DO-160d | Relative Humidity | Humidity

RTCA, Incorporated 1140 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.

, Suite 1020 Washington, DC 20036-4001 USA

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ANDTEST PROCEDURES FOR AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT

July 29, 1997 RTCALDO- 160D

Prepared by SC-13 5 ORTCA, Inc. 1997

Copies of this document may be obtained from

RTCA, Inc. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 1020 Washington,DC 20036-4001USA Telephone: 202-833-9339 Facsimile:202-833-9434 Internet: www.rtca.org Please call RTCA for price ordering information. and

Foreword This document was prepared by Special Committee 135 of the RTCA, Inc. It supersedes RTCA Document DO-160C dated December 4,1989; Change 1 dated September 27,1990; Change 2 dated June 19,1992; Change 3 datedMay 13,1993. RTCA, Incorporatedis a not-for-profit corporation formed to advanceart and scienceof aviation the and aviation electronic systems for the benefit of the public. The organization functions as a Federal Advisory Committee and develops consensus based recommendationson contemporary aviation issues. RTCA’s objectives include butare not limited to:
e

coalescing aviation system user and provider technical requirements in a manner that helps government and industry meet mutual objectives and their responsibilities; analyzing and recommending solutions to the system technical issues that aviation faces as it continues to pursue increased safety, system capacity and efficiency;

a

developing consensus on the application of pertinent technology to fulfill user and provider requirements, including development of minimum operational performance standards for electronic systems and equipment that support aviation; and assisting in developing the appropriatetechnicalmaterialuponwhich positions for the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Telecommunication Union and other appropriate international organizations be based. can

a

The organization’s recommendations are often used the basis for government and private sector as decisions as well as the foundation for many Federal Aviation Administration Technical Standard Orders. Since RTCAis not an official agencyof the United States Government, its recommendations may not be regarded as statements of official government policy unless so enunciated by the U.S. government organization or agency having statutory jurisdiction over any matters to which the recommendations relate. These standards were coordinated by RTCA SC-135 with the European Organisation for Civil Aviation Electronics (EUROCAE) Working Groups (WGs) 1, and 33. EUROCAE concurs with 14,3 RTCA on the environmental conditions and test proceduresset forth herein. When approved by EUROCA.E, this document willbe identified jointly as RTCA DO-1 60DEUROCAE ED-14D.

This page intentionally left blank.

Table of Contents
Forward ............................................................................................................................................ Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................... Section 1.O Section 2.0 Section 3 .O Section 4.0 Section 5.0 Section 6.0 Section 7.0 Section 8.0 Section 9.0 Section 10.0 Section 1 1.O Section 12.0 Section 13.O Section 14.0 Section 15.0 Section 16.0 Section 17.0 Section 18.0 Section 19.0 Section 20.0 Section 2 .O 1 Section 22.0 Section 23.0 Section 24.0 Section 25.0 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Note: Purpose and Applicability Definitions of Terms - General Conditions of Tests Temperature and Altitude Temperature Variation Humidity Operational Shocks and Crash Safety Vibration Explosion Proohess Waterproohess Fluids Susceptibility Sand and Dust Fungus Resistance Salt Spray Magnetic Effect Power Input Voltage Spike Audio Frequency Conducted Susceptibility Power Inputs Induced Signal Susceptibility Radio Frequency Susceptibility (Radiated and Conducted) Emission of Radio Frequency Energy Lightning Induced Transient Susceptibility Lightning Direct Effects Icing Electrostatic Discharge Environmental Test Indentification Membership Change Coordinators and Assignments Detailed Tablesof Contents appear the inside covers most sections. on of i ... 11 1

111

...

This page intentionally left blank.

Date of Issue: July 29. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue. Auuendix A is applicable for identifying environmental tests performed. Further.160C Prepared by:SC-135 . DC 20036 RTCA/DO-16OD Environmental Conditions andTest Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 1 Purpose and Applicability Section 2 Definitions of Terms-General Section 3 Conditions of Tests Important Notice Informationcontainedinthese sections is pertinent to of all test procedures described in the other sections this document.RTCA. Inc. NW Suite1020 Washington. 1997 Supersedes:RTCA/DO.

..... 1-1 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-2 2-2 2-2 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-3 3................................. 2................................................ 2................................................................................ 3.......................... 3............................................................................................................................................................ 2.......................................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................8 Category of Tests and Declarations .......................................................3 Combining Tests ............................................. 2........................................................................................................................................................ Conditions of Tests .Page 1............................8 Multiple Unit Equipment ................................2 Order of Tests .................5 Excursion Total ......................................................... 3................................................................................. Definitions of Terms-General ..............6 Environmental Test Condition Tolerances ........................ ...................................................................... 2......1 Connection andOrientation of Equipment ...................4 Controlled or Partially Controlled Temperature Location .............. 2...........................................................................................7 Altitude.............................0 2. 3...................................6 Equipment 2..........................................................................4 Measurement of Air Temperature in the Test Chamber .................... 2.............................................................3 Not Operating...............................................................................................................................................1 Equipment Temperature Stabilization ................ 3..5 Ambient Conditions .................. 3............................................7 Test Equipment ..............2 Maximum Cycle Duty ..................................................... 3.0 Purposeand Applicability ... 3.................................................0 .........

Minimum Operational Performance Specifications (formerly Requirements) (MOPSMOPR). The purpose of these tests is to provide a laboratory means of determining the performance characteristics of airborne equipment in environmental conditions representative of those which may be encountered in airborne operation ofthe equipment. The standard environmental test conditions and test procedures contained herein maybe used in conjunction with applicable equipment performance standards as a minimum specification under environmental conditions. that have not been included in this document. RTCA Minimum Performance Standards (MPS) andor RTCA Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS). RTCA. There are several additional environmental conditions (categories). The procedures for testing airborne equipment for special environmental conditions that are usuallyuniquelyrelated to that specific type of airborne 2.” The “applicableequipment performance standards” referred to are either: EUROCAE a.1-1 1. Inc. .o PurposeApplicability and This document defines a series ofminimumstandardenvironmental test conditions (categories) and applicable test procedures for airborne equipment. C. b. that specific airborne equipment may be subjected to. equipment specification(s). which can ensure a sufficient degree of confidence in performance during operations. acceleration and acoustic vibration. be seen several times: the following phrase will “DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. Notes: 1. The manufacturer’s applicable. where Some of the environmental conditions and test procedures contained in this document are not necessarily applicable to all airborne equipment. The selection of the appropriate andor additional environmental conditions and test procedures is the responsibility of the writers (authors) of the performance standards for the specific airborne equipment. but are not limited to: hail. These include. @ 1997. Note: In each of the test procedures contained herein.

3. have direct applicability to most airborne equipment. Subject to the provisions of Subsection 3. however. a specific or general class or type of aircraft.2.these units are used as the primary values. when the primary values were derived in English units.” as used within this document. Any regulatory application of this document is the sole responsibility of appropriate governmental (regulatory) agencies. The environmental conditions and test procedures defined herein are intended to determine only the performance of the airborne equipment under these environmental conditions and are not intended to be used as a measure of service life of the airborne equipment subjected to these tests. should be the responsibility of the writer (author) of the performance standard for that specific equipment. or within. The International System of Units (SI) isusuallyusedthroughout this document as the primary values. it is permissible to usemorethan one test article. 4. It is the responsibility of those who wish to apply the test conditions and procedures contained in this document to determine the applicability of these test conditions and procedures to a specific equipment intended for installation on. . The words “airborne equipment. In certain instances.1-2 equipment.

The definition of terms specific to a particular section may be found in the appropriate section. Inc. Not Operating The equipment is considered temperature stabilized when the temperature of the functioning parts of the test item considered to have the longest thermal lag are within three degrees Celsius of the specified test temperature. RTCA.1 Equipment Temperature Stabilization a. 2. the minimum time considered applicable for temperature stabilization shall be two hours. or when the operating capacity is at a defined minimum.2. @ 1997. the maximum duty cycle is the relationship between the maximum length of time for which the equipment is designed to operate at its rated capacity and the length of time during which the equipment is not operating. 2.2 Maximum Duty Cycle When operation of an equipment is periodic. When temperature measurement of the largest internal mass is not practical. 2.4 Controlled or Partially Controlled Temperature Location Controlled or partially controlled temperature location is a space within an aircraft in which the temperature of the air is maintained by an environmental control system (see Table 4-1 of applicable category). The maximum duty cycle shall be established by the equipment specification. . Operating The equipment is considered temperature stabilized when the functioning parts of the test item considered to have the longest thermal lag do not vary by more than two degrees Celsius perhour. b.0 Definitions of Terms-General This section contains the definitions of general terms that are utilized throughout this document.3 Not Operating Not operating is that condition wherein no power is applied to the equipment unless otherwise defined in the individual equipment specification.When temperature measurement of the largest internal mass is not practical. 2. the minimum time considered applicable for temperature stabilization shall be three hours.

6 Equipment Theterm “equipment” includes the test itemsand all of the components or units necessary (as determined by the equipment manufacturer) for the equipment to properly perform its intended function(s). 27 . The equipment shallbe representative of the production standard that will be utilizedin service. Inc.itshouldbeunderstood that performance compliance and verification is considered to be the requirement that allows the equipment to be certified as to its ability to perform its intended function(s) during andor after a specific test category.5 Excursion Total Total excursion means maximum. @ 1997. the equipment supplier shall select from categories defined within the particular sections that category which best represents the most severe environment to which the equipment is expected to be regularly exposed during its service life. .8 Category of Tests and Declarations For each environmental condition addressed in this document. The category selections thus determined are to be tabulated on the Environmental Qualification Form and/or the equipment nameplate in accordance with the guidelines presented in Appendix A. When the Statement “DETERMINE COMPLIANCEAPPLICABLE WITH EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS” found at the end of or during the test is procedures. the total displacement from positive maximum negative to 2. Altitude Altitude represents the environmental pressure relative to sea level to which the equipment is exposed during the tests. Use of Category X on the environmental qualification form and/or equipment nameplate in association with any environmentaltest procedure of this document is reserved for the case where the equipment supplier wishes to indicate that compliance with equipment performance standards has not been demonstrated under the environmental conditions addressed bythat particular procedure. 2. RTCA.2-2 2.

Inc. RTCA. salt spray test and/orsandand dust test shall notbe conducted prior to the fungus resistance test. If alternate procedures are used. mechanically and electrically) as recommended by the equipment manufacturer normal for service installation. following provisions always apply: the a.The C. temperature variation.5. 20.“Altitude Test. willan require interconnecting cable longer thanthese minimums. connect and orient the equipment (e. The purpose of this exception is to determine whether materials used to protect equipment components from moisture have losttheir protective function due to deterioration from exposure to either extreme temperature or to vibration. the tests may be conducted in any desired order. Any inputs or outputs to or from other equipment(s) normallyassociatedwith the equipment(s) under test shall be connectedor adequately simulated. shall be at least 1.3 Combining Tests Tests It is acceptable to employ alternate proceduresdeveloped as combinations of the procedures described herein.3.6.1 Conditions of Tests Connection and Orientation of Equipment Unless otherwise stated. The humidity test shall notbeconductedprior to the temperature. however. Order of Tests Unless otherwise required by the equipment specification. (see Auuendix A). @ 1997.” The sand and dust test shall not be conducted prior to the humidity or salt spray test.0 3. 3.50 m long and shall be configured so as to allow one common bundle of 1. Note: Paragraphs 19.3. except as noted in paragraph 4. if applicable.g. Interconnecting cable lengths. The explosion proofness tests should normally conducted be after the article being tested been has subjected to the other environmental tests of this document.3 and 21. b.20 m. . as necessary to perform the tests and to DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. altitude tests and the vibration tests. where not specified. including any cooling provisions. d.1. 32 . provided it can be demonstrated that all applicable environmental conditions specified in the original procedures are duplicated or exceeded in the combined procedure. appropriate information should be provided along with the Environmental Qualification Form.

the actual conditions shall be recorded. and the equipment shall be tested at the minimum flow rate consistent with the purpose of maintaining a uniform temperature distribution in the chamber. Note: 3. For equipment whose installation location is known defined and relative to other equipment.4 Measurement of Air Temperature in the Test Chamber The temperature of the air in the test chamber shall be measured at a location where the air conditions are representative of that immediately surrounding the equipment. the medium and its supply temperature shall be as specified by the equipment manufacturer. Relative Humidity: Not greater than 85 percent. When tests are conducted at ambient conditions that differ from the above values. b. @ 1997. sources of radiatedheatand/orimpediments to normal convection should be simulated in the test. RTCA. within the following ambient Temperature: +15 to +35 degrees Celsius. all tests shall be made conditions: a. the air movement shall not be directed onthe equipment under test.Whensuch means are employed. the following applies: a. due to temperature lag and heat transfer through the chamber wall. If air is the cooling medium.500 f (+1525 to i ) -460 m). . unless otherwise specified by the equipment manufacturer. A means of circulating air in the test chamber shouldbeemployed to assure an approximate uniform air temperature conditionthroughout the chamber. Measurement of chamber wall temperature is not suitable. C.3. If the cooling medium is not air. The ambient air velocities surrounding equipment not requiring auxiliary cooling shall remain comparable to those air velocities that occur from natural convection.000 to -1. For equipment that requires auxiliary cooling to assure proper operation. b. as defined in the equipment installation instructions. Ambient Pressure: 84 to 107kPa (equivalent to +5. the supplied cooling air characteristics shall be the same as the specified chamber air characteristics. Inc.5 Ambient Conditions Unless otherwise specified.

tests made at environmental conditions other than ambient. these units be tested may separately.alltestequipment calibration standards should traceable to national and/or international standards. b. Altitude: * 5 percentofspecifiedpressure. 37 . *3 degrees Celsius.3-3 3. RTCA. shall be conducted subjectthe following tolerances: to Temperature: a.Whenappropriate. serial number and the calibration expiration date and/or the validperiodofcalibrationwhereappropriate. @ 1997.6 Environmental Tolerances Condition Test Unless otherwise specified. provided the functional aspects are maintained as defined in the relevant equipment specification. as defined above. model. Test Equipment All stimulus and measurement equipment in the performance ofthe tests should be used identified by make. be 3. .8 Multiple Unit Equipment If the equipmentto be tested consists of several separate units. Inc.

This page intentionally left blank. .

NW Suite 1020 Washington.160C 13 Prepared by:SC. Date of Issue: July 29. Further. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue.5 .RTCA. Bppendix 4 is applicable for identieing the environmental tests performed.2 and 3. 1997 Supersedes: RTCAiDO. DC 20036 Telephone:(202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditionsand Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment 2 i l wQd Temperature and Altitude Important Notice Information pertinent to this test procedure contained in is Sections 1. Inc.

........................ 4-10 Ground Survival Low Temperature and Operating Low Temperature Test .................................................................................................................................................6 Altitude.........................................6...Decompressionand Overpressure Tests ...............2 Ground Survival High Temperature Test and Short-Time Operating High Temperature Test ....3 Overpressure Test ...1 Altitude Test .................................... ..............2 General ... .. 4.....5...................... 4....... 4..................... 4.9 Pressure Values for Various Pressure Altitude Levels ......................... 4..............3 Equipment Categories ...................................... 4...... 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-7 4-7 4-7 4-7 Table 4-1 Table 4-2 Figure 4... 4-11 Ground Survival High Temperature and Short-TimeOperating 4-12 High Temperature Test ...............4 In-Flight Loss of Cooling Test .. 4................. 4............................5........... ....0 Temperature and Altitude ..... ... .......................................... .1 Figure 4-2 Figure 4-3 Figure 4-4 Figure 4-5 Figure 4-6 Figure 4-7 Temperature and Altitude Criteria .......................................... 4-13 In-Flight Loss of Cooling Test ...............4 4................. 4.................... Definitions of Terms .................... 4..................5 Temperature Tests ... 4-14 AltitudeTest ..........2 Decompression Test . 4......... Operating High Temperature Test ................1 Purpose of the Tests ..............................................................5.............................................Page 4..... .......... 4... ...................... 4-15 Decompression Test ......................... 4-16 Overpressure Test ............................6...............................................1 Ground Survival Low Temperature Test and Operating Low Temperature Test 4.6........3 Operating High Temperature Test .............................................5. 4-17 .

the maximum operating altitude of the aircraft and whether the equipment is located within a temperature andor pressure controlled area. Inc.600 m) MSL.000ft (4. Categories for in-flight loss of cooling are defined in paragraph 4. Category A1 Equipment intended for installation a controlled temperature and pressurized location.2 General Several temperature and altitude procedures are defined. The above conditions must be taken into consideration by the equipment designer in evaluating these requirements.3 and Table 4-1).000ft (4.000 (4. which are determined by the end application and use of equipment. the 4. each to be selected according test to the category for which the equipment is designed to be used when installed in an aircraft (see Subsection 4. 0 1997.0 4.600 m) MSL. identified as Category A1 This category may also be applicable to equipment installed in temperature controlled but unpressurized locations on an aircraft that operates at altitudes no higher than 15.600 m) Mean Sea Level (MSL). . RTCA. 15.4.5. This category may also ft as be applicable to equipment installed inpartially controlled temperature but unpressurized locations on an aircraft that operates at altitudes no higher than 15.600 m) MSL is identified Category A2.000 ft (4. 4. on in an aircraft within which pressures are normally no lower than the altitude equivalent of is . Category A2 Equipment intended for installation in a partially controlled temperature but pressurized location on an aircraft within whichthe pressures are normally no lowerthan the altitude equivalent of 15.3 Equipment Categories The following categories cover the wide range of environments known to exist in the majority of aircraft types and installation locations.4. Note: The selection a oftemperature/altitude category depends on the location in (or on) the aircraft.1 Temperature Altitude and Purpose of the Tests These tests determine the performance characteristics of equipment at the applicable categories for the temperatures and altitudes specified in Table 4-1 and at the pressures defined in Table 4-2. It should be recognized that not all possible combinations of temperatures and altitude limits are covered inthese equipment categories.

for which temperature requirements differ fromB1. .000 ft (7. for which temperature requirements differ from category as declared by the equipment manufacA1 turer.000 ft (7.620 m) MSL is identified as Category B2.(4. RTCA.620 m)MSL is identified as at Category B 1. for which temperature requirements differ from category A1 as declared by the equipment manufacturer. Category B3 Equipment intendedfor installation in the power plant compartmentof an aircraft thatis operated at altitudes up to 25. Category B4 Equipment intended for installation in a non-pressurized location on an aircraft that is operated at altitudes upto 25.700 m) MSL is identifiedas up Category C 1. Category B2 Equipment intended for installation in non-pressurized and non-controlled temperature locations on an aircraft that is operated at altitudes up to 25.000 ft (4.600m) Mean Sea Level t (MSL). Inc.000ft.620 m)MSL.Category A3 Equipment intended for installation in a controlled or partially controlled temperature but pressurized location withinan aircraft within which the pressures normally no lower are be than the altitude equivalentof 15. AI Category A4 Equipment intended for installation in a controlled temperature and pressurized location.600m) MSL.600 m) MSL. on an aircraft within which pressuresare normally no lower thanthe altitude equivalent of 15. Category B1 Equipment intended for installation in a non-pressurized but controlled temperature location in an aircraft that is operated altitudes up to 25.000 f.000 ft (7. is Category C1 Equipment intended for installation in a non-pressurized but controlled temperature location in an aircraft that is operated at altitudes to 35.620 m) MSL is identifiedas Category B3. This category may also be applicable to equipment installed ina temperature controlled but unpressurized locations on an aircraft that operates at altitudes no higher than 15. identified as Category B4.000 ft (7. is identifiedas Category A3. where the temperatures will more severe than those for categories and A2. (9 1997.B2 and B3.000 ft (1 0. (4.

Category E2 Equipment intendedfor installation in the power plant compartment an aircraft that is of operated at altitudes up to 70. to Category E l Equipment intended for installation in non-pressurized and non-controlled temperature locations on an aircraft that is operated at altitudes up to 70.000 ft (10.700m) MSL. .000 ft (1 5. for which temperature requirements differ fiom C2 and 1.000ft (10.000 f (10.000 ft (21.000 ft (21.is identified as Category C4.200 m) MSL is identified as is to Category Dl.000 f (15.700m) MSL is identified as Category C2. Category C3 Equipment intendedfor installation in the power plant compartmentof an aircraft that is operated at altitudes up to 35.700m) MSL is identifiedas Category C3. t Category C4 Equipment intended installation on a non-pressurized aircraft that is operated at altitudes for up to 35.Category C2 Equipment intended for installation in non-pressurized and non-controlled temperature locations within an aircraft that is operated at altitudes up to 35.200 m) MSL is identified as Category D2. 0 1997.300m) MSL is identifiedas Category E2. RTCA. Category D2 Equipment intended for installation in non-pressurized and non-controlled temperature locations on an aircraft that is operated at altitudes up to 50. Inc. Category D l Equipment intended installation in a non-pressurized but controlled temperature location for on an aircraft that operated at altitudes up 50.000 ft (1 5.300m) MSL is identified as Category El. Category D3 Equipment intendedfor installation in the power plant compartment an aircraft that is of t operated at altitudes up 50.200m) MSL is identified as Category D3. C C3.

Category F1 Equipment intended installation in non-pressurized but controlled temperature for locations on an aircraft that is operated at altitudes up to 55.000 ft (1 6. The equipment is not expectedto operate within specification limits at these temperatures but is expected to survive without damage.800 m) MSL is identified as Category F 1. e.undernormal operating conditions. Category F3 Equipment intended for installation in the power plant compartment of an aircraft that is operated at altitudes up to 55. . equipment racks. be and since the temperatures within installation area will be reduced by opening of doors.000 ft (16.an enclosed space behindan instrument panel. 4.4 Definitions of Terms Operating Low Temperature Operating low temperature the lowest temperature at which equipment will normally be is exposed and be requiredto operate. the the the circulation of moving air.powerplant areas.000 ft (16. etc. Short-Time ODerating Hi& Temperature These are the maximum temperature conditions to which equipment can be exposed.g. RTCA. O p e r a t i e Temoerature The operating high temperature values given in Table 4-1 are the maximum levelsthat the be in equipment will exposed to within the particular installation area.. Category F2 Equipment intended for installation in non-pressurized and non-controlled temperature locations on an aircraft that is operated at altitudes up to 55. Inc. etc.800 m) MSL is identified as Category F2. It is expected that these temperature conditions will occur infrequently of short duration. Ground Survival Temperatures These are the lowest and highest ground temperatures that the equipment is normally expected to be exposed to during aircraft storage or exposure to climatic extremes.800 m) MSL is identified as Category F3. Q 1997.

The test profile is shown graphically in Figure 4.1. Then with the equipment not operating. 4. The rate at which the temperature of the equipment under is reduced from ambient the appropriate test to ground survival low temperature specified in Table 4. ~~ 0 1997.1 Ground Survival With the equipment not operating. TE IPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during the equipment operating period. then adjust and maintain test chamberair temperature at the appropriate operating the low temperature specified in at ambient pressure. RTCA. Maintain this temperature for at least three hours. This test is notintended to bea temperature shock test. There is no requirement for the equipment to meet applicable equipment performance standards below the operating low temperature unless so specified by the equipment specification. .5.5 Temperature Tests Low Temperature Test and Operating Low Temperature Test 4. Place the equipment into the operating state.This condition represents the failure of the external or internal system that normally provides dedicated cooling for the equipment. subject it to the short-time operatinghightemperature specified in for aperiod of not less than 30 minutes. Maintain the temperature of the air in the test chamber at the operating low temperature of T a b l e .1. operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle for at least 30 minutes. Notes 1. “ beginning with the O N condition in the case ofequipment designed for intermittent duty service. Inc. Maintain this temperature for at least three hours. Place the equipment into operating state and maintainthe test chamber air temperature the at the appropriate short-time operating high temperature specified 4.5. After the equipment temperature has stabilized. Operate the in Table equipment for at least 30 minutes. stabilize the equipment at the appropriate ground survival high temperature of Table 4. 4. The test profile is shown graphicallyin Figure 4-2. Certain equipment must survive limited for a time in the absence of cooling.1 is optional and commensurate withthe rate of temperature change applicable to the test chamber being used.1 at ambient atmospheric pressure. Test and Short-Time Operating High Tempera- 2. Test requirements for this type of equipment shall be specified in the equipment performance specification.1. DETE< E T PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during this operating period. stabilize the equipment temperature at the appropriate ground survival low temperature specified in Table 4.2 Ground Survival Temperature High ture Test At ambient pressure and withthe equipment not operating.

the short-time operating high temperature need not be test conducted. in the T. Category V .300 minutes minimum Category Z . In determining the level of performancerequiredduringtheperiod of thistest. of the 0 1997. and with cooling air supplied in accordance with the conditions specified in Subsection 3. Thetest profile is shown graphically w e 4-4. C O M P 1 . paragraph following in-flight loss cooling would contribute or cause a failure condition of to that would prevent the continued safe flight and landing airplane. and operate to off the equipment for the period of time specified for the applicable category while maintaining the temperature of the in the test chamber at the value specified 4. and has functions whose failure operating high temperature test. operate the equipment for a minimum of while two hours maintaining the temperature of the air test chamber at the operating high temperature. The ground survival high temperature test may not be deleted. . 4.As defined in the equipment specification With the equipment operating at ambient room pressure. adjust the chamber air temperature the appropriate test to operating high temperature specified in Table 4.3.180 minutes minimum Category Y . Inc. l A N C E M E N T PERFORperiod E MANCE STANDARDS.1 at ambient pressure. and allow the in equipment temperature stabilize.90 minutes minimum Category P. in Note: This test applies to equipment that requires cooling for proper operation during the 4.P STANDARDSduring the operating period.theoperational requirements of the particular equipment systems must be considered. Note 2: 4.53 Operating High Temperature Test With the equipment operating.5. Turn the equipment cooling air supply.Note 1 : This simulates test temperature conditions that may be encountered by equipment while the aircraft is on the ground.30 minutes minimum Category W. The profile isshown graphically in test 43.3.During this air in Table 1. even if the short-time high temperature is identical the operating high to temperature. RTCA.4 In-Flight Loss of Cooling Test Categories of In-Flight of Cooling Test Periods defined by periods during which Loss are cooling is removed. adjust the test chamber air temperature to the value specified Table 4-1 for the loss of cooling test. After equipment the temperature has become stabilized.5. or If theshort-timeoperatinghightemperatureandoperatinghightemperature are the same.

2) Equipment utilizing high voltage electricaVelectronics circuits. 8 1997. be will This reduction in pressure shall take place within 15 seconds. Maintain this reduced pressure for at least 10 minutes or as specified in the equipment specification.6 Decompression and Overpressure Tests Refer to Table 4-1 for altitudesand to Table 4-2 for pressure values.3 (Combining Tests) may applicable.400 m) MSL and allow the equipment temperature to stabilize. D D . The test profile is shown graphically in Figure 4-5. displays etc . EEOUIPMENT during the two-hour periodat the maximum duty cycle.6.Allow the equipment temperature stabilize. 4. Equipment intendedfor installation inareas that are subject to partial pressurization shall be tested in accordance with paragraph 4.e. Reducethe absolute pressureto the equivalent of maximum the operational altitude for the aircraft on which the equipment installed (see Table 4-1).6. unless otherwise specified in the equipment specification. Sections 9.000 f (2.2 Decompression Test I P Conduct thistest at ambient temperature.6a and 9.6.000 ft altitude (1 70 Ha). subject the equipment an absolute pressure equivalent ..4-7 Altitude. i. With the equipment operating. Decrease the pressure in the test chamberto the appropriate maximum operating altitude to specified in m l e 4-1.7 shall conducted atthe maximum test altitude.15. Note:When the equipmentmanufacturerrequiresthattheequipmentbetestedfor spark-producing conditions at altitude. The test profile is shown graphically in Fieure M. .. adjust the absolute t pressure to an equivalent altitude of 8. to to Maintain this condition for at least 10 minutes. Operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle. Note: The decompression test is intended for equipment as follows: 1) Equipment installed in pressurized on the aircraft required areas to operate during an and following emergency descent. RTCA.6b may apply. Test 4.1 Altitude Conduct this test at ambient temperature. the If so. or whichever is longer. Return the equipment to the ambient atmospheric pressure and DETERMINE COMPI . be 4.TANCE WITJJ APPLICABLE EOUIPNT PJWFORMANCE SA T.2 above. The profile is shown graphically test in w e 4-6. Inc. JlETJ?= i s during the periodat maximum operating altitude. be procedures of 9. and paragraph 3. 4. Maintain this pressure for at least two hours.63 Overpressure Test With the equipment not operating.

Equipment installed in a pressurized area and whose internalsections are vented external to the pressurized area shall have these internal sections exposed to the pressure specified the equipment specification in during the overpressure test. . Inc.Thetestdetermines whether the equipment will withstand cabinoverpressures resulting from routine aircraft pressurization systemtesting.4-8 Note 1: Thistest is forequipmentinstalled in pressurizedareas. RTCA. Note 2: 0 1997.

z QB 0 d ?I z + QS VI VI z QB I q z QB v? 00 + zz N pS 0 ?I P 0 m + ?I 0 3 q + z 0 3 QB 1 fB ?I 7 1 0 P 0 m + .

000 ft (+2 1.0 3.240 m) 178.84 +35.620 m) t 57.3 0 1997.Table 4 4 Pressure Values For Various Pressure Altitude Levels Pressure Altitude +15.18 37.10 429.000 ft (+15.69 91. .3 2.60 376.2 +55.8 7.0 Et (+10.00 1 1.04 238.0 68.4 23.0 16.4 1. RTCA.60 116.668 m) +50.572 m) +25.000 f (+7.336 m) 9.8 282.000 ft (+4. Inc.000 f (+16.42 87.764 m) t +70.89 571.44 44.12 4.0 11.31 33.

to of 3) T to T4 is time for equipment temperature stabilize. Inc.I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I 8 I I I I I I I I I I OpEiuRlGUIw l w f4 EE m + I k ]VOTES. 5 ) If the ground survival and operating temperature are identical. 3 to 4) T4 to T5 is 0. plus a minimum three hours.5 hours. minimum. apure 4-1 Ground SurvivalLow Temperature And Operating Low Temperature Test 0 1997. the time from to low low T2 T4 is zero. D D 1) Temperature rates from T to T and from T2 to T are not specified. O 1 3 2) T1 to T2 is time for equipment temperaturestabilize. . RTCA.

minimum. the time from T2 5) If the short-time high and ground survival high temperatures to T4 is zero. Figure 4-2 Ground Survival High Temperature And Short-Time Operating High Temperature Test Q 1997.NOTES. 1) Temperature rates from T to T1 and from T2 to T3 are not specified. are identical. . plus a minimum three of hours. O 2) T1 to T2 is time for equipment temperature stabilization time.5 hours. 3) T3 to T4 is 0. 6 ) See Note 2 of the test procedure if the short-time high operating temperature is the same as the operating high temperature. Inc. minimum. RTCA.5 hours. 4) T4 to TS is 0.

EWlPMEHTCFEWTffi I I 8 c MB €VOTES. O 2) T1 to T2 is time for equipment temperature stabilize. RTCA.0 hours. minimum. to 3) T2 to T3 is 2. 1) Temperature rate from T to T1 is not specified. Inc. . Figure 4-3 Operating High Temperature Test Q 1997.

RTCA. T1 to T2 istimeforequipmenttemperaturetostabilize.4 fortimeduration T2 to T3. Seeparagraph 4.Notes: 1) 2) 3) Temperature rate from T to T not O 1 isspecified. Inc.5. Fipure 4-4 In-Flight Loss Of Cooling Test (9 1997. .

RTCA.4-15 R I\ i I I 1 I EQUIVALENT PRESSURE(SE TABLE4. minimum. 1 2) T to T2 is timefor equipment temperatureto stabilize.1) NOTES: 1) Pressure rate from TO to T is not specified. Inc. Figure 4-5 Altitude Test 0 1997. . 1 3) T2 to T3 is 2.0 hours.

. RTCA./ Q 1997. Inc.

B u. 3) T3 to T4 is minimum time necessary to operate and test equipment. 2) T1 to T2 is 10 minutes. minimum. . A m NOTES: . Inc. 1) Pressure rates from TO to T1 and from T2 to T3 are not specified. RTCA. Figure 4-7 Overpressure Test 0 1997.

This page intentionally left blank. .

Date ofIssue: July 29. 1997 Supersedes: RTCADO. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue.5 13 .2 and 3. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditions andTest Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 5 Temperature Variation Important Notice Information pertinent to this test procedure is contained is applicable in Sections 1. Inc. for identifying the environmental tests performed.RTCA. NW Suite 1020 Washington. Further.160C Prepared by: SC.

.. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .Page 5. .. . .. .1 5-1 5. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . ..I 5. . . . . . .. .1 Purpose of the Test . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .. .. . . . . . . . 5-3 . . .0 Temperature Variation . . 5. . . . . .. . 5.. . . . . . .. . .. . ... . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. . .. . . . .1 Temperature Variation Test . . . . . . . . .. ..1 Figure 5.. . ...3 Test Procedures . .. . . . . . . . . . .2 Temperature Change Rates . . .. . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 5.. . . .... .. . .

paragraph 4. lower the temperature in the chamber towards the operating low temperature level at the applicable rates specified in Subsection 5.2 and the operating high temperature test. 5.3.3 Test Procedures The temperature variation test can be combined to include the procedures of the ground survival low temperature test and operating low temperature test. 0 1997.2 and 4. which describes the ground survival low temperature test and the operating low temperature test. and it is required that the equipment be subjectedto this temperature variation test when such equipment is tested according to the procedures contained in paragraphs 4.3 are to as follows: Category A For equipment external to the aircraft: 10 degrees Celsius minimum per minute.1 5.0 Temperature Variation Purpose of the Test This test determines performance characteristics of the equipment during normal temperature variations between high and operating temperature extremes specified for low the applicable categories of Table 4-1 during flight operations. .5. This is a dynamic test. Note: Equipment qualified to Category B is considered to have met Category C.5.3. RTCA. paragraph 4. proceed in accordance with paragraph 4. The following procedures shall apply: a.1. Category C - For equipment in a temperature-controlled internal section of the aircraft: 2 degrees Celsius minimum per minute. paragraph 4.1.5. Category B - For equipment in a non-temperature-controlled or partially temperature controlled internal section of aircraft: the 5 degrees Celsius minimum per minute.2.5. If the test is a combined test.5.5. 5.5-1 5. Aftercompletion of the test defined in paragraph 4. commencingat ambient temperature with the equipment operating.5. If the test isnot a combined test.5. the ground survival high temperature test and short-time operating high temperature test.2 Temperature Change Rates The rates applicable the temperature variation procedures definedin Subsection 5. Inc. 4.1 proceed to subparagraph c.1.

ge. The test profile is shown graphically in Figure 5-1. I f complete determination of compliance with applicable equipment performance standards can be accomplished during each temperature change period of a single cycle. A minimum of two cycles (a. f. Thenthe off turn 30 the equipment for minutes. above during the second cycle. h.2.2. and restart the equipment while maintainingchamber at the operating low temperature. Change the temperature of the chambertowards the ambient temperature at the applicable rates specified in Subsection 5. operating low temperature and operating high temperature tests as defined in steps a. Note: If this is combined test. Maintain the equipment in a non-operating state for 2 * O S minutes. .b. Inc.Turn the equipment on lower the temperature in the chamber towards the and operating low temperature level at the applicable specified in Subsection 5. above) shall be accomplished.the time during a temperature change period does If not allow for complete determination of compliance with applicable equipment performance standards. e.5.2. d. rates During this temperature change DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH THE APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.2. g. it is not necessary to repeat ground survival. then testing is required during the second cycle only. Stabilize the chamberand the equipment at ambient temperature. DETERMINE COMPLIANCEWITHTHEAPPLICABLEEOUIPMENTPERFORMANCE STANDARDS. through h. Raise the temperature in the chamber towards the operating high temperature at applicable rates specified in Subsection5. short time a the operating high temperature. RTCA. +'c C.3. and then operate the equipment for at least one hour.5. and d. If this is a combined test. Stabilize the equipment at the operating high temperature. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE THE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.During this temperature chr.-. 0 1997. Stabilize the equipment in the operating mode at this operating low temperature level. Stabilize the equipment temperature with the chamber at the operating low temperature. a sufficient number of cycles shall accomplishedso that completecompliance be can be determined. and subsequently paragraph 4. proceed in accordance with paragraph 4.

Inc. . RTCA.Q 1997.

This page intentionally left blank. .

Date of Issue: July 29.RTCA. &penis applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed. Inc. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO. NW Suite 1020 Washington.135 . DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment SatiQnA Humidity Important Notice Information pertinent to this procedure is contained in Sections 1.160C Prepared by: SC.2 test and 3. Further.

.................5 Other Specified Checks ............3..........2 6......Standard HumidityEnvironment . 6-5 6-6 6-7 .......3..................................................4 Conducting Spot Checks ..0 6............. 6..........................Standard Humidity Environment Test ..... PurposeoftheTest ..............................3 Category C ... 6.External Humidity Environment Test ........................ 6....... Test Procedures ............................ Figure 6-3 Category C ..................................................Severe Humidity Environment Test ..........3...............3..................1 Category A ..... 6... Figure 6-2 Category B .............................................ExternalHumidityEnvironment .......Severe HumidityEnvironment .....1 6.......................................................... 6....3 Humidity ..........Page 6.2 Category B .3.... 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-4 Figure 6-1 Category A .................................... Equipment Categories ...

6. “Order of Tests”). Corrosion. non-civil transport aircraft and other classes. unless stated otherwise in the following steps.2 Equipment Categories The standard humidity environment ordinarily provides anadequate test environment for equipment intended for installation in civil aircraft. Equipment may be required be operated under conditions such that it is subjected to to direct contact with outside air for periods of time in excess of that specified for the standard humidity environment.0 6. Change of equipment characteristics resulting from the absorptionofhumidity. Inc. . Electrical (conductors and insulators). Thermal (insulators). within environmentally controlled compartments of aircraft in which the severe humidity environment is not normally encountered. 63 . b.2.6.1 Humidity Purpose of the Test This test determines the ability of the equipment to withstand either natural or induced humid atmospheres. For example: Mechanical (metals). Moisture shall be provided by 0 1997. RTCA. Test Procedures Subject the equipment to an atmosphere in whichthe relative humidity is at least 95 percent. The main adverse effects to be anticipated are: a. Chemical (hygroscopic elements). Note: The humidity test shall not be conducted prior to the temperature/altitude tests and vibrationtests (See Subsection 3. Equipment installed in zones not environmentally controlled may be required be to operated under conditions such that it is subjected to a more severe atmospheric humidity environment for periods of time in excess of that specified for the standard humidity environment.

The procedure shall be accordance in with the following steps: 0 1997. Within one after the hour two cyclesare completed.2 Category BSevere Humidity Environment The test profile is shown graphically in Figure 6-2.5 or the water a resistivity shallnot be less than250.000 ohm centimeters when measured at25 degrees Celsius. make such tests and measurements necessaryto I1E=. Repeat these steps until a total of two cycles (48 hours of exposure) have been completed. as are TERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.7 meters per second. decreasethe temperature graduallyto 38 degrees Celsiusor lower. keep the 85 relative humidityas high as possible and do not allow it to fall below percent. 6. The test chamber shall vented to the atmosphere prevent be to buildup of pressure. warm up the equipment 15 minutes maximum bythe for application of heat not exceed the short-time operating high temperature test to as required by applicable equipment categories.2 and 3 constitute a cycle.5 and 1. For equipment that does not require electrical power for operation. . Step 5: At the end ofthe exposure period.3. Immediately following the warm-up period. RTCA.5 and 7. 95 Step 3: During the next16-hour period. Inc. remove the equipment from test chamber the and drainoff (do not wipe) any condensed moisture.1 Category A-Standard Humidity Environment The test profile is shown graphically Eipure 6-1. apply normal supply power and on the equipturn ment. raise the chamber temperaor ture to 50 degrees Celsius and increase relative humidityto at least95 the percent. plusor minus 15 minutes. and provisions shall be made to prevent water from dripping onto the equipment.6-7 steam or by evaporation of water having pH value between 6. The velocity of air throughout the exposure area shall be between 0. at Step 2: Maintain the chamber temperature 50 degrees Celsius with the relative humidity at least percent forsix hours minimum.3. 6. plus minus 10 minutes. Step 4: Steps 1. The procedure shall be accordance in in with the following steps: Step 1: Over a two-hour period. Duringthis period. Allow 15 minutes maximum following the application of primary power for the equipment to warm up.

apply normalsupply power andturn on the equipment. removethe equipment from the test chamber and drain off (do not wipe) any condensed moisture. . Step 5: At the end of the exposure period. The procedure shall be in accordance Step 1: Over a two-hour period. 0 1997. Inc.3 Category C-External Humidity Environment The test profile is shown graphically in F with the following steps: i g u r e . Duringthis period.raise the chamber temperature to 65 degrees Celsius and increasethe relative humidity to at least 95 percent. 6.3. plus or minus 10 minutes. warm up the equipment for 15 minutes maximum by the application of heat not to exceed the short-time operating high temperature test as required by applicable equipment categories. Step 4: Steps 1.For equipment that does not require electrical power for operation. Step 3: During the next 16-hour period. Step 3: During the next 16-hour period.decrease the temperature gradually to 38 degrees Celsius or lower. During this period. Allow 15 minutes maximum following the application of primary powerfor the equipment to warm up. Within one hour after the 10 cycles are completed. keep the relative humidity as high as possible and do not allow it to fall below 85 percent. Repeat these steps until a total of 10 cycles (240 hours of exposure) have beencompleted. keep the relative humidity as high as possible and do not allow it to fall below 85 percent. Step 2: Maintain the chamber temperature at 55 degrees Celsius with the relative humidity at least 95 percent for six hours minimum. Step 2: Maintain the chamber temperature at 65 degrees Celsius with the relative humidity at least 95 percent for six hours minimum.Step 1: Over a two-hour period.2 and 3 constitute a cycle. RTCA.plus or minus 15 minutes. Immediately following the warm-up period.decrease the temperature gradually to 38 degrees Celsius or lower. make such tests and measurements as are necessary to DETERMINE 2 NCE STANDARDS. plusor minus 10 minutes.plus or minus 15 minutes.raise the chamber temperature to 55 degrees Celsius and increase the relative humidity to atleast 95 percent.

3.5 Other Specified Checks If the applicable performance standardrequires that other checks be made to determine compliance. make such tests and measurements as are necessary to @ TERMWE COMPJJANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFOR- M A N C E . Within hour after the six cycles are completed. Allow 15 minutes maximum following the application of primary power for the equipment to warm up. Repeat these steps until a total of six cycles (144 hours ofexposure) have been completed. Step 5: At the end of the exposure period.2 and 3 constitute a cycle. RTCA. Inc. 6. the equipment may be operatedat the end of each of the 6 or 10 cycles as appropriate for a period not to exceed 15 minutes. For equipment that does not require electrical power for operation. Immediately following the warm-up period. 6. andthe equipment shall not be operated for more than 15 minutes of this 20-minute period. removethe equipment from the test chamber one and drain off (do not wipe) any condensed moisture. warm up the equipment for 15 minutes maximum by the application of heat notto exceed the short-time operating high temperature test as required by applicable equipment categories. the period of removal shall not exceed20 minutes. 0 1997.4-4 Step 4: Steps 1. If the equipment is removed fromthe test chamber to conduct a spotcheck. .3.4 Conducting Spot Checks For conducting spot checks on the performance of the equipment under test. apply normalsupply power and turn on equipthe ment. these shall also be performed during this test.

for continuation of test after the eud of the 2nd cycle. Step 5. O 2 k10 T1 T2 is hours. RTCA. to 6 minimum.Equipment Not Operating tlmo (Hour. fall See paragraph 6. Inc.1.) T O 11 12 15 la FiFure 6-1 Category A Standard Humidity Environment Test NOTES: 1) 2) 3) 4) - T to T1 is hours minutes. T2 to T3 is 16 hours k l 5 minutes. (8 1997. During this period. . relative humidity should not below 85%.3.

fall See paragraph 6. relative humidity should not below 85%. Inc.2. Step 5. 1 T to T2 is 6 hours. for continuation of test after the end of the 1 t cycle.1 Equipment Not Operating Cycle 1 limo (Hours) 13 I I I T O 11 12 T3 m u r e 6-2 Category B Severe Humidity Environment Test NOTES: - 1) 2) 3) 4) TO to T is 2 hours *10 minutes.minimum. RTCA. 1 T2 to T3 is 16 hours *15 minutes. During this period. .3. 0h 8 1997.

Inc. t 0 1997. forcontinuation of testaftertheend .urre 6-3 Category C External Humidity Environment Ts et NOTES: - 1) 2) 3) 4) T t T is 2 hours *lo minutes. O o 1 T to T2 is 6 hours.L Equipment Not Operating Tlmo (Hours) T O 11 ' T2 Ta 1s Eie. RTCA. .. of the 6 h cycle. See paragraph 6 3 3 Step 5.During this period. 1 T2 to T is 1 hours *15 minutes.relative 3 6 humidity should not fall below 85%.. minimum.

This page intentionally left blank. .

Amendix A applicable identifying the environmentaltests performed. Further.5 13 . Inc. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditions andTest Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 7 Operational Shocks and Crash Safety Important Notice Information pertinent this procedure to test is contained in is for Sections 1. NW Suite 1020 Washington. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO.160C Prepared by: SC.RTCA. Date of Issue: July 29. 2 and 3. 1140 Connecticut Avenue.

............................................... 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-4 ..................1 Purpose of the Tests .......1 Test Procedure ......... 7........................... 7.....................................................1 Figure 7-2 Terminal Sawtooth Pulse Configuration and Its Tolerance Limits ........................................................................................2 Alternate Test Procedure ... 7..............................2 Operational Shocks ..................................1 Test Procedure 1 (Impulse)................................................ 7.............................................................................................................................................Page 7.................2.......................................................................................3............ 7............. 7............ Table 7........1 Crash Safety SustainedTest Levels ................................... Figure 7-3 Definitions for CrashSafetySustained Test ...............0OperationalShocksandCrash Safety ...........2..............................................................................................................................................3........................... 7...........2 Test Procedure 2 (Sustained)..........3....3 Crash Safety .........................1.............................................................. 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-3 7-3 7-3 7-3 7-4 Shock Measuring SystemFrequencyResponse ............................. Figure 7................................ 7...................... 7........................1 Equipment Categories................................................................................1 .....lAlternate Test Procedure (Impulse)..

instead of the standard curve for equipment items on aircraft designed to operate on exceptionally (not to ICAO standards) rough runways.0 7.1 Operational Shocks and Crash Safety Purpose of the Tests The operational shock test verifies that the equipment will continue to function within performance standards after exposure toshocksexperienced during normal aircraft operations. These tests do not satis@ FAR requirements for all equipment. Twooperational shock test curves are provided. RTCA. gust and landing) in addition to the crash safety loads. the 7.1.1 Equipment Categories Category A Equipment generally installed in fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters and tested standard operational shocks. @ .g. e. a standard 1 1 msec pulse and a low frequency 20 msec pulse. i. Category D Equipment generally installed in fixed-wing aircraft and tested for operational lowfrequency shock. Note: For fixed-wing aircraft: a complete installation demonstration. 1997. fuel systems or emergency evacuation equipment. This test applies to all equipment installed on fixedwing aircraft and helicopters. It applies to equipment installed in compartments and other areas of the aircraft where equipment detached during emergency landing could present a hazard to occupants. seats and seat restraints. These shocks may occur during taxiing. Inc.7-1 7. may be accomplished by using the “Unknown or Random” orientations for the “sustained”test procedure. landing or when the aircraft encounters sudden gusts in flight. including aircraft acceleration loads (such as flight maneuvering. Using a dummy load on the shock test apparatus may be necessary to ensure that the recorded shock pulse will be within specified tolerances of Figure 7-2. The 20 msec pulse may be selected. The crash safety test verifies that certain equipment will not detach from its mountings or separate in a manner that presents a hazard during an emergency landing.e. Category B Equipment generally installed in fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters and tested standard operational shock andcrash safety. for for Category C Equipment generally installed in helicopters and tested for operational shock and crash safety.

Suspended down. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. The accelerometer used to measure or control the input shock pulse shall be placed as close as practicable to an equipment attachment point. An equivalent shock response spectrum may replace the terminal -. C. Normal upright.1 Test Procedure Secure the equipment to a shock table by means of a rigid test fixture and mounting means intended for use in service installations.With the equipment operating and with its temperature stabilized. The test system accuracy to measure acceleration shall bewithin + 10 percent of standard reading. @ 1997. d. upside At orientations such that the first major orthogonal axis of the equipment successively forms angles of +90 degrees and -90 degrees (two orientations) with the plane of the table. the monitoring requirements must be statedin the relevant equipment specification. At orientations such that the second major orthogonal axis of the equipment successively forms angles of +90 degrees and -90 degrees (two orientations) with the plane of the table. saw-tooth waveshape.7-2 Category E Equipment generally installed in fixed-wing aircraft andtested for operational lowfrequency shock andcrash safety. The characteristics of instrumentation used to demonstrate compliance and the shock pulse tolerance limits are shown in Figures 7-1 and 72 respectively. apply to the test item three shocks in each orientation having a terminal saw-tooth wave shape with an acceleration peak value of six (6) g’s. The mounting of the equipment should include those non-structural connections that are a normal part of the installation. The nominal pulse duration shall be 1 1 ms for standard shock testing and 20 ms for low frequency shock testing. the equipment shall be shock tested in the following orientations: a. Afier application of the shocks. 7. Inc. .2. 7. When using a conventional drop shock machine. b. RTCA. If equipment requires monitoring during the application of the shock pulses.2 Operational Shocks Performance compliance requirements are normally required following application of the shocks.

There shall be no failure of the mounting attachment and the equipment or dummy load shall remain in place. providedthat three shocks are applied in both directions of the three orthogonal axes. After application of the six shocks. In certain cases.2. 1 During these tests (paragraphs 7. bending and distortion shall be permitted. except the acceleration peak value shall be 20 g for fixed-wing aircraft and 20 g for helicopters.1. RTCA. The equivalent weight shall not contribute to the strength of the equipment case or its mounting fastenings to a greater extent than the components it replaces.1. Such equivalent weight shall approximate the weight of the components that it replaces and shall be so located that the center of gravity of the equipment is essentially unchanged.however. 7. 7.2. Inc.1 Test Procedure 1 (Impulse) Secure the equipment or dummy load to a shock table by means of a rigid test fixture and mounting means intendedfor use in service installations.1.1 with the equipment mounted in its normal operating orientation provided that these shocks are applied in both directions of the three (3) orthogonal axes. as spatially oriented in its customary aircraft installation).2 Test Procedure It is permissible to apply the shocks specified in paragraph 7.17.1 Alternate Test Procedure (Impulse) It is permissible to apply the shocks specified in paragraph 7. or an equivalent weight (dummy load) may be substituted for electrical-mechanical components normally mounted within or on the equipment case. It is expected that Test Procedure 2 will normally be carried out using a centrifuge or sled.2. 1997.. apply one shock having a wave shape identical to that specified in paragraph 7.3 Crash Safety1 If the crash safety test is applicable.1 with the equipment mounted in its normal operating orientation (i.3.2).it is acceptable to simulate the effects of inertia by applying forces statically through the center of gravityof the equipment under test.3. @ . providing itcanbe determined that other parts within the equipment can be contained within the casing of the equipment should they break loose. both the impulse and sustained test procedures shall be performed.2.3. 7.7-3 Alternate 7. In each of the six equipment orientations listed in paragraph 7.3.e.3.

Theapplicable test levels are given in 7-1 Table 7-1 (*).3.0 1.0 18.0 4.56 1 (2) Reference FAR 25.5 18.0 Forward 16. is unknown or Random orientation. After application of the six loads. then the random orientation is required along eachdirection of the equipment’s three orthogonal axes (Figure 7-3).0 20.0 18 18.0 8.0 20.7-4 7.0 9.0 18.0 1 2. then the required load and direction of load relative to the equipment can be determined.0 20.561 (3) Reference FAR23.0 20.0 Notes: (1) Reference FAR 27.0 9.0 NA 40 .0 3.0 9. bending and distortion shall be permitted. Table 7-1 Crash Safety Sustained Test Levels Aircraft Type Sustained Test Acceleration (g Minimum) Test Direction of Load for Equipment Orientation Type (5) I 1 UP 1. “R” * Caution: These test levels may not satisfy the installation requirement in the FARs @ 1997.0 20.0 20.0 18.O Aft NA 20.0 1. There shall beno failure of the mounting attachment and the equipment or dummy load shall remain in place. 9. Helicopter andAll Fixed-Wing F R F R F R 9.0 18.0 20. Apply the appropriate test loads for a minimum of three seconds in each direction of load.0 18.0 20. If the orientation of the equipment under test is unknown or not fixed in relation to the aircraft axes. Helicopters (1) Down 20.0 20. Where the orientation of the equipment to the aircraft axes is known.0 NA 18 18.0 6. All Fixed-Wing 5.5 18.0 3 .0 6.0 3. .0 4. Inc. Fixed-Wing Non-Transport (3) F R F R 4.0 4. RTCA.0 20.0 1. “Direction of load” in Table -applies to the aircraft’s majororthogonal axes.5 Side (4) 8.5 18. Fixed-Wing Transport(2) 3.0 9.2 Test Procedure 2 (Sustained) Secure the equipment or dummy load to test facility by means of a rigid test fixture and mounting means intendedfor use in service installation.56 1 (4) Side includes both left and right directions ( 5 ) “F” is known and Fixed orientation.5 18.0 4.

30 0. * VOLTAGE IN 1.10 1.w 0.80 0. RTCA.20 I 0.so 0. .70 0.40 I I 0. Inc.10 I I I I I I I I I I I .oo V A- UPPER LIMIT 0.10 I I I I I I I I I I I 0.a Figure 7-1 Shock Measuring System Frequency Response @ 1997.7-5 RL SYSTEM TVCICAL OUtCUt TERMINATION E.

Inc.1 determine velocity change shall extend 0. r .4 D before the pulse to D after the pulse.Ideal Sawtooth Pulse Tolerance Limits 1 - I I-. RTCA. where Vi is the velocity change associated with the ideal pulse which equals 0. The measured acceleration pulse shall be contained within the dashed line boundaries and the measured velocity change (which may be obtained by integration of the acceleration pulse) shall be within the limits Vi * 0. Minimum time during which the pulse shall be monitored for shocks produced using a vibration generator. Fimre 7-2 Terminal Saw-ToothShock Pulse Configuration And Its Tolerance Limits 1997. or T2=6D -’ .3 A c D= A= T1= T2= Duration of nominal pulse. with a pulse located approximately in the center.5 DA. The integration to from 0.3D -m -D T1=3D.1 Vi.2 A I ----t . @ . Peak value (A) (g) Nominal duration (D) (ms) Test (impulse) Fixed-win&d c Operational Standard Operational Low-frequency Crash safety Helicopter Operational Crash safety I 1 6 20 Note: The oscillogram shall include a time duration T. Peak acceleration of nominal pulse. The acceleration amplitude of the terminal saw-tooth pulse is A and its duration is D. Minimum time during which the pulse shall be monitored for shocks produced using a conventional shock testing machine. or T.

Inc. . CENTRIFUGE DEFINITIONS Fipure 7-3 Definitions For Crash Safety Sustained Test @ 1997.7-7 UP t AIRCRAFT DIRECTIONS U L ROTAmoN U I ROTAhON DtRtCTlON . RTCA.

.This page intentionally left blank.

NW Suite 1020 Washington. Inc. Amendix Aisapplicableforidentifyingthe environmental tests performed. and 3. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO.160C P r e p a d by: SC-135 .RTCA. 1140 Connecticut Avenue. Date of Issue: July 29. 2. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 8 Vibration Important Notice Information pertinentto this test procedure is contained in Sections 1. Further.

..........1......................... 8-17 Test Figure 8-2 Standard and Robust Sinusoidal Vibration Curves for Equipment Installed in Applicable Zones in Fixed-Wing Aircraft with Turbojet or Turbofan Engines and Unducted FanEngines.........2 Measurement of Acceleration Power Spectral Density ..... 8-7 8........................................1...........................................................Unknown Helicopter Frequencies (fuselage and instrument panel only) ......................2 Category andTest Curvenevel Selection .......................................... 8-2 8..... 8-1 8-1 8.5............0 Vibration ............ 8-6 Aircraft ...........................................................Short Duration Vibration Test Procedure 8-9 8......1 Vibration Test Definitions .............3 Robust Vibration Test .......1 Sinusoidal Control Input ........... 8................................1 ............................. RTCA......................................................................... 8-5 8................. 8-18 Figure 8-3 Standard Sinusoidal VibrationTest Curves for Equipment Installed in Fixed-Wing Aircraft with Reciprocating or Turbopropeller Engines ..................................................................1 Standard Random VibrationTest Curves for Equipment Installed in Fixed-wing Aircraft with Turbojet or Turbofan Engines .................5 Standard Vibration Test Procedure-Fixed Wing 8. 8-1 8...4.............................................2 Digital AnalyzerRequirements ....................2......................1 Standard VibrationTest ..1 Sine-on-Random Test Procedure .........1....................... 8-12 8............................................................................... 8-11 8.....................................................................2 High Level-Short Duration Vibration Test ..............Page 8.........................................................................2...... 8-22 0 1997............................................................2 Random Test Procedure...8.................... 8-10 8................2 Sine and Random Test Levels...........2.............5...................4 Vibration Test Level Requirements ............8....2...................2................................ 8-5 8.................2.............................................................. 8-13 Figure 8......2........ 8-11 8..........................................8............................. 8-20 Figure 8-5 High-Level Short DurationSinusoidal Vibration Test Curves for Equipment Installed on Fixed-Wing Aircraft with Turbojet or Turbofan Engines ...................................... 8-1 8...............1 Control Level Tolerance Requirements............. 8-11 8.......................1 Purpose of the Tests........... 8-1 8........................ 8-8 ................................... ......................... 8-21 Figure 8-6 Sine-On-Random VibrationTest Curve for Helicopters ......................... Inc......3 Procedure ............. 8-7 8.....................................................2 Random Test Procedure............................................................................................................Known Helicopter Frequencies...................................... 8-1 8..................1 Sinusoidal TestProcedure ..........4...........7 Robust Vibration Test Procedure-Fixed-Wing Aircraft ..................................................................1...................................2 Applicability ....................................................................1......... 8-9 8.1 Category Selection .....................................................................................6 High Level ................4...................... 8-5 8.........................................7..............4.......4............................................................................ 8-11 8......................8 Vibration Test for Helicopters.....4.. Figure 8-4 Robust RandomVibration Test Curves for Equipment Installed in Fixed-Wing Aircraft with Turbojet or Turbofan Engines...... 8-2 8. 8 19 .1.............................1...........................................1 Test Frequencies .............. 8-8 8....2...........2 Random ControlInput ..... 8-1 8..............3 Vibration Test Requirements...........................................................................................................................................7......................................................................................................................................................2....................................................................... 8-6 8................................................................1 Sinusoidal TestProcedure .............2 Random Test Procedure .............8..2........................... 8................... 8-3 8..................................................... 8-5 8....................................1 Analog Analyzer Requirements..... 8-4 8.................................................................8............2.......... 8-5 8.......................2 Test Curves ..............

...................... 16 .............................................................................. 8-23 ....... 8-15 for Table 8-2b Sine-on-Random Vibration Test Levels Helicopters.................Figure 8-7 Random Test Curves for Helicopters Fuselageand Instrument Panel (Unknown Frequencies) ............8-14 Table 8-1 Categorization and Vibration Tests by Aircraft Types and Equipment Locations Table 8-2a Sine-on-Random Vibration Test Frequencies Helicopters....................... for 8....................................

This page intentionally left blank. .

2.1 Vibration Test Definitions Standard Vibration Test The standard vibration demonstrate equipment meet functional tests that will its performance requirements during normal operating conditions of the aircraft.2 Applicability Vibration tests apply to equipment installed on fixed-wing propeller aircraft. .1 8.2.2.1 8.2) category and3) aircraft zone location.It combines a demonstration ofthe equipments functionalperformanceandstructuralintegrity.13 Robust Vibration Test The robust vibration test demonstrates that equipment will operate satisfactorily while subjected to a performance vibration level and continue operate satisfactory after being to subjected to an endurance vibration level. Vibration tests to be performed on any equipment item are selected this paragraph and in are specified by three identifiers: aircraft type.Thistestshould be performedonall equipment where its resistance to effects of long duration exposureto vibration must be demonstrated.2.2. Q 1997.0 8. 1) The test curves to be applied are then specified in paragraph 8.1. 8. The necessity for conducting thistest in lieu of the standard vibration test shall be determined by the relevant equipment specification.1 VIBRATION Purpose of the Tests Thesetestsdemonstratethattheequipmentcomplieswiththeapplicableequipment performance standards when subjected to vibration levels specified for the appropriate category. 8.2. fixed-wing turbojet. and propfan aircraft and helicopters. Inc. are 8. 8. turbofan.RTCA.2 High Level-Short Duration Vibration Test High-levelshortdurationtransientvibrationlevelsareencounteredduringabnormal aircraft vibration conditions which occur during blown tires and engine fan blade loss.8.1. This test should be applied to equipment in which a functional loss of performance can hazardously affect the aircraft's performance. Requirements and procedures to accomplish these tests specified in subsequent paragraphs herein.

3 Hrs Endurance level and 30 min perf.2. .2.8-2 8. 3 Hrs Endurance level and 30 min perf. level (repeated in all 3 axis) NA R Helicopter w/Known Frequencies Fixed-Wing I NA 24 MinlAxis sine (10-250 HZ) Sine-On-Random.)Demonstratesperformanceathigher 2 vibration levels and after long term vibration exposure.1 Category and Test Curve/Level Selection Category Selection Theappropriatetestcategory selected fortheequipment from thecategoriesdefined the below. Cateeorv H or H2: (Standardvibrationandhigh-levelshortdurationvibration. They are representative oflevels expected on many fixed wing aircraft but may not be sufficient for all. level.Short Robust Vibration NA s or s 2 H or H2 Fixed-Wing NA R or R2 Fixed-Wing Sine of 3 HrdAxis less 30 middwell or (max 4 dwells) Random at 30 min perf. Cateporv T or " : (Robustandhigh-levelshortdurationvibration. Categories denoted by the numbertwo (2) are the sameas those in RTCADO-160C.2 8.)Demonstratesperformanceat for higher vibration levels and after long term vibration exposurefuselage and instrument panel equipment when the specific rotor frequencies are unknown. RTCA. - Cateeorv U: (Robustvibration-helicopterwith unknown rotorfrequencies. Categories without the number two (2) contain higher levels and reflectthe expected environment for all cases.)Demonstratesfunctional performance during normal operational environments and high-level short duration vibration. Inc. 30 level. It also demonstrates performance during high level short duration vibration.)Demonstratesfunctionalperformanceduringnormaloperational vibration environments. level. Cateeorv R or W : (Robust vibration. level. 30 min at perf. 3 Hrs Robust level and30 min at perf. level . should be based upon the level of assurance required for equipment's demonstration of performance. Category Aircraft Type Fixed-Wing Standard High Level 1 Hr/Axis sine or random at perf.) Demonstrates performance at higher vibration levels and after long term vibration exposure. level (repeated in all 3 axis) Random. level (repeated in 3 all axis) Sine of 3 HrdAxis less 30 middwell or (max 4 dwells) Random at 30 min perf. 3 Hrs Endurance level and min at perf.2. 30 min at perf. @ 1997. level (repeated inall 3 axis) T or T2 NA U Helicopter wNnknown Frequencies k Cateeorv S or S2: (Standardvibration.

0 dB reduction would reduce the APSD level to 1/4 and the sinusoidal level to 1/2 of the original level.2 Test Curves Table 8-1 specifies the appropriate test curves to be used for the applicable category and aircraft zone for each aircraft type. stringers. skin and other fuselage structure or brackets. Note that the zone for "instrumentpanel.454 kg (1.8-3 8. .0 dB.7kg (50 Ibs). The "fuselage" zoneapplies to all equipment not installed in multiple slot equipment racks but that is attached to frames.) Equipment on external vibratiodshock isolators -. All test curves specified for a given category and zone must be performed. Weight Allowance -.O lb) equipment weight increment above 22. Inc.a reduction in standard and robust test levels for frequencies above 60 Hz is allowed using the following schedule: The random and sinusoidal standard and robust test levels may be reduced by 0. (Note that a 6.For equipment itemsweighing greater than 22. console andracks" includes interior items attached to the galley interior partitions and cabin floor and is separate from the "fuselage" zone. The test levels for the curves of Table 8-1 are shown in 2 J Figures 8-1 to 8-5.2.Equipment that is providedwith external vibration isolators shall be tested with the isolators. RTCA.10 dB for each 0.7 kg (50 Ib) to a maximum reductionof 6. @ 1997. for fixed-wing aircraft and Tables 8-2a and & for helicopters with Figure 8-7 for Category U.2.

where practicable. The random vibration signal should have a Gaussian distribution. The equipment shall be attached to the fixture or vibration table by the meansspecifiedin the equipmentspecification. RTCA. The control accelerometer(s) shall be attached to the test fixtureas near as practicable to theequipmentmountinglocationforeachaxisoftest. spectrum APSD or plots as appropriateshall be made to demonstrate thatthe control levels meet the test level requirements. . If the random vibration test requirements exceedthe power capability of the vibration test system. Any test fixture used shall be rigid and symmetricalas as practicable. The accuracy of the instrumentation system for measuring sinusoidal acceleration shall be +lo percent for acceleration and percent for frequency. large components and modules.Whenmorethanone accelerometer is employed for test level control.Forall vibration input types. the average of theaccelerometer control signals for sinusoidal tests or the average of the acceleration power spectral densities (APSDs) forrandomtestsshallbeused as the test levelcontrol. Locations selected include may principal structure. The specified test time shall be applied to each frequency band. b.8-4 8. Install the equipment under test so the input vibratory motion is parallel to one of its three major orthogonal axes. 0 1997.3 Vibration Test Requirements The following general requirements apply for all vibration tests: a. c. printed circuit boards.Whereapplicable. and instantaneous the vibration acceleration peaks of the control signal maybe limited to three times the g rms acceleration level. Inc. +2 e. the test may performed in separate frequency bands of to 600 Hz and be 10 600 to 2000 Hz.accelerometers shall be attached to the equipment item undergoing vibrationmeasure and record to the of vibration to determine resonant equipment's vibration response in the axis frequencies amplification and factors. d.

The overall g r m s level of the control signal shall be within +20 and -5 percent of the overall m s value for the specified APSD curve.4.000 Hz.0 dB +3 from 500 to 2.1 Sinusoidal Control Input The acceleration test levels specified for any sinusoidal input curve shall be within percent ofthe specified level over the specified frequency range. r 8.1. .5 dB below500 Hz andk3. DiscreteFFT analysis methods are preferred for APSD measurements.2 Random Control Input The acceleration power spectral density (APSD) of the test control signal shall not deviate from the specified requirements by more than dB or-1. Specificanalyzercharacteristicsortheirequivalentshallbe below.4.1. *lo 8.1 Control Tolerance Level Requirements 8.4.2 Measurement of Acceleration Power Spectral Density Analysis and control systems shall use a bandwidth-time (BT) product greater than or as specified equal to 50. Inc.4. @ 1997. RTCA.4 Vibration Requirements Test Level 8.8-5 8.

the number of ensemble averages should be 50 or greater when measuring an APSD). equalization/analysis system havinga bandwidth. (c) Analysis logarithmic sweep rate = R.4. (a) Filter bandwidths. (c) Analysis linear sweep rate = R = B/4RC or B2/8 HAS maximum.e. b. less than or equal to 50 Hz. Af equal to or less than five Hz). B = 10 H z . maximum from 200 to 2. where T = true averaging time and RC = analyzer time constant.4. whichever is smaller.. On-line contiguous filter. R = .B = 50 Hz.o frcP 4RC 8. @ 1997. The bandwidth-time product is equal to the number of records used to obtain one APSD (i.23 fc where P = percentage and fc = analyzer center frequency).2 @fCY 8 W s maximum.2. (b) Analyzer averaging time = T = 2RC = 1 s minimum. B.000 Hz. maximum from 10 to 200 Hz.1 Analog Analyzer Requirements a. Inc.8-6 ~ 8. RTCA. . (a) Filter bandwidth = Pfc = one third octave maximum (0.e. whicheveris smaller Digital Analyzer Requirements Digital powerspectral density analysis system employing discrete frequency analysis techniques shall have a minimum of 400 lines of frequency resolution (i.. (2) Constant percentage bandwidth analyzer.2. Swept frequency analysis systems characterized as follows: (1) Constant bandwidth analyzer. (b) Analyzer averaging time = T = 50/Pfc minimum.

0 octave/minute. RTCA. Critical frequencies are defined as those frequencies where: (1) mechanical vibration resonances have peak acceleration amplitudes greater than twice the input acceleration amplitude.8-7 8. only the sinusoidal or random test needs to be performed. DETERMINECOMPLIANCEWITHAPPLICABLEEOUIPMENTPERFORMANCE STANDARDS DUFUNG AND AT THE CONCLUSION OF STANDARD VIBRATION TESTING. During the initial upsweeps. shall not bea cause for failing the test. Any difficulty in reading any display feature of the test item. . Continue vibration sweep cycling and operation for one hour minimum to DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. 8. or (2) a change in performance or behavior is noticeable whether or not performance standards are exceeded. Although both sinusoidal and random test procedures for the applicable test curves are defined below. Inc.5.1 Sinusoidal Test Procedure In each of the equipment's three orthogonal axes perform the following tests using the appropriate test curves of Figure 8-2 or Figure 8-3. @ 1997. Any changes in the critical frequencies that occur during the test shall be noted on the Environmental Qualification Form (see ADDendix A).5 Standard Vibration Test Procedure-Fixed Wing Aircraft The standard vibration test curves to be used in Table 8-1 for the specified category and zone are given in Figures 8-1 through 8-3 which define either sinusoidal or random test vibration levels.5 mm. when the total displacement of applied input vibration exceeds 0. With the equipment operating. record plots of the accelerometers at the response locations selected and identify the critical frequencies. sweep cycle the vibration frequency over the appropriate frequency range from lowest to the highest (up-sweep) to the lowest(down-sweep) specified frequencies with a logarithmic sweep rate not exceeding 1.

167 Wsec. apply sinusoidal vibration at the levels shown in Figure 8-5 fortheappropriateequipmentzonelocation.6 High Level .8-8 8. . @ 1997. Inc.1.2 Test Random Procedure In each of the equipment's three orthogonal axes perform the following 8. DETERMINE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARD. 8. Changesthe in measuredperformanceorvibrationresonancesshallbenotedon the Environmental Qualification Form (see Appendix A).Short DurationVibrationTestProcedure With the equipment operating. Operational performance during and after the test shall be defined by the equipment specification. appropriate test levels of Figure test using the With the equipment operating. apply the appropriate acceleration power spectral density (APSD) vibration for levela minimum of one-hour-per-axis to DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. RTCA.Performonesinusoidallinearfrequency sweep in each of the equipment's three orthogonal axes from to 250 Hz at a sweep rate 10 COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE not to exceed 0.5. APSD analysisofthe At thebeginningandendofthevibrationperiod.performan vibration acceleration response at the selected positions on the equipment.

Although sinusoidal and random test procedures are defined below. d. Any changes in the critical frequencies that occur during the test shall be noted on the Environmental Qualification Form (see Appendix A). If no change occurs. a statement to that effect shall be included in the declaration. the applied frequency shall be adjusted. if necessary. At the completion of the tests. The time spent at frequency cycling will be three hours minus the time spent at dwells. DETERMINECOMPLIANCEWITHAPPLICABLEEQUIPMENTPERFORMANCE STANDARDS DURING AND THE CONCLUSION OF VIBRATION AT TESTING.7 Robust Vibration Test Procedure-Fixed-Wing Aircraft The robust vibration test curves to be used inTable 8. Following the vibration dwell test. If no critical frequencies are identified. sweep cycle the vibration frequency over the appropriate frequency range from the lowest to the highest(up-sweep) to the lowest(down-sweep) specified frequencies with a logarithmic sweep rate not exceeding 1. then no dwells need be performed.7. During the initial up-sweeps. perform the following test using the appropriate sinusoidal test levels of Figure 8-2. With the equipment operating. Any difficulty in reading any display feature of the test item. b. dwell at each one for a 30-minute period. the equipment shall be inspected and shall show no evidence of structural failure of any internal or external component. For the critical frequencies identified. Inc. 8. c. select the four most severe frequencies.1 Sinusoidal Test Procedure In each of the equipment's three orthogonal axes. @ 1997. a. Dwell at each of these selected frequencies for 30 minutes. unless otherwise specified in the equipment specification. RTCA. only the sinusoidal or random test needs to be performed. The time spent performing these sweeps may be included in the total sweep time ofsubparagraph 8.5 mm. when the total excursion of applied input vibration exceeds 0. shall not be acause for failing the test. Critical frequencies are defined as those frequencies where: (1) mechanical vibration resonances have peak acceleration amplitudes greater than twice the input acceleration amplitude. to maintain the maximum acceleration response at the vibration resonance beingdwelled.7.O octave/minute.1 for the specified category and zone location are given in Figure 8-1 to Figure 8-4 which define either sinusoidal or random vibration levels for the applicable test curve. or (2) a change in performance or behavior is noticeable whether or not performance standards are exceeded. During each resonance dwell. .1 c.8-9 8. If fewer than four critical frequencies are identified. complete vibration testing by frequency sweep cycling. record plots of the accelerometers at the selected response locations and identify the critical frequencies.

7. During this vibration period. perform the following tests using the appropriate test curves of Figure 8. Inc. Unless otherwise defined in the equipment specification.2 Random Test Procedure In each of the equipment's three orthogonal axes. d. At the completion of the tests. With the equipment operating. RTCA. c. repeat the test of subparagraph 8. also perform APSD an analysis of the vibration acceleration response at selected positions on the equipment.1 and Figure 8-4.2. Any change in the performance or the vibration resonance's shall be noted on the Environmental Qualification Form (see Appendix A). . a. the equipment shall be inspected and shall show no evidence of structural failure of any internal or external component. the test item shall be operating during vibration. Apply the appropriate endurance level test APSD of Figure 8-4 for three hours.8-10 8. a. apply the appropriate performance level test APSD of Figure 8-1 for aminimum of 30 minutes to DETERMINECOMPLIANCEWITH APPLICABLE PERFORMANCE EOUIPMENT STANDARDS DURING VIBRATION. After the three-hour test.7. @ 1997. b.

Hz The blade passage frequencies of the rotor blades are defined using the number of blades for the main andtail rotors: NM = Number of blades on the main rotor NM*FM = First blade passage main rotor frequency.8. when the helicopter frequencies are not known. RTCA.8. the random vibration test of Paragraph 8. 8.1. FT = Tail rotor onehev frequency.1 Sine-on-Random Test Procedure .Thecombination of the sinusoidal andrandom curves appear (generically) as shown in Figure 8-6 whichdefines the total test curve.1. 8.8. For the fuselage and instrument panel zones only. . the sine-on-random test must beapplied.8 Vibration Test for Helicopters The test herein is a default test that can be performed on equipment installed on helicopters in which no measured vibration data is available. @ 1997.H z FG = Main gearbox onehev frequency. test levels and test procedure for performing a sine-on-random vibration test are defined below. the sinusoidal levels for each frequency are given in Table 8-2b as well as the random levels. For all other zones. For all equipment in all zones on helicopters when the primary frequencies of the rotational vibration sources are known. the helicopter zone are defined in Table 8-2a. The vibration test is sine-on-random usingthe test procedure given herein. Inc. "tailored" tests may be applied using accepted standard procedures for helicopter tests standards. the test method of Paragraph 8.2 may be applied.8-1 1 8. Hz NT = Number of blades on the tail rotor Hz NT*FT = First blade passage tail rotor frequency. Hz FE = Engine onehev frequency.8. test frequencies to be used for each 8.8.1 Test Frequencies The one-per-revolution frequencies of the four primary rotational sources are defined as: Hz FM = Main rotor one/rev frequency.2 Sine and Random Test Levels Using the four sinusoidal frequencies selected from Table 8-2a for the appropriate zone. For helicopters where data have been measured.1 applies.Known Helicopter Frequencies The test frequencies. When the above frequencies are known.

94)to f* 1. .1.06) (where f i are the four sinusoidal frequencies). With the equipment operating.1. Any change in the c. equipment shall be inspected and shall show no evidence of structural failure any internalor external component. After the three-hour test. d. At the completion of the tests.12 8. b. Inc. the. of @ 1997. During this vibration period. unless otherwise specified in the applicable equipment specification. i( 1 A performance level and endurance level vibration test shall be performedin each of the equipment's three orthogonal axes using the test procedure defined below.~. a. applythe appropriate endurance level test curve of Table 8-1 for three hours. performance of the vibration resonances be on shall noted the Environmental Qualification Form ( see ADpendix A 1. The sinusoidal fiequencies shall be varied at a logarithmic sweep rate not exceeding Oct/min fromfi*(0.3 Procedure The applied controlled input vibration level shall have a frequency content of the sum of the four sinusoidal frequencies and the wide-band random test levels determined above.8. RTCA. apply the appropriate performance level test curve of Table 8-1 foraminimumof 30 minutes to DETERMINECOMPLIANCEWITH APPLICABLE PERFORMANCE EQUIPMENT STANDARDS DURING VIBRATION. repeat the test of subparagraph 8.8.3.8. With the equipment non-operatinq. also perform appropriate spectra analysis of vibration the acceleration responses at selected positions on the equipment.

Any change in the performance or the vibration resonance's shall be noted on the Environmental Qualification Form (see Appendix A). . At the completion of the tests.During this period. repeat the test of subparagraph 8. After the three-hour test. the equipment need not be operating. With the equipment operating.unless otherwise specified.8-13 8.2. evidence of structural failure of any internal or @ 1997. d.Apply the endurancelevel test APSD for three hours. a. c.Unknown Helicopter Frequencies (fuselage andinstrument panel only) In each of the equipment's three orthogonal axes. the equipment shall be inspected and shall show no external component. Inc. RTCA. perform following tests using the test the curve and test levels of Fipure8-7. During this vibration period. apply the performance level test APSD for a minimum of 30 minutes to DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS DURING VIBRATION. b.8.8. perform APSD also an analysis of the vibration acceleration response at selected positions on the equipment. a.2 Random Test Procedure .

b cl E 5 cl b cl E E n 2 cl m i w .

. FG.8-15 ~~ Table 8-2a Sine-on-Random Vibration Test Frequencies for Helicopters Helicopter Zone Vibration Test Frequencies Sinusoidal (1) Test Frequencies I 1 Fuselage I 2 Instrument Panel Console & Equipment Rack 1 I 3 4 Nacelle & I Engine & Gear Box I 5 1 Empennage.RTCA. NM and NT are defined in Paragraph 8.8. Inc. FE.1 @ 1997.1. FT. & Fin Tip 1 fl f 2 f 3 f4 FM NMmFM FT NTmFT FM NMmFM 2oNMmFM FM NMmFM 2mFE NMmFM FG 2mNMmFM FT NTmFT 2mFG 3mNMmFM 3mNMmFM FE FM (1) Note: FM.

.

.002 \-[ 'I D ' .012 3 & $ E I 0. RTCA.E B - 0.A! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I D D n 0..m1 10 20 40 51.8-17 I CURVES I w s 0.7 100 250 200 500 2000 o l0 0 lo000 Frequency (Hz) Note: All slopes are f 6 dB/OCT except a noted on curvesD and E.003 0. Inc.7 B2 I 1 I I n P 0.02 0. s Figure 8-1 Standard Random Vibration Test Curves Equipment for Installed in Fixed-wing Aircraft with Turbojet Turbofan Engines or @ 1997.04 0.1 Y a 0 .08 0.001 I I I I 1 L \ I I I D I D 1 D I I D D I D I I I I I I I I D D D D D D D I I I I I l D D D D D I I I I I \ I I I I I I I 0.

1 0.8-18 0. Fipure 8-2 Standard and Robust Sinusoidal Vibration Test Curves for Equipment Installed in Applicable Zones in Fixed-Wing Aircraft with Turbojet or Turbofan Engines and Unducted Fan Engines @ 1997.0001 1 - .001 0. . RTCA.036 3 . Inc. 5 24 14 200141 74 40 100 767 1400 2000 10000 Frequency (Hz) Note: In this figure the use of English units was retained because the graphs were derived from these units originally.a = - W Q) E 0.

01 0.02 0.8-19 1 0.001 0. . Inc.036 0.0001 1 5 10 15 55 74 62 100 150 500 1000 Frequency (Hz) Note: In this figure the use of English units was retained because the graphs were derived from these units originally. Fbure 8-3 Standard Sinusoidal Vibration Test Curves for Equipment Installed in Fixed-WingAircraft with Reciprocating or Turbopropeller Engines @ 1997.1 0. RTCA.

61 11-23 I 0.012 0.16 .1 0.0001 I \ 10000 Note: All slopes are f6 dB/OCT except as noted on curves D and E. Inc. RTCA.8-20 CURVES 2.83 Dl El I I 12.09 I 1 5. Fipure 8-4 Robust Random Vibration Test Curves for Equipment Installed in Fixed-Wing Aircraft with TurbojetTurbofan Engines or @ 1997. I I 0. .04 0. I I I I D I I I t S I 1 : y I I I I I I I I I I I .024 0. .08 0.004 0m . 0. I I I I I I I .

Inc.8-2 1 I 0. RTCA. .5 0.oO01 10 14 100 250 lo00 Frequency (Hz) Figure 8-5 High-Level Short Duration Sinusoidal VibrationTest Curves for Equipment Installed on Fixed-Wing Aircraft with Turbojet or Turbofan Engines @ 1997.01 I 8 o.

RTCA. Vibration levels are given i Tables n 8-2a and 8-2b.8-22 A1 7 I I A2 7 I I A3 7 I I A4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . .A 1-A4 are Sinusoidal Curves. g-PK. g2/Hz. Fbure 8-6 Sine-On-Random VibrationTest Curve for Helicopters @ 1997. Inc. t I I I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Fl 10 1 F3 F2 I I I I I I F4 FREQUENCY (Hz) Note: Wo is a Random PSD Curve.

8-23 I TEST Performance Endurance I TEST CURVES F F1 0.20 I -12 dB/OCT I I I I I 5 40 200 300 FREQUENCY (Hz) Figure 8-7 Random Test Curves for Helicopters Fuselage andInstrument Panel (Unknown Frequencies) @ 1997.05 0.10 I arms 2. RTCA.97 4. Inc. .

This page intentionally left blank. .

RTCA. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 RTCA/DO-l60D Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment s!Xtho Explosion Proofness Important Notice Information pertinentto this test procedure is contained in Sections 1. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue. Date of Issue: July 29.N W Suite 1020 Washington. Inc.5 13 . Further.2and 3. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO160C Prepared by:SC. Bgoendix4 is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed.

.......0 Explosion Proofness 9...................4...6EquipmentDesignandInstallationInformation .........................................2 Specimen Test ..............1 Figure9-2RelativeDensityofN-Hexane ............................ .....................................1............... 9.................................................. Temperature ....................................... .......... 9-11 ..........................5 General Requirements Test ...3EnvironmentDefinitionsandEquipmentRequirements ............... 9... 9................................ 9-12 Figure9-3MassofAirChargevs Figure9-4RelativeDensityvs ..........7.5..................... 9....................................... 9. 9............... 9.......2 Category Test E ........3...... 9... ....................3... Temperature ...........................2 Explosion Proof .... ................. 9.....1 Preparation for Test ......7 Procedures Test .. .... 9........3 Failure Criteria ......2 Performance of Test ..................4 Mixtures Fuel .1 Preparation for Test ... .............2Category E Equipment ...........................1 Purpose the of Test ......Page ...................................1 General 9........4 External Surface Temperature Tests ............. 9-13 9-14 Figure 9-5 Fuel Mass to Gauge Indicated Mass Correction Factor ........................... .........1 Preparation for Test ....5............................1CategoryATest 9........ 9................................7....2.........3................................7..3 Environment I11 ............7.... H Equipment .....2.........................7........................4.7......3 Fuel .. 9...................7.. 9.................................... 9..........7........... 9.............................. 9... .......... 9....7....3.....7...... 9... .................. 9.......................2 Performance of Test .5....3Category 9.......1..3Category H Test ....... .7.............. 9-10 Figure 9......... ........... 9....2 Environment 9........................ ................................1.1...................4..............................3.1CategoryAEquipment ................ ... 9..... 9....... .2 Performance of Test ...................................... Table9-1EquipmentCategoriesandTestRequirements 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-5 9-6 9-6 9-6 9-6 9-7 9-7 9-7 9-7 9-7 9-8 9-8 9-8 9-8 9-9 9-9 ...............7..................... 9.................... .........2....5............................. ....3 Failure Criteria .......1 Environment I I1 .................. ..7................... ..3 Failure Criteria ............................. ....................... Example of Apparatus for Testing in Explosive Atmospheres ........4 Equipment Categories 9...... 9........ ............................3............... .......... ....................... 9.....................

g.2 or 9. Inc. Installed equipment shall meet the standards and test procedures of explosion proof Category A.0 Purpose 9.g.1 of the Test This test specifiesrequirements and proceduresfor aircraft equipment that may come into contact with flammable fluids and vapors such as those specified herein.3.3). It also refers to normal and fault conditions that could occur in areas that are or may be subjected to flammable fluids and vapors during flight operations.. in fuel tanks or within fuel systems). These standards do not relate to potentially dangerous environments occurring as a result of leakage fromgoods carried on the aircraft as baggage or cargo.4. monofuelsare not included). Environment 9. vapors gases referredto in this section simulate those normally used in conventional aircraft and that require oxygen for combustion (e.2. 0 1997. Installed equipment shall meet the . either continuously or intermittently (e.3.2 II Environment I1 is an atmosphere which flammable mixtures can be expected in to occur only as a result of a fault-causing spillage or leakage. Note: The explosion proofhesstests should normallybe conducted after the article being tested has been subjected to other environmental tests of this document (see Subsection 3.3 Environment Definitions and Equipment Requirements Equipment Environments and related requirements shall be as follows (See Table 9. . or The flammable test fluids.1. or can exist.4.2 Explosion Proof Equipment is explosion proof when has beendetermined that there is negligible risk that it it will cause an explosion of a flammable gas or vapor within the declared environment. Environment 9.1 I Environment Iis an atmosphere in a space in which uncoveredflammable fluids or vapors exist. RTCA.9.4. 9.Proofness Explosion 9. “Order ofTests”).standards and test procedures for any one of the explosion proof categories (paragraphs 9.1). 9..

or as a result of any fault.43 Category H Equipment Category H equipment.6.1. The equipment test requirements are the sameas for EnvironmentI1 except that fault conditions Category A in equipment need not be considered. Ignition of an explosive mixture contained withinthe equipment without igniting an is so that it meets the Categorytests specified A explosive atmosphere surrounding it and in paragraph 9.4.1.1 A Equipment so Category A equipment is designed that: a. including those hermetically sealed. contain hot spot surfaces (external or internal) andare non-spark producing under normal operating conditions (see paragraph 4. surface will not rise a level capable of causing ignition (subparagraph to Hermetically sealed equipment meeting subparagraph b. to of 0 1997.4 Category 9.4. Equipment Categories 9. RTCA.7.7. nor will any operating part cause ignition.CategoryEequipment is notintended for installation in Environment I. the temperature of any external 9. 9.9-2 933 Environment III Environment I11 is an atmosphere within a designated fire zone.4.1 A equipment. During normal operation. Such equipment shall be designed so that in normal operation the temperature of any external surfbces will not rise a level capable causing ignition.2 E Category E equipmentis not hermetically sealed and not containedin cases designed to preventflameandexplosionpropagation. Inc.4). b.1). Such equipment shall be designed so that in normal operation the temperature of any external surface will not rise to a level capable of causing ignition. . shall be identified as Category 9. Equipment Category 9.

RTCA.Forhexane. established in Subsection Specimen Test9.41. will comply with standards the 9.15 R = the thermodynamic temperature and O F + 459.5.4 Mixtures Fuel a.5 General 9. a 1.a 1. the fuel used be grade 100/130 octane gasoline.05 stoichiometric mixture of 96.1 The test requirements specified below are necessary assure that the equipment. 13 by 3. when to tested in accordance with the applicable test procedure.1.75% by volume of air. 9. Inc. an example of test apparatus m u r e 9.2 The test specimens selected shall be representative of production equipment.25% by volume of propane to b.3 Unless otherwise specified. 0 1997.n 10-4) [net chamber vol (liters)] [chamber pressure (pascals)] [Chamber temp (K)] [Relative density of n-hexane] 2) Volume (ml) of 95% normal hexane (english units) = (150.3. For gasoline. Fuel 9.15% to 95.5.~ ~~ - 9-3 Requirements General Test 9. [net chamber vol (a3)] [chamber pressure (psia)] of n-hexane] [Chamber temp (R)] [Relative density Note: K = thethermodynamictemperatureandis "C+ 273.80 stoichiometricfractionofnormalhexaneshall according to the following equations: (1) Volume (ml) of 95% normal hexane (metric units)= be calculated (4. For see c. propane may or normal hexane.5.85% to 4. a stoichiometric mixture of parts ofair and one part of fuel mass. .5.67 is The relative density of normal hexanebe determined from can m e 9-2. For propane.

33 Ib/sq in) f ) Air-vapor ratio (desired): 13-to-1 Step 1 - Employing the following equation. air-vapor = air-fuel ratio "C ratio (AF) for 100/130 octane fuel.704 "C: Test altitude: 1. will equal AF all cases. the fuel may be introduced the ambient temperature of the test site. at as an The following sample problem is presented illustration of the procedure for calculating the mass of 100/130 octane gasoline required to produce the desired 13-to-1 air-vapor ratio: Required information: Chamber air temperature during test: 27.000i 85 kPa (P=12. RTCA.524 m (5.04 where: AAV = Apparent air-vapor ratio AV = Desired air-vapor ratio P = Pressure equivalent of altitude. .2"C Fuel temperature: 24°C Relative density of fuel at 16.524 m (5.62= 1.1 and at AVratio of five or greater.04 ( -) 101.32 15.000 f) altitude.1 0. Since the conditions of the explosion test under consideration will always well above these values. When the test facilityis designed for fuel vaporization inside the explosion chamber. calculate the apparent air-vapor ratio: AAV = AV (desired) 1.9-A The equipment used to vaporize the fuel for usethe explosion proofness test should be in so designed that a small quantity of air and fuel vapor will beheatedtogethertoa as temperature such that the vapor will not condense it is drawn from the vaporizer into fie1 the chamber.04 P -0. be AV in 0 1997. Inc. with chamber air temperature above 16.32 13 -0.04 [ A) 101. kPa t At ground level up to 1.

the possibility of contamination of the air by flammable vapors shall be taken into account. suchas of flame traps.1"C. If the equipment andits ducting. are in an area that can be so contaminated.01 x 100 = 101 g fuel mass (corrected). The specification for Category A equipment.9-5 Step 2 Since AV = AF. paragraph 9. 9. and that under fault conditions may produce arcs. use figure 9-4 to determine relative density at a giventemperature. to be explosion proof. Using F i g u r e . Eachtest chamber must haveits own chamber volume chart. Wfu = WA = 1 7 = 100 g. b.). Inc. Step 3 Step 4 Knowing fuel temperatures and relative density at 16. should consider the design requirements flange and hole dimensions or other equivalent means. In designing the air supply system for forced air ventilated equipment.6 Equipment Design and Installation Information Equipment specifications should detail any design constraints applicable to theparticular category of equipment enclosure. d. Wfc = KWfu = 1. friction sparks surfacesshall or hot be designed and installed to reduce acceptable minimum overall risk of fault to an the a occurring that will ignite the flammable vapors. . considering its likely manner ofinstallation. 0 1997. fuel mass 50 (uncorrected) 15.1. they shall be capable of meeting the conditions appropriate to the environment. use FiPure 9-3 to determine mass of air (WA) and divide by AAV to obtain uncorrected mass of fuel required (Wfu). includingjoints. information is contained This in national documents. Such designconstraints should includethe following as appropriate: a.62 NOTE: FiFre 9-3 pertains to a specific test chamber volume and not be used shall for all test facilities. obtain correction factor Kfor the relative density determined during Step 3.4. Equipment that may come into contact with flammable fluids or vapors and that in normal operations mayproducearcs.62 15. Apply factor to obtain mass of fuel corrected (Wf. electrical sparks. c. for adequate safety from flame propagation. sparks or hot surfaces shall be designed. Equipment that may come into contact with flammable fluids or vapors. RTCA. It only illustrates the employment method.

adequate precaution shall be taken to prevent ignition of the ambient mixturebackfire or the release of pressure by through the supply hose. spark GaD Device .When inserting a hose from a blower. . The ambient chamber temperature shall be least 25°C.7 Test 9. m t l o n of Test Case or Enclosux .9-6 Procedures 9. If ignition of the mixture does not occur immediately. necessary to perform the tests described herein.7.1 9. be be the test shall considered void and shall repeated with a new explosive charge.The case or enclosure with either test item or a model of the test item of the same volume and configuration in position within the case or enclosure shall be connected and oriented in the explosion chamber mechanically and electrically.1 Test Preparation for a. The case volume shallaltered by be not more than A5 percent by any modification to facilitate the introduction of explosive vapor.7. Step 3: At least five internal case explosions shall be performed. Inc. the test case enclosure shall or be prepared for explosion proof testing by drilling and tapping openings in the case or enclosure for inlet and outlet hose connections to the fuel-vapor-air mixture circulation system and for mounting a spark gap device. b. .2 Performance of Test The following test sequence shall performed three times follows: be as Step 1: The chamber shall be sealed and the internal pressure maintained at site level pressure. or the spark gap device may be mounted internally.1.RTCA. as 9.. An explosive at mixture within the chamber shall be obtained by using the mixture defined in paragraphs 9 5 3and 9 5 4 . c. This shall include any cooling provisions.. the d.1. Case Installation .When necessary. Hose Installation . as recommended by the manufacturer for normal service installation. Ifcase tested is small the (not in excess of 1/50of the test chamber volume) and if the reaction within the case upon ignition is of an explosive nature without continued burning of the mixture as it circulates into the case.. Step 2: The internal case ignition source shall be energized in order to cause an explosion be may within the case. The occurrence of an explosion within the case detected by use of a thermocouple inserted in the case and connected to a sensitive galvanometer outside the test chamber.A spark gap device for igniting the explosive mixture within the be be drilled and tapped for case or enclosure shall provided.7. but not Category A Test 8 1997. The case or enclosure may the spark gap device. more than one internal case explosion.

test procedures shall be specified in the individual equipment specification (subparagraph 9. the shall be considered void and entire procedure repeated.9-7 more than five.1 Test Preparation for a.7.4 Surface External Temperature Tests If required. Mechanical loads on drive assemblies and servomechanical and electrical loads on switches and relays may be simulated if proper precaution is given to duplicating the normal load in respect to torque. the explosiveness of fuel-air the mixture in the main chamber shall be verified by igniting asample of the mixture with a spark plug or glow plug.7.2. The test item shall beconnectedand oriented mechanically and electrically as recommended by the manufacturer for normal service installation. RTCA. External covers of the test item shall be removed or loosened to facilitate the penetration of the explosive mixture. b. 9. for which the equipment is designed to operate.). If the air-vapor mixture in the main chamber is test the found notto be explosive. This shall include any cooling provisions necessary to perform the tests described hereinso that normal as electrical operation is possible and mechanicalcontrols may be operated through the pressure seals from outside the chamber. Failure Criteria 9.2.3 If the internal case explosion causes a main chamber explosion. may be produced without recharging the entire chamber.7.7. In all instances.1. voltage. c. Inc. itis preferable to operate the test item as it normally functions in installed the environment.4:1 b. Step 1: The test chamber shallbe sealed andthe ambient temperature within shall be raised to the Operating High Temperature. Large test items may be tested one or more units at a time by extending electrical connections through the cable port to the balance of the associated equipment located externally.2 9. The test item shall be operated to determine that it is functioning properly. inductive reactance. 9. If the internal case explosions produced did not cause a main chamber explosion. given in 4 1 . Category 9. current. . the test item shall have failed the test and no further tests need be conducted. The temperature of the test chamber and the chamber walls 0 1997.7.1. Ample time shall be allowed between internal case explosions for replacement of burnt gases withfresh explosive mixture withinthe case. etc.2 Performance of Test E Test The test shall be conductedat site level pressure.

9-8 shall be permitted to rise to within 1 1"C of the chamber ambient air. Step 3: At this time all electrical contacts of the test item shall be actuated.7.3. it shall have failed the test and further tests need not be conducted.2.3 Failure Criteria If the item causes an explosion. Circulate the test atmosphere for at least three minutes to allow for complete vaporization of fuel andthe development of a homogenous mixture. Step 2: The required quantity offuel (paragraph 9. the test shall be terminated.7. RTCA. 0 1997.7. 9. 9. .2.3 9.If the air-vapor mixture is not found to be explosive.7. The temperature of the test chamber and the chamber walls shall be permittedto rise to within 11"C of the chamber ambient air.1 Preparation H Test for Test The test item shall be placed the test chamber in accordance with subparagraph 9. Category 9. Step 2: The equipment shall be turned on and operated in its normal mode until thermal stabilization of the equipment has been attained. The maximum temperatures attained atthe suspected components surfaces shallbe recorded. given in Table1.1. the test shall be considered void andthe entire procedure repeated. the potential explosiveness of the air-vapor mixture be verified by igniting a sample of the shall mixture with a spark gap or glow plug.5. to prevent condensation of the explosive medium. prior to the introduction of the explosive mixture. Step 4: If no explosion has occurred as a result of the test item operation.3.which the equipment is designed to operate.2 Performance of Test The test shall be conductedas follows: Step 1: The test chamber shall be sealed the ambient temperature within shall raised and be for to the Operating High Temperature. Inc.4) shall beintroducedinto the chamber.7. in the suspected components surfaces to be tested for thermal ignition shall be instrumented or with thermocouples operating in a range of 65 to 260°C. The operation of the test item shall be continuous throughout this period and all making and breaking of electrical contacts shall beconducted as frequently as deemed practicable.4.If a temperature or in excess of 204°C is attained.

3. Inc.7.1 A (hermetically sealed) See paragraph9.3.7.9-9 9.7.3.1 applies Paragraphapplies 9.2 A See paragraph 9. tests need not be conducted.2 See paragraph 9.2 Paragraphapplies 9. RTCA.3. if the item exceeds the test item shall have failed the test and further 204"C.3 As for Environment11.1.3 Failure Criteria In Step 2 above. but fault cases are not applicable E Notes: 11 21 21 Paragraph 9. Table 9-1 Equipment Environment Equipment Categories Categories and Test Requirements Requirements and Tests Notes I I1 I11 A See paragraph 9.1 11 21 31 E H A See paragraph 9.7. .7.7.3 0 1997.

POLYETHYLENE)HELDONBYRUBBERV BANDS DIAPHRAGM CHECK VALVES K CYLINDRICAL EXPLOSION CHAMBER UNIT UNDER TEST VENT MIXING CHAMBER WASTE TO ATMOSPHERE EXTRACTOR FOR CHARGING UNIT UNDER TEST STIRRING BLOWER MICRO-SWITCH (ONE T EACH END) RELEASED WHEN H RUBBER BANDIS DISPLACED BY EXPLOSION DIAPHRAGM RUBBER BAND 0 P Q S Fipure 9-1 Example of Apparatus for Testing in Explosive Atmospheres 0 1997.9-10 Legend AIR PROPANE GAS CONTAINER L VALVES REDUCING GAS CUT-OFF NBY VALVE OPERATED MICRO-SWITCHES EXPLOSION ON CHAMBER OXYGEN BOlTLE HEAT EXCHANGER TO THE BRING GASES TEMPERATURE STANDARD R TO VALVES NEEDLE FLOW METERS BOTH ENDS COVERED DIAPHRAGMS G BY (E T PAPER. . RTCA. Inc.

RTCA. . Inc.> ( 1 c) 0 . ! 0 0 1997.

Inc.RTCA. .I t B I a Figure 9-3 Mass of Air Charge vs Temperature 0 1997.

. RTCA.9-13 0 1997. Inc.

0 1997. Inc. . RTCA.

RTCA.5 13 .W. Inc. Date of Issue: July 29. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 RTCA/DO-l60D Environmental Conditions andTest Procedures for Airborne Equipment Waterproofness Important Notice Information pertinentto this test procedure is contained in Sections 1.2 and 3. Appendix is applicable for A identifying the environmental tests performed. Suite 1020 Washington. 1997 160C Supersedes: RTCA/DOPrepared by: SC. Further. N.

..........1Purpose of theTest ..3.....1 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-2 Figure 10. ......1 10..... 10..... . ........ 10.........Page 10..... .. 10. ............. ...........3.... ....... ........1 DripProofTestDetails Figure Shower Details 10-2 Head ........... ... . ...... 10-3 10-4 ..........1 Drip Proof Test ..2 Spray Proof Test .... ... . ...... .... ........ ........ ......... ................ ..... 10....... 10......... .......... ..... .... . 10....... ....3 ContinuousStreamProofTest .......1 10.... .. .................. . ........3...3 Procedures Test ............ ..2 Equipment Categories .. 1 0.. .. .................. .... ... ......... ........................ ... . .... ............. .......... .. ... .. .. ..... .......... .. .... ......0 Waterproofness .. .........

With equipment operating. For equipment intended for installation in such locations the continuous stream proof procedure applies. For equipment intended for installation in such locations. the spray proof test procedure applies. hermetically sealed equipment may be considered to have met all waterproofness requirements without further testing. Equipment that has passed the Category R requirements may consideredto meet the Category W requirement be without further testing. Equipment installedin locations where it may be subjected driving rainor where water to a may be sprayed on it from any angle is identified as Category R.1 Test Procedures Drip Proof Test Mount the equipment according the manufacturer’s specifications with all connectors and to fittings engaged. The test equipment shall emit a volume of water greater than 0 1997 RTCA. 10.the drip proof test procedure for applies and the equipment is identifiedas Category W.10. Equipment shall be considered hermetically sealed when the seal is permanent andair-tight. washingor cleaning operations is identified as Category S . Inc.0 10.3 10. For equipment intended installation in such locations.1 Waterproofness Purpose of the Test These tests determine whether the equipment can withstand the effects of liquid water being sprayed or falling on the equipment. Equipment installed in locations where it may be subjected the forces of a heavy stream to of fluid such as would be encountered in aircraft de-icing.subject it towater falling at a uniform rate the from a minimum height of one meter above the top surface ofequipment under test for the a minimum of 15 minutes. Therefore. 10.2 Equipment Categories Category W Equipment that is installed locations where itis subjected to falling water (generally the in result of condensation) the course of normal in aircraft operations is identified as Category W. These tests are not intended to verify performance of hermetically sealed equipment. Equipment that has passed the Category S requirements may be considered to meet the Category W requirements withoutfurther testing. .3. Water is used in this test to simulate the actual fluid forces.

0 1997. shower head shall be located not more than The 2. The stream of water shall be of sufficient pressure to produce.4mm diameter nozzle.3 Continuous StreamProof Test This test is used to supplement the fluids susceptibility test in Section 11. at leasta six meter vertical stream of water. . Inc.3. througha 6. If spray desired.33 mm nominal diameter drip holes on a 25 mm pattern as shown in Figure10-1. 10. At the conclusion of the test DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. Subject the equipment. With the equipment operating. The equipment need not be operated during this test. Connectors other fittings shall be connected as in or normal operation.5 m from the area under test and shall a volume of water greater than liters per hour.O prior to the performance ofthis test. Each of the areas under test shall be subjected to the for a minimum of 15 minutes. 10.O. Atthe conclusion of the test DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. to a continuous streamof water on all sides for a minimum five minutes on each side.280 I/m2/hrdripping from a dispenser with 0.3. The drip hole pattern shall be sufficiently large to meet or exceed the horizontalcross sectional area of the equipment undertest when installed in its normal position. subject it to a shower of water from a shower head nozzle as depicted in Figure 10-2. RTCA. emit 450 At the conclusion of the test DETERMINECOMPLIANCEWITHAPPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. Susceptible materials suchas gaskets shallbe subjected to the appropriate tests of Section 11.2 Spray Proof Test Mount the equipment according the manufacturer’s specification with all to connectors and fittings engaged. Thistest shall be performedwith water at a temperature of 50 degrees C. Mount the equipment accordingto the manufacturer’s installation instructions in a manner that simulates the aircraft installation. The equipment shall be subjected stream to this of water from a distance of oneto two meters. the test may be applied simultaneously more than one to area at a time by using an appropriate number of shower heads. particularly in areas where parts are mated with a resilient gasket. The watershall be directed perpendicular to the most vulnerable area(s) of the equipment as stated in the applicable equipment performance standards.

HEIQMT ADJUSTABLE (A) TEST S m P COR WATER MOOFNEPS TEST 1. I BRASS SHEET w-c I En 0 1997 RTCA. . Inc.bmm DEEP DIMCUE MADE WITH A 4Jmm ROD WITH A bmm DETAIL A .

RTCA. .0 1997. Inc.

2 and 3. Further.13 5 . DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 RTCA/DO-l60D Environmental Conditions andTest Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 11 Fluids Susceptibility Important Notice Information pertinentto this test procedure is contained in Sections 1. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO160D Prepared by: SC. Inc. NW Suite 1020 Washington. is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed.RTCA. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue. a Date of Issue: July 29.

. ...4.... ... . ... .. .. ....... ......... 1 1........ 11-3 ......... ... .. ... . 11. 1 1 1... .. ...2 ImmersionTest ...... . ..2 Precautions .. .....1 Purpose of the Test . ...... 1 1. ..4 Testprocedures ............ ... .... . .. .0 Fluids Susceptibility . 1 1.. ...........4................. . .... ... ......... ... .... ..1 Spray Test .. ... .............. .... ............ ... . Page 1 1 .. 11. ..... .... . .. .............. .. 11.. 1 11-1 11-1 11-2 11-3 Table 1 1 ....... 1 ....... ..... ... 1 1.. . ...... ... . . ........ ... . Classes of TestFluidsandFluidTemperatures 1 1. .... ... ....... ... .. ... ............ .... . .... .... .......... ..... ... . .. ..... . . .. ....... ... .......... . .. ...... 1 11-1 1 1.... .... ... ... .. .......... .... . ... ...... ..5 Use of MaterialSpecimens ..3 EquipmentCategories . .. ........ ..

Inc. In addition there are 19 specific fluids that are used to test these classes. Note: Sections 10. Section 11. The equipment not required to operate during test and shall be at room is this ambient. 11. The fluids are representative of those commonly used fluids encounteredin airborne and ground operations. .0 of this document cover waterproofness and salt spray tests. Some contaminants may themselves orin combination withother contaminants or with the test samplebe toxic.0 11. Table 1 1-1 contains the class of fluids.1 Test Procedures Spray Test Connect the equipment mechanically and electrically as defined in the relevant equipment specification. Fluids susceptibility tests should only be performed when the equipment will installed in areas where fluid contamination be could be commonly encountered. 11. Details of the test fluids involvedand the methodsused shall 'be provided in the Environmental Qualification Form (See ADpendix A).3 Equipment Categories Catenow F Equipment that has passed the tests covered in this section is identified as Category F.O covers seven general classes of other contaminating fluids. RTCA. the specific fluids and the temperatures required in these tests.4 11. 11.2 Precautions Since many contaminants may have flash points within the test temperature range.4. Fluids not listed herein and for which susceptibility tests are indicated shall be included in the relevant equipment specification. Due consideration should be given to this possibilitybefore commencing the tests. respectively. Spray the equipment with the appropriate fluid one or more times per day as necessary to a maintain a wetted condition for minimum of24 hours.1 Susceptibility Fluids Purpose of the Test These tests determine whether the materials used in the construction of the equipment can withstand the deleterious effects of fluid contaminants. care should be takento ensure that adequate safety measures taken to limit the possibility of are fire or explosion.11. If it is difficult to maintainwetted a condition and the equipment specification requires spray test rather than the immersion the 0 1997.0 and 14.

the in the total exposure time for simultaneous application of fluids should be the same as the exposure time for a single fluid. the test specimen shall be returned to room temperature and operated for a minimum of two hours. and the order of application should be as specified in the equipment specification. operatethe equipment for at least 10 minutes. Following the two-hour period. The spray shall a fine mist maintained at temperatures in Table 1 1. The equipment is not required to operate during this test and shall be at ambient temperature. .4. The precautions noted elsewhere in this section should be observed. and without removing the excess fluid. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH THE APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. place in an appropriate chamber and +65 subject itto a constant temperature of degrees C for minimumof 160 hours. it shall be acceptable to thoroughly spray the equipment at intervals of four hours maximum. Following this period. n test. 11.1 and be the shall be directed toward every major surface.. 0 1997. Inc. Unless otherwise noted equipment specification. At the end of this period. remove the test specimen. Note: If the equipment isto be tested with more than class of contaminating fluid. RTCA. Following this period.2 Immersion Test Connect the equipment mechanically and electrically as defined in the relevant equipment specification.. simultaneous testing is permitted if requiredby the equipment specification. However. At the end of this period. 24 10 At the end of hours. Following the two-hour period. The fluid temperature shallbe maintained atthe temperature shownin Table 11-1 and shall cover the test specimen completely. operatethe equipment for at least minutes while it iscompletely immersed in the fluid. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITHAPPLICABLE THE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. the test specimen shall be returned to room temperature and operatedfor a minimum of two hours. seal and connector of the equipment sample under test. the test specimen shall be placed in an appropriate chamber and subjectedto a constant temperature of +65 degrees C for a minimum of 160 hours. At the end of 24 hours. it one should normally be tested with each fluid separately. Fluids should notbe premixed priorto spraying. Immerse the equipment in the appropriate fluid for a minimum of 24 hours.

Inc.I/ This temperature exceeds the critical flash point temperature. These fluids are electrically conductive.1 Trichloroethane Fluid Temperature Degrees C 40 11 40 11 80 50 70 80 80 70 70 150 50 50 11 50 50 50 50 50 De-Icing Fluid Ethylene Glycol Propylene Glycol AEA Type 1 31 AEA Type 2 31 Dichlorvos (DDVP) Pyrethrum-Based To be defmed by the equipment specification Insecticides 20 20 20 NOTES: L L Z L 1/ 2 1 .4). Suitable precautions should be taken after exposure to the fluids before operating the equipment. subjected to the continuous stream proof test (paragraph Table 11-1Classes of Test Fluids and Fluid Temperatures 1 N Contaminating Fluid Fuels L Test Fluid Aviation Jet A Fuel Aviation Piston Engine Fuel Mineral-Based Non-mineral Based Phosphate Ester-Based (Synthetic). Testing should always be performed in a suitable pressure vessel.11-3 11. TypeIV 21 Silicate Ester-Based (Synthetic) Silicone-Based (Synthetic) Synthetic Hydrocarbon Base Mineral-Based Ester-Based (Synthetic) Isopropyl Alcohol Denatured Alcohol 1.3. 0 1997. Association of European Airlines. .5 Use of Material Specimens Material specimentest may be used in place of equipment tests.3). The results of these tests shall assure that the material will protect the equipment from deleterious effects after being exposed to the relevant fluid in the manner defined in the equipment test procedures (Subsection 11. RTCA. Note: Material specimen tests are not permitted if the equipment isto be subsequently 10.1.

This page intentionally left blank. .

D. Inc. NW Suite 1020 Washington. C. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO-160C Prepared by: SC-135 . 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 RTCA/DO-l60D Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 12 Sand and Dust Important Notice Information pertinentto this test procedureis contained in Sections 1. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue. Amendix A is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed. 2 and 3.RTCA. Further. Date ofIssue: July 29.

..... .... . ... .. .. ..... ... 12. .. . . .... . .. ... . ....... 12. . 12......3.. . ... .. ...... .. . .. . .. ... . .... ... .. .. ... .. . . ....... . ..... . . .. . .. .. .. .. . ... . ... ..... . . .. . . ... ... .. . ... .. ... . ... ..3... ... ... . .1 Agent .......... . . .. ...... . ....... .. . . 12..... ..... .. . 12.... . 12..2 Categories of Equipment . .. ........ ... . . ..... .... . . . . . .... .. .. . . . . . . .1 12-1 12-1 2-1 2-1 12-2 12-2 12-2 . . . .3... . .. . . .... .. .. . .3.12. . .. . . .. .. .....1Purpose of theTest ... .. . . .. .....3 First Cycle . . ..2 Exposure of the Equipment . ... . . ..... ...... . ... . . . ... . . . .. ... . 12. ..0 Sand Dust and ........ . ..3 Testprocedure . .. .. .4 Second Cycle 12... .... .. . .. ..... .......... .... ... .

.3 12. Pollution of fluids..e. i.2 Categories of Equipment Category D Equipment installed in locations where the equipment is subjected to blowing sand and dust in the course of normal aircraft operations is identified as Category D and shouldbe tested as recommended in the following paragraphs. b. 12. i. relays. Themain adverse effects to be anticipated are: a.e. Penetration into cracks. 0 1997 RTCA.e.0 12. bearings 'joints. . diameter 0. and clogging of moving parts. etc.075 mm. diameter 0.15 mm. i.5 maintained ata concentration of to 8. including secondary effects of possible corrosion.filters. percent 100 shall pass through a 100-mesh screen...12-1 12. crevices. Inc. diameter 0. diameter 0.3.e. 90 h2% shall passthrough a 200-mesh screen. Action as nucleus for the collection of water vapor.1 Sand and Dust Purpose of the Test This test determines resistance ofthe equipment to the effectsof blowing sand and the dust where carried by air movement at moderate speeds. 75 * % shall passthrough a 325-meshscreen. C . Formation of electrically conductive bridges. causing fouling and/or d. C .045 mm.8dm3and shall meet the following characteristics: a.1 Test Procedure Agent Sand and dust used a suitable test chamber vented to the atmosphere shall be raised and in 3. 98 *2% shall passthrough a 140-mesh screen. b. 2 i. 12.10 mm. d.

3 First Cycle With the internal temperature of the test chamber maintained at +25 degrees C and the to relative humidityat not morethan 30 percent. The chemicalcomposition shall be 97% to 99%silicon dioxide. connectors. the equipment isnot required to operate during the exposure period.5 mhecond.4 Cycle With the internal temperature of test chamber raised and stabilized at +55 degrees the C and the relative humidity at not more than 30 percent.3.3.g. Externally accumulated sand and only onsurfaces of the dust equipment required veri@ proper operation (e. with care being taken to avoid introducing additional dust into the equipment. Inc. removing After the excess sand and dust DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. Note: 140-mesh silica flour is satisfactory for use in the performance of these tests but health and safety regulations regarding the use of this flour should be observed.) be removed by brushingor wiping. The jet velocity shall be maintained between 0.3. At the end of exposure period. submit the equipment a minimum exposure period of one houralong each direction of each major orthogonal axis in succession.12-2 e. Note: Unless otherwise required in the relevant specification. the equipment shall be removed from chamber and this the cooled to room temperature. 0 1997 RTCA. Under nocircumstances shall dust be removed byeither air blast or vacuum cleaning. 12.2 Exposure of Equipment the The equipment shall submittedto the sand and dust along each direction of each major be jet orthogonal axis in succession. Second 12. 12.5 and 2. . submit the equipment to a minimum exposure period of one hour along each direction of each majororthogonal axis in succession. test ports shall to etc. displays.

RTCA,Inc.
1 140 Connecticut Avenue, NW Suite 1020

Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339

RTCA/DO-l60D Environmental Conditions andTest Procedures for Airborne Equipment
3-

Fungus Resistance

Important Notice

Information pertinentto this test procedure contained in is Sections 1,2 and 3. Further, Amendix A is applicable for identifjing the environmental tests performed.

Date of Issue: July 29,1997

Supersedes:RTCADO- 160C Prepared by: SC-135

Page 13.0 Fungus Resistance ........................................................... 13-1 13-1 13.1 Purpose of the Test ................................................... : . 13-1 13.2 General Effects .................................................... 13-1 13.3 Categories of Equipment ............................................... 13-2 13.4 Apparatus ........................................................... 13.5 Test Procedures ...................................................... 13-2 13.5.1 Preparation of Mineral-Salts Solution .............................. 13-2 13-2 13.5.1.1 Purity of Reagents ................................. 13-2 13.5.1.2 Purity of Water .................................. 13-3 13.5.2 Preparation of Mixed Spore Suspension ............................ 13-4 13S . 3 Viability of Inoculum Control .................................... 13.5.4 Control Items ................................................. 13-4 13-4 13S . 5 Inoculation of Test Control ....................................... 13.5.6 Incubation .................................................... 13-4 13-5 13 S . 7 Inspection .................................................... 13-5 13S.8 Precautions ...................................................

13-1 Resistance Fungus 13.0 13.1 Purpose of the Test These tests determine whether equipment material is adversely affected by fungi under conditions favorablefor their development, namely, high humidity, warm atmosphere and presence of inorganic salts. Notes: A. If all materials used in the construction of the equipment can be shown to be non-nutrientsfor the growth offungi, either through their composition or through previoustesting, this test is not required(See Subsection 13.3, Category F). This test shall not be conducted after Salt Spray or Sand and Dust. A heavy concentration of salt may effect the fungal growth, and sand and can dust provide nutrients, which could compromise the validity of this test (see Subsection 3.2, “Order of Tests”).

B.

General 13.2

Effects Typical problems caused by fungi growing on equipment are: a. Microorganisms digest organic materials as a normal metabolic process, thus degrading the substrate, reducing the surface tension and increasing moisture penetration. Enzymes and organic acids,produced during metabolism, diffuse out of the cells and onto the substrate and cause metal corrosion, glass etching, hardening of grease and other physical and chemical changes to the substrates. The physical presence of microorganisms produces living bridges across components that may resultin electrical failures. The physical presence of fungi can also cause health problems and produce aesthetically unpleasantsituations in which users will reject using the equipment.

b.

c. d. 13.3

Categories of Equipment

Equipment that is installed in an environment where it will be exposed to severe fungus contamination is identified as Category F and shall subjected to the fungus resistance test. be Equipment composed completely of proven non-nutrient materials can be identified as Category F without being subjected to the fungus resistance test. Nutrient materials that have been treated a manner to render them non-nutrient mayconsidered non-nutrient. in be

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

If non-nutrient material certification is utilized for this verification, this fact shall declared on the Environmental Qualification Form (see Appendix A).
13.4

be

Apparatus The apparatus required to conduct this test consists of chambers or cabinets together with auxiliary instrumentation capable of maintaining the specified condition of temperature and humidity. Provisions shall be made to prevent condensation from dripping on the test item. There shall be free circulation of air around the test item and the contact area of fixtures supporting the test item shall be kept to a minimum. When forced air is employed, the flow should not exceed one meter per second over the surface of the test specimen.

13.5 13.5.1

Test Procedures Preparation of Mineral-Salts Solution The solution shall contain the following: Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.7 g Potassium monohydrogen orthophosphate. . . . . . . . . . . 0.7 g Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.7 g 1.O g Ammonium nitrate ............................. 0.005 g Sodium chloride ............................... Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate...................... 0.002 g 0.002 g Zinc sulfate heptahydrate ........................ Manganous sulfate monohydrate .................. 0.001 g 1000 ml Distilled Water ................................ Sterilize the mineral salts solution by autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 20 minutes. Adjust the pH of the solution the addition of 1 normal solution of sodium hydroxide that by 0.0 so after sterilization the level is between 6.0 and 6.5. Prepare sufficient salt solutions for pH the required tests.

13.5.1.1

Purity of Reagents Reagent grade chemicals shall be used in all tests. Unless otherwise specified, it is intended of the that all reagents shall conform to the specification Committee on Analytical Reagents of the American Chemical Society, where such specifications are available.

13.5.1.2

Purity of Water Unless otherwise specified, references to water shall be understood to mean distilled water or water of equal purity.

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

13-3

13.5.2

Preparation of Mixed Spore Suspension

The following test fungi shall be used:

ATCC'
Aspergillus niger Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus versicolor 432 Penicillium funiculosum Chaetomium globosum
9642 9643 11730 474 1 1797 6205

N L A B S Z

3 86
3 80

459

Maintain cultures of these fungi separately on an appropriate medium such as potato dextrose agar. However, culture of chaetomium globosum be cultured on strips of the shall filter paper onthe surface of mineral salts agar. (Mineral salts agaridentical to the mineral is salts solution described in paragraph 13.5.1, but contains in addition 15.0 g of agarlliter.) The stock cultures may be kept for not more than four months at 6 *4 degrees C, at which time subcultures shall be made and new stocks shall be selected from the subcultures. If genetic or physiological changes occur, obtain new cultures as specified above. Subcultures used for preparing new stock cultures or the spore suspension shall be incubated at 30 degrees C for seven to ten days. Prepare a spore suspension of each of the five fungi by pouring into one subculture of each fungus a 10 ml portionof a sterile solution containing 0.05 g/liter of a non-toxic wetting agent such as sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate or sodium lauryl sulfate. Use a sterile platinum or nichrome inoculating wire to scrape gently the 125 surface growth from the culture ofthe test organism. Pourthe spore charge into a sterile ml glass-stoppered Erlenmeyer flask containing 45 ml of sterile water and 10 to 15 solid glass beads,five millimeters in diameter. Shakethe flask vigorouslyto liberate the spores from the fruiting bodies and to break the spore clumps. Filter the dispersed fungal spore a a suspension through six millimeter layer of glass wool, contained in glass funnel, into a sterile flask. This process should remove large mycelial fragments and clumps of agar that could interfere with the spraying process. Centrifuge the filtered spore suspension aseptically and discard supernatant. Resuspendthe residue in 50 ml of sterile water and the centrifuge. Wash the spores obtained from each of the fungi in this manner three times. Dilute the final washed residue with sterile mineral-salts solution in such a manner the that 1,000,000 *200,000 sporedmilliliter as determined resultant spore suspension shall contain with a counting chamber. Repeat operation for each organism used in test and blend this the equal volumes of the resultant spore suspension. The spore suspension may be prepared fresh each day and maintainedat 6 *4 degrees C not more than days. four

1

American Type Culture Collection, 12301 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, Maryland, 20852. Pioneering Research Division, Army Natick Laboratories, Natick, Massachusetts, 01760. U.S.
0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

2

13.5.3

Viability of Inoculum Control

With each daily group tests, place each three pieces of sterilized filter paper, 2.54 cm of of square on hardened mineral-salts agar in separate Petri dishes. Inoculate these withspore the suspension by spraying the suspension from a sterilized atomizer' until initiation droplet of 30 85 coalescence. Incubate these at degrees C at a relative humidity not less than percent, and examine them after seven days of incubation. There shall be copious on'all three growth of the filter paper control specimens. Absence of such growth requires repetition of the test.
13.5.4 Control Items

In addition to the viability of inoculum control, known susceptible substrates shall be inoculated along with the test item to insure that proper conditions are present in the incubation chamber to promote fungus growth. The control items shall consist of cotton duck 234 g strips that are3.2 cm wide, that have been dipped into a solution containing 10% glycerol, 0.1% potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate, 0.1% ammonium nitrate, 0.025% magnesium sulfate, and 0.05% yeast extract (pH level and from which excess liquid 5.3), the has been removed. The strips should be hungair dry before being inoculated and placed to into the chamber.
13.5.5 Inoculation of Test Control

a. b.

Mount the test and control items on suitable fixtures or suspend from hangers. Precondition the chamberandits contents at 30 degrees C and 97 *2% relative humidity for at least four hours. Inoculate the test and control items with the mixed fungus spore suspension the (paragraph 13.5.2) by spraying it on test and control items in the form of a fine mist from a previously sterilized atomizer or nebulizer. In spraying the test and control items, care should be taken to cover all surfaces. If the surfaces are nonwetting, spray until initiation of droplet coalescence. Incubation is to be started immediately following the inoculation.

C.

13.5.6

Incubation

a.

Maintain the test chamber at 30 degrees C and 97 *2% relative humidity (minimum) during the life of the test. Keep the test chamber closed during the incubation period, exceptduring inspection or for addition of other test items. After seven days,inspect the growthon the control items to beassured that the environmental conditions are suitable for growth. If inspection reveals that the environmental conditions unsuitable for growth, the entire test shallbe repeated. are

b.

'

An atomizer capable of providing 15,000 *3,000 spores/cm2.

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

13-5
c. If the control items show satisfactory fungus growth, continue the test for a period of 28 days from the time of inoculation or as specified in the equipment specification.

13.5.7

Inspection At the end of the incubation period, inspect test item immediately.If possible, inspect the the item withinthe chamber. If the inspection is not completed eight hours, return test in the item to the humid environment for a minimum of twelve hours. Except for hermetically sealed equipment, open the equipment enclosure and examinethe interior and exterior both for evidence of deterioration. The equipment shall thenbetested to DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITHAPPJ JCABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.

13.5.8

Precautions The fungi specified for this test are not normally considered a serious hazard for human handling. It is possible for an individual be allergic to one of them, and for this reason it to is wise to exercise care when performing the test. Surgical gloves may be wornto protect the hands, andcare should betaken not to splash the suspension on other areas of the skin or on clothes. It is also possible, during the incubation period in the test chamber, for a foreign spore, present as an unintentional intruder, develop; some of these fungi thus present as native to to some testing locations, maybe injurious to the human system. For this reason there is a possibility that the specimen after exposure may a hazard,and it should be handled with be care. The greatest danger, if some hazardous foreign spore is present on exposed specimens, is that small, dry, detached particles may become airborne and be carried into the lungs. This is only likelyto happen afterthe specimen hasdried out. Ifthe specimen is carried quickly from the test chamber to a normal chemical fume hood before it has time the flow of to dry, air does not reachthe operator and detached fragments cannot enter the nasal passages. Detached portions of growth may be so small that no protection is offered by wearing a gauze mask and only a special respirator sub-micron particles is effective. The use of a for fume hood as suggestedabove,however,is considered an adequate precautionwhen performing this test. Where the test location may contain such a harmful fungus, vestiges of it may remain in the test chamber and present a similar danger when it is being cleansed. High temperature steam, the preferred cleansing treatment, will render the chamber completely harmless. Where, however, fumigation withpropylene oxide is adopted, it will benoted that fumigation prior to washing will ensure that all residues washed from the chamber are completely harmless.

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

This page intentionally left blank.

RTCA, Inc.
1 140 Connecticut Avenue, N W Suite 1020 Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339

RTCNDO-160D

Environmental Conditions andTest Procedures for Airborne Equipment

s f !
Salt Spray

Important Notice
Information pertinent this test procedure is contained in Sections to 1, 2 and 3. Further, m d i x 4 is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed.

Date of Issue: July 29, 1997

Supersedes: RTCA/DO- 160C Prepared by: SC-135

Page
14.0

Saltspray ................................................................. 14-1 14.1 Purpose of the Test ................................................... 14-1 14.2 Categories of Equipment ............................................... 14-1 14.3 Apparatus .......................................................... 14-1 14.3.1 Chamber ..................................................... 14-1 14.3.2 Atomizers .................................................... 14-2 14.3.3 Air Supply ................................................... 14-2 14.3.4 Preparation of Salt Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2 14.3.4.1Adjustment of pH ....................................... 14-2 14.3.5 Filter ........................................................ 14-3 14.3.6 Test Procedure ................................................ 14-3 14.3.6.1Temperature ........................................... 14-3 14.3.6.2Atomization ........................................... 14-3 14.3.6.3Placement of Salt Fog Collection Receptacles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3 14.3.6.4Measurement of Salt Solution ............................. 14-4 14.3.6.4.1Measurement of Sodium Chloride Content . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4 14.3.6.4.2Measurement of pH ............................. 14-4 14.3.6.4.3Time of Measurements ........................... 14-4 14.3.6.5Preparation of Test Item .................................. 14-4 14.3.6.6Performance of Test ..................................... 14-5 Relative Density Variations of the Salt Solution With Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6 Location of Salt Solution Filter ......................................... 14-7

Figure 14-1 Figure 14-2

14.1

Purpose of the Test
This test determines effects on the equipment of prolonged exposure salt atmosphere the to a or to salt spray experienced in normal operations. The main adverse effects to be anticipated are: Corrosion metals. of Clogging or binding of moving parts as a result of salt deposits. C. Insulation fault. d. Damage to contacts and uncoated wiring. a. b.

Note: The salt spray test shall not be conducted prior to the fungus resistance test (see Subsection 3.2, “Order of Tests”). 14.2 Categories of Equipment

When the equipment is installed locations where it subjected to a salt atmosphere in the in is course of normal aircraft operations, equipment is identified as Category S and the salt the spray test is applicable.

14.3

Apparatus
The apparatus used in the salt spray test shall include the following: a. b.
C.

Exposure chamber with racks for supporting test items. A salt solution reservoir with means for maintaining an adequate level of solution. A means for atomizing the salt solution, including suitable nozzles and compressed air supply. means of heating and controlling chamber temperature. means for humidifying the air at temperatures above the chamber temperature.

d.A e. A

Chamber 14.3.1
The chamber and all accessories shall be made of material that will not affect the corrosiveness of the fog, e.g. glass, hard rubber, plastic or kiln-dried wood other than plywood. In addition, all parts that come in contact with test items shall be made of materials that will not cause electrolytic corrosion. The chamber and accessories shall be
0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

The pH measurement shall be made electrometrically. However. Inc. The temperature of the water shouldbe at least 35 degrees C. theair should have a relative humidity of least 85 percent at at the point of release from nozzle.3. Unless otherwise specified.6.3 will be in the pH range of 6. be to Atomizing nozzles shall be madeof materials that are non-reactive to the salt solution. Thesolution shall be adjusted to and maintained at a relative density between the limits shown on Figure 14-1 by utilizing the measured temperature and density of the salt solution.3.2 Atomizers The atomizers shall designed and constructed produce a finely divided.the temperature should not exceed a value above which excessive moisture is introduced into the chamber (for example 43 degrees C at anair pressure of 84 kPa) or a value that makes it impossible to meet the requirements for operating temperature. The permissible water temperature increases with the increasing volume of air and with the decreasing heat insulation ofthe chamber and the chamber’s surroundings. the fog circulates freely about all test items same degree. The air pressure shall be suitable to produce a finely divided dense fog with the atomizer or atomizers used. A satisfactory method is to pass the air in very fine the bubbles through a tower containing heated water that is automatically maintained at a constant level.3. Only diluted chemically pure hydrochloric acid or chemically pure sodium hydroxide shall be used to adjust the pH. The discharge end of the vent shall be protected from strong drafts to prevent strong air currents in the test chamber. .4. the The chamber shall be properly vented to prevent pressure build-up and allow uniform distribution of the salt fog.3 Air Supply The compressed air entering the atomizers shall essentially free from impurities. using a glass electrode with a saturated potassium chloride bridge. Means shall be provided to humidify and warm the compressed air as required to meet the operating conditions.5 sodium iodide and not more than percent of total impurities. The pH shall be 0 1997 RTCA. a fivek1 percent solution shall be prepared by dissolving five parts by weight of salt in 95 parts by weight of distilled or demineralized water. 14.4 Preparation of Salt Solution The salt shall be sodium chloride containing on the dry basis not more than 0.3.5 to 7. 14.constructed and arranged that there is direct impingement of the fog dripping ofthe so no or condensate on the items. To avoid clogging the atomizers withsalt deposition. wet. 14.2. by a colorimetric method such as bromothymol blueor other measuring instruments.3. provided the the results are equivalent to those obtained with electrometric method. 14.1 Adjustment of pH The pHof the salt solutionshall be maintainedso that the solution atomized at 35 degrees C and collected bythe method specified in subparagraph 14.1 percent 0. dense fog. such be all as oil and dirt. test to the and no liquid that has come in contact with test item returns to the salt-solution reservoir.

6.6.6.6. one placed the perimeter ofthe test item nearestto the nozzle. A minimum oftwo receptacles shall test be used.3 Placement of Salt Collection Fog Receptacles The salt fog conditions maintained partsof the exposure zone shall such that clean in all be a fog-collecting receptacle placed at any point inthe exposure zone will collect from 0. the When using large size chambers having a volume considerably in excess of 0.14-3 measured when preparing each new batch of solution and as specified in subparagraph 14.34 d. Inc. 14. Orifices shall be between 0.3.8 mmin diameter. Nozzle pressure shall be as low as practicable to produce fog at the required rate. Filter 14. . b.2 Suitable atomization has been obtained in chambers having a volume of less than 0.28 m3 of chamber volume per 24 hours. by thoroughly insulating the apparatus and preheating the air to the proper temperature prior to atomization or by jacketing the apparatus and controlling temperature of water or of the air used in the the the for jacket. C. Procedure Test 14.3.3.4. Receptacles shall the at 0 1997 RTCA. The useof immersion heaters within the chamber the purpose of maintaining the temperature within the exposure zone is prohibited. Atomization 14.5 A filter fabricated of noncorrosive materials similar to that shown in Figure 14-2 shall be provided in the supply line and immersed in the salt solution reservoir as illustrated in re 14-2. Satisfactory methods for controlling the temperature accurately are by housing the apparatus in a properly controlled constant temperature room. and the other also at at this perimeter of test item but the farthest point fromthe nozzle. Atomization of approximately three liters of salt solution per 0.34 m3 with the following conditions: a.3.3.5 to three milliliters of solution per hour for each 80 cm2 ofhorizontal collecting area (1 0 cm diameter) based on an average of at least16 hours.3.1 The test shall be conducted with a temperature in the exposure zone maintained at 35 degrees C. condition specifiedmayrequiremodification to meet the requirements for operating conditions.5 mm and 0.6 Temperature 14.

The cleaning methods shall not include is the use of corrosive or protective films. uncoated metallic or metallic-coated devices shall be thoroughly cleaned of oil. 14. The salt solution from allcollection receptacles used can be combined to provide the quantity required for the measurements specified.4.3.6. can be measured in a graduate of approximately 2.1. .1 Measurement of Sodium Chloride Content The solution. Test items having an organic coating shall not be cleaned with a solvent.4. For salt fog chambers each test. Those portionsof test items whichcome in contact with the support and. particularly on the significant surfaces.3. maintained at the specified temperature. shall have the sodium chloride content andpH specified in paragraph14.4. in continuous use.6. collected in the manner specified in subparagraph 14. dirt and grease as necessary until the surface fiee fiom water break.6.3.small laboratory type hydrometer will be required A for measurement within this volume. the measurements shall be made following For salt fog chambers that are used infrequently.6.14-4 be placed so that theyare not shieldedby test items andso that drops of solution fromtest items or other sources will not becollected. Unless otherwise specified.3. and shall be preparedfor test immediately before exposure.3.4 Measurement of Salt Solution The solution. 14.6.5 cm inside diameter.3.3. nor the use ofabrasives other than a paste of pure magnesium oxide.3. b. unless otherwise specified in the case of coated devices samples.2 Measurement of pH The pH shall be measured as specified in paragraph 14.24-hour a test run shall be accomplished followed by measurements. 0 1997 RTCA. shall be protected with a suitable coating or similar substance impervious to of wax moisture.4. 14. cut edges and surfaces not requiredbe or to coated. Inc.5 Preparation of Test Item The test item shall receive minimum handling.6.3.3 Time of Measurements The measurementof both sodiumchloride and pH shall be made at the following times: a. The test item the shall not be exposed to this test run.4whenmeasured at a temperature of 35 degrees C. 14. 14.

14-5 14. The test item shall then be inspectedfor corrosion. a gentle wash in running water not warmer than degrees C may be used.6. If necessary. 0 1997 RTCA.6 Performance of Test The test item shall be placed in the chamber and exposedto the salt fog for a period of a minimum of48 hours or as specified in the equipment specification. The test item shall then be storedin an ambient atmosphere for a minimum of 48 hours or as specified in the equipment specification for drying. operate the test item DETERMINE and COMPLIANCE APPLICABLE WITH EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. At the end of the drying period.3. Any corrosion must beanalyzed for its 28 immediate or potential effect on proper functioning of the test item. Inc. .

Inc.CI 6% NI 101 \ \ \ \ \* 96 \ 86 \ \ \ \ 77 \ \ 1 1. .CI 6% N.016 Fbure 14-1 Relative Density Variations of the Salt Solution with Temperature 0 1997 RTCA.oIo 68 1.14-6 4% N.

.TO N W L E S GLASS CLOTM DIACMRAOM FILTER-GLASS WOOL CLOTM ROLL AND INSERT RUBBER RETAINING RIN ROW RUIBER r r o n e R t J SAM SOLUTION RESERVOIR 0 1997 RTCA. Inc.

.This page intentionally left blank.

RTCA. 1997 Supersedes: RTCADO. 2 and 3. NWSuite 1020 Washington. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 15 Magnetic Effect Important Notice Information pertinentto this test procedure is contained in Sections 1. Inc. Further.160C Prepared by: SC-135 . Date of Issue: July 29. 1140 Connecticut Avenue. Atmendix Ais applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed.

... .. . .....1 15..... .. ... ....... . . ... .1 15. . ....... 15. . ...... ... .. .. ... ..... ..... .......... 15....... ... ... .... ...... . . ...... . 15. . .......... ....... . .. ..... ..3 Test Procedure ....1 15. ..... ........... ... .Page 15.. ...... .... . . ....0 MagneticEffect .... . Purpose of theTest ..... ..2 Test Description ... . ..... ........ ..... . ...1 15-2 ... ...

1 Magnetic Effect of the Test This test determines magnetic effectof the equipment to assist the installer in choosing the the proper location of equipment in the aircraft.4 A/m &lo%when the equipment under test is positioned onthe east-west line throughthe pivot ofa magnet. Note 1: If thehorizontalcomponent of the magnetic field produced by the earth at the location of the test lab is within tolerance stated above..2 Test Description The magnetic effect the equipment shall be determinedterms of the deflection a free of in of magnet (e. 0 1997 RTCA.3 shall be adjusted usingthe following formula: Note 2: Dc = 14. .the angular the deflection used to determine equipment class in paragraph 15. Dc is the equivalent deflection angle to be used in determining equipment class.g. the 15.4 Horizontal Component of Ambient Field Strength where. If thehorizontalcomponentof the magnetic field produced by the earth at the location ofthe test lab exceeds the tolerance stated above.0 Purpose 15.Inc. the angular deflection used to determine the equipment class in Subsection 15.3 shall be one degree (Dc = 1). uncompensated compass) in a uniform magnetic field (as produced by the earth) having a horizontal intensity of 14.15.

3 m between 0.3 m and 1. which produce the deflection angle of Dc. . Use the minimum distance measured to determine the equipment class. measure the distance between the magnet pivot and the nearest part of the equipment at which a deflection angle of Dc exists.O m Z A B C Note 1: To determine the distance accurately.0 m and 3.15.3 Test Procedure With the equipment operated the steady state mode that produces the maximum magnet in deflection and also oriented to produce the maximum magnet deflection. 0 1997 RTCA. Inc. record the distance measurements. Equipment Class Distance for a Deflection of Dc than less 0. while bringing the equipment and the magnet closer together and then further away.0 m between 1.0 m greater than 3 .

DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditionsand Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 16 Power Input Important Notice Information pertinentto this test procedure contained in Sections is 1 . Further. 2 and 3. Date of Issue: July 29. Appendix 4 is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed.RTCA. Suite 1020 Washington. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO.160C Prepared by: SC-135 . 1 140 Connecticut Avenue. Inc.NW.

...... ..3 Momentary Undervoltage Operation (dc) .........1 Normal Operating Conditions (ac) .... 16.. 16-12 16..... 16-3 16..... ....4 Abnormal Operating Conditions (dc) ..........................1. ..... .....I Voltage Steady State (dc) .................. 16...1..... ........ . ............. ... .....12 16.. . ........... ... 16.. .. .. . ...... ....... 16-8 16-9 16.... 16. .. .. 16.... .....5.. 16..4......... ..... ..2 Ripple Voltage (dc) ..... .2 Normal Operating Conditions (dc) ......... ............ .. ...... ..16.3Emergency Electrical SystemOperation .........16 16-17 Figure16-2 Characteristics of ac FrequencyModulation .. 16...... 16.... ........5 Engine Starting Undervoltage Operation (dc) ... ........ .. .10 16....... ...... . ........ .... 16-9 16.. ... .. ...... .5 Variable Electrical Power Input Parameters . . .....3 Abnormal Operating Conditions (ac) .........5.. . .....5..5.....1Purpose of the Test .. .. ..........3...... ..5. ................... . .......5. ... . ... .. ................ ... ... ...... 16-8 16...5.... .......... 16-10 16.. . ........ 16-20 16-21 Figure 16-6dcSurge Voltage Limit .............. 16-6 16....4 Normal Surge Voltage (dc) .........2 Voltage Modulation (ac) . .... .... ..Page 16...... ...... .... .. ......1.12 16..2................... . .. . ......... . ..... .......... . .... ........1 Voltage and Frequency (ac) ..5....... . . ..5.......... 16-2 16-2 16...4 Momentary Power Interruptions (ac) . .... . ....2. .... . 16-1 16-1 16. .....5.2....... ...13 16......... ...... .........4... . ...... ......... .. 16-3 16-3 16. .5...5 Normal Surge Voltage (ac) ..... . .. ...... .... ..4.2 Low Voltage Conditions (dc) (Category B Equipment) .. .....5...... ....... Figure 16-5 Envelope of Equivalent Step Functions of ac Voltage Surges .. ...5........ ....5...2. 16-15 Figure 16-1 Frequency Characteristics of ac Voltage Modulation Envelope .. .... 16-18 16-19 Figure16-4 DC Equipment Surge VoltageTest ............. . .. ...... . ......... ........... ...1 Voltage Steady State (ac) ......... ..........5.... ... ... . .... .... ...... . ....... ........... 16-8 16.3 Momentary Power Interruptions (dc) ...............3 Frequency Modulation (ac) ..5...... ..5. .. .. .........1. . .... ........14 16.................. .... 16-1 1 16..4 Abnormal Surge Voltage (dc) .. 16-5 16. ...... . .. ...3..1..3 Abnormal Surge Voltage (ac) ........2 Equipment Categories ...... ..........4.. ...... .. 16-1 16. 16-5 16... .. .... ..2 Momentary Undervoltage Operation (ac) .. . . ....... ....... .............5.2.... ........ 16..0 PowerInput .... .......5...................4 Standard Electrical Power Input Parameters (ac) .. 16.. ................ . Figure16-3 AC Equipment Surge Voltage Test .. ....10 16.. .. Test Conditions for EquipmentwithDigital Circuits Table 16-1 .1 Voltage (Average Value dc) ...... .5.. ...3..5.. ..... . 16-7 16.13 16..

test levels for 14 Vdc equipment are one half that shown for 28 Vdc equipment. Test conditions and procedures for equipment using other electrical power must be defined in applicable equipment performance standards. or b.A battery may be floating on the dc as bus. Category Z shall be acceptable use in lieu of for Category A. The dc supply does not have a battery floating on the dc bus. Unless otherwise specified. and where the dc system is supplied from transformer-rectifier units. Category Z Equipment that may be usedon all other types of aircraft electrical systems applicable to these standardsis identified as Category Z. or dc generators where a battery of significant capacity is floating on the dcbus at all times. Examples of this category are dc systems supplied from variable speed generators where: a. is identified Category A. Inc. 0 1997 RTCA. 28 Vdc and 14 Vdc electrical power appliedto the terminals of the equipment under test. or or protective equipment may disconnect the battery from the dc bus. is identified as Category B. The battery capacity is small compared with the capacity of the dc generators.1 Power Input Purpose of the Test This section defines test conditions and procedures for 115 Vac.the ac equipment is identified as Category E.0 16.16-1 16. The control C. Equipment Categories 16. Category B Equipment intended for useon aircraft electrical systems suppliedbyengine-driven alternatorhectifiers. Category E When equipment requires only input power andis tested to the ac input parameters.2 Category A Equipment intended for use on aircraft electrical systems where the primary poweris from a constant frequency ac system. .

i. Inc. thus requiring the use of an independent source(s) of emergency power whichis limited in poweroutput capabilities.. d. b.3 Emergency System Electrical Operation Emergency electrical system operation is defined as the condition of the electrical system during flight when the primary electrical system becomes unable to supply sufficient or proper electrical power. they are designated A. and reach their respective peak values in that sequence. Phase Sequence The voltage of the individual phasesof a three phase supply mutually displaced are from each other by 120 electrical degrees. e.15.4 Standard ElectricalPower Input Parameters (ac) Certain electrical parameters considered standard. Phase Displacement The phase displacement will within the limits of 120 *4 electrical degrees. Alltests shall be conducted with the following this standard parameters: a. Waveform The waveform will have a crest factor 1.41 *0. The total harmonic content will not exceed eight percent of the fundamental and the individual harmonic content will not exceed five percent of the fundamental when the source of power is the emergency powersystem. Requirement Compliance with subsequent requirements in this section infers compliance under these standard conditions. B and C. T4is spread for eight volts rms when the source of power is the emergency power will not exceed system. Phase Voltage Unbalance For normal electrical system operation. 16. a total harmonic content not exceeding five percent of the fundamental and an individual harmonic content not exceeding four percent of the fundamental. Q 1997 RTCA. This be angle will be the relative displacement between the zero voltage points on the waveforms of the three phases. C.16. . not are varying from nominal limits throughout the requirements of section.e. maximum spread in phase the voltages will not exceed six volts root-mean-square (rms) between the phase with the highest voltage andthe phase withthe lowest voltage all aircraft operations.

normal 360 Hz .rms (lowest phase) 10 1. (2) c 0 1997 RTCA. Inc.5V rms (average of three phases) 380 Hz . .emergency b. 16.rms 400 Hz normal 100 V . 16.5. Requirement Single for Phase Equipment (1) - Operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle for at least 30 minutes with the primary power adjusted to 122 V rms at 420 Hz. Category E and Category are Z equipment.DETERMINE$ 1AL -C BE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during this 30-minute period.1.1 Normal Conditions Operating (ac) The following conditions and tests applicable to Category A.1 Voltage and Frequency (ac) Definition a.5 V rms (average of three phases) 420 Hz .5. Maximum: 122 V rms (highest phase) 120.normal 440 Hz emergency - - Nominal: Minimum: 115 V .16. Note: The used power source should able to supply the maximum be current absorbed by the EUT. and are divided into those associated with NORMAL and ABNORMAL electrical system operation. .5 Electrical Input Variable Power Parameters The following defines quantitatively those parameters of electrical power input that are variable and the related test conditions where applicable. Operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle for at least 30 minutes with the primary power adjusted to 100 V r m s at 380 Hz. DETERMINE : PLI STANDARDSduring this 30-minute period.

Inc. Operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle for at least 30 minutes with primary power adjusted 120. (2) (3) (b) ..5V rms at 440 Hz. the to DETERMINECOMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during this 30-minute period. Requirement for Three Phase Equipment (1) Operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle for at least 30 minutes with the primary power adjusted to an average of 120.5 V r m s at 360Hz. Operate the equipment atmaximum duty cycle for atleast 30 minutes withthe primary power adjusted to 122 r m s at 440 Hz. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITHAPPLICABLE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during this 30-minute period. V DETERMINECOMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLEEOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during this 30-minute period. 100 PETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLEEOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during this 30-minute period.5 V rms at 360 Hz. Repeat. (b) C. For equipment designated to operate under emergency electrical system conditions: (a) Operate the equipment atmaximumduty cycle for atleast 30 minutes withthe primary power adjusted 101.5 V rms at 380 Hz.5 V rms at 440Hz. Repeat with operation of the equipment at 10 1. with operation the equipment at 122 V r m s 360 of Hz. with operation the equipment at 100 V r m s 440 of Hz. . Operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle for at least30 minutes with the primary power adjusted to an average of 101.5 V rms at 420 Hz. Repeat with operation of the equipment at 120. DETERMINE COMPJJANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDSduring this 30-minute period. to DETERMINECOMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLEEOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during this 30-minute period. 0 1997 RTCA.16-4 (3) For equipment designatedto operate underemergency electrical system conditions: (a) Operate the equipmentatmaximumduty cycle for atleast30 minutes with the primary power adjusted to V rms at 360 Hz. Repeat.

about the mean level of the ac peak voltage that may be encountered during steady state electrical system operation causedby voltage regulation variations and speed variations. The frequency components the voltage modulation envelope waveform will not of exceed the limits of &re 16. Requirement The equipment.3 Frequency Modulation (ac) a. Inc. 16. will be specified in the individual equipment performance standard. b. Definition Frequency modulation is cyclic or random variation.1.5. or both. or as indicated in the equipment specification. random variation. 0 1997 RTCA. operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle for at least 30 minutes with the primary power adjusted for phase unbalance.(4) For equipment that operates from a three-phase electrical supply. Definition Voltage modulation is the cyclic variation.1.2 Voltage Modulation (ac) a. The frequency modulation is normally within narrowfrequency limits and occurs as a result of speedvariations in a generator coupling and drive speed regulation. Any test requirement.5 volts maximum peak-to-valley difference between the minimumand the maximum voltage reached on the modulation envelope applied for at least two minutes. . when subjected this condition. or both. The variations of primary system frequency due to frequency modulation during any two-minute period or as specified in the equipment specification will be within a band about the mean frequency definedby Figure 16-2. shall operate within applicable to the equipment performance standards.1. The voltage modulation will be 3.The phase withthe highest a voltage shall be six volts rms (8 volts rms for equipment designed to operate under emergency electrical conditions) greater than the phase with the lowest voltage. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during this 30-minute period. 16. of instantaneous the frequency abouta mean frequency during steady-state electrical system operation.5. if applicable.

0 1997 RTCA. Nominal voltage and frequency shall be applied prior to each test condition. Requirement The equipment. will be specified in the individual equipment performance standard. Definition Transfer of power sources can result in powerinterruptions for periods up to 200 ms. Any test requirement. Note: Any requirement for performance of the equipment during application of test will be specifiedin the equipment performance standard. Such transient power interruptions may be of any function of V-transient and T-transient where V. In each operating mode the equipment. shall be entered and all or related displays functioning prior to each test condition. may have any value between 0 V-steady state and zero. Inc. 'this test procedure selects discrete values that are considered effective for determining equipment performance.4 Momentary Power Interruptions (ac) a. if applicable. whether manually automatically loaded. Requirement for Equipment with Digital Circuits This test is applicable only to equipment that incorporates digital circuitry and/or memory devices.b.1. Enterable data. and may be any value from to 200 milliseconds. there are a multitude of such combinations. b. 16. This type equipment is sensitive to momentary power interruptions can cause of that aberrations in performance. DETFRMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPJJCABLE EOUIPNT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. apply each the test conditionsofof of 66=1at least twice. to the After exposure. Since T. . shall operate within applicable to the equipment performance standard. including equipment with delay circuits.5. Test Procedures The equipment shall be fully operational. when subjected this condition. Monitor the performance of the equipment (including any equipmenthystem normally operatedin parallel) both during and subsequent application of test.

DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH of W APP A Manual S . Returnthe voltage to 115 V rms *1 V rms for five seconds. Return the voltage to 115 V rms *1 V rms for five seconds.1.c.5 Normal Surge Voltage (ac) a. D E T E R M I N E E Note: If the equipment performance standard requires that performance be met during the abnormal surge voltage test of subparagraph 16. E WIH P 1 Note: Unless so stated in the equipment performance standard.4b. b. the 16. (4) Following application of the voltage surges. The voltage surges should be applied and monitoredin a mannersimilar to that in Figure 16-3. interrupt the power a minimum of five times for a period of 50 ms. Repeat this procedure for an interrupt period 200 ms. equipment may have degraded performance during the surge and must meet the specified performance when returned to nominal voltage and frequency.3. 0 1997 RTCA.3. Decrease the voltage to 60 V rms fl V rms for 30 ms.5. of Then cycle the voltage three times as indicated below: Increase the voltage to 160 V rms i2 V rms for 30 ms. . such as load switching and remedial action bythe regulator.5. Definition A normal surge a variationfiom the controlled steady-state level. it is not necessaryto run the above test. Requirement for Other Equipment This test is applicable to all equipment that does not incorporate digital circuitry and/or memory devices as defined in subparagraph 16. Test Procedures With the equipment operating at its design voltage(s) and nominal frequency.2. or automatic reset is permitted if allowed by individual specification. (2) The supply frequency shall be 400 Hz *5 Hz. (3) During the normal electric systemsurges.5. Inc. Requirement (1) Operate the equipment at a voltage 1 15 V rms *1 V rms for five minutes. resulting from is the inherentregulation of the electrical power supply system in response to disturbances imposed by normal system operations.3and abnormal undervoltage test of subparagraph 16.5.1.

5 V Categories Category B 15. 16.3 V 27.0 v b.2 Normal Operating Conditions (dc) The following conditions and are applicable to Category A.E FOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during this 30-minute period. Requirement Operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle for at least 30 minutes with the primary poweradjusted to the appropriate maximum voltage.2.5 V 22.1 Voltage (AverageValue dc) a. IANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS during this 30-minute period.3 V 27.0 v 18. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH THE APPJ. Definition Voltage AandZ Maximum: Nominal: Minimum: Emergency Operation: 30.3. The test may be runat the abnormal voltage levels to satisfy both normaland abnormal operating conditions.0 v 9.0 v 18.2 Ripple Voltage(dc) The requirements of this condition are found in Subsection 18. 16.5. .16-8 16.2. 0 1997 RTCA. operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle for at least 30 minutes with the primary power adjusted to the appropriate emergency voltage. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDSduring this 30-minute period. then adjust the primary powerto the appropriate minimum voltage and operate the equipment at maximum duty cycle for at least 30 minutes. Category B and Category tests Z equipment.5.5.1 V 13. For equipment designated to operate under emergency electrical system conditions.0 v 30.0 V 22. Inc. Operate the equipment at the nominal voltage for at leastone minute.8 V 11. The test may be runat the abnormal voltage levels to satisfy both normal and abnormal operating conditions.ICABT.

V then cycle the voltage three times as indicated below: Increase the voltage to 40 V dc 2 V dc for 30 ms for Category A and Category B equipment. Return the voltage to 27.It results from the inherentregulationof the electrical power supply systeminresponse to disturbances that are imposed by normal system operations.2. = D specification. suck load switching as and remedial action the regulator.5.0 second for Category Z equipment. Return the voltage to 27. Inc. Definition Transfer of power sources can result in power interruptions any period up to 200 for ms for Category A and 50 ms for Category B equipment. Requirement for Other Equipment This test is applicable to all equipment that does not incorporate digital circuitry and/or memory devices. .5 V dc forCategory A and Category B equipment. the C. Requirement (1) Operate the equipment at a voltage of 27.3 Momentary Power Interruptions (dc) a.5 V dc 2 for five seconds. and 1.5 V dc for five seconds.1. Decrease the voltage to 15 V dc k0. Requirement for Equipment With Digital Circuits For equipmentthat incorporates digital circuitry and/or memory devices. including equipment with delay circuits.16.5 V dc 20. Test Procedures With the equipment operating at its designvoltage(s). b. by b. Definition A normal surgeis a variation fromthe controlled steady-state level.2. and to 50 V dc & V dc for 50 ms for Category Z equipment. andto 12 V dc +OS V dc for CategoryZ equipment for 30 ms. 16.5. conduct test defined in subparagraph 16.4 L Manual reset is permitted if allowed by the individual € E - Normal Surge Voltage (dc) a.4 b. interrupt the powera minimum offive times for a period50 ms for each category of equipment.5. Repeat of 200 this procedure for an interrupt period of ms for Category A equipment.5 dc _+OSV dc for five minutes. and 1 second for category Z equipment. 0 1997 RTCA.

(These voltage values are halved 14.) During the normalelectricalsystemsurges.5. to in WITH Return the voltage to its nominal value and DETERMINE COMPLIANCE APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.5 V dc or lower.3. Requirement With the equipment energized nominal ratedvoltage.5. JIETFRMINE COMPJJANCE WITH APPLICABI .5. it is not necessaryto run the above test.5 Engine Starting Undervoltage Operation (dc) a. . Category E and Category are 2 equipment. 16. Note: If the individual equipment performance standard requires that performance be met during the abnormal voltage of 15 V dc 20.0 V dc nominal equipment. decrease the input voltage at for to to 10. (3) (4) Following application of the voltage surges. During this period the equipment performance can fall a level stipulated the equipment specification. 16. Note: Unless so stated in the individual equipment performance standard.rms (highest phase) 132. Definition Abnormal voltage limits which may be encountered are: Maximum: 134 V .0 V dc and increase0.5 V dc may occur in for any duration upto 30 seconds or as indicated inthe equipment specification.rms (average of three phases) 0 1997 RTCA.1 Voltage Steady State (ac) a. Definition This requirement applies category 2 and 28 volt category B equipments.15 volts per second 30 seconds. Inc.2.3 Abnormal Operating Conditions (ac) The following conditions and tests applicable to Category A.E EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. then return rated voltage or as indicated in the equipment specification.DETERMINECOMPJJANCE WITH APPLICABLEP R O M N E -E F R A C STANDARDS.5 V . b.(2) The voltage surge should be applied and monitored in a manner similar to for that in Figure 16-4. During to engine starting.0 to 20. momentary voltages the range from 10. equipment may have degraded performance during the surge and must meet the specified performance when returned to nominal voltage. 16.

E STANDARDS. increase the primary power to nominal rated voltageDand T E W . shall operate within applicable to the equipment performance standards when returned to its normal operating voltage range. . Operate the equipment for at least five minutes with the primarypower adjusted to 97 V rms. COMPLIANCE E WITH APPJJCABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. With the equipment still energized. when exposed this condition. reduce the primary power to nominal rated voltage and DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABJ EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE . Note: Any requirement for performance of the equipment during application of the abnormal voltage will be specified in the equipment performance standard. With the equipment still energized. b. Operate the equipment for at least five minutes with the primarypower adjusted to an average of 98. Note: Any requirement for performance of the equipment during application of the abnormal voltage will be specified in the equipment performance standard. Requirement for Single Phase Equipment (1) Operate the equipment for atleast five minutes with the primarypower adjusted to 134 V rms. (2) 16.Minimum: 97 V . Requirement for Three Phase Equipment (1) Operate the equipment for at least five minutes with the primarypower V adjusted to an average of 132.5. Withthe equipment still energized.E EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. reduce the primary power to nominal rated voltage and DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABJ. Inc. Withthe equipment still energized. increase the primary power to nominal rated voltage and DETERMINE COMPJJANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.rms (lowest phase) 98.5 V rms. 0 1997 RTCA.5 V .rms (average of three phases) Nominal powersupply frequency shall be applied for the following requirements.2 Momentary Undervoltage Operation (ac) a. (2) C.5 rms.3. Definition Momentary voltagesin the range from zero 97 V r m s may occurfor any duration to up to seven seconds. Requirement The equipment. b.

4 Abnormal Operating Conditions (dc) The following conditions and are applicable to Category A. Requirement With the equipment operating its design voltage(s) and nominal frequency. Following application of voltage surges.5 V I 13.4. The envelope of equipment as step function of ac voltage surges shall be within the limits defined 16-5.5. voltage surges of 180rms for 100 ms and 148 V V rms for one second. such during fault clearance.3 Abnormal Surge Voltage (ac) a. Instead of testing following each set of environment conditions. decrease the input ac voltage to 60 rms. apply at to each ofthe primary input leads. Category B andCategory tests 2 equipment. all environments may be performed and voltage set back to nominal then DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. for seven seconds. Definition An abnormal sur& is a variation from the controlled steady-state level.3. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. 16.With the equipment energizedat nominal rated voltage and fiequency. 16. The voltage surges should be applied and monitored in a manner similar to that in Figure 16-1.1 Voltage Steady State (dc) a.2 V 27. With the equipment still energized. Apply each surge three times at ten-second intervals. .5.8V 10.5 V Category B 32. Since all testing is conducted at nominal voltage.1 V II I 27. 16.0 v 1 I 0 1997 RTCA. adjust the primary power to nominal rated voltage and DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. by Fipure b. Definition Abnormal voltage limits that may be encountered are: Voltage Categories AandZ Maximum: Nominal: Minimum:V 20.5 20.5 V 32. resulting from the inherent regulation of the electrical power supply system and remedial action by the regulator. or as otherwise specified in the equipment specificaV tion.2 V 16.5. Inc.

Definition Voltages in the range from zero the appropriate minimumvoltage may occurfor to any duration up to ten minutes. (2) Note: Any requirement for performance of the equipment during application of the abnormal voltage will be specified in the equipment performance standard. to 0 1997 RTCA.2 Low Voltage Conditions (dc) (Category B Equipment) a. Note: For this test. b. 16. b.4. 16.5.4. for any duration up to seven Requirement The equipment. then adjust the input power voltage(s) to the appropriate minimum voltage and operate the equipment for at least one minute. adjust the input power voltage(s) to the equipment’s DETERMINE COMPT JANCEWITH APPLICAappropriate nominal voltage and BLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. Withequipment still energized.5. Requirement (1) Operate the equipment for at least five minutes with the primarypower adjusted to the appropriate maximum voltage. reduce the primary power to nominal rated voltage and DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. Withequipment stillenergized. then adjust the primary powerto the appropriate minimum voltage and operate the equipment for at least five minutes.3 Momentary Undervoltage Operation (dc) a. when exposed this condition. equipment which derives ac power from an inverter shall be considered as dc-operated equipment. With the equipment operating. decrease the the input power voltage(s) linearly to zero over a period of 10 minutes. Definition Voltages may momentarily vary below nominal seconds.b. shall operate within applicable to the equipment performance standards when returnednormal operating voltage range. Operate the equipment at the nominal voltage for at least one minute. Inc. the increase the primary power to nominal rated voltage and DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. Requirement Operate the equipment at the nominal voltage for at least one minute. With the equipment still connected. .

With the equipment energized at nominal rated voltage, decrease the input dc voltage to 12.0 V (or 6 V for 14 Vdc equipments) for seven seconds. With the equipment still energized, adjust the input dc voltage to nominal rated value and DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.
16.5.4.4

Abnormal Surge Voltage (dc) a. Definition

An abnormal surge is a variation from the controlled steady-state level, resulting from the inherent regulation of the electrical power supply system and remedial transient surge voltages action bythe regulator, suchas during fault clearance. The that may be encountered are shown in Fiyure 16-6.
Category b.

Z Requirements

With the equipment operating at its appropriate nominal voltage, apply to the positive (dc) input leadvoltage surges of 80 V dc for 100 ms and 48 V dc for one in a mannersimilar to second. The voltage surges should be applied and monitored that in Figure 16-4. Apply each voltage surge three times at ten-second intervals. Following this test, DETERMINE COMPLIANCE APPLICABLE WITH EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.
C.

Category A

With the equipment operating at its appropriate nominal voltage, apply to the positive (dc) input lead voltage surges of 46.3 V dc for 100 ms and 37.8 V dc for one second, unless otherwise specified the equipment specifications. The voltage in surges should be applied and monitored in a manner similar to that in Figure 16-4. Apply each voltage surge three times at ten-second intervals. Following this test, DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.
d.

Category B

With the equipment operating at its appropriate nominal voltage, apply to the positive (dc) input lead voltage surges of 60 V dc for 100 ms and 40 V dc for one second, unless otherwise specified in the equipment specifications. The voltage surges should be applied and monitored in a manner similar to that in Figure 16-4. (These voltage values are halved for V equipment.) Applyeach voltage surge 14.0 three times at ten-second intervals. Following this test, DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

16-15

Table 16-1 Test Conditions for Equipment with Digital Circuits

v (NOM)

-

o volir

Notes:

1.

Definitions: T1 interrupt Power time. T2 Time it would take for the applied voltage to decay from V (nom) to zero volts. T3 Time it would take for the applied voltage to rise from zero to V (nom) volts. V MIN The minimum level (expressed a percentage of NOMINAL) to which as V the applied voltage is permitted to decay. Tolerance to T1, T3 T2,

2. 3.

=*lo%.

Test condition numbers 8 and 15 are for category Z, dc powered equipment only.

11 Applicable

I A, B, E, Z
10

-- 20 20 20
0

so*

so*

50

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

1.2

3 .o

0.0

0.0

0.4

0.2

1

100

too

RML VOLTAGE OF COMPONENTS OF WLTAOE MOOUUnON ENVELOPE

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

c

U

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

AC

INPUT

UNDER

TUT

i

I

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

16-19

DC Equipment Surge Voltage Test

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

(cr 0 0 1997 RTCA. Inc. .

u Figre 16-6 Typical dc Surge Voltage Characteristics 0 1997 RTCA.01 0. Inc.0. .

.This page intentionally left blank.

NW Suite 1020 Washington.2 and 3. Amendix A is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed. Date of Issue: July 29.135 .RTCA. Inc. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 RTCA/DO-l60D Environmental Conditionsand Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 17 Voltage Spike Important Notice Information pertinentto this test procedure is contained in Sections 1. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO. Further.160C Prepared by:SC.

............................................ 17................1 17........................................... 17............. Voltage Spike Test Setup (Typical) ............Page 17......................................................1 17......................1 Purpose of the Test .................. 17... Voltage Spike Waveform ....................................................................1 17.....................2 Equipment Categories ...........................................1 17-2 17-3 Figure17........................ 17.........................................................3 Test Setup andApparatus ................4 Test Procedure ................0 Voltage Spike .....................................................1 17.............................................................................................................................................................................1 Figure 17-2 .... 17....................

then the performance requirements containedin the applicable equipment performance standard apply. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. After application of the spikes.0 Voltage Purpose 17. Equipment Categories Category A Equipment intendedprimarily for installation wherea high degree of protection against damage by voltage spikes is required is identifiedas Category A. Inc.3 Test Setup and Apparatus The transient generator used shall produce the waveform shown in Figure 17-1. Any method of generating the spike may be used if the waveform complies with Figure 17-1. NOTE: If performance is measured during the application of this test. 17.4 Test Procedure With the equipment under test disconnected. apply each primary power input to a series of positive andnegative spikes described in Figure 17-1.Spike 17. the transient wave shape shall be verified to 1. or changes in equipment performance. insulation breakdown. be in accordance with Figure 17With the equipment operating at its design voltage(s).either ac or dc. . Category B Equipment intendedprimarily for installations where a lower standard of protection against voltage spikes is acceptable is identified as Category B. 17. 17. component failure. Susceptibility degradation.1 of the Test This test determines whether the equipment can withstand effects of voltage spikes the arriving at the equipment on its power leads. @ 1997 RTCA. The main adverse effects to be anticipated are: a. Apply a minimum of 50 transients of each polarity within period of one minute.2 Permanent damage. a Repeat the test for eachoperating mode orfunction of the equipment. A typical test setup is shown in FiPure 17-2. b.

Fivure 17-1 Voltage Spike Waveform @ 1997 RTCA. The waveform requirement is accomplished if the pulse risetime is less thanor equal to 2psec and the total pulse duration is at least 10psec. THE TESTER SOURCE IMPEDANCE CAN BE VERIFIED TESTING WITHA 50Q LOAD BY OF RESISTOR AND SHOULD PRODUCE ONE HALF THE SPECIFIED VOLTAGE* 10%. THE SPECIFIED 50Q VOLTAGE AND DURATIONS ARE FOR OPEN CIRCUIT CON?ITIONS ONLY. OR200 V WHICHEVER IS LESS ) E ' I I I I I I I I 0 2 10 20 30 40 50 60 TIME MICROSECONDS - THE WAVEFORM SOURCE IMPEDANCE SHALL BE * 10%.I A I CATEGORY VOLTS600 A: E= CATEGORY B: E = 2 X LINE VOLTAGE (AC RMS AND/OR DC. THE PEAK VOLTAGE MAY BE SUBSTANTIALLY LOWERWITH THE EQUIPMENT CONNECTED. Note: The waveform shown aboveis typical. Inc. .

Inc. ALTERNATE TEST METHODS MAY BE REQUIRED (To avoid saturating transformer etc. Fbure 17-2 Voltage SpikeTest Setup @ 1997 RTCA.17-3 GENERATOR r------ OSCILLOSCOPE (OPTIONAL) HIGH ACorDC POWER INPUT == 1 o f i n 0 EQUIPMENT UNDER TEST NOTE: FOR EQUIPMENTS DRAWING HIGH CURRENTS. .).

.This page intentionally left blank.

Inc. 1997 160C Supersedes: RTCA/DOPrepared by: SC-135 . Suite 1020 Washington. Date of Issue: July 29. Further.RTCA.W.2 and 3. applicable for is identifying the environmental tests performed. 1140 Connecticut Avenue.N. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditionsand Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 18 Audio Frequency Conducted Susceptibility-Power Inputs Important Notice Information pertinentt this test procedure contained in o is Sections 1 .

..........................3........... Frequency Characteristics of Ripplein 28 Volt DC Electric System-Category B ..............1 DC Input Power Leads ....................................Page 18...........4 General Remarks .............. 18-1 18..............Power Inputs (Closed Circuit Test) ...3 Test Procedures ................................... 18-2 Test Setup for Audio Frequency Conducted Susceptibility Test (For AC and DC Power Lines) ...... 18-1 18-1 18.0 AudioFrequencyConductedSusceptibility ...... 18-2 18.............................3....1 Figure 18-2 Figure 18-3 18-3 18-4 18-5 ............................................2 Equipment Categories ..................... 18... 18-1 18...................................2 AC Input Power Leads ......... 18-1 18........................1 Purpose of theTest ................................................. Figure 18...................................... Frequency Characteristicsof Ripple in 28 Volt DC Electric System-Categories A & 2 ................

While 0 1997 RTCA. c.the ac equipment is identified as Category E. 18. or The battery capacity is small compared with the capacity of the dc generators.2 Equipment Categories Equipment intended use on aircraft for electrical systems where the primary poweris from a constant frequency ac system. or dc generators where a battery of significant capacity is floating on the dc bus at all times. is identified as Category B. b. These frequency components normally harmonically related the power source fundamental are to frequency. Equipment intended for useon aircraft electrical systems suppliedbyengine-driven alternatorhectifier. 18.Category Z shall be acceptable for use in place as of Category A.18. Test Procedures Power Leads Connect the equipment under test as shown in &ure 18-1.1 Input DC The dc power supply does not have a battery floating on the dc bus.is identified as Category A.1 Audio Frequency Conducted of the Test Susceptibility . A battery may be floating on the dc bus. . Examples of this category are dc systems supplied from variable-speed generators where: a.3 18. or Control or protective equipment may disconnect the battery from the dc bus. where and the dc system is supplied from transformer-rectifier units.3.Power Inputs (Closed Circuit Test) This test determines whether the equipment will accept frequency components of a magnitude normally expected when the equipment is installed in the aircraft. Equipment that may be usedon all other types of aircraft electrical systems applicable to these standards is identified Category 2.0 Purpose 18. Inc. When equipment requires only input power andis tested to theac input parameters. Apply a sine wave audio frequency signal successively in series with each ungrounded dc input power lead.

it must be capable performing adequately when the or dc load current of ac drawn by the equipment under test flows through its secondary winding. be When a transformer is used to couple the audio frequency energy into the power lead. while ac 750 varying the frequency of the applied signal between and 15.E EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE. 832 AC Input Power Leads Connect the equipment under test as shown in 18-1. d.18-2 varying the audio frequency of the applied signal and with the rms amplitude of signal this at the value specified in 18-2 or F b r e 18-3 . On ac lines. be For dc input power leads.6 ohm *50%..000 Hz.RMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPJ JCABJ. . Applysine a wave audio frequency signal successivelyin series with each ungrounded input power lead. component at the signal monitor. 18. Inc.4 General Remarks a.E EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. e. C. a phase shifting network may be used to eliminate the power frequency b. If the impedance of the test power leads is such that excessive power will be required to generate the specified audio signal voltage level. The impedanceof the outputof the transformer shall 0. Caution must be exercised so that reflected voltages developed by input power current do not damage the audio power source generation system. 0 1997 RTCA. a large capacitor 00 microfarads or (1 more) shall be connected across the dc power source. paragraph 18.3.-ME COMPLIANCE WITIj W'JJCARI. Maintain the rms amplitude ofthis signal at not less than five percent the nominal ac of input voltage and DETF.1. me r 1. For AC input power a10 microfarad capacitor shall connected across the power source. the test conditions will be adequately satisfied by the use of audio amplifier with a maximum output of an 30 W.

Inc.6 ohms f 50% re 18-1Test Setup For Audio Frequency Conducted Susceptibility Test (For And DC Power Lines) AC 0 1997 RTCA.MONITOR AUDIO GENERATOR Q L SIGNAL TRANSFORMER Z AC OR DC POWER SOURCE L UNDER C 2 100 microfarads forDC power only C = 10 microfarads forAC power only Z = 0. .

Inc. 0 0 c 4 4 4 (Y s 5 A3N3ll03W lN3NOdYY03 H3V3 4 0 3 M V A SMJU SAlOA 3 V - 0 1997 RTCA. .18-4 0 9 z h L I Q) a 0 t 0 (! .

0 1997 RTCA. . Inc.

This page intentionally left blank. .

Further.2 and 3. Date of Issue: July 29.RTCA.160C Prepared by: SC-135 . Appendix 9 is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO. Inc. 1140 Connecticut Avenue. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 19 Induced Signal Susceptibility Important Notice Information pertinent to this test procedure is contained in Sections 1. N W Suite 1020 Washington.

. 19-8 Figure 19-5 Inductive Switching Transients .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .2 Equipment Categories . . . . . 19-4 Figure 19l(a) Audio Frequency Magnetic Field Susceptibility Test Levels . . . . . 19-1 19-1 19. . . . . . ... .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .3. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. .. . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. 19-2 19. . . . . .. 19-1 19.. . . . . . . .. . . . . .Page 19. . . . . . . . .. . . . Purpose of the Test . .0 InducedSignal Susceptibility .. ... . 19-1 91 19. . . . . . . .2 Magnetic Fields Induced Into Interconnecting Cables . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . ...3 19. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 19-2 Electric Fields Induced Into Interconnecting Cables . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1 1 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .Category C . .. . 19-7 Figure 19-4 Interconnecting Cable Spike Test Setup . . . .. . .. . . .. . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . 19-5 Figure 19-2 AudioFrequencyMagneticFieldSusceptibilityTestSetup . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields Induced Into the Equipment . . 19-2 Table 191 Applicability of Categories to InducedSignal Susceptibility . . . . . . . . 19-6 Figure 19-3 AudioFrequency Electric FieldSusceptibility Test Setup . . . . . . . . ..3 Test Procedures . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . 19-5 Figure 19-l(b) Audio Frequency Electric Field Susceptibility Test Level . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .. . . . . 19-9 . . .3. . .4 Spikes Induced Into Interconnecting Cables .. . .. . ..

.3 19.15 m of the periphery of the unit of equipment under test. in a straight wire radiator located within 0. Catepory Z Equipment intended primarily for operation in systems where interference-free operation is required isidentified as Category Z.0 19.1 Signal Susceptibility Purpose of the Test This test determines whether the equipment interconnect circuit configuration will accept a level of induced voltages caused by the installation environment. This section relates specifically to interfering signals related to the power frequency and its harmonics. audio frequency signals. Cateporv A Equipment intendedprimarily for operation where interference-free operation is desirable is identified as Category A. Inc.1 Test Procedures Magnetic Fields Induced Into the Equipment Subject the equipment under test to an audio frequency magnetic field. 19. 19. During this test. the radiator shall be oriented with respect to each external surface of each unit to cause maximum interference.3. Catepory B Equipment intended primarily for operation in systems where interference wouldbe controlled to atolerable level is identified as Category B. generated by the current specified in Table 19-1.2 Equipment Categories Category C Equipment intended primarily for operation in systems where interference-free operation is required and where severe coupling occurs due to long wire runs or minimum wire separation is identified as Category C. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. The length the radiatorshall extend a distance of at of 0 1997 RTCA.Induced 19. and electrical transients that are generated by other on-board equipment or systems and coupled to sensitive circuits within the EUT through its interconnecting wiring.

The timer shown Figure 19-4 shall be A. All units of the equipment under test shall be individually tested.least 0.6 m (laterally) beyond each extremity of the unit under test. The leads applying 0. The electric field power source shall not be synchronized withthe power source of the equipment power supply. Shielded or twisted wires shall be used only where specified bythe equipment manufacturer. Inc. COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS when field is of the the value specified in Table 19-1. should be similar to that described in Figure 19-5.3.3. . During this test.3 Electric Fields Induced Into Interconnecting Cables Subject the interconnecting wire bundle of equipment under test to an audio frequency the electric field as illustrated FiFure DETERMINE by 19-3. Any inputs or outputs from or to other equipment normally associated with equipment under test shall be adequately the simulated. For both 0 1997 RTCA.6 the current to the radiator shallrouted at least m away from any part of unit under test be and fromthe radiator itself. 19. The magnetic field power source shall notbe synchronized with the power source of the equipment supply. 19. Any inputsor outputs from or to other equipment(s) normally associated withequipment under shall be adequately the test simulated. Shielded or twisted wires shall be used only where specified by the equipment manufacturer. all equipment interconnecting cables shall bein accordance with the applicable installation and interface control diagrams.2 Magnetic Fields Induced Into Interconnecting Cables Subject the interconnecting wire bundleof the equipment under test to an audio frequency magnetic field as illustrated in Figure DETERMINE 19-2. The magnetic field power source is not synchronized with the power source to be of the equipment power supply. Table 19-1 defines the in desired cable lengths for Categories ByC and Z.4 Spikes Induced Into Interconnecting Cables During this test. Subject the interconnecting wire bundle ofthe equipment under test to both positive and negative transient fields using the test setup shown in Figure 19-4. The waveform present at point A. adjusted to yield a pulse repetition rate of eight to ten pulses each second. 19. Figure 19-4. all equipment interconnecting cables shall be installed in accordance with the applicable installation and interface control diagrams. all equipment interconnecting cables shall be in accordance with the applicable installation and interface control diagrams. During this test. Any inputs or outputs from or to other equipment(s) normally associated with equipment under test shall be adequately the simulated. COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS when field is of the the value specified in Table 19-1.3.

Any requirement for performance of the equipment during application of the tests will be specified in equipment performance standard.2 to 10 microseconds and the number of repetitions is often 5 to 1.) Whenthe voltage reaches the ionizing potential. The voltage at Point A usually the overshoots +28 V dc because of the wire inductance between Point A andthe coil. between windings of the coil is charged negativelyduring this time. arc-overoccurs at the contact and the voltage drives rapidly toward28 V dc through the ionized path at contact. In atypical case. the voltage at Point A drives from +28 V dc to large negative voltages in about two microseconds. After exposure. Inc.E EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.positive and negative polarities of the transient. 0 1997 RTCA. the arc extinguishes and the cycle is repeated.000 before the energy of the inductive load(E = 1/2 LI ’) is dissipated.000 picofarad typically. the pulsing for each polarity shall be maintained for a period of not less than two minutes or for a longer period of time if specified in the relevant equipment specification. At this time. the The inductive switching transient generated when contact opens should be very the similar to the illustration in m r e 19-5. . when monitored at point A on E m r e 19-4. When the contact opens. 250 to 3. DETERMINE COMPJ JANCE WITH APPJ JCABJ . the repetition period is 0. (The capacitance.

if the manufacturer specifies a maximum cable length of 1.Table 19-1 Applicability of Categories to Induced Signal Susceptibility ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ Paragraph 19. and 5400 V-m at 400 Hz reducing to 135 V-m at 15 kHz (sshown in a Figure 19.1 (b)) Figure 19-4 L=1. The test level to may be adjusted downward in proportion the ratio of the reduced coupling length to the specified coupling length (L = 3.O m Figure 19-4 L=3.3 m.5 m.O m 19. the coupled length(L) of the field source wire shall be reduced to maintain the 0. then L = 1.6 A-m at 15 kHz (sshown a in Figure 19-1(a)) ~ ~ ~~ 19. A-m at 15 kHz (as shown in Figure 191(a>> Category A 20 A rms at 400 Hz I x L=l8 A-m from 380 to 420 Hz Category B 20 A rms at 400 Hz Not applicable Category C 20 A r m s at 400 Hz I x L=120 A-m from 380 to 420 Hz. 0 1997 RTCA.2 Test Magnetic fields induced into the equipment Magnetic fields induced into interconnecting cables 20 A r m s at 400 Hz I x L=30 A-m at 400 Hz reducing to 0 8 .93. This test is not required = when the manufacturer’s installation andinterface control drawings or diagrams specify a fixed length cable less than 1.0 m Note: When the manufacturer’s installation andinterface control drawings or diagrams specify a fixed length cable less than 3.2 m).5 m (L less than 1.3. The adjusted level is then (1.15 m minimum separation distance at each end.1 19. Inc. and 60 A-m at 400 Hz reducing to 1.0) 0.3 . .15) = 3 m). For example.4 Spikes induced into interconnecting cables Figure 19-4 L=3.8 m.3.3.(2 x 0.3 Electric fields induced into interconnecting cables V x L=l800 V-m from 380 to 420 Hz V x L=360 V-m from 380 to 420 Hz Not applicable V X L=5400 V- m from 380 to 420 Hz.5 times the voltage or current limits shown above.3.2 m Figure 19-4 L=3.

1 -I 0.1 &me 1 10 100 FREQUENCY (W) 1 .m Audio Frequency Electric FieldSusceptibility Test Ltvel-Category C 91 0 1997 RTCA. .i ~CA'IEGORYC(120A-mfram380to420Hd I I I 0..) Audio Frccl#. Inc.1 I I I 100 1 10 FREWENrn(latz) loo00 F4rpn 194. 15 #4r n 10 0.c~r - SIlrCqtiMutJr f I 100 .

I \ 0 1997 RTCA. . Inc.

Inc.15 Theinterconnectingwirebundle shall b es p a c e d a minimum of 50 mm above the ground plane.. ..- OPEN CIRCUIT& Note 1: N o t e 2: SIGNAL GENERATOR D - UNIT OR SYSTEM UNDER TEST 20..UNIT OR SIMULATED LOAD OF SYSTEM UNDER TEST 3 SPIRALS PER METER - A \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I t ..Length (L) . ElectricFieldEnvironment (volts rms x meters) = Voltage (V) x L e n g t h( L ) Note 3: R sizedforpersonnelhighvoltageprotection Figure 19-3 Audio FrequencyElectric Field Susceptibility Test Setup 0 1997 RTCA.

o ii n Note 3: 28 VDC supplied from ungrounded sourcei t h polarity reversing SM&.15m M 4 \ . .UNIT OR SIMULATED LOAD OF SYSTEM UNDER TEST 3 SPIRALS PER M€ER -.5 henries f 10% in the energized p sto . Inc. Note 2: The unsuppressed relay coil characteristics are asfollows: Voltage = 28 volts dc = 160 mA Current Resistance = 175 ohms f 10 % Inductance = 1. Figure 19-4 Interconnecting Cable Spike Test Setup 0 1997 RTCA. m m - A \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ’ \ \ Length (L) Point A I I I : \ -.15m M - UNIT OR SYSTEM UNDER TEST - Unsuppressed o l Relay C i - Me2 I 28 VDC SUPPLY I 1 I Note 1: The interconnecting wire bundle shall spaced a minimum of be 50 mm above the ground plane.

2 to 10 microseconds Note: Voltage waveforms measured between Point of A Figure 19-4 and the ground plane.a 71 72 Amplitude > 600 v p-p Total Durath 50 to 1000 microseconds Repetition Period 0. FiPure 19-5 Inductive Switching Transients 0 1997 RTCA. Inc. .

This page intentionally left blank. .

160C Prepared by: SC. Further.13 5 . 1997 Supersedes: RTCADO. Appendix A is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed. NW Suite 1020 Washington. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue.RTCA. Inc. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditions andTest Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 20 Radio Frequency Susceptibility (Radiated and Conducted) Important Notice Information pertinent to this test procedure is contained in Sections 1. 2 and 3. Date of Issue: July 29.

...........12 RF Absorption at Normal Incidence ..1 Figure 20............. Injection Probe Insertion Loss Limits ............... Calibration Fixture Maximum VSWRLimits .......... 20-12 - Table 20.......................Plan View .......................................... Conducted Susceptibility Test Setup ... Typical Mode-Stirred Chamber...................................................................................... 20-2 20-7 20..................0 Radio Frequency Susceptibility (Radiated and Conducted) .................................5 Radiated Susceptibility (RS)Test 100 MHz to 18 GHz ...6 Radiated Susceptibility(RS) Test 100 MHz .... Radiated Susceptibility Test Levels ..3 General Test Requirements ..................................................1 Figure 20-2 Figure 20-3 Figure 20-4 Figure 20-5 Figure 20-6 Figure 20-7 Figure 20-8 Figure 20-9 Figure 20............................... 20-9 20.....................18 20...................... Line Impedance Stabilization Network Input Impedance .. Conducted Susceptibility Test Levels ..........................Side View ..............19 20-20 20-20 20-2 1 20-22 20-23 20-24 20-25 20-26 20-27 20-28 .................... Amplitude Measurement ............ Injection Probe Insertion Loss Test Setup ........ 20................. 20....................10 kHz to 400 MHz ....... 20-1 20-1 20.................Mode-Stirred Chamber ........................... Conducted Susceptibility Calibration Setup ............................................. Typical Mode-Stirred Chamber ..........1 1 Figure 20.2 Equipment Categories ........................Page 20.....................10 Figure 20. 20-17 20..18 GHz........ 20-1 20....................................4 Conducted Susceptibility (CS) Test ... Radiated Susceptibility Test Setup .............1Purpose of the Test ... Alternate Procedure ............

20.20. the equipment manufacturer should design. Two test procedures are used:From 10 kHi to 400 MHz. . manysystems or equipments are is designed with the intent that they will be installed in several different types of aircraft. Inc. Therefore. Thesetests are sufficient to obtain environmental the qualification for radio frequency susceptibility of the equipment.1 Radio Frequency Susceptibility (Radiated and Purpose of the Test Conducted) These tests determine whether equipment will operate within performance specifications when the equipment and its interconnecting wiring exposed to a level ofRF modulated are power. The result of these tests is to permit categories to be assigned defining the conducted and radiated RF test levels of equipment. the EUT is subjected to radiated RF fields. Category designationfor equipment consists of three characters. Conducted susceptibility test levels are designated with the first category character. Continuous wave (CW) and square wave (SW) modulated radiated susceptibility test levels are designated with the second category character.2 Equipment Categories Categories designate the RF test levels and establish the EUT minimum RF susceptibility level. exposure and use. if a category is not identified in the equipment specification. and 2) for frequencies between 100 MHz and the upper frequency limit. Equipment with special signal.6. Additional tests may be necessary to certify the installation of systems in an aircraft dependent on the functions performed. test and qualifyequipment to the category level consistent the with expected location. Pulse modulated radiated susceptibility test are designated levels with the third category character. Each of these two methods are at the discretion of the applicant. 0 1997 RTCA. modulation or bandpass characteristics may require test variations as specified bythe applicable performance standards.5 and materiels described within paragraph 20. frequency.1 20. Radiated susceptibility tests from M H z to 18GHz may be conducted using methods and 100 materials as described within paragraph or may be alternately conducted using methods 20.0 20. The category to be applied to a system or equipment frequently must bechosen before the internal RF environment of the aircraft known. Further. There is an overlap of the tests from 100 to 400 MHz. either bya radiated RF field orby injection probe induction onto the power lines and interface circuit wiring. The categories may be given in the applicable equipment performance standard. the equipment under test (EUT) 1) its is subjected toRF signals coupled by means of injection probes into cable bundles.

p. Inc. .20-2 To aid the equipment manufacturerselecting appropriate test limits the equipment and in for its interconnecting wiring.5 n? or more in area with a minimum depth (front back) of 0.A copper. When a shielded to be enclosure is employed. Category “V” is intendedfor equipments and interconnecting wiring installed in a moderate environment such as the more electromagnetically open areas of an aircraft composed principally of metal. categories have been defined below. brass or aluminum ground plane. byipment Under Test The EUT shall be set up on a ground plane and configured in accordance with the following criteria: (1) Ground Plane .75 m shall used.If specified by the equipment manufacturer.the EUT shall be secured to mounting bases incorporating shock or vibration isolators.25 mm 0. anticipated exposure and location of interconnecting wiring. The bonding straps furnished with the mounting bases shall be (2) 0 1997 RTCA. Equipment location. Catenorv “T” is intended for equipment and interconnecting wiring installed in a well protected environment such as an enclosed avionics bay in anall-metallic aircraft. “w” and “Y” are intended for equipment and interconnecting wiring installed in severe electromagnetic environments.5 milliohms or less. Shock and Vibration Isolators . r y “U” is intended for equipment and interconnecting wiring installed in a partially protected environment such as an avionics bay in all-metallic aircraft. at least 0. to meet the high intensity radiatedfield ( . aircraft size and constructiondetermine the test level. It is recommended that the DC bonding resistance should be 2.. mm thick for brass. 2. 03 General Test Requirements a. The descriptions are for guidance only. tenorv “S” is intended as a minimum test level where aircraft effects from the external electromagnetic environment minor and where interference operation on aircraft are free the is desirable but not required. Category “R” is intended to provide test levels for equipment when bench testing allowed is IIR) associated with the normal environment.5 thick for copper and aluminum. the groundplane shall bebonded to the shielded enclosure at intervals greater than one meter andboth ends of the ground no at plane. Such environments mightfound in non be metallic aircraft or exposed areas in metallic aircraft..I F 2. Catego 1 .

use approximately 30 cm of arepresentative type of wire. e.g. (4) External Ground Terminal. At least one meter of cable from EUT must be 10 cm fromfront of the test bench and the the parallel to the front of the test bench as shown in figure 20-2. Bonding straps shall not be used in the test setup. For complex cable bundle configurations. Some special installations may require very long cable bundle lengths which cannot be accommodated on the test bench. twisted wires. to Cables shallbe bundled in a manner similar that of aircraft installations and supported approximately 50 mm above the ground plane. When the length of an interconnecting cable bundle is greater than the test bench. The electrical bonding of equipment. the terminal shall be connectedto the ground planeto ensure safe operating conditions during the test. bonding enclosure.3 m. the recommended maximum length ofthe interconnecting cable bundles for these tests is 15 m. cable bundles and RF transmission lines shall be in accordance with the applicable installation and interface control drawings or diagrams. The length of connection the defined in the installation instructions shall be used. shielded wires. (5) .connected to the ground plane. .When an external terminal is available for a ground connection onthe EUT. The test report shall describe the bonding methods employed.. Unless otherwise specified. when theyare not incorporated in the mounting bases. Inc. and wire bundles shall be representative of aircraft installations specified by the applicable installation as and interface controldrawings or diagrams. Any inputs or outputs from or to other equipment or loads associated with the EUT shall be provided by an actual in-service type of device or shall be simulated taking into account the line-to-line and line-to-ground frequency dependent impedances.All EUT interconnecting wiring (e. connectors.. Interconnecting Wlr me/Cables . the cable bundle should be arranged with excess length zig-zaggedat the back the of the test bench approximately 50 mm above the ground plane. (3) Electrical Bondiu .). Therefore. mounting base and ground of plane. The exception to this limitation is where cable bundle lengths are matched or specified to a particular length for phase matchor similar reasons.g. all cable bundles and interconnected loads should be kept separated from each other as much as practical to minimize coupling effects between cables.. if a length is not defined. cable lengths shall be at least 3. shall be used for bonding.Only the provisions included in the EUT design or installation instructions. etc. 0 1997 RTCA.

antenna cables may be terminated in a load equal the cable characteristic impedance. When the return lead is a local ground (less than 1 meter length).Test equipment shall bebondedandgrounded minimize ground loops and ensure personnel safety.1. Inc. such standard gain horn similar as a or type radiator. . The input impedancecharacteristic is shown inF i p r e 20.Dipole. crystal diodes. Power return lines locally grounded in the aircraft installation do not require an LISN. If the transmitting antenna being used is a pyramidal horn.O m unless otherwise specified in the applicable equipment specification. the the power and return leads should be broken of the cable bundle nearthe out connector of the EUT and run separately the LISNs. When the actual aircraft cable bundle configuration is unknown or when power andor return leads are normally routed separately fromcontroVsigna1 leads. These leads shall then connected to Line Impedance be Stabilization Networks (LISNs). a dummy to or antenna. in accordance with the applicable installation and interface control drawings or diagrams. such as filters.this lead may be grounded directly to the test bench. b. The measurement port of LISN shall be terminated into RF the 50 ohms for all tests.An LISN shall be inserted in each EUT primary power line. The dummy antenna.For the purpose of this test. if used. synchros and motors. a 10 microfarad capacitor shall be inserted between each LISN power inputterminal and the ground plane for the entire test. test equipment andinstruments shall be set up andoperated in accordance with the following criteria: (1) (2) BondingTestEquiDment . Shielded Enclosure and Test Equipment Enclosures. be shielded and be designedhave shall to electrical characteristics closely simulating in-service antenna. to Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN) .For cable bundle tests. power and return leads normally bundled with the control/signal leads shall remain in the cable bundle and only be separated from the bundle just prior to the cable bundle exiting the test area. Under these to conditions. It shall also the contain electrical components normally used in the antenna.(6) Power Leads . the length of the leads to the LISNs shall not exceed 1 .as the dimensions of antenna become small and frequency the the (3) 0 1997 RTCA. LISN case shall be bonded to The the ground plane.3 m above the level of the ground plane and parallel to the ground plane as shown in figure 20-2. biconical or horn antennas shall be centered 0. When LISNs with self resonances above 10 kHz are used (such as standard 5pH LISNs). Antenna Orientation and Positioningin Shielded Enclosures . (7) Dummv Antennas or Loads .

Note: Fortypicalstandardgainhorns.Shield room effects on equipment and test setup shall be minimized to the greatest extent possible.Probes shall have the necessary power and range capabilities. Moving transmit at the antenna farther away will increase illuminated area. multiple area scans shall be performed. Inshielded enclosure the tests. Inc. the far field boundary the If of the antenna extends beyond one meter the standard one meter separation then should be used.3 m away from shielded enclosure wall. RF absorber material shall be used during radiated testing inside a shielded enclosure to reduce reflections of 0 1997 RTCA. is permissible to move the antenna closer to the it EUT thanthe one meter shown Figure 20-2.6is used. This can only be done when in the far field boundary of antenna is within this one meter distance. A suggested test are setup for measuringthe injection probe insertion loss is shown in Fipure 20-4. (4) Iniection Probes . Note: The far field boundary of the antenna is calculated by the following equation: 2 *D2 where D = J= . (5) . When the beamwidth of the antenna does not totally cover the system under test. the antenna shallbe at least0. Shielded Enclosure . largest dimension of the transmitting aperture in meters. appropriate field strength the EUT must be maintained. Support and center the probe in the fixture. decreasing the number the of antenna placements requiredfor large EUTconfigurations. If the transmit antenna far field boundary is less than or equal to one meter it is also allowable to move the antenna farther than one meter from The the EUT. The position the of the transmit antenna relative the EUT must remain equal or greater than to to the far field boundary of transmitting horn antenna. The EUT and at least one-half wavelength of wiring should be exposed during a scan. and wavelength of the frequency of interest in meters. Injection probe insertion loss limits shown inFimre 20-3.of interest becomes higher.far-fieldboundaries less thanone meter fromthe antenna exist only for frequencies above approximately 8 GHz. Alternate antennas maybeusedprovided the required field strengths are obtained. Note: The above does not apply if the alternate radiated susceptibility test procedure of Section 20.

behind. If an exclusion 20 band is selected. The design and protection of test aids. e. For test equipment that generate a continuous frequency sweep. the test frequencies shall be actively swept nofaster than two minutes for each frequency decade. and behind the radiating antenna shown in Figure 20-2. The manufacturer’s specificationof their RF absorber material (basic material only. resolution. isolation and immunity test equipment interface circuits to RF currents. Minimum as performance of the material shall be as specified in Table 20-1. d. unless otherwise specified in the applicable performance standard. Test Freauencv Exclusions RF susceptibility tests on intentional RF transmitting or receiving equipment may exclude the transmitheceive frequency band for that equipment.the individual modulation sidebands will not be resolved. the RF absorber shallbe placed above.20-6 electromagnetic energyand to improve accuracy and repeatability. the RF susceptibility tests shall performed to Category within the be S exclusion band. particularly for Section 20. Asa sides of minimum.6. FrequencyScan Rates of Sweep or step rates shallbe selected with consideration equipment undertest (EUT) response time. Amplitude Measuremea The amplitudes associated with categories are based onthe peak ofthe rms envelope the over the complete modulation period shown in m r e 20-5. andvideo bandwidths of the measuring instrument must be wider than the modulating frequency.6 is used. EUT susceptibility bandwidths. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable performance standard. The measurement bandwidth shall be 1 dB increased untilthe amplitude of the measured signaldoes not change by more than for a factor of three change in bandwidth. This instrument must have a fast enough time response respond to to signal amplitudevariations. of c. Inc. not installed) is acceptable. Thedetection. A spectrumanalyzer may be used. Amplitude measurements as shall be madein a mannerwhich clearly establishes the peak amplitude of the modulated waveform. Fiber-optic interfaces may be providedfor test equipment and sensors to help give susceptibility-free monitoring. and on both the EUT. This bandwidth setting shall then be usedfor the test. Note: The above is notapplicable if the alternate radiated susceptibility test procedure of Section 20. monitors andload stimulation units should ensure appropriate simulation. and monitoring test equipment response time. the exclusion band may include frequencies up to 20 percent above the highest transmitheceive frequency and frequencies within percent of the lowest transmitheceive frequency. . Q 1997 RTCA. Atthe proper setting.

Increase amplifier power fedthrough the directional coupler the to the injection probe at 10 kHz until the current or power measured on amplitude 0 1997 RTCA. Simultaneous for injection with separate probes on several bundles be used. All cable bundles and appropriate branches connect the EUT to other equipment interfacing units the that or in aircraft system are subject to this test. while monitoringthe induced cable bundle current. the minimum number of test frequencies shall be 100 frequencies per decade. power amplifier. 20. andinstall the injection probe inthe calibration fixture per figure 20-7. and fio0is the end frequency..(6). Additional dwell time at test frequency may be necessary each to allow the EUT to be exercised in appropriate operating modes.4 Conducted Susceptibility (CS) Test 10 kHz to 400 MHz - Subject the EUT and interconnecting cables or circuits to the appropriate category of e 20-6. shall not be included inthe bundle undertest and are not requiredto be tested. Interconnecting wiring can be tested as a whole or as individual wires. Probe Calibration Set up the signal generator. Set the signal generator to 1OkHz. As an example. and may be required may equipment with built-in redundancy. and f. unmodulated. amplitude measurement instruments. a formula which can be used calculate these to frequencies in ascending order is: where f. Note: The frequencies chosen for the test should be appropriate to the equipment. etc.For test equipment that generate discrete frequencies. exclusive of test equipment settling time. Support and center the probe in the fixture. directional coupler. as required in Section 20. IFs. The dwell time at each test frequency shall be at least one second. attenuator. . The test frequencies shall be logarithmically spaced. such as image frequencies.Inc.3. clock frequencies. Power return leads or ground leads that are grounded directly to the test bench. Additional test frequencies should be included known equipment response for frequencies. b. is the start frequency.a. is a test frequency n = 1 to 100.

2: The calibration jig 1. test equipment and all monitoring circuits and loads. for example. data. Observe appropriate RF exposure limits. If the EUT five connector plus backshell length exceeds five centimeters. Amplitude modulate RF carrier witha 1 kHz square wave the at greater than 90 percent depth. with IF. Thenscan the frequency band (unmodulated) while recording forwardpoweron amplitude measurement instrument #2 and maintaining poweramplitudes (*2 dB) on amplitude measurement instrument per Figure 20-6 from kHz to 400 MHz for the #1 10 proper probe. When modulation is applied. unmodulated. The amplifiers shall be capable of full power required by the probes with an individual harmonic content of less than 10 percent. Record the signal generatodpower amplifier forward power tothe injection probe on amplitude measurement instrument#2. c. for Slowly scan the frequency range at the proper forward power. The VSWR of the attenuators and loads shall be less than 1. CAUTION. with optional 1 to 3 Hz superimposed. and test equipment u r e 20b per Install the induced current monitor probe centimeters from the EUT. ensure that the peak amplitude complies with the definitions of Figure 20-5. wiring. Install injection probefive centimeters from face of the monitor probe. RF fields can be hazardous.CS Test Procedure Establish proper probe locations. a flight control equipment's response 0 1997 RTCA.Observe appropriate RF exposure limits. CS Test Setup Set upthe EUT. . Also consider applying other modulations associated the EUT. VSWR without the probe installed shall not exceed the values of Figure 20-8. suchas clock. Consider any possible low or frequency response characteristicof the EUT. associated interface circuitry. Apply both CW and square wave modulation. the the d. internal processing moduation frequencies.measurement instrument# 1 indicates the current or power for the selected categoryof Figure 20-6. Inc. The forward power plot will be used to establish the test level for the conducted susceptibility test. Support and center the probe. Establish the forward power to the injection probe on amplitude measurement instrument #2 at 10 kHz at the power determined in the probe calibration procedure the selected category of Figure 20-6. modes operation andstability so of of the EUT. CAUTION: RF fields can be hazardous. the probe shall be placed as close to the connector backshellas possible andthe position noted. h a r e installation. Set the signal generator to 10 kHz.

Record the forward power and use power setting during this the EUT radiatedfield test. at the desired test frequency. When using 1 Hz to 3 Hz modulation. Adjust the forward power to the transmit antenna achieve the correct field strength indication from to the isotropic probe for the category selected. 0 1997 RTCA. unmodulated. to establish the correct field to strength for the category selected. When necessary.5 Radiated Susceptibility(RS) Test . Applicabilityfintent Subject the EUT and interconnecting cables appropriate category of fields for to the RF Figure 20. Cat W . Cat U and R 100mA.10. As an option. While scanning.1 A. Cat V . Perform the reference CWfield calibration using athree-axis omnidirectional electric field antenna (isotropic probe) equivalent with appropriate frequency response. data or clock frequencies.100 MHz to 18 GHz a. 30 cm above the groundplane. Cat T . ensure that sweeping andor frequency stepping is suspended during the “off” period of the modulation.250 mA. can be run using only modulation tests the to which the EUT is most susceptible.RadiatedField Calibration Perform a field calibration prior placement ofthe EUT. . Radiate the isotropic probe. b. Dwell at internal modulation. as required.25 mA. 20.70-9 to 1 to 3 Hz modulation in the 2 to 30 MHz HF range. Inc.500 mA. The or isotropic probe should be centered at approximately the same locationplacement as the of the EUT on the groundplane.5mA. Repeat this calibration over the required frequency range. Slowly scan the frequency range 400 MHz at the forward power to amplitude using the proper probes and modulations. evaluate EUT operation and DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. adjust and control the forward powerto limit induced current on the bundle: Cat Y . Cat S . Monitor the induced cable bundlecurrent with the amplitude measurement instrument and data recorder to capture resonances.

Inc. CAUTION: RF fields can be hazardous. Whenalinearlypolarized transmit antenna is used. When the beamwidth ofthe antenna does not totally coverEUT and wiring.Square wave the (SW) and pulse modulated signals should developed in a manner which produces be the same forward power. 0 1997 RTCA. Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell facilities may be used. PS Test Set-uo z Set up the EUT. displays. Circularly polarized transmit antennas are permitted.c. perform the multiple area scans.data and clock frequencies. CRTs. Position and aim antennas to establish the RF field strengths at the EUT and interconnecting wiring. which may require additional LRU orientations. c.. Scan the frequency range to the upper frequency limit using the proper antennas and modulations. associated interface circuitry and equipment per test w e 20- Signal generators. Forward power to the transmit antenna should be monitored and recorded using an amplitude measurement instrument that meets the requirements in Section 20.g. wiring. amplifiers. TEM cell matching networks and calibration methods shall be described. antennas and probes shall maintain required RF field levels to properly illuminate the EUT and interconnecting wiring. d. as required. ensure that the peak amplitude complies with the definitions of Figure 20-5. software installation. When modulation is applied.3. . plus the appropriate scale factor if the reference CWcalibration was performedat a different level than desired square wave or pulse category field the strength. RS Test Procedure Establish appropriate antenna and isotropic probe locations. test equipment and all monitoring circuits and loads. connectors) to the transmitting antenna. modes of operation and stability of the EUT.10 The forward power necessary to produce the desired category field strength at the isotropic probe with a CW signal becomes reference forward power. Dwell at internal modulation.Observe appropriate RF exposure limits. Vertical andhorizontal antenna orientations are required for polarized antennas. Directly expose apertures in the EUT (e. Use the forward power settings determined from the radiated field calibration.20.both horizontal and vertical polarization field exposures are required.

When using1 Hz to 3 Hz modulation.1%duty cycle (or From 400 M H z to 18 GHz. 0 1997 RTCA. Also use 20 v/m with 1 kHz square wave modulation with least 90% depth. W andY.g. ensure that sweeping and/or frequency stepping is suspended during the “off’ period of the modulation. data. at From 400 M H z to 8 GHz. e.g. V.g. U.1% duty cycle and at 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency. Consider switching the signal on and off at a 1 Hz to 3 Hz rate and 50% duty cycle for an EUT which may have a low frequency response (e. Consider switching the signal on andoff at a 1 Hz to 3 Hz rate and 50%duty cycle for an EUT which may have a low frequency response (e. As an alternative for category R from 400 MHz to 8 GHz. IF.While scanning. use 20 v/m CW. Also. For categories S. Inc. use the following modulations: From 100 M H z to the upper frequency limit Fipure 20-1Q use CW well as in as 1 kHz square wave modulation with at least 90% depth. Bs Modulations For category R use the following levels and modulations: From 100 MHz to 400 MHz. ensure that sweeping and/or frequency stepping is suspended during the “off) period of the modulation. use v/m pulse modulated at greater) and 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency. use 150 v/m pulse modulated0. use the following modulation: 600 0. Also consider using additional modulations associated with EUT suchas clock. use 28 v/m with 1 kHz square wave modulation with at least 90%depth. use 150 v/m pulse modulated at 4% duty cycle and 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency. For category P. Consider switching the signal on and off at a 1 Hz to 3 Hz rate and 50% duty cycle for an EUT whichmayhavealow frequency response(e. T. evaluate the EUT operation and DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH . ensure that sweeping frequency stepping is suspended during the “off) period ofthe modulation. . When using 1 Hz to 3 Hz modulation. internal the processing or modulation frequencies.flight control equipment). When using 1Hz to 3 Hz modulation. flight control and/or equipment). flight control equipment).

0 1997 RTCA. the required support equipment. b. j = k = 1.and c is the speed of light (3x10’ m/s). or added absorbing material may load the test chamber.. It should asymmetrically shaped. continuous motor is acceptable. If the test frequencies must is extend belowsix times the first resonant frequency. but the time response of the EUT must be fast relative to stirrer speed for this option to be viable. and d. The amount of power needed to generate a specific field inside a chamber can be 1).6 Radiated Susceptibility (RS) Test 100 MHz . which is obtained by subtracting reflected power from the the forward powerat each tuner position. chamber input power the (Pi.20. The tuner diameter and height shall be at least one-half wavelength at the lowest be convenient to support frequency. . i = O .. Inc.(Hz) = (c/2)*[(i/a)* + C/ ) + (k/d)2]?4 jb’ where a is the smallest dimension (m). The lowest useable frequency normal mode-stirred chamberoperation shall be six for times the first resonant frequency. A receive antenna shall be used for field monitoring. to compensate for this loading. A variable speed. It is usually most it from the ceiling with the driver motor outside the chamber. A stepping motor with computer control is desirable. Therefore the fields in a loaded chamber must be monitored and input power increased.c. the chamber input power (Pwut) equal to the forward power. the first resonant mode occurs at a frequency of: f.( However the in the EUT.18 GHz.ModeStirred Chamber a. For a rectangular-shaped chamber of dimensions a.10.6. The chamber shall not be used for the mode-stirred chamber alternative procedure below times the first resonant three frequency. Alternate Procedure . reducethe cavity Q. if necessary. Applicabili@/Intent RF Subject the EUT and interconnecting cables the appropriate category of fields for to FiPure 20.) is equal to the net input power.. The lowest useable frequency additional power with leveling canbe three timesthe first resonantfrequency. b. Chamber Performance Requirements The lowest useablefrequency of a mode-stirredchamber is determined by its volume.. determined from empty chamber calibration outlined Section 20. are At frequencies greater than or equal to six times the first resonant frequency. Mode-stirred chambers generally useableto 18 GHz without limitations. and hence reduce the fields for the same input power.

This will assure field that the will riseto at least 92%of the pulse maximum. 111. Use the “max hold” mode of the amplitude measurement instrument to detect the peak signal.(2)... Record the maximum amplitude of received signal(Pmxret) and the the value of the input power (Pinput) corresponding to the position of the tuner at which (P. (2) c. shall be less than 0. The ratio of the maximum received power to the minimum received power over one complete rotation the tuner shall be equalto or greater than of 20 dB as described in section 20. For frequencies between three and six times the first resonant frequency.(3).4 of any modulation test waveform pulse width. Inc. 0 1997 RTCA. use net input power. Set the frequency span to 0 Hz. The frequency shall be inthe band for the receive antenna which shall be a high efficiency. empty chamber(no EUT) calibration using the following procedure: 1. frequencies greater than times the first resonant frequency. Beginning at the lowest useable frequency. into the transmit antenna. . iv .6. adjust the RF source to inject an appropriate input power..)was recorded. . use the six forward power.c.. linearly polarized antenna. Set the amplitude measurement instrument to monitor the receive antenna on the correct frequency. Adjustresolution bandwidth and the sweep timeto obtain the necessary sensitivity. Operate the tuner continuously (mode-stirred operation) or step the tuner through 360” in at least 200 discrete (mode-tuned operation) steps so that the amplitude measurement instrument captures a full cycle of the received powerover one complete tuner rotation. performa onetime.c..6. The chamber performance shall bedemonstratedat a numberof frequencies covering the range fromthe lowest useable frequency the highest frequency to for the category selected by monitoring received power while rotating the the tuner.as described in Section 20. Calculate calibration factor for the the empty chamber using the following equation: 11. Calibration (1) Chamber Power Density Calibration As an initial guide to the chamber input power requirements. For Pinput.(1) The chamber time constant. .

A is the free space wavelength nc (m) at the specific frequency. A suggested frequency set for these measurements is the lowest useable frequency or 0.4.5.useanunmodulated (CW) signal to sample the received power over one complete tuner rotation. Calculate the chamber time constant. Repeat to the Q measurement and the calculation until the time constant requirement is satisfied with the least possible absorber. 18 GHz. Inanemptychamber.. of the v. a one-time determination of the chamber time constant shall be accomplished using the following procedure: 1.3(e). Calculateusing: Q Q = (16n2V/A3)(Paverec/Pinput) where V is the chamber volume (m3). Record the input power. in iv.20. iii. /Pinput) is the ratio of where A is the free space wavelength (Pmmra the maximum received power over one complete tuner rotation to (w) the input power (w). t.4 of any modulation test waveform pulse width. 0 1997 RTCA.1 GHz. and (Pave /Pinput) is the ratio of the average received power (w) over one complete tuner rotation to the input power(w). 11. . Inc. 15. 12. and 0. . using: t = Q/2nf where Qis the value calculated ii. 1. 10.6.2. which ever is greater. above. Repeat the above procedure for each test frequency as defined in Section 20. Calculate the average value of these received power samples. and the calibration factor is the chamber power density in w/mz per watt input power at selected frequency. Perform a power densityrecalibration if absorber material is required. (2) 0 and Time Constant Calibration In order to assure that the time response of the chamber is fast enough to accommodate pulsedwaveform testing. absorber must be addedthe chamber. 8. If the chamber time constant is greater than 0. andisfthe frequency (Hz).14 Calibration Factor (CF) = (8n/Az)(Pmaxrec/Pinput) (m).

.(3) Stirring Ratio Determination 1. the requirements of Section 20. test equipment. Using a constantinputpowerandanUNMODULATED(CW)signal. If not. 1. 10.10 using the following equation: Pinput (E(v/m)>2/ (377 * CF) = Perform the test using either mode-tuned or mode-stirred procedures. iv.3 apply to the mode-stirred chambertests. and 0. . 12. d.1 1 and 20-12. ... 11. Calculate the difference in dBbetween the maximumreceivedsignal and the minimum received signal. Except as specifically noted in this Section.1 GHz. The transmit and receive antennas shall not directly illuminate the EUT or each other. and all monitoring circuits and loads. sample the received power over one complete tuner rotation.4. The typicaltest setup should be as shown in Figures 20. Inc. whichever is greater. Establish software installation. A suggested at frequency set is the lowest useable frequency or 0. 15.a(5). 8. Assure that for either procedure EUT is exposed to the field level the appropriate dwell the for 0 1997 RTCA. then tuning and repeatthe Stirring Ratio Determination.5.2. and 18 GHz. The ratio of the maximumreceivedpowerto the minimumreceived power over one complete rotation of the tuner shall be equal to or adjust the tuner sizehhape to improve greater than20 dB. The EUT shall be at least one-third wavelength fromchamber wall at the the lowest test frequency. For mode-tuned one operation usea minimum of200 discrete steps per complete tuner rotation. Determine the chamber input power for test from the electric field intensity category the level in Figure 20.3. or the noise floor. The equipment layoutshould be representative of the actual installation as specified in Section 20. e. Repeat the measurement representative frequencies.. 111. Observe appropriate RF exposure limits. 6. whichever is highest. modes of operation and stability of the EUT.RS Test Procedures CAUTION: RF fields can be hazardous. Directing the antennas into the corners of the chamber is an optimum configuration.

data and clock frequencies. Scan the frequency range to the upper frequency limit using the appropriate in-band antennas and modulations. evaluate EUT operation and DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH the APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.3. as required. RC with the receive antenna used in the calibration of each and P frequency band. Modulate the carrier as specified in Section 20. Monitor Pinput . The scan time for this procedure should beas specified in Section 20. Exposethe EUT to the field for one revolution ofthe tuner. Dwell at internal modulation.e. ensure that the peak amplitude complies with the definitions of FiFure 20-5.5. .time. and calculate the chamber Calibration Factor throughout the test. Limit the mode-stirrer tuner speedto a maximum of 1 revolution in 5 seconds (1 2 rpm). Inc. 0 1997 RTCA. While scanning. increase the input power to compensate for this reduction. (CF) If the Calibration Factor (CF) decreases by a factor of two (2) or more. When modulation is applied.

20. .17 Table 20-1 RF Absorption at Normal Incidence Frequency 100 to 250 MHz Minimum Absorption 6 dB 11 Above 250 MHz I 10dB I 0 1997 RTCA. Inc.

I 0 e: c . a a C c ( . . Inc. . I I .0 0 c . I w a CA 3i 1 E CA x Q) I F 0 0 0 0 F 0 1997 RTCA.

Note 3 Bonding strap. ! ! Antenna *Field Calibration '\Distance is 1 m (typical) I Directional Amplitude Measurement Test Set Interface: Instrument 2 aircraft load simulation. Measurement Amplifier I I I I RFPower U Modulation Generator Signal Generator Note 1 See Section 20. FIGURE 20-2 RADIATED SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST SETUP . analog.RF Absorber Shielded Enclosure Field Calibration Point \ I 'j. Unshielded cable may be shielded from here to the wall. digital. Amplitude etc. discretes.3 for EUT general requirements. Note 2 End of exposed cable.

01 0. Inc.0.1 1 10 . . 100 o 0 l 0 FREQUENCY (MHz) Figure 20-3 Injection Probe Insertion Loss Limits Calibration Fixture Injection Probe Tracking Generator Output Figure 20-4 Injection Probe Insertion Loss Test Setup 0 1997 RTCA.

.707 Peak) ---.Peak Category Level (0. --- I 1- Pulse Width Pulse Modulated Waveform 50 % Duty Factor Peak Category Level (0. Inc.707 Peak) 1- Square Wave (SW) Modulated Waveform Unmodul8ted (CW) Waveform 20-5 Amplitude Measurement 8 1997 RTCA.

.... 0. CategaryS 1..15mA....03 mA ... ....... ...1 001 ....1 ...8 mA t ... . 1 6mA 3mA ..0 lo00 100 1 Fnquoncy ( M H z ) 10 20-6 Conducted SusceptibilityTest Levels Q 1997 RTCA....lo00 Category Y 300 mA (200Vlm) Category W 150 mA (100V h ) 100 Category V 75 mA ( 5 0 V h ) I CategofyUadR 30mA ( 2 O V h ) 1 0 Category T 7.5 mA (5 V h ) I H f 0 t ..... 0...... ... 0......5mA ( V h ) 1 8 P t 0. 1.... Inc. 400 MHz s3 00 .....5mA ...

20-33.2:l 1 Injection Probe Calibration Fixture -50 Ohm Attenuator I Forward Power to Injection Probe Directional Coupler I RF Power Amplifier I CS Category Amplitude Current or Measurement Power in 50Ohms Instrument I F! Recorder Data Modulation Generator Measurement F! I I Generator I FiPure 20-7 Conducted Susceptibility Calibration Setup 0 1997 RTCA. Inc. Coaxial 50 Ohm Load >5w VSWR c 1. .

Inc. . 3 2.4 35 .5 2 1-5 1 0 50 100 -150 200 250 300 350 400 FREQUENCY (MHz) Figure 20-8 Calibration Fixture Maximum VSWR Limits 0 1997 RTCA.

Sea W o n 20.6. - . FiFure 20-11 Typical Mode-Stirred Chamber Side View 0 1997 RTCA.I Shielded Motor Note 2 Note 4 Paddle Wheel Y eote 1 Transmit Antenna Note 3 Measurement Note straps. Inc. Note 3 transmit Receive and antennas shall b at least 1 m from Note 4 Amplitude Measurement Instrument 1 Modulation Generator - RF Power Amplifier I Signal Generator Motor Controller ‘ walls.d for EUT orientation. 1 Bonding Note 2 EUT shall b at least onet i d wavelength hrfmm chamber wallat the lowest test frequency.

Controller a. Note 4 See Section 20. - . Unshielded cable may be shielded from here to chamber w l Fiaure 20-12 Typical Mode-Stirred Chamber Plan View 0 1997 RTCA.Note 6 No 1 Shielded Motor U n I Paddle Wheel I Transmit Antenna Note 3 Note 2 EUT shall be at least onethird wavelength from chamber wall at the lowest test frequency.d for EUT orientation. Inc.6. Note 3 Receive and transmit antennas shall be at least I m from walls. Note 5 End of exposed cable.

Appendix A is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed.13 . DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 21 Emission of Radio Frequency Energy Important Notice Information pertinent to this test procedure is contained in Sections 1. Further.160C 5 Prepared by: SC. 2.RTCA. 3. and 20. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue. Inc. NWSuite 1020 Washington. Date of Issue: July 29. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO.

....................... 21 .......... 1 21 .. 1 21-2 21-2 Figure 2 1 ........................................... 21-4 Conducted Interference Limits for Interconnecting Cables.0 Emission of Radio Frequency Energy............... 2 1....Page 2 1.. 21-6 Maximum Level of Radiated RF Interference: Cat............. 21-9 Typical Setup for Radiated RF Interference Test .. 21-5 Typical Setup for Conducted RF Interference Test .............4 Radiated RF Emission ............................................... 2 1-10 .......................................................1 Purpose of the Test ................ 1 21 ........................................................... 1 Figure 2 1-2 Figure 2 1-3 Figure 2 1-4 Figure 2 1-5 Figure 21-6 Figure 2 1-7 Conducted Interference Limits for Powerlines ............. 21-8 Maximum Level of Radiated Interference: Cat........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2 1..2 Equipment Categories .............................................................................................................................................. 2 1.............. 21............. M .......................... 1 21 ...................... 2 1.............................................................................5 General Requirements.......................................3 Conducted RF Emission .............. B & L .................................................... 21-7 Maximum Level of Radiated RF Interference: Cat................................................... H....

Inc. for equipment where interference should be 21. some examples are given with each category definition. Category B This category is intended primarily controlled to tolerable levels. This category maybe suitable for equipment andassociated interconnecting wiring located inthe electronic bay of anaircraft.21-1 21. 21. As these parameters are widely linked to aircraft type and size. Category M This category is defined for equipment and interconnected wiring located in areas where apertures are em significant and not directly in view of radio receiver’s antenna.2 Equipment Categories Categories are defined in terms of location and separation between the equipment and aircraft radio antennas. Category L This category is defined for equipment and interconnected wiring located in areas far from apertures of the aircraft (such as windows) and far from radio receivers antenna. This category is typically applicable for equipment located outside of the aircraft. @ . The notches specified in the radiated emissions limits are included to protect aircraft RF sensors operating frequencies.0 21.1 (a) shall not appear on any power line normally connected to an aircraft bus. Interference currents generated by the equipment and measured using by a clamp-on interference measuring device within the frequency ranges and in excess of the values given in Figure 2 1.3 Conducted RF Emission a. 1997 RTCA. Category H This category is defined for equipment located in areas which are in direct view of radio receiver’s antenna.1 Emission of Radio Frequency Energy Purpose of the Test These tests determine that the equipment does not emit undesired RF noise in excess of the levels specified below. This category may be suitable for equipment and associated interconnecting wiring located in the passenger cabinor in the cockpit of a transport aircraft.

4 does not measure or contro1 spurious signals conducted out of the antenna terminals of receivers and transmitters. when the transmitter is keyed and supplying RF to the load.5 General Requirements The equipment under test shall be set up on a ground plane and operated in accordance with the criteria in Subsection 20. This does any notincluderadiationemanatingfrom antennas or. with the following additions: a. Note: Subsection 2 1. If the EUT connector plus backshell length exceedsfive centimeters the probe shall be placed as close to the connector backshell as possible andthe position noted.4 Radiated RF Emission Radiated interference fields generated bythe equipment within the frequency ranges. Where @ 1997 RTCA. in the case of transmitters. That control shouldbe specified in the equipment performance standard that receiver or transmitter. Power return wires tied locally to the ground planeas noted in Section 20. 2 and 5 of subparagraph b. Install the current probe five centimeters from the EUT. and in excess of the values shown in Figures 2 1-4. Figure 2 1-3 showsa simplified test arrangement for the use of the current probe. for 21. cable or interconnecting wiring. shall not be radiated from unit. Interference shall be measured using the peak detector function of the interference measuring equipment. and the selected BWI must be the values given in the following table. The limits and frequency ranges are as shown in Figure 21-2. A typical arrangement of equipment for conducting the radiated RF emission test is shown in Figure 21-7. Radio transmitters or receiver/transmitters must specified meet emissions requirements (including the selected frequency 50% of the band of frequencies between adjacent channels) while in an unkeyed or receive mode. The time constant of the peak detector must be lower or equal to l/BWI.3 subparagraph a and parts 1 . 21.a(6) are not tested. . b. Interference currents on interconnecting cable bundles other than antenna feed cables and primary power lines shall be measured using by a clamp-on interference measuring device.3. any radiation on the selected frequency *50% of the band of frequencies between adjacent channels. Interference measuring instruments with selectable IF bandwidths (BWI) may be used.LineImpedanceStabilizationNetworks (LISNs) shall be used as shown in Figure 21-3. 2 1-5 and 2 1-6 for the appropriate categories. Inc. Figure 20-1 provides technical data for a LISN.

Fieldstrengthunits are obtained byusingany appropriate antenna and adding the appropriate antenna factor tothe measured voltage in dB microvolts. e. C. d.21-3 applicable. . g. several different orientations may be required. Consider EUT realistic operating modeswhichproducemaximum emission. In that case. Inc. Measure and record the EUT emissions conditions and apply the appropriate limit from Figures 21-4. video bandwidths shall be selected to be greater than or equal to the resolution bandwidth.15-30 MHz 30-400 MHz I BWI 1 kHz 10 kHz 100 kHz N 400.1000 MHz 1000-6000 MHz 1 MHz Note: During radiated tests the above bandwidths may not provide a low enough noise floor to make propermeasurements in the notches defined for categories M & H. b. f. When linearly polarized antennas are used for radiated tests above 25 MHz. @ 1997 RTCA. Radiated ambient data (EUT “off and test support equipment “on”) is required only if EUT emissions are greater than 3 dB below the selected category limit. for example connector side and aperture side(s) facing the antenna. a 10 kHz BWI shall be used for measurements in the notches with no correction factor being applied. For EUT with multiple apertures and sensors such as displays. measure radiated emissions usingboth vertically and horizontally polarized orientations. 1 Frequency Bands 0. and it is desirable that the ambient emissions be at least 6 dB below the selected limit line.21-5 or 21-6 for the selected category. It is good engineering practice to check ambient radiated emissions prior to a radiated emissions test. Appropriate correction factor for cable losses and matching networks must also be applied.

.0 m I 2 0 0 . Inc.0 Q 1997 R TCA.

. .......... 8 F i 1997 RTCA.............21-5 - ...... Inc....... @ ...

Load Simulators.Power SUPPU Capacitor Shielded Enclosure -L-i Equipment Under 1- I Measurement Probe r’ / I Measurement Probe for lnterconnectlng Cab1-T-t Aircraft Loads 0. Monlton Spectrum Analyzer or Interference Measuring Instrument I t I Data Recorder * Figure 21-3 Typical Setup for Conducted RF Interference Test 1997 RTCA. @ .1rn - . Inc. EUT interface.

21-7 @ 1997 RTCA. . Inc.

. - -~ . ...._............ .. .... f \c c I -- ............. E ... i 0 oo v1 VI 0 - - .....P. w..... ...... L ... . ._ 012 - - R: E 0 . -..._ m c v. .. \ \ --___ .. -~ 2 2 @ 1997 RTCA.. .... .......... ..... . .... 1 .. .................... . ............ --Q ... ... __.... ...... t ........ .... ....____ -............. ... ...... -.... .. ....... . 3 c ? ...... . . ..... . ..... . .. Inc.... .. ...... I .. -.... ....... .. . :. .. ........

II I 8 E E Y a d c ) 0 Q 1997 RTCA.Inc. .

1 @ 1997 RTCA. . Inc.

1 140 Connecticut Avenue. DC 20036 RTCA/DO-l60D Environmental Conditions andTest Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 22 Lightning Induced Transient Susceptibility Important Notice Informationpertinenttothistestprocedure iscontained in Sections 1 . Further. 1997 Supercedes:RTCADO. 2 and 3. Suite 1020 Washington.RTCA. AppendixA is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed. Date of Issue: July 29.NW. Inc.160C Prepared by: SC-135 .

.2.....................................12 Figure 22-13 Test Requirements.....5.......5.................................................................1 Cable Induction Tests ............................................. 22-20 22-2 1 Typical Pin Injection Calibration Setup............. 22-1 1 Table 22... 22....................1 Table 22-2 Table 22-3 Figure 22.......... 22-1 22-2 22........................................16 Current Waveform 1 .................................19 CurrentNoltage Waveform 5 LISN Input Impedance Characteristic......2 GroundInjection Tests .................... 22-25 22-26 Typical Ground Injection Test Setup .................................................0 Lightning Induced Transient Susceptibility.......18 ..........2 Definitions................1 Purposeof Tests ....................... Typical PinInjection Test Setup ............. ................2............................... 22...............................5...........................4 General Test Requirements............................2....................Generator Calibration............................. 22...................................................... 22-8 22.............................................. 22-1 22.... 22-4 22............... 22.............................................. 22.............. 22-1 22.............5... 22-9 22...Pane 22..................................1 Procedures .2........10 22..14 22-15 Installation Configuration .Test Sequence ....................................................... 22-22 Typical Generator Performance Verification Setup for Cable Induction Tests.....................Generator Performance Verification .................................................................................. 22...................Generator Performance Verification........ 22-17 .........................................................................2.3 Categories.........................................17 Voltage Waveform 2...................................1 1 22....................................................................................... 22............3................................10 22-10 22................................... 22.......................................................................................................................... 22-24 Typical Generator Performance Verification Setup for Ground Injection Tests ......2...... 22..5..................................2 Procedures ........................................2 Test Level Designators (Second and Fourth Characters) ......................... 22........................................1 Pin Injection Tests..........3......................2............................................................. 22-3 22-4 22...........................................................................Test Sequence ....5.....1 Procedures ....2 Procedures ...1 WaveformSet Designators (First and ThirdCharacters) ......................................1 Procedures ........................ 22-8 22.............1.................. .................2.............................1.........General Case .....................................................................1 Figure 22-2 Figure 22-3 Figure 22-4 Figure 22-5 Figure 22-6 Figure 22-7 Figure 22-8 Figure 22-9 Figure 22............ 22...............10 Figure 22-1 1 Figure 22................2 Cable Bundle Tests .............................................................. 22-9 22..18 Voltage/Current Waveform 3 Voltage Waveform 4...................................5...................................................5..................................12 22......................2 Procedures ........................................................................ 22-9 22......................... 22.. Test Levels For PinInjection ...........................5....................22-23 Typical Cable Induction Test Setup.................Test Sequence........1 1 22.......1............................................. ....................................................................1................................ 22.............5................................................5 Test Procedures ....... Test Levels For Cable Bundles ....................

Inc.0 22. low self-inductance.1 22. Cable bundle tests can also provide an indication of damage tolerance.0of this document. Note:These tests maynot cover all aspects of lightning induced interaction and effects on equipment. may be required to achieve system certification.1 and 22. via direct or indirect coupling to the equipment under test (EUT). The appropriate test group or groups will be defined in the applicable equipment specifications. Additional tests. The first is a damage tolerfor ance test performed using pin injection as described in paragraph 22. The criteria for equipment performance in the presence of lightning' transients shall be defined in the applicable equipment specification. amplifiers. such as simultaneous cable bundleinjection. The second group. 22. multiple burst and/or multiple frequency. would beat the same potential as the equipment. It shouldbelow enough in impedance to achieve the test level and waveform. Local Ground Any ground strap or conductor that is connected to the equipment and the same part of airframe structure to which that equipment is installed.5. multiple stroke. 1997 . 0 RTCA.5. Two groupsof tests may be used equipment qualification.2. low resistance.2 Definitions Cable Bundle A group of wires and/or cables bound or routed together that connect two pieces of equipment. during a lightning strike..1 Lightning Induced Transient Susceptibility Purpose of Tests These test methods and procedures apply idealized waveforms verify the capability of to equipment to withstand effects of lightning induced electrical transients.2. couplers. evaluates the functional upset tolerance of equipment when transients are applied to interconnecting cable bundles. Calibration LOOD A heavy duty.1. as described in paragraphs 22. Generator A set of equipment (waveform synthesizer.2. particularly when incorporated into a system.22. etc. Tests for the direct effects of lightning on equipment are covered in Section 23. single turn wire loop passed through the injection transformer to formaninsulatedsecondarywinding.) that delivers a voltage or current waveform. The ground strap or conductor would therefore be bonded to the same ground plane that the equipment is mounted to and.5.

Inc. Categories The equipment manufacturer must test the equipment to the test levels and waveforms consistent with its expected use and aircraft installation. channel or wire grounded at bothends within the cable bundle. The effect of the shield is to provide a lowresistance path between equipment so connected.1 or Z or X. Pin test level (1 to 5 ) as designated in Table 22-2 or Z or X. Category designation for equipment shall consist of four characters: a. Pin b. Unshielded Cable Bundle A cable bundle that contains no shields. Shielded Cable Bundle A cable bundle that contains one or more shields. d. Such cable bundles may include some unshielded wires. @ 1997 RTCA. Shield A conductor which is grounded to an equipment case or aircraft structure at both ends and is routed in parallel with and bound within a cable bundle. It is used to monitor the induced cable bundle or calibration loop voltage.1 or Z or X. single turn. test waveform set letter (A or B) as designated in Table 22. It usually is a wire braid around some of the wires or cables in the cable bundle or may be a metallic conduit. Cable bundle test waveform set letter (C through F) as designated in Table 22. Cable bundle test level (1 to 5 ) as designated in Table 22-3 or Z or X. wire loop wound throughthe injection transformer to form an insulated secondary winding. c.22-2 Monitor LOOP A close fitting. .

e.. For example. by GI 1997 RTCA. in A223 indicates that pin tests were conducted level(s) otherthan those designated. not structural resistance. a Z in either test level position indicates that test levels different than those designated Tables 22-2 or 22-3 were applied.1 Waveform Set Designators (First and Third Cbaracters) Waveformsets A. and F are applicable for equipment interconnected with wiring installed within any airframe or airframe section when structural resistance is also a significant source of induced transients. and E areapplicable to equipmentinterconnectedwithwiring installed within airframesor airframe sections where apertures.Category designation should.. the category designationXXXX. D. (i. The third in this example indicate no bundle were that cable tests and fourth designators is performed. Inc. . are the main source of induced transientsas would be the case in an all-metal airframe. C. carbon fiber composite structures). When no tests are performed.e.3. Similarly. therefore. A general installation case for cable bundles is illustrated in Figure 22-1. : The use of 2 in either of the waveform set designator positions indicates that either the waveform set or the test configuration (i. In these casesthewiringisexposed to highstructuralvoltagesandredistributedlightning currents which are represented Waveform 5A. amear as follows: r? -L Waveform Set Level Cable Bundle Test Waveform Set Cable Bundle Test Level In the above example. shielding. Waveform sets B. and at that an alternate waveform set configuration was used cable bundletests at level 3. and to equipment in carbon fiber composite (CFC) airframes whose major surface areas have been protected with metal meshes or foils. grounding) was different from that designated in Table 22-1. Category B3XX would identify an equipment pin test with waveform set B at level 3 in Table 22-2. and in 22. or for The specific test conditions test levels shall be described the test report. Figures 22-2 through 22-6 define the individual waveforms associated with waveform sets through A F. these waveform sets can also apply to equipment in airframes composed of metal framework and composite skin panels. In another example. For the same reasons. Category XXC3 identifies an equipment cable bundle test with waveform set C to level 3 in Table 22-3.

75 m shall be used.through are for cable bundle tests. Shock and Vibration Isolators .2 Test Level Designators (Second and Fourth Characters) Testlevel descriptions for internal aircraft environments are providedbelowwith specific levels for each test waveform listed in Tables 22-2 and 22-3. . . 2.If specified by the equipment manufacturer. Inc. .25 mm thick for copper and aluminum. the ground plane shall be bonded to the shielded enclosure at intervals no greater than one meter and at both ends of the ground plane. 22.brass or aluminumgroundplane. the EUT shall be secured to mounting bases incorporating shock or vibration isolators.3. Level 3 is intended for equipment and interconnecting wiring installed in a moderately exposed environment. When a shielded enclosure is employed. The descriptions are for guidance only.4 General Test Requirements a. Level 2 is intended for equipment and interconnecting wiring installed in a partially protected environment. Levels 4 and 2 are intended for equipment and interconnecting wiring installed in severe electromagnetic environments. Level 1 is intended for equipment and interconnecting wiring installed in awellprotected environment. C . 22.5 milliohms or less. Levels 1 through 5 allow flexibility in the protection of an equipment.A copper. EauiDment Under Test . 0. Anticipated exposure of interconnecting wiring and equipment location determines the test level.5mm thick for brass. suchas the use Z of waveform set C or D with shieldedcables.22-4 . at least0.The EUT shall be set up on a ground plane and configured in accordance with the following criteria unless otherwise specified by the individual equipment specification: (1) Ground Plane .indicates tests other than those specified in Table 22-1 were conducted.and A are for pin injectiontests. It is recommended that the dc bonding resistance should be 2. The bonding straps furnished with the mounting bases (2) @ 1997 RTCA.indicates tests conducted at voltage and/or current levels other than those specified in Z Tables 22-2 and 22-3.5 m2 or more in area with a minimum depth (front to back) of 0.

if a length is not defined. When the length of an interconnecting cable bundle is greater than the test bench. use approximately 30 cm of a representative wire or strap. therefore. For complex cable bundle configurations. the recommended maximum length of the interconnecting cable bundles for these tests shouldnotexceed 15 m.22-5 shall beconnected to the groundplane. power and return leads normally bundled with the controVsigna1 leads shall remain in the cable bundle and only be separated from the bundle just prior to the cable bundle exiting the @ 1997 RTCA. . shielded wires. mounting baseand ground plane) shall be used for bonding. Unless otherwise specified.For cable bundle tests.bonding of enclosure.3 m. the cable bundle should be arranged with the excess length zig-zagged at the back of the test bench approximately 50 mm above the ground plane. all cable bundles and interconnectedloads should be kept separated from each other as much as practical to minimize coupling effects between cables.. (4) External GroundTerminal . Cables shall be bundled in a manner similar to that of aircraft installations and supported approximately 50 mm above the ground plane.. twisted wires. Some special installations may require very long cable bundle lengths which cannot be accommodated on the test bench. all EUT interconnecting wiring (e. connectors and wire bundles shall be representative of aircraft installations and in accordance with the equipment manufacturers’ requirements for minimum performance.Only the provisions included in the EUT design or installation instructions (e. The test report shall describe the bonding methods employed. they shall not be usedin the test setup.g. The length of the connection defined in the installation instructions shall be used.Whenmountingbases incorporate bondingstraps.Whenan external terminal is available for a ground connection on the EUT. Interconnecting WirindCable Bundles .For cable bundle tests. Equipment intended to begroundedby means other than the bonding supplied by the installation method should be placed on an insulating mat. Inc. The electrical bonding of equipment. the cable bundle shall be at least 3.etc.The exception to this limitation is where cable bundle lengths are matched or specified to a particular length for phase matchor similar reasons. cable RF transmission lines shall be in accordance with the bundles and applicable installation and interface control drawings or diagrams. the terminal shall beconnected to the ground plane to ensure safe operating conditions during the test.g. (5) (6) Power Leads . (3) do not Electrical Bonding . unless otherwise specified for these tests.).

0 m unless otherwise specified in the applicable equipment specification. crystal diodes. simulated load or monitoring equipment does not alter the susceptibility or immunity of the EUT. such as filters. shall be shielded and be designed to have electrical characteristics closely simulating the in-service antenna. See paragraph 22. this lead may be grounded directly to the test bench. care shall be exercised to ensure that these currents are safely transferred from the shields to the wall of the shielded enclosure or that adequate bonding and shielding is provided outside the shielded enclosure to minimize riskto personnel. Test ecluiument . The support equipment may require protection from the effects of the applied transients in order to avoid upset or damage. configured in accordance with the b. The dummy antenna. These leads shall then be connected to Line Impedance StabilizationNetworks (LISNs). Inc. To avoid altering the voltage and current distributions in the cable bundles. the length of the leads to the LISNs shall not exceed 1. the simulated electrical. It shall also contain electrical components normally used in the antenna. or a dummy antenna.the power and return leads should be brokenout of the cable bundlenear the connector of the EUT andrun separately to the LISNs.4b(2).For the purpose of this test. . (7) Interface Loads and Suuuort Eauiument . Where the interface equipment must be simulated.Cable bundle tests ideally should beperformedon fully functioning equipment. antenna cables may be terminated in a load equal to the cable characteristic impedance. Care should taken be that any test configuration. EUTsshould be suitably loaded with actual interface equipment. When the actual aircraft cable bundle configuration is unknown or when power andor return leads are normally routed separately from the controYsigna1 leads.22-6 test area. When the return lead is a local ground (less than 1 meters length). the electricaVelectronic loads should simulate the actual load line-to-line and line-to-ground impedances (including stray capacitances) as far as is practical. - @ 1997 RTCA. electronic and/or electromechanical characteristics of the loads should be representative of the aircraft installation. synchros and motors. in accordance with the applicable installation and interface control drawings or diagrams. (8) Dummy Antennas or Loads . Under these conditions.These shall besetupand following criteria: (1) Bonding Test equipment shall be bonded grounded and to minimize ground loops and ensure personnel safety. When high current levels are to be applied to cable bundles. if used.

Loadh) . types of wiring. The RF measurement port of the LISN shall be terminated into 50 ohms for all tests. Test Setups .Calibratiodverification oscillograms of each test waveform and level. Test Results . (1) Cable Confimration(s1 . either actual or simulated. Simulated loads shall identify the extent of impedance simulation both line-to-line and line-to-case (ground). PassRail Criteria . shielding and shield terminations (including individual as well as overall shields). (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) @ 1997 RTCA.Probes shall have the necessarypower and range capabilities to reproduce the test waveform(s).(2) Line Impedance Stabilization Network . The input impedancecharacteristic of the LISN is shown inFigure 22-7.The length of each cable bundle.The results of the test and any responses that do not meet the padfail criteria. Amlied Transients . capacitors shall be inserted at each LISN power inputterminal as shown in Figures 22-1 1 and 22-13 for the entire test. Measurementand Injection Probes . EUT Operating Mode(s1 .Oscillograms of representative test currents and voltages measured on interconnecting cable bundle(s) or pin(s) as applicable to each test setup. Power return lines locally grounded in the aircraft installation do not require aLISN.WhenLISNswithself resonances above lOKHz are used (such as standard 5uH LISN).The test report should include the following test setup and data items. Inc. . The LISN case shall be bonded to the groundplane.The mode(s) of operation used during cable bundle tests.ALISN shall beinserted in each primary power input and return line.Adescription of all loads.Schematic or block diagrams or photographs of each test setup including layoutof cable bundles and placementof transient injection probes and measurement probes. Data to Assist in Interpretation of Test Results .A description of the pass/fail criteria. Test Waveforms and Levels . (3) c. Waveform 3 tests shall use probes with electrostatic shielding.

Cable bundle tests determine whether functioning equipment will experience upset or component damage when the equipment and its interconnecting wiring are exposed to the applied transients. The test methods and procedures are applicable configurations to composed of the EUT. The remaining pins the group are in qualified by similarity. a suitable means must be used ensure that the transient generator to does not produce excessive loading of power supply or signal lines.adielectricwithstand or hi-pottest to thepeak amplitude of a level in Table 22-2 is adequate satisfy pintest requirements. This method is used for assessing the dielectric withstand voltage or damage tolerance of equipment interface circuits. or any Groups (three or more) of EUT circuits (pins) with identical interfaces may be qualified by testing three representative pins of each group. EUT's included in complex systems where various cable bundles are exposed to widely differentenvironmentsmayrequiredifferenttestlevelsondifferentcablebundles. When testing a unit with power applied.1 Injection Pin Tests Pin injection testing is a technique whereby the chosen transient waveform(s) applied is directly to the designated pins of the EUT connector.5. 22. interconnecting cable bundle(s) and load(s) testedto a common level (see Figure22-1).providedthepresenceofsuch voltages and associated currents is not a factor in component failure. requiring aZ category designator (see Subsection 22. WARNING Thetransientgeneratorsusedinthesetestsproducelethalvoltageandcurrent levels. . Inc. Testing more complex equipment may require that power be applied. usually between each pin and case ground.3). For equipment that is electrically isolated from caseandlocal aifiame grounds. Isolation must be provided to ensure that the applied transients will be directed to the interface of the equipment and not into the power supply other load. Exercise all operational safety precautions to prevent injury death of test or and support personnel.5 Pininjectiontestsareprimarilyfordamageassessmentandinvolvetheinjectionof transients directly into EUT interface circuits. (Q 1997 RTCA.22-8 Procedures Test 22. to Testing of simple equipment such as electromechanical devices or temperature probes doesnotrequirethatoperatingvoltages be applied.

2 Repeat the generator calibration and test sequence for each test waveform.5.1 apply ten individual transients to the selected pin.5. and verify that the applicable waveformparametershavebeen satisfied. Inc. f. Note: 22.5. c. 22. This verifies that the generator source impedance is correct. Note 4). Remove the non-inductive resistor. b.2 Procedures . b. These methods used to verify that aircraft equipment can withstand are @ 1997 RTCA. d.Test Sequence a. Monitor the waveform of each applied transient for signs of unexpected changes in the waveshape.1 Procedures Generator Calibration - a. connect the transient generator between a designated pin and case ground ofthe EUT bymeans of ashort. Record the generator setting so that the test level can be repeatedduring testing. e. d. The waveform shall retain its general shape. record the voltage across the noninductive resistor and verify that the voltage amplitude reduces to one half of Voc (f 10%). repeat the generator calibration. At the generator setting previously established in subparagraph 22.22. e. connect a non-inductive resistor equal in value to the test waveform source impedance (see Table 22-2.1. The generatorsourceimpedance can also be verified by recording the short circuit current (Isc) for the previously determined generator setting. Cable Bundle Tests Cable bundle testing is a technique where transients are applied by cable induction or ground injection. As illustrated in Figure 22-9.5. As illustrated in Figure 22-8. . and repeat steps a throughc. low inductance lead. Adjust the transient generator such that the applicable open circuit voltage (Voc) waveform parameters identified in Figures 22-4 to 22-6 and level of Table 22-2 are attained at the calibration point shownin Figure 22-8. Reverse the transient generator polarity. With the generator set as previously determined.1.1.Record the Voc. DETERMINECOMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLEEOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. Note the waveform polarity. c. f. Repeat step b for each designated pin in each connector of the EUT.

Test Sequence a.While applying transients. Repeat steps d and e for each mode of EUT operation to be tested.2 Procedures .1. repeat verification.apply a minimumoften while monitoring the operation of the EUT. In either method. e.2. 22. record the voltage waveform with the calibration loop open and the current waveform with the calibration loop shorted. c. Inc. increase the generator setting until the designated test level (VT or IT) or the limit level (VL or 1) is reached.1 Cable Induction Tests The procedures outlined in the following paragraphs are applicable primarily to waveforms 1 . .2. support equipment and interconnecting cable bundles as shown in Figure 22-1 1 with the injection transformer around the cable bundle under test. the test must be performed on fully configured and functioning equipment complete with interconnecting cable bundles and interface loads. Configure the EUT. b. b. 22. 22.Generator Performance a. the generator performance transients f. Reverse the transient generator polarity. At the generator setting established in step d.1. Connect the current and voltage monitoring probes to an oscilloscope.2. If 1 . This test requirement is satisfied by applying the specified waveforms andlimits to interconnecting cable bundle(s) individually or simultaneously. and verify that the maximum designatedtest level (VT or IT) of Table 22-3 can beachieved. For uniformity of test results.1 Procedures .5. g. the test shall be reevaluated to determine if another generator andor waveform set is required. @ 1997 RTCA. Apply power to the EUT and configure it in the selected operating mode(s).5. Verify the relevant waveshape parameters identified in Fimres 22-2 to 22-4. 2 and 3. Connect the transient generator to the primary inputs of the injection transformer (see Figure 22-10).the internal electromagnetic effects producedby the external lightningenvironment without experiencing functional upset or component damage. the probe positions should be as close as possible to those shown. Record the waveforms. and repeat steps a through f. Verify proper system operation as described in the applicable equipment specification.5. VL or IL is reached before VT or IT. For each generator. d.

5. and verify that the maximum designatedtest level (VT or IT) of Table 22-3 can be achieved. g. d. Repeat the generator performance waveform applied. Record the waveforms. The general requirements of Subsection 22.2. DETERMINE WITH EOUIPMENT COMPLIANCE APPLICABLE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.2.5. transients f. Repeat steps e and f for each mode of EUT operationto be tested. . At the generator setting established in step e. 22. verification and steps a through h for each j. If VL or IL is reached before VT or IT. Inc. The insulator used between the case and ground plane must be capable of withstanding the maximum appliedtest voltage.2. Verify proper systemoperation as described in the applicable equipment specification.1 1 h. While applying transients. Apply power to the EUT and configure it in the proper operating mode(s). 22.Test Sequence a.2 Procedures . c. increase the generator setting until the designated test level (VT or IT) or the limit level (VL or IL) is reached. 22. Repeat steps a through g for each interconnecting cable bundle.2 Ground Injection The procedures outlined in the following paragraphs are applicable primarily to waveforms 4 and 5A.5. b.Generator Performance Verification For each generator. the test shall be reevaluated to determine if another generator and/or waveformset is required. e.apply a minimumoften while monitoring the operation of the EUT. i.2. Verify the relevant waveshape parameters identified in Figures 22-5 or 22-6. support equipment and interconnecting cable bundles as shown in Figure 22-13 with the transient generator connected between the EUT case and ground plane.22. Configure the EUT.2.4 shall apply to this test setup except that the case and all local grounds or returns at the transient injection point (EUT or a load) shall be insulated fromthe ground plane and connectedto the equipment case.1 Procedures . record the voltage waveform across an open circuit and the current waveformthrough a shortedcalibrationloop as shown in Figure 22-12. Connect the applicable current and voltage monitoring probes to an oscilloscope. @ 1997 RTCA.

0 MHz (220%) if the resonance is unknown. Repeat the generator performance verification and steps b through i designated waveform.5. j.1 22.1 2.2. For cable bundle tests. Inc. Waveform Nos.2. Test Levels Test Type Method 22.1 1 1 I 22. Table 22-1 Test Requirements for each k.2. @ 1997 RTCA.2 I I 22. 3.1 2.4.h. Waveform 5A occurs as avoltagewaveform if unshieldedharnessesarerouted in metallictrays.5 22.2.1 22.5. repeat verification. 2. Reverse the transient generator polarity.2.5. Repeat steps b through h for each designated injection location.conduits orhave overbraids when installed in the aircraft.5.2 For pin injection tests. In this case.2. and repeatsteps b through g.1 2.of Table 22-3.5. 22. the generator performance i.395 9 NOTm: 1. waveform 3 is applied at the primary aircraft installation resonances or 1. .0 MHz (220%) and 10 MHz (220%) ifthe resonances are unknown.5 + 22. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE EOUIPMENT WITH APPLICABLE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.5. the appropriate test level (Vr) is the waveform 5A voltage limit (VL.5. waveform 3 is applied at the primary aircraft installation resonance or 1.5.

but the monitored voltage waveform shape will be incorrect. then the voltage limit could reachedfirst. be be be I f the load is predominantly resistive. Inc.Thecriterion for decidingwhetherornotanothergeneratororwaveformset has to beused is whether or notthe measured shapes of the current and voltage waveforms are appropriate for the waveform set under consideration.22.I or 2252. a generator capable of delivering current waveforms is required. Waveform setC is applicable to unshielded cables which would usually resulta loop under test behaving a resistive in as load. For example. The categoryput on the label applies the class of tests that were to passed.I f the inductance is high.2.5. Waveform I may be applied by using either test method in paragraph 22. but the waveform shapes will correct. In this case.13 4. the waveform shapes could be incorrect. the test will be completed when either a test level or limit is reached. a generator capable of delivering voltage waveforms is required. the voltage limit willbe reached first. E It should be noted that i f a low impedance source generatoris available. the current limit would be reached first. reevaluation would indicate waveform set should be used. the appropriate response will be achieved. In this case. and the test need notredone. waveform setE is applicable to shielded cables which would usually result in a loop under test behaving as an inductive load. . In this case. 5.2. rfthe resistance and inductance are low. another test with another generator/waveform set should be selected and the test redone. and in this case. @ 1997 RTCA. and depending on the impedance of the generator.

22-5 and 22-6. the categoryZ designator is not to be used. Isc = Peak 2. The equipment isto be labeled in accordance with the waveform set and level designators utilized. The ratio of Voc to Isc is the generator source impedance be usedfor generator calibration to purposes. When the load impedance characteristic the pin under test is specified in the equipment installation requirements. 7. 8. Waveforms 3. Inc. @ 1997 RTCA. In certainsituationsrelated to airpame designandwiring Waveform5Aor to the longer duration waveform designated conditions shouldbe given designator Z.Table 22-2 Test Levelsfor Pin Injection Waveforms 1600/1600 NOTES: 1. Voltage Waveform 4 should produce current Waveform 5A when the tested interface impedance is low. Tests conducted under these 4. When the specified load impedance is inserted in the test circuit. 5. and this is the only change in test conditions. 3. layout. Voc = Peak Open Circuit Voltage (volts) available at the calibration point shown in Fimre 22-8. point Amplitude Tolerances +IO%. . that for impedance characteristic may inserted in series with the generator Em. Short Circuit Current (amps) available at the calibration shown inFimre 22-8. 6. To accountfor cablepequency effects the be and maximum inserted series impedance shall be limited to 75 0during Waveform 3 tests. such as when a protective device ispresent. -0%. 4 and 5A are identified in Fimres 22-4. equipmentmay be exposed to higherlevelsof as 5B (see Fimre 22-6). thereby resulting in a maximum source impedance of 100 ohms.

-0%. Waveforms I. 22-3. 3. 3. 2. 22-4. such noise occurs duringfirst one or two microseconris. @ 1997 RTCA. be 2.e. equipment may be exposed to higherlevels o f Waveform 5A (i. Inc. 4 and SA are identified in Figures 22-2. The measured voltage waveshape and amplitude used determine VL during the testmay varyfrom to this open circuit waveform. . VL (volts) andIL (amperes) represent limits intendedprevent over-stressing the to EUT beyond requirements.. Amplitude tolerances are+IO%. Care should be taken insure that initial transients such noise produced by test generator to as switching to the test circuit should ignored. and 22-6. the test generator open circuit voltage rise and decay times should be similar to voltage Waveform4. 4. respectively. up to I O U ) or to the longer duration waveform designated as 5B (see Fipure 22-6) up to 5M. For tests with current Waveform 5A. Tests conducted under these conditions should given designatorZ. 5. and IT represents thetest current levelin amperes.22.VT represents the test voltage level in volts.1 5 Table 22-3 Test Levelsfor Cable Bundles 4 750/1500 1600/3200 1500/300 750/1500 3200/640 1600/3200 750/1500 1600/3200 750/2000 1600/5000 1 5 NOTES: 1. be the In certainsituationsrelated to airfame design andwiring layout. 22-5 Under each waveform. Normally.

FiPure 22-1 Installation Configuration . the cables can be tested as one bundle. When interfacing equipment is co-located and their associated cable bundles are routed together.Genera! Case @ 1997 RTCA. When each cable bundle is tested to the same level. that level is marked in the cable bundle test designator. s 2. When cable bundles are tested to different levels. 3. . the cable bundle test designator i marked with a Z.Equipment Under Test Interfacing Equipment Connecting Cable Bundles NOTES: 1. Inc.

17 i T1 = 6.22. Fimre 22-3 Voltage Waveform 2 @ 1997 RTCA.4 microseconds 220% T2 = 69 microseconds +20% t Fipure 22-2 Current Waveform 1 V T 1 = 100 nanoseconds maximum T2 = 6. . Inc.4 microseconds +20Z t NOTE: Ideally. the waveform 2 generator will produce waveform I in the shorted calibration loop of Figure 22-10.

are Fimre 22-4 VoltageICurrent Waveform3 V Peak I I I I I I T1 = 6 . 4 microseconds 220% T2 = 69 microseconds +20% 50% I i I I I I I 0 Fimre 22-5 Voltage Waveform 4 @ 1997 RTCA.22. Inc. .18 Largest Peak 50% of Largest Peak 0 VV"" W NOTE: Voltage and current not necessarily in phase.

Inc. .22.19 i/v 5A T1 = 40 microseconds 2202 T2 = 120 microseconds A2OX = 50 microseconds 220% T2 = 500 microseconds &20X 0 I I I I I t T1 T2 Fipure 22-6 CurrentNoltage Waveform 5 0 1997 RTCA.

.. .. Inc. . ./. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. ~ . . . . . . . . .. . .. I... * 3 a CI 0 .. .. . . ..... . ~ . . .. . ... . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . I 0 0 0 r r ro i 0 @ 1997 RTCA. . . . . .. . .: . ... . . 1 .. .. . .. . . . . .. .. ..... .. . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . .. ..:. . .. .. . .. . . ...... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .... . . . . . . . ..:. . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .... . .. . . . . : .. . .. . .. . . . ... . . . . ... . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . I ! . .. . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . E x J . . Q "S' ' ... . .. .. . .. . . ~ 1. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. ... : j . . .. . .. . .

A carbon composition resistor($ o appropriate wattage f and short lead lengthsuflcient for the pin test waveforms. is 2. . Tests of active ac power circuits may require transformer coupling of the applied transients to the power lines.22-2 1 1Calibration Point NOTES: I. A non-inductive or low-inductance resistor equal to the generator source impedance should be used for verlfiing the generator impedance. and transients should be synchronized peak o the ac waveform. to the f Fieure 22-8 Typical PinInjection Calibration Setup @ 1997 RTCA. Inc.

Fipure 22-9 Typical Pin Injection Test Setup @ 1997 RTCA. . tests shall be performed with the return(s) tied to the case. Inc.22-22 50mm - Calibration Point Transient Voltage /Probe Generator 1 Ground 1Plane L Voltage Oscilloscope Note: Test procedures assume lightning transients appear common-mode between all pins and case. If theexpectedinstallationutilizeslocalpower andor signal returns tiedeitherinternalyor externally to case or aircraft structure.

22-23 Injection Transformer Calibration Loop Current Monitoring Transformer -bA ) Shorted Loop NOTE: A series current-monitoring resistor may be used instead o the current-monitoring f transformer. Figure 22-10 Typical Generator Performance Verification Setup for Cable Induction Tests @ 1997 RTCA. Inc. .

Inc. as shown. A series current-monitoring resistor may be used instead of the current-monitoring transformer. 1 Ground Plane 1) Capacitor(s) shall be applied on power inputs to provide a low impedance to ground.22-24 Cable Bundle 12 -+u+ 1 . Fipure 22-11 Typical Cable Induction Test Setup @ 1997 RTCA. . 2) 3) When testingpowerleads(CableBundle #2). careshouldbetakentoensurethatindividual conductor currents do not exceed the corresponding pin test current level as presented in Table 22-2.

.22-25 Oscilloscope Current Monitoring Transformer I V I Transient Generator NOTE: A series current-monitoring resistor may used be instead the of current-measuring transformer. Fipure 22-12 Typical Generator Performance Verification Setup for Ground Injection Tests Q 1997 RTCA. Inc.

c ee tests may need to be npemed m other injectionp i n & . local power and local signal roam& shall be isolated porn the groundphne and terminated to the equipment c h s i s .1m-- Cable Bundle 11 c EUT Pdbic Injection Point CrOd I r NOTES: I. When ground injection tests ore pet$ormed at on EUT with mult@le cable bundles. A series ament-mitoring resistor may be wed instead of the went-monitoring @ansfomm. 4. Whentesting pomt l e d fCab1ebundle #) w e s h o d be taken to c l u t ~ h t i d 2. cwent must be measured in e& cable bundle to ensure that the ament limit is not exceeded in any one d i e bundle. At the transient injection point. Inc. . Finre 22-13 Typical Ground Injection Test Set-Up @ 1997 RTCA. hc intent of t k test is to a h v the Cqrrplicable test level in each cable bundie: t m . 2. t~ ni v conductor cyrrcnt( do ntn crcccd the Ewnspondingpin test cmmt I m l a p s m in s d m. 5. 3. all chassis. Capacitorfs) shall be tpplied on power inputs toprovide a low impedonce to pound as show.

This page intentionally left blank. .

1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO.2. NWSuite 1020 Washington. and 3. Further. Date of Issue: July 29. Appendix4 is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed. DC 20036 RTCA/DO-l60D Environmental Conditions andTest Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 23 Lightning Direct Effects Important Notice Information pertinent this test procedure is contained in Sections to 1. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue.RTCA. Inc.160C Prepared by: SC-135 .

...........3....... .. ...5 Acoustic Shock Wave Damage ...4.......4HotSpotFormation 23-7 23......5 Test Procedures ...... ... ... ..... ... 23-6 ... . .... .................................. ............3 Arc Root Thermal Damage . ......1 General ....... ..Page 23 ......2 High Voltage Tests .......... ... ...........6.......... . ........ ..........1 Lightning Definitions ......... 2313 23............3Zoning Definitions . ................ ........... ...................... 2317 23......5 Test Parameters . . .. ... 23..... 23-8 23...........2.0 Lightning Direct Effects .4 Data Required to Assist in Interpretation of Test Results ..... .. ... .......... 23-8 23. 23-25 Typical High Current Set-up for Non-Fuel Areas ConductedEntry Tests ... ... 23... 23-6 23.. Test Arrangement and Dimensions for High Voltage Tests ...2 Set-up Test .... ................ .............. ............................6.. 23............3 Equipment Categories ... ...4..... .... 23.... ......18 High Voltage Waveform for Method .........4 Lightning Direct Effects and Associated Parameters ....4 General Operating Requirements .............. ....6 Magnetic Pressure ......2.6.. .......... 23-20 High Voltage Waveform for Alternate Method ................ ......2...............6....... .. ....... 23-7 23......2 General Definitions ................ .. ..........4...................1 Ohmic Heating .6 Test Procedures and Levels ..3.. ... .....2... 23..... 23-3 23-4 23.... 23-23 Flow Chart for High Voltage and High Current Tests . ...... . ........ ... ... .. 23-1 23..... ... 23.......... ...................... .................. 23.. 23....6.....1 1 23................ . 23-26 Typical High Current Set-up for Fuel Vapor Region Requirements ............ ...... ..Non Vapor Fuel Region Equipment ........ ..6...... ................................... 2316 23....... .................. .... . ...... 23-27 Figure 23.1Purpose of Tests ......... ......3...........................Fuel 2317 23. ..... ........ .......... 23.4.. .........10 235 2 Current Waveforms and Levels .1 General Requirements ...2 Definitions ............ . ................4.............................. ........... ... 23-6 23-6 23.....4............................... .. ..1 Applicability and General Requirements ..... ....3.............6......... 23. ......8 Direct Effects Sparking ........ 23-5 23....................... ......... ..3 Test Set-up ...................... ...............1 Figure 23-2 Figure 23-3 Figure 23-4 Figure 23-5 Figure 23-6 Figure 23-7 Figure 23-8 Figure 23-9 .....4......... 23-8 23...9 Dielectric Puncture ......... ...... 23-13 23...1 Voltage Waveforms and Levels ......... 23-7 23................. 23-1 23-1 23.....3High Current Tests . ........6.4.............................. .. 23-20 High Voltage Waveform for Alternate Method .............. ....... 23-9 23-9 23...... 23-11 23-12 23........6...............3. ...........2 Test Set-up and Procedures ..4....6.......... ......................... 23............ 23-1 23..2 Exploding Conductors (Disruptive Forces) .. ..... ............5...... ... 23-2 1 23-22 Current Waveforms ..... ....... ....2... ...................... ............ .... 23-12 2312 23... 23-15 Vapor Region Equipment ..... 23-24 Typical High Current Set-up for Non-Fuel Areas Arc-Entry Tests ..........7 Magnetic Interaction ...6.. . .......... ....... .

exterior lights. Examples of equipment not covered section are mechanical devices such fuel filler by this as caps.2.e. alternatively. the equipment will have to to be powered up or. electrically de-iced leading edges where the de-ice system is an integral part of the leading edge structure or is enclosed by the leading edge structure). The term “externally mounted equipment” refers to all electrical and electronic equipment mounted externally to the main skin ofthe aircraft and includes all is such equipment that covered onlyby a dielectricskin or fairing that is an integral part of the equipment. It also includes connecting cables and associated terminal equipment furnished by the equipment manufacturer as a part of the equipment. heated or unheated windshields.0 Direct Effects Purpose 23. Electrical and electronic equipment such as structure. In situations where apower-on condition could change the susceptibility or vulnerability of the equipment the direct effects of lightning. Normally the equipment will not be powered up or operating during the tests described herein.2 Lightning 23. The tests described herein specificallyexclude the effects of voltages and currents induced intothe externally mounted equipment and its associated circuitry by means of magnetic or electric field coupling. or by other test method(s) appropriate to the component being qualified. and externally mounted equipment that is protected by aircraft nose radomes or dielectric coverings which are specific to the aircraft structure and are notintegral with the equipment itself. . Definitions 23. The to need to do this should be definedin the test plan.e. i. Q 1997 RTCA. Examples of equipment covered by section are antennae. equipment that is an integral part of the aircraft structure (i. means employedsimulate the powered up condition. this air external sensors.0.1 of Tests The tests described in this section are intended to determine the ability of externally mounted electrical and electronic equipment to withstand the direct effects of a severe lightning strike. as as the Components such these are to be addressed and/or tested a part of airframe lighting certification program specified by the aircraft manufacturer. data probes. These indirecteffects are covered in Section 22. and anti-ice and de-ice equipment which is mounted external to the boots.. electrically heated anti-ice lights and fuel quantity probes mounted on fuel tanks and exposed to direct or swept lightning strikes is also covered by this section.1 Definitions Arc Root The location on the surface a conducting body at which lightning channel is attached of the while highcurrent flows.1 Lightning 23. Inc.23.

it stays with point for to that the remaining duration of the flash. It may also include an intermediate current. Flash Hane-w During the period ofthe lightning flash. .It consists of a leader and a first return stroke. Inc. First Return Stroke The high current surge that occurs when the leader completes the circuit between the two charge centers. This current is termed the intermediate current. The current surge has a high peak current. lightning channel may be swept backwards from the one part of the aircraft to another as a result of the forward movement of the aircraft. a It may occur within cloud. kiphtninp Flash The total lightning event in which charge is transferred from one charge center to another. Intermediate Current After the initial decay following peak currentof some strokes. attaching at various points along the surface of the aircraft.This includes dielectric puncture. It also includes directly injected voltages and currents in associated wiring and plumbing. Leader The low luminosity. burning and vaporization of aircraft or equipment surfaces and structures. Any physical damage to the aircraft andor equipment due to direct attachment of the andor conduction of lightning current. or between cloud and ground.there is often a low level the current of a few kiloamperes that persists for several milliseconds. . a continuing current and one or more restrikes. bending. high of change of current rate with respect to time (di/dt) and a high action integral. low current precursor of a lightning return stroke. accompanied by an intense electric field.23-2 Continume Currea A low level long duration current pulse that might occur between or after the high current strokes. lightning channel blasting. 0 1997 RTCA. When the attachment point reaches the last point where attachment the aircraft is possible. betweentwo clouds. melting. .

the term “discharge” shall mean the discharge of the storage capacitors. When used to refer to discharge of High Voltage ( H V ) or High Current (HC) impulse generators. the A lightning leader that has moved its position relative to an aircraft. This termis used whenthe discharge of the capacitors of an HV or HC impulse generator results in the electrical breakdown of the gap between the electrodes connected to the generator output terminals. This may or may not cause an electrical breakdownthe gap betweenthe electrodes connected of to the output terminals of the generator. 0 1997 RTCA. which has a lower peak the current. and prior to first return stroke arrival.al The action integralof a current waveform is the integral of the square of the time varying current over its time duration. but a higher di/dt thanfirst return stroke.. a lower action integral. 2. 322 General Definitions Action Integt. Slow co This termis used to refer to the intermediate current and continuing current collectively. It is usually expressedin units of ampere-squared seconds of (A’s). Fuel VaDor A fuelvapor region is a region in the aircraft that may havefuel or fuel vapor present. Inc. but may reattach a new location aircraft. This normally follows the to further aft on the the same pathas the firstreturn stroke. by virtue of aircraft movement during continued leader propagation. subsequent to initial leader attachment. .23-3 Restrike A subsequent high current surge duringlightning flash. This term is used when the arc produced by a gap breakdown passes over or close to a dielectric surface without puncture.

All areas of the aircraft surface not covered by Zones 1 and 2are designated Zone 3. All areas of the aircraft surface where there is a highpossibility of a lightning attachment being swept onto it from a Zone lA.3 The following text defines the various lightning zones. The areas appropriate to these zones on any particular aircraft shall be agreed between the airframe manufacturer and the appropriate certifLing authority. the future. are designated Zone 2A.This is nominally the voltage to which an HV impulse generator must be erected in order that 90 percent ofall discharges will result gap breakdown. Note: All zones of the aircraft (including Zone 3) may be required to carry part or the whole ofthe total lightningflash currents flowing between two attachment points. those surfaces where ftrst return strokes may only arrive by sweeping of the leader may be separately designated. . All areas of the aircraft surface where there is a high possibility of a lightning attachment possibility of flash hang-on. there is a low possibility of adirect lightning attachment. Inc.1. but having a high are designated Zone 2B.5. a notional in V. being sweptonto it fiom a Zone 1A or 2A.) All areas of the aircraft surface where there is a high possibility of an initial lightning attachment and a high possibility of flash hang-on are designated Zone 1B. but having a low possibility of flash hang-on.2. In all Zone 3. the purposes For are (In of this document. Definitions Zoning 23. swept leader attachment areasalso included in Zone 1A. is used as described in paragraph 23. All areas of the aircraft surfaces where there is a high possibility of an initial lightning attachment with a low possibility of flash hang-on are designated Zone 1A.For test purposes. 0 1997 RTCA.

ment classified as suitable for use in fuel vaDor regions Equipment intended for use in fuel vapor regions must have additional test requirements over and above those applicable to the appropriate zone for non-fuelvaporregion equipment.23-5 23. unless otherwise designated as Category X. Equipment externally mounted in those areas of the aircraft identified as Zone 1A is designated Category 1A. unless otherwise designated as Category X. which will indicate that the equipment may be used in afuel vapor region. classification 2AF will clear the equipment for use in fuel vapor regions in zone 2A. unless otherwise designated as Category X. Note: Equipment intended for use in areas where the first return stroke attachment can only arriveby sweeping of a leader must qualify as Category 1A unless otherwise designated as Category X.g. 0 1997 RTCA. unless otherwise designated as Category X. Inc.3 Equipment Categories The nature and severity level of the tests to be applied to externally mounted equipment will depend uponthe designated categoryof that equipment. the configuration tested should be clearly defined. Equipment externally mounted in those areas of the aircraft identified as Zone 3 is designated Category 3. Category 2A Equipment externally mounted in those areas of the aircraft identified as Zone 2A is designated Category2A.. Cateyory 1B Equipment externally mounted in those areas of the aircraft identified as Zone 1B is designated Category lB. Equipment externally mounted in those areas of the aircraft identified as Zone 2B is designated Category2B. e. unless otherwise designated as Category X. . When qualified to obtain the “F” classification for a particular zonekategory. Equipment so tested will have the additional classification “F” after the zone classification. Equipment not having the additional “F” classification may not be used in fuel vapor regions without further testing. Comparison between this and the final aircraft installation may indicatethat further tests are not required.

23-6
23.4

Lightning Direct Effects and Associated Parameters
This Subsection lists and describes the various direct effects failure mechanisms that can a lightning strike an aircraft. It also identifies to affect externally mounted equipment during the lightning current parameters and thereby the phase of the lightning flash associated with specific failure mechanisms.

23.4.1

Ohmic Heating
The instantaneous power dissipated heat in a conductor due an electricalcurrent is i2R as to watts. The ohmic heating generated the complete lightning pulse is therefore the ohmic by resistance ofthe lightning path throughthe aircraft multiplied bythe action integral of the the pulse and is expressed in Joules or watt seconds. In a lightning discharge, high action integral phases the lightning flash of too short duration for any heat generated in an of are a aircraft structure by ohmic heating to disperse significantly. The phases of the lightning flash relevant to this failure mechanism are the first return stroke and any restrike.

23.4.2

Exploding Conductors (Disruptive Forces)
Where conductors having a very small sectional area required to carry a substantial cross are part ofthe lightning current, they may vaporize explosively. associated shock wave The can give rise to severe damage particularly in confined spaces. This failure mechanism is particularly significantin electric wiring connected to external equipment, e.g., navigation lights, antennae, pitot heaters, etc. If these are not adequately protected and confined in are or pass throughclosed compartments in the aircraft, they can present asignificant hazard. In addition, small cross section metal foils etc. encapsulated in a dielectric, such as in an or arcs such as may result from the externally mounted blade antenna, high energy internal penetration of a non-conductive cover, can present a hazard from disruptive forces. The relevant current parameter is action integral, and relevant phases of the lightning flash the are the initial return stroke and restrikes.

23.4.3

Arc Root Thermal Damage

Burn through and material erosion can occur at the arc root. In metal, this is mainly a is complex function of current and time. In root area, there a large thermal input from the arc the arc root itself, as well as a concentration of ohmic heating due to the high current densities. Most of the energy is generated ator very close to thesurface of the metal, and must therefore be dissipated by conduction. The heat generated in the immediate arc root area is in excess of that which can absorbed intothe metal by conduction, and excess be the is either lostin melting andvaporizing the metal, or reradiated. There is minimum current and a minimum time for any given thickness of any given material below which burn through cannot occur. It is only the slow components phase of the lightning flash that can exceed the minimum requirements of both current and duration for metal bum through or severe erosion of any practicalthickness of metal.

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

In carbon fiber composites thermal effscts are more pronounced, but lower thermal the the conductance and higher electrical resistance affects the proportions of vaporizing and propagation processes. This leads an increase in area in relation to the depth of damage. to The arc root burning voltage of carbon is higher than that of metals. This effect, plus the high bulk resistivity, generates more heat in the immediate arc root area and the hot spot remains for a longer period than most metals. Thus, for short duration high action integral pulses as well as low current long durationpulses produce highthermal inputs, and so all phases of the lightning flash are significant in producing arc root damage in carbon fiber composites.

23.4.4

Hot Spot Formation
Hot spot formation may occur on the inner surface of the aircraft skin as a result of one of two processes: first on an inner surface under an arc root, and second from local high current densities. The effects of hot spotsusually only significant with regard ignition in fuel are to and other highly flammable substances. Allphases of the lightning flash are significant to the first process, while high peakcurrent phases are significant to the second process. the

23.4.5

Acoustic Shock Wave Damage
At the commencement the first return stroke, there a rapid pinching of arc channel of is the due to the increase in the magnetic field surrounding the channel. This produces a radial acoustic shock wave. At same time, rapid heating of the arc channel itself produces the the an axial shock wave. The latter is probably the most significant in its reaction with the aircraft. The severity of the shock is dependant upon both the peak current value and rate of rise of the current. It is therefore related to the first return stroke and insome instances to restrikes. In general, the damage due to acoustic shock waveis insignificant on metalskins, but less malleable composite skins can rupture.

Magnetic 23.4.6 Pressure
This pressure is only significant when the surface current density is greater than several kiloamperes per millimeter. For example, a conductor of five millimeters carrying diameter a pulse of kA peak current would experience a surface pressure of 1000 atmospheres. 200 The pressure is proportional to the square ofthe current (i’) and the inverse square of the diameter. Thus,doubling the diameter or halving the current would reduce the pressure to 250 atmospheres. In some cases, however, even relatively small pressures can be significant, such as the case of metal braid bonding strips. These can be compressed solid conductors leading to to near metal embrittlement and subsequent mechanical failure. The relevant current phase is the first return stroke.

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

23-8
23.4.7 Magnetic Interaction Considerable magnetic forces can exist fiom the interaction of the magnetic fields of two current carrying conductors from two separate sections of the same conductor where the or lightning currentis forced to change direction.This force can also exist between current in the aircraft and the arc channel. This force is usually only of significance where the lightning current is confined to small cross-section conductors as might occur in some externally mounted equipment. The peak value force is proportional to the square of of the the peak current (p). The ultimate effect on the test object concerned can be a complex and function ofp, rise time, decay time, action integral the mechanical responseof the test object. The failure mechanismtherefore related the first return stroke and in some cases is to to the restrikes. 23.4.8 Direct Effects Sparking Direct effects sparking occurs when very high currents are forced to cross a joint between two conducting materials, or forced to take very convoluted paths.Two different types of sparking can occur: thermal sparking and voltage sparking.

Most thermal sparking occurs near edges of high the spots on the mating surfaces where the interface pressure is at or close to zero. The primary causes are high current density and are fiom inadequate interface pressure. Thermal sparks burning particles of material ejected the contact area by vaporization pressures occurring after the contact point melts. The ejected particlesizes cover the range from non-incendiary( a 0 pm dia. Al.) to incendiary and moveat various velocities. Ignition a flammable mixture is the best detection method of to evaluate ignition hazards. The relevant current parameter is peak current and the appropriate lightning current phase is the first return stroke and restrikes.
Voltage sparking occurs where the current is forced to take a convoluted path through the joint. The gap geometry and spacing has a significant effect on the energy necessary for ignition. Close spacings more like thermal sparks. Ignition a flammable mixture the act of is best detection method evaluate ignition hazards. The significant current parameter to is di/dt and the appropriate phase is the first return stroke and restrikes. Dielectric 23.4.9 Puncture The puncture any dielectric skin covering any externally mounted equipment could permit of the direct attachment of lightning to that equipment. The probability of puncture of a dielectric will be a fbnction ofpresence of any conductor underneath the dielectric that the raises the electric field stress, the thickness and strength of the dielectric, the condition of the dielectric surface, and the proximity of other conducting surfaces. As a general guide, puncture of the dielectric must be considered possible unless the voltage required to puncture the dielectric at any pointis significantly greater than the voltage required to cause flashover to the nearest conducting point of the airframe. The conditions for dielectric puncture are generated inthe pre-discharge phase and the onset of the first return stroke at

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

23-9 phase of the lightning flash. Puncture might also occur as a result of arestrike, or a swept stroke reattachment.

Parameters Test 23.5 23.5.1 Waveforms Voltage and Levels
High Voltage tests shall be conducted using a high voltage pulse generator capable of delivering a 1.2/50 ps open circuit output voltage waveform (risetime from zero to peak to voltage in 1.2 ps *20 percent and decaying from peak voltage half peakvoltage in 50 ps *20 percent; see Figure 23-1.). This waveform shall be used in conjunction with the “Updown Voltage Transfer Method” (UDVTM)testing. This method defines a notional for V, level. The UDVTM is a technique first proposed by Bakken for testing with breakdowns at or about the V, level in which the level is formed during testing. To find the V level would , otherwise require a very large number of tests to raise confidence through a statistically significant sample. UDVTM involves varying generator voltage increments in accorthe by dance with a procedure as the gap breakdown occurs or fails to occur. The formula for set incremental changes is as follows: a.
Start at a voltage slightly belowgapbreakdown voltage.

b. Whenever
C.

gap breakdown fails to occur, raise the voltage by five percent.

After three ponsecutive gap breakdowns at the same voltage, lower the voltage by five percent. If breakdown still occurs after lowering the voltage then lower the voltage by an additional five percent.

d.

Each gap breakdown that occurs should be counted towards the numberrequired to complete the test. Each failure to break down should be discounted. Alternative waveforms and tests may be usedas follows: a. A voltage rising at the rate of 1000 kV/ps *SO percent may be applied. See Figure

23-2. This voltage is applied across gap and allowed rise until gap breakdown the to
occurs. b. A voltage rising to peak in between 50 ps and 250 ps. See figure 23-3. This voltage is applied across the gap and the peak voltage adjusted to a value where gap breakdown occurs at or just after peak voltage.

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

23-10

23.5.2

Current Waveforms

and Levels

For verification purposes, the natural lightning environment is represented by current test components A, B, Cand D in Figure 23-4. Eachcomponent simulates a different is characteristic ofthe current in a lightning flash. When testing carried out, the application of these waveforms to the appropriate category is obtained from the table associated with figure 23-4. They shall be applied individuallyor as a composite of two or more components together in one test. a. Component A - First Return Stroke Current Component A has a peakamplitude of 200 kA *10 percent and an action integral of 2 x 106A2s 20 percent with a total time duration not exceeding 500 ps. This f or time component may be unidirectionaloscillatory. The rise (make consistent with component D) from 10 to 90 percent peak current shall be less than 50 ps.
Note: For magnetic forces tests, a unidirectional pulse is preferred. When an be taken of the mechanical response oscillatory pulse is used, account must of the system under test.

Donent b.

B - Intermediate Current
of Component B has an average amplitude two kA *20 percent andcharge transfer of 10 coulombs *10 percent in five milliseconds *10 percent. The waveform shall be unidirectional and may be rectangular,exponential or linearly decaying.

C.

Component C - Contlnulng Current Component C transfers a charge coulombs *20 percent in a time of between of 200 0.25 s and 1.0 s. Thewaveform shall beunidirectional,mayberectangular, exponent or linearly decaying, andits amplitude shall be between 200 and 800A.

. .

d.

Component D - Re-strike Current Component D has a peakamplitude of 100 kA *10 percent and anaction integral of 0.25 x lo6A2s *20 percent. This component may be either unidirectional or oscillatory with a total time duration not exceeding 500 p . The time from 10 percent peak current to 90 percent peakcurrent shall be less than 25 ps.
Note: For magnetic forces tests, a unidirectional pulse is preferred. Where an oscillatory pulse used, account must be taken the mechanical response is of of the system undertest.

The current components applicable to each category shall be as shown in -e

23-4.

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

23.6

Test Procedures Levels and

Lightning simulation tests require high energy electrical equipment which may be charged to very high voltagea during their operation. Therefore, all safety precautions relevant to this type of test apparatus should be complied with.All tests should be conducted in a controlledaccess area by personnel experienced in high voltage/high current testing. General 23.6.1 This paragraph contains scope and descriptions of high voltage and high current tests for externally mounted equipment. Equipment that has an integraldielectric covering should first be tested with high voltage defined in paragraph 23.6.2 to establish surface flashover as or puncture paths. the protecting insulationof an equipment, such a blade antenna, If as does not puncture during high voltage tests, then normally a current test will be requiredto high demonstrate survival of the equipment from thermal and acoustic effects arising from proximity to the high current arc following the flashover paths indicated during the high voltage tests. If puncture of the protecting dielectric does occur, and this does not in itself constitute failure of the equipment, highcurrent tests shall be carried out at the level ofthe category chosen with the arc directed along the path(s) of the puncture(s) caused during the high voltage tests. All equipmentthat has nodielectric covering must be subjected to high current tests using the current waveforms appropriate the category chosen, defined in Subsection 23.3 and to as Fieure 23-4 to determine the ability to transfer these currents to the airframe safely, and to assure that excessive currents or voltages are not conducted into the aircraft on associated interconnections and interconnected equipment. Equipment that is partially covered by a dielectric shall be subjected first to high voltage tests for those parts covered by the dielectric as defined in paragraph 23.6.2, and also subjected to high currenttests to all exposed conducting parts including fasteners, using the current waveforms appropriate to the category chosen as defined in Subsection 23.3 and W r e 23-4. A flow chart giving the sequence of testing is shown in-re

23-1.

0 1997 RTCA, Inc.

3-2and The tests shall continue until the gap breakdown requirements have beenmet.1 and Firmre23-1. 0 1997 RTCA.1 as and a u r e s 7.5. The ground plane and the electrode shall be as stress relieved on all edges and corners. inspection of the recorded data. Discharges that do not result in gap breakdown shall be discounted. suchas electrical bonding. 23.1 Applicability and Requirements General The H tests are applicable to all categories where equipment is covered by a V the dielectric that is integral to the equipment. If dielectric puncture occurs and the damage associated with the puncture does not exceed the damage criteria. In all cases where HV tests are applied.2. a total five discharges resulting in gap breakdown shall be of applied at each polarity on each specimen tested. and a visual inspectionthe equipment under shall be done to establish if surface of test flashover or puncture has occurred. All conducting parts of the be equipment normally bonded the airframe shall bonded to the ground plane and to one to terminal ofthe pulse generator.6. During each discharge voltage waveform shall recorded. n in The Environmental Qualification Form (Appendix or DDP Form. Inc. The other terminal of the generator shall be connectedto a large plate electrode shown in W r e 23-6. 23.2. u. they will be flashover versus puncture tests.12 23.5. and the test gap shall be related to the dimensions of the test object as defined i Figure 23-6 and quantified the associated table. should A). except for category 3.if appropriate. They may either square or be circular in plan view. andall installation requirements that could affect test results.2 and Test Procedures Set-up The tests shall be conducted by using either the notional V method as defined by paragraph . or one of the two alternative methods defined in paragraph23. . shall be addressed. Whichever methodis chosen.2 High Voltage Tests 23. the The equipment under should be mounted in accordance withinstallation requirement test the onto a conducting ground plane as indicated in Figure 23-6.23. All dimensions of the ground. identify equipment that has been subjectedto the high voltage tests. with any other diagnostics used. The specimen shall be fully representative of the production standard.6. at the and completion of the test series. then appropriate high current tests should follow using the the puncture already created or a deliberately drilled hole at the same location as the puncture.6. and a photograph the test the be of article shall be taken to record all gap breakdowns. After any suspected puncture. the electrode.

2A and 2B). Test Specimen The test specimen shall be fully representative of the production standard and all installation requirements which could affect the test results.6. tests with this electrode may be omitted and high voltage tests begun with the spherical the electrode. 23.2 usingthe high voltage electrode configuration described in Figure do not result in flashovers to the test object.” The jet diverting electrode has an insulating material covering all surfaces that face the test object. the high voltage test should be repeated with a spherical electrode with a minimum diameter of 10 k l cm and be positioned at distance t2 from the surface of the test object as illustrated inFigure 23-6. as defined in Subsection 23. .6.preferably.3. In cases wherethe large flat electrode is not likelyto produce flashovers to the test object.1 and 23. U l r n r r ionl t a .2.6.1 General Requirements The current components (A.3 High Current Tests 23. The area close to the point of entry on the test object shall be protected by a thin dielectric shield to prevent excessive wander 0 1997 RTCA.thenhigh current tests willnormallybeconducted to demonstrate the ability ofthe test objectto survive the normal thermal effects and acoustic shock wave effects of a surface flashover. the procedures as shown in the flow chart of Figure 23-5 shall be followed.the electrode material shall be a good electrical conductor. such as electrical bonding. In the event that high voltage tests performed in accordance with Sections 23.2.2.23-13 If puncture does notoccur. a specific category is not idenIf tified in the individual specification. b. lB. Other aspects of high voltagetest should bethe same as those described in paragraphs this 23.6.6.3. a. These tests will be conducted as described in paragraph 23.1 and 7-3-6 23.2. The current components applicable to each zoneare specified in paragraph 23.5. t For arc entry tests (Categories lA. thus forcing the arc to originate from a surface which faces away fromthe test object.B. It may be a plain rod or.2. .2. a “jet diverting electrode.6.6. shall be addressed.3.C D) applicable to each category depend uponthe zone and appropriate to the category. equipment manufacturer should design and qualify the the equipment to the category consistent with the expected lightning zone in which itwill be installed and state the category. In all cases. Inc.

g. Electrode Polarity In most cases.To prevent arc jet and blastpressure effects from influencingthe test results. Note: Both the fine wire or the high voltage discharge methods of initiating the arc will ' ' introduce very high dE/dt transients (1 0 v/m/s) into the region above the object under test.6. The gap 5 between the initiating wire and the surface of the test object shall be unobstructed for not less than 90 percent of the total distance.c.3.14 of the arc root. Conducted EntryTests For conducted entry tests (Category 3). be employed if a diverting electrode used and not less than mm jet is 150 with a plain electrode.1 mm diameter may be used to initiate the current generators without adversely affecting the results. arc will be directed along line(s) of the surface the V the flashover(s) determined the H tests by supporting wire throughout its length by at a distance between mm and 15 mm from the surface of the test object. Electrode Gag The electrode gapis the distance between electrode andthe attachment point to the a conductoron or in the test specimen. Spacings less thanabove would constitute a more the severe test due to blast pressure. f. . the For surface flashover testing. Antennas. e. electrode polarity is not important when the electrode spacing 23. but would not disqualify the test if the specimen passed..1. copper) or carbon fiber. the test current shall be conductedthrough the ground plane on which test object is mounted in a manner the representative of the lightning current distribution in an aircraft during a lightning strike. if doubt. As a 0 1997 RTCA.23. Inc. An alternative method of initiating the arc may beto use a high voltage discharge generated by a Tesla coil or similar device. the electrode polarity in complies with subparagraph should be negative. d. measuredfrom the conducting surface of electrode to the surface of the the test object.The arc shall be directed to the surface of the test object through a circular hole in the protecting dielectric of between 10 mm and 12 mm radius. discharge of low voltage driven The conducting wire can be metallic (e. However. The wire will also enable the arc to be directed to the exact pointof interest on the test specimen. it is recommended that a spacing of not less than 50 mm. C. will respond to such transients. Arc Initiation A fine wire not exceeding 0. which are nominally dE/dt detectors.

23. in It shouldbenoted that voltages and currents measured in cable shields or conductors are not necessarily representative of those that would occur in specific 0 1997 RTCA.5. C.2. thermal and other measuring devices or recording instruments. This may requirethat a short length ofcable be utilizedto facilitate measurement ofvoltages and currents. This represents 50 the surface current density approximately 650 mm from the arc root. Current Flow Through the Test Specimen The test set-up should ensure that the simulated lightning current distribution through the test specimen is representative an aircraft being struck by lightning. d. high high voltage. - Test Apparatus The test apparatus shall include: (1) (2) (3) A high current generator(s) capable of producing in paragraph 23. as illustrated in Figures 23-7 and M . A calibration check shall be carried out to veri@ the accuracy of all recorded data. e. of b. .2 Test Set-up Non Fuel Vapor Region Equipment a. Installation of Recording Instrumentation The recording instrumentation shall be adequately shielded or decoupled from electromagnetic fields associated with simulated lightning test the currents or other sources. a surface current density of kA/m should beapplied. the waveforms specified All necessary current. Inc.23-1 5 minimum. Photographic equipment for recording strike pointddamage areas.All measurements must be recorded the test report.3.6. Measurements shall be made of voltages and currents originating within the A schematic diagram of high currenttest setup is illustrated in Figures 23-7 and the equipment as a consequence of this test in accordance with applicable equipment performance standards. Electrode Location The test electrode should be positioned so as to direct the arc to the equipment surface selected for the test. Test ArranPement a.

to 2 0 1997 RTCA. This may be any gas mixture that has a high ignition probability from a 1. They include infra-red detection systems. C. The sensitivity of the ignition detection that technique employed 200 pJ sparks must be demonstrated and data included to in the test report.7 with afield of view not exceeding one meter wide. The external equipment object) shallbe mounted on an appropriate section of (test the simulated airframe skin. Detection of Hot Spots A number of techniques are available for detection of ignition sources due to hot spots. if necessary..5.2.aperture number andthe distance the from lens to object shall be such that the apparatus can detect and record voltage sparks of 200 pJ or less. . film speed..aircraft installations and only be significant establishing whether not there may in or are any voltages or currents. Some means shall be employed demonstrate thatthe camera shutter was to open during the current discharge. photographic methods. A typical setup is shown in Elpure 23-9. An acceptable technique is one using a 3000 ISO/ASA panchromatic film together with a lensaperture no smaller than f/4. d. be fitted with an array of mirrors to make any sparks visible to the camera. Alternative methods of achieving the same sensitivity of detection and recording may be used instead of.6. fast response thermocouples and temperature sensitive paints. 2.2 also apply to fuel vapor regions in addition to the points listed below. It shall be verified that the chamber is light-tight and shall. 200 pJ spark. Inc. b i t i o n Detection Using Ipnitable Mixtures If there are regions where a hot spot or sparking activity is not accessible to detection by any of the above means. Where photography is employed.5mm long. Theapplied test currents shall be in accordance the with paragraph 23. and a light tight chamber shall constructed on or gas be the inside (vapor side) of skin. - Specimen Test a.3.optical pyrometry. then ignition tests may be carried out by placing an ignitable gas-air mixture inside the chamber.or in addition to. 3633 Test Set-up Fuel Vapor Region Equipment The test set-up requirements detailed for non-fuel vapor regionsin subparagraph 23.

to veri@ the specified levels being met and check the correct that are to functioning and calibrationof the diagnostic equipment. test and calibration equipment and areas for safe operation. e.4 General Operating Requirements a. WARNING When making tests with combustible mixtures. Preferably. d.6. Initiate a discharge and inspect the specimen after the test and record the result. discharge circuit and sensing and recording equipment. Initiate a discharge to the dummy test object or conductive bar to check the current waveforms.23-1 7 such as ethylene/air in a 1. 0 1997 RTCA. . should be considered. Remove the dummy test object andplace the actual test object in the discharge circuit and record its physical and functionalcondition.3.3 to 1. Inspect the test set-up. these should have same inductance and the resistance as the test object. suitable precautions shall taken gas be such as blow out panels to preclude explosions of the structure. the location of fire extinguishing equipment nearby and protection test personnel from possible flame of or blast effects and possible flying parts. The possibility of seepage of the gas mixture into unvented partsof the structure resulting in serious explosion damage. 23. a. A propane/air mixture requires oxygen enrichment to obtain adequate sensitivity. Arcing The discharge circuit of the current generator(s) should be designed and maintained to avoid inadvertent arcing and other phenomena that may affect personnel and equipment safety. a dummy test object beneath the electrode or place a conductive bar over the actual test object such that waveform checkout discharges cannot damage the test object.6. Protection All personnel should be provided with appropriate eye and ear protection. 23. b. Insert Set up the high current generator(s).4 stoichiometric mixture. Personnel b.5 Test Procedures This method is used to determine the direct effects that result from the interaction of lightning currents with externally mounted electrical and electronic equipment. f. and test accuracy. Inc. c.3.

6. Photographs shall clearly show sample identification marksand change(s) in physical condition and a dimensional The sample may be damagedat points scale. If photography is employed. or determine the possibility of combustible vapor ignition to as a result of equipment skin puncture. 0 1997 RTCA. Test voltage and current waveforms and magnitudes. Note: When these procedures are used for tests on equipment to be used in fuel vapor regions. internal hot spot temperatures and/or sparking and arcing. Determine the presence of an ignition source by photography. etc. sealants. 1. Description and photographsof the test set-up and specimen.23-1 8 g. b. corrosion protection. Date and names personnel performing and of witnessing the tests.. If an ignitable mixture is used and no ignition occurs duringthe test. thicknesses. the following additional procedures must be observed. e. Inc. any light indication due internal sparking during test shall be taken to the as sparking sufficient to ignite fuel. Photographs and description of the test specimen both before and after the test. . including specimen description (modellpart no. remote fromthe arc attachment. verify that the camera shutter is open for the entire duration of the discharge. Environmental data such as temperature. h. and name of the test facility. as appropriate. materials. ignition an of ignitable mixture or temperature measurement. the arc entry pointddamage areas observed on the test Anyrequirements for functional tests before or after the application of the test current waveforms shall be in accordance with the applicable equipment performance standard. 23. verification of the mixture combustibility shall be obtained by ignition with a sparkof the defined energy and length introduced into test the chamber or exhaust (see Fimre 23-9) immediately after the lightning test. Inspect is and record its physical andfunctional condition. d. Correlate photographs with object. the lightning tests shall be considered invalid and the tests repeated with a new mixture until either the lightning tests or the artificial source ignites the mixture. pressure and humidity. If photography is employed.). If the combustible mixtureis not ignited bythe artificial source.4 Data Required to Assist in Interpretation of Test Results a. Note: Sparking may take place well away from the attachment point. C. This normally done by use of a "tell-tale" light. surface treatments. j.

or other evidence of presence or absence of sparking during the the tests. the film speed. Where applicable. . focal length and lens-to-objectdistance shall be recorded. j. an ignitable gas-air mixture is employed all relevant details shall berecorded. Inc. h. including the method usedto verify its ignitability. photographsof the interior of the fuel chamber under study during the test. If 0 1997 RTCA. 1. applicable.23-19 f. Where photography is used for the detection of sparking. arc attachment points and all damage Note: The following items apply only to fuel vapor region tests. Photograph and descriptions of discharges and on the test object. aperture number. on the equipment cables and/or terminations. as g. Currents and voltages.

01 1.2p920% 5p f 20% o Electrode Poritiv8 250kV 4WkV 5WkV 8 OV Ok Total Cap hqth 0. total Cap hngth Llecrrodr ?orltlve 150kV Electrode Neptlve 790kV lOOOkV 2LWkV 2250kV 0.I/ Od I I I I 1 I I I rime 1.h 0. Inc.h 13001rv ~ o V d g R o q u h n W # 2 FIGURE B HIGH VOLTAGE W A W O R U FOR MIERNATE YRHOD 0 1997 RTCA.h 1.k lS0OkV Approlnulo VoQp R m W FIGURE 23. 1.80 &lecUo& NegatiW 6WkV 900kV 11OOkV 1.0.1 HG VOLTAGE WAVEFORM FOR V METHOD IH . .

.h 1.h sookv 600kV 4OOkV 600kV 700kV Approximate W a g e Requirements FiPure 23-3 High Voltage Waveform for Alternate Method (Voltage Rising to Peak in Between 50 p and 250 p) 0 1997 RTCA.h Electrode Pori t ivt Electrode Negative ~~ 3SOkV 1.23-2 1 Total Cap Length 0. Inc.

Note 2: These current components are applied by direct connection i. Inc. . Apply the average current of 400 A for 45 ms *lo percent to deliver 18 coulombs *20 percent.23-22 Note 1: The full duration of component C is not applied for categories 1A and 2A.e. As a minimum. Note 3: Component D to be applied first. not by arc. and in some cases will only applied to flow in the skin alongside the equipment under be 50 KA test.. a surface current density of per meter should be applied. 23-4 Current Waveforms 0 1997 RTCA.

23-23 Y o Appllcnblo Pwfonnontr 52D t I e 23-5 Flow Chart for High Voltage and High Current Tests 0 1997 RTCA. Inc. .

>a and 4. . The ground plane may be either a very broad.Notes: 1) For a symmetrical shape.4 OOmm I For !?. is 20 percent.. flat one.twice the distance from the centroid of the object’s surface foot print to its surface edge. o> 1OOmm I Gap and ElectrodeDimensions for High VoltageTests Notes: The tolerance for 4. The values for e.>100mm I For o 4 and >. or one with a profilededge of width4. or for a non-symmetrical shape. 2) I Test Set up Dimensions I For o and 4 . and 4. Inc. are minimum values. o is the smaller of the length or width. Fieure 23-6 Test Arrangement andDimensions for High Voltage Tests 0 1997 RTCA.

Inc.23-25 Fimre 23-7 Typical High Current Set-Up for Non-Fuel Areas Arc-Entry Tests 0 1997 RTCA. .

.Figure 23-8 Typical High Current Set-Up for Non-Fuel Areas Conducted Entry Tests 0 1997 RTCA. Inc.

ca-ukl oddn wd e Tool Chambr With RO~OI~IUO CmHbrmIed @a* ure 23-9 Typical High Current Set-Upfor Fuel Vapor Region Requirements 0 1997 RTCA.23-27 W o : M a y ale0 nood InJoclodcumnl and vollmgo mcordor me In Flour0 238 To T a l C w m l Wwokrm R d r al Tml cnuo. Inc. .

.This page intentionally left blank.

DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 RTCA/DO-l60D Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 24 Icing Important Notice Information pertinent this test procedure is contained in Sections 1. is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed.5 13 . 1997 Supersedes: RTCADO. Further. 1140 Connecticut Avenue. Date of Issue: July 29.2 and to 3. Inc.160C Prepared by: SC. NW Suite 1020 Washington.RTCA.

...4....................3 Category B .1 Figure 24-2 .......................... .............................................2 Category A .................................................................................................3 24.......... EquipmentCategories ...............4........ ................................4 CategoryC .......1 General ............. Purpose of the Test ................................... Category A IcingTest Test Category B Icing 24-1 24-1 24-1 24-1 24-2 24-2 24-2 24-3 24-3 24-5 24-6 Figure 24.........................................Page 24.................................4.............................. General .......... 24................. 24.......... ....................................................2 24........1 24....................................4....4 .. 24....... 24............ Test Procedure ............0 Icing 24....................

0 Purpose 24. The effects of external ice or frost adhering to it.3 Equipment Categories The following categories cover the anticipated ice formation conditions generally encountered in aircraft. The effects of icecausedby freezing ofwater condensation or by re-freezingof melted ice. altitude and humidity. The effects oficebuild-upcaused by direct water exposure. the Note: The selection of icing category depends equipment location (or on) the aircraft on in and the type of icing conditions expected.3).24. where ice or frost may form due condensation when the equipment to is cold soaked to extremely low temperatures and subsequently encounters humid air at above freezing temperatures.2 General Three icing test procedures specified accordingto the category for which equipment are the is designed to be used and installed in aircraft (see Subsection 24. which are determined by the end application and use of the equipment. These procedures specify test methods evaluating the effects of various icing for conditions on the performance or aircraft equipment. 24. These conditions must be considered by the equipment designerin evaluating these requirements. Inc. 24.1 Icing of the Test These tests determine performance characteristics for equipment that must operate when exposed to icing conditions that would be encountered underconditions of rapid changes in temperature. b. C. . These tests generally apply to equipment mounted on external surfaces or in non-temperature controlled areas of the aircraft where rapid changes temperature. altitude and humidity generally in are encountered. 0 1997 RTCA. namely: a. This test is applicable to equipment mounted externally or in non-temperature-controlled areas of the aircraft.

melting and/or re-freezing and may progressively accumulate water or ice inside non-sealedenclosures. As quickly as practical. before beginning the appropriate tests. Maintain the environment at 30 degrees C anda relative humidity of at least 95 percent untilthe surface temperature of the equipment reaches fivedegrees C.1 and m e 24-2. 24. This test is applicable to items mountedexternally or in non-temperature-controlledareas where there is risk of accumulating free water. The required thickness is and distribution of ice and any requirement for progressive build-up of ice shall be defined by the APPTJCABlB EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS.4.1 at ambient room pressure and humidity. through c. Remove all non-representative contaminants. stabilize the equipment temperature at the low ground survival temperature specified in Table 4. grease and dirt. d. Inc. Repeat steps a. Operation of equipment generates heat shall be limited that to only that period of time necessary to determine compliance. which would effect adhesion between ice and the surfaces of the equipment under test. Monitor the surface temperature of the equipment.4. As quickly as practical. The test is intended to examine the effects of a representative thickness of ice on the performance of the equipment or to determine the maximum thickness that can be permitted before de-icing action necessary.4 24.24-2 This test is applicable to equipment with moving parts where such movement could be prevented or impeded by ice formation. such as oil. .2 Category A a.1 Test Procedure General Mount the equipment under in a manner representative the normal installation in the test of aircraft. or where forces resulting from the expansion of ice could damage structural knctional components. The ice formedin or on the equipment or results from condensation. 0 1997 RTCA. With the equipment not operating. for two additional cycles (total of three cycles). freezing. which could subsequently freeze on the cold surfaces of the equipment. changethe environment to the appropriate ground survival low temperature at ambient pressure and humidity. The steps described in the Category A and Category B procedures are illustrated in w e 24. b. expose the equipment to an environment of 30 degrees C with a relative humidityof at least95 percent. C. 24.

During the lasttestcycle.10_+5degrees C. Increase the chamber pressure to room ambient at a uniform rate in a period of 15 to 30 minutes. The chamber temperature should not be allowed to exceed 30 degrees C at any time during this step. .10 degrees C and the permit the surface temperature of the equipment to rise. ~ 24. b. Repeat steps a. Maintain this condition for a sufficient period of time to melt all frost and ice or until the surface temperature of the equipment reaches between zero to five degrees C. Maintain this condition for a period of at least 10 minutes.theiceformedshallbeclearandhard.4 Category C a. With the equipment not operating. e. 24. Note: This test is designed to expose the equipment alternately to cold dry and warm moist environments. Inc. Note: If it becomes necessaryto interrupt the test sequence. through c. reduce the relative humidity in the chamber to normal roomambient. Raise C. Maintain this temperature and decrease the chamber pressure to the appropriate maximum operating altitude specified in Table 4-1. or air- 0 1997 RTCA. place equipment into the operating state the L IPMEND and D ORMANCE STANDARDS.4. hard ice form on the equipment when sprayedwith water. stabilize the equipment at a temperature that will permit clear. the chamber temperature at a rate not exceeding threedegrees C/minute while simultaneously increasing and maintaining relative humidityin the test chamber the 95 to not less than percent.3 Category B a.afterthe equipment temperature has stabilized at -20 degrees C.When the surface temperature reaches. to Note 1: For this test. d. stabilize the equipment temperature at -20 degrees C at ambient room pressure.e. the interruption shall take place whilethe equipment is held at the low temperature condition. for a total of 25 cycles or as defined in the applicable equipment specification. stabilize the equipment at the ground survival low temperature. At the endof the thirdcycle. With the equipment not operating. The use of separate chambers representing these two distinct environments is recommended. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH THE APPLICABLE F ~~. Increase and maintain chamber temperature to . whichever is less. At the completion of the re-pressurization.4.“White” pocketed ice is not acceptable.

Inc. b. 0 1997 RTCA. Place the equipment into the operating state and stabilize the equipment at a temperature of -20 degrees C. When the required thickness oficehasbeenachieved. Build upahomogeneouslayerof clear hardice to a thickness defined by the APPLICABLE EOUIPMENT PERFORMANCE STANDARD hand spraying by a fine mist of water at a temperature that is close to freezing. S Note: If multiple tests with increasing thickness of ice formation are required. . a series of separate tests shall perforhed with each thickness level formed be in a continuous operation. . discontinue the spraying.Note 2: The optimum temperature is likely to be between -1 and -10 degrees C depending the thermal mass of the equipment and is on best determinedby experiment. DETERMINE COMPLIANCE WITH THE A P A / C.

Inc.Y 0 G 0 1997 RTCA. .

Inc. .I I P i! :!i 0 1997 RTCA.

W Suite 1020 N Washington.3 is and 20. DC 20036 Telephone:(202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditionsand Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 25 Electrostatic Discharge(ESD) Important Notice Information pertinent to this test procedure contained in Sections 1. Date of Issue: July 29. 1 140 Connecticut Avenue.RTCA.160C Prepared by: SC.Inc. Further.135 . 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO. Appendix4 is applicable identifying the environmental for tests performed.2.

...... ...........3 Test Description .... 25...................... 25... 25..4EquipmentCategories .............................................................4 Pulse Application ............... Figure 25-3 Discharge Electrode of the ESD Generator ........... 25................... 25. 25 .................................... 25.......1 Test Configuration ..................................2 .......2 ....................2 ESD Generator ...........................3 EUT Test Modes .. 25....Page 25... 25.........5 25-6 Figure 25.........5 TestProcedure ...............5....0 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD).2 25-2 ....1 ...4 ...........1 Electrostatic Discharge Typical Test Setup...... Figure 25-2 Simplified Diagram of the ESD Generator .......................1 ....... ....................................... 2 1 5..................6 Evaluation of the Test Results .5..........1 SCOW.. 2 1 5........5................................... 3 ..... 25...... 2 1 5. ...............7 Selection of Test Points ................ 25.......5............ 25................. 25...5.... 25.2 ........... 25................ 25-1 .......................... 25......... 25...............................2 Purpose of the Test ......... .............................. 25...... 2 1 5. ......... 25...............5 TestTechnique . 25................. 25.........

000 volts. temperature.2 Purpose of the Test The electrostatic discharge test is designedto determine the immunity or the ability of equipment to perform its intended function without permanent degradation of performance as a result of air discharged electrostatic pulse. Care must be taken in routing and grounding of the cabling associated with the ESD generatorminimize the potential for secondary to effect of the radiated field from the cabling. This test all is applicable for all equipment and surfaces which accessible during normal operation are andor maintenance of the aircraft. This test is intended to test the primary effect - 0 1997 RTCA.5 With the equipment powered and operated in the required mode the electrostatic discharge test will be performed under the following conditions: 25.1 cope in The Electrostatic Discharge test relates airborne equipment which may be involved to static electricity discharges from human contact. repairedor operated in an aerospace environment. The quantity of pulses shall be ten (10) in each of the selected locations in both positive and negative voltage polarities. Connect and orient the equipment as specified by the applicable installation and interface control drawings or diagrams.1 as showninSection20. an 253 Test Description be the The immunityto electrostatic discharge shall determined bythe ability of equipment of of under test (EUT) withstand a series electrostatic pulses at a selected severity level to 15.Electronic equipment thatis installed. directed at specific human contact locations on the EUT. e use vinyl seats and plastic structures which mayinexistlocations within an aircraft. The configuration is depicted in w e 25-1.0 Discharge (ESD) 25.Electrostatic 25. . Procedure Test 25. 25. of low conductivity (artificial fiber) carpets.4 Equipment Categories Category A . Some factors contributing to an ESD event may b : low relative humidity.3a(GeneralTest Test Configuration TheEUTshallbesetup Requirements). Inc.5. test 25.

Thiscan be done by verifying the output waveform the ESD generatoror of by setting the high voltage power supply15. - 25.000 volts. The generator setting to required to produce this output should be recorded. it should be decoupled in order to reduce the possibility of erroneous failure indications. This includes the normal method of mounting. the ESD generator should be calibrated to produce a volt minimumpeak 15.which is the discharge from the ESD generator to the enclosure of the equipment under test. unless specified otherwise. and grounding of the equipment. the ESD generator (discharge electrode) shall be removed from the EUT. DETERMINE COMPJ JANCEWITH APPJ JCABJB E O U I P r n T PERFORMANCE STANpARDS. The discharge return be grounded to the ground plane and kept at a distance of at least cable of the generator shall 0.5.5 Test Technique Move thetip of theESD generator toward the EUT at the same speed a human hand would reach to touch an object (approximately0.2 meters from the EUT and its cabling. of 150 (*20%).5. Evaluation of the Test Results Following application of the pulses. . After each discharge.4 Pulse Application The ESD discharges shall applied onlyto those points and surfaces be of the EUT which are accessible to personnel during normal operation (including as installed on aircraft maintenance). - m.000 volts minimum. 25.53 EUT Test Modes EUT test modes should include the software chosen to exercise all normal modesof operation of the EUT. Inc. With the ESD generator set at the value recorded during calibration the ESD generator shall be held perpendicular to the surface to which the discharge is applied.000 output of the output pulse. and shall be capable of generating a pulse of 15.5. - 25. Note: If monitoring equipment is required. bonding.6 6 1997 RTCA. - 25.3 meters/second) until the generator discharges or until contact is made with the EUT. The ESD generator shall also have an air dischargeas shown in tip Prior to performing the test. This procedure shall repeated until the10 discharges be in each polarity and each location are completed.2 25ESD Generator The ESD generator shall have a general schematic as shownin 2 with a discharge resistor 330 ohms (*20%) and an energy storage capacitor of pf . 25. The generator is then retriggered for a single discharge.

Inc.7 Selection of Test Points The test points to be considered shall include the following locationsas applicable: any as point in the control or keyboard area and any other point of human contact. slots. such switches. buttons. accessible areas. o 1997 RTCA. connector shells and other operator LEDs. . indicators.25-3 25. knobs. grilles.

Shielded Enclosure Wall (Optional) Bulkhead Panel EUT Unit bonded t ground o plane per guidelines of Section 20. Inc. .3.a r f G ator d P o i n t Gen r o HV Power -re 25-1 Electrostatic Discharge Typical Setup 0 1997 RTCA.

Because the capacitance is distributed over the wholeof the generator. is a distributed capacitance which exists between the generator the and ET. = 33On I Discharge Switch 0 Discharge Tip DC HV Supply T I cs=150pF I Dkeharge 0 Return COnfWdiOtl NOTE . it is not possible to showthis in the circuit. . and coupling planes. = 5 0 . e 25-2 Simplified Diagram the ESD Generator of 6 1997 RTCA. omitted in thefigure.1 0 0 M R R. GRP.R.Cd.Inc.

/ 08mm I 0 12mm -0. Inc. Discharge Electrodeof the ESD Generator 8 1997 RTCA. .The discharge switch (e&. vacuum relay) shall be mounted as close as possible to the tip of the discharge electrode.05 0 NOTE .

1 140 Connecticut Avenue.RTCA. DC 20036 Environmental Conditionsand Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Dendlx 4 Environmental Test Identification Important Notice Information pertinent to this test procedure contained in Sections is 1.Inc. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO. Date of Issue: July 29. This appendix is applicable for identifying the environmental tests performed. 2 and 3.160C Prepared by: SC-135 . NW Suite 1020 Washington.

This page intentionally left blank. .

In other cases. only the more stringent category need be identified. such as Temperature/Altitude or Q 1997 RTCA. A. where applicable. An in example Environmental Qualification Form is shown u e A-2 and has been annotated i s data included to illustrate a completed form. including the applicable revision number of the test procedure (Section of RTCA/DO-160) used. Inc.dix 4 Page A-1 A.” for the stressed environmental testing. . This need includes post-incident or accident investigation. In additionto the Environmental Qualification Form. installation certification. etc. A suggested format is depicted w e A-1 . This nameplate marking system is a supplemental and optional method of identifying the environmental test results. the appropriate environmental category of the equipment being tested. Additional information is included to identify the specific equipment model which type or to the environmental test results apply. association must be achieved by through the equipment type. Manufactures should identi& the method or part used to establish traceability the environmental test categories to which the equipment to was tested. repair. for airborne equipment contain requirements that the equipment must meet to ensure reliable operation in actual aeronautical installations. Nameplate marking is useful in those markets where the customers not request or be in a position may to review the TSO data package for a particular equipment. the manufacturer may wish to qualify the equipment to more than one category for a particular environmental test.2 Environmental QualificationForm (see FigureA-1) This form provides the necessary information regarding which environmental were tests conducted and. model number. Equipment manufacturers should expand on the on this form to provide added clarity. This procedure provides for a paper record (hereafter referred toas the Environmental Qualification Form) be included inthe equipment data to package submitted for Technical Standard Order (TSO) authorization and in the installation and maintenance instructions.l Introduction and Scope Minimum operational performance standards (MOPS) prepared by RTCA. Inc. If one category is more stringent. These equipment requirements must be verified in ambient and stressed environmental conditions. Since it is not envisioned that the Environmental Qualification will be related to a Form particular equipment serial number or date of manufacture. DO-160 encompasses the full spectrum of environmental conditions that airborne equipment experiencefrom benign to very hostile. The MOPS contains recommended bench test procedures ambient for conditions refers and to RTCA Document DO-160. “Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment. In some cases. may A need existsto provide a permanent record of the particular environmentalcategories test that the equipment has passed. the traditional nameplate marking system may be used.

14.Page A-2 Vibration. There are 23 environmental test procedures in this document for which categories have been established. 4. This optional method of marking equipment nameplates provides a supplemental method of communicating the test results to the end customers. 17. 10.0 13. A3 Supplemental Method Equipment Nameplate Marking of a.160D Env. Also. b. 16.Thefollowingis a supplemental method marking of equipment nameplates to indicate the particular environmental test categories to which the equipment has been tested.an Environmental Qualification Form is still required to completely document the environmental test results. type of de-icing fluid. 2..0 6.4 5. 4.0 12. 3.0 18.0 nw Temperature and Altitude Test spaces minimum) (2 In-Flight Loss of Cooling Test Temperature Variation Test Humidity Test Operational Shock and Crash Safety Test Vibration Test(3 spaces minimum) Explosion Proofness Test Waterproofness Test Fluids Susceptibility Test Sand and Dust Test Fungus Resistance Test Salt Spray Test Magnetic Effect Test Power Input Test Voltage Spike Test Audio Frequency Conducted Susceptibility Test Induced Signal Susceptibility Test (3 Radio Frequency Susceptibility Test spaces) 8 1997 RTCA. 9. 15. 18.0 9. . and other parameters pertinent to the tests shall be included on the form.0 19.0 15. Cat.160DEnvironmental Categories’’or.” followed by the letters and numbers (or setsof letters and numbers) which identi@ the categories designated in this document.wherethetestrequirementsforvariouscategories are different butnot necessarily more severe. Reading from left to right the categorydesignationsshouldappearon the equipmentnameplateinthe following order.0 11. 12.0 4. that they may be readily identified: so SECTION 1. Inc. These should be identified on the equipment nameplate by the words “DO.5.0 20.0 8.0 16. If this method of markingequipmentnameplatesisused. 5. more than one category should be indicated on the form. information such vibration tests conducted with without shock mounts. 8. as abbreviated. 6.0 7. 13. “DO. 7.0 10.0 17. fluid tests as or conducted with Jet A fuel. 11.0 14.

Cat. 23.0 Lightning Transient Induced Susceptibility Test (4spaces) 21.such as Vibration. For the following nameplate identification is identical the above example.0 Lightning Direct Effects Test (1. For Vibration.0 Radio Energy 19.0 Electrostatic Discharge Test C. the following guidelines shouldbe applied for improved readability. as well as the applicable test category. unducted qualified to Vibration categoryS . This differentiation should to be shown by listing those categories without shock mounts above the line and those with shock mounts below the line. .the following nameplate identification is the nameplate marking for the example test results shownin the Environmental Qualification Form in Figure A-2 : e. In other cases such as Temperature/Altitude or Vibration. Typical equipment nameplate identifications are as follows: DO-160D Env. for fixed wing 0 1997 RTCA. If one category is definitely more stringent. Use parenthesis ( ) within the bracketsto enclose category letters where more than one test is performedand more than one letter is requiredper category. where the test requirements for various categories are different but not necessarily more severe. the manufacturer may wish to qualify the equipment to more than one category for a particular environmental test. A 2 W B A B S W L X W P L B 3 D 4 X X A or DO-160D Env. example. If the size of the equipment nameplate allows.2 or 3 spaces) 24. 25. the equipment may be qualified for one category without shock mounts and another with shock mounts. identify the aircraft type and aircraft zone. by designating corresponding letters for the test category and for the the primary vibration curve(s) (refer to Table 8-1). the For example. [AZW]BAB[SWL]XXXXXXAAAAA[VWP]L[B3D4]XXA d.Appendix A Page A-3 21.Cat. except the equipment has been to that turbojet. of Emission Frequency Test 20. only the more stringent category need be identified. aircraft zone4. In the case of the Vibration Test. Use square brackets [ ] to enclose the category letters for a single section wheremorethan one character is required. Inc. below).0 22. Icing Test 23. more than one category should be marked on equipment nameplate. In some cases. such as Temperature/Altitude (see paragraph d. 22.

Inc.Page A-4 turbofan. with shock mounts (vibration curve U): s!iQ DO. the detailed category information shall be included in Form. In the caseof the fluid test. and reciprocating engine aircraft less 5.700 kg.1 0 Env. .The nameplate shall be markedif any of F the Environmental Qualification the fluid tests have been satisfactorily completed or X if fluid testing was not performed. 0 1997 RTCA. Cat.[(A2)(F2)W]BAB[SU]XXFXFXA[BE]AAZ[RRR]H[B3D4]XXA 6D f. without shock mounts than (primary vibration curves & L) and for reciprocating engine aircraft over W 5.700 kg.

Inc. 0 1997 RTCA. It is not intended to be a comprehensive listing of all test conditions.Page A-5 Figure A-1 Environmental Qualification Form NOMENCLATURE: TYPEMODELD'ART NO: TSO NUMBER MANUFACTURERS SPECIFICATION AND/OR OTHER APPLICABLE SPECIFICATION: MANUFACTURER ADDRESS: REVISION & CHANGE NUMBER OF DO-160: DATE TESTED: 1/ The information listed below provides examples only. .

. installation instructions. Inc.endlx A Page A-6 FIGURE A-1CONCLUDED REMARKS Special Conditions: Include power. 0 1997 RTCA. etc. special cooling.

tested to Category W 0 1997 RTCA. . Inc.Appendix A Page A-7 FIGURE A-2 ENVIRONMENTAL OUALIFICATION FORM EXAMPLE NOMENCLATURE: TYPEMODELPART NO: TSO NUMBER MANUFACTURER’S SPECIFICATION AND/OR OTHER APPLICABLE SPECIFICATION: MANUFACTURER: ADDRESS: REVISION & CHANGE NUMBER OF DO-160: DATE TESTED: Temperature and Altitude With auxiliary air cooling.

.5. equipment was tested subparagraph 16. I 0 1997 RTCA.pendix A Page A-8 FIGURE A-2 CONCLUDED Other Tests REMARKS Tests were conducted at Environmental Laboratories. Inc. Inc. material specimens were used to In the power input test. requirement for equipment with digital circuits.4b. In the fluids susceptibility tests.1.

NW Suite 1020 Washington.RTCA. 1997 Supersedes: RTCA/DO. Inc.135 . 1 140 Connecticut Avenue. DC 20036 RTCA/DO-l60D Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Appendix B Membership Date of Issue: July 29.160C Prepared by: SC.

This page intentionally left blank. .

Appendix B Page B. Brown. BFGoodrich Avionics Systems TUV Product Service Federal Aviation Administration General Electric DNB Engineering. Members and Advisers Alasdair Anderson Anthony Belloli Chuck Beuning P. Inc.1 Membership Special Committee 135 Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures For Airborne Equipment SC-135 Chairman Charles DeBlieck Rockwell Avionics and Communications SC-135 Secretary Richard Gaynor Dayton T.Inc. Inc. AlliedSignal Aerospace-Bendifling Radiornetrics MidwestCorp.CF&ISD Royal Aerospace Estabilishment Rockwell Avionics and Communications Avionics Specialties Amtek Aerospace Products Federal Aviation Administration Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Honeywell. Brown. . Bhagat Clay Bilby John Birkland Paul Bishop Robert Blatt Erik Borgstrom Cosimo Bosco Scott Brady Douglas Broaddus Mike Burnett Chris Carlson Michael Carson Nigel Carter John Cove11 Will Cummings Michael Cunningham John Dintroff William Donoghue Terence Donohoe Ervin Dvorak Smith Industries The MITRE Corporation Cessna Aircraft Company Federal Aviation Administration Hewlett-Packard Company Rockwell Avionics andCommunications Dayton T. Inc. Inc. BFGoodrich Aerospace. K. Federal Aviation Administration 0 1997 RTCA.

Inc. Gromov Allen Hall Keith Hanneman Michael Hatfield Terri He Tom Herron Richard Hess Glenn Hinote Walton Hunter Robert Janes Richard Janiec V. 1nc. Moreau Harold Moses 0 1997 RTCA. Instruments for Industry ARUSRIRE Rockwell Avionics and Communications Federal Aviation Administration AlliedSignal Aerospace Company Boeing Commercial Airplane Company Air Line Pilots Association Trans World Airlines. Dassault Aviation RTCA.Awendix B PageB-2 Herb Egbert Ken Foote Micharl Galipeau Yves Garrigues James Gladstone Jack Glecier Ken Grachan Bradley Green Francis Grimal G. Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Federal AviationAdministration AlliedSignal Aerospace Company Ipeco Europe Rockwell Avionics andCommunications GTE Airfone. Inc. US Army Test & Evaluation Command AvroTec. Canadian Marconi Company EUROCAE LMAS Learjet. Jikharev Lee Johnson Jeff Jones Harlan Kammin Kamiar Karimi Keakini Kaulia Raymond Keating Werner Kleine-Beek Mark Komp Michael Kroeger Ron Ladne Francois Lamarche Michael Lapshine Bill Larsen Doulas Lee Martin Lockner James Lyall Manuel Macedo H. Inc.Inc.P. . Navy McDonnell Douglas Hughes Avicom International Honeywell. H. S .-BCAS Hughes Avicom International Canadian MarconiCompany Russian Institute of Aircraft Equipment Federal Aviation Administration Transport Canada NARC0 Avionics. AlliedSignal Aerospace Company AlliedSignal Aerospace Company EUROCAE ARUSRIRE Raytheon Aircraft Corporation AlliedSignal Aerospace-Bendifiing U. EUROCAELBA R&B Enterprises Honeywell. Inc.N. McCarley Martin Metson A1 Meyer Kevin Mooney J. Inc. Inc. McDonnell Douglas Aerospace AlliedSignal Aerospace-Bendifling DY 4 Systems Inc. Inc.P.

Inc. Carl Olson Terry Pearsall David Pepin Keith Pieper Mike Richardson Tatang Saftari Michael Smith Scott Swift James Treacy Brian Tucker Wayne Tustin Steve Uhrich Job van der Bliek Gene VanDermolen Antony Vaudrey Walt Viator Michael Vicari Jerome Vonderheide Matthew Wade David Walen Steve Walker Wilburn Wilson John Wong Robert Zells Federal Aviation Administration Douglas Aircraft Company Consultant Hamilton Standard Raytheon Aircraft Corporation Aircraft Electronics Association Lockheed Martin Allison Engine Company Cessna Aircraft Company Indonesia Aircraft Industries Ametek Aerospace Products DB Systems. McDonnell Douglas Rockwell Avionics and Communications Federal Aviation Administration Federal Aviation Administration Honeywell. Inc. Inc. Aero Products Division Williams International 0 1997 RTCA.Appendix B Page B-3 Heinz Mueller Tapas Mukutmoni Alfred Norwood Harry Ogasian E. Federal Aviation Administration ARINC Consultant Boeing Commercial AirplaneGroup Lockheed Martin Federal Aviation Administration UK-Civil Aviation Authority-British Embassy Gables Engineering. . Inc. Litton Systems. Aero Products Division Litton Systems.

This page intentionallyleft blank. .

1140 Connecticut Avenue. NW Suite 1020 Washington. DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 833-9339 Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Appendix C Change Coordinators Date of Issue: July 29.5 13 .160C Prepared by: SC.RTCA. 1997 Supersedes:RTCFLIDO. Inc.

.This page intentionally left blank.

Walker Herb Egbert US Army Test & Eva1 Command Attention: AMSTE-TM-T Aberdeen Proving Ground Maryland 21005-5055 (P)410-278-1476 (F) 410-278-1475 (E) hegbert@tecl. M/S 51-1305 Minneapolis.0 Vibration Explosion Proofness 10. Wardlow Road Long Beach.0 6.mil Glenn Hinote McDonnell Douglas Aerospace 2401 E.erau.Appendix C Page C-1 SC.135 Change Coordinatorsand Assignments Sections 1 .0 Definitions of Terms Conditions of Test Temperature and Altitude 5.com Steve G. RTCA.o Section Title/Assignment Purpose and Applicability I Change Coordinator Address.honeywell. Inc. CA 90807-5309 (P) 562-593-21 15 (F) 562-982-7787 Glenn Hinote Walton Hunter Allied Signal 2 100 NW 62nd Street Ft. Commercial Flight Systems Group 8840 Evergreen Blvd.0 Waterproofness Fluids Susceptibility Sand and Dust I Walton Hunter Walton Hunter Herb Egbert 01997.0 4.0 3. MN 55433-6040 (P) 612-957-4510 (F) 612-957-4195 swalker@cfsmo. Walker Honeywell. Inc. FL 333 10 (P)305-928-2720 (F)305-928-3000 2.0 11.0 9. AZ 8630 1 (P) 520-708-3833 (F) 520-708-6945 (E) lyallj@pr.edu Jim Lyall Jim Lyall Steve G. .apg.0 12. Lauderdale.amy. PhoneFax Jim Lyall Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University 3200 North Willow Creek Road Prescott.0 Temperature Variation Humidity 7.0 Shock 8..

KS 67277-7704 (P) 316-941-7179 (F) 316-941-8394 cbeuning@cessna.O. BOX 3707. RTCA.Amendix C Page C-2 13. AZ 85036 (P) 602-436-1285 (F) 602-436-6479 Richard Hess Mike Kroeger Rick Gaynor Dayton T.0 Lightning Direct Effects I Icing Electro-Static Discharge 01997. Air Transport Division P.M / S 106.O. Inc.com 17.O.N. Inc.0 Fungus Resistance Chuck Beuning Cessna Aircraft Company P.com 16.uhrich@boeing. IA 52498 (P) 319-295-5905 (F) 319-295-3661 John Covell Steve Uhrich Boeing Commercial Airplane Group P.0 18. M / S L29D1 Phoenix. NE.textron. Inc. 11716 (P) 516-589-6300 (F) 516-589-3648 (E) test@dtbrown.0 Voltage Spike Conducted Audio Frequency Conducted Susceptibility I 19.0 Induced Signal Susceptibility RF Susceptibility (Radiated and Conducted) Emission of Radio Frequency Energy 22. Inc.0 24. Brown.124 Cedar Rapids. . WA 98 124-2207 (P) 206-234-1516 (F) 206-237-5118 (E) steve.Y. Box 21 1 1 1. Church Street Bohemia.0 Salt Spray Herb Egbert Mike Kroeger Honeywell.0 Lightning Induced Transient Susceptibility I 23. Commercial Flight Systems Group 5353 West Bell Road. AZ 85038 (P) 602-436-4554 (F) 602-436-7020 (E) mike kroeger@cas. Box 7704 Wichita.0 Power Input John Covell Rockwell Avionics& Communications Collins 400 Collins Road.com 14.honeywelI.com Steve Uhrich Steve Uhrich John Covell Richard Hess Honeywell.0 25. M / S 9W-FX Seattle. M / S AV Il9B 1 Glendale.

org I 01997. NW.Appendix C Page C-3 Appendix SC-135 Chairman Mike Kroeger Chuck DeBlieck Rockwell Avionics and Communications 400 Collins Road. MIS 106-183 Cedar Rapids. NE.. Inc.com SC-135 RTCA Secretary Program Director Rick Gaynor Harold Moses 1140 Connecticut Ave. IA 52498 (P) 3 19-295-2306(F) 3 19-295-5429 (E) crdeblie@cacd. RTCA. . DC 20036 (P) 202-833-9339 (F) 202-833-9434 E-Mailhternet: hmoses@rtca.rockwell. Suite 1020 Washington.

This page intenzionaily left blank. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful