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without harm and danger. Remember that eyes , fingers, hands and feet do not grown again, so avoid accidents. Remember accid ents don’t just happen; they are caused either by your own carelessness or by that of others. Listed below are some important points to remember when working with electricity 1. Never work on live equipment. 2. Always ensure by using approved test instrument, that equipment is dead. 3. Never accept another person’s word that a circuit is safe to work on; alwa ys check. 4. Always try to familiarize yourself with equipment before using it. 5. Do not work on any electronic circuit when your hands are wet. Workshop Rules and Regulation 1. Always wear the required clothes. 2. Do not eat inside the workshop. 3. Do not walk around the workshop unnecessarily. 4. Entering and leaving the workshop is strictly prohibited without the ins tructor permission. 5. Return all the working tools when your work is over. 6. Clean your place before leaving the workshop. Electrical Terms Voltage - the electrical potential between two points. An electrical potential o f 1 volt will push 1 ampere of current through a 1-ohm resistive load. Using a common plumbing analogy, voltage is similar to water pressure and curren t is analogous to flow (e.g. liters per minute). Current - The movement of electrons in a conductor measured in Amperes. Resistance - The opposition to current flow, expressed in ohms. Power - Rate of doing work; measured in watts (= joules/second) Energy - That which does work or is capable of doing work. Electricity is energy that is measured in kilowatt hours. Circuit - A conductive path over which an electric charge may flow. Load - The amount of electrical power required by connected electrical equipment . Circuit Breaker - A device that can be used to manually open or close a circuit, and to automatically open a circuit at a predetermined level of over current wi thout damage to itself. Direct Current - Electric current in which electrons flow in one direction only. Opposite of alternating current. Alternating Current - A signal or power source that varies with time, switching polarities. Typically, sinusoidal and constant frequency. Basic Formulas: 1. A) R – Resistance unit is Ohm ( ) 2. P = V*I Where; P – Power unit is Watts (W) V – Voltage unit is Volts (V) I – Current unit is Ampere ( A) 3. E = P*t Where; E – Energy unit is kilowatt-hour (kWhr) P – Power unit is kilowatt (kW) t – Time unit is Hour (hr ) V = I*R Where; V – Voltage unit is Volts (V) I – Current unit is Ampere (
4. C = E*Rate C – Cost
unit is Baisa pe r kilowatt-hour ( ) Series and parallel circuits Series circuits are sometimes called current-coupled or daisy chain-coupled. The current that flows in a series circuit will flow through every component in the circuit. Therefore, all of the components in a series connection carry the same current and the voltage across the components is the sum of the voltages across each component. Resistors
Where; E – Energy unit is Baisa (Baisa) Rate – Rate
unit is kilowatt-hour (kWhr)
In a series circuit, every device must function for the circuit to be complete. One bulb burning out in a series circuit breaks the circuit. Parallel circuits If two or more components are connected in parallel they have the same potential difference (voltage) across their ends. The potential differences across the co mponents are the same in magnitude, and they also have identical polarities. The same voltage is applicable to all circuit components connected in parallel. The total current I is the sum of the currents through the individual components, i n accordance with Kirchhoff s circuit laws. Resistors The current in each individual resistor is found by Ohm s law. Factoring out the voltage gives . To find the total resistance of all components, add the reciprocals of the resis tances Ri of each component and take the reciprocal of the sum. Total resistance will always be less than the value of the smallest resistance: . For only two resistors, the unreciprocated expression is reasonably simple: This sometimes goes by the mnemonic "product over sum". For N equal resistors in parallel, the reciprocal sum expression simplifies to: . and therefore to: . In parallel circuits, each light has its own circuit, so all but one light could be burned out, and the last one will still function. Tools and Equipment used for Electrical Installation:
Instruments: 1. ce. 2. 3. AVO meter / Digital Multi-meter – to measure current, voltage and resistan Clip-on Ammeter - to measure current without breaking the circuit Earth Megger – to measure earth resistance of the earthing system.
Wiring Accessories: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 1-Gang, 1-Way Switch 1-Gang, 2-Way Switch 2-Gang, 1-Way Switch Emergency Stop Switch 20A DP Switch for AC Switch Socket Outlet Switch box G.I box Circular box or Round box Wire Connector Conduit Pipes Pipe Adaptor Saddle clip Coupler Distribution Board with MCB Terminal Lugs or Earth Lugs Lamp Holder Starter Fuse Lamp or Bulb
Earthing System The earthing station can be made in the following manner: One or two earthing electrode can be used. Earthing electrode may be a m etallic plate or metallic pipe or metallic rod buried in the ground with charcoa l mixed in the surrounding soil, in order to reduce the earth resistance to valu e less than 1 Ohm. Pipe electrode may be in the form of 30mm diameter, 2.5m long galvanized iron pipe or solid mild-steel rods or 1.5 meter copper rods. Earthing pits shou ld be build with charcoal, salt, and soil to reduce the earth resistance value. Water should be poured into the earth pit to maintain the earth resistance.
List of Experiment 1. One Lamp Controlled by 1Gang, 1Way Switch
2. One Lamp Controlled by Two 1Gang, 2Way Switch
3. Two Lamps Controlled by 1Gang, 1Way Switch
4. Two Lamps Controlled by 2Gang, 1Way Switch
5. Two 13A Switch Socket Outlet (SSO)
6. 20A Double Pole Switch for AC
7. Fluorescent Light Controlled by 1Gang, 1Way Switch
PROBLEM SOLVING: 1. Convert 1500W to kW. SOLUTION: 1500W x 2. 1.5kW
Convert 3.75kW to W.
SOLUTION: 3.75kW x 3. 3,750W
Convert 1.5hr to minute.
SOLUTION: 1.5hr x 90min
Convert 150minute to hr.
SOLUTION: 150min x 5. 2.5hr
Convert 1,800s to hr.
SOLUTION: 1,800s x 6. 0.5hr
Convert 2,000s to minute.
SOLUTION: 2,000s x 33.33min
7. a. b. c. d. e.
A 10 , 20 , 30 resistor connected in SERIES with a 12V battery, find Total Resistance? Total Current? Total Power? Voltage across each Resistor? Power dissipated by each Resistor? Total Voltage (Vt) = 10 Resistor 2 (R2) = 30 = 12V = 20
SOLUTION: Given: Resistor 1 (R1) Resistor 3 (R3)
a. Total Resistance (Rt) = ? Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 = 10 + 20 + 30 Rt = 60 b. Total Current (It) = ? It = 0.2A c. Total Power (Pt) = ? Pt = Vt * It = 12 * 0.2 Pt = 2.4W d. Voltage across each Resistor (V1, V2, V3) = ? V1 = I1 * R1 V2 = I2 * R2 V3 = 0.2 * 10 = 0.2 * 20 = 0.2 * 30 V1 = 2V V2 = 4V V3 = 6V
= I3 * R3
e. Power dissipated by each Resistor (P1, P2, P3) = ? P1 = V1 * I1 P2 = V2 * I2 P3 = V3 * I3 = 2* 0.2 = 4* 0.2 = 6 * 0.2 P1 = 0.4W P2 = 0.8W P3 = 1.2W
8. a. b. c. d. e.
A 10 , 20 , 30 resistor connected in PARALLEL with a 12V battery, find Total Resistance? Total Current? Total Power? Current across each Resistor? Power dissipated by each Resistor? Total Voltage (Vt) Resistor 1 (R1) Resistor 2 (R2) = 30 = 12V = 10 = 20
SOLUTION: Given: Resistor 3 (R3)
a. Total Resistance (Rt) = ? Rt = 5.45 b. Total Current (It) = ? It = 2.2A c. Total Power (Pt) = ? Pt = 26.4W d. Current across each Resistor (I1, I2, I3) = ? I1 = 1.2A I2 = 0.6A I3 = 0.4A = V3 * I3 Pt = Vt * It = 12 * 2.2
e. Power dissipated by each Resistor (P1, P2, P3) = ? P1 = V1 * I1 P2 = V2 * I2 P3 = 12* 1.2 = 12* 0.6 = 12 * 0.4 P1 = 14.4W P2 = 7.2W P3 = 4.8W
LOAD Number Exhaust Fan Ceiling Fan Lighting Air-conditioner Water Heater T.V Set 2
Watt / 1 4 2 (A/C) 1 50
Load 40 40 25 3 1,500 100
Total Power in Watt 40 0.04 160 0.160 50 0.05 2,000 6,000 6.0 1,500 1.5 0.1
Total Power in kilowatt
9. QUESTION: a. What is the total amount of current if all loads were used at the time? Voltage Supply is 240V b. What is the total amount of Energy consumed if used for 24hrs? c. What is the cost of electricity if the rate is 10 ? SOLUTION: Given: Voltage (V) = 240V Total Power (Pt) = 7,850W or 7.85kW Time (t) = 24hrs Rate = 10 a. Total Current (It) =? It = 32.708A b. Total Energy (Et) =? Et = 188.4kWhr c. Cost of Electricity (Cost) = ? Cost = Et *Rate = 188.4 * 10 Cost = 1,884 Baisa Et = Pt * t = 7.85 * 24
Questions: 1. What are the difference between switch and circuit breaker?
SWITCH – No Automatic off on Overload CIRCUIT BREAKER – Automatic off on Overload 2. Why is earthing required in electrical installations?
To provide low resistance path for the earth leakage current to the earth and re duce the intensity of electric shock due to earth leakage current. 3. What is phase voltage and frequency in Oman?
PHASE VOLTAGE – 240 V FREQUENCY – 50 Hz 4. Why do we connect fuse with fuse unit in an electric circuit?
To provide overload protection (Put off the circuit when the current exceeds the limit) 5. What is the used of Starter and Choke in a fluorescent light?
STARTER – Use to break the contact or circuit quickly after the power supply is on . CHOKE – Use to produce very high voltage
COMPUTATION OF MARKS: Passing Marks: 60 EEPW1240 – ENGINEERING WORKSHOP ELECTRICAL (33Marks) ELECTRICAL WORKSHOP COURSE WORK (40Marks) arks) * Practical 5 x 7 = 35 *Theory = 10 * Assignment 1 x 5 = 5 *Practical = 20 MID-TERM (20Marks) *Theory = 20 FINAL EXAM (40M MECHANICAL (34Marks) CIVIL (33Marks)
*Interview = 10 Note: Total marks is 100 but at the end converted to 33marks.
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