau tadvat prasangiid asmnanjasam Because at tlze time of the dissolution. as all distinctions will be resolved into a state of non-distinction. 6. then prior to its coming into being the effect does exist in the form of its cause and so it cannot be negated. to avoid these difficulties. it is held that the world remains separate from Brahman even during the period of the dissolution. IT. the view that the effect is non-different from the cause is violated. .an. The m world with all its qualities does not exist without the cause. differs from the world. As it is always one or the other form of the cause it cannot be negated. hfdam niisya prat1·~edhasya prat(<iedhyam asti. there would be no special causes left at the time of a new beginning of the world and so the new world could not arise with its distinction of enjoying souls. There is difference of characteristics but as in the case of gold and golden bracelets there is oneness of substance.2a pari1. Brah.2a-jagad-akare1. 1. then even the released souls may be subject to rebirth in the world. the cause.rossness. the effect. R. we assume the origin of a new world even after the annihilation of all works of the enjoying souls which enter into the state of non-difference from the Highest Brahman. the objection considered is that since Brahman. . R.. If the negation has for its object the existence of the effect previous to its origination. 1 prati~edha1it 11 kiira~a-bhutam . If. (Brahman will be) of the same nature (as the world) (the doctrine of the causality of Brahman) is i nadcquate. Brahman the cause modifies itself so as to assume the form of a world differing from it in character. 2 1 Text. krmi-mak$ikayor api hi sati ea vailak 1~attyt kuru/. So either in the past or in the present. Bra/mum will be po11uted by the qualities of . either now or before the beginning of the effect. For R. prasmigiit: because of an occasion. Another objection is raised to the causality of Brahma1t. asama1ijasam: inadequate or unsatisfactory. says that. they arc two separate things and so the effect does not exist in the cause. lwahmaivasvasmad vilak$a1. 4. Even after coming into being the effect do<'s not cxi"t independently.2amala iti . etc. tadvat: of the same nature. the effect by itself is non-existent without the cause. absence of intelligence.

Several texts declare that the Lord is without a body. 14.ii:nta-bhiiviit But not so for there are (parallel) £nstances. See II. dr$/anta-bhaviit: because there are instances. He is not capable of enjoy~ent through sense-organs and has no life dependent on breath. H.The Brahrna Sutra 340 R. We cannot say that the body of a being is constituted by tl1at which is exclusively ruled and supported by that being and stands to it in an exclusive subservient relation (se$a) for this definition would include actions also. Again. If we accept the doctrine of the oneness of substance of cause and effect. then the imperfections of the latter would affect the former. it is not correct. tu: but. subsistence and activity of all depend on him. The opponent cannot quote any instance to the contrary. II. We cannot sav that Brahman in its causal as well as in its effected state has all r. for the nature of a body dors not depend on the will of the intelligent soul joined to it. Again. If there is a causal relation between Brahman and his body. It is also objected that the conscious and nonconscious beings cannot constitute the body of Brahman. So Brahman cannot have a body constituted by conscious souls and unconscious objects. Embodiedncss is the result of karma and the Highest Self is free from it. na tu dr$f. I. In spite of the non-difference of cause and effect.Jnscious and non-conscious beings for its body and as imperfections inhere in the body only. the nature of an eternal intelligent soul does not depend on the will of the Lord.eabsorption is impossible if the effect retains its particular qualities. Similarly with regard to earth and the organic beings which spring from it. takes this sutra to mean that the relation of embodied being and body cannot subsist between Brahman and the world and if it did subsist. 9. the nature. The Vediinta view is not inadequate for there are instances of effects which do not affect by their qualities the causes into which they are reabsorbcd. The persistence of a dead body does not depend on the soul that tenanted it. the effect has its self in the cause but not the cause in the effect. An injured body dors not obey the will of its possessor. all the imperfections of the world would cling to Brahman also. If it is said that the body of a being is constituted by that. na: not. Things made of clay arc of different shapes and sizes but these latter do not affect the clay into which they may be reduced. they do not affect Brahman in its causal or effected state. then the imperfections of the effect will affect the cause. 1. subsistence and activity of which depend on the will of that being and so a body may he ascribed to the Lord in so far as the essential nature. So also with gold ornaments which do not affect the gold into which they are reabsorbed by their qualities. the identity of . Intelligent souls control the movements of puppets and the like but we do not say that the latter constitute the bodies of the former.

J. not to the embodied self. 2. IT. VII. cannot stand to Brahman in the relation of a body. The opponent's definitions are erroneous. 3 cid-acid-vastu-sarfrataya tad-iitma-bhutas. The imperfections of the body do not affect Brahman and the good qualities belonging to the self do not extend to the body. Sec C. Subiila U. Again. even as youth. R. the word 'body' is not like the word 'jar' used in one sense. argues that Bralmzan has all conscious and non-conscious beings for its body and constitutes the self of that body. a causal and an effected one. M. 6. The liberated souls are not born again because their ignorance is wiped out by the knO\vlcdge of the H. Brahman ·is connected with two states. 1 even as a magician is not affffted by the illusions he creates for others or a person is not affected by the illusions of his dream. These apply not to Brahman but to conscious and non-conscious beings. II. 2. etc. The view that body is 'that which is the cause of the enjoyment of the fruits of action' does not apply to earth and the like. while knowledge. either in its subtle or gross condition. 3 As for the objection that the world compri~ing matter and souls.n i sambadhyantc..'a parasya brahmarta~ srohkocavikiis(it'maka-kiirya-kiira~a-bhavcivasthiidvayiinvayepi 11a kascid virodlw!l.U. As for the plea that the world rernains distinct from Brahman in dissolution. 9. childhood and old age which are attributes of embodied beings such as gods or men belong to the body only. 4. C.J kiira~a'tn sa1hsrjyata iti apftav api sa samiina}. since each is exclusive of the other two.U. 1 avasthii-traya-siill~Y S. s. 2-3.. atma-gatas ea jiiana-suk!ladayo na sarfre. nor does it apply to the bodiJy forms which the Lord or the released souls assume for these embodi1 karyasya tad dharmlirtiiJiz cavidyadhyliropitatviin na tai}. 25. Sec the Antaryiimin Briihma1Ja of B.eal. yatal.U.Text. eko'vyabhiciiJyavasthii-trayerta vyabhicari~za samspr syate. R.U. samkoca-vikiisau para-brahma-sarlra-bh uta-cid-acid-vastu-gatau. VI. the essential characteristics of which are expansion and contraction. The Self who is the eternal witness of the three states of the world is not affected by any one of them. See B. pleasure and so on brlong to the conscious st::lf only. sarfra-gatas tu do$iinatmani prasajyante. atma-gatas ea gu~ta na sarfre yatha dcva-malltt:<>yiidtllillit sa-sarfrii~iim k $Clra-jnanam sarfra-gatii biilatva-yuvatva-sthaviratviidayo niUma. Translation and Notes 341 cause and effect holds good not only in the period of dissolution but at all times. it is based on faulty reasoning. argues that the effect and its qualities are mere appearances due to ignorance and so do not affect the cause in any way either during dissolution or subsistence of the world in Brahman. we cannot accept such a dualist position. na . 11.. S.U. There are many texts which declare that the entire world stands to Brahman in the relation of a body. not to the body. 2 The otht:'r objection about the rebirth of the liberated souls is set aside on 1he ground that rebirth after dissolution is possible only to those who are subject to ignorance which persists both in sleep anci dissolution.

In this sense all conscious and nonconscious beings together constitute the body of the Supreme Person for they are completely controlled and supported by him for his own ends and are entirely subordinate to him. pak$a: side.ryam tac che~ataika-svarupam iti sarvam cetanacetanam tasya sarfram. It does not apply to the bodies of stone or wood which are bestowed on AhaZvii and other persons in accordance with their deeds. there is no reason why a new creation should arise. We cannot say that the body is the abode of sense-organs or the cause of pleasure and pain. tat tasya sarfram iti . Though vitality is present in plants. the rebirth of the released is also possible. do$iit: due to defects. in the case of a dead body the body begins to decay the moment the soul departs from it and we speak of it as a body because it is a part of the aggregate of matter which previously constituted a body. the life of which depends on the vital breath with its five modifications' is too narrow since it does not apply to plants. If it is said that some distinctions remain unabsorbed even in dissolution. is the body of that soul. 1 In the case of an injured body the power of control is obstructed. The other definition that the body is 'that. 1 atah sarvam parama-puru$e1)a sarviitmana svii. sva-pak~a which does not possess form and other qualities. do$iiC ea And because the defects (alleged to be in the Vediinta view by the Sa1nkhya are found) in his own view also.Sarfra-lak~a1)am astheyam. The objection that the effect was non-existent before origination is common to both the Vediinta and the Siimkhya which accept sat-kiirya-viida. ea: and. for otherwise they would not have been non-distinct 1 ato yasya cetanasya yad dravyarh sarvatmana svarthe niyantuth dharayitum ea sakyam tac-che:~ataika-svarupam ea. it does not take five modifications. they deny to him a body due to karman. 10. Again. The world with fom1 and sound is different in nature from pradhiina Il. Again. If there can be a new creation without any cause.rthe niyamyam dhii. The objections against the Vediinta view dealt with already apply to the Satitkhya view of pradhiina as the cause of the world. They actmilly declare that the universe is his body. 2 When the texts deny a body to him. I.The Brahma SiUra 342 ments do not subserve the fruition of the results of actions. These bodily forms of the Lord are not the combinations of earth and the other elements. sva: one's own. the effect becomes one with the cause in dissolution and so will pollute the cause. in Siimkhya also. . as the reasons which are responsible for the joys and sorrows of different persons are destroyed in dissolution. The correct definition of body is this. Any substance which a conscious soul is capable of completely controlling and supporting for its own purposes and which stands to the soul in an entirely subordinate relation. these distinctions are not the effects of pradhiina.

Brahman is not an object of perception or inference. Translation and Notes 343 from pradhiina. states the purva-pal~$a thus: Mere f(:'asoning cannot be depended upon in matters which must be understood in the light of sruti. api: too. even. \\re require reasoning to detect and avoid fallacies. it does not follow that the siddhiinta is also fallacious. too. If it be said that all reasoning is not unsound. \Vhen there is a conflict among different interpretations of sruti it is reasoning that enables us to fix the correct meaning of words and sentences.t. tarkiiprafz'$/hiiniid apy anyathiinumeyam iti ced c11am apy avimok$aprasanga!t If it /Je sm:d that. makes out that the Siirhkhya theory cannot account for the origination of the world. If approximation means the mere existence of prakrti. On account of the diversity of men's opinions. with regard to ultimate questions on the nature of Reality and release. II. not·withstand£. aprat£$!hiiniit: because of ill-foundcdness. reason is not of use if it is not backed by sY'u. api: notwithstanding. the whole course of practical life would come to an end. it does not follow that others arc also devoid of foundation. Manu asks us to determine what is dlzarma by means of reasoning (XII. The Sii·titklz_va is unable to give a ratjonal account of the originatiun of the world. anyathii: otherwise. Even men of outstanding intellectual eminence as Kapila. What is the nature of approxin1ation? Does it imply change in prakrti or change in puru$a? Not the latter for puru$a is incapable of change. it is impossible to accept mere reasoning as a sure guide. If some arguments are devoid of foundation. Kar. Reasoning rests on individual opinion. S. C7'am: in that way. iti cet: if so.1ada and others arc seen to contradict one another. If all reasoning were unfounded. even this assumption is based on reasoning.Text. So far as the V ediinta is concerned. prasa1iga!t: result. arguments of some clever men are refuted by others. anumeyam: be inferred. Men act on the assun1ption that in the pac. the ill-foundedness of reasoni11g. in that way. then evt='n the released soul would he liable to that superimposition. It has neither . 11. To aJI this the sutra replies. 105-6). avimok$a: non-release. it is to be inferred otheru:ise. tarka: reasoning. R. there will be the result of non-release. these objections have been answered. the attributes of the Jattcr are fictitiously superimposed on the puru$a which consists of pure intelligence free from all change and on this depends the origination of the empirical world. (we say) that. ThP. Though reasoning may hold good in certain cases. not the fonner for changes in prakrti are supposed to be the effects of superimposition and cannot therefore be the cause. Because the argument of the purva-pak$a is fallacious.ti. the present and the future nature is uniform. consequence. It holds that owing to the punt$ii's approximation to prakrti.

anirmok$a. tarkiiprat£!}thiittiid api and an_vathii .. 12. etc. aparigrahii~: not accepted. R. H.: are explained.. H. We do not have different views about it... which are less reasonable may be taken as being disproved. 1 A mere inference may take different fom1s and may leave us in doubt about the nature of the object. whether they are momentary or permanent.. So by reasoning which is faithful to sruti. 1. Scripture alone is authoritative and reasoning is to be applied only in support of Scripture.tha b~cak this siUra into two. identity of cause and effect. api: also. vyiikhyiitiif.a hy avasthito yo'rthas sa pa1·amartho loke tad vi$ayant jniinam samyaj-jniinam ity ucyale yathiignir U$~a iti..344 The Brahma Siitra form to be seen nor sound to be heard nor any sign from which it can be inferred. etc. The Sii:rhkhya views based on reasoning are not accepted by all. samyaj-jiUinam eka-rupanl vastu-tantratviit. It is similar to the knowledge of fire that it is hot. the other theories like atomism. it is proved that the intelligent Brakman is both the efficient and the material cause of the universe. its powerful support by reasoning and approval by competent persons. points out that the atomists disagree in many ways about the nature of the atoms. prasanga~. etena: by this. Helcase cannot be attained by any other means than the right kind of knowledge imparted to us by the Upani$ads.. and Srikax. whether they are fundamentally void or nonvoid. The knowledge of the Veda being self-evident and eternally the same is incapable of being chalJcnged by any logician. As the Sii'litklzya which is closest to the Vedanta in view of its acceptance of sat-kiirya-viida. if disproved. This disagreement proves that these theories are ill-founded. si$tii!t: competent"ch are not accepted by competent authorities are explained (i. Again. Section 4 (12) REFUTATION OF OTHER THEORIES 11. It need not be universal and constant like the perception of heat in fire. points out that the theories based on human reasoning arc liable to be upset or modified by those more skilled in reasoning. refuted). release is the result of the right kind of knowledge which is constant and uniform. etena si$/c"iparigrahii api vyiikhyiitii~ B_v this tlzose (theor£es) also 7. eka-rupet. N imbarka reads for vimok$a. real or unreal. whether they have a merely cognitional or objective existence. definite or indefinite. With regard to transcendental issues. and the independent existence of the Self. 1 .e.


my dear. quotes Dramirj a-blui$_\'a. The entire body of effects has no existence apart from Brahman. brahma-vyatireke~a karya-jiitasyab'ft. is non-different from the cause. Brahman does not undergo changes like clay or gold for he is said to be free from all change and imperfection. an-anvah•a1n: non-difference. Here it is said that the effect.U. iirambhana-sabdiidibhvah: words like beginning and others. tad: that.' S. (Sec C. R. Brahman. 1. the modification being only a name arising from speech." S. while the truth is that it is just clay . Brahman possesses many powers. Bhamatf. if a soul experiences pleasures and pains. VIII.The Brahma Sutra out of it. \Ve also see in ordinary life that a ruler may reward or punish those who observe or transgress the rules but he does not. The Highest Sel{ has a body of conscious and non-conscious beings but is not connected with karman and is therefore free from evil. 3 Cp. In support of his reading of the st"Ura and interpretation. even if he has a body. exist through or originate from speech only. na khalu ananyatvam iti abhedam brumafz. while in reality there exists no such thing as a modification. 1. lad ananyatvam iirambha1Ja-sabdiidibhyal} The non-difference of them (cause and effect) (results) from words like beginn£ng m:d others. himself experience the pleasures and pains clue to the observance or transgressions of any of his commands. simply because he has a body. It may be said that Brahman has in it elements of manifoldness. 14.U. 1. C. As the tree has many branches. VII. Again. world. 2G. · Section 6 (14-20) NON-DIFFERENCE OF THE EFFECT FROM THE CAUSE II.. · · · In the previous sutra. 2. kim tu bhedam vyasedhiimab.. Therefore to know Brahman is to know everything else. 3 The world does not exist apart from Brahman. The body is originated by karman. 2 S. 4 says: 'Just as. na tu vastu-vt-ttena vikilrah kascid asti. 12. tlte distinction between enjoycrs and the objects of enjoyment was acknowledged from the empirical standpoint. says these modifications or effects arc names only. 1 1 . in so far as they are clay they are true. by one clod of clay all that is made of clay becomes known. it is not due to its being joined to a body but to its karman in the form of good and evil deeds. 2. To this objection the answer is. 1 In so far as they arc names they are untrue. . vacaiva kevalam asti •. 3. VI.av~ ili gamyate. does not affirm the absolute oneness of Brahman and the world but only denies their difference.) He who is freed from bondage is not touched by evil.

there is no room for the distinction of a God who rules and the world and the souls 1 Text. knowledge of the dream persists in waking life. It is many when viewed as having branches. The sea is one and yet manifold a" having waves and foam. The answer is that Brahman is incapable of modifications. The independent existence of the world and the individuals is denied in many texts.. etc. 8. even as the phantoms of a dream arc taken as true until the sleeper wakes. Even when the dr~am is over. Modification is only appearance.347 Unitv and manifoldness arc both true. Aitareya Arat)yaka Ill.U. The Vedic statements have a purpose whereas the knowledge of the unity of the Self has nothing else above it. IV. If unity and multiplicity are both true. Another objection is raised that the illustrations of clay. Events in the dream. 4. 1 Another objection is raised: If absolute unity is the truth.. perception. who secs in it. The answer to these objections is that so long as the knowledge of Brahman by the self has not arisen the entire complex of phenomenal existence is taken as true. How can the knowledge of unity remove the knowledge of manifoldness if both are true. The illustrations are used to show that Brahman alone is real. Again. bondage cannot be the result of multiplicity nor release the result of the perception of unity. 2. then he who is engrossed with the manifold world cannot be regarded as ignorant. A text like 'He goes from death to death. in reply. The entire body of doctrine which refers to final release will collapse. Vedic knowledge removes ignorance and is therefore useful. 19) will be unmeaning. Another objection is that if Brahman alone is real. though unreal. become invalid. Translation and Notes ubhaya-satyatayci'n hi katham ekatt•a-jtianena nanafva-jfianam apanudyata iti. Until awakening the ordinary course of secular and religious activity goes on undisturbed. that death occurs sometimes as the result of the mere suspicion that a venomous snake has bitten. suggest that Brahman too is capable of modifications. Another objection is raised: How can passages of the Vediinta which belong to the phenomenal world produc~ a knowledge of the identity of the soul with Brahman? It is said. etc. If both unity and multiplicity are real. Unity is used for achieving release and multiplicity for work in the world. The idea of a man. 4. arc said to be indications of actual future events in life. 7. then the ordinary means of right knowledge. diversity' (B. since the absence of manifoldness deprives thcn1 of their objects. S. A tree considered in itself is one. for example. 2. U. as it were. V. texts embodying injunctions and prohibitions lose their meaning if the world does not exist. answers this view by saying that the Highest H. when the true idea of the post has presented itself.eality is one according to the Vedic texts. becomes invalid. . See C.

this means that Brahman is the abode of av£dyii. A vid_yiis arc established on the basis of the distinction of souls and the distinctions arc established on account of avidyiis. sarvajnasyesvarasyatma-bh 14te ivavidya-kalpite nama-rupe tattvanyatvabhyam anirvacanlye samsara-prapanca-bfja-bhute sarvajnasyesvarasya mayasaktib prakrtir iti ea sruti-smrtyor abhilapyete. II to souls. 1 sutrakiiro'pi paramarthabhiprayetJ. When the avid~vii of a soul passes away on the rise of true knowledge. as qualified by the fictitiously~imagined aspect. The world is neither one with nor different from kathayati.'s view and insists on the reality of difference. vyavaharabhipraye1. does avt"dyii belong to Brahman or the souls? Not to Brahman. release means the destruction of the essential nature of the soul. Is this distinction real or a product of avidyii? It cannot be the former. we are arguing in a circle. It is said to be indescribable. 3 Bhaskara criticises S.•!hiinfyatam brahma1. does the soul perish or not perish? If it perishes. because the soul is pure. If it is said that the soul as different from Brahman and fictitiously imagined in it. the product of sakti or prakrti of the omniscient God. in that case it would cling even to the re1eascd souls and the Highest Brahman. then the soul continues to exist different from Brahman. S. mii_yii. lL considers the views of the Vaise$ika system and S. 2 From the viewpoint of the Highest Reality. there is non-difference of cause and effect. all souls should be released.a tad ananyatvam ity aha. . If the soul in its essential form and not fictitiously imagined form is the abode of avidyii. 1 evam paramarthavasthayam sarva-vyavaharabhavam vadanti vedantab. apratyakhyayaiva karya-prapaiicam parirtama-prakriyam casrayati sagU?J. 24. omnipotent and omnipresent. if by release is understood the destruction of avidyii. The transformation (part'~uima) is accepted by the Sutrakiira in so far as there is insistence on devotion to Personal God.The Brahma Sfttra ruled by him. He criticises the doctrine of av£d_va or ignorance. 1. It is only then that the world is treated as real and God is said to be omniscient. If it be maintained that the abode of a'1 1idvc"i is the soul in its essential nature. Again. when one soul attains release and avidyti is destroyed. Brahman is said to be the ocean and the world is the waves. C.U. this would mean that the non-conscious (ja4a) is the abode of avidya. In his commentary on the sutra. VII. With reference to the phenomenal world which is considered to be real from the practical point of view.O• pasane~upayok~yata 1 iti. the soul which has an absolutely homogenous nature cannot be qualified apart from avidyii. if it does not. If it is urged that these defects do not touch avidyii which is itself unreal. 1 For the liberated soul there is no distinction of ruler and ruled. this implies distinction of souls. If we say that there is a separate avidyii for each soul.ta tu syal lokavad iti maha-samudradi. non-differencecl intelligence: if the latter. The entire phenomenal world does not exist for him who has realised the Sclf. But it is not so. is the abode of avt'dya.

We can have a jar only when the clay exists. a special condition which the clay has assumed for practical purposes. says that none but a person who is not in his right mind would take pleasure in an unreal play. the cause. iilambha}_t. a niinuulheya. criticises the distinction of miiyii and avidya. i.a: what is touched or taken.e.. that constitutes the doctrine of the qualified nondualism of Siva. Brahman cannot be the abode of nu~yii. For the bringing about of activity. Translation and Notes bhiive: on existence. of speech and of practical activity.: because of perception. And because of the perception (of the effect) on the existence (of the cause).' 1 SrikaDtha explains ·viiciirambhana in two ways: That which is the beginning. R. Text. The sutra may be read as bhavac ea 1J.. R.349 1{. I. ii-labh. bhii1'e copalabdhc}_t. of speech. though smoke is seen only where the fire exists. adopts the Visi$/iidvaita view: 'What has been set out already as to ~·h_. It is these perceived 1 yad uktam piirvatra cid-acid-prapaiica-viSi~la~ siva eviidvitfya[l ko:ryath karatta1il ea bhavati iti visi 1~fa-~iviidvaitam. i. 15. vikiira. The non-difference of effect from cause is a fact of perception. Another explanation is that which has speech for its beginning. It is not a separate entity from the clay. which we perceive.e.e. 'fetch water in the jar'. is just the object of such expressions as 'this is a jar'. A cloth is nothing but threads crossing each other. He interprets the phrase viiciirambhat. ea: and. The subtle and gross conditions of the conscious and non-conscious beings which constitute the body of Brahman are the cause and effect. after R. So the text means that an effect vikara is a name. it is not correct for smoke may be observed in a jar in which it is collected even after the fire is extinguished. sparsa-ht'ritsayo}_t. on account of speech. without a second-the Self qualified by the uni\'erse both conscious and non-conscious. . carried on by means of implements unreal and known by him to be unreal. the clay must enter into contact with the effect. namadheya. upalabdhel.palabdlte}_t.a alone. }{. The jar makes us aware of the material cause while smoke does not make us conscious of fire. i. a particular make or configuration and a special name. II.. and NimbiTrka look upon the relation of Brahman and the universe as one of soul-body relationship. Srikat)tha. which is the cause of speech and practical activity. vikiira. iirambhat. The effect cannot be independent and different from the material cause. i. If it be said that fire and smoke continue to be two different things. So the text means that an effect..a as follows: vaca. a-rabh.e. takes the sfUra to be an answer to Kal)ada's view that the effect constitutes a substance different from the cause. becoming both cause and effect.

1. A itareya Ara~yaka Il. The fact that we do not recognise fire in smoke does not disprove this view. Il. iti eel: if so. asad-1yapaddan neti cen na dharmiintare~a viikya-Se$iit. VI.U.. Niri1barka take this.' C. na: not. S. this was in the beginning. air with iikiisa and iikiisa with Brahman. 4. the effect. asat: non-existence. white and black. 17. dharmiintare~a: due to another quality. The objection is raised in regard to certain scriptural texts which declare 'In the beginning this was that only which is not'. Some read at•arasya for aparasya. In reference to this condition the effect is called non-existent though it existed as one with the cause. represented by the three colours of red. 1. . I. vyapadesiit: on account of mention. For R. The effect is non-different from the cause. 1.) 'Non-existent. sattviit: ou account of {'Xistence.ya: of what is posterior or afterwards. (C. Later passages make out that absolute non-existence was not meant. These are connected with air. satt?•£icciiparasya And on account of the existence of 'lf)hat is poster£or. 1. indeed. viikya-se$iit: on account of the complementary passage. as one. 7. 4. prior to its actual beginning. IG. ea: and. water and earth. R. That which is posterior in time. All means of proof lead back to Brahman as the cause of the world. Fire is the operative cause of smoke and smoke originates from damp fuel joined with fire. II. 'Reing only was this in the beginning. C.' (T. If it be said that on account of the mention of what is non-existent. 19. Il.) So being cannot be ascribed to the effect before its production. Ill. Gold which is the cause is perceived when the ear-ring is present.. is declared in the Scripture to have its being in the cause. na: not so.U. Bhaskara and Baladcva adopt the reading given here. 2.U. U. along with the next sutra. We cannot produce oil from sand. 1. VI.e. the effect denotes nothing else than the causal substance which has passed over into a different condition. i.350 The Brahma Sttfra facts which enable us to infer that the smallest parts of things are ultimately nothing but the three elements of fire. aparas. The reply is given that non-existence does not mean absolute nonexistence but only a different quality or state in which name and shape are not manifested. (the effect is) not (ex£stent prior to creation) (we say) not so because with reference to complementary passage (the mention of non-existence means) another quality (only). and not pradhiina.

Text. In short. a third will have to be devised and so on ad infinitum. If the fonner. The whole cannot reside in each one of . yukteb sabdiintariic ea 351 From reasont"ng and from other Vedic text. we employ milk. we do not employ day for curds or milk for making jars. The hidden parts of the sword are different from those of the sheath. I. To pervade the second series of parts. sabdiintariit: from anotherVedic text. then the objection is valid that anything may come out of anything else. clay and gold. the effect will be further and further re1noved from the cause. If it is argued that there exists in each cause power to produce a special effect. The other side of a jar may not be in contact with the eyes. If the latter. If it is said that the cause and the effect do not appear different because they arc held together by the connection known as samaviiya and not because they are identical with each other. It is possible only when there arc two men. Besides. That the effect exists before its origination and is non-different from the cause can be ascertained from reasoning and Scriptures. atisaya. If the relation between the cause and the effect is regarded as that which exists between the parts and the whole and if the two are said to be held together by samaviiya. then to explain one connection of samaviiya we have to postulate a st'cond connection and to explain that another and so on ad infinitum. though we have no perceptual knowledge of the whole on account of its being hidden in the sheath. One man cannot reside in two places at the same time. Experience teaches us that if we wish to produce curd. anything might come out of anything else. for in that case. 18. we may infer the knowledge of the whole from the perception of a part. yuliteb: from reasoning. Thus we introduce a new series of parts between the original parts and the whole or between the cause and the effect. earthen jars or gold ornaments. ea: and. the question arises whether the whole resides in all the parts simultaneously or only in some parts successively. Translation and Notes II. Is this specific power non-existent before its appearance or is it different from both cause and effect? The specific power view does not help us. the cause and the effect will fall apart from each other and be totally unconnected. The relation of samai'a)'a is unnecessary as experience tells us that cause and effect arc identical. all the effects being non-existent in the cause. milk for curd and clay for jars. The effect as a whole cannot be said to reside in each of the parts simultaneously. all this should be possible. then we ask whether samaviiya is connected with the terms between which it exists or is independent of them entirely. it would be more than one whole. The knowledge of a part of the sword we hold in the hand makes us aware of the whole. then we assume something prior to the effect which later becomes the effect. If the former the whole may not be perceptible at all. If the latter. If the effect were non-existent in the cause. If the specific power is considered to be non-existent before its appearance.

Again. viz. If it is argued that they are recognised as the same persons because their conditions are not separated by death. every part of the cause might manifest the whole of the effect. in the form of its cause. It is the seed which becomes visible in the form of the sprout. says that the analogy is not correct. we ask. be a reality. For as every cow manifests the siimiinya or gPncral character. etc. when the sprouts change into something else. whatever may be the efforts of the potter. one must assume the non-existence of the effect prior to its origination. the potter. This is not invariably experienced. Even so. For the son of a barren woman is not only non-existent but is an unreality and so no temporal limitation can be set to him.liffen'nt from it. To this the answer is that the operative agents arrange the cause in the form of the effect. to know that they are the later stages of the seed. the case of the jar is different because the clay is as good as destroyed. with the accumulation of particles of matter.352 The Brahma S1"itra the parts simultaneously in the manner in which one siimiinya or jiiti of cow is said to reside in each of the cows simultaneously. As the potter puts forth ctiort. Milk continues to exist in a different form when we say that it has become curd. A mere change in form does not transform one thing into an altogether different thing. one may as well have the milk of the cow fron1 her horns. a jar. we have to notice the earlier stages of the tree such as the sprouts. Absolute non-existence or what is altogether featureless cannot be spoken of as 'being prior to' origination: To say that the son of a barren woman was king before Piir~a varman is absurd. If it is argued that origination is the connection of the effect with the existence of the cause. if the effect be non-existent before its origination. Even when the continued existence of the cause is not perceivable. Unless the existence of the jar is assumed before it is produced. how can something which has not yet obtained existence enter into connection with something else? Connection is possible of two existing things only. the sentence 'the jar is produced' will have no meaning. Besides. On the asat-kiirya-viida the operative . when the seed is not seen to exist in the tree. Even the fonn is not absolutely new. It becomes invisible. and not one existing and one non-existent thing or of two nonexisting things. there would be no notion of origination itself because origination implies a reference to the particular effect and the substratum in which it takes place. not non-existent. Incidentally S. the asat-l~iirya-1't'idin may ask. at no time will the absolute non-existPnce of thf' effect. S. if the whole were to reside fully in each part. If the effect exists in the cause and is non-<. If the nonexistent can never become existent. what is the purpose of the operative causes. clay. says we have refuted the Buddhist theory of momentary existence for we have proved the eternal continued existence of cause. People may be seen in different moods and yet they are recognised as the same. where is the need of the potter to bring out a jar into existence. Only existing things can be spoken of as having limitations.

Even as a rolled piece of cloth is not different from what it is when it is spread out. The activity of the agent is not useless since it helps manifestation. 1. 1 I. is known.'at: like a piece of cloth. VI. one without a second. II. because they are perceived. Vol. 1 is quoted: 'In the beginning this was Being alone. though not known to be a universe.P. 19. 1. pata1. The c!Ject exists prior to its origination in the fom1 of the cause and is id.' This repudiates the suggestion of the non-existent as the source on the ground that the existent cannot come out of the non-existent. then anything may arise from anything else. the existence of the jar is also known from}iidi And as in the case of vital breaths. An agent makes a jar out of a lump of clay that is existent. \Vhat was unmanifest before is made manifest. ea: and. C.'i the universe at the time of creation when its name and form are manifest. having its name and form unmanifcst but is clearly known a.1 Srinivasa. 3. so is the effect not different from the cause. II. The origin of a non-existent eflect is not tenable since we do not see a barley sprout from fire. thus acquiring a new name. Nor can the cause clay which is said to be samaviiyi and existent be the object of the activity of the operative agent.entical with it and so is it that everything else becomes known when Urahman. yathii ea pr. Srinivasa holds that the universe remains existent. a new form and new functions. argues that names and fonns. pp. 20. VI. ea: and. 1. the cause. The text C. For it non-existence cannot be the object of any activity as the sky cannot be modi11ed in any way by weapons. says even as threads joined in a special cross-arrangement arc called a piece of cloth. knowable by means of the evidence of direct perception and the rest are real. prior to creation. following Nimharka. so is it with Brahman also.Text. I l. Similarly a piece of cloth which was not manifest in the threads becomes manifest owing to the operative agents such as the shuttle. the loom and the weaver. M . Jf it is said that the effect is nothing but the specific power of the cause. R.U. Here like the lump of clay. for if the effect which is non-existent is to arise from a cause which is different in nature. yatha: just as. 2. indeed. Translation and Notes 353 agents have no purpose to serve. The length and breadth of the rolled piece of cloth which were not manifest when the cloth was rolled up become manifest when it is spread out. \\'hat is not manifest in the cause becomes manifest in the effect. then sat-kiirya-11iida is accepted. 528ff.. prat}iidi: vital breath and others. patavac ea And lil~e a piece of cloth.

acquires new names. new characteristics. says that as the one air. itara-vyapade5iiddhitakara1Jadi-do~a-prasakti}J On account of the mention of another (the 'z'ndividual soul as nondifferent from Brahman) there would attach (to Brahman) faults like not doing ·what is beneficial to others and the like.. 1 Again. 21. . Apparently it cannot withdraw even its own body. When it remembers that it created this manifold world. vyapadesat: on account of n1ention. Section 7 (21-23) GOD AND THE PROBLEM OF EVIL II. new functions. according as it undergoes in the body different modifications. how can the pure self look upon this unclean body as part of itself? It would free itself from the painful results of its former actions and enjoy only the pleasant results. i 1 s. So if Brahman is known. may be held up from functioning by holding our breath. everything else becomes known. na hi kascid apa'Yatantro bandhanagaram atmanab krtva'nupravisat· . I. old age. why does he create a world full of pain? No rational independent person svatantrab karta san hitamevcltmanab saumanasyakaram ku'Yyiit nahitam janma-marart-a-jara-'Yogiidj:anekiina'Ylha-jalam. even so the one Brahman becon1es the world. disease. R. says that if the soul is Brahman. No free person will build a prison for himself and take up his abode in it. akarattiidi: not doing and the like. then certain imperfections attach to Brahman. with its manifold moving and nonmoving beings. they not only keep the body alive but perform other functions such as binding and stretching the limbs. If Brahman is omniscient and omnipotent. 3. hita: what is of benefit. I. being then called pra1Ja. When they manifest as separate from one another. etc. such as birth.U. So a doubt arises whether the world has been created by an intelligent cause. descending. apana.354 The Brahma Sutra The different prii1Jas. it would like to withdraw it. itara: another. do$ a: fault..) R. (C. In that case they ren1ain in their causes only keeping the body alive. Then the movement which was not manifest in the cause becomes so in the effect. The world being an effect of Brahman. ascending. prasakti). is not different from it. The scriptural passages convey the non-difference of the individual soul and Brahman. death. VI. From this it follows that the power of creation also belongs to the individual soul.: would follow. This soul being an independent agent might be expected to produce only what is beneficial to itself and not things of a contrary nature.

In all these passages actions such as seeing. II.U. He reads it as follows: 'There will be the consequences of faults like not doing what is beneficial and the rest from the designation of another (i. S. 1 If it is argued that the texts declaring difference are due to limiting adjuncts and those which declare non-difference mean eventual nondifference. There is nothing which Brahman cannot know or do. If it is said that there are passages which declare non-difference between the individual soul and the Supreme Self. then Brahman is conscious of the suffering of the soul which is non-different from Brahman and therefore itself suffers. if it does. 1. For a declaration of difference between Brahman and the individual soul. may have the defects mentioned.e. 1. the creative principle. U. VI. It fol1ows that Brahman does not create what is beneficial to itself and creates what is non-beneficial to itself. nirdesiit: on account of indication. . being different in nature. seeking and meditating point to the individual soul as the subject and the Supreme Self as the object. 22. R. l. 7. If it does not. Translation and Notes 355 endeavours to produce what is clearly non-beneficial to himsclf.' The individual soul would not have created a world full of miseries. He takes this sutra as stating the correct conclusion and not the prima facie view.Text. C. IV. If it is said that the difference between Brahman and the soul arises on account of avidyii on the part of both. So Brahman and not the individual soul must be the creator. So Brahman's causality of the world seems to be untenable. The individual soul. Brahman which is the object of enquiry and search is different from 1 na cedrse svanartlze svadhfno buddhiman pravartate. 4. II. so long as the knowledge does not arise. the question arises whether Brahman knows or does not know the soul which is non-different from it. 8. see B. In the condition of ignorance. bheda: difference. adhikatn tu bheda-nirddat (But Brahman) is something more (than the individual so·ul) on account of the indication of difference. VIII. adhikam: something more than or additional to. points out that the difference is real. Ba1adeva carries this section to sutra 33. tu: but. The jiva cannot create himself or destroy himself. is different from the embodied self. There is nothing beneficial to be done by it or non-beneficial to be avoided by it. He takes the whole section as concerned with showing that Brahman and not the individual soul is the cause of the world. 3. Brahman's omniscience is compromised. The word 'but' suggests that the objection stated in the previous sutra is refuted. Brahman. then the old difficulties about the locus of av£dyii arise. 35. 5. if the individual soul be designated as the creator of the world). The faults such as doing what is not beneficial and the like do not attach to Brahman.

~rikaiJtha gives the same interpretation. The soul is subject to samsiira. and Brahman . asmadivat: like stones and the rest. II. 7. 9. k$iravat: like milk. na: not. IV. H. etc. and yet is different from it. 3. tad: that. The same food assumes different forms. in view of his own position. while Brahman is not. flowers.356 The Brahma Sii. makes out that even as it is impossible for non-conscious objects like stones and the rest to be identical with Brahman. 9. ea: and. The individual soul is a creature and not the creator. iti cet: if it be said. S.U. provide themselves with various implements. In the same Brahman we may have various distinctions. The objection states that we notice in ordinary life that potters.U. hi: for.. 1. some of th<'m valuable like diamonds. 35.. clay. And like stones and tlze rest. a~~nuidh•ac Sectt'on 8 (24-25) BRAHMAN'S INDEPENDENCE OF MATERIAL AND INSTRUMENTS OF ACTION II. ea tad anupapattiJ. the embodied soul is by nature different from Brahman though it is at the same time non-different from him as having him for its soul. Ill. IV. 21. so the inrlividual soul cannot be one with Brahman. 24. 16. however. \Ve find a great variety among stones. VI.· weavers. 13. an:upapatt£~: cannot he conceived. So faults like not doing what is beneficial and the rest do not apply to Brahman. S. fruits. The defects therefore do not belong to Brahman. 3. string.. 22. before they produce jars or cloth. darsaniit: on account of observation.. I. says that the distinctions have their origin in speech only and arc like phantoms of a dreaming person. The same picce of ground yic1ds different trees like sandal and cucumber which have different lea. R. Srinivasa argues that even as a ray of the diamond is non-different from its substratum.. fragrance and juice. wheels. upasamhiira-darsaniin neti cen na k~iravadd hi If it be said that on account of the observation of the collection (of instruments for the production of something) (Brahman) is not (the creator of the U'orld) (·we say) not so for (he acts alone) like milk. IV. na: not so. etc. the diatnond. is not affected by the defects of the individual soul and the world. I.·es. 2a. Hut Brahman.tra the individual soul. 'ltpasamlzi'ira: collection. others not. gives a number of texts in support of the difference between Brahman and the individual soul: B. these (defects) cannot he conceh•ed. 6. 6.

Even as milk and water turn into curds and ice respectively without any extraneous help. though invisible.. etc. Brahm.e. produce rain and so forth. though invisible. Baladeva says that the is free to create without depending on any means. 26. lolle: in ordinary expenence. If it be said that non-conscious beings like milk may change of themselves without extraneous means into curds. like the potter. the answer is given that milk by itself undergoes a certain amount of definite change and this is only speeded up by heat. cannot be conceived to create without other external e-ither ekasyapi brahmat)o upapadyate. heat. 8. so is it with Brahman. are seen to work in the world. Brahman. krtsna-prasaktir niravayavatva-sabda-kopo va (If Brahman be the material cause of the world) there will resu. U. dev~divat: like gods and others. api: also. is the creator of the world even as gods. Brahman does not require any extraneous help. S. II. See S. 1f it is said that milk in order to turn into curds requires an extraneous agent. deviidi'iJad api Iuke And (the case of Brahman is) like that of gods and other beings in ordiuary experience. VI. i. Section 9 (26-29) BRAHA-!AN'S INTEGRITY IS UNAFFECTED BY THE WORLD II. 1. 1. 1 vicitra-sakti-yogiit k$friidivad vicitra!a parit)iima . yet it is not an independent agent but has to depend on the Lord for its activities even as a cow cannot by herself produce milk but has to depend on the life energy. So Brahman may create the world without any extraneous means. owing to its n1anifold powers. though one only. able to transform itself into manifold effects like milk. is. 1 Baladeva gives a diflerent interpretation. The soul's power of action is like the cow's power of producing milk.Text. Brahman being intelligent. 25. The answer is that gods and sages are reported in the Sastras to ha VC the ability to produce palaces and chariots by the sheer force of their will. Translation and Notes 357 cannot be the cause of the world since there are no instruments for him to work with. The answer is given that causation is possible as the result of the peculiar constitution of the causal substance like milk. Although the soul is an agent and can as such bring works to completion.

225. then we assume that Brahman is capable of being divided into parts. l. one's .z. It is not possible that there should persist a part not entering into the effected state. If. not both. Srinivasa argues that if Brahman is without parts. air and so on.: violation.U. niravayavatva: being without parts.t parts.U. See B. this violates the texts which declare that Brahman in the causal state is devoid of parts.. 12. states the objection in a different way. prasaktil. Ill. kopaJ. If the individual soul be the creator. \Vhile lifting a blade of grass. then Brahman would cease to exist and there is no point in asking us to see Brahman or in saying that Brahman is unborn. vii: or. VI. 9. Baladeva reads vyakopa for kopa and thinks that the sutra is the statement not of purva-pak~a but of siddhiinta. 4. 8. on the other hand. since it is without parts. Ill. II. II. then the entire Brahman will become the effect and there will not remain a transcendent Brahman beyond samsara to be approached by the liberated.U. sabda: texts. g6. not real. 8.358 The Brahma S£Ura (the change of) the entire (Brahman) or the violation of the texts (declaring Brahman) to be withou. It creates the sense of diversity in the Supreme Being. 26. it cannot become many. To attribute divisions to Brahman will be opposed to the Scripture.: will result. miiyino mayayii bhedam pasyanti paramlitmani tasmiin mayiim tyajed yogiin mumuk~ur vt:prct-sattamti. This is not the case.tiima). its conscious part dividing itself into the individual souls and the non·conscious part into ether.t. R. This would be a direct violation of the texts which declare that Brahman is partless. If it is without parts. niisad-rupii nasad rupii miiyii vai nobha_viitmikii anirvii. we hold that a part of Bralmtan is transformed. If the entire Brahman enters into the effected state. Y_i$tJU-dharma adopts the difference--non-difference (bhedribheda) vtew: advaitam paramiirtho hi dvaitant tad bheda ucyate ubhayarh brahmat. M. 2. S.o rupam dvaitiidvaita-vibhedata)J. S. etc. 19. Miiya is not unreal. krtsna: entire. In Brhan-niiradiya-purat.cyiihritii jiieyii bheda-buddhi pradiiyini. uses these objections to support his view that the world is only an appearance (vivarta) of Brahman and not a transformation (parit.z.a it is said that by means of yoga we perceive the identity of God with his miiyii and thus attain release from it.l. The objection is raised that if the whole of Brahman is transformed into the world. its entire being is present in every act.

I experiencr.U. which is not so. 6. If it is only partially transformed. VI. 2 The negative descriptions of Brahman are intended to draw our attention to the non-phenomenal character of Brahtnan.. 3 For 1{. exists apart from the world. Brahman is either partless or is transfomwd partia11y. adntyiib khalu ye bhava na tiitits tarke1}a yojayet prakrtibhyal) param yac ea tad acintyasya lak~a1}am. quotes a text which says: 'Do not apply reasoning to what is unthinkable. S.. then it consists of parts. 3. S. bYahma-parit. ~.Ja sarvavyavaluiriitftam aparirzatam avali$/hate. sabdamulatviit: because sruti is the ground. Ill. The entire Brahman does not undergo transformation a~ sruti declares that Rrah1nan. If Brahman were completely transformed it would have been perceptible as the world is. 12. 1 . herbs. Much less can reasoning tell us about the unthinkable. C. spells which have varying effects on different occasions. states the objection again. If it is partless. srute!t: on account of sruti or Vedic testimony.Text. srutes tu sabda-mulatviit But (it is not so) on account of Vedic testimony since (Brahman's causalit. paYamarthikena ea rupet. II.' 1 S. Or else we must conclude that the individual soul possesses parts anrl this again is opposed to scriptural authority. If it is held that it is difficult to understand how Brahman is partless and yet does not undergo transformation as a whole. overcomes the difficulties by his view that Brahman ever remains the same in reality. I. Translation and Notes 359 whole nature is not functioning. it is transformed as a whole or not at all. we cannot understand them unaided by instruction. tu: but. says that sruti is the only source of our knowledge of Brahman. the source of the world.v) has its ~round in Scripture. He also cites the support of Scripture for Brahman cannot be proved or disproved by means of generalisations frot. creation is merely the visible and the tangible manifestation of what existed previously in Brahman in a subtle and imperceptible condition. the mark of the unthinkable is that it is above al1 natural causes. though it is the ground of the multiplicity of name ar1d form in the phenomenal world. Anandagiri observes: prakrtibhya iti. For R. 1 avidya-kalpitena ea nama-rupa-lak$arzena rupa-bhedena vyakrtavyakrtatmake?Ja tattvanyatviibhyam anirvacanfyena. Even with regard to ordinary things such as gems. 2. 27.Jamiidi-sarvavyavahaYiispadatvam pratipadyate. pratyak~a-dnla-padartha-svabhavebhyo yat param vilak{>arzam aciiryiidy-upadesa-gamyam tad acintyam ity arthal). 1 na samanyato dnlam siidhanam du~atzam viirhati lwahma. So the individual soul is not the creator. These distinctions are the products of ignorance and arise from speech a1one. Scripture tells us that the Supreme possesses vanous powers. It does not undergo any change.

transformation means nothing but projection of powers and this is also declared by Scripture. Besides. if the atom is conceived as coming into contact with another in some of its parts. the view that it is partless must be given up. B. to its namesake of antiquity. says that in the soul. it does not improve the position. 1. 301. evam: thus. They were relatively to it essays in fancy. For creation is the combination of all the three gu"ttas. Gods and magicians create e]Pphants. 10 speaks of chariots. Again. then the atomists give up their view that the atom is partless. pa'h·!Ja: side. Does it change into the world wholly or partially? If the former there will be no pradhana. 29. 1. it is saying what the Vedanta says and nothing special. water and the rest do not share each other's qualities. if the latter. 1 . without losing their own unity of being. they become one atom. ea: and. A conscious soul differs from non-conscious objects and does not possess their qualities. iitmani caivam ·v£c£triis ea hi For thus t't is even u·t'thin the Self and 1. II. ea: and. iitman£: within the self. It is unrelated. 1 If the partless atoms combine and occupy the same space.drous.The Brahma Sittra For Nimbarka. The atomists' case is taken up.' Man on his Nature (1946). So Bralnnan who is different fron1 both the conscious and the non-conscious objects does not possess their attributes but has numerous others not found in them. Comparing ancient and modern atomic theories Sir Charles Sherrington says: 'The atom of today is no untested a priori speculative dogma.' 'The speculations of Democritus and Lcucippus cannot be put beside [the modern] scheme. hi: even. If we say that the three gu"ttas are the parts of pradhiina. I I. it is Scripture that declares that Brahman creates the world and yet remains untransformed. the gu"ttas are partless and so no one part can evolve. sva-pak~a-do$tiC ea And because there is fault in the (opponent's) own view. ea: and.£/ott. So there may exist a manifold creation in Brahman without impairing his real nature and unity. This view is followed by Srikat~tha. except by misnomer. etc. the attributes of the non-conscious objects arc not found for there are manifold powers in different objects. horses and roads which the drcamt>r creates in the state of dream.U. For Srinivasa. 3. pp. if pradhiina possesses various powers. The non-conscious objects like fire.. It cannot be said that one or two of them evolve and not all. sva: own. vicitrii{z: wondrous. 28. do$iil: because of the faults. R. Baladeva uses this sutra to indicate that the Lord is possessed of mysterious powers. 365. IV. The Siiritkhya theory of pradhiina is considered.

Ill. na prayojanavattvat (Creation is) not (possible for Brahman) on account of having a motive. I. 5. VI. 2. yet swift and grasping. M* . speech or mind'? B. 9. 7. another reading is prayojanatvat. he hears without ear. ll. tad-darsaniit: because that 1s seen. ~arva: all. We have to rely on Scripture. When it is described only in negative tcnns. 11 I. 1. 1. 28.U. See C. vikarat. R.U. C. is endowed with various powers as we see from the scriptural texts. sarvopetii ea tad-darsaniit A nd (Brahman) is endowed w£th all (powers) because that is seen from Scripture. B. While we can overcome the objection. 31.tatvat: on account of the absence of the organs. We cannot understand the nature of Brahman by mere reasoning. how can Brahman be endowed with powers? Besides. 14. I. 30.U. Section I 0 (30-31 ) THE MANIFOLD POWERS OF BRAHMAN li. The sutra says that the answer has been given. though one only. I I. ea: and. I. Sec I. he sees without eye. 27. 2. iti cet: if it be said. 19 says: ~Without foot or hand. the opponent cannot. M.U. IJI.Text. 8. adds that Brahman is conceived as being endowed with powers when we assume in its nature an element of plurality which is the product of avidyii. vikara1J-atviin neti cet tad uktam If it be said that (Brahman cannot be the cause) on account of the absence of the organs. Ill. 14. VIII. HI. na: not. Section 11 (32-33) THE WORLD OF GOD'S L!LA I I. This manifold world of effects is possible for Brahman. l. how can it produce the world when it is said to be 'without eyes. uktam: has been stated or explained. 1.U. thinks that the refutation of this objection is to be found in II. 8. 32. l. ears.' S. na: not. (we say that) this has been expla-ined (already). VIII. 9. cites S.U. R. 1. S. 9.U. 1tftetii: endowed with. 8. Translation and Notes Baladeva points out that the objection whether Brahman creates with his entire nature or part of it only applies equally to the view that the individual soul is the creator. 4. tad: that. prayojanavattvat: on account of having a motive. 4. 18--20.

aptasamasta-kamasya pararthatii hi pariinugrahe1)a bhavati. hell and so on. But indicates the refutation of the objection set forth in the previous sutra. tu: but. If. \Vithout a motive there can be no activity and the Supreme cannot have a n1otive. says that all activities are undertaken with the motive of doing something beneficial to themselves or to others. R. who have no unfulfilled desires. he concerns himself with others. it can only be to help them. As in ordinary life. pratyuta sukhaikatiinam eva srjej jagat kartt~ayii srjan. Baladeva makes out that lilii or sport is the overflow of the joy within. old age. 3· 1 evam Hvarasyiipy anapek$ya kiiicit prayojaniintaram svabhavad eva kevalam Ulll-rupiipravrttir bhavi~yati. God cannot have a motive or a need for creating the universe for he is all-sufficient. 1. S. 1 So Brahman cannot be the cause of the world. lilii: sport. S. merely following the law of its own nature. as 1·n ordinary life. death. So also creation proceeds from the nature of the Supreme without reference to any purpose. pity would move him to create a world altogether happy. S. however. kaivalyam: n1erely. 11. we cannot attribute any to the Supreme. indulge in sport. S. All the wishes of Brahman are eternally fulfilled. See also R. We cannot say that he does not act or acts like a senseless person. so is the case with the creation of the world by God. 33. He is omniscient. lokavat: as in ordinary life. napi pararthab. Men in high position. Even though we may detect some subtle motives for sportful action among men. Nimbarka also states the objection that God has no need to create the world as he has his desires eternally fulfilled. No merciful divinity would create a world so full as ours is of evils of all kindsbirth. na hi parasya brahma~afi. If he created at all. He does not attain through the cr<'ation of the world any object not attained before. lokavat tu lila kaivalyam But. creation is mere sport (to Brahman). II. 1 na ea svabhavab paryanuyoktum sakyate. 4 But so far as the divine Creator is concerned it is his nature. ' na ceyam paranzartha-vi$ayii sn#-srutifl. a man full of cheerfulness on awakening from sound sleep dances about without any motive or need but simply from the fullness of spirit. na cedrsa-garbha-janmajarii-mara1)a-narakadi-nana-vidhiinanta-dubkha-bahulam jag at karu~iiviin srjati. 2. uses the example of breathing which goes on without reference to any extraneous purpose. svabhavata evav apta-samasta-kamasya jagatkiiicana prayojanam anaviiptam avapyate. So God's creation of the world cannot be accepted.B. 3 We have to accept it.The Brahma Sutra The objection is raised that no one acts in the world without a motive. The passages relating to creation do not refer to the Absolute Transcendent Being. 2 We cannot question why God's nature is what it is. 1 sarge~a .

I07IbiJ. are we to treat him as cruel also? For these reasons Brahman cannot be the cause of the world. va£$amya-nairghrrz. sapek$atviit: on account of regard to.· besides the same (Scr£pture) shows. . He says in his Metaphysics 1 : 'it is not necessary that everything that is possible should exist in actuality' and 'it is possible for that which has a potency not to realise it'. There are many scriptural texts in support of this view. Ill. hi: also. An analogy is given. is the common cause of the production of rice. the material cause is constituted by the potentialities of the beings to be created. barley and other plants. B. darsavati: shows. vai$amya-nairghr1Jye: inequality (of dispensation) and cruelty. They are not a fault for which the Lord is to blame.G. 1. Ill. tathii: the same. This spontaneous outflow is symbolised by the theory of lfla. IV. Does it mean that the Divine has also the qualities of passion and malice? As there is so n1uch pain in the world. Aristotle tells us that the Timeless Incorporeal One is not only the logical ground but the dynamic source of the temporal universe. 34. 8. Translation and Notes In many systems of religious thought. some are happy and others unhappy.a I. 1003a2 and XI. As Parjanya. and the differences are due to the potentialities of the seeds themselves. The inequalities of creation are due to the merit and demerit of the creatures. 11. The objections are not valid. 4.' See also K.U. 13 says: 'One becomes good by good acts. quotes Vi$1Jtt Puriirz. na: not. The unmoved perfection is for Aristotle the cause of all motion but it is only its final cause. R. B. If God is constrained by an inner necessity to create. the giver of rain. Section 12 (34-36) THE PHOBLEM OF SUFFERING AND EVIL II. Vvhy does something exist rather than nothing? The answer is that the Absolute is also fecundity. 51-2 to the effect that the Lord is the operative cause only in the creation of new beings. The bliss which God unchangingly enjoys in his never-ending selfcontemplation is the good after which all existences aspire. There are inequalities among the souls.U. he depends on na siipek$atviit tathii hi darsayati Inrquality and cruelty cannot (be attributed to Brahman) for (his activity) has regard to (the works of souls).Text. 2. Its joy overflows into existence. self-sufficiency is regarded as an attribute of deity. bad by bad actions. 1 11. even so God is the common cause of the creation while the differences are due to the merit and demerit of the individual souls.

ibhagiid 1:ti cen niiniiditviit If it be said that this 2·s not (possible) on account of the non-distinctt'on of ·works (before the first creation we say that it) is not so for (samsiira) is u·ithout bcRinn'inK. R. That the Lord cannot be the cause of inequality has already been established. 1. Brahman alone can be the universal cause' . one without a second'. 7.· aniidit1Jiif: on account of beginning- lessness.The Brakma Si'itra II. possesses all powers. Katlza U. R. R. na: not.1 atab sarva-vilak$a~atviit sarva-saktitviil Waika-prayojanatviit karmanugt~~yena vicitra-sr*·yogii. 3. ea: and. Scripture also affirms it.d brahmaiva jagad·kara~am. 3. non-distinction is reasonable for. Many passages in the Upant'~ads tell us that 'In the beginning there was Being only. ha~ no other motive than sport and arranges the diversity of the creation in accordance with the different karmas of the individual souls. without names anrl shapes. I. So we must accept that the world is without a beginning. B.G. VI. II. Bhaskara reads the ·first part of this sutra differently: asnu1d v-ibhagiid iti cen niiniiditviit. A·vidya cannot be the cause as it is of a uniform nature. There would then be no justification for inequalities. See C. B. R.U. There was no kanna which had to be taken into account before creation. If the world had a beginning. without karma no one can come into existence. 36. 4. 2. api: also. without a beginning. B.ess of samsarii) is ascertained (by reason) and is obsen'ed (in Scripture). then it would be possible for the released souls to return to samsiira. karma: works. 18.G. na: not so. it would follow that it came into being without a cause.l9. the substance of the souls abides in a very subtle condition. iti cet: if it be sairl.and Nimbarka takethis and the next siUra as one. prior to creation. XV. The answer is given in the sutra. The iirst creation at least should have been free from inequalities. na karmii1. If we do not admit that the distinctions in creation are due to karma it would follow that the souls are requited for what they have not done and not requited for what they have done. upalabhyate: is found.U. 35. and concludes 'As Brahman thus differs in nature from everything else. 1 k~ctrajna­ . I. without coming into existence karma cannot be formed. 3. Work and inequality are like seed and sprout. and thus is incapable of being designated as something apart from Brahman though in reality they constitute Brahman's body only.says though the individual souls and their deeds form a perpetual stream. quotes other texts. XIII. The world is without beginning. 2. They are caused as well as causes.g Veda X. I). upapadyate ciipy upalabhyate ea (The beginni11glessn. upapadyate: is ascertained. l. 190. av£bhiigiit: on account of non-distinction.

sarva-dharmopapattes ea And because all the qualities (for the creation of the world) are present (in Brahman). 1. ea: and. The grace is not arbitrary but depends on the devotion of the souls themselves.1 AN HAS ALL THE QUALITIES FOR THE CREATION OF THE WORLD II. It is also observed in Scripture. The qualities of Brahman. Section 13 (37) BRAH!-. .Text. sarva: all: dharma: qualities. It is shown by the Lord to his devotees. 37. upapatte~: on account of presence or availability. Baladeva suggests that the Lord is possessed of paradoxical and mysterious powers and it is possible for the Lord to have not only the attributes of perfect justice and impartiality but also the quality of showing special favour to his devotees. Translation and Notes Baladeva holds that the grace of the Lord is not partial. omniscience and so on. are such as to enable Brahman to create the world.

a matter still unformed but capable of receiving all fom1s gave rise to elements. Here S. These advanced to higher forms. 1 The different phases of the cosmic process. . its evolution from the primal nothingness. whether house.Section 1 ( 1-1 0) CONSIDERATION OF THE SAJI. anupapattel_t: because (it is) impossible. na: not. The Siin"tldzya argues that as vessels made of clay ha\'e clay alone as their cause.. endowed as it is with the characteristics of 2. Palaces and pleasure gardens do not come into existence of their own accord. which has already been briefly considered. racancl: orderly arrangement. These qualities together form the pradh. viz. H. pain or infatuation must have for its cause a being which possesses these characteristics.ya Kiirikii IS. body or mind.cligion has to t1ght today not heresy but materialism. racantinupapattes ea niinumiinam Beca· se the orderl_v management of the world is not possible (on that u h_vpothcsis). Like clay it is non-conscious.fKHY' A THEORY II. How can this world with its wonderful variety and arrangement be created by an unconscious principle? Vessels arc made out of clay only if a potter is there. says that we refute the Siinikhya theory by independent arguments and not by reference to the V edic texts. A non-conscious object like stone cannot serve any purpose. organisms appeared and man attained to reason. is taken up. The second part of the second chapter is devoted to the refutation of the more important philosophical views in regard to the cause of the world which are opposed to the Vediinta position. 1'iz.ana. In the first section of this part the Siimkhya view. It is shO\vn that a non-intelligent first cause such as the pradhiina cannot account for the creation and orderly arrangement of the world. the pradhiina) cannot be (the cause of the u•orld). anumiinam: that which is inferred. The answer to this objection is next given.iina can evolve only under the guidance of an intelligent being. even so the external and internal world of effects. There are other reasons also which lead us to infer that praclhiina is the cause of the world. See Siimkh. unless it is guided by an intelligent being. the enjoyment of worldly pleasures and release. so also pradh. It evolves spontaneously into various modifications for the sake of fulfilling the purposes of the sou]. that which is inferred (by the Siimkhya. ea: and. These phases constitute the history of the generation of the universe and suggest the realisation of a plan. This is in 1 iha tu viikya-nirapek$aS svatantras tad-yukti-prati$edha"[l kriyata ity e$a viSe. J.

2. Even according to the Siititkhya. God too is conceived as connected with it as the substratum on which the appearance rests. pain and infatuation. If it is said that there is one Brahman and nothing else and therefore there can be no motion at all. it is due to an intelligent principle. arc the results of the conjunction of several things and therefore all objects of the world are effects of conjunctions of several things. Translation and Notes conformity with sruti which declares that there is an intelligent cause of the world. If the followers of the Siimkhya from their limited observation tell us that some distinct and limited things like roots. replies that though activity is observed in non-intelligent things. the original disturbance of the three gm. So there is scope . Clay does not change into pots without the help of a potter nor does a chariot move without a horse. Intelligence therefore possesses the power to move. from the condition of equipoise which is essential for creative manifestation cannot be due to the unintelligent pradhiina.: because of the tendency to activity. but they occasion these feelings in the individual according to their mental condition. Ca: and. If it is said that.rttel. Only the existence of the intelligent principle and not its activity can be inferred from the actions which take place in a living body which is dissimilar in nature to inanimate objects like chariots. and SrikaiJtha combine this and the next sutra into one. himself remaining unmoved. 2. A magnet may not move itself but moves a piece of iron. answers by saying that. R. etc. The intelligent principle is found only when there exists a body and no intelligent principle is found when there is no physical body. S. pra1. rajas and lamas arise on account of previous conjunctions of several things.. The external and internal objects of the world are not of the nature of pleasure. It may be argued that we do not see the principle of intelligence or its activity. So the materialists (lokayatikas) argue that intelligence is a mere attribute of the body. in a chariot drawn by a horse and not a mere chariot. according to the Vedanta. The Supreme Being can move the universe... says that a thing may be devoid of volition and yet capable of moving other things. Even the materialists admit that activity is present in a living body and not in a corpse. pravrttd ea On account of the tendency to activity. pure consciousness is incapable of activity and incapable of making others active. So pradhana cannot be the cause of the world unless there is an ultimate intelligent principle.I. for they also Jimit one another and arc distinct and separate.Text. S. ea: and. Activity belongs only to what is non-intelligent. 1. sattva. as the entire world of names and forms is the work of maya or atJidya. indicates other reasons for not accepting pradhiina as the cause. S. we can also say to them that the three constituent qualities of pradhana.

paya~: milk. as in the case of chariots. 16. 1. replies that. then R. See B. 4. vat: like. vyatirekiinavasthitd ciinapek~atvat And because there is nothing different. 24 where it was shown from ordinary experience that the effect may take place in whose essential nature is are unlimited. 4. This does not conflict with the view based on Scripture. ambu: water. 2. Milk when turning into curds undergoes. the nonintelligent milk and water must be assumed to be guided by intelligence. that ail effects depend on the Lord. Besides. may. Srinivasa adds that the cow gives milk even when the calf is dead because she remembers the calf or because she loves her master and wishes to be of beneftt to him. may modify itself into various effects due to the loss of equilibrium on the part of the gut. water discharged from the clouds spontaneously proceeds to transform itself into various saps and juices of different plants. without being guided by another agent. To explain the origination of results. when the time for creation arises. 7. uses the illustrations in a different way. 9. tatra: then. of itself. even so pradlulna may transform itself into the world for enabling men to achieve the highest end of life. R. payo 'mbuvac cct tatriipi If it he said that (pradhiina may be active) like 'l£1ater and milk (·we say that) then too (the activit_v is due to an intelligent principle). 2. The flow of the water depends on the level of the See Siimkhya Kii. says. II. activity is not possible without the presence of an intelligent principle. then no inequality can result and so no effects can originate.says that the Siimkhya assumes three gutz. it is necessary to assume limitation of the gutz. There is no contradiction between this and 11. cet: if it be said. 3. If it be said that if milk flows naturally for the nourishment of the calf and water flows for the benefit of mankind. So also pradhii. api: even. if they are unlimited and therefore omnipresent. says that even in these instances of milk and water. It does not depend on anything else. and not when it is taken to be non-intelligent pradhiina.rikii I. S. II. it is the intelligent cow loving her calf that makes the milk to flow and the flow is aided by the sucking of the calf. If it is said that creation is accomplished. many changes. R. instrumental cause. Similarly. ln a general way it is dependent on the inteJligent principle of Hralzman which is present everywhere. and not one ultimate cause. as the three gutz. R. U.The Brahma Siitra for activity if the ultimate cause is conceived to be Brahman. lii. (pradhiina is not the cause) on account of non-dependence. independent of any external. . 8. abide in equipoise between two creations and then.

Pradluina which is not guided by an intelligent principle cannot account for them. how can works stimulate pradhana? The works bear fruits according to the wishes of the Lord.T cxt. 7. anvatriibhaviic ea na trnadivat . abhiivat: because of absence. So we cannot admit the spontaneous modification of pradhiina. other. Translation and Notes vyatireka: different. and at other times not. Besides. (which turn into m£lk) for (milk) does not exist elsewhere (than in the cow). Grass is transformed into milk without any other cause. pradhiina is the three ~u~as in equilibrium and there is no other principle which can make it active or inactive. abhyupagame: admitting. Even men feed the cows with plenty of grass. Pu. can act or not as he chooses. anapek~atviit: on account of non-dependence. as a principle of intelligence. if they need more milk. abhyupagame 'py arthabhavat Even if there be the admission (of the spontaneous activity of pradhiina still it cannot be the cause) on account of the abse1lce of a purpose. It cannot be said that pradhiina acts through the proximity to punt:ja for this proximity heing eternal. (. anavasthite!£: because of nonexistence: ea: and. says that pradhana guided by the Lord explains the alternating states of creation and dissolution which are to carry out God's purposes. It is only grass that is eaten by a cow that changes into milk and not grass that is not eaten or eaten by an ox. 11. If the works of souls stimulate pradhiina to creation. tr~a-iidi-vat: like grass and other things. Nor (does pradhiina modify itself spontaneously) like grass. Pradhana cannot be th<. H. na: not. 2. 2. it means that it is . 5. See IJ.. etc. abhiivat: on account of absence..ocl. it is impossible to know why it should sometimes transform itself into the effects of mahat. An event need not be said to be natural simply because men cannot accomplish it. The answer is that some other cause is responsible for changing grass into milk. 2. its activity should also be eternal.nt~a is indifferent and so cannot cause action or cessation from activity. If pradhiina is said to be active spontaneously. It is a natural process. api: even. Things not brought about by men are brought about by divine activity. men would employ it to produce as much milk as they liked. anvatra: elsewhere. If there were any other cause. ea: and. II. on the other hand. ~rinivasa gives an alternative explanation. S<'parate. 6. etc. then works will be the cause of the world and not pradhiina. \Ve may expect the same in pradhana.. artha: purpose. according to the Sihnhhya.> cause because thPre is no object to be instigated and there is no instigator oth<~r than pradhiina. SincE'.

we say that pradhana acts on account of its inherent power to produce and the power of puru:Ja to look on. 1. puru$a: person. so the soul moves the pradhana. samsiira will be permanent and there will be no liberation at all. Even if it be said that like a lame man devoid of the power of motion but possessing the power of sight makes the blind man who is able to move but not to see and move of his own or. In R. like a magnet. What is the purpose? It cannot be to provide appropriate pleasures and pains to the purtt$a. i. for the puru$a is eternally unchanging and cannot undergo modifications of increase or decrease in his nature. changeless and spotless and is eternally emancipated. If. how can the indifferent puru§a move the pradhiina? A lame man makes a blind . He quotes Siimkhya Karika I. there would be no empirical life at all. asmavat: like magnet.370 The Brahma Sutra not in need of any other principle. tathii: thus. But both these are impossible. puru~asmavad iti cet tathapi If it be said that (the puru$a moves the pradhiina as a lame) man (may lead a blind man) or as the magnet (may attract the iron). it is not capable of either fruition or consciousness of prakrti or release which is separation from prakrt£. 8. this sutra is No. api: also.'s commentary. As the soul consists of pure intelligence. If nearness to prakrti makes the soul capable of fruition. the soul will never accomplish emancipation. Again. the position that pradhiina moves of itself is abandoned. that the purpose of pradhana is fruition and final release on the part of the soul. II. 2. we find that neither is possible. it follows that as prakrti is ever near. Satisfaction of human purposes cannot be attributed to pradhana for it is not intelligent. First of all. not moving itself moves the iron. We cannot attribute desire to puru$a which is pure and infinite and there would be no occasion at all for final release. to avoid all these difficulties. We cannot therefore maintain that pradhana enters on its activity for the purposes of the soul. 7. 2. that it acts independently of any purpose. is inactive. If the motive is not to provide with the pleasures and pains of life. Liberation is not possible for the objects produced by pradhana a. thus also (the difficulty remains). If it is said that both the pleasures and pains and liberation are the purposes. If pleasure and pain are the only motives for the activity of pradhana. then there would be no release. we say that this doctrine is not free from difficulties.e. The purpose cannot be to achieve the liberation of puru$a for purtt$a is in the state of liberation even before the activity of pradhana. of being conscious of pleasure and pain which are special modifications of prakrti. iti cet: if it be said. But the Samkhya holds that the pradhana becomes active for fulfilling the purpose of man.

this is the fifth sutra. angitviinupapatteS ea And because the relation of principal (and subordinate) t's impossible (pradhana cannot be active). then creation would be eternal.. ea: and. then capacities which are permanent imply the impossibility of final release. For activity the equipoise should be disturbed. jfia-sakti: the power of being a cannot be active as the three guttas. then it admits our position that there is one intelligent cause of the multiform world. 2. the Highest Self endowed with may a is superior to the puru§a of the Siiml~hya. S. He says that in the pralaya state there is no relation of superiority and subordination among the guttas and so the world cannot originate. this is sutra 6. 8. angitva: the relation of principal. anyathii. If it be said that there is a certain inequality even in the state of pralaya. 2. 11. Pradhiitta would then be equivalent to Brahman. As this proximity is permanent. Pradhiina is non-intelligent and puru§a is indifferent and there is no third principle and so there can be no connection between the two. anupapatte~: on account of impossibility. anyathanumitau ea jiia-sakti-viyogtit And if there be an inference in another way. If the Stimkhya attributes intelligence to pradhana. 1 Even if thegut}as are capable cetanam ekam aneka-prapancasya jagata upadanam iti brahma-viidaprasangiit.Text. We may infer the nature of the gu?Jas from that of their effects and say that guttas are of an unsteady nature and so enter into a relation of mutual inequality even while they are in a state of equipoise. ea: and. For H. For R. Even then the objection holds that a non-intelligent pradhana cannot account for the orderly arrangement of the world. Pradhii. anumitau: if inferred. (pradhtina cannot still be the cause) on account (of pradhana) being devoid of the power of being a knower. If the soul sees and pradhiina is capable of being seen. Translation and Notes 371 man move by means of words and the like but the puru$a is devoid of action and qualities. So the analogies of the lame man and the magnet do not apply. so movements should also be treated as permanent. sattva. There is no external principle to stir up the guttas. viyogat: being devoid of. 11. We cannot say that pradhana moves by mere proximity as the magnet moves the iron. For ~. 1 . 9. rajas and tamas abide in themselves in a state of equipoise without standing to one another in the relation of principal and subordinate. The proximity of the magnet to iron is not permanent but depends on a certain activity and adjustment of the magnet in a certain position.: in another way.

it does not sec prakrti. says that these difficulties are to be found in the theory of an eternally unchanging Brahman which. The Siimkhya teaches that prakrti. I0.372 The Brahma Stitra of undergoing inequality in spite of their equipoise. ea: and. Besides. there must be an adequate cause for it. Prakrti cannot see herself as she is non-intelligent. when seen by any sou] in her true nature. or else if they were an operative cause. The distinction between the two. v£prati$edhac ciisama1ijasam A 11d un account of contradictions. R. it contradicts Scripture which declares that the Lord is the cause of the world. He feels that the A dvaita doctrine is more irrational than the Samkhya which admits a plurality of souls. then the possibility of release is not excluded.JI.rt'ka 59. Sometimes it speaks of three intenml organs. and sometimes of one only. But as the soul is eternally released and above all change. the world always would be sa· ilsara and there would be no scope for release. ~. (the Sathkhya doctrine) is unsatisfactory. retires from that soul (Siimkhya Kii. experiences unreal bondage and release. an enjoying and cognising agent. being conscious of avidya. The Sc"inikhya brings a countercharge that the Vedanta does not make a distinction between the suffering souls and the objects which cause suffering since it believes that Brahman is the self of everything and the cause of the whole world. 2.points out that the Siimkhya mentions seven senses and some- times eleven. this is siUra 7. ~-replies that the distinction of the two classes is in the phenomenal world only. The eternally non-active. nor does it attribute to itself her qualities. asama1ijasam: is not satisfactory. unchangingpuru~a cannot become witness. is the product of avidva. the suffering soul and the cause of suffering. R. 61). criticises the Samkhya view. If the causes of su ffrring and the sufferer constitute one self. 1'tprati~cdhiit: on account of contradictions. . If they are assumed to constitute separate classes. .. at others from the self-sense or aham-kiira. she cannot impute to herself the soul's seeing of itself as her seeing of herself. being a r non·changing circun1stance. It cannot he subject to error resting on superposition for these arc of the nature of change. Mere proximity to prakrti cannot bring about changes. In some places it teaches that the subtle elements of material things proceed from the great principle. In R. it follows that final release is impossible. malzat.

Text. the non-intelligent world.a_v originate from Brahman) as the . If the inteJiigent Brahman is the cause of the world. So there is nothing to prevent Brahman from reproducing its quality of intelligence in the world..5IKA THEORY 11. Besides. The doctrine that effects should belong to the same class as the causes from which they spring is too wide. 17. not to produce like effects. Bhaskara adopts this interpretation. etc. 6. If it is the nature of sphericity. it may be the nature of Brahman to produce an unlike effect. The two cases arc parallel. arc produced which arc big and long and not minute and short. So if sphericity.. Vfi: or. If the qualities of sphcricity and so on existing in the cause do not produce corresponding effects. tnahat-d'irgha-vat: as having dimensions of the great and the long. l. from spherical atoms binary compounds are produced which are minute and short ancl ternary compounds which are big and long but not anything spherical.. The answer is given in the s~ltra. . See Vaise#ka Sutra VII ."E.reat and the long (ori. hrasva-paritnatpjaliibhyiim: from what is short and spherical.inatc) from the short and the spherical. 1. etc. But this is not the case. So the intelligent Brahman cannot be the cause of the world. Translation and Notes Section 2 (11-17) 373 CONSIDEHATION OF THE VAI5. The 1 aise$ika argues that the qualities which inhere in the l substance constituting the cause reappear in the substance constituting the effect. For it is admittf'd that the substance produced remains for a moment devoid of qualities and only after that. The origin of other forms is due to other causes.. 9. From white threads white cloth is produced. 2. it is the same with intelligence. So a non-intelligent world may spring from intelligent Brahman. intelligence must be present in the effect also. other qualities begin to exist. and Nimbarka hold that this sutra refutes the theory of atoms n. If it is argued that the binary and ternary compounds are endowed with qualities opposed in nature to those of the causes. again from binary compounds which are minute and short. The reply is given to this objection. According to the Vaise$t'ka. from conjunction (samyoga) there originate substances belonging to a class different from that to which conjunction itself belongs. Endowment with other qualities does not modify the power of originating effects which belongs to sphericity. R. mahad-dir~:havad vii hrasva-parima1J4aliibhyiim Or (the u·orld 11z. do not produce like effects. 10.. so that qualities of the causes being overpowered do not appear in the effects. etc. ternary compounds. it is due to their own nature. there is also the observed fact that. Sec also II. it is said that non-intelligence is not a quality opposed in nature to intelligence but its very negation.

samaviiya: the relation of inherence. where does it reside. Nor can it be guided by the soul for. II. abhyupagamiit: on account of admission. If the unseen principle in the soul is said to be connected with the atoms indirectly. in the soul or in the atoms? As a nonintelligent principle. there will be no connection between the principle and the atom. na: not. The action implies effort on the part of the soul or the impact of one thing like wind against another tree. they cannot account for the production of other evolutes. 2. ubhayathiipi: even in both ways. The conjunction which takes place between the separate atoms at the time of creation is due to some action like the one required to bring about the conjunction of threads into a piece of cloth. If it is said that the principle of adr$ta. Creation out of atoms is inexplicable. samaviiyiibhyupagamiic ea siimyiid anavasthiteft. But neither is possible in the state of dissolution for then there is neither the physical body nor any evolved product or thing except in its atomic condition. The atomic view is untenable. If the atoms consist of parts. S. R. And because of the admission of the relatim~ of inherence. then criticises it. the soul is not intc11igent. asks whether adr$ta resides in atoms or sou]s and rejects both VlCWS.374 The Brahma Sutra constituting the universal cause. 12. The relation of samaviiya cannot account for the creation and dissolution of the world. etc. the unseen accumulation of merits and demerits causes the original motion of the atoms. 2.: on account of infinite regress. anavasthiteft. according to the Vaise~ika. 13. it cannot be the cause of action. hence the absence of that (the creation of the world). . there will be perpetual activity and perpetual creation and therefore no dissolution at all. there will be no activity in the atoms and so no creation. ea: and. Even dissolution will be impossible in the absence of any visible cause for the separation of atoms . Even if it is said to reside in the sou]. if they are without parts. states the atomic theory and II. siimyiit: owing to sameness. tat-abhiiva}J: absence of that. ubhayathiipi na karmiitas tad-abhiiva?t Even t"n both ways activity is not possible (on the part of the atoms). ataft. and on account of infinite regress (arising therefrom) beca·use of sameness (there will be ne-ither creatz"on nor dissolut£on). The effort of the soul is possible only when the mind is joined with the soul and there is impact only after the creation of products like wind. In the absence of any definite cause of action. karma: activity. there will result an infinite regress.: hence. A binary which inheres in two atoms is .

rupadimattvac ea viparyayo darsanat And on account (of the atoms) having colour and so on. 1{. ea: and. 14. is made. there will be no dissolution. ea: and. They belong to four different classes. nityam eva ea bhavat And there will be permanent (activity or non-activity of atoms) alone on account of existence. II. etc.. So the atoms possessing colour must be gross and non-eternal compared to their causes. are. form. etc. Translation and Notes 375 different from them and the relation of inherence which is equally different from two atoms must be inherent in them on account of a second relation of samavaya and so on ad infinitum. eva: alone. 2. etc. permanent non-activity will result. If samavtiJla is said to be eternally present in the things seen here and before us. bhavat: on account of existence. 1. nityam: permanent. Srikat)tha and Baladeva accept this position. so the threads are gross compared to the filaments of which they are made. 2.Text. permanent activity would result. gross and non-permanent. If atoms have colour. The atoms may be essentially active or non-active or both or neither. viparyaya!J: an opposite conclusion. Their being both is impossible because of mutual contradiction. II. The atoms are the limit. rupadimattviit: on account of possessing colour and so on. Such causes as adr$1a being in pem1anent proximity to the atoms. Both of them are different from the terms they relate. If active. We find from daily experience that things possessing colour. 15. if non-active there would be no creation. their activity or nonactivity would depend on an operative cause. that to which the relation belongs is also eternal and so the world is eternal. the opposite conclusion (will follow) because it is observed (in daily experience). If they were neither.. are eternal. etc. 1) that 'that which exists without having a cause is eternal' does . A piece of cloth is gross when compared to the threads of which it is made and nonpermanent. darsanat: because it is observed. So the atomist view is untenable. compared to their causes. So V aise$ika Sutra (IV. If they are not operative causes. says that if the samavaya relation is eternal. then they are gross and non-permanent. samavtiya. possess the qualities of colour. samyoga also may be said to be eternally connected with things which are joined together and need not depend on a further connection. The Vaise~ika assumes that when substances are broken up into parts. a limit is reached beyond which the process of breaking up cannot be continued. These are the originating principles from out of which this material world of colour..

I. For all these reasons the atomic doctrine is unacceptable.unt of defect in both ways. do$iit: owing to defect. smell and taste in air. we say that there is no difference in the number of their qualities. or if they be not. Secondly. which is the condition of the being of Brahman. either if the atoms be possessed of colour. air is finest of all. This is sutra 15 in R. since the qualities of effects have for their antecedents the qualities of their causes. taste. ubhayathii ea do$tit And on acco. a word need not always imply the existence of the thing implied by the word. taste and touch and is fine. The object must be established as existing by other means of knowledge. and SrikaiJtha. If to save the equality of atoms. etc. R. they cannot be eternal. 16. So atoms may not be destroyed or disintegrated but may be transformed into a prior non-atomic condition. ea: and. \Vater has colour. The eternal cause may be Brahman. on the second. Again. On the first view.The Brahma Sutra not apply to the atoms. then their size will be increased and they will cease to be atoms. as causes. 4) is not satisfactory. point in referring to the non-eternity of effects (Vaise$ika Sutra IV. If ignorance or non-perception of the cause is assigned as the reason for believing that the atoms are eternal. Earth has the qualities of smell. Do the atoms constituting the four elements possess a larger or smaller number of qualities than their elements? 1f we say that some atoms possess more numerous qualities. colour and touch and is gross. i. then we will not perceive touch in fire or colour and touch in water or taste. that if. 5 means that the atoms cannot be destroyed either by the destruction of the cause or by disintegration and therefore they are· to be regarded as eternal. If it is said that non-perception in IV. we reply that this reasoning applies only to things that come into being as the result of the combination of several substances. fire has colour and touch and is finer still. they arc not permanent. they must have one quality only. Then the things perish when the substances become separate from each other or are themselves destroyed.e. having the quality of touch only. their effects cannot be possessed of colour and the rest. the reason which the Vaise$ika gives for the permanence of the atoms.. l. there is no. colour and touch in earth. says that there is defect in both ways. 'Ubhayathii: both ways. II. but the view of the V edanta is that the destruction of the effect is possible only by a modification in its condition as solid ghee is destroyed when it is reduced to a liquid condition. If all atoms are assumed to have all the four qualities we should perceive what we do not actually perceive. this is too wide for we may believe even binary compounds to be eternal for they produce perceptible effects and are themselves produced by non-perceived atoms. 2. .

If these arc dependent. Simply because things have names of their own and produce distinct cognitions in us. 17. Again. Again. But this is to give up the Va£se~ika point of view. say from a piece of cloth. . 2.1iiya or inherence or connection of things which are incapable of separate existence is futile since the cause which exists before the effect cannot be said to be incapable of separate existence. then they may be different forms and conditions of one and the same substance. the quality cannot exist independently and apart. If it is argued that it is the effect which is inherent in the cause. aparigrahiit: on account of non-acceptance. If it is said that substance and qualities stand in the relation of one not bring able to exist without the other (ayutasiddhi). atyantam: complete or absolute. there is no proof to show that samyoga and samaviiya are themselves actual entities beyond the things in which they exist as relations. the distinction between smityoga or conjunction of things which can exist separately and sama1. \Vhile the Vaise$ika holds that there are six categories it makes substance the principal one on which the other five are dependent. The relation between the two is conjunction and not inherence. If we are asked to assume samavaya because otherwise the relation of that which abides and the abode is not possible we will be guilty of mutual dependence. Things have an original nature of their own before they acquire a new nature on account of their being related with other things.Text.a and samavaya have no nature of their own apart from what accrues to them from the relatedness of the things. non-separate in time or nonseparate in character and none of these alternatives agrees with the Vaisc~£1<a principles. a red cow or a blue lotus. ea: and. The Vaise#ka doctrine cannot be sustained. Some competent persons accept the Siimkhya but not the Vaisc$ika. red and blue reside only in some substances. the qualities of white. Translation and Notes 377 II. anapel~~ii: disregard. Atoms cannot enter into san~yoga with each other and samyoga of the soul with the atoms cannot be the cause of the motion of the latter and samyoga of the soul and manas cannot be the cause of cognitions for these have no parts. Samyof!. it does not fol1ow that they are actual entities. It cannot be said that substance and quality arc separate for in a white blanket. How can the quality which has not come into existence be related to the cause at all? Nor can it be said that the effect comes into existence first and is then related with the cause for this would mean that the effect exists prior to its coming into existence and is capable of separate existence. aparigrahiic Clityantam anapek$ii And because of non-acceptance there must be an absolute disregard (cif the atomic theory). then they must be eithC'r non-separate in place.

To take the shell for silver may be an act of ignorance. The view of Sunyaviida is that everything is void. the aggregates the theory postulates can ever come into being. 18. The realists assume that the external world of elements. lf they are assumed to be active of their own nature. The external world arises out of four kinds of atoms. they will be always active and there will be no scope for release. i. ubhayalzetuA·e: due to two causes. If we are referred to the doctrine of dependent origination. it cannot be active and bring into being the external and the internal worlds. For. asks how on the doctrine of momentariness. then this is to admit a permanent self.naviidins maintain the reality of cognitions alone without any substratum. without the presence of the body. refers to the different developments of Buddhism and mentions three. they adopt Sunya1•cida_. All these are of the view that the objects admitted by them are momentary. it is not established. it does not solve the difficulty. H. san•iisti1 1t"ida. They are nonintelligent. water.e. The activity of the mind which is said to be the cause of the co11ections is not possible without the accomplishment of the groupings. If the series is different in character from the several momentary cognitions of which it is made. samudciya u.. S. The theory does not allow the existence of any other permanent and intelligent being such as the soul which enjoys and the Lord who governs. 2. The Vijfiii. sense-organs and qualities and the internal \vorld are both real. The Sautriintilws hold that external objects are inferable through cognition and are not directly perceived. Neither the atoms nor the skandhas can achieve the groupings as assumed by the realists. vedanii (feeling). the Sautriint£ka and the Vaibhii$£A·a which believe in the reality of every object. realism is taken up for consideration. A series of cognitions of one's own self cannot be the cause.The Brahma Siitra Section 3 (18-27) CONSIDERATION OF THE SARVASTIVADA II. In this sutra. samwlii_ya~: collection. apt': even. tad-apriipti~: there is non-establishment of that. If the series is momentary. earth. this does not explain the origination of the aggregates about which there is ignorance.bhaya-hetu-ke'pt' tad-apriipti~ Even (if we assume) collections due to two causes. and the Vtj1iiinaviida which opines that thought alone is real. pratitya-samutpada. The Vaibhii~ikas maintain the reality of external objects which are directly perceivable.'TOUps or slwndhas: nipa (sensation). For the nihilists everything is void or unreal. The inward world consists of five f. . though ignorance may lead to desire and so on as they say and in the end to ignorance once again. samjiiii (verbal knowledge) and sarhskiira (dispositions). fire and air. vtj1iiina (knowledge).

If desire and aversion result from ignorance. The answer to this is given that that causality accounts for the origination of the different Inembers and not for their groupings. itaretara-pratyayatviid iti cen notpattimiitra-nimittatviit lf it be said that (groupings of atoms and skandhas are possible) on account of mutual causality (of avidya and the rest). z'li cet: if it be said. it may be asked whether the successive groupings are like or unlike each other. In the former case they will be unable to change.. Srinivasa says that the view is faulty since it rejects Brahman.379 But how about the aggregate which is known as the shell and. the subject who experiences the silver in the shell passes away with that experience. 20. uttarotpade ea purva-nirodhiit Because on the origination of the subsequent (moment) the prect~ding one ceases to be (therefore there can be no causal relation between avidyii and Text. unheard. external and internal. if even the souls are momentary... utpade: as it arises. 11. how can they wait till the formation of the objects of enjoyment? Release and enjoyment become impossible. Again. in the latter they will change. Translation and Notes the rest). purva: preceding. nimittatvat: because of being the cause. irrespective of their good or bad actions. na: not so. pratyayatviit: on account of causality. they occur not to a subject that was ignorance but to a different subject. admits the collections of atoms. Again. R. the world of satizsiira is made possible because of the causal force of the series beginning with avidya and ending with death and return to life. everything being momentary. are themselves dependent on groupings and so cannot account for them. ea: and.. miitra: only. 2. reads pratyayatvad upapannam . utpatti: origin. . uttara: subsequent. when the second comes to exist. nirodhat: on account of ceasing to be. If we say . what is the substratum of ignorance in this case? Ignorance does not account for that.. etc. ·itaretara: mutual. unseen and. but a cause for their collection is impossible. that it is to be explained through mutual causality. Between two momentary things. Nimbarka follows this reading. The series of avidyii. pratyayamanyatviit. If it be said.. The objection is raised that.. even though there is no permanent ruling principle. 2. Bhaskara reads . We are thus left with the anomalous consequence of one man's ignorance causing another's suffering. IT. (we say) they are the cause only of origin (and not of groupings). there cannot be any relation for the first has ceased to be. 19. Even if we assume that the two avidyii and the rest and the groupings of the atoms and the skandhas arise simultaneously. .

. dependent on voluntary or involuntary acts.The Brahma Sutra that every consequent has in it the essence of the antecedent. The series cannot be destroyed for its members arc connected together as cause and effect in an unbroken manner. If origin and destruction are the earlier and the later stages of one and the same thing. (if the effect ·is present) there results the contradiction of the admitted principle or else simultaneity (of cause and effect). anyathii: otherwise.iplc of the school that the mind and its states arise on account of the four causes. pratijiiii: an admitted principle. I I. If no cause is required. impression (samanantara). 1 The triad are non-substantial and merely negative in character. 2. asati: when absent. sense (adhipati) and auxiliary cause (sahakiiri) will have to be given up. 2. the main princ. The third is iikliSa which means the absence of anything occupying space which will be taken up later. aprapt£/:1: non-establishment. we accept the simultaneous existence of cause and effect and reject the theory of universal momentariness. material cause (iilambana). If it be said that there may be an effect. abhii. apratisarhkhya: non-voluntary. Destruction dependent on a voluntary act of the mind is when one by an act of will smashes a jar. pratisamkhyii: voluntary. then the thing is assumed to exist for three moments of time. 1tirodha: destruction. 22. The Buddhists maintain that universal destruction goes on constantly. anything may come into being at any time. If it is said that the antecedent continues to exist until the consequent is produced. pratisamkhyii'pratisamkhyii-nirodhiipriipi'ir a·vicched(it Since there is 1w discont-i· uity in the series. destruction not so dependent is that which is due to the material decay of things.vamiitra. uparodlza~: contradiction. Destruction. we deny the doctrine of universal momentariness. They hold that whatever forms an object of knowledge and is different from the triad is produced and momentary. yaugapadyam: sim ul tanei ty. there is the non-establishment n of the voluntary and the involuntary destruction. II. The things cannot be destroyed for in the various states or conditions of a thing. Baladeva interprets the phrase pratijiioparodha!t as the contradiction of the initial proposition that the world originates from the skandhas. there remains something by which the 1 bt4ddhi-bodhyam trayad anyat sa1ilshrtant k$a1.1ika1it ea. 21. asati prat-ijiioparodlzo yaugapadyam anyathii H' hen (the cause) is absent. is impossible for it must refer to the series of things as a whole or to the things themselves. even when there is no cause. avicchediit: on account of non-discontinuity.

iikiise: in the case of iikiisa. then the experiencing subject will also be momentary and the act of . etc. If avid_yd. The Buddhists claim that iiklisa is the support of air. For R. is a special state of something actually existing. ea: and. If the effect originates from nothing. are destroyed of their own accord. etc. T. non-existence. Translation and Notes thing itself is recognised either by perception or by inference. 2. it would not be a futile nonentity. says that when we say 'here a hawk flies. 25.~e$iit In the case of iikasa also. abhiiva. it will itself be of the nature of nothing. anusmrtes ea And on account of remembrance. Scripture says that iikasa is an entity. Il. there a vulture'. a real thing. Again.Itha follows R. II. etc. ~tbhayathli: both ways. 23. but the world is not seen to be of the nature of nothingness.. ea: also. we are conscious of iikiisa as marking the different places of the flight of the different birds. II. 1. If destruction of avidyii. 24. anusmrte~: on account of remembrance. 2. if that which exists undergoes destruction. It is inferred fr01n the quality of sound as earth and the other elements are inferred fron1 smell. ea: and.Text. makes out that both origination from nothing and passing away into nothing arc impossible.. U. R. origination and destruction cannot take p1ace as described by the Buddhists.. Srikat. IT. avisesiit: on account of non- difference. na nirupakhyatvam. So it must be an entity. So there is no kind of destruction possible. Bhaskara reads asambhava}J for aviccheddt. liki'iSe ciivi. painful and void? R. Even if dkiisa were admitted to be of the nature of abhliva. If we believe in the doctr-ine of universal momentariness. results from perfect knowledge and the adoption of the ethical path. we cannot say that iikiisa like the two kinds of destruction is a nonentity and at the same time eternaL That which is non-existent can be neither eternal nor non-eternal. On both the views. ubhayathii ea do~iit And on account of defectiveness both ways. we must give up the view that destruction takes place without any cause. 2. do~iit: on account of defectiveness. It cannot be regarded as a nonentity. it would follow that after one moment the entire world wou]d pass away into nothingness. what is the use of the ethical path and the knowledge that everything is momentary. there being no difference (it cannot be treated as a nonentity). Hhaskara does not mention this sutra. Again.

maintain that existent things spring from non-existent ones. na: not.: from non-existence. Non-existence is the same in all cases. perception and remembrance should belong to the same person and so he cannot be regarded as momentary. niisato'dr~tatviit (En. Sprouts could not come from seeds but from the horns of hares. asatafr. It is an admitted fact. If it is said that there are different kinds of non-existence with special features. if existence came from non-existence all effects would be affected by non-existence whereas they are positive entities distinguished by 1 anu$marat~-am purviinubhuta-vastu-vi~ayam foiinam pratyabhijniinam ity artha~. there is no point in the assumption of special causes. The subject cognising a thing and the subject remembering it should be the same. 26. 2.. To argue that the knowledge of similarity is a new cognition independent of prior cognitions occupying the different moments or of a permanent experiencing subject. this and that as well as similarity between then1 are expressed in one act of judgement. for when we say this is similar to that. Non-existence as such cannot possess causal efficiency. Srinivasa says that if a permanent soul were not acknowledged. means by amtsmrti. does not help. recognition. He would not even be able to prove the assertion that things are momentary for the subject perishes the very moment he states the proposition to be proved and another subject will be unable to complete what has been begun by another and about which he himself does not know anything. If it be said that belief in one and the same experiencing subject arises from the similarity of two or more cognitions of the self. R. Those who hold that the effect does not arise without the destruction of the cause. adr$tatvat: since it is not seen (observed). then they cease to be non-existent and become entities. etc. the recognition of similarity implies a person who is permanent enough to discern the similarity of different cognitions. there can be no doubt with reference to the conscious subject. If similarity were a distinct cognition unconnected with things which are similar. He is distinctly aware that he is the same subject who remembers today what he apprehended yesterday. If things spring from non-existence. there would be no practical activities at all. The moments of cognition and recognition. II. then similarity has no reference to this or that. Again. which we do not observe. 1 He points out that not only recognition but inference which presupposes the ascertainment and remembrance of general propositions would become inexplicable.tity does) not (arise) from non-existence since it is not observed.The Brahma SiUra remembrance becomes inexplicable. R. Whatever may be said with regard to objects. . This view is refuted by the sutra.

udiisiniiniim: of indifferent (inactive) persons. The manifold character of cognitions is derived from the manifold character of real things. Since there is never any attainment of knowledge or release by one who is inactive. But a momentary and therefore non-existent entity cannot produce any impression. then non-existence can be achieved without any efiort. even perfect1y inert men will accomplish all the ends to be reached in this and in the next life.z: non-existence. The manifoldness of cognitions can result from the manifoldness of things only on the condition of the persistence of the thing at the time of cognition. For it is not observed that when a substratc of attributes perishes. SrikaQtha begins a new section here. I 1I. 2. na: not. 28. udiisin iiniim api caivam siddhi!~ And thus there will be accomplishment on the part of the indifferent as well. api: even. So even a thing that has perished may have imparted its form to the cognition and on the basis of that form the object is inferred.z: on account of perception. nabhiiva upalabdhe~ The non-existence (of external objects) cannot be maintained on account of perception. abhaval. This doctrine of entity springing from non-entity. says that as all effects are accomplished without a cause. Section 4 (28-32) CONSIDEHATION OF VI]NANA-VADA ll. this doctrine is false. upalabdhel. including final release. Anyone can attain release.Text. R. The sutra makes out that the special fonns of cognitions cannot be the forms of things that have perished. is inconsistent with their own view that all material aggregates spring from the atoms and mental aggregates from the skandhas. 2. siddhi~: accomplishment. vVhen a seed becomes a sprout the cause is those permanent particles of the seed which arc not destroyed (even when the seed undergoes decomposition). Translation and Notes special characteristics. evam: thus. R. considers here the Sautriintika view that to be an object of cognition means nothing more than to be the cause of the origination of cognition. This sutra and the next deal with the refutation of the Sautriintika view that an object is inferred from the impressions left on our mind by it. If the doctrine that entity arises from non-entity is accepted. - . 27. ea: and. its attributes pass over into another thing.

To all this the reply is made in this siUra. knowledge arises on account of prior mental impressions. how can the ideas have the form of objects? If they have the form of objects it does not mean that objects have become reduced to forms. Our perceptions of objects are only simple ideas. According to Vifiiiina-vada the process whose constituting members are the act of knowledge. the external objects do not and so we become conscious of the idea and not of the external world.The Brahma Sfitra In this siUra. about anything being momentary and void. External objects cannot be apprehended for they are either atoms or their groupings. Again. Between the idea and the object there is not identity but only causal connection. The forms of the objects of knowledge are detennined by ideas and not the reality of the external world. how can we say that it seems like something external? \Ve apprehend things through means of knowledge. The ideas and impressions succeed each other as necessarily as the seed and the sprout. not of perception but of the object of perception. then there cannot be talk about ideas being different from each other. If there are no external objects. between existence and non-existence due to avidya and about bondage and release. is simultaneously presc!ltcd. So V ijiiiina-viida argues that the world of external things is not real. This view is confirmed by the similarity of our perceptions of waking life and experiences of our dreams and illusions. We have knowledge of different attributes black and white as also of different objects. If the idea does not last even for two consecutive moments. Objects are apprehended as external and distinct from ideas. If they were different. If we have no experience of the external world. Even the ll ediinta admits that in dreams. Our perceptions point out to us external things like pillars and walls. The variety of ideas can be accounted for by samskiiras or impressions of past ideas. when there are no external objects. \Ve are aware in perception. The llijiiiina-·viida argues that while an idea illumincs by itself as a lamp. We cannot say that one idea depends on another and so on for it is the self who cognises the ideas . if the ideas occupy different moments of time and vanish immediately after they have been felt in consciousness. the view that ideas are the only reality is considered. they must be one and the same. Atoms are imperceptible and so are their groupings which cannot be different from the atoms which enter them. we can have experience of them through mental processes. Even if things exist in the outside world. wall or jar are mental in character. we cannot say of them that they are either the knower or the known. The differences of cognitions of pillar. The obvious fact is that ideas make us aware of external things. Vijiiana-vada admits it when it says that the internal object of cognition appears like something external. we may be conscious of one and not of another. between individuals and classes. the object of knowledge and the result of knowledge is altogether an internal one. As our knowledge of objects in the form of ideas and of the objects themselves.

this sutra repudiates the interpretation of the miiyii doctrine which holds that all objects are illusory or non-existent. ea: and.Text. There are texts which look upon the world as self-contradictory and therefore non-existent. permanent. They are related to each other as the knower and the known or as subject and object. Translation and Notes and yet the self and the cognitions are of a different nature. 1 naivanl jaga-ritopalabdham vastu stambiidikant kasyancid apy avastha. If it is argued that ideas in the waking life arise as those in a dream. for the Buddhists do not deny it. The witnessing self exists by himself and cannot be doubted. See. Nagarjuna: Madhyamaka Karika XXIV. vandhyii-kumiira bhitis ced asti kificana sasa-lri1ige1)a niigendro mrtas cej jagad asti tat. without the stimulus of external objects. The external object is other than the cognition of it. Therefore waking life is different from dream. EvenS. The difference between remembered and perceived experience is marked by the presence and absence of objects. It maintains the reality of external objects and says that cognitions arise from the contact of sense-organs with particular obj<·cts. admits that the things that we apprehend in the waking state are not negated in any state. for example. then the world exists. 49:2. while what we experience in waking life is immediate apprehension. II. waking experiences continue to exist without being negated. vyavahart'ka-satyatva. Incidentally. etc. This witnessing self of the Advaita Vediinta is one.~ana loke samvrti-satya1n ea satyam ea pa-rama. 29. if a serpent is killed when hit by the horns of a hare. svapniidi1•at: like dream. Whereas the dream-states are negated in waking life.ya?it biidhyate. vaidharmyiit: on account of difference in nature. If you are afraid of the barren woman's son. 2. t dve satye sam-upiiS-ritya buddhiinaril dha-rmade. the sutra states that the two kinds of ideas are different in nature. S.-thata}J. N . 2 The satra denies the subjective idealism of the Vijfliina-viida and affirms the extra-mental reality of the world of waking experience. What we experience in dream is due to memory. and self-illuminating while the ideas of the Vijiiiina-viida are transitory and many and therefore require for their manifestation an intelligent principle beyond them. etc. the following verse from the Teja-bindupani$ad. 1 It will not be correct to argue that the Sutrakara is here establishing the phenomenal reality of the world. (ideas of the waking life) are not n like those in a dream. na: not. vaidharmyiic ea na svapniidivat And on account of difference i· nature.

• anvaya and vyatireka. 30. Bhaskara and Srika:r:ttha do not mention this sutra. II. For the variety of mental impressions is caused· by the variety of the objects perceived.The Brahma Sutra Bhaskara says that those who follow the Bauddha system are miiya-viidins who are rejected by the Sutrakara. the impressions require a substratum in which they reside. If pravrtti-vifiiiina or the cognitions having the fonn of external things cannot be the substratum of impressions. We nowhere perceive cognitions not inherent in a cognising subject and not referring to objects. R. 31. The existence of (impressions) is not (possible) on account of nonperception. they do not arise when there are no external objects. Again. Vijiiiina-viida attempts to account for the variety of ideas by the variety of mental impressions without any reference to external objects. the existence of mental impressions is impossible.tikatviic ea And on account of (the iilaya-vijtiiina) being momentary.: existence. contends that complete denial of everything is not possible except on the recognition of some truth which cannot be denied. we believe in the existence of the external world.. As for the Sunya-viida. argues that we do not perceive mere cognitions devoid of corresponding objects. the present and the future. na bhavo'nupalabdhel. k$at. Facts of memory. 1 . an-upalabdhe)J. 1 II. 2. 2. bhaval. na: not. k$at. 3 Even dream cognitions are not devoid of objective content. Cognitions arise when there are external objects. How can various impressions arise if no external things are perceived? The positive and the negative method of argument 2 is in favour of the reality of external objects. R. \Vithout the perception of external objects. (it cannot be the substratum of mental impressions). even iilaya vijiiana cannot be the substratum for it is also momentary in character. Even in the absence of impressions. ea: and. recognition. Such a substratum cannot be cognised by any means of knowledge. kare~aiva ye tu bauddha-matavalambino mayii-vadinas tepy anena nyayena sutranirasta veditavyab..: on account of nonperception. etc. imply a being which continues to exist and is therefore connected with the past. 1 na hy akartrkasyakarmakasya va filanasya kvacid upalabdhiiJ. S.tikatvat: on account of being momentary.

samvara (restraint). contingent. Soul and non-soul refer to the enjoying souls and the objects of enjoyment. The world is samsiira. Bhaskara does not have this sutra. The objects of empirical knowledge are unstable. nirjara 2 (destruction). 2. nirjara is self-mortification by which sin is destroyed. R. an evershifting phantasmagoria of thoughts and perceptions devoid of any substance. 32. mutable. naikasminn asambhaviit (The J aina doctrine) cannot (be accepted) on account of the impossibility (of contradictory attributes) in one thing. samvara is the restraint of the activity of the senses. anupapatte~: on account of being defective. saruatha: in all ways. Modern existentialism is reminiscent of some forms of A dvaita V ediintii and Buddhism that the quest for reality is prompted by the perception of the misery and vanity of existence. bandha (bondage) and mok$a (release). The Buddhist doctrine cannot be accepted. prove equally relative and elusive. which. bandha or bondage consists of works and mok$a or release is the ascent of the soul to the highest regions after bondage has ceased. Translation and Notes II. 2 nirjarayati iti nirjara. 2. 33. ajiva (non-soul). na: not. It also helps us to become emotionally detached from the triumphs and tragedies of life. for ever breaking down logically into new relations to other things. Asrava is the forward movement of the senses towards their objects.Text. ea: and. The glory of this imperfect world is that it puts us on the track of apprehending the Real Being which underlies and informs this unstable world. sarvathanupapattes ea And on account of being defective in all ways. or of ideas and general nothingness contradict one another. when scrutinised. asambhaviit: on account of impossibility. takes this sutra as a separate section dealing with the refutation of the ~·unya-vada that nothing whatever is real. The different doctrines of the reality of external objects. jiva (soul). Its events lapse into non-entity at the very moment of their birth. S. These are 1 iiSravati iti iHrava. ekasmin: in one thing. . asrava 1 (issuing forward). The world we know is various. Section 5 (33-36) CONSIDERATION OF ]AINISM II. summarises the J aina view according to which there are seven entities. a perpetual flux of states and relations of things.

it will not have sufficient space. Again. space.1 Nor also is there non-contradiction (if particles join or fall away from the soul) by modification. his childhood. adharma. maybe it is not. If heaven is nothing definite in regard to its existence or duration. The same difficulties are felt if we consider the different stages of one person. demerit. the soul has the same size as the body. ea: and. syad asli ea nasti ea. If the]ainas say that the particles join or fall away when the soul 1 syad asti. syan nasti eavaktavya~ ea. body. api: also. II. If indefiniteness belongs to all things. maybe it is not and it is indescribable. it has already been refuted in considering the Vaise$ika theory. then if the infinite particles occupy different places. 2. The ] aina doctrine of anekanta-viida describes the complexity of objects. in a small body like that of an ant. if they occupy the same place. vikaradibhya!z: on account of change. avirodha~: non-contradiction. The different qualities possessed by an object are not contradictory to one another. knowing subject and the objects of knowledge. it is non-eternal. anitya. maybe it is and is not.The Brahma Stitra brought under the two categories of the soul and the non-soul. A cognition of indefinite nature cannot be a source of knowledge. viz. they cannot be contained in a small body. 35. how can one aim at it? As for the doctrine of atoms or pudgalas. Sometimes five asti-kiiyas or existing bodies are mentioned. 1 The sutra says that this reasoning is untenable since contradictory attributes cannot belong to one and the same thing. 34. syad avaktavya. maybe it is and is indescribable. maybe it is indescribable. why should we assume that the particles are infinite in number? II. evam: thus. to call the asti-kayas indescribable and yet to describe them is to contradict oneself. The reasoning known as sapta-bhangi-naya is applied to all these. If it enters a large body like that of an elephant. pudgala. 'ikiisa. maybe it is and is not and is indescribable. Maybe it is. 2. akiirtsnyam: non-pervasiveness. syiin nasti. knowledge and the means of knowledge. paryayiit: by modification. ea: and. youth and old age. evam ciitmakartsnyam And likewise (there results) the non-pervasiveness of the soul. dharma. syad asti ea nasti cavaktavya~ ea. na: not. If it is argued that the soul consists of an infmite number of parts. Being limited in extent. jiva. . syiid asti cavyaktavya~ ea. on account of change and the rest. it cannot occupy the whole of it. merit. For the ]ainas. soul. etc. which are capable of being compressed or expanded. where the soul has a limited extent. the size of the soul will always be very small. the fain teachers do not teach us anything definite or certain. atmii: the soul. na ea paryiiyad apy avirodho vikiiradibhya/. Again.

Nor do we know where they come from or go. then the soul becomes of a changing nature. if the stream is real. Therefore there is no difference in size and the soul cannot have the size of its temporary bodies. even as a stream of water is said to be permanent in spite of the changing water. the sutra points out that this view implies that the soul is capable of undergoing change and is therefore non-permanent. If it is argued that the soul may be considered to be permanent in spite of its changes. Or we may say that the dimensions of the sou] being the same in its three conditions. On the]aina view both the particles and the soul are indefinite. 2. The soul has a permanent and constant size in a gross body as well as in a subtle body. argues that the final size of the soul. when they join or fall away from the soul. Translation and Notes enters into a large or a small body. 36. its size in the state of release is enduring since the soul thereafter does not pass into another body. This size being permanent belongs to it previously also. The particles cannot be of the nature of self.Text. otherwise there would be three different conditions of one and the same soul. Il. This is inconsistent with the]aina view of release of the soul. We cannot say that one of these particJes is pem1anent.e. This means that the different bodies of the soul have one and the same size and it is not required to enter into larger and smaller bodies. i. ubhaya-nityatviit: because of the permanence of the two (earlier sizes). when it is freed from the encumbering mud. the soul is either small or large and cannot vary according to the size of the body. So the]aina view cannot be accepted. in the state of bondage as well as in that of release. Baladeva gives a different interpretation: 'On account of the non-distinction of the final state [of release from that of bondage].' According to the J aina view there is no difference between the state of release and that of bondage for the . it is said in reply that if the stream is not real. the ascent of the soul when its bonds are sundered. antyiivasthites cobhaya-nityatviid avise$a~ And on account of the permanence of the final (size of the soul) and because of the permanency of the t'l£1o (earlier sizes) there is nondistinction of the size. avise!}a~: there is non-distinction (of size). Srinivasa is of the same view. both being permanent. R. Since the J ainas hold that the final state of the soul is permanent. which is likened to the rise of the gourd to the surface of the water. So the doctrine that the soul is of the size of the body is untenable. initial and intervening ones also are permanent. for we do not know which it is. since they have origin and destruction. antya-avasthite~: on account of the permanency of the final. ea: and. it follows that the two earlier. we get the theory of the void.

there was NarayatJa. The Yoga view is that God is a special kind of soul (puru$a-vise$a). 23-4. this leads to mutual dependence. 1. indeed. it is shown that God is both the material and the efficient cause of the world. He quotes Mahopani$ad. then even God who is active is imperfect. . In I. he being alone did not rejoice. is the efficient cause. Siva. mentions the different schools of Saivism here and argues that the Scripture refers to NarayatJa as the universal creator. If imperfection leads to activity1 as the Nyaya Sutra (I. There are other systems which hold that God is only the efficient cause of the world. tath~Jiko ha vai nafayat. 'Alone.a iisfn na lwahmti ndtina~. To suggest that this mutual dependence is beginningless does not solve the problem.' 2 Both R. but the Samkhya-Yoga as wen as other views which maintain that the Lord is the efficient cause only and not the material cause of the world. 18) states. patyur asam-aiijasyat (The doctrine) of the Lord (as only the efficient cause of the world) (is untenable) on accoutlt of inadequacy. Some forms of Samkhya and Yoga look upon God as the efficient cause different from puru~a and pradhana. while maya is the material cause and Sakti is the instrument. are determined by the merit and demerit of living beings. Movement whether in the world or upward is a characteristic of bondage. subject to hatred. S. and Bhaskara consider under this sutra not only the Pasupata doctrine. In that case he must be devoid of all activity.a do$4[J. he will be like any one of us. . The :Afahesvaras hold that Pasupati. The view that God is merely the efficient and not the material cause of the world is here considered.J. 4. on account of inconsistency. 37. . intermediate and low. not lsana. R. No one can possibly feel happy in the state of constant motion or standing still in a place without any support.• sa ekakf na ramate. Srikal)tha refers here only to those Saivas who look upon the Lord as the efficient cause only. 1 1 pravartana lak~at. If the Lord assigns to different people different positions according to his liking. not Brahma. Section 6 (37-41) CONSIDERATION OF THE VIEW THAT GOD IS ONLY THE EFFICIENT CAUSE II. 2. So there is no difference between release and bondage on this view.J. passion and so on. The doctrine is not acceptable. is a constant progress upward or remaining in the alokakiisa.390 The Brahma Sutra former. If we say that these positions high. and Nirnbarka insert a negative particle 'not'.

This difficulty does not apply to the Vedanta which assumes the connection to be one of identity. an-upapatte}J. is prior to everything. since it is opposed to what is observed. for pradhana. 38. and so it cannot be looked upon as the object of the Lord's action. sambandhanupapattes ea 391 And on account of the impossibility of the relation. says that those who do not accept the authority of the Vedas establish the Lord's rulership over the material cause from observation.. We cannot assume any other connection which can be inferred from the world as effect for we have yet to decide whether the world is an effect.papatte~: on account of being impossible. ea: and. Bhaskara and Srika. We cannot prove that the Lord is the ruler of pradhana even as the potter is the ruler of clay. since it arises later. the Lord. ea: and. tiidiitmya. sambandha: relation.Text. A Lord distinct from pradhana and the souls cannot be their ruler unless he is related to them. 3 apply. According to Srikai)tha. It cannot be sama1. 2.Agamas is open to all castes. 2. or a non-eternal one. those who derive the authoritativeness of the Vedas from their divine authorship. The Lord cannot produce action in the pradhana as the potter does in the clay. the study of the . Again. i. Nimbarka says that Pasupati is not the cause of the world as he cannot have an eternal body. If it is said that the Lord has a body. etc.1iiya or inherence for it is impossible to say which is the abode and which is the abiding thing.: on account of being impossible. R. This relation cannot be samyoga or conjunction for all the three are of infinite extent and devoid of parts. while the study of the V edas is permitted only to the three upper castes.I)tha. others. which is devoid of colour and other qualities. adhi~thana: support. is not an object of perception. 1.. anu. Translation and Notes II. All non-eternal objects arise ]ater as effects and Pasupati. This sutra is not found in R.e. the difficulties mentioned in I. suffer from the defect that the authoritativeness of the Vedas is derived from the omniscience of the Lord and the omniscience of the Lord is derived from the authority of the Vedas. It is therefore different in nature from clay. 39. . the power of ruling material causes is possible only for embodied beings but the Lord is without a body. II. adhi~thiiniinupapattes ea And on acco-unt of the impossibility of a support (or substratum) (the Lord cannot be the maker). While the Vediinta accepts sruti from its self-evidence.

40. then he is lacking in omniscience. and Nimbarka take it in the sense of and.. etc. we ascribe a body to him. If. liability to end. we say that God does not know the measure. So the Lord is devoid of a support and so cannot act. The two sutras 39 and 40 may be explained in a different way. extent and number of himself. That means that pradhiina which under the guidance of the Lord had modified and manifested itself. samsiira ends. R. of the difference of the general instrumental and sa-sarfratve hi sati samsiirivad bhogiidi-prasangiid Uvaf'asyiipy anUvaratvam prasajyeta. on the other hand. cet: if it be said. but we do not observe that the Lord experiences pleasure. he becomes like any of us. etc. caused by the pradhiina. a body. antavattvam asarvajiiatii V{i (On this view there will result) jinitude or non-omniscience. for the good of the souls. like jars and the like. he. karat)avat: as in the case of sense-organs. etc. etc. though there are features in the Piisupata system acceptable to the Veda. 41. 2.. If it be said that the Lord rules the pradhiina in the same way as the soul rules the sense-organs which arc devoid of colour and are therefore not objects of perception. WhileS. R. the sutra says that the analogy is misleading. and Bhaskara take the particle vii in the sense of 'or'.·So we may attribute to the Lord some kind of abode to serve as the substratum of the organs. So the doctrine that God is only the efficient cause of the world is untenable. vii: or. says that if the Lord is under the influence of adr$ta. on the other hand. 1 Nimbarka says that it is not possible to suppose that the Lord has sense-organs and the body like the individual soul. na: not. In reply. When all the souls get released. an ordinary transmigrating soul undergoing pleasure and pain. it is said that we cannot ascribe such a body to the Lord. Experience shows that kings who rule countries arc not without a material abode. the extent. bhogadt'bhJ•a}:t: on account of enjoyment and the rest. viz. asarvajiiatii: non-omniscience. 2. S. If. \Ve know that the organs are ruled by the soul from the fact that they experience pleasure. antavattvam: finitude. then like all measured things they are of finite duration only. 1 . for all bodirs are later than creation. pain. kara1Javaccen na bhogiidibhya!J If t"t be sat'd that as t'n the case of sense-organs (we say) no on account of enjoyment and the rest.392 The Brahma Sutra II. pradhiina and the souls. dissolution.. If the omniscient God knows the duration. Besides. like the individual soul. is subject to creation. and that he is not omniscient.. pain. also will end and there will be nothing for the Lord to rule. II. for then the Lord will have enjoyment and the rest. it rests on an assumption contrary to the Veda.

XII.. Only S. the Samkhya. Section 7 (42--45) CONSIDERATION OF THE BHAGAVATA VIEW II. VII. The Bh(igavata view admits that God is both the efficient and the material cause.Text. utpatty asambhavat On account of the impossibility of originat£on utpatti: origination. S. does not object to the theory that V iisudeva is the Highest Self.U.B. 349· 64. rules regarding human behaviour. higher than the undeveloped. 1 . Satikar~a1Ja. In the M . the Vedas. cast in the form of dialogues between Siva and Parvati or the Buddhas and their Saktis.a from V iisudeva. the individual soul would be non-permanent and there is no possibility of release. V iisudeva. 26. 2 These answer to the Highest Self. the piisupata and pii1icariitra doctrines are distinguished from the Vedic religion: 'listen. and the self of all. the mind and the self-sense. its evolution and dissolution. Nimbarka follows H. objects to the doctrine of origination of Sankar~at. 42. the Pii1icariitra.>ma replies: vi$~Um ea puYU$am satyam acyuta1n ea yudhi$lhi1'a aniYuddham ea miim pyiihu~ vaikhanasa-vido janafl anyetu evam vijiinanti miim 1'ajan panea1'iitrika!J viisudevam ea riijendra samkar$attam athapi vti j>1'adyumnatiJ etiniruddhatn ea eatu1'-milYtim praca~ate. the Pasupatas are types of knowledge propounding different views. 2. siiritkhyariz yoga!J pancaratram uedafl pasupatam tathii jniinany etani riijar~~e viddhi nanamatani uai. 0 saintly king.B. It holds that V iisudeva is the highest reality and is of the nature of pure knowledge.' 1 The Tantras claim to be of Vedic origin and are based on the Yoga system. that he appears in manifold forms (C. different forms of worship and spiritual training. They deal with the nature of the cosmos. and implies an erroneous interchange of higher and lower entities. asambhaviit: on account of impossibility. A svamedha Paroa. V asudeva is the ultimate causal essence and the three others are the effects.'s interpretation. He assumes four forms. 2) and that by devotion and meditation we reach the Highest Being. They arc Hindu and Buddhist. Yudhi~thira asks Bhi!?ma: kathatn tvam arcanJyo'si mu1'taya!l kidrsas ea te vaikhanasah katha1n byuya!J katham vii paneariitYikalJ and Bhl~. If such were the case. the Yoga. the individua] soul. Pradyumna and A niruddha. 1'ranslation and Notes 393 material causes. 1 In the M. etc.

even then the objection holds. according to Scripture. not as individual soul. If we take Sankar$a·~. Nimbarka and Srinivasa refer to the view of the Saktas that Sakti alone is the producer of the world and refute it. Katha U. constitute the puroa-pak$a. He. for R. Sakti cannot be its cause. na ea kartu}J karanam 1-vror is the instrument (produced) from the agent. M. · the cause of the world is Brahman. R.ta. II. vij1'iiinadibhave va tad aprati$edha}J. nor is it established that the world is something produced. If the four individual lords have the same attributes. kartu}J: from the agent or doer. 43.. viz. 3. there is no need to have more than one. defends the Piiticariitra doctrine and argues against S. We do not observe that the instrument of doing anything springs forth by itself from the doer. ea: and. The causality of Sakti is without any basis. etc. I. . R. IJ. power. glory. !I. etc. To admit four lords contradicts their own position that the one supreme essence is V iisudeva. Devadatta may use an axe but the axe does not come out of instrument. are taken as) possessing knowledge and other (qualities). If the authority of the Scripture is quoted. If it is said that the world is something produced and the Creator helps Sakti. 2. the internal organ termed Pradyumna. mind. Or if (Viisudeva. Nimbarka and Srinivasa refer to the Sakti doctrine. 44..'s view. II. 18. The Bhagavatas hold that from the individual soul tenned Sankar$a1Ja arises its instrument. There is a different explanation also. 2. it is not possible for the Creator to be a helper. mind and all sense-organs'. The origin of the world is impossible for it is eternal. This is. He holds that the Paiicaratra doctrine is not against Scripture.. the sutra answers that no sense-organ is possible on the part of the Creator. there will be no exclusion (of the defect of non-origination). The two sutras for R. Without a sense-organ. karat.. that this section deals with the Paiicariitra doctrine and not with the Sakta view as suggested by Madhva and Nimbarka. but as lords possessing knowledge. na: not. the prima facie view.U. As the world is not something produced. since there is no sense-organ prior to creation.The Brahma Sutra 394 Bhaskara agrees with S. etc. however. points out that the view that the internal organ originates from the individual soul is opposed to the text that 'from him there is produced breath. holds that the origination of the individual soul is contrary to Scripture. The authoritativeness of the Bhagavata view cannot be admitted. and from this another instrument called aham-kiira or self-sense. The origin of the world from Sakti without puru~a is impossible. then we find that.

The Bhagavata view holds that they are all forms of V iisudeva without any special distinctions. a ajayamlmo bahudha vijiiyate. 4 catur~u vede~u Text. he is born in many ways' 3 and it is this birth consisting in the voluntary assumption of bodily form. says that tor' in the sutra refutes the view set forth in the two previous sutras. etc. A prati$edha}J is taken to mean that there is no contradiction (to the Bhiigavata doctrine). Taittirfya Aratz. 1 viisudevakhyam param brahmaivasrita-vatsalam svas1·ita-samasraya~f· yatviiya svccchayii caturdhavali$/hata iti hi tat pt·ak. 29. 2 Sankar$a1Ja. The forms of V asudeva need not be confined to four as the whole world from Brahman down to a blade of grass is a manifestation of the Supreme Heing. the Bhagavata view.. There are several contradictions in the Bhagavata view. 2. 4 SaiJ<. vipratt.395 If it be said that the four forms possessing the same attributes spring from the one Higher Reality. Pradyumna. R.lilya's criticism is only to eulogise. sometimes as bearers of the qualities. 1. Scripture declares 'not born. which the Bhiigavata system teaches. . due to tenderness towards its devotees. then we have no objection.a nor Aniruddha from Pradyum1~a. The relation of cause and effect requires some superiority of the cause over the effect. Sometimes these four are mentioned as qualities. Satikar~atJ.. Baladeva argues that if the Saktas hold that the Lord has a nonmaterial body composed of knowledge and so on. nor Pradyumna from Satikar$atJ. 1 R. ea: and. Nimbarka and Srinivasa argue that the doctrine of Sakti is set aside through the admission of Brahman. The F edas are sometimes criticised. Aniruddha arc thus mere bodily forms which the Highest Brahman voluntarily assumes. 45. S. II. since this view is identical with our own doctrine.$edhat: on account of contradiction. What is possessed of all attributes is the Highest Deity.) SrikaiJtha takes this sutra as representing the prime facie view. assume the forms of the individual soul. the objection of non-origination holds. but only that Sa·nkar$a1Ja. (II. there is no superiority of one to the other. The doctrine teaches not an inadmissible origination but that the Highest Brahman called V asudcva from compassion abides in a fourfold form so as to render himself accessible to the devotees. 12.yaka Ill. viprati$edhiic ea And on account of contradiction. Translation and Notes evam sreyo'labdhvil ~a'IJ4ilya idam sastram adhftavan.hatvlivagamat..a cannot be produced fr01n V iisudeva. Since they all possess the same attributes. etc. 1 brahmiidi slamba-paryantasya samaslasyaiva jagato bhagavad-vyu.-iyli. says R. It is not contended that there is the origin of the individual soul.

Nimbarka refutes the ·causality of $akti and accepts the supremacy of Brahman.tasya arcanasya iidlzikye kith kihmzam? ucyate: hhhsad pztru~iintara dravyiintrlra desa-kiUr"idi-niyamii·napek:~atvam iidkikye lliiranam. does not depend on men or material and is independent of place.The Brahma Siitra The criticism is on a par with Narada's words (C. ~rikaiJtha stresses the opposition of the Piiticariitra doctrine to Scripture.ata view in the same way in which he rejects the other theories. points out that the Bhiigavata view is consistent with Scripture and is approved by the Sutrakiira. since it involves no injury to any living being. in his commentary on Fi$~u-sahasra-niima observes that adoration in the form of praise is superior to other forms of worship. This sutra is not found in Hhaskara.U. 2) that one knows only the texts but should know the knowledge of the Self. 2 vedii1zte 1m yatha siira1i1 satitgrhya bhagavun haril. rejects the Bhiigm. S. bhaktanttkampayii t•idviin samcik{. While S. extracted the essential meaning of all Vediinta texts and summed it up in an easy form'. Yoga. VII. The Bhagavata doctrine stresses the importance of devotion and praise of God. affirms that the sutras do not reject all the doctrines of the Siimkhya. He quotes a verse which says that 'the wise Lord Hari. 1 .epa yatha sukham. R. 1 H. time or procedure. Piiticariitra and the Pasupata systems. 2 asya stuti-lak~~at. We reject only their weak points and accept whatever is valid in them though the teachings of the ]ainas and the Buddhists are rejected entirely. impelled by kindness for those devoted to him.

5. whether they are coeternal with Brahman or issue from it to be resolved into it at stated intervals. asambhaviit It is used in a secondary sense. mt account of impossibili~v. 3.U. The answer to the objection is stated here. II. II. 4. Akiisa is all-pervading and so can be inferred to be eternal and without origin. The text about the origination of iikiisa can only be metaphorical. . fire. here refers to the V aise$ika view that whatever is originated springs from inherent. 4.Text. The pr£·ma facie view is that iikiisa is not created since there is no scriptural statement to that effect. 3. tu: but. Those elements like fire which have an origin exist in different conditions at an earlier and later period. 3. Translation and Notes Section 1 (1-7) AKA~·A 397 IS AN EFFECT II. asti: there is. 11. one which mentions fire as the first created product. 2. II. sabdiic ea gau~y And on account of the text. space or ether. There is apparently a conflict between the two texts. I. gau1Ji: in a secondary sense. S. asambhaviit: on account of impossibility. ea: and. Satapatha Briihma1Ja XIV. 3. viyat: iikiiSa. 3. T. asrute}J: on account of nonmention in the Scripture. sabdiit: on account of the word. I I. the other which mentions iikiisa as the first created product. In C. 3. the text. 1 says: 'from that Self sprang iikiisa'. But there is. We cannot conceive of such causes for iikiisa. The third part of the second chapter considers whether the fonns of existence which constitute the world are created or not. VI. na: not. quotes another text which declares that air and iikiisa are eternal. 3. 2 asti tu. 3. R.U. viiyus ciintarik$am caitad amrtam. na viyad asrute}J Akiisa £s not created on account of non-mention in the Scripture. No such divisions can be conceived for iikiisa. The text dealing with the origination of iikiisa is not to be taken JitcraiJy but only secondarily because the creation of iikiisa is impossible since it has no parts. There are scriptural passages which mention the origination of iikasa. B. water and earth are mentioned as produced and not iikiisa.V. non-inherent or operative causes. 3.

The Brahma SiUra
The opponent may quote a number of scriptural texts. We have already mentioned B.U. II. 3. 3. Omnipresence and eternity are attributed to iikiisa. iikiisavat sarvagatas ea nitya!z. Again, as the iikiisa is infinite, so the Self is to be known as infinite: sa yathiinanto'yam iikiisa!J, evam ananta iitmii veditavya!J. Again, Brahman has iikiisa for its body': sarirarh bralzma' iikiisa atmii. R. and Nimbarka take sutras 3 and 4 as one. The question relates to the origination of The prima facie view is that it is not, since the origination is mentioned in some texts, not in others. So where the word origination, sambhuta~, occurs, it should be taken in a secondary sense. It is to be taken litera1ly with reference to fire and so on and figuratively with reference to iikiisa. This is on the analogy of the word Brahman which in M.U. I. l. 8 and 9 is· used literally in one case and figuratively in the other as referring to prakrti. The analogy is not complete because the word sambhuta!J, is used once, while Brahman is used twice. R. treats the difference as immaterial since a figurative sense may be understood in addition to the literal sense even when a word is carried on just as much as when it is repeated. 1

II. 3. 5. syii.cchaikasya brahma-sabdavat The one 71,10rd nzay be (taken in its pr£mary as well as secondary senses) like the word Brahman. syiit: may be, is possible; ea: and; ekasya: of one word; (sambhutasabda) ; brahma-sabdavat: like the word Brahman. The objection that one and the same word, sprang, cannot be used in its primary sense with regard to fire and in a secondary sense with regard to ii.kiisa is answered here. The word Brahman' is used (T.V. III. 2-6) in the primary sense with regard to bliss and in the secondary sense with regard to food. It is said tapo brahma, austerity, is the means of knowing Brahman which is the object of knowledge. The word is used for both austerity and the object of knowledge. R. quotes M.U. 11. 1 for the twofold use of Brahman (8 and 9).

II. 3. 6. pratijiiii.hii.nir avyatirekiic chabdebhya!J, (There is) non-abandonment of the initial statement on account of non-distinction (of the world from Brahman) according to scriptural texts. pratijnii.: initial statement; ahii.nib: non-abandonment; avyatirekii.t: on account of non-distinction; ea: and; sabdebhya}J: from the scriptural texts. The statements in C.U. VI. I. 3; B.U. IV. 5. 6; M.U. I. I. 3 that by the knowledge of one thing, everything is known are not contradicted because the entire aggregate of things is non-different from Brahman. So will also be one of the effects of Brahman; otherwise it could


sravatJiivrttiiv iva.

399 not be known when Brahman becomes known. There are also texts which declare that all this is Brahman and iika.Sa is included in the world. So iikiisa is a created product. The C. U. text in which iikasa is not mentioned is to be interpreted in relation to the Taittiriya passage. Akasa and air are first created and then fire. There is no contradiction between the different scriptural passages. R. and ~rikaJ.ltha break this sutra into two, sabdebhya~ being the second.
II. 3. 7. yiivad vikararh tu vibhiigo lokavat But as far as there is effect, there is division as in ordinary life. :yiivat: as far as there is; vikaram: effect, modification; tu: but; ·vibhaga[l: division; lokavat: as in the worJd, in ordinary life. 'But' refutes the view that iikiisa is not created. The creation of iikiisa is not impossible. \Vhatever is divided is an effect; whatever is not an effect is not divided as the Self. Akiisa is divided from earth and so on and it is therefore an effect. It cannot be said that the Self also is divided from iik(iSa and so on, for the Self is self-established while iikiisa and others are to be established by other means of knowledge. An adventitious thing may be refuted but not that which is the essential nature of him who refutes. The Self is therefore not an effect.~. points out that Brahman existed before iikiisa was produced. Besides, iikiisa is non-eternal because it is the substratum of a noneternal quality like sound. Statements regarding the eternity of iikiisa are to be taken in a relative sense. Akiisa is an effect of Brahman. Whatever is an effect has an origin. Akiisa has Brahman for its material cause.

Text, Translation and Notes

Sect-ion 2 {8)
II. 3. 8. etena miitarisvii vyakhyiita'IJ, etcna: by this; matart'svii: air; vyiikhyata!t: is explained. Objections to the origination of air are considered. In the chapter of the C.U. which treats of the origination of things, air is not mentioned. A different opinion that it sprang from akiisa is mentioned in the T.U. So the opponent argues that the passage which refers to the origination of air should be taken in a secondary sense for, as in the case of akii.Sa the literal sense cannot be adopted. Besides, there is a passage which denies that air ever rests. B.U. I. 5. 22. There are passages which declare air to be eternal. The sutra contends that air is a product for it is conformable to the general tendency of Scripture. Whatever is capable of division is an effect. The denial of its ever setting refers to lower knowledge, apara vidya.


The Brahma Sutra
Sec#on 3 (9)


II. 3. 9. asambha1•as tu sato'nupapatte~ But there is no origitt of that which is on account of the impossibility (of sttck an origin). asa·mbhm.!a~: no origin; tu: but; sata~: of that which is, i.e. Brahman; anupapatte~: on account of impossibility. The pitn'a-pak$a says that Brahman does originate in view of statements like 'non-existent was this in the beginning'. asad vii idam agra iisit. The sutra asserts the non-origination of that which is, on account of the impossibility of its being originated. Brahman is the only thing which is unborn. Brahman whose self is being cannot be suspected to have sprung from anything else. Brah·man which is mere being cannot spring from mere being as there is a certain superiority on the part of the cause in the relation of cause and effect. Particulars spring from what is general and not vice versa. Nor can Brahman spring from that which is not. See C.U. VI. 2. 2. S.U. VI. 9 denies that Brahman ha..'; any progenitor. The fundamental cause of all effects, which is not itself an effect, is Brahman. Srikat:ttha agrees with this view of S. For R., the sutra teaches the origination of everything else except Brahman, the latter alone being non-originated. Srikat:ttha seems to agree with this interpretation. 'Hence non-origination applies to Brahman alone; origination applies to all else, on account of failure otherwise of the promise that everything will be known.' 1 Nimbarka agrees with S. Bhaskara criticises S.'s interpretations.

Section 4 (10)
FIRE SPRINGS FROM AIR II. 3. 10. tejo'tas tatha hy aha Fire springs from this (air) (for) thus (the text) verily says. teja~: fire; ata~: from this; tathii: thus; hi: verily; iiha: says. The opponent mentions C.U. VI. 2. 3 where fire is said to have for its source Brahman and the T.U. Il. 1, where the source of fire is said to be air and argues that Brahman is the source of fire for everything without exception is born from Brahman (M.U. II. 1. 3; see also C.U. III. 14. 1; T.U. II. 6). The sutra says that fire springs from
tata!J, brahma~a evii.sambhavo'nutpattifJ, tad-anyasya sarvasya sarvavijnana-pratijltanupapatte!J, sambhava utpattir tti.

Text, Translation and Notes


Brahman through intermediate links. Though all things are traced to Brahman they arc not the immediate effects of Brahman. S., Bhaskara and Balacleva take this as the correct conclusion. Nimbarka takes this as stating the prima facie view.

Section 5 (II)
II. 3. 11. iipal;t

'J-Vater (springs from fire). The sutra explains the order of creation, snti-krama. See C. U. VI. 2. 3; T.U. II. 1. While this is the prima facie view for Nimharka, it is the correct conclusion or siddhiinta for~ .• Bhaskara and llaladeva. There is a sutra which is not mentioned by S., Bhaskara and Baladcva. 'The Earth originates from water.' Prthivi.

Section 6 (12)
II. 3. 12. prthivyadhikiira-rupa-sabdiintarebhyal;t

The earth (is meant by the word anna, food) on account of the subjectmatter, colour and other scriptural texts. Prthivi: earth; adhikiira-rupa-sabdantarebhya}J: on account of the subject-matter, colour and other scriptural texts. C. U. VI. 2. 4 says that water sent forth food. Does anna mean objects fit to be used as food like rice, barley and the like or cooked food or earth? The opponent claims that anna should mean food and not earth. The sutra contends that the word occurs in the treatment of the elements fire, air, water and so the reference is to the element earth. In a complementary passage the black colour is said to be the colour of anna. Earth has black colour while eatable things are not necessarily black. Even though earth may have different colours, its predominant colour is black. Many scriptural texts support the view of anna as earth. See T.U. 11. 1; B.U. I. 2. 2. Therefore anna denotes earth. R. quotes M.U. I. 1. 9. Nimbarka adopts the same interpretation though he regards it as the prima facie view.


The Brahma Sutra
Section 7 (13)

BRAH1lfAN IS THE CREATIVE PRINCIPLE Il. 3. 13. tad-abhidhyiiniid eoa tu tallingiit sa!z. But he (Brahman is the creative prindple abiding within the eleme1tts) on account of his desire only and indicatory mark. tad-abhidhyiiniit: because of his desire; eva: only; t1t: but; tat-lingiit: on account of his indicatory mark; sa}J: he. Brahman is described in some texts as the creator of everything.

There are other passages where certain elements are said to produce certain effects. If the opponent points to this conflict, the sutra maintains that the Supreme residing within these elements produces these effects and so there is no contradiction. See B.U. Ill. 7. 3; C.U. VI. 2. 3-4. The elements become causes only through the will of the Supreme who resides in them. Nimbarka states that the correct conclusion is indicated in this sutra. Independent creatorship belongs only to the Supreme Self and not to anything else.
Section 8 (14)


II. 3. 14. viparyayet;a tu kramo'ta upapadyate ea The order (in wht'eh the elements are resolved into Brahman) is the reverse of that (i.e. the order in which they are created) and this is proved. viparyayet;a: in the reverse order; tu: indeed; krama!z.: order; ata}J: from that (the order of creation); upapadyate: is proved; ea: and. If the opponent says that the retractation of the elements is not in any definite order, the sutra says that it is the reverse of the order of creation. This is seen in ordinary life. He who ascends a stair, has to descend it by taking the steps in the reverse order. Each effect passes back into its immediately antecedent cause, until the last cause is resolved into Brahman. R. does not look upon this satra as concerned with the order of dissolution. He continues the topic of the order of evolution. He mentions texts which designate the vital breath and the rest as rising directly from Brahman, in opposition to the real order of evolution, viz. prakrti, mahat and so on. These texts are explicable only on the view that everything arises directly from Brahman. SrikaiJtha begins a new section here and reads param-paryet;a in place of viparyaye'f)a. He deals with the question of the origin of sense-organs, mind and the like.

Text, Translation and Notes

Baladeva follows H..'s interpretation, though he takes this sutra as constituting a separate section.
Section 9 (15)

JI. 3. 15. antara vijiianamanasi krame1Ja tal-ling ad iti cen niivise$iit.
If it be said that in bet·l£'een (Brahman and the elements) intellect and mind (are mentioned and so their creation and absorption are to be placed somewhere) in the order on account of the inferential indications (in the texts) to that effect, (we say) not so, on account of the nondifference (of the intellect and the m·ind from the elements). antara: in between; 'lJijiiana-manasi: intellect and mind; krame1Ja: in the order; tat-lingat: owing to inferential indications of that; iti cet: if it be said; na: not so; avise$at: on account of non-difference. In Katha U. I. 3. 3-4 and M.U. II. 1. 3, mind, intellect and senses

arc mentioned as arising from the Self and so there is a variation from the previously stated order of creation and reabsorption. The sutra denies this on the ground that the organs themselves are nondifferent from the elements. See C.U. VI. 6. 5. If the organs are sometimes mentioned separately from them, it is only in the same way as the mendicant Briihma1}as (parivrajakas) are mentioned separately from the Briihma1Jas. Besides the M.U. gives an enunciation of the organs and the elements and not the order of their creation. So the origination of the organs does not constitute a break in the order of the origination of the elements.
Section 10 (16)

BIRTH AND DEATH REFER TO THE BODY ONLY AND FIGURATIVELY TO THE SOUL CONNECTED WITH THE BODY II. 3. 16. caracaravyapiisrayas tu syiit tad-vyapadeso bhiiktiis tadbhava-bhiivitvat But the menUon of that (viz. the birth and death of the individual soul) is with regard to (the bodies) of moving and non-moving beings,· it is secondary (figurative) if applied to the soul, on account of (the forms) depending on the existence of that (the body). caracaravyapasrayaJ.t,: depending on the bodies of moving and nonmoving beings; tu: but; syat: may be; tat-vyapadesaJ.t,: the mention of

The Brahma Sutra
that; bhiikta~ : secondary, figurative; tat-bhiiva-bhiitJitviit: on account of those forms depending on the existence of that {the body). In ordinary usage we say that Devadatta is born or Devadatta is dead, and certain ceremonies are also prescribed at the birth and death of people. The sutra refutes such a doubt and says that the soul has neither birth nor death. These belong not to the soul but to the body with which the soul is connected. Birth and death do not belong to the soul but indicate only the connection and disconnection with the body. See C.U. VI. 11. 3; B.U. IV. 3. 8. R. gives two interpretations resulting from two readings bhiikta and abhiikta. (i) The reference to moving and non-moving beings is figurative, secondary because of their being permeated by Brahman. All the words denoting moving and non-moving beings rca1ly denote Brahman since all objects are modes of Brahman. (ii) The forms denoting moving and non-moving beings are primary with regard to Brahman since the denotative power of all forms depends on the being of Brahman. Nimbarka follows S. SrikaJ:Itha follows R. 's second interpretation. Baladeva, on the whole, follows R.
Section 11 (17)

II. 3. 17. niitmiisruter nityatvac ea tiibhya!t The smtl is not (originated) on account of the statement of sruti and also the eternity resulting therefrom. na: not (originated, produced); iitma: the individual soul; asrute!t: since it is not mentioned in the Scriptures; nityatviit: on account of being eternal; ea: and; tiibhya'ft,: from them. If it is urged that at the beginning there was only one Brahman without a second and some scriptural passages mention that living souls are like sparks produced from a fire and are therefore produced from Brahman (B.U. II. 1. 20; M.U. II. 1. 1), it is said in answer that the individual soul is not a product for there are no scriptural statements to that effect and it is said to be eternal, i.e. not-produced; see C.U. VI. 11. 3, VI. 3. 2, VI. 8. 7; B.U. IV. 4. 25; Katha U. I. 2. 18; T.U. IT. 6. We cannot argue that the soul is divided and therefore is a product for it only appears divided on account of limiting adjuncts. The passages which speak of the soul's production, etc., relate to the soul's connection with the limiting adjuncts. According to R., the individual soul is, no doubt, an effect of Brahman but has existed in Brahman from all eternity as an individual being and a mode, prakiira, of Brahman. It is true that the material elements also subsist in Brahman but there is a

Text, Translation and Notes
difference. The material elements exist in a subtle condition prior to creation and do not possess the qualities which render them objects of ordinary experience. They are said to originate when they pass into a gross condition at the time of creation. The souls, on the other hand, possess at all times the same essential qualities. They arc cognising agents. Only at the time of the new creation they connect themselves with bodies and their intelligence undergoes a certain expansion or development, t'ikiisa, as distinct from the contracted state (sankoca) in which they were prior to creation. The change is not one of essential nature, svarupanyathiibhiiva. R., SrikaDtha and Baladcva read srute~ instead of asrute~ but give the same interpretation.

Section 12 (18)
Ill. 3. 18. jiiyo'ta eva (The soul is) intelligence, for th£s very reason. fiia~: intelligence; ata eva: for this very reason. Th<>re arc different views about the nature of the soul, whether its intelligence is adventitious or natural to it. The opponent argues that as the soul does not remain intelligent in the states of sleep, swoon, and as we say when we wake up from sleep that we are not conscious of anything, it is clear that intelligence is intcm1ittcnt and so adventitious only. The answer to this objection is stated by S. Intelligence is not a product. Brahman is of the nature of intelligence and appears as the individual soul owing to its contact with the limiting adjuncts. See B.U. Ill. 9. 28. 7, IV. 3. 11, IV. 3. 14. IV. 5. 13; C.U. VIII. 12. 4; T.U. Il. 1. While the soul's essential nature is intelligence the senses serve the purpose of determining the special object of each sense such as smell and so on. See C.U. VIII. 12. 4. Even in sleep persons have intelligence. For if intelligence were non-existent in sleep, the individual could not say that he did not know anything in deep sleep. The absence of objects is mistaken for the absence of intelligence even as the light pervading space is not apparent owing to the absence of things to be illuminated and not to the absence of its own nature. The view of the V aise$ika and others ~hat the soul is itself non-intelligent and intelligence is adventitious 1s wrong. R. explainsjnal;z by jnatr, the knower, and uses the sutra against the Samkhya and the Advaita Vedanta. He maintains that the soul is not pure inte11igence but a knowing agent. jfia/:1 is fiiatr and not jniinam. R. is opposed both to the V aise$ika which holds that the soul is of a non-conscious nature and to the Advaita Vedanta which holds that the soul is pure consciousness. Nimbarka follows R.

The Brahma Sutra
Section 13 (19-32)
II. 3. 19. utkriinti-gaty-iigatiniim

(The soul is not infinite in size on account of the scriptural declarat£ons of) passing out, going and returning. utkriinti-gati-iigatiniirn: passing out, going and returning. The question taken up for consideration is the size of the soul, whether it is atomic or medium-sized or of infinite size. There are passages which declare the soul to be of atomic size. The opponent maintains that its passing out and returning will be possible only if it is of limited size. See B.U. IV. 4. 6; K.U. Ill. 3, I. and 2. Movement is impossible in the case of an all-pervading being. If it is of limited size, it can only be of the atomic size since the position that it is of the same size as the body has already been refuted.
II. 3. 20. sviitmanii cottarayo}J

And on account of the latter (going and retu.rning) being connected with their soul (the soul is of atomic size). sviitntanii: (being connected directly) with their soul; ea: and; uttaravoh: the latter two. So fai as passing out is concerned, it may be said that the soul passes out when it ceases to be the ruler of the body, when the results of its former actions are exhausted. A ruler of the village may be said to go out when he ceases to be the ruler. But the other two activities are not possible in the case of a being who does not move. Going and returning are activities abiding in the agent. Some texts mention the parts of the body from which the soul starts in passing out. B.U. IV. 3. 11; IV. 4. 2; IV. 4. I. So the soul is the size of the atom.
II. 3. 21. niit;turatacchruter iti cen netaradhikiirat If it be said that (the soul is) not atomic, as the Scriptures state it to be otherwise (i.e. all-pervading) (we say) not so on account of the other one (the Highest Self) being the subject-matter (of those texts). na: not; atz,u!z,: atomic; atat-srute!z.: since the Scriptures (state it) to be otherwise; iti cet: if it be said; na: not so; itariidhikariit: owing to another principle being the subject-matter. If it be said that there are scriptural passages which hold that the soul is all-pervading (B.U. IV. 4. 22; T.U. II. 1), the opponent argues that these refer to the Highest Self and not to the individual soul. R. mentions B. V. IV. 4. 13 as referring to pratibuddha atma and not to the individual soul.

Text, Translation and Notes
II. 3. 22. svasabdonmanabhyam ea And also on account of direct statements and infinitesimal measure (the soul is atomic). svasabda-unmanabhyam: on account of direct statements (of the texts) and infinitesimal measure; ea: and. M.U. Ill. 19 refers to the atomic self, a~ur atma. From passages (S.U. V. 8 and 9) that 'this living self is to be known as a part of the hundredth part of the point of a hair divided a hundredfold' the self seems to be of the size of the point of a goad. It is clear that the soul is of atomic size. unmana is uddhrtya manam, a measure which is distinct from all gross measures. It means an intensely minute measure according to Srinivasa. II. 3. 23. avirodhas candanavat (There is) no contradiction as in the case of the sandal-paste. avirodha~z: no contradiction; candanavat: like the sandal-paste. If the objection is raised that if the soul is assumed to be of the atomic size and so to occupy only one point of the body, how can one feel any sensation over the whole body as one does when he is bathing in a river or feels hot over the whole body in summer, the answer is given by way of an example. Though sandal-paste is applied only to a particular part of the body, it gives an agreeable sensation extending over the whole body. The soul may occupy only one part of the body and yet experience pleasure and pain e..xtending over the whole body. See also B.G. XIII. 33. II. 3. 24. avasthiti-vaise~yad iti cen nabhyupagamad dhrdi hi If it be said (that the two cases are not parallel) on account of the special position (of the sandal-paste), (we say that it is) not so on account of the admission (in the Scriptures of a special seat for the soul, viz.) in the heart alone. avasthiti-vaiSe$yiit: on account of the special position; iti cet: if it be said; na: not so; abhyupagamiit: on account of the admission; hrdi: in the heart; hi: alone. A possible objection to the atomic size of the soul is mentioned. 1t is true that the sandal-paste occupies a particular part of the body and yet gladdens the whole body, but we do not know that the soul occupies a particular place. To this the answer is given that the soul, according to some texts, is said to reside within the heart (B.U. IV. 3. 7). So it is atomic in size.

II. 3. 25. gut;tad va lokavat Or on account of its quality (intelligence) as i1t the world. gu~at: on account of quality; vii: or; lokavat: as in the world. In the world we find that a light placed in one corner illumines the

The Brahma Siitra
whole room. So also the soul, though atomic and so occupying a particular portion of the body, may, because of the quality of intelligence, pervade the whole body and experience pleasure and pain throughout the body. Sandal-paste consists of parts and by the diffusion of its imperceptible particles may refresh the entire body but the soul as atomic does not possess any parts. A quality cannot extend beyond that in which it inheres and abide elsewhere. The whiteness of a cloth does not extend beyond the cloth. W c cannot say that the soul is like the light diffused from a lamp for the light itself is admitted to be a substance. The reply to this objection is given in the next sutra. R. and others read iilokavat.

Il. 3. 26. vyatireko gandhavat The extend£ng beyond is as in the case of smell. vyatireka}_t: extending beyond the object; gandhavat: like smell. Even as the smell extends beyond the substance which gives it off, so the quality of intelJigcnce extends beyond the sou] which is atomic. R. points out that just as smell which is a quality of earth is distinct from earth, so is knowledge different from the knowing subject.
I I. 3. 27. tathii ea darsayati Thus also {the Scripture) declares or shows. tathii: thus; ea: also; darsayati: shows or declares. Scripture declares that the atomic soul pervades the whole body on account of the quality of intelligence. See K.U. IV. 20; B.U. I. 4. 7. R. and Nimbarka treat the sutra as part of the previous one.

II. 3. 28. Prthag upaddiit On account of the separate teaching {about soul and intelUgence). prthak: separate; upadesiit: on account of teaching. There are passages (B. U. I I. 1. 17) which declare soul and intelligence to be separate. See also K.U. Ill. 6. According to S., sutras 19-28 state the purva-pak$a or the prima facie view that the soul is atomic while the siddhiinta is stated in the next sutra. It is not usual to state the prima facie view at such length. R. mentions B.U. IV. 3. 30, Ill. 7. 22; T.U. II. 5. 1. According to R., satra 19 states the siddhiinta that the soul is of minute size. Sutras 20-25 confirm this view and repudiate objections raised against it. Satras 26-29 consider the question already raised in sutra 18 about the relation of jiiiitr, the knower, to jniina, knowledge. Baladeva considers the objection that intelligence is not a permanent attribute of the soul and holds that it is, since there is a separate statement in Scripture to that effect.

Text, Translation and Notes
tu tad vyapaddaf:i, priijiiavat But that declaration (as atomic) is on account of its having for its essence the qualities of that (i.e. the buddhi) even as the Intelligent Self (which is all-pervading is said to be atomic). tad-gutJa-siiratviit: on account of its having for its essence the qualities of that; tu: but; tat: that; vyapade5a!t: declaration (as to atomic size); priij1iavat: like the Intelligent Self. For S., this smra discusses the size of the self. S. argues that atomicity essentially belongs to buddhi or understanding and is wrongly referred to the Self which is the Highest Hrahman. As Brahman is all-pervading, the soul also is all-pervading. See B.U. IV. 4. 22. If the soul WPre of atomic size, it could not experience sensations extending over the whole body. It cannot be said that this is possible owing to the soul's connection with the sense of touch (the skin) for -then, when we tread on a thorn we should experience pain over the whole body and not merely in the sole of the foot, which is not so. The quality of an atom cannot diffuse itself beyond the confines of the atom. The light emitted from a lamp is not a quality but a different kind of substance. Again, if the intelligence of the soul pervades the whole body, the soul cannot be atomic. Intelligence constitutes the essential nature of the soul, even as heat and light constitute the nature of fire. It has already been shown that the soul is not of the same size as the body: Il. 2. 34. It can only be all-pervading. Its atomic nature is due to its association with mind, etc., in the empirical world. When S.U. V. 9 states that the soul is atomic and again that it is infinite, its infinity is primary or real and its atomicity is metaphorical. See also S.U. V. Sand M.U. Ill. 1. 9. All statements about the soul's abiding in the heart or passing out depend on the limiting adjuncts. See K.U. III. 6, Prasna U. VI. 3. 4; C.U. III. 14. 2 and 3. According to H.., this sutra belongs to the jniiniidhikaratJa, the section dealing with the self as knower. The self may be referred to as knowledge also, for knowledge is the self's essential characteristic. Brahman is described as jniinam in the text, satyam, jniinam, anantam, brahma. Srikal)tha and Baladeva agree with R.'s view.
II. 3. 29.

II. 3. 30. :yiivad iitma-bhiivitviic ea na do$aS tad darsaniit There is no fault (for the connection of the soul with the intelligence lasts) as long as the sou.l exists, because this is observed (in the Scripture). yiivat: so long as; iitma-bhiivitviit: the soul exists; ea: and; na do$a!z.: there is no fault; tat-darsaniit: because it is seen. If the objection is raised that the conjunction of the soul and the intellect which are different entities is bound to end sometime and then the soul will cease to exist altogether or at any rate cease to be an individual, samsiirin, the reply is given that the conjunction will

samjftii (B. 3. VI. which. 2 and 3.: there would result. . asya: its (of the connection with the intellect). death and so on.. knowledge is an attribute which is met with wherever a self is. II. etc. only in waking state and dream. it relates itself to object. pumstvadivat tv asya sa to' bhivyakti-yogat As in the case of virility and so on. on account of the manifestation being possible only on its existing potentially. sata}_z. it only means that it has no consciousness of birth. prasangaJ. etc. II. R. holds that the soul may be ca1led attu or atomic. anyatha: otherwise. 31. nityopalabdhi: constant perception. the answer is given in this sutra that even in the state of deep sleep the connection exists in a potential form. 3. H. if no intellect existed) there would result either constant perception or (constant) non-perception or else the limitation of the power of either of the two (of the soul or the senses). va: or else. since it is connected with the buddhi or intellect in the samsiira condition. holds that consciousness is always there. subject is the essential character of the self. This is evident from the Scriptures.: limitation of the power of either of the two. Bhaskara agrees with S.z.: existing. \Vere it not so. is caused by the connection of the self with the elements. tu: verily. in the state of samsiira. VI.4IO The Bnlhma Stitra last as long as the soul continues to be an indhridual and its ignorance is not destroyed by the realisation of knowledge.e. IV. 1) and so it is wrong to say that the connection lasts as long as the individualised state exists. and is manifested in the state of waking. jflatrtvam eva jivatmana!£ svarupam. nityopalabdhyanupalabdhiprasango'nyatara-niyamovanyatha Otherwise (i. To be a knower. verily. holds that the soul may be called vifiiiina or knowledge because the latter constitutes its essential quality as long as it exists. it cou]d not have become manifest in the awakened state. anyatara-niyamalz. in holding that the soul's connection with intellect exists potentially in the state of deep sleep. 8. Virility becomes manifest in youth because it exists in a potential condition in the child.. See B. See B. and Srikantha hold that because it is seen that all cows are hornless and so ~n and are called cows since they possess the generic character of cowness. there is no connection with the intellect (see C. abhivyakti-yogiit: on account of the manifestation being possible. pumstviidivat: as in the case of virility. 4.U. R. 12). 8. If the objection is raised that in SU$upti. \Vhile 5. 32. 37. anupalabdhi: (constant) nonperception.U. V. II.U. or deep sleep. there is no objection to the self being designated by that attribute. \\''hen it is said that the released self has no consciousness.

on the other hand. if it were the cause of nonconsciousness there would never and nowhere be consciousness of anything./e have therefore to accept an internal organ through whose connection and disconnection. So there is an internal organ of which intellect is a mode and it is the connection of the self with this that causes individuation in sa1izsiira. 1 . The power of the senses which is not impeded either in the previous moment or in the subsequent moment cannot be limited in the middle. According to him. The soul will be either eternally bound or eternally free. perception and non-perception result.Text. Srinivasa following Nimbarka holds that the individual soul is possessed of the attribute of being a knower. there would result the perception of everything as the requisites of the soul. holds that the self abides within bodies only and consciousness takes place there only and nowhere else. V. Translation and Notes If the internal organ 411 (anta~-karat. R. lf this is denied. 3. it were the cause of consciousness only there would never and nowhere be unconsciousness. I~. \Ve find texts which say: 1 am absent-minded. sutras 20-25 confirm this position and refute objections to it.ta) of which the intellect is a mode is not accepted. The self is changeless. I·t criticises the Vaise$z"ka view of the self also. criticises the view that the self is omnipresent and mere knowledge. then as the senses are always in contact with their objects.U. views sutras 19-28 as the statement of the purva-pak$a that the individual soul is atomic in size and holds sutra 29 as the statement of the siddhanta that the individual soul is all-pervading but is spoken of as atomic in some scriptural passages because the qualities of the internal organ which is atomic constitute the essence of the individual soul as long as the latter is implicated in sanisiira.' B. This would mean that there would be everywhere and at all times simultaneous consciousness or non-consciousness. thus there must be a restriction with regard to the one or the other. The opponent will have to accept the limitation of either the soul or the senses. is knowledge by nature and atomic in size. I. the knowledge and the rc1ease of the soul must all become eternal. contends that the sutra 19 states the siddhanta view that the soul is of minute size. S. H. then there can be no know ledge and nothing would. the senses and objects are present. 5. ever be known. Nimbarka states that on the view of an all-pervasive soul the perception and non-perception. If. sutras 26-29 consider the relation of the soul as knowing agent to knowledge. for then consciousness and non-consciousness would take place together permanently everywhere or else there would be definite permanent restriction either to permanent consciousness or nonconsciousness. I did not hear it.

3. B.' (Tat'tt£riya Samhitii II. according to his pleasure. 1. and commanding means impelling to action. XIII. Il. 12). 1. kartii: agent. let one desire to live a hundred years'. 33. refutes this view by declaring that the soul is an agent. 18 says that the soul in the state of dream takes the organs with it. 1.z. 7. are considered here to be teaching the moving about of the soul. 18. upadiiniit: on account of taking. 16. See Katha U.) S. 14. II. This shows that the soul is an agent. siisanam ea pravartanam. these injunctions would become pointless.412 The Brahma Sutra Sect£on 14 (33-39) THE SOUL AS AGENT II. The texts 'The immortal one goes wherever he likes' (B. vihiira: moving about. IV. and Bhaskara hold that the soul's state of being an agent is not natural but is due to limiting adjuncts. not the gu~as. 35. upadanat On account of (its) taking (the organs}. 3.' (C.U. to command. within his own body' (B. takes this and the next sutra as one by adding a ea: upiidanat vihiiropadesiic ea. Only R. B. 'He moves about. sastrasya ea pravartakatvati~ bodha-janana-dviire~a. The texts quoted in support of the opponent's view mean that the activity of the soul is due not to its own nature but to its connection with the gwr. vyapadesac ea kriyayam na cen nirdesa-viparyaya]J (The soul is an agent) also because %'t is designated as such with regard to . XIV. 20. Let one worship calmly. sets forth the opponent's view that the soul is non-active and only prakrti acts. (!sa U. 3. II.G.) 'One desiring heaven should perform sacrifices. Ill. XVIII.U. All commentators agree on this sutra. Purva lvfimiimsii sutra Ill. If the soul were not an agent. 11. karta sastriirthavattvat (The soul £s) an agent. XIII.U. sastriirthavattviit: because the Scripture has a meaning. Scriptural injunctions like ~He is to sacrifice' ~He is to give' will have meaning only if the soul is an agent. The very term siistra is derived from sas.U. upadesat: on account of the teaching. 18 declares that the fruit of the injunction belongs to the agent. 3. because of Scr£pture hav£ng a mean£ng. 3. siisaniic ea siistram. R. Srinivasa quotes 'Only doing works here. III. 2. 36. 21.G. 27. R. 18). 5. viharopade5iit And on account of the teaching of its moving about. II.) 'One desiring salvation should worship Brahman. 19. 5. 34. See B.

nirdesa-viparyaya~: the designation (would have been) of a different character. As the word used is vijiiiinam and not vijiianetta. II. if the soul be all-pervading. vyapaddat: because of the designation. We cannot say that the distribution of results will depend on different internal organs for the omnipresent souls cannot be exclusively connected with any particular internal organ. that does not invalidate the view that the perceiver is the soul. for if prakrti be all-pervading and common to all. if it were not such. Baladeva interpret the sutra differently. A cook remains the agent in the action of cooking. it refers to the soul as agent. 17. so also if prakrti be the agent. In action also. 3. sakti viparyayat On account of the t'eversal of power. 37. I I. being independent. upalabdh£vat: as in the case of perception. 11. sakti: power. it is said in reply that intelligence refers to the soul as agent. Translation and Notes 413 action. water and so on. upalabdhivad aniyama~ The absence of restriction is as in the case of perception. where intelligence is said to be the instrument through which the self acts. For if each soul is held to be omnipresent. As the soul perceives what is agreeable and disagreeable.1tha. then we will have to devise . though he requires fuel. no definite activity will be possible. all activities would produce results in the case of all souls or produce no results in the case of any soul. Buddlzi is the instrument of action according to R. becomes the agent and ceases to function as an instrument. U. it would. the designation (would have been) of a different character. If it is argued that if the soul is the agent apart from buddhi. If the objection is raised that agency belongs to intelligence or buddhi from the texts 'Intelligence performs sacrifices and it also performs all acts' (T. U. aniyama~: there is no restriction. 38. 5). If intellect or buddhi. 3. then there would be non-restriction of actions as in the case of perception. 1. so it can bring about what is pleasant and unpleasant. Just as it is shown that.-yayat: on account of reversal. bring about what is pleasant and useful and not the opposite. time and efficient causes but the agent does not cease to be agent because he requires assistance. which is an instrument. kriyiiyam: with reference to action. the siUra states in reply that there is no such restriction. they are all of them in equal proximity to all parts of prakrti. the soul is not absolutely free since it depends on differences of place. na cet: if it were not so. no defmite perception will be possible.Text. If prakrti were the agent and not the soul. II. Srika1. See B. If it be said that in the act of perception there arc causes of perception. R.. ea: also. vipa.

R. ubhayathii: in both ways. The Nyiiya school holds that it is its real nature. samiidhyabhiiviic ea And on account of the impossib£lity of deep concentration. samiidhi: deep concentration. II. The Self's true nature is inactive but it becomes active when it is connected with its upiidhis or adjuncts. 3. If the soul were not the agent. II.. it would also be the enjoyer. ea: and. 4. 3. The Upani$ads declare that the Self is non-attached. The reconciliation is effected by the example of the carpenter. points out that in the final state of meditation cal1ed samiidhi. ea: and. 40. abhiiviit: on account of impossibility. ~~9.U. vVe are asked to realise the Self: B. 3. holds that activity is an essential attribute of the soul but from this it does not follow that the soul is always actually active. Siimkhya Kiirikii 17.U. The Se1f is active in waking. points out that. R. reflecting and meditating' which lead to samiidhi or self-realisation. and ceases to be so when dissociated from them even as a carpenter works so long as he wields his instruments and rests when he lays them aside. The soul's agency is established in the previous sutras. it would be incapable of activities like 'hearing. yathii: like. yathii ea tak§obhayathii And like a carpenter. tak$ii: carpenter. Section 15 (40) THE SOUL IS AN AGENT WHEN CONNECTED WITH THE ADJUNCTS II. 4. II. buddhi. So the self is different from the intellect. puru$o'sti bhoktr-bhiiviit. Then there would no longer be any proof for the existence of the self but the texts teach that the person. Then there would be no liberation for the soul. B. in both ways. The soul is an agent when connected with the instruments of action.and dream-states and is blissful when it ceases to be an agent as in deep sleep. I. 15. if the internal organ were the agent. M. C. 7. the soul exists on account of the fact of enjoyment. 2. 7. 3. IV.The Brahma Sutra something else as an instrument. 6. The dispute concerns only terms for we need an agent different from the instrument. A . I.U. Katha U. It is therefore clear that the soul alone is the agent and not the intellect. VIII. etc. R. the meditator realises his difference from prakrti of which the internal organ is a modification. 5. The question is raised whether the agency represents the real nature of the Self or is only a superimposition.U.

pariit: from the Supreme Lord. 8. were essentially active. 4 J.G.ndhasya satal) parasmad atmanal) karmadhyak$iil sarvabhutadivasat siik$i1:zas cetayitur fSvarat tad-anujflaya kartrtva-bkoktrtva-lak$a~Jasya samsarasya siddhis tad-anugraha-hetukenaiva ea vijflanena mokia-siddhir bhavitum arhati. hy reason of its non-sentience. such as the desire for enjoyment. may either work or not work as he chooses.U. Ill. On account of the constancy of its proximity to a sentient being and the absence of any desire on its part. The texts considered are K. supports the view by quotations from the B. So also the soul is an indirect agent through its sense-organs and a direct agent in the act of controlling these sense-organs. tu: but. the cause of all intelligence. 2 to support the 1 avidyavastMlyam karya-karatt. Translation and Notes carpenter. Baladeva points out that the carpenter is an individual agent when he acts through his instruments and a direct agent when he is handling the instruments. 11. XV. Nimbarka holds that the soul acts or does not act according to its own wish. tat: tnat (agency). If the internal organ. on the contrary.. ya iitmani ti~thann atmiinam antaro yamayatiti. 'He who dwelling within the self pulls the self within'.a. though furnished with the requisite instru·· ments. sr1tte~: Scripture (teaches). indeed causes him whom he wishes to lead up from these worlds to perform good actions. 6. Ill. being non-sentient.' Satapatlta Briihma1Ja XIV. 30. for example. indeed. 15. 7. I.xc. truly. S. 3. also causes him whom he wishes to lead downward. 'This one. Srinivasa adds that acting or refraining from action is not possible on the part of buddhi which is an instrument like the a. The soul in the state of samsiira when it appears as agent and enjoyer is brought about through the pennission of the Lord who is the Highest Self. 1 R. . Section 16 (41-42) THE SOUL'S DEPENDENCE ON THE LORD II. the witness residing in all beings. Nimbarka uses Taittiriya Ara~yaka. We must assume therefore that final release is effected through knowledge caused by the grace of the Lord.Text. 61. we will have either perpetual activity or perpetual non-activity. pariit tu tac-chrute~ But that (agency of the soul) is (derived) from the Supreme Lord· so Scripture (teaches). it would be acting constantly since as a non-sentient being it could not be influenced by particular reasons for action. the supervisor of all actions. to perform bad actions. This one. XVIII.a-sanlghato'vivekadar~ino jfvasyavidyiitimi.

etc. it is shown that the Lord is not partial as a creator. flowers. api: also. prohibitions. This does not take away from the independence of the Lord. etc. diisa-kitaviiditvam: being of the nature of slaves. His agency is subject to the control of the Supreme Lord. R.. 1. anyathii: otherwise. which belong to different species and spring each from its particular seed. Since samsiira is beginningless and endless. even as a king who rewards or punishes his subjects according to their deeds does not lose his independence. This sutra refutes the objection that the Lord must be cruel and whimsical since he makes some do good actions and others evil actions. cites B. corn. krta-prayalna-apek$a/:z: is dependent on the efforts made. so the Lord arranges favourable or unfavourable conditions for the souls taking into account their previous efforts. niinii-vyapadesiit: on account of the declaration of difference. for the inequality of sap. here it is shown that he is not partial as an instigator. etc. In the previous section. Section 17 (43-53) THE RELATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL SOUL TO BRAHMAN Il. So the Lord cannot be accused of cruelty or partiality.The Brahma Sutra view that the individual soul is not an agent independently. amso niinii-vyapadesad anyatha ciipi dasakitaviiditvam adhiyata eke (The soul is) a part (of the Lord) on account of the declaration of difference and otherwise also. only thus wt'll the injunctions and prohibitions.. 3. The Lord directs the soul taking into account previous good and bad deeds. 43. 8. The rain constitutes the common occasional cause for shrubs. 33. be meaningful. 11. fishermen. amsal:z: part. krta-prayatniipek$aS ltt vih£ta-prati#ddhiiva~yyarthiidibhya!J But (the Lord's making the soul act) is dependent on the efforts 1nade (by t't). 3. fishennen. 42. tu: but. The analogy of rain is used. bushes. 8-19. etc. for in some (rescensions of the Vedas) (it) is spoken of as being (of the nature of) slaves. XVI. X. it has been said that the Lord controls the .G. fruits and leaves results neither when the rain is absent nor when the special seeds are absent. ea: and. the objection of infinite regress cannot be raised. 10. Only thus will injunctions and prohibitions have a meaning. While in II. vihita-prati$iddha-avaiyyartluidibhya!z: on account of the meaningfulness of injunctions. etc. The Lord is a mere occasional cause. in allotting to the souls unequal results. II.

as a particular mode of what is qualifled. 7. the soul is said to be a part of the Lord. See C. if it is declared of the class of intelligent beings that it is an amsa or fragment of Brahman. S. B.). 22. even as light. api ea smaryate And it is also stated in smrti. that rest in nature. 'A fragment of my own self (mamaivamsa!z. II. 3.U. Is the relation between the two one of master and servant or fire and its sparks? This s1Ura suggests that the soul is a part of Brahman as the spark is a part of fire. 7. R. 7. the soul can only be an imagined part. 12.U. We do not view the Lord as identical with the soul because of the declaration of difference. There is a certain passage of the Atharva Veda which asserts that 'Brahman are the fishennen. 3.Text. 45. evam: like this. suggests by the phrase 'anisa iva'. There are also passages which teach the non-difference of the Lord and the soul. 3. api: also. being of the same nature as inseparable attributes like light. eternal. (are not affected by the shape of the things they touch). S. na: is not. ea: and.U. As Hrahman does not consist of parts.. absolute nondifference and imaginary difference due to limiting adjuncts..' 'brahmadasii brahmadiisci brahmaiveme kitavii~. etc. Taittir~va Ara1Jyaka Ill. II. VIII. omits the ea.' R. Nimbarka and Srinivasa argue that the individual soul is neither absolutely different from the Highest Person nor absolutely nondifferent fron1 him but is a part of the Highest Self. 19. prakiisiidivat: like light. etc. He refutes the other views of absolute difference. 'a part as it were'. SrikaQtha says. 4. Brahman the slaves. Translation and Notes soul. etc. The text here is B. XV. IV. 46. prakiisadivan naivam para!z The Highest Lord is not (affected by pleasure and pain) like this (the individual soul).U. having become a living soul. it may be true of the class of non-intelligent beings as well. Here the question is raised about the relation of the individual soul to Brahman. Part does not mean a portion that can be cut off for that would contradict texts like 'without part'. VI.' Since there arc statements of difference and non-difference. IV. The individual soul is by nature different from the Supreme Person predicated to be the whole and yet non-different from him as its existence and activity are under the control of the whole.G. holds that the souls are in reality parts of Brahman and not merely in appearance as S. etc. . smaryate: is stated in the smrti. in the world of life. draws to itself the senses of which the mind is the sixth. para~: the Highest. Brahman these gamblers.

ta of the Highest Self.U. As the luminous body is of a nature different from that of its light. because the Self. 'It is not stained by the fruits of actions any more than a lotus leaf by water. Though incarnations and individual souls are both parts of the Lord. though one. there are no obligations. is connected with various bodies. The Highest Self is not of the same nature as the individual soul. Baladeva begins here a new section dealing with the queston of the Lord's incarnations.tha develops here his distinctive visi$tadvaita. II. (i. As the attribute and the substratum are not identical. II. Ill. XII. Pennissions and prohibitions are possible. so the Highest Self differs from the individual soul which is a part of it. as in the case of light. standing to it in the relation of part to whole. jyotir-adivat: like light. etc. so also the Supreme is not affected by pleasure and pain which are experienced by the individual soul which is a product of ignorance and is limited by adjuncts of b~tddhi. etc. the word amsa has a different meaning when applied to the incarnations. R. parts of the Lord as the individual souls are) as in the case of light. The connection. smaranti ea And the smrtis state.The Brahma Sutra The objection that. Baladeva uses other texts to show that incarnations are not parts of the Lord in the same sense in which the individual souls are. 5. When the error is removed and knowledge obtained. 3. II. makes out that the individual soul is a vise$at. originates in the erroneous notion that the Self is the aggregate of the body and so on. anujna-pariharau deha-sambandhaj jyotiradivat Injunctions and prohibitions (are possible) on account of the connection (of the soul) with the body. 11 state the difference. 1. 3. M. anujna-pariharau: injunctions and prohibitions. however.' na lipyate phalais capi padma-patram ivambhasa. Supreme (incarnations are) not so. Srika. and SrikaQtha quote other texts to show that the soul is an attribute of the Lord. Fundamentally all obligation is an erroneous imagination existing in the case of him only who does not see that . As the all-pervading sun looks straight or bent when it comes into contact with particular objects or as the ether enclosed in a jar seems to move when the jar is moved or as the sun appears to shake when the water in which it is reflected shakes but in reality none of these undergoes these changes. The texts M. smaranti: the smrtis state: ea: and. 47. the imper· fections of the soul affect Brahman also is answered in this sutra.e. R. 13754. the soul and Brahman are not the same. etc.IJ. 48. Katha U. They represent the entire Lord. deha·sambandhiit: on account of the connection with the body. 1. if the soul is a part of Brahman.B.

bhranta-lwahma-jJva-vade copahita-brahma-jfva-vade ea jfvaparayor jfvanam c:a bhog4vyatikaradayai. suggests that the other views of the soul being Brahman deluded or Brahman affected by a limiting adjunct are incapable of explaining how the experiences of the different se]ves are not mixed up.l Nimbarka says that the individual souls are parts of the allpervasive being and are themselves all-pervasive by reason of the attribute of knowledge. Baladeva continues his view of the distinction between incarnations and ordinary individuals. Translation and Notes his Self is no more connected with a body than the ether is with jars and the like. since everyone would get the results of actions of everyone else. are of atomic size and reside in separate bodies. Some things consisting of earth are desired like diamonds and beryls. though a part of the Lord. develops his doctrine of adhyasa. is not under his control. 49. If it is argued that on account of the unity of the Self.J santi. while a ray of the sun. pure or tmpure. are not all-pervasive and so there is no confusion among their actions. though light is one only. R. understands avyatikaral. holds that though all souls are essentially of the same nature as parts of Brahman. The illustration of light is given to show that. though a part of the Lord.: no confusion (of results of actions). 3. asantate!f: non-extension (beyond its own body). R.J saroe doiai. R. There is no mixing up of the accumu]ated merit and demerit of various souls since they are distinct. others like dead bodies are shunned. yet they. II. WhileS. to mean absence of confusion. is connected with ignorance and a body and is as such under the control of the Lord for its activity and inactivity. Bhaskara speaks of his doctrine of upadhi. While the individual soul. we shun the light which shines on unholy places and not that which falls on pure ground. etc. being atomic in size. The eye or the power of vision though a part of the sun depends on the permission and presence of the sun for its activity or otherwise. it is said in reply that the individual soul is connected only with a particular body. asantate5 cavyatikara!z. And on account of the non-extension (of the individual soul beyond its own body) there is no confusion (of the results of actions). there would result a confusion of the results of actions. ea: and. 1 . mind. incarnation. Since the individual souls are thus different from each other there is no possibility of confusion.Text. avyatikaral. pennissions and exclusions are possible for the reason t~at each individual soul is joined to some particular body. is identical with it and does not depend on the permission of the sun. though a part of the sun.

Even when one reflected image of the sun trembles.. another reflected image does not on that account tremble also. are not mixed up. 51. interprets iibhiisa as hetviibhasa. for avyatikara!z. 1{. Baladeva makes out that the equation of the individual soul with the incarnation is fallacious since it involves the fallacy of undistributed middle. The individual soul is a mere reflection of the Highest Self analogous to the reflection of the sun in the water. ea: and. which are the products of avidyii.preme Lord). and makes out that the view that the soul is Brahman in so far as it is limited by non-real adjuncts is an erroneous argument. their experiences are similar. 3. . adr~ta: the unseen principle. R. a fallacious argument. SrikaJJtha follows R. in criticising the reflection theory. Simply because soul and incarnation are both parts of the Lord we cannot equate the two. This siUra is taken by the Advaita Vedantins as a statement of pratibimba-viida. 3. then the spheres of experience are bound to be mixed up as the thing with which a1l the limiting adjuncts connect themselves is one only: avidyii-parikalpitopiidhi-bhede hi sarvopadhibhir-upahita-svarupasyaikatvabhyupagamad bhogavyatikaras tad-avastha eva. It is neither directly the Highest Self nor a different thing. Nimbarka and Srinivasa read abhasah and make out that the arguments of Samkhya and Vaise$ika are fallacious. prakiisaika-svarupasya prakiisa-tirodhiinam prakiisa-niisa eva. Bhaskara reads vii in place of ea and criticises S. so when one soul is connected with actions and results of actions. Though the souls are distinct. iiblziisa eva ea And (the £ndi1•£dual soul is) otzly a reflection (of the Su. Srikai)tha reads avyatireka!z.420 The Brahma St'ttra Baladeva argues that the soul is atomic and not full and perfect like an incarnation and so is different from him. II. aniyamiit: on account of being nonrestrictive. 50. adr~tiiniyamiit On account of the unseen principle being non-restrictive. though similar. abhasa!t: a reflection. If difference is due to 1epadhis. here criticises the Siitnllhya and the Vaise~ika theories of the self. eva: only. another soul is not on that account connected likewise. that the individual soul is but the reflection of the Self in bttddlzi as distinct from the avacclteda-viida or the view that the soul is the Highest Self in so far as it is limited by its adjuncts. There is therefore no confusion of actions and results. points out that the obscuration of the light of that which is nothing but light means destruction of that light. ll.'s view. S. The experiences.

According to the Siimkhya system it inheres not in the self but in pradhiina. abhisandhyadi!jv api caivam And it is so even with regard to resolves. If it be said.. yet if we take its connection with the mind to take place in that part of it which is limited by its body. Again.. it cannot determine the enjoyment of pleasure and pain for each individual self. there cannot be more than one all-pervading entity. the unseen principle is created by the conjunction of the soul with the mind and there is no reason why any particular adr$ta should belong to any particular soul. The limiting adjuncts as wcl1 as the atJr0tas cannot by their connection with Brahman split up Brahman itself which is one in reality. niintar-bhiivat If it be said that (the distinction of experiences results) from (the difference of) place. abhisandhyadi:ju: in regard to resolves. Translation and Notes 421 Adr$ta is the unseen principle of the nature ot religious merit or demerit. The plurality of selves is a product of ignorance. as the Nyaya does. (we say) not so. Baladcva begins a new section here stating the mutual differences among the individual souls. Il. II. iti cet: if it be said. pradesad iti cen.Text. na: not so. etc. evam: it is so. holds that the attempt to explain different spheres of experience as traceable to beginningless adr$tas which are the cause of the limiting adjuncts is futile as the adr#as have for th~ir substrate Brahman itself and there is no reason for their definite allotment to particular souls and so there can be no definite separation of spl1eres of experience. they would limit each other and so cease to he all-pervading or infinite. etc. praddat: from (difference of) place. this is not tenable for since every soul is all-pervading and therefore permeates all bodies. If there were. The same objection applies to resolves. on account (of the self) being within all (bodies). 3. ea: and. R. There is only one Self and not many. It is not a reality. for these are formed by the conjunction of the soul and the mind. takes up the prima facie view. 3. that though Brahma1t is one only and cannot be split up by the several limiting adjuncts with . According to the Vaise:jika. As the latter is the same for all souls. etc. 53. 52. then a confusion will not result. antar-bhavat: on account of the Self being in an bodies. R. So confusion of results is inescapable. that though each soul is allpervading. Baladeva says that the individual souls are different even with regard to their resolves and the rest. there is nothing to determine that a particular body belongs to a particular soul. api: even.

the mixing up of spheres of enjoyment cannot be avoided. knowledge by nature. For Baladeva. Nimbarka and Srinivasa commenting on this sutra hold that the individual soul is a part of Brahman. R. and is possessed of the attributes of being an agent. answers this objection by saying that as the upadhis move here and there and so all places enter into connection with all upadhis. adr~t<Z or the unseen principle is the cause of the differences among the souls. .422 The Brahma Sutra which it is connected. still the separation of the spheres of every enjoyment is not impossible since the places of Brahman which are connected with the upadhis are distinct. Even if upadhis were connected with different places. a knower and so on and is different in every body. the pain connected with some particular place would affect the whole of Brahman which is one only. atomic in size.

J.U.U. i.U. 3. T. The reference to the existence of the vital breaths before creation in Satapatha Brahmat}Q is in regard to Hira'f}ya-garbha who is not resolved in the partial dissolution of the world.Jtha takes this sutra as setting down the prima facie view that (as the individual soul is eternal) so are the vital breaths. There is thus uncertainty. To take the texts in a secondary sense would lead to the abandonment of the general assertion.t:ttha follows R. but to the creation of iikiisa. 20. 3. takes this and the nextsutra as one and makes out that the plural number in the text is secondary because of impossibility. Srika. In support of it are many texts: B. 28.e. i. 4. prlik: first. 1. I I. 4.U. II. 'By the knowledge of one. though all other effects are resolved. Il. 32 the word 'tadvat'. 2. srutefz. 20. tat prak srutes ea And on account of that (word which indicates origin) being mentioned first (in connection with the vital breaths)..U. 1. In complete dissolution. Prasna U. 3. tathli: likewise.: being mentioned. M. So the vital breaths are created. 1. 1 states that the vital breaths existed before the origin of things. ea: and. 1. refers not to the immediately preceding sections but to an earlier one. II. 1. 'in the same manner'. II. takes this and the next sutra as forming one and holds that it answers the prima facie view. While many scriptural passages (C. Ill. 1. Srika. 4. it is mentioned in some texts that the vital breaths are not produced.U. The sutra holds that the vital breaths spring from Brahman. tat: that. 4. gau1}i: secondary sense. mind and all the .. VI. etc. M. The word 'likewise' refers not to the immediately preceding topic of the last part. 3 says: 'from him are born vital breaths. n. I I. 1. In Purva Mimiimsa Ill. II. 1. 1.e.U. the plurality of souls. 4. 4. 1) speak of the origin of things. M. R. prior to creation Brahman alone exists.Section I (1-4) THE ORIGIN OF THE SENSE-ORGANS tatha pra1}a!J. 3. even H irat. Satapatha Brlihmat}Q VI. There are other passages where we read of the origin of vital breaths: B. 2. everything else is known': M.tya-garbha is resolved. spoken of earlier. VI. priitJiiiJ: the vital breaths. Likewise the vital breaths. I.U. 3 and 8. asambhaviit: on account of impossibility. gau1}yasambhavlit On account of the impossibility (of explaining the origination) in a secondary sense.

1. tat-p~trvakatviid viical. 4. they are not merely seven in number).U. For him the sutra is 'Because of speech [names of objectsJ being preceded by that [the existence of the objects]'. Srikai)tha and Baladeva follow R. The word 'born' occurs at the very beginning. U.U. arise from Brahman. 4). Ill. tat-purvakatviit: because of being preceded by that. saptagater vise$itatl•iic ea (The organs are) seven (in number) because it is so known (from the S criptures). Because the organ of speech is preceded by that (i. 4. Thereare textswhichdeclare that thereareseven organs: 'The seven life-breaths spring from it' (M. 2. So they also are the products of Brahman. eleven (B. II. 6.'s interpretation.e. The opponent argues that the number is seven and the statements of other numbers refer to difference of modifications.. vise#tatviit: on account of the specification. fire an. 11). gate/. IV. Names of objects presuppose the existence of objects. 8) and the specification in the text 'Seven indeed are life-breaths in the head'.The Brahma Sutra organs. water. 5. 1. 2. VI. R. 4.a stands not for the sense-organs hut for Brahman. 3). in their turn. R. if it is interpreted in the primary sense with respect to ether.U. 4 shows that the organs are the products of the elements. 5.d the other elements). 1). .U.e.: because it is so known. sapta: seven. holds that prii1. This being so. etc. C. hastiidayas tu sthite'to naivam But the hands. the others being organs only in a metaphorical sense since they assist the soul. II. II. which. 1. air. ether. Section 2 (5-6) THE NUMBER OF THE ORGANS Il. 4. 8). it is not like this (i. states the purva-pak§a as mentioning seven organs only. twelve (B. thirteen (Prasna U. ea: and. ten (Taittiriya Samhita V. fire and earth'.. 4.: of the organ of speech. mind and organs mentioned earlier. 3. (are also mentioned as sense-organs in scriptural texts). But prior to creation there were no objects and so no speech or organs of speech. etc. II. 9. 1•iical. (Taittiriya Sanihita V. Ill. it should he so interpreted with regard to vital breath.) There are other texts which mention eight (B. 7.

11.GANS ARE MINUTE IN SIZE II. V. 'But' refutes the view of the previous sutra. 'These are all alike.avas ea And (they are) minute. Il. The text considered is C..e. R. etat sarvam mana eva. na: not. etc.. 4.' It is the chief because we will not be able to live o• . I. they are said to be subtle and limited in size. 1. etc. Sectz'on 3 (7) THE OH. indeed.t: minute. means 'because of abiding [in the body and assisting the soul]'. The number is said to be eleven consisting of the five organs of knowledge. Again. sre$flzas ea And the chief (vital breath). sthite: being so. 8. B. All this is mind only. says that the organs arc not seven only but eleven since the hands and the rest also contribute towards the experience and fruition of that which abides in the body (i. need not be added since they arc only different names of mind when it is functioning in different ways. 7. The organs are minute. subtle and so are not seen. aham-kiira or self-sense and citta or consciousness are all modifications of the internal organ. 5.Text. buddhi or understanding.G. R. sre$thal. the five organs of action and the inner organ.U. atz.. the soul) and have their separate functions. 4. buddhi.U.U. B. While these are to be added to the seven organs. XIII. etc. ea: and.: the chief (vital breath). Section 4 (8) THE CHIEF VITAL BREATH IS PRODUCED FROM BRAHMAN II. The number eleven is confirmed by scriptural texts. 13. ea: and. M anas or mind. such as seizing and so on. since we do not perceive through the senses what is happening throughout the universe.: hands. then the texts which speak of g0ing out of the body. the oldest and the best. which would be the case if they were all-pervading. would become self-contradictory. 5. They are not separate organs and do not raise the number beyond eleven. ata}J: therefore. 'The vital breath is. all infinite'. Sthite in R. If they were all-pervading. and argues that infinity refers to the abundance of activities of the life-breath which is to be meditated on. mentions B. evam: like this. tu: but. 4. I. artaval. Translation and Notes hastiidayal.

this argument is untenable for we see that the birds by their combined efforts move the cage but we do not see that the different functions in the body produce the function of vital breath. Prthak: ·separately. vayu-kriye: air or function. 13. prat. even so the functions which abide in one body may. alone by itself. I. See M.ta is vayu.U. That doubt is removed by this sutra. While S. by the combination of these functions produce one common function called prat. although each makes a separate effort. So it is different from all functions and air. The sutra points out that pra:!Ja is neither air nor function as many scriptural texts distinguish prat)a from air and function. The objection is raised that there is no separate principle called prat.a. move the cage by the combination of their efforts. if it is said that as eleven birds shut up in one cage may. they are of a distinct nature from that of the vital breath. 4. sadharat. they do not indicate that the vital breath existed before creation. refers to the other view that 'the five breaths. na viiyukriye Prthag-upadesiit (The chief vital breath) is neither air nor function (of the organs) on account of its being mentioned separately. 129.) l. understands by karat. S.ta-trayasya vrtti!J parit. although each has its own special function. 3. Section 5 (9-12) THE CHIEF VITAL BREATH IS DIFFERENT FROM AIR AND THE SENSE FUNCTIONS II.-karat. 3 says 'From this [the Self] is produced the vital breath'. II. .ta.tasya antaft.ama-bheda iti. VI. I. As the words 'was moving' are qualified by 'without air'. M.. upadesat: on account of being mentioned. 9. are the common function of the other instruments'. U. It is just air which exists in the mouth as well as outside.ta or vital breath. There are texts which make out that prat. The functions of the organs are not of the same character. (B.The Brahma Sz'ttra without it. the Samkhya commentator gives another interpretation. na: not.U. samanya-karat:ta-vrttift.i karat.?g V eda X. 1.' This suggests the doubt that before creation there was the vital breath. R. 2 says: 'By its own law it was moving without air. The reference is to the Samkhya Sutra II.ta the eleven organs. points out that the words 'the one was moving without air' do not refer to the vital breath of living creatures but intimate the existence of the Highest Brahman. II. 31.

Prasna U. To this objection. for the five functions of the air.U. If the vital breath is an instrument of the soul like the eye and other organs.U. I. II. I. 19. apana. cak~uradivat: like eyes. etc. pancavrt#r manovad vyapadisyate It is taught as having a fivefold function like the mind. V.. 10. the body and the other organs maintain their strength. 5. tat-saha-5i$tyadibhya~: on account of its being taught with them and other reasons. akarat. 4. 7ff. It is not an instrument or organ like the eye. 4. holding in so as to aid works requiring strength.U. the maintenance of the body. samana: breathing in. the present sutra gives an answer. . So the vital breath serves the purpose of the individual soul. yet it has a function in the body. 2. tatha hi: because thus. The other reasons mentioned in the sutra are that they are made up of parts. where. breathing out. tu: but. vyana. akara1Jatviic ea na do$as tathii hi darsayati A ttd on account of its not be£ng an instrument. It has five functions. 3. 18. ea: and. sarira-rak$a. 4. I. quotes C. prat.Cessive departure of speech and so on. 12. 21. I. Translation and Notes 427 II. They are grouped together since they are all subordinate to the soul. cak$uradivat tu tat-saha-si$tyadibhya~ But (the life-breath is subordinate to the soul) like the eye. on the SU(. for which a separate sense-object is necessary. IV. R. and the function which carries the nutriment through all the limbs of the body. the vital breath is mentioned along with the sense-organs.Text. are nonconscious. 7. do$a~: fault or objection. 5..zait1at: on account of not being an instrument. na: not. manovat: like the mind. the ascending when the soul passes out of the body. In the Upani$ads C. See B. 3. darsayati: (sruti) shows. for thus (Scripture) shows. I I. while on the departure of the vital breath the body and all the organs become weak and powerless. viz. mentions B. etc. The vital breath is under the control of the individual soul and is serviceable to it like the eyes. 12. etc.V. udana. U. 3. then there must be some special form of activity by which it assists the soul but no such activity is perceived. 1. the objection is not (valid). pancavrtti~: (having) fivefold function. II. 11. vyapadisyate: is taught. on account of its being taught with them and other reasons. B. R.

Section 7 (14-16) And (it is) minute (or atomic). 15. quotes B. 3. R. 2. 4. tat-iimananiit: on account of the declaration of that. II.U.The Brahma Siitra Section 6 (13) THE MINUTENESS OF THE VITAL BREATH II. They cannot move of themselves and are dependent on presiding deities. 22. anuh: n1inutc.U. 13. 4. The gods are not the enjoyers. prii!l-avatii: one possessing the breaths (the organs). pra1J-avatii sabdiit (It is not so since the breaths are connected) with the possessor of the vital breath (viz. 3.U. agnir viig bhutvii mukham priivisat. it is said to be all-pervading. sabdat: from the Scripture. jyot£riidy adhi$thiinam tu tad-iimananiit Bttt the guidance b_v fire. I. ea: and. 18. I. it is limited. 4. entered the mouth. Fire.. having become speech. 7. T. The question is raised about the dependence or independence of the vital breath and the other organs. 4. II. the answer is given that the reference there is to Hira!l-ya-garbha. 18. 8. Ill. 14. 3.U. Baladeva makes out that the Lord is the primary initiator of the sense-organs while the fire god and the rest as well as the individual soul are secondary initiators. the cosmic soul. II. limited and subtle like the senses. II. 9. etc. If the objection is raised that in B. etc. 12. 1. . indriyii!l-iirit siibhimiini-devatiiniim jiviitmanas ea sva-kiirye$u paramapurtt$a-mananiiyattatva-siistriit. Sec Aitareya Ara~yaka II. tu: but. 4. a!t-US ea 'It is minute. B. 6. See also C. IV. Il. R. They arc said to be controlled by gods like fire. 8 and argues that the sense-organs together with their guiding divinities and the individual soul depend in all their doings on the thought of the Highest Person. Srinivasa mentions Prasna U. The soul is the enjoyer in the body. jyotir-iidi-adhi$thiinam: guidance (or control) by fire and the rest. and Srikal)tha read this and the next sutra as one and argue that the fire god and the rest as well as the individual soul rule over the sense-organs but their rule depends on the mind and will of the Lord. the individual soul as we know) from the Scripture.U. So far as the individual soul is concerned. on account of the declaration of that.

The sutra says that they are independent since they are separately mentioned. VIII. Translation and Notes 429 The Scriptures declare that the relation between the soul and the organs is that of master and servant. 16. it follows that the rule of the soul and the divinities over the organs depends on the will of the Highest Self.U. See T. 4. 'Having created it. II. 6.U. M. indriyii~i: organs. 1<-iiica yo'ham rupam adriik$am sa eviiham bhoktii na bahavo devii!z. I.U. the embodied soul). ta indriyii~i life-breath is not generally treated as a sense-organ.' The Highest Person has entered into all things to be their ruler. of being ruled by the Highest Self. 12. it would be contradictory that the life . anyatra: except. tad-vyapadesiit: on account of being so designated. says that as the quality inhering in all things. there is only one enjoyer. so the divinities rule the senseorgans through the mere will of the Lord. indeed. 17. 21 and argues that the different organs are modes of the vital breath. ea: and. 5. If there were unity of being. X. The II. sr~omiti pratisandhiiniid ekas siirira eva II.e. See also B. It is not reasonable to suggest that in the body which is the result of the soul's actions. tasya: of that. The soul is the enjoyer. nityatviit: on account of permanence. te: they. The soul abides permanently in the body as the experienccr of pleasure and pain and the results of good and evil actions. This difference of designation is appropriate only if there is a difference of being. See C. sre$/hiit: the chief. Baladcva makes out that the relationship between the Highest Lord and the divinities is eternal. 4. See R. is eternal. 5. Though there are many gods in the body each presiding over a particular organ. 2. he entered. Sec B. I I. R. into it. Section 8 (17-19) THE ORGANS ARE INDEPENDENT PRINCIPLES AND NOT MODIFICATIONS OF THE CHIEF BREATH tad-vyapaddiid anyatra sre$that They (the breaths) are senses on account of their being so designated except the chief.U.U. Otherwise we will not be able to account for the memory of the past. tasya ea nityatviit And on account of the permanence of that (i..Text. IV. I. 3.U. Ratnaprabhii says. 4. The opponent quotes B. 20 where it is said that evil does not approach the gods. others like gods enjoy. 42. 4. 1.G.