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3

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5

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Z`‡š—i wb‡`©k †`b| ebkªx‡Z 2005 mv‡ji †g gv‡m hyejxM m`m¨ myg‡bi jvk cvIqv hvq|
cÖZ¨¶`k©xiv ¯^vaxb gvbevwaKvi Kg©x‡`i i¨ve mygb‡K Zvi Kg©¯’‡j AvUK K‡i‡Q, Ab¨w`‡K i¨ve
m`m¨iv e‡j‡Q, mygb mš¿vmx‡`i mv‡_ KvR KiwQj Ges †m µmdvqv‡i gviv †M‡Q|

6

†deª“qvwi 2005-G †ndvR‡Z †`‡jvqvi †nv‡m‡bi g„Zz¨i ‡Kv‡bv wKQyB nqwb, XvKv gnvbMi cywj‡ki
†Mv‡q›`v wefv‡Mi nv‡Z L›`Kvi BKevj †nv‡m‡bi AvBb ewnf~©Z nZ¨v, A_ev 2004 mv‡j i¨v‡ei nv‡Z
mygb Avn‡g` gRyg`vi I wcw”P nvbœvb nZ¨viI GKB Ae¯’v|
†`‡ki ivRbxwZ‡Z msNvZ I Gi djkÖ“wZ‡Z g„Zz¨ ¯^vfvweK GKwU NUbv wQj (†mKkb 1. M Ges 3
†`Lyb)| wfbœ `‡ji mg_©K ev GKB `‡ji wfbœ MÖ“‡ci m`m¨iv G‡K A‡b¨i mv‡_ ev mgv‡ek-wgwQ‡j
cywj‡ki mv‡_ msN‡l© wjß nIqv wbZ¨-‰bwgwËK e¨vcvi n‡q `uvwo‡qwQj| gvbevwaKvi msMVb¸‡jvi
wn‡me g‡Z, D³ eQ‡i ivR‰bwZK msNv‡Z 224 R‡bi g„Zz¨ Ges 13,152 Rb AvnZ nq (†mKkb 1.
M, 1.N I 2.K †`Lyb)|
2 RyjvB we‡ivax`j AvûZ GKwU cwienb ag©N‡U GKRb cywjk Kg©KZ©v I GKRb we‡ivax`jxq Kg©x
wbnZ nq (†mKkb 2.L `ªóe¨)|
†m‡Þ¤^‡i `ywU NUbvq cywjk I we‡ivax`jxq Kg©x‡`i g‡a¨ msN‡l© K‡qKÕk AvnZ nq (†mKkb
2.M `ªóe¨)| 23 †m‡Þ¤^i XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi ivóªweÁvb wefv‡Mi Aa¨vcK AvdZve Avn‡g`‡K Zvi
evmfe‡b `y®K…wZKvixiv ¸wj K‡i| nvmcvZv‡j Zvi g„Zz¨ nq| AvdZve ZrKvjxb miKvi`jxq
ivR‰bwZK `„wófw½ aviY Ki‡Zb| cywjk ZvB Gi ivR‰bwZK D‡Ïk¨ _vK‡Z cv‡i e‡j m‡›`n
K‡iwQj| eQi †k‡l GB gvgjviI †Kv‡bv Lei †bB|
Rvbyqvwi 2005 G nweM‡Ä AvIqvgx jxM †bZv I mv‡eK msm` m`m¨ kvn GGgGm wKewiqv
Ges AviI PviRb nZ¨v gvgjvi A‡bK iKg AMÖMwZ j¶¨ Kiv †M‡Q| 2005 Gi GwcÖ‡j cywjk
wKewiqvi Ici †MÖ‡bW nvgjvi `v‡q 10 R‡bi wei“‡× PvR© MVb K‡i, hv‡`i AwaKvskB ¯’vbxq weGbwc
†bZv| Gi †fZi 8 Rb‡K AvUK Kiv nq, evwK `yRb‡K aiv m¤¢e nqwb| IB eQ‡iB AvUKK…Z
AvUR‡bi wei“‡× `v‡qiK…Z gvgjvwU wm‡jU wefvMxq `ª“Z wePvi Av`vj‡Zi wePviK bvKP K‡i †`b|
c‡ii w`b UªvBeybvj nvwKg ev`xi mycÖxg †Kv‡U© cybtZ`‡š—i Av‡e`‡bi Rb¨ mgq †P‡q wcwUkb `v‡q‡ii
cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z Pvi mßv‡ni Rb¨ gyjZwe †NvlYv K‡i| 7 b‡f¤^i mycÖxg †Kv‡U© ïbvwb ïi“ nq|
wm‡j‡U GKwU gvRv‡i ‡evgv nvgjvq hy³ _vKvi Awf‡hv‡M cywjk 3 †m‡Þ¤^i wbwl× †NvwlZ
Bmjvgx Rw½ msMVb niKvZzj wRnv` Avj Bmjvwgi (ûwR) 4 m`m¨‡K AvUK K‡i| Zv‡`i †fZi
GKRb wKewiqv nZ¨vq RwoZ _vKvi K_v ¯^xKvi K‡i| msev` gva¨g †_‡K Rvbv hvq, ûwRi cwiKíbv
wQj †`k †_‡K ag© wbi‡c¶ †bZv‡`i wbwðý Kivi Ask wn‡m‡e AvIqvgx jx‡Mi kxl©¯’vbxq †bZv‡`i
nZ¨v Kiv| XvKv AvIqvgx jx‡Mi AvBb welqK m¤úv`K †Lvi‡k` Avjg ev”Pz nZ¨v gvgjvi †Kv‡bv
Z`š—B nqwb| wZwb Zvi evmvi Kv‡QB AvZZvqx‡`i ¸wj‡Z wbnZ nb|
2005 mv‡ji AvM‡÷ †`k Ry‡o †evgv nvgjvi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z e¨vcv‡i †ek AMÖMwZ j¶¨ Kiv
†M‡Q| mviv ‡`‡k 64 †Rjvi 63 wU‡ZB †evgv dvUv‡bv n‡qwQj, G‡Z 2 Rb wbnZ I cÖvq 100 Rb
AvnZ nq| †evgv nvgjvi NUbv¯’‡ji Kv‡QB wjd‡jU cvIqv hvq, m`¨ wbwl× †NvwlZ Bmjvgx Rw½

7

msMVb RvwgqvZzj gyRvwnw`b evsjv‡`k (†RGgwe) Bmjvgx AvBb (kixqv) cÖYq‡bi AvnŸvb Rvwb‡q
Zv‡`i kw³gËv cÖ`k©b K‡i| eQi †k‡l GB nvgjvi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z 698 Rb‡K AvUK Kiv nq Ges
cieZ©x Uvbv K‡qKwU nvgjvi `vq Zv‡`i‡K †`qv nq (†mKkb 1O `ªóe¨)| Av`vjZ 32 Rb‡K g„Zz¨`Ê,
62 Rb‡K hverRxeb 59 Rb‡K wewfbœ †gqv‡` kvw¯— cÖ`vb K‡ib| g„Zz¨`ÊcÖv߇`i g‡a¨ evsjvfvB
i‡q‡Q †h 2004 mv‡j cÖ_‡g cywj‡ki Ges c‡i ‡RGgwe †bZv kvqL Avãyi ingv‡bi †hvMmvR‡k
Aciva we‡ivax Awfhvb ïi“ K‡i| XvKvq AvIqvgx jx‡Mi Rbmfvq †MÖ‡bW nvgjvi e¨vcv‡iI AMÖMwZ
n‡q‡Q| IB nvgjvq AvIqvgx jx‡Mi gwnjv welqK m¤úw`Kv AvBwf ingvbmn Kgc‡¶ 20 Rb wbnZ
nb Ges K‡qKk AvnZ nb| 2005 Gi g‡a¨B KZ©„c¶ GB gvgjvi `v‡q Awfhy³ K‡i 20 Rb‡K
AvUK K‡i| †m‡Þ¤^‡ii g‡a¨B 3 Rb ev‡` mevB Qvov ‡c‡q hvq, Ges Kv‡iv wei“‡×B †Kvb PvR© MVb
Kiv nqwb|
03 †m‡Þ¤^i 2004 weªwUk nvBKwgkbv‡ii Ici †MÖ‡bW nvgjvi mv‡_ RwoZ m‡›`‡n cywjk 4 Rb‡K
AvUK K‡i| IB nvgjvq K‡qKRb wbnZ Ges A‡bKRb AvnZ nq| 4 RbB ûwRi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z,
Ges GKRb wKewiqv nZ¨vi mv‡_I RwoZ|
AvBb wb‡Ri nv‡Z Zz‡j †bqv wQj GKwU mvaviY NUbv| msev`cÎ †_‡K Rvbv hvq, IB eQ‡i
Ggb 66wU NUbv N‡U‡Q| msev`c‡Îi m~Î †_‡K Rvbv hvq, 11 †m‡Þ¤^i euvkLvwji GKwU evwo‡Z
WvKvZ Xy‡K c‡o| GK cÖwZ‡ekx ¯’vbxq gmwR‡`i ¯úxKvi e¨envi K‡i MÖvgevmx‡`i GKÎ n‡Z AvnŸvb
Rvbvq| MÖvgevmxiv WvKvZ‡`i K‡qKRb‡K a‡i ‡d‡j, `yRb‡K nZ¨v K‡i Ges GKRb‡K AvnZ| †g
gv‡mi 18 ZvwiL 3 Rb †gvUi mvB‡Kj Pzwii AwfmwÜ K‡i| ¯’vbxq MÖvgevmx iv¯—vq e¨vwi‡KW w`‡q 3
Rb‡KB AvUK K‡i| Mªvgevmxiv Zv‡`i‡K gviai K‡i Ges †mwjg Avn‡g` bv‡g GKRb ciw`b
g„Zz¨eiY K‡i|
fviZxq mxgv‡š— Aciva GL‡bv mgm¨v wn‡m‡eB i‡q †M‡Q| ¯’vbxq gvbevwaKvi msMVb¸‡jvi
m~Î g‡Z, fviZxq eW©vi wmwKDwiwU †dvm© (weGmGd) 147 Rb esjv‡`kx‡K nZ¨v K‡i Ges 144
Rb‡K AvnZ K‡i| gvbevwaKvi msMVb¸‡jvi wn‡meg‡Z, weGmGd m`m¨iv Ges Zv‡`i mv‡_
m¤úwK©Z fviZ-†Kw›`ªK Aciva Pµ 2000 mv‡j cÖvq 600 Rb‡K nZ¨v K‡i Ges 675 Rb‡K AvnZ
K‡i|
L| ¸g nIqvt
¸g Ges AcniY eQ‡ii fqven mgm¨v wn‡m‡e i‡q hvq| gvbevwaKvi ms¯’v¸‡jvi g‡Z, 411
Rb †jvK Acni‡Yi wkKvi nq| Zv‡`i g‡Z 48 Rb ivR‰bwZK Kvi‡Y AcüZ nb, aviYv Kiv nq
Zv‡`i g‡a¨ 5 Rb wbnZ n‡q‡Qb| jvfRbK KvR wn‡m‡e cwiMwYZ wkï AcniY I mgm¨v wn‡m‡eB
†_‡K hv‡e| ¯’vbxq GKwU gvbevwaKvi ms¯’vi g‡Z G eQi 93 Rb wkï AcüZ nq|
7†g †Z, mybvgMÄ †Rjvi QvZK _vbv Zviv wgqvi Acni‡Yi gvgjvwU wb‡q Zrci n‡Z
AcviMZv cÖKvk K‡i| GGBPAviwmÕi (AHRC) g‡Z, weMZ iv‡Z Zvi Acni‡Yi K_v Rvbv‡jI
8

cywjk Zv bw_fy³ (File) Ki‡Z A¯^xK…wZ Rvbvq| 8B †g MÖvgevmx Zviv wgqvi g„Z‡`n nvIi †_‡K
D×vi K‡i Ges †`vlx‡`i wei“‡× Awf‡hvM MÖnY K‡i| ¯’vbxq gvbevwaKvi ms¯’v¸‡jvi Z_¨ g‡Z,
Acni‡Yi cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q cywj‡ki h_vh_ f~wgKvi Afv‡eB Zviv wgqvi g„Zz¨ nq|
22†k AvM÷, cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡g BDbvB‡UW wccjm †W‡gv‡µwUK d«›U (BDwcwWGd) cve©Z¨
PÆMÖvg RbmsnwZ mwgwZ (wc Gm †R.GmGm) mg_©K‡`i mv‡_ e›`yK hy‡× wjß nq| msNl© PjvKv‡j
BDwcwWGd MÖ“c wcGm‡RGmGmÕi mg_©K‡`i AcniY K‡i wb‡q hvq| eQi †k‡l mKj‡K †Q‡o †`qv
nq|
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†h †¶‡Î AvBb wbh©vZb Ges wbôzi, AgvbweK A_ev wbh©vZbg~jK kvw¯—‡K wb‡la K‡i, wbivcËv
ms¯’v, i¨ve Ges cywjk †mLv‡b AvU‡Ki Ges wRÁvmvev‡`i mgq fqvbK AvPiY Ges gb¯—vwË¡K
wbeZ©bg~jK Kg©KvÛ cwiPvjbv K‡i| wbeZ©bg~jK AvPi‡Yi g‡a¨ wQj fxwZ cÖ`k©b Ges we`y¨‡Zi kK
†`qv | gvbevwaKvi msMVb¸‡jvi g‡Z, wbivcËv evwnbx 45 Rb‡KI GeQi wbh©vZb K‡i‡Q, Zv‡`i
g‡a¨ 14 Rb g„Zz¨eiY K‡i‡Q| (G Rb¨ †`Lyb 1.K, 1.M Ges 2. K)| miKvi K`vwPr †`vlx‡`i wei“‡×
†`vlv‡ivc, †`vlx mve¨¯— A_ev kvw¯— cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q| kvw¯— †_‡K Zv‡`i Ae¨vnwZ `v‡bi Kvi‡Y cywjk
nqivwb e„w× †c‡Z _v‡K|
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m‡›`‡n AvUK K‡i| gvbevwaKvi ms¯’vi g‡Z, wbivcËv evwnbx Lvb‡K fvM¨K~j (Vaggyakul) i¨ve-8
`߇i ¯’vbvš—i K‡i †mLv‡b Zv‡K †PvL †eu‡a wbh©vZb Kiv nq| wbivcËv evwnbx Lvb‡K kn‡ii evB‡i
gv‡V wb‡q Av‡m Ges Zv‡K µmdvqvi K‡i nZ¨vi ûgwK cÖ`vb K‡i| ¯’vbxq mg_©Kiv iv¯—v Ae‡iva
K‡i Zvi gyw³ `vex Ki‡j Zv‡K †Q‡o †`qv nq| Wv³vwi cix¶vq Zvi Dci wbh©vZ‡bi AvjvgZ wbwðZ
nIqv †M‡Q|
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20†k RyjvB i¨ve m`m¨iv wK‡kvi Kzgvi `vm‡K AvUK K‡i e¨vcK wbh©vZb Pvjvq| i¨ve
m`m¨iv Zvi evmv Zj−vwk K‡i wU‡bi R`©vi †KŠUv cvq, hv nv‡Z ˆZwi †evgv wn‡m‡e i¨ve Kg©KZ©viv
gš—e¨ K‡i| RyjvB 23 Zvwi‡L i¨ve wK‡kvi‡K cywj‡ki Kv‡Q n¯—vš—i Ki‡j Zv‡K AvnZ Ae¯’vq cvIqv
hvq| i¨ve `vex K‡i wK‡kvi AvUK Ae¯’v †_‡K cvjv‡bvi †PóvKv‡j AvnZ nq| mycÖxg †Kv‡U©i nvB‡KvU©
wWwfkb KZ…©c‡¶i Kv‡Q wK‡kvi‡K AvU‡Ki KviY Ges Zvi AvUK A‰ea wQj wK-bv Zv Rvb‡Z Pvq|
evsjv‡`k †emiKvix ms¯’v (GbwRI) wnDg¨vb ivBUm GÛ wcm di evsjv‡`k (GBPAviwcwe) Gi
†cÖwm‡W›U gbwRj gyiwk` ev`x n‡q miKv‡ii wei“‡× njdbvgv bw_fy³ K‡ib| †hLv‡b i¨v‡ei wei“‡×
†dŠR`vix `Ûwewa AbymiY bv Kivi Awf‡hvM Av‡ivwcZ nq| gnvgvb¨ Av`vjZ AvBb cÖ‡qvMKvix ms¯’v
we‡klZ i¨ve‡K fwel¨‡Z †dŠR`vix `Ûwewa Abymv‡i AvU‡Ki Av‡`k †`q|
9

22†k Ryb, GGBPAviwm-i, g‡Z, cywjk KzwoMÖvg †Rjvi ZvRyj Bmjvg‡K AvUK K‡i| hLb
Zvi fvB Kvwmg DwÏb Bmjvg‡K gyw³i Av‡e`b Rvbv‡Z _vbvq hvq, mve-B݇c±i Zvi †hŠbv‡½
m‡Rv‡i jvw_ gv‡i| GKBfv‡e cywj‡ki Ab¨vb¨ m`m¨iv Zv‡K jvw_ gvi‡Z gvi‡Z nZ¨v K‡i| KzwoMÖvg
†Rjv Kg©KZ©viv e‡jb, KZ©e¨iZ cywjk Kg©KZ©v GmAvB nvwKg‡K AvUK I eiLv¯— Kiv nq| Dwχbi
cwievi _vbv †_‡K Zvi gqbv Z`š— cÖwZ‡e`b msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡iwb|
¯’vbxq gvbevwaKvi ms¯’v ÔAwaKviÕ Rvbyqvwi †_‡K AvM‡÷i g‡a¨ AvBbk„•Ljv evwnbx KZ…©K
`yÕwU al©‡Yi NUbv wjwce× K‡i| AwaKvsk GbwRI wek¦vm K‡i †hŠb wbh©vZ‡bi msL¨v Zvi †_‡KI
†ewk| mvgvwRK wewa wb‡l‡ai Kvi‡Y cÖK…Z msL¨v Rvbv hvq bv| RyjvB, 2005 byi“j Bmjv‡gi wei“‡×
al©Y gvgjvi AMÖMwZ nq| RyjvB 2005, GKRb `v½v cywjk byi“j Bmjvg, XvKvi evm †÷k‡b GK
gwnjv‡K †`L‡Z cvb whwb mvnvh¨ cÖv_©bv KiwQ‡jb|
Zv‡K cywjkx mnvqZvq evwo‡Z †cuŠQv‡bvi cwie‡Z© †m gwnjv‡K GKwU †nv‡U‡j G‡b †nv‡Uj
Kg©Pvixi mnvqZvq Zv‡K al©Y K‡i| gwnjvwU al©Y gvgjv i“Ry Ki‡j byi“j Bmjvg I †nv‡Uj Kg©Pvix
a„Z nq| eQ‡ii †klv‡a© Zv‡K KvivMv‡i wePvivaxb Ae¯’vq ivLv nq Ges †nv‡Uj Kg©Pvix‡K Rvwg‡b
gyw³ †`qv nq|
AvBb cÖ‡qvMKvix ms¯’v KZ…©K al©Y ev wbh©vZb gvgjv¸‡jv mvaviYZt Z`š— Kiv nq bv| wKš‘
wKQy †¶‡Î cywjk gwnjv‡K wbivc` †ndvR‡Z ivLv nq, wKš‘ H wbivc` †ndvRZ ej‡Z †evSvq `ywel©n
cwi‡e‡k †i‡L cybivq al©Y Kiv| (†`Lyb aviv-5)
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†R‡ji Ae¯’v nZvkvRbK Ges AwaKvsk †¶‡Î GwU e›`x g„Zz¨i Ab¨Zg D`MvZv| msev`
gva¨‡gi m~Î g‡Z, 52 Rb †R‡j g„Zz¨eiY K‡i Ges 162 Rb cywjk Ges Ab¨vb¨ wbivcËv evwnbxi
†ndvR‡Z g„Zz¨eiY K‡i| (†`Lyb aviv 1.K)
†RjLvbv¸‡jv AwZwi³ †jvKR‡b ficyi Ges †mLv‡b †Kvbiƒc my‡hvM-myweav we`¨gvb †bB|
evsjv‡`k †mvmvBwU di w` Gb‡dvm©‡g›U Ae wnDg¨vb ivBUm (weGmBGBPAvi) Gi wn‡me g‡Z,
eZ©gv‡b †RjLvbvq 72.013 Rb‡K ivLv n‡q‡Q, hv we`¨gvb miKvix wn‡m‡ei 250 kZvsk AwZwi³
KvivMv‡ii †gvU RbmsL¨vi g‡a¨ 23,659 Rb n‡q †`vlx, wKš‘ evKx‡`i wePvi nq cÖwµqvaxb Av‡Q
bZzev wRÁvmvev‡`i Rb¨ AvUK ivLv n‡q‡Q| AwaKvsk †m‡ji Ae¯’v GZ bvRyK †h, K‡q`x‡`i
cvjvµ‡g Nygv‡Z nq|

10

AvBbMZfv‡e wbqg i‡q‡Q hyeK‡`i I eq¯‹‡`i wfbœ RvqMvq ivL‡Z n‡e; wKš‘, my‡hvM myweavi
¯^íZvq Zv‡`i‡K eq¯‹‡`i mv‡_B Zv‡`i ivLv nq|
hw`I AvBbMZfv‡e wbivcËv †ndvR‡Z ivLv gwnjv‡`i `y®K…wZcivqY gwnjv‡`i mv‡_ bv ivLvi
K_v _vK‡jI Kvh©Zt ¯^Zš¿ my‡hvM-myweav bv _vKvi Kvi‡Y Zv‡`i‡K wgkª Ae¯’vq ivLv n‡”Q GKmv‡_|
mvaviYfv‡e evsjv‡`k miKvi ¯^vaxb gvbevwaKvi ms¯’v, B›Uvib¨vkbvj KwgwU Ae w` †iWµm
(AvBwmAviwm)†K K‡q`x‡`i mv‡_ †`Lv Kivi AbygwZ †`q bv|
miKvi wbhy³ wewkó Rb‡`i GKwU KwgwUi gvmIqvix Kviv cwi`k©‡bi my‡hvM _vK‡jI Zv‡`i
wi‡cvU© †Kvbfv‡eB cÖKvwkZ nq bv| †Rjv RR gv‡S gv‡S Kviv cwi`k©b Ki‡jI K`vwPr wZwb Zvi
cÖwZ‡e`b cÖKvk K‡ib|
N.

†¯^”QvPvix AvUK A_ev Aei“×KiYt

AvBb †¯^”QvPvix AvUK‡K wbwl× Ki‡jI KZ…©c¶ cÖvqkt AvB‡bi GB aviv †g‡b P‡jb|
GgbwK bb wcÖ‡fbwUf Aei“× gvgjv¸‡jvi †¶‡ÎI| AvBb cÖwZKvig~jK wW‡Ubkb‡K kZ©mv‡c‡¶,
†hgb, g¨vwR‡÷ª‡Ui †Kvb e¨w³‡K Zvi m‡›`nRbK Kvh©Kjv‡ci Rb¨ AvUK Ki‡Z cv‡ib|
miKvi wewfbœ Rb‡K AvUK Ges Aei“× K‡i‡Q †¯^”QvPvig~jKfv‡e RvZxq wbivcËvg~jK AvBb
†hgb, 1974 mv‡ji we‡kl ¶gZv AvBb Øviv| G †¶‡Î miKvi AvbyôvwbKfv‡e †Kvb Awf‡hvMcÎ
`vwLj bv K‡iB †Kvb bvMwiK‡K AvUK Ges Aei“× Ki‡Z cv‡ib|
cywjk Ges wbivcËvi Kv‡R wbhy³ Abyl½t
cywjk ¯^ivóª gš¿Yvj‡qi Aax‡b Af¨š—ixY AvBb k„•Ljv Ges wbivcËv wbwðZ Kivi Rb¨ ˆea
ms¯’v| cywjk ¶gZvmxb `‡ji †Kvb m`‡m¨i wei“‡× †Kvb Awf‡hvM Z`š— Ki‡Z Awb”Qv †cvlY K‡i
Ges AKvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| Ges miKv‡ii ivR‰bwZK D‡Ï‡k¨ nv‡gkv e¨eüZ nq|
i¨ve DbœZ Avav mvgwiK evwnbx †hwU cywjkmn Ab¨vb¨ mvgwiK evwnbxi m`m¨ wb‡q MwVZ,
D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv cywjk KvVv‡gv‡Z ms¯‹vi NUv‡bv, wKš‘ gvbevwaKvi m`m¨‡K we‡ePbvq Avbvi Rb¨ mxwgZ
c`‡¶c †bIqv n‡q‡Q| i¨ve eo ai‡bi gvbevwaKvi jsN‡b RwoZ wQj| cywj‡k e¨vcK wfwËK `~bx©wZ
Ges ch©vß cÖwk¶Y I k„•Ljvi Afve wQj| D`vniY¯^iƒc, cywjk Zz”Q NUbvq wiKmv PvjK‡K jvwV †cUv
K‡i Ges wi·vi PvKvi evZvm †Q‡o †`q| R‡q›U WªvBf Bb‡WgwbwU A¨v±, †hwU Acv‡ikb wK¬b nvU©,
2003 mv‡j Kvh©Ki nq-Gi d‡j gvbevwaKvi j•N‡bi Rb¨ †Kvb cÖwZKvi PvIqv hv‡e bv|

11

cywj‡ki ¶gZvi Ace¨envi GKwU wbZ¨‰bwgwËK NUbv| D`vniY¯^iƒc, 2iv A‡±vei, cywjk
XvKv¯’ RvZxq ky¨wUs †dWv‡ikb Kg‡c−‡· cÖ‡ek K‡i K¬v‡ei 25 Rb m`m¨‡K wbgg©fv‡e †cUvq, G‡`i
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12

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13

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14

wePvi wefv‡Mi D”PZi ch©v‡q wKQy wKQy †¶‡Î ¯^vaxbZv †`Lv hvq Ges A‡bK mgq miKv‡ii
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PviRb AvZ¥NvZx PÆMÖv‡gi Av`vjZ cÖv½‡Y AvZ¥NvZx AvµgY Pvwj‡q `yB Rb cywjk m`m¨‡K Ges
MvRxcy‡ii Av`vjZ cvovq †ek KÕRb DwKj‡K nZ¨v K‡i| 2005 mv‡ji wW‡m¤^i AÁvZbvgv
AvµgYKvix MvRxcy‡ii Av`vjZ cvov msjMœ wgDwbwmc¨vj Kg‡c−‡· nvgjv Pvjvq| †gÕi 29 Zvwi‡L
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Av‡`‡ki e¨vcv‡i Kvh©Ki e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi †¶‡Î miKvi wej¤^ Ki‡Z _v‡K| A‡±vei 2005 gv‡m mycÖxg
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kvmbZ‡š¿i †h ms‡kvabx Avbv nq Zv‡K AmvsweavwbK e‡j Av‡`k cÖ`vb K‡i cÖavbgš¿xi Kvh©vjq GB
Av‡`k ¯’wM‡Zi e¨e¯’v MÖnY K‡i| KviY cÖavbgš¿xi g„Z ¯^vgx †cÖwm‡W›U wRqvDi ingv‡bi DËivwaKvi
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AvBb Awfhy³ e¨w³‡`i‡K Zv‡`i c‡¶ cÖwZwbwaZ¡ Kivi Rb¨ civgk©K wb‡qv‡Mi AwaKvi w`‡q‡Q hv‡Z
Zviv Awf‡hvM mswk−ó e¯‘i g~j¨vqb, mv¶x WvKv Ges iv‡qi wecix‡Z Avcxj Ki‡Z cv‡i| wePv‡ii
Rb¨ †Kvb Ryix †bB| mKj gvgjvi wePvi wePviKMY K‡i _v‡Kb| wePvi Kvh© cÖKv‡k¨ cwiPvwjZ nq
Ges weev`xi AwaKvi i‡q‡Q AvBbÁ wb‡qv‡Mi| Z‡e iv‡óªi Li‡P K`vwPZB AvBbÁ wb‡qvM n‡q
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wbh©vZb AvBb BZ¨vw`i AvIZvq we‡kl UªvBeybvj gvgjvi ïbvbx K‡i Ges ivq cÖ`vb K‡i| GB mKj
AvB‡bi AvIZvq gvgjvmg~n wbw`©ó mgqmxgvi g‡a¨ Z`š— I wePvi m¤úbœ Ki‡Z n‡e| Z‡e GB
mgqmxgvi g‡a¨ Zv m¤úbœ bv Kiv n‡j GB mKj gvgjvi Ae¯’v Kx `uvov‡e Zv m¤ú‡K© GB AvB‡b

15

cwi®‹vi K‡i wKQy ejv nqwb| weev`xc¶‡K a‡i †bqv nq wb®úvc| Zv‡`i AwaKvi i‡q‡Q Avcxj
Av‡e`b Kivi Ges Zv‡`i wei“‡× miKv‡ii †h mv¶¨ i‡q‡Q Zv †`Lvi|
Av`vj‡Zi c×wZ `yb©xwZ RR©wiZ n‡q c‡o‡Q Ges Awb®úbœ gvgjvi fv‡i fvivµvš— n‡q c‡o‡Q|
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weev`xi wbKU †_‡K Nyl `vwe K‡i‡Q (`ªóe¨ †mKkb-1 wW)|
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Aej¤^b Kivi wel‡q msm‡` AvBb cvm nq Ges Gi e¨envi wm‡jU I PÆMÖvg ch©š— m¤cÖmvwiZ Kiv
nq| GwWAvi bvMwiK‡`i‡K GB my‡hvM w`‡q‡Q †h Zviv gvgjv i“Ry Kivi Av‡M gxgvsmv Kivi Rb¨ Zv
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Zv‡`i‡K A‡hŠw³K †dŠR`vix Aciv‡a Awfhy³ K‡i‡Q| (`ªóe¨ †mKkb 1.wW)| GbwRI‡`i‡K
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16

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Kv‡R AskMÖnY K‡i‡Q| D‡”Q`K…Z †jv‡Kiv GB D‡”Q` Kv‡Ri cÖwZev` K‡i‡Q|
17

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Ges Zv‡`i fq †`wL‡q e‡k Avbvi NUbv NbNb N‡U‡Q| ivR‰bwZK msN‡l©i mgq ivR‰bwZK Kg©x
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AwaKv‡ii cÖwZ‡e`b Abyhvqx G eQi GKRb mvsevw`K nZ¨v Kiv nq, 183 Rb mvsevw`K AvnZ nq, 6
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Avš—t‡`wkq msev` cÖwZ‡e`K (RSF) KZ©„K msev`c‡Îi ¯^vaxbZvi Dci cwiPvwjZ 2005
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18

Abymv‡i, mvsevw`Kiv ga¨vý weiwZi mgq kvgmy‡ji Dci Ab¨vqfv‡e AvµgYKvix cywj‡ki wbKU
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mwdKzj Bmjvg‡K †MÖdZvi I wbh©vZb K‡i, Zvi AvU‡Ki AbyK~‡j †dŠR`vix AvB‡bi 64 aviv D‡j−L
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Bmjvwg Pigcš’x‡`i mv‡_ †hvMmvR‡mi Awf‡hv‡M Awfhy³ K‡i|

19

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20

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we‡ivwaZv Kivi Awf‡hv‡M Awfhy³ K‡i msev` Qvcv‡j AveŸvm gvgjvwU `v‡qi K‡i| cÖKvkK
AveŸvm‡K msev`wUi wecix‡Z †Kvb cÖwZ‡e`b Qvcv‡bv Aby‡gv`b Ki‡Z A¯^xKvi K‡i‡Q|

21

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eQ‡ii †k‡l AgxgvswmZ i‡q‡Q|
Ry‡b weGbwci Ggwc Ave`yj gvbœvb ˆ`wbK hyMvš—‡ii m¤úv`K, cÖKvkK Ges Ab¨vb¨ Kg©x‡`i
wei“‡× gvbnvwb gvgjv `v‡qi K‡i‡Q| gvbœvb cwÎKvi Kg©x‡`i gvbnvwbi Awf‡hv‡M Awfhy³ K‡i‡Q
KviY Zviv 31 †gÕ‡Z Zv‡K †n‡ivBb †PvivPvjv‡bi mv‡_ Rwo‡q GKwU msev` †Q‡c‡Q|
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GB AvBb miKvi‡K PviR‡bi †ewk e¨w³i Rgv‡qZ wbwl× Kiv Aby‡gv`b K‡i Ges GKwU
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164 evi i¨vwj wbwl× K‡i‡Q| G QvovI miKvi cÖwZev`Kvix‡`i cÖwZev` Kvh©µg †_‡K weiZ ivLvi
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we‡ivax`j miKv‡ii wei“‡× AmsL¨ we‡¶vf Kg©m~Px MÖnY K‡i‡Q hvi g‡a¨ miKvwi cÖwZôvb Ae‡iva
Ges kn‡ii cwienb †hvMv‡hvM Ges PÆMÖvg e›`i eÜ K‡i †`qvi Kvh©µg Aš—©fy³ Ges GUv niZvj
ejer K‡i‡Q| GB cÖwZev‡`i mgq cywjk I cÖwZev`Kvix‡`i g‡a¨ cÖvqB msNl© n‡q‡Q, hvi d‡j
A‡b‡Ki g„Zz¨ n‡q‡Q Ges A‡b‡K AvnZ n‡q‡Q|

22

msMVb Kivi ¯^vaxbZv t
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cÖ‡Z¨K bvMwiK‡K Zvi cQ›` g‡Zv `‡j †hvM`vb Kivi AwaKvi †`qv n‡q‡Q|
M) ag©xq ¯^vaxbZv t
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AvPi‡Yi wkKvi nq| wKQy wKQy †¶Î †hgb t miKvwi PvKzix, ivR‰bwZK Kvh©Kjvc, mywePvi cÖvwß
cÖf„wZ‡Z GB m¤cÖ`vq myweavewÂZ nq|
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cvwievwiK AvBbmg~‡n Lye mvgvb¨B cv_©K¨ wQj Ges Zv wbf©i KiZ mswk−ó e¨w³i ag©xq
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ag©xq msMVb¸wj‡K mvaviYZt miKvixfv‡e wbeÜb Kivi Dci †Kvb cÖKvi eva¨evaKZv †bB|
wKš‘ GB msMVb¸wj‡KI Gb.wR.I‡`i miKv‡ii mgvRKj¨vY gš¿Yvj‡q wbewÜZ n‡Z nq| †Kvb
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AwZwi³fv‡e Zv‡`i Aek¨B Gb.wR.I welqK ey¨‡iv‡Z I Awafy³ n‡Z nq| miKv‡ii †h †Kvb
GbwRIi wbeÜb evwZjmn Ab¨ †h †Kvb kvw¯—g~jK e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi ¶gZv i‡q‡Q| †hgb t GbwRIi
Kvh© wbe©vnx KwgwU †f‡½ †`qv, e¨vsK wnmve eÜ Kiv| A_ev Zv‡`i cÖ‡R± evwZj Kiv| hw`I miKvi
Lye KgB G ai‡Yi ¶gZv cÖ‡qvM K‡i|

23

miKvi Avn‡gw`qv‡`i DÌvb‡K wbivcËv w`‡q‡Q hw`I ˆelg¨g~jK AvPiY Ae¨vnZ _v‡K|
miKvi Avn‡gw`qv‡`i mvwnZ¨ msKjb cÖPv‡ii Dci nvB‡Kv‡U©i gva¨‡g wb‡lavÁv Rvix K‡i (†mKkb
2.G)|
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mg~‡ni wnmve ˆZwi Ki‡Z AZxZ †_‡KB miKvi e¨_©|
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wKsev eQ‡i GKevi bevqb‡hvM¨ wfmv bevq‡bi †¶‡Î wewfbœ ai‡Yi mgm¨vi m¤§yLxb nq| wKš‘ we‡`wk
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hw`I G eQ‡i miKvi KZ©„K Zviv wbh©vwZZ n‡q‡Q G ai‡Yi †Kvb wi‡cvU© †bB| miKvi wewfbœ
ag©vej¤^x‡`i AP©bv Kiv, hvRK‡`i wk¶v`vb Kiv, ag©xq Kv‡R ågY Kiv Ges we‡`‡k mgag©xq‡`i
mv‡_ m¤úK© i¶v Kivi AwaKvi w`‡q‡Q| bvMwiKMY‡K ag©vš—i MÖnY Kivi AwaKvi I †`qv n‡q‡Q|
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Avn‡g`xqvb, wn›`y I LªxóvbMY mviv eQi a‡iB ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi nq|
23 Ryb Avn‡gw`qv we‡ivax msMVb ÔLZ‡g beyqZ ms¯’v evsjv‡`kÕ (IKNMB) Gi Kgc‡¶
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n‡q Av‡›`vjbKvixiv DËiv GjvKv Z¨vM K‡i wRqv Avš—R©vwZK wegvb e›`‡ii cÖavb cÖ‡ek moK eÜ
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I †evgv nvgjvi mv‡_ RwoZ _vKvi Aciv‡a GB eQ‡i cywjk 8 Rb‡K AvUK K‡i|
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`yBRb Lªxóvb Kg©Pvix wbnZ nq| GB nZ¨vKv‡Ûi Z`‡š—i Rb¨ †Zgb ‡Kvb Kvh©Kix c`‡¶c MÖnY Kiv
nqwb| cÖv_wgK Ae¯’vq cywjk m‡›`nfvRb wKQy †jvK‡K AvUK Ki‡jI c‡i Zv‡`i gyw³ †`qv nq Ges
eQ‡ii †kl ch©š— GB †K‡mi wei“‡× †Kvb cÖKvi PvR© MVb Kiv nqwb|

24

2004 mv‡j wn›`y m¤cÖ`v‡qi Dci msMwVZ mwnsm NUbvi wecix‡Z †Kvb mwVK c`‡¶c †bqv
nqwb| ¯’vbxq GKRb weGbwc †bZvi †bZ…‡Z¡ mk¯¿ mš¿vmxiv 20wU wn›`y evox‡Z Av¸b †`q| G‡Z 30
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ag©xq msL¨vjNyiv ivRbxwZ Ges miKvwi PvKzixi †¶‡Î ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi nq| miKvwi PvKzixi
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Z‡_¨i Rb¨ 2006 Avš—R©vwZK ag©xq ¯^vaxbZv wi‡cvU© †`Lyb|
N) Av‡›`vjb Kivi ¯^vaxbZv we‡`k ågY, Ab¨‡`‡k evm Kiv Ges ¯^‡`‡k cybe©vwmZ nIqvt
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wewawb‡la Av‡ivc K‡i‡Q|
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ˆeVv wb‡q XvKvq Avmvi †NvlYv †`q| 27†k A‡±vei †_‡K 29†k A‡±ve‡ii g‡a¨ cÖPÛ mwnsm msNl©
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25

mg¯— wW‡m¤^i gvm a‡i AvIqvgx jxM I Zv‡`i mn‡hvMx msMVb¸‡jvi Wv‡K cwienb Ae‡iva,
ag©NU, miKvwi Awdmmg~n, †hgb t †cÖwm‡W‡›Ui Awdm, Ae‡ivamn bvbv ai‡bi we¶zä Kg©m~Px Pj‡Z
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K¨v‡¤ú †gvU 21,322 Rb †ivwn½v kiYv_©x i‡q‡Q| Z‡e BDGbGBPwmAvi Gi aviYv, G msL¨v
28,000 Gi gZ n‡e| †hme Avš—R©vwZK mnvqZv msMVb IB A‡j KvR Ki‡Q Zv‡`i wn‡me
Abyhvqx, †UKbvd Ges K·evRvi A‡j cÖvq 200,000 †ivwn½v evm Ki‡Q hv‡`i‡K kiYv_©x wn‡m‡e

26

wPwýZ Kiv nqwb Ges evg©vq †Kvb †ivwn½v‡K †diZ cvVv‡bv nqwb| †m‡Þ¤^i ch©š— kiYv_©x wkwe‡ii
Ae¯’v µgvebwZi w`‡K hvw”Qj| eQ‡ii †kl w`‡K miKv‡ii `„wófw½i cwieZ©b nq Ges K·evRv‡ii
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BDGbGBPwmAvi I miKvi wkwei¸‡jvi DbœwZK‡í GKgZ nq| D`vniY¯^iƒc, †hme Avevmb `ye©j
n‡q f~wg‡Z c‡o hvw”Qj, †m¸‡jv †givg‡Zi Rb¨ GKwU cvBjU cÖ‡R± MÖnY| cvqLvbv wbg©v‡YiI GKwU
cÖKí nv‡Z †bqv nq| miKvi wk¶v e¨e¯’vi Dbœq‡b m¤§Z nq Ges wkwei¸‡jvi DbœqbK‡í Avš—R©vwZK
ms¯’v I GbwRI‡`i Avevi KvR Kivi AbygwZ †`q|
BDGbGBPwmAvi Gi m~Îg‡Z, kiYv_©x wbcxo‡bi A‡bK NUbv †hgb al©Y, jvwÃZKiY,
cvwievwiK wbcxob, †ikb †_‡K ewÂZ Kiv Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq KvMRcÎ bv †`qv D‡j−L‡hvM¨|
GK cywjk B݇c±i I Zvi mnKg©xiv 2005 mv‡ji gv‡P© 6 Rb bvix‡K al©‡Yi †Póv K‡i,
hv‡`i g‡a¨ GKRb AvU eQ‡ii I GKRb 12 eQ‡ii wkïI i‡q‡Q| BDGbGBPwmAvi GB g‡g© GKwU
cÖwZ‡e`b msMÖn K‡i| wKš‘ miKvi GB e¨vcv‡i D‡j−L‡hvM¨ †Kvb c`‡¶c †bqwb| BDGbGBPwmAvi
wkwei KZ©„c‡¶i Kv‡Q †Rviv‡jv cÖwZev` Rvbvq, wKš‘ miKvi 哇¶c K‡iwb|
widzwR B›Uvib¨vkbv‡ji m~Îg‡Z, miKvi we‡kl K‡i K·evRv‡ii mv‡eK ¯’vbxq ÎvY I
cybe©vmb Kwgkbvi †kv‡qeyi ingvb kiYv_©x‡`i Pjv‡djv I KvRK‡g©i Ici evowZ KovKwo Av‡ivc
K‡iwQ‡jb| GQvov †kv‡qeyi ingvb BDGbGBPwmAvi Gi Kvh©µ‡g Ges †Kvb †Kvb GbwRI‡K
wkwe‡ii Ae¯’vi Dbœq‡b KvR Ki‡Z evav †`b| AvM‡÷ Zvi `vwqZ¡ †kl n‡j miKvi wgwWqvq †hme
welq †ewk Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q †mme wel‡q g‡bv‡hvMx n‡q I‡V|
†hme †ivwn½v kiYv_©x evg©vq wd‡i †h‡Z cvi‡Q bv Zviv hv‡Z GLv‡b KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges
¯^v¯’¨ I wk¶vi my‡hvM cvq BDGbGBPwmAvi Gi GB Aby‡iva miKvi eive‡ii gZB AeÁv K‡i|
miKvi Zvi Av‡Mi g‡ZB AUzU _v‡K, mg¯— †ivwn½v kiYv_©x‡K evg©vq wd‡i hvevi AvM ch©š— wkwe‡i
Ae¯’vb Ki‡Z n‡e Ges Zviv wb‡R‡`i Kv‡Q †Kv‡bv UvKv ivL‡Z cvi‡e bv, hw` iv‡L Zvn‡j Zv †h
†Kv‡bv mgq ev‡Rqvß Kiv n‡e| eive‡ii gZB miKvi BDGbGBPwmAvi Gi †mî wijv‡qÝ †cÖvMÖv‡gi
AvIZvq kiYv_©x‡`i mvgwqK Ae¯’vb I Pjv‡divi ¯^vaxbZv wel‡q cÖ¯—ve cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i|
cÖvq 300,000 wenvix gymwjg mviv‡`‡k wewfbœ K¨v‡¤ú evm Ki‡Q hviv 1947 G †`k wefv‡Mi
mgq ZrKvjxb c~e© cvwK¯—v‡b P‡j Av‡m Ges 1971 Gi ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× cvwK¯—vb‡K mg_©b ‡`q| widzwR
B›Uvib¨vkbv‡ji m~Îg‡Z, Giv A¯^v¯’¨Ki cwi‡e‡k evm Ki‡Q Ges Lye AíB wk¶v I ¯^v¯’¨ myweav †c‡q
_v‡K| A‡bK wenvix 1972 mv‡j bvMwiKZ¡ MÖnY K‡iwb, Ges cvwK¯—v‡b cybe©vm‡bi A‡c¶vq Av‡Q,
†hLv‡b cvwK¯—vb miKvi Zv‡`i‡K MÖnY Ki‡Z Abxnv cÖKvk Ki‡Q|
G‡`i A‡b‡KB Avevi 1971 Gi c‡i Rb¥MÖnY K‡i‡Q hviv g~javivi evsjv fvlv-fvlx‡`i
mv‡_ wg‡k †M‡Q|
27

‡mKkb 3 t ivR‰bwZK AwaKvi t miKvi cwieZ©‡b bvMwi‡Ki AwaKvi t
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wbe©vPb I ivR‰bwZK AskMÖnY t
weGbwc †bÎx Lv‡j`v wRqv 2001 mv‡j msm` wbe©vP‡bi gva¨‡g cÖavbgš¿x nb, Avš—R©vwZK I
†`wkq ch©‡e¶K‡`i g‡Z GB wbe©vPb wQj myôz I kvwš—c~Y©| 2001 mv‡ji wbe©vPb GK Îvm I
ˆbivR¨Ki cwiw¯’wZi †fZi w`‡q wb`©jxq ZË¡veavqK miKv‡ii Aax‡b AbywôZ nq| weGbwc Rvgvqv‡Z
Bmjvg, evsjv‡`k RvZxq cvwU© I Bmjvgx HK¨‡Rv‡Ui mv‡_ †RvUe× n‡q Pvi`jxq †RvU miKvi MVb
K‡i| Z‡e ivRbxwZi gv‡V weGbwc I AvIqvgx jxM cÖavb f~wgKvq _v‡K|
cy‡iv eQi Ry‡o AvIqvgx jx‡Mi AvBb cÖ‡YZviv msm`xq ¯’vqx KwgwUi ˆeV‡K Dcw¯’Z _vK‡jI
Dcwbe©vPb eR©b Ges cÖvqktB msm` Awa‡ekb †_‡K IqvKAvDU K‡ib| GK eQi eR©‡bi ci 2004
mv‡ji Ryb gv‡m AvIqvgx jxM msm‡` wd‡i Av‡m, Ges ¯úxKvi miKvix `‡ji K_vB ïb‡Qb GB KviY
†`wL‡q 2004 Gi †m‡Þ¤^‡i Avevi IqvKAvDU K‡i| AvIqvgx jxM m`m¨iv Rvbyqvwi 27 Zvwi‡L
wbnZ mv‡eK A_©gš¿x kvn GGgGm wKewiqv nZ¨vi cÖwZev` Rvbv‡Z †deª“qvwi msm`xq Awa‡ek‡b
K‡qK wgwb‡Ui Rb¨ Dcw¯’Z nb (†mKkb 1.K †`Lyb)| AvIqvgx jxM ivR‰bwZK Kg©Kv‡Û miKv‡ii
n¯—‡¶c GgbwK msMwVZ n‡Z bv †`qv I bvbvwea wewawb‡la Av‡iv‡ci we‡ivwaZv K‡i (†mKkb 2.L
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2001 mv‡ji msm`xq wbe©vP‡b †gvU mvZRb bvix m`m¨ mivmwi wbe©vwPZ n‡q Av‡mb| 2004
mv‡ji †g gv‡m PZz`©k ms‡kvabxi gva¨‡g bvix‡`i Rb¨ †h 45wU Avmb eivÏ Kiv nq, †m‡Þ¤^‡i
ivR‰bwZK `j¸‡jv †mme Avm‡b g‡bvbqb †`q| Ab¨w`‡K AvIqvgx jxM 45wU Avmb eiv‡Ïi weZ‡K©
AskMÖnY bv Ki‡jI Zv‡`i cÖvc¨ Avm‡b g‡bvbqb `vb †_‡K weiZ _v‡K GB g‡g© †h, GB ms‡kvabx
Zvi cÖwZkÖ“wZ i¶vq e¨_© n‡q‡Q, KviY, Gme Avm‡b mivmwi wbe©vP‡bi e¨e¯’v ivLv nqwb| A‡bK bvix
AwaKvi msMVb GKB Kvi‡Y GB ms‡kvabxi we‡ivaxZv K‡i nvB‡Kv‡U© Gi ˆeaZvi P¨v‡jÄ K‡i|
mycÖxg †KvU© ixUwU LvwiR K‡i †`q| A‡±ve‡i msm‡` gš¿xi gh©v`vq wQ‡jb †gvU `yBRb bvix m`m¨|
cÖavbgš¿x I cÖavb we‡ivax`jxq †bÎx| †kl Rb K¨vwe‡bU gš¿xi gh©v`v enb Ki‡Zb| mycÖxg †Kv‡U©i 76

28

Rb wePvi‡Ki †fZi 4 Rb wQ‡jb bvix| msL¨vjNy‡`i Rb¨ msm‡` †Kvb Avmb eivÏ †bB| †`‡ki
RbmsL¨vi cÖvq 12 kZvsk msL¨vjNy m¤cÖ`v‡qi n‡jI msm‡` Zv‡`i cÖwZwbwaZ¡ gvÎ 3 kZvsk|
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wn‡m‡e D‡j−L K‡i| wUAvBwe 38wU Lv‡Zi †fZi 10wU‡K me‡P‡q †ewk `yb©xwZMÖ¯— wn‡m‡e wb‡`©k
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K‡i Ges weMZ `yÕeQ‡i cÖvwZôvwbK P¨v‡jĸ‡jvB Av‡jvPbvq †ewk G‡m‡Q|
miKv‡ii Z_¨ Rvbvi AwaKvi m¤^wjZ AvB‡bi Abycw¯’wZ wQj| 1923 mv‡ji miKvwi †Mvcbxq
AvBb RvZxq wbivcËvi ARynv‡Z miKvwi Kg©KZ©v‡`i Revew`wnZv I ¯^”QZvi mKj ch©v‡q cÖwZeÜKZv
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†`wk Ges Avš—R©vwZK gvbevwaKvi msMVb¸‡jv †hŠ_ ¯^vaxbfv‡e Ges miKv‡ii webv evavq
gvbevwaKvi mswk−ó gvgjv¸‡jv wb‡q Zv‡`i Z`š— I Z`‡š—i djvdj cÖKvk Ki‡Z m¶g nq| †h‡nZz
gvbevwaKvi msMVb¸‡jv miKv‡ii `„wó‡Z fqvbKfv‡e bvRyK ZvB Zviv ¯^-‡cÖlYvq ivR‰bwZKfv‡e
¯úk©KvZi gvgjv I welq¸‡jv weevPb (censor) K‡i|
weMZ eQi¸‡jvi gZ GeviI miKvi †Kvb gvbevwaKvi msMV‡bi Dci Pvc cÖ‡qvM K‡iwb Ges
Zv‡`i Dci †Kvb wg_¨v gvgjv †hgb i“Ry K‡iwb †Zgwb Avš—R©vwZK gvbevwaKvi Kgx©i wi Gw›Uª wfmv
cÖ`v‡b wej¤^ K‡iwb| wKQy ¯’vbxq gvbevwaKvi msMVb¸‡jv Aek¨ e‡j‡Q, Zviv wek¦vm K‡i miKvi
Zv‡`i †Uwj‡dv‡b Avwocv‡Z Ges B-‡gBj A¨vKvD›U¸‡jv Z`š— K‡i|
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cÖvw߇Z miKvi ûgwK cÖ`vb K‡i, hw` bv msL¨vjNyi Dci gvbevwaKvi Kvh©µg wb‡q Kg©iZ ms¯’vi
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29

ga¨ †m‡Þ¤^i GbwRIÕcÖwkKvi 172 Rb Kgx©‡K cywjk AvUK K‡i| MYgva¨‡gi cÖwZ‡e`b
Abymv‡i Rvbv hvq, miKvi wek¦vm K‡i cÖwkKvi Kg©xiv we‡ivax `‡ji cÖwZev` Kg©m~Px‡Z Ask wb‡e|
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9B RyjvB‡Z wUAvBwe, ¯’vbxq Awdm hLb Zvi evwl©K cÖwZ‡e`‡b Ô`ybx©wZi Av‡jv‡KÕ m~PK Ges
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K‡i| †ek KÕRb gš¿x wUAvBÕi ¯’vbxq cÖwZwbwa‡K `ybx©wZ Awf‡hv‡M Awfhy³ K‡ib| AvM÷ Ges
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Avmv`yj−vn Avj-Mvwj‡ei m¤ú„³Zv wb‡q wePvi P‡j| KZ…©c¶ 2005 mv‡j Avn‡j nvw`m, GKwU ¯’vbxq
Bmjvgx MÖ“‡ci †bZv Avmv`yj−v Mvwje‡K MÖvgxY e¨vsK Ges eª¨vK Awdmmn wewfbœ mvs¯‹…wZK Drm‡e
†evgv nvgjvi Rb¨ `vqx K‡i| miKvi BDGbGBPwmAvi I AvBwm Avi wmÕi gZ Avš—R©vwZK
ms¯’v¸‡jvi mv‡_ mn‡hvwMZv K‡i, wKš‘ AvBwm Avi wmÕi †KDB I eQi †`‡k Av‡mbwb| wW‡m¤^i
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Rb¨ evsjv‡`k ågY K‡ib| miKv‡ii wbe©vPb Iqv`v Ges eûevi Rbmg‡¶ †NvwlZ GKwU ¯^vaxb
RvZxq gvbevwaKvi Kwgkb MV‡bi K_v _vK‡jI miKvi AvBbMZfv‡e H Kv‡R †Kvb AMÖMwZ AR©b
Ki‡Z cv‡iwb| AZx‡Zi cÖwZwôZ gvbevwaKvi b¨vqcvjB gyL¨ f~wgKvq i‡q hvq|
aviv 5 ˆelg¨, mvgvwRK wbcxob Ges gvbyl cvPvit
evsjv‡`‡ki AvBb †Kvb ˆel‡g¨i wei“‡×, wKš‘ miKvi ˆelg¨ `~ixKi‡Y †Kvb `„p c`‡¶c MÖnY
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Dci wbcxob K‡i _v‡K, Z‡e Zv‡K †`vlx mve¨¯— Kivi mywbw`©ó c×wZ we`¨gvb| Gi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q
K‡Vvi `Û, wbh©vZbKvixi wei“‡× Rwigvbvi e¨e¯’v Ges H gvgjv Z`š—Kvix Kg©KZ©vi KZ©e¨ Ae‡njv
A_ev B”QvK…Z J`vwmb¨ A_ev KZe©¨ Ae‡njv †`Lv †M‡j Kvh©Ki e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kivi K_v _vK‡jI
AvBb cÖ‡qvMKvix ms¯’v¸‡jv G‡¶‡Î h‡_ó `ye©j f~wgKv cvjb K‡i|
2003 mv‡j msm` PjwZ AvB‡bi ms‡kvabx Av‡b, †hŠZz‡Ki gZ Aciv‡a we`¨gvb `ye©j AvBbx
weavb Ges Am¤§vbRK AvPi‡Yi Kvi‡Y †h gwnjv AvZ¥nZ¨v Kij †mB Am¤§vbKvixi wei“‡× we`¨gvb

30

AvBb `ye©jZv ms‡kva‡bi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q| 3iv A‡±vei msm` gwnjv Acivax‡`i c¨v‡iv‡j gyw³ †`qvi
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wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡q‡Qb| †hŠZzK wb‡q we‡iv‡ai Kvi‡YB cvwievwiK wbh©vZb n‡q‡Qb| Rvbyqvwi †_‡K
wW‡m¤^i AwaKvi 143wU †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y nZ¨vi NUbv b_xfy³ K‡i‡Q|
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weavb iv‡Lwb| GKwU ¯’vbxq GbwRI †_‡K Rvbv hvq, Rvbyqvwi †_‡K wW‡m¤^i ch©š— 639wU al©‡Yi NUbv
N‡U‡Q| msev` gva¨g †_‡K Rvbv hvq, Zv‡`i g‡a¨ 126 Rb‡K nZ¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q Ges 13 Rb awl©Z
nIqvi ci AvZ¥nZ¨v K‡i‡Q| wnDg¨vb ivBUm gwbUim Rvbvq cÖK…Z msL¨v AviI †ekx; mvgvwRK
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wKš‘ 22†k RyjvB Gi AvM ch©š— Zvi wei“‡× †Kvb gvgjv i“Ry Kiv nqwb, B‡Zvg‡a¨ Awfhy³ cvwj‡q
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cwZZve„wË Kiv hvq bv, welqwU KZ…©c¶ cÖvqkt D‡c¶v K‡i, eq‡mi mb‡` wg_¨v Z_¨ cwi‡ekb Kiv
nq| Aí eqmx‡`i K`vP wePv‡ii gy‡LvgywL Kiv nq Ges wecyj msL¨K AcÖvß eq¯‹ eq¯‹‡`i‡K
cwZZvj‡q KvR Ki‡Z †`Lv hvq| RvwZms‡Ni wkï Znwej (BDwb‡md) 2004 mv‡ji GK cwimsL¨v‡b
e‡j 10,000 AcÖvß eq¯‹ †g‡qiv †`k Ry‡o cwiPvwjZ evwYwR¨K †hŠb nqivwb Kv‡R e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q,
Ab¨ Av‡iKwU wi‡cvU© G msL¨v‡K Ach©vß e‡j‡Q, Zv‡`i g‡Z 29,000 R‡bi cwimsL¨vb Dcw¯’Z K‡i
(†`Lyb aviv-5, wkï)| †`‡ki Ges †`‡ki evB‡i bvix cvPvi GKwU mgm¨v wn‡m‡eB †_‡K hvq|
(†`Lyb, bvix cvPvi, aviv-5)
31

miKvwi Z_¨ g‡Z, mgvRKj¨vY Awa`߇i `y¯’ gvby‡li Rb¨ 6wU feNy‡i †K›`ª Ges GKwU
cÖwk¶Y †K›`ª cwiPvjbv K‡i| GB †K›`ª¸‡jv‡Z 2,300 R‡bi aviY ¶gZv i‡q‡Q| GQvov gwnjv I
wkï gš¿Yvjq wbh©vwZZ gwnjv I wkï‡`i Rb¨ 6wU †K›`ª cwiPvjbv K‡i| cÖwZwU wefv‡M GKwU|
evsjv‡`k RvZxq gwnjv AvBbRxex mwgwZ, GKwU GbwRI `yt¯’ cyi“l I Afvex bvixI wkï‡`i
Rb¨ Avkªq †K›`ª cwiPvjbv K‡i| BSEHR Gi g‡Z, hv‡K wbivc` Avkª‡g †bIqvi K_v, Zv‡K
†Kvbfv‡eB KvivMv‡i cvVv‡bv nqwb| Av`vjZ Zv‡`i AwaKvsk‡K Avkªq †K‡›`ª cvVvq| wKQy wKQy
†¶‡Î, Ab¨Î cvVv‡bvi Rb¨ ¯^ímgq Zv‡`i‡K KvivMv‡i cvVv‡bv nq| Bmjvgx ixwZ Abyhvqx †Kej
Bmjvgx AvB‡b AwfÁ gydwZivB d‡Zvqv †`qvi Rb¨ KZ…©Z¡ cÖvß| wKš‘ MÖv‡gi ag©xq †bZviv gv‡S gv‡S
wewfbœ gvgjv cwiPvjbv K‡i Ges d‡Zvqv †ck K‡i| gv‡S gv‡S AvBb ewnf~©Z mvRv, we‡klZ
gwnjv‡`i wei“‡×, Zviv Zv‡`i ¯^fve myjf fw½‡Z n‡q _v‡K|
MÖvgxY GjvKvq gwnjv‡`i wei“‡× d‡Zvqvi e¨vcvi¸‡jv agx©q †bZv KZ…©K †`Lfvj n‡q _v‡K|
(†`Lyb aviv 1.M)| GwmW wb‡¶c GKwU mgm¨v wn‡m‡e †_‡K hvq| D‡j−L‡hvM¨, msL¨K cyi“l I
gwnjv‡`i Dci GwmW Qyovi Kvi‡Y Zv‡`i gyLgÛj weK…Z AÜ n‡q hvq| Rvbyqvwi †_‡K wW‡m¤^i ch©š—,
AwaKv‡ii cÖwZ‡e`b g‡Z 161 Rb GwmW mš¿v‡mi wkKvi nq| Zv‡`i 105 Rb n‡jv gwnjv, 36 Rb
cyi“l Ges 20 Rb wkï| GwmW mvifvBfvim dvD‡Ûkb KZ…©K 36 Rb‡K mvRv †`qv nq|
GwmW, mš¿vm wbqš¿Y AvBb, 2002-G Awfhy³‡`i we‡kl UªvBeybv‡j `ª“Z wePvi I mvaviYZt
Rvwg‡bi my‡hvM iwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| AvBb Gwm‡Wi mnR cÖvc¨Zv‡K wbqš¿Y Ges gwnjv‡`i Dci GwmW
mš¿vm Kgv‡bvi †Póv K‡i| wKš‘ AvB‡bi `ye©j e¨envi Ges Am‡PZbZvi Kvi‡Y Gi Kvh©KvwiZv †ewk
nq bv| we‡kl UªvBeybvj cy‡ivcywi Kvh©Ki bv nIqvi GwmW dvD‡Ûk‡bi Z_¨ g‡Z 2002 mvj †_‡K
36 Rb GwmW mš¿vmx‡K UªvBeybvj mvRv †`q|
wkï t
mvaviYZt miKviB wkï‡`i AwaKvi I Kj¨v‡Yi Rb¨ `vqx| ¯’vbxq I we‡`wk GbwRIÕi
mgwš^Z cÖqv‡m wkï‡`i ¯^v¯’¨, cywó I wk¶vi DbœwZ NU‡jI A‰a‡©KiI wKQy †ewk wkï Acywó‡Z †fv‡M|
AvBbvbyhvqx cÖ‡Z¨K Qq †_‡K 10 eQ‡ii wkï‡K Aš—Z cÂg †kªYx ch©š— eva¨Zvg~jKfv‡e
we`¨vj‡q cvVv‡Z n‡e| cÖv_wgK wk¶v webvg~j¨ I eva¨Zvg~jK| wKš‘ wKQy mxgve×Zvi Kvi‡Y mKj‡KB
¯‹z‡j cvVv‡bv hvq bv, †Kbbv cvwievwiK Kv‡Ri ARynv‡Z A‡bK gv-evev Zv‡`i mš—vb‡`i ¯‹z‡j cvVvb
bv| mv¤cÖwZK eQi¸‡jv‡Z cwievi¸‡jv‡Z fZz©wK †`qvi Kvi‡Y cÖv_wgK we`¨vj‡q hvIqvi nvi e„w×
†c‡q‡Q| 2001 mv‡ji K¨v‡¤úBb di GWy‡Kk‡bi wn‡me g‡Z 80 kZvsk wkï ¯‹z‡j fwZ© n‡q‡Q, G‡Z
cyi“l gwnjv AbycvZ mgvb ‡i‡L‡Q| 2002 mv‡ji GK cÖwZ‡e`‡b ÔK¨v‡¤úBb di ccyjvi GWy‡Kkb,
32

Rvbvq, 70 kZvsk wkï cÂg †kªYx ch©š— ¯‹zj †kl K‡i‡Q Ges GRb¨ ¯‹zj Z¨v‡Mi nvi 24.3
kZvsk‡Z DbœxZ n‡q‡Q| wk¶v gš¿Yvj‡q cwimsL¨v‡b G eQi 97 kZvsk ¯‹zjMvgx wkï ¯‹z‡j fwZ©
n‡q‡Q miKvi Øv`k K¬vm ch©š— fZz©wK evwo‡q gwnjv‡`i wk¶v A‰eZwbK K‡i‡Q Ges lô †_‡K Øv`k
ch©š— e„wË cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q| evjKiv †Kej lô ch©š— A‰eZwbK †jLvcovi my‡hvM cvq| AímsL¨K
miKvwi nvmcvZvj †Kej wkï‡`i Rb¨ e¨eüZ nq, AvBbMZfv‡e †g‡qiv 18 eQi eq‡m Ges cyi“l
21 eQi eqm we‡q Ki‡Z cvi‡e, †m †¶‡Î evj¨ weevn mgm¨v m„wó Ki‡Q| Aí eq‡m we‡qi mwVK
cwimsL¨vb cvIqvi LyeB `yiƒn, †Kbbv we‡q I Rb¥ wbe܇bi †¶‡Î eqm hvPvB Kiv KwVb|
¯’vbxq gvbevwaKvi ms¯’v gvm jvBb wgwWqv 2004 mv‡ji GK Rwi‡c Rvbvq †h, 40 kZvsk
weevn‡K evj¨ weevn wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv hvq|
evj¨ weevn †ivaK‡í miKvi †g‡q‡`i Rb¨ e„wËi Advi †`q hw` Zv‡`i cwievi we‡q AvVvi
eQi ch©š— wejw¤^Z K‡i|
gvbevwaKvi ms¯’v¸‡jvi g‡Z, 93 Rb wkï AcüZ nq, 366 Rb wbnZ nq, 139 Rb msN‡l©
AvnZ nq, 277 Rb al©‡Yi wkKvi nq, 20 Rb Gwm‡Wi wkKvi nq Ges evKx 135 Rb nviv‡bv hvq|
wkï AwaKvi Kgx©‡`i Z_¨ g‡Z, wkï AwaKvi m‡PZbZv e„w×i Kvi‡Y wkï‡`i Dci wbcxob K‡g
Av‡m|
wnDg¨vb ivBUm gwbU‡ii g‡Z, wkï cwiZ¨vM, AcniY I wkï cvPvi GKwU fqven mgm¨v
wn‡m‡eB weivR K‡i| wKš‘ my‡hvM _vKv m‡Ë¡I wkï cvPvi GKwU eo ai‡bi mgm¨v wn‡m‡eB †_‡K hvq
(†`Lyb aviv -5, cvPvi)|
wkï kªg GKwU mgm¨v, GUv wkï‡`i Dci wbcxo‡bi djkÖ“wZ| Kv‡Ri †¶‡Î wkï‡`i Dci
gvwjK KZ…©K `~e©¨envi Ges †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î evB‡i cvPvi K‡i †hŠb wbcxo‡bi gZ `ywel©n AvPiY mn¨
Kiv †M‡Q (†`Lyb aviv 6.M Ges 6N)| evsjv‡`k †jevi ÷vwW‡Ri g‡Z, mviv eQ‡i wkï‡`i Dci
wbcxo‡bi Kvi‡Y 50 kZvs‡ki Dci g„Zz¨, AvnZ Ges †hŠb wbcxob N‡U‡Q|
2002 mv‡j miKvwi evZ©v ms¯’v evmm ev evsjv‡`k msev` ms¯’v †h cÖwZ‡e`b cÖKvk K‡i,
Zv‡Z D‡j−L K‡i evsjv‡`‡k 400,000 M„nnxb wkï i‡q‡Q, Zv‡`i g‡a¨ 1,50,000 wkï Zv‡`i wcZvi
cwiPq Rv‡b bv| hv‡`i wcZ…cwiPq †bB Zv‡`i Rb¨ mxwgZ my‡hvM myweav we`¨gvb|
gvbe cvPvit
AvBbMZfv‡e Av`g cvPvi wbwl×; wKš‘ ZviciI GwU mgm¨v wn‡m‡eB †_‡K hvq, Gi †Qvej
cyi“l, gwnjv Ges wkï‡`i Dci c‡o| Am`y‡Ï‡k¨ A_ev A‰ea D‡Ï‡k¨ Av`g cvPv‡ii kvw¯— g„Zz¨`Û
A_ev hve¾xeb Kviv`Û Ges miKvi cvPviKvix‡`i kvw¯— †`qvi Rb¨ h‡_ó c`‡¶c wb‡q‡Q| GK
eQ‡i 87wU Av`g cvPv‡ii NUbvi we‡kl Av`vjZ wePvi K‡i‡Q| Av`vjZ 42 Rb‡K †`vlx mve¨¯— K‡i
33

Ges g„Zz¨`Û †_‡K 10 eQi Kviv`Û cÖ`vb K‡i| cywjk, DcK~j i¶v evwnbx, wewWAvi, i¨ve I eû
GbwRI A‡bK‡K cvPviKvwii Kej †_‡K i¶v K‡i‡Q|
gwnjv Ges wkï e¨vcKfv‡e cvPvi n‡q‡Q cÖv_wgKfv‡e fviZ, cvwK¯—vb, evnivBb, mshy³
Avie AvwgivZ Kz‡qZ Ges wewfbœ Mš—‡e¨| Zv‡`i‡K †hŠb wbcxobg~jK Ges kªg`v‡m cwiYZ K‡i|
Av`g cvPvi n‡q‡Q RW©v‡bi †cvlvK wk‡í Ges Avie Avgxiv‡Zi wbg©vY wk‡í kªg`vm wn‡m‡e| miKvwi
wnmve g‡Z AvBbcÖ‡qvMKvix ms¯’v Rvbyqvwi †_‡K wW‡m¤^i ch©š— 256 Rb‡K Av`g cvPv‡ii Lào †_‡K
D×vi K‡i| AvM÷ 2005 †_‡K miKvi, GbwRI Ges mshy³ Avie Avwgiv‡Zi †hŠ_ D‡`¨v‡M 168
Rb wkï‡K †`‡k wdwi‡q Avbv nq hviv D‡Ui RwK wnmv‡e e¨eüZ nw”Qj| Zv‡`i 167 Rb hvi hvi
cwiev‡ii mv‡_ wgwjZ nq| GiKg D×viK…Z‡`i A‡b‡K miKvwi ev GbwRI Øviv cwiPvwjZ Avkªq
†K‡›`ª †_‡K bvbv iKg KvwiMwi cÖwk¶Y †bq Ges †mB mgqUv‡K GbwRI¸‡jv Zv‡`i cwiev‡ii mÜvb
Ki‡Z _v‡K| BNWLA 43 Rb‡K G eQi D×vi K‡i| G‡`i g‡a¨ GKRb bvB‡Rwiq evjK GQvov
Avie AvgxivZ I fviZ †_‡K 27 Rb‡K †`‡k wdwi‡q Avbv nq| hviv cvPv‡ii `v‡q a„Z n‡qwQj
Zv‡`i cvPviKvix wn‡m‡e mbv³ Kiv KwVb e‡j Zviv Dchy³ KvMRcÎ bv wb‡q mxgvbv AwZµ‡gi `v‡q
Awfhy³ n‡q _v‡K|
†m›Uvi di DB‡gb GÛ PvBì mvwf©‡mi g‡a¨ AwaKvsk cvPviK…Z wkïi eqm 10 eQ‡ii bx‡P,
Ges cvPviK…Z evwjKv‡`i eqm 11 †_‡K 16 eQ‡ii g‡a¨|
cvPvi n‡q hvIqv gwnjv I wkï‡`i cÖK…Z msL¨v wbiƒcY Kiv hvqwb| AwaKvsk cvPviKvix‡K
fvj PvKix A_ev weev‡ni cÖ‡jvfb †`wL‡q †bIqv nq Ges c‡i †Rvi K‡i AwZwi³ Kv‡R wbhy³ Kiv
nq| †mUv †`‡k Ges †`‡ki evB‡i n‡”Q| wcZvgvZviv `vwi‡`ªi Kvi‡Y mš—vb‡`i †¯^”Qvq cvPvi n‡Z
w`‡”Q| hviv Av`g cvPvi K‡i Zviv MÖv‡g Av‡m we‡q Kivi Rb¨ Ges c‡i Zv‡K mywbw`©ó †`‡k †h‡q
†i‡L Av‡m| †mLv‡b gwnjv‡`i kªg `vmx wn‡m‡e kªg wewµ Ki‡Z nq, bB‡j †hŠb wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi
n‡Z nq| `y¯‹…wZKvix Pµ GB cvPv‡ii mv‡_ RwoZ _v‡K| fvi‡Zi mxgvbv Lye K‡Vvifv‡e wbqš¿Y Kiv
nq, we‡klZt h‡kvi I †ebv‡cvj w`‡q A‰eafv‡e cvivcvi mn‡RB m¤¢e nq| wecyj msL¨K wkï‡K
cwZZvj‡q evwYwR¨K †hŠb wbeZ©bg~jK Kv‡R e¨envi Kiv nq Ges GB Aí eqmx‡`i mPivPvi wePv‡ii
m¤§yLxb n‡Z nq bv| BDwb‡md 2004 mv‡j †h wn‡me †`q, Zv‡Z 10,000 wkï‡K †`‡k evwYwR¨K
†hŠb wbcxo‡b e¨envi Kiv nq, wKš‘ Ab¨ GKwU m~Î GB msL¨v 29,000 msL¨v e‡j `vex K‡i (†`Lyb
aviv -5, wkï)|
miKv‡ii `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y cvPviKvixiv Qvov †c‡q hvq| cywjk Ges miKvix Kg©KZ©viv cÖvqkt
cvPvi nIqv gwnjv I wkï‡`i wb‡q †hŠb wbcxo‡bi welqwU D‡c¶v K‡i †Kbbv Zviv cwZZvj‡qi
gvwjK‡`i †_‡K cÖwZwbqZ Nyl MÖnY K‡i (†`Lyb aviv 1. M I 5) hw`I Znwej I Ab¨vb¨ my‡hvMmyweavi Afv‡e Z`š— evavMÖ¯’ nq ZeyI miKvi cvPvi we‡ivax cywj‡ki msL¨v evwo‡q cÖwZwU †Rjv‡Z
cvPviKvixi Là‡o cov bvix I wkï‡`i KvQ †_‡K cvPviKvixi e„Ëvš— msMÖn K‡iwQj| Ach©vß cÖwk¶Y

34

cÖvß cywjk m`‡m¨i `¶Zv e„w×i Rb¨ miKvi `¶ AvBbRxexi mgš^‡q Ges Avš—R©vwZK ms¯’v¸‡jvi
mnvqZvq RvZxq cywjk GKv‡Wwg‡Z cvPvi Gi Dci we‡kl †Kvm© cwiPvjbv K‡i‡Q| cywj‡ki †K›`ªxq
Awd‡m miKvi cvPvi ‡ivaK‡í cvPvi wbix¶v †mj MVb K‡i mviv eQi cvPv‡ii Dci bRi`vix Pvwj‡q
†M‡Q| ¯^ivóª gš¿Yvj‡q Aš—tgš¿Yvjq KwgwU MVb K‡i cÖwZgv‡m mwP‡ei †bZ…Z¡ ˆeVK AbywôZ nq|
GB ‡mj cywj‡ki Kvh©µg ch©‡e¶Y K‡i Ges cÖvmw½K gvgjv wb®úwˇZ mn‡hvwMZv K‡i| 64
†Rjvi AwZwi³ DcKwgkbv‡ii †bZ…‡Z¡ †Rjv ch©v‡q GKwU KwgwU MVb K‡i miKvi Z`viwK K‡i|
GB KwgwU¸‡jv cÖwZgv‡m KZRb AvUK, kvw¯— cÖvß, gyw³ †c‡q‡Q A_ev KZRb cvPvi nIqv e¨w³‡K
wdwi‡q Avbv n‡q‡Q-Gi Dci cÖwZ‡e`b XvKvq †cÖiY K‡i|
AvUK, `Û Ges wePvi D‡ËviËi evo‡Z _v‡K| H eQ‡i ¯^ivóª gš¿Yvjq 221 Rb‡K Av`g
cvPv‡ii `v‡q AvUK K‡i Ges 32 Rb‡K Awfhy³ K‡i| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ 4 Rb‡K wewfbœ †gqv‡` kvw¯—
†`q| Ab¨w`‡K miKvi GB Bmy¨wU‡K mxwgZ ch©v‡q †i‡L †`q| miKvi mZ©KKiY, M‡elYv jwes Ges
D×vi I cybev©mb Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv K‡i| AwZwi³ `vwqZ¡ wn‡m‡e, ¯^ivóª gš¿Yvj‡qi mwPe cÖwZgv‡m
GB Bmy¨‡Z Kg©iZ GbwRI cÖwZwbwa‡`i mv‡_ ˆeVK K‡i Df‡qi g‡a¨ mgš^q mvabmn miKvi I mykxj
mgv‡Ri g‡a¨ mn‡hvwMZv e„w×i cÖqvm †bb| ¯^ivóª gš¿Yvjq Av`g cvPvi †iv‡a m‡PZbZv e„w×i Rb¨
D×z×KiY Kg©m~Px MÖnY K‡i|
miKvi `yBwU we‡kl Avš—tgš¿Yvjq KwgwU MVb K‡i, ¯’vbxq I Avš—R©vwZK GbwRI mn‡hvwMZvq
D‡Ui RwK‡`i cÖZ¨veZ©b, cybe©vmb Ges mvgvwRKfv‡e AvËxKi‡Yi Kvh©µg MÖnY K‡i| GQvov miKvi
¯’vbxq gwnjv Kg©KZ©v‡`i mnvqZvq GKwU KwgwU MVb K‡i, hviv Zv‡`i cybe©vmb cÖwµqv mn‡hvwMZv
K‡i| miKvi cvPviKvixi wkKvi‡`i mn‡hvwMZv w`‡jI miKvix Avkªq †K›`ª¸‡jv wQj Ach©vß I
`ye©jfv‡e cwiPvwjZ| miKvi Zv‡`i‡K †emiKvix Avkªq †K‡›`ª cvVv‡Z DrmvwnZ K‡i|
eû GbwRI Kgy¨wbwU wfwËK msMVb Ges ¯’vbxq miKvix †bZviv cÖwZKvig~jK, M‡elYv, Z_¨
msMÖn bw_ ˆZwiKiY, civgk©, DØy×KiY Kg©m~Px, †bUIqvK© ˆZwi, Avš—t‡`kxq mn‡hvwMZv, AvB‡bi
cÖ‡qvM, D×vi, cybe©vmb Ges AvBbx ms‡kva‡bi e¨vcv‡i KvR K‡i| MÖvg ch©v‡q Rb¥ weevn mb`cÎ bv
_vK‡jI cvPvi gvgjv¸‡jv cwiPvwjZ nq| Avkªq †K‡›`ªi aviY ¶gZv e„w× Ges cybe©vmb Kvh©µg e„w×
K‡i mxwgZ mvdj¨ jvf Kiv †M‡Q|
cÖwZeÜx †jvKRbt
AvBb cÖwZeÜx †jvK‡`i mv‡_ †Kvb cÖKvi ˆelg¨g~jK AvPi‡Yi we‡ivax n‡jI ev¯—‡e Zviv
mvgvwRK I A_©‰bwZKfv‡e ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi n‡q‡Q| cÖwZewÜZvi wbg~©j, wPwKrmv wk¶v, cybe©vmb I
Kg©ms¯’vb, hvbevn‡b PjvP‡ji my‡hvM I civgk© cÖ`v‡bi e¨vcv‡i AvBb †Rvi †`q|
mgvRKj¨vY gš¿Yvjq, mgvR †mev Awa`ßi Ges Ôb¨vkbvj dvD‡Ûkb di w` †W‡fjc‡g›U Ae
w` wWRGejW&Õ n‡jv miKvix ms¯’v hviv cÖwZeÜx‡`i AwaKvi msi¶Y mywbwðZ Kivi Rb¨ KvR K‡i|
35

miKv‡ii mgvRKj¨vY gš¿Yvjq 2004 mv‡j miKvwi Kg©KZ©v I GbwRI cÖwZwbwai mgš^‡q GKwU
Uv¯‹‡dvm© MVb K‡i cÖwZeÜx‡`i mvwe©K Kj¨v‡Y KvR K‡i| cwiKíbvwU gš¿xmfvq Aby‡gv`‡bi
A‡c¶vq wQj gvbwmK cÖwZeÜx‡`i mywPwKrmv Kivi e¨vcv‡i miKvi my‡hvM mxwgZ| wKQy wKQy †emiKvwi
D‡Ï¨vM cÖwZeÜx‡`i wPwKrmv I cybe©vmbmn Kg©ms¯’v‡bi D‡`¨vM we`¨gvb|
DcRvZxq RbMYt
DcRvZxq †jvK¸‡jvi wb‡R‡`i Rwg e¨env‡ii wm×vš— MÖn‡Yi mxwgZ my‡hvM i‡q‡Q| 1997
mv‡ji cve©Z¨ PÆMÖvg kvwš— Pzw³ Øviv 25 eQ‡ii †Mwijv hy× Aemvb n‡jI AvBb k„•Ljv cwiw¯’wZi
AebwZ Ges gvbevwaKvi j•Nb Kvh©µg Ae¨vnZ _v‡K| j¨vÛ Kwgkb cve©Z¨ RbMY I evOvjx
Rb‡Mvôxi g‡a¨ we‡iva wbim‡b KvR Ki‡jI Zvi djvdj m‡š—vlRbK bq| cve©Z¨ RbMY hviv hy‡×i
mgq Rwg †Q‡o P‡j wM‡qwQj Zv‡`i cÖwZ Ach©vß mn‡hvwMZvq Zviv Amš‘ó| G eQi gvbevwaKvi
msMV‡bi Z_¨ g‡Z, 29 e¨w³ g„Zz¨eiY K‡i I 361 Rb cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi msN‡l© AvnZ nq| GQvov
22 Rb‡K AcniY Kiv nq, 3 Rb gwnjv al©‡Yi wkKvi Ges 42 Rb a„Z nq|
GwcÖ‡ji 3 Zvwi‡L LvMovQwo †Rjvi mvcÖ“B Kvievwicvov Ges cv‡ki `yBwU MÖv‡g ¯’vbxq
ev½vjx‡`i mv‡_ DcRvZxq‡`i msNl© nq Ges G NUbvq 12 Rb AvnZ nq| msN‡l©i m~ÎcvZ nq
DcRvZxq‡`i Rwg‡Z ev½vjx gwnjv‡`i evwo ˆZwii †Póv‡K †K›`ª K‡i|
Ryb-12, wbivcËv evwnb-10 Rb‡K nZ¨v K‡i, Zv‡`i fviZxq we‡`ªvnx MÖ“c Gi m`m¨ ejv nq|
Zviv iv½vgvwU cveZ©¨ GjvKvq AwZ †Mvc‡b fviZxq mxgvbvq Ae¯’vb KiwQj| mvgwiK †hŠ_ evwnbx
Ges i¨ve m`m¨MY e›`yKhy‡×i ci Zv‡`i K¨v¤ú n‡Z †Mvjvevi“` D×vi K‡i|
2004 mvj nB‡Z iv½vgvwU‡Z evOvjx‡`i mwnZ KZ¸wj wbh©vwZZ n‡q‡Q| Zvi mwVK †Kvb
msL¨v bvB|
Av`xevmxMY e‡j †h Ab¨vb¨ GjvKvq evOvjx gymjgvb‡`i Kv‡Q A‡bK RwgRgv Zv‡`i nviv‡Z
nq| miKvi H mKj m¤cÖ`vq n‡Z †h mKj Rwg AwaMÖnY K‡i Zvi g‡a¨ †gŠjfxevRvi Ges gaycyi
eb GjvKvq, cÖwZev` m‡Ë¡I B‡Kv cvK© Ges b¨vkbvj cvK© cÖKí M‡o †Zv‡j| AvM÷ 21 Zvwi‡L eb
i¶vevwnbxMY wmwmwjqv øvj bv‡g GKRb Mv‡iv gwnjv‡K gaycyi e‡b R¡vjvbx KvV Kzovevi mgq ¸wj
K‡i AvnZ K‡i| weGmBGBP Avi cywjk d‡i÷ MvW©‡`i wei“‡× gvgjv i“Ry Ki‡Z Am¤§wZ Rvbvq|
Ab¨vb¨ mvgvwRK AZ¨vPvi Ges ‰elg¨t
mnKvwgZv †eAvBbx KvR, e¯‘Z GB †¶‡Î AvBb‡K K`vwPZ cÖ‡qvM Kiv nq| AvB‡bi eY©bvq
ejv nq †h, hviv cÖvK…wZK wbq‡gi wei“‡× †h †Kvb gvbyl, ¯¿x‡jvK ev cïi mwnZ †hŠb msMg Ki‡e
Zv‡`i‡K hve¾xeb Kviv`Ê ev †h †Kvb `Û †gqv` `k eQi ch©š— e„w× Ges A_©`ÛI Kiv n‡e|

36

mgKvgx gvby‡li Rb¨ wKQy AwbqwgZ mg_©b wQj| wKš‘ Zv msNe×fv‡e wKQy cwijw¶Z nq bv|
mgKvgx‡`i Dci Avµg‡Yi NUbv¸wj wPwýZ Kiv LyeB KóKi KviY Zviv AwZ †Mvc‡b GB mKj
NUbv¸wj NUvq Ges ¯’vbxq gvbevwaKvi MÖ“c H GjvKv‡K gwbUi K‡i bv, wKš‘ Zviv NUbvi K_v ï‡bv
_v‡K| GB mKj GjvKvq miKvixfv‡eI †Kvb cÖwZKv‡ii e¨e¯’v cwijw¶Z nq bv, †`‡k mgKvwgZvi
Dci †Zgb cov‡jLv ev Ávb wk¶vi e¨e¯’vI †Zgb bvB Ges Z_¨ msMÖn KiYI LyeB Kó mva¨|
2002 mv‡ji wnDg¨vb ivBU IqvP (GBPAviWvwe−D) Gi cÖwZ‡e`b g‡Z, mgKvwg gvbyl mvgvwRK
ˆel‡g¨i Kvi‡Y cywjk Ges ¯’vbxq Acivax‡`i Øviv AcgvwbZ Ges al©‡Yi ¯^xKvi nq| GBPAviWvwe−D
Av‡iv ch©‡e¶Y K‡i †h mgKvgx gvbyl KLbI KLbI Puv`vevRxi ¯^xKviI nq| GBPAviWvwe−D-†Z
mgv‡R MY¨gvb¨ Awdwmqvj Ges mvgvwRK ˆelg¨ _vKvi Kvi‡Y GBPAvBwf †mev cÖ`v‡bI bvbv ˆelg¨
†`Lv hvq Ges hvi d‡j GBPAvB wf/GBWm we¯—vi jvf K‡i| (aviv -6 kªwg‡Ki AwaKvi)
(K) mwgwZi AwaKvi
AvBb mwgwZ‡Z †hvM`v‡bi AwaKvi cÖ`vb K‡i Ges miKvi KwgwU MV‡bi AbygwZ †`q|
hv‡nvK, miKvi me©`v GB AwaKvi ev¯—evq‡b Kvh©Ki f~wgKv MÖnY K‡i bv| kªg kw³i msL¨v AvbygvwbK
65 wgwjqb hv‡`i g‡a¨ 1.8 wgwjqb, BDwbq‡bi †jvK, hviv †ewkifvM ivR‰bwZK `‡ji †jvK| eo
†m±‡i †Kvb wbqwgZ kªwgK cwimsL¨vb bvB, hv‡Z weivU bvMwiK kw³ KvR K‡i (75% n‡Z 80%)|
we‡kl K‡i †`‡ki ißvbx cÖwµqvKiY AÂj (Bwc‡RW) AvB‡bi gva¨‡g BDwbqb‡K wbwl× Kiv n‡q‡Q|
wKš‘ 1jv b‡f¤^i AvB‡bi gva¨‡g BDwbqb‡K AbygwZ †`qv n‡q‡Q ÒkªwgK msMVbÓ Kivi| wKš‘ Zv‡`i
‡`b-`iev‡ii AwaKvi _vK‡e mxwgZ| GUv Avš—R©vwZK Ges ¯’vbxq †¶‡Î ¯^xK…Z n‡e| Bwc‡RW
KZ…©c¶ GK †Kv¤úvbx BDwbqb cÖwZwbwa‡`i mv‡_ Ab¨ †Kv¤úvbxi cÖwZwbwa‡`i †hvMv‡hvM ev mfv Kivi
AbygwZ †`q bv|
AvUwU wfbœ wfbœ AvBb‡K GKwÎZ K‡i GKwU bZzb mw¤§wjZ kªg AvBb Kiv nq| bZyb AvBb
Abyhvqx, BDwbqb †iwR‡÷ªk‡bi Rb¨ GKwU Kg©¯’‡j 30% BDwbq‡bi AskMÖnY _vK‡Z n‡e wKš‘ GKB
m‡½ wZbwUi †ewk †UªW BDwbqb _vK‡Z cvi‡e bv| kªg Kgx©MY †Rvi w`‡q e‡jb †h GUv kªwgK‡`i
Kg©¶gZv n«vm Ki‡e Ges GK BDwbqb n‡Z Ab¨ BDwbq‡b ¯’vbvš—wiZ n‡Z Amyweavi m„wó Ki‡e|
A‡bK †¶‡Î †KŠkjMZfv‡e BDwbqb‡K AwaK Kvh©‡¶‡Î mwbœ‡ek Kivi †Póv Kiv nq| wbe܇bi †¶‡Î
GW‡fv‡Kwm Ki‡Z nq Ges AvBbMZfv‡e evrmwiK Kvh©‡¶‡Î wb‡qvMKZ©vi mwnZ kªwg‡Ki m¤ú‡K©i
wbivcËv weavb Kiv nq bv| kªwgK Kg©PvixMY GUvi cÖwZev` K‡i Ges e‡j †h G‡Z kªwgK‡`i AwaKvi
¶zbœ n‡e| we‡kl K‡i cÖvB‡fU †m±‡i †QvU †QvU D‡Ï¨vMZv‡`i †¶‡Î |
GB eQi ILO miKvi‡K mycvwik K‡i †mB me aviv¸‡jv cwieZ©b Kivi Rb¨ hv kªwgK
BDwbqb (†hme kªwgK wfbœ wfbœ ms¯’v ev wfbœ wfbœ gvwjK Øviv cwiPvwjZ) †iwR‡÷ªk‡b evav n‡q
`uvovq| 5450wU kªwgK BDwbq‡bi g‡a¨ AvbygvwbK 15% †iwR÷vW© b¨vkbvj †UªW BDwbq‡bi mv‡_
mshy³| GQvovI †ek wKQy Avb †iwR÷vW© b¨vkbvj †UªW BDwbqb Av‡Q|
37

BDwbqb¸‡jv mvaviYZ ivR‰bwZKfv‡e cwiPvwjZ nq Ges ivóª wbqwš¿Z cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡Z Zviv
AwaK kw³kvjx, †hgb miKvi wbqwš¿Z PÆMÖvg e›`i| wmwfj mvwf©m Ges wbivcËv evwnbx‡Z PvKzixiZ
Kg©Pvix‡`i ‡UªW BDwbq‡b †hvM`vb Kiv wbwl×KiY Zv‡`i AwZgvÎvi ivRbxwZ gvb¯‹Zv/ivR‰bwZK
PwiÎ| miKvwi I e¨w³MZ †¶‡Î cÖvB‡fU †m±‡i) wk¶K‡`i †UªW BDwbq‡b MVb Kivi AbygwZ †`qv
nq bv| byZb kªg AvBb Abyhvqx wmwfj Gwf‡qkb Ges mgy`ªMvgx Rvnv‡Ri kªwgK‡`i wKQy wKQy kZ©
mv‡c‡¶ †UªW BDwbqb Kivi AbygwZ cÖ`vb Kiv nq|
†UªW BDwbq‡bi †iwR‡÷ªkb Av`vj‡Zi gva¨‡g BDwbqb evwZj Kivi ¶gZv iv‡L| wKš‘ GK
eQ‡ii g‡a¨ GB ai‡bi †Kvb Kvh©µg ev G¨vKkb †bqv n‡q‡Q e‡j Rvbv hvqwb| hv †nvK †iwR‡÷ªkb
cÖZ¨vLvb Gi †¶‡Î BDwbqb MvbKvix‡`i Avcxj Kivi ¶gZv Av‡Q|
wkí welqK Aa¨v‡`k wbewÜZ BDwbq‡bi cÖwZ‡iv‡ai weavb Av‡Q ev RbM‡Yi `vq n‡Z
BDwbq‡bi Kg©KZ©vMY gy³ _v‡K| GB mKj weavbmg~n mvaviYZ Kvh©Ki Kiv nq bv| AZx‡Z †eAvBbx
Kv‡R Ki‡Y †hgb †hvMv‡hvM evav m„wó Kivi Kvi‡Y cywjk Kg©KZ©v whwb we‡kl ¶gZv AvB‡bi Aax‡b
wbqwgZ †dŠR`vix AvB‡bi A‡bK BDwbqb †g¤^vi‡`i †MÖdZvi K‡i‡Qb| †UªW BDwbqb Kg©xMY‡K
AvBGjI (I.L.O) wgwUs G †hvM`v‡bi Rb¨ miKv‡ii Kv‡Q †_‡K QvocÎ MÖnY Kivi cÖ‡qvRb nq|
GB eQi Avš—R©vwZK †UªW BDwbqb Kb‡dWv‡ikb (International Trade Union
Confederation) wkí mswk−ó Aa¨v‡`k Gi Aax‡b B›Uvib¨kbvj †UªW BDwbq‡bi evwZjK…Z
AwaKv‡ii Lmov ˆZwi Ki‡Q| G mKj evwZ‡ji g‡a¨ Av‡Q BDwbqb m`m¨ nIqvi evav wecwË Ges
BDwbqb Awdwkqvj‡`i wbe©vPb| miKvwi Kg©Pvix mwgwZi Kvh©µ‡g evav wecwË Ges B.wc. †ivW Gi
kªwgK‡`i †gŠwjK kªg AwaKv‡i wewa wb‡la|
L) mw¤§wjZ fv‡e msMVb ˆZwi Kiv Ges Pzw³ Kivi AwaKvi: AvBb wb‡qvM KZ©v‡`i n¯—‡¶c n‡Z
BDwbq‡bi Kvh©µg msMVb Ges cwiPvjb BZ¨vw`i ‡¶‡Î †Zgb †Kvb wbivcËv cÖ`vb K‡i bv| ev¯—‡e
cÖvB‡fU †m±‡ii wb‡qvM KZ©vMY mvaviYZ BDwbqb Kvh©µ‡g wbi“rmvwnZ K‡i| AwMœkªwgKMY Zv‡`i
msMVb ev BDwbq‡bi cÖwZ Avš—wiK n‡q _v‡K| Kg©¯’‡j msev``vZv wb‡qvM Ges wKQy wKQy ‡¶‡Î
wbivcËv evwnbxi mgš^‡q mv`v †cvlv‡K KvR Kiv AvBwUBDwm (ITUC) Ges †UªW BDwbqbKvixMY
cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi wKQy D`vniY w`‡q‡Q| Zv‡`i g‡Z kªwgK kw³i 30% AvB‡bi wewawb‡la †gvZv‡eK
BDwbqb msMV‡b m¤§Z| AvB‡bi `„wó‡Z we‡kl K‡i niZv‡ji AwaKvi ¯^xK…Z Kiv nqwb wKš‘ niZvj
kªwgK‡`i cÖwZev‡`i mve©Rbbxb AwaKvi Ges wkí mswk−ó Aa¨v‡`k 1969 Gi weavb g‡Z GKwU
AvBbMZ AwaKvi e‡j ¯^xK…Z|
†UªW BDwbq‡bi †iwR÷ªvi wewa g‡Z †UªW BDwbq‡bi ˆel‡g¨i Awf‡hvM¸‡jv ch©‡e¶Y K‡ib| A‡bK
†¶‡Î †`Lv hvq †h Av`vjZ kªwgK‡K cybtenv‡ji Av‡`k w`‡q‡Q| hv‡nvK, kªg †KvU© Gi mvgwMÖK

38

Kvh©µg A‡bK mgq e¨vnZ n‡q _v‡K| cÖPwjZ wbqg Kvbyb e`jv‡bvi Rb¨ A‡bK weKí Ges
†KŠkjMZ A‡bK Aa¨v‡`k ˆZwi Kiv n‡q‡Q|
wmweG †K GB k‡Z© ˆeaZv †`qv nq †h, Zv †UªW BDwbq‡bi †iwR÷vW© n‡e Ges kªwgK‡`i cÖwZwbwa
wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡e| AvBb mnRfv‡e e¨vLv K‡i wKfv‡e wmweG wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e Ges Zvi mgqmxgv
†eu‡a †`q| wmweG-Gi Dcw¯’wZ mvaviYZ Jla, cvU, †cvlvK wkí BZ¨vw` †¶‡Î †`Lv hvq| wKš‘
PvKzwii wbivcËvi Kvi‡Y A‡bK kªwgK wmweG Gi Kvh©µ‡g Ask K‡i bv| †QvU D‡`¨v³v ev cÖwZôv‡bi
†¶‡Î wmweG-i Dcw¯’wZ †Zgb †`Lv hvq bv|
GQvovI we‡ivax ivR‰bwZK `j¸‡jv Zv‡`i ivR‰bwZK `vex Av`v‡qi j‡¶¨ miKv‡ii wei“‡× niZvj
AvnŸvb K‡i| †ckvRxex msMVb Ges Avb‡iwR÷vW© BDwbqb¸‡jv eQ‡ii A‡bK mgq niZvj AvnŸvb
K‡i _v‡K|
cÖ‡qvRbxq †mev cÖwZôvb Aa¨v‡`k miKvi‡K Aby‡gv`b w`‡q‡Q kªwgK‡`i Kg© weiwZ Kvh©µg 3
gv‡mi Rb¨ wbwl× Ki‡Z| †mB me †m±‡i hv Acwinvh© e‡j †NvlYvcÖvß| PjwZ erm‡i miKvi GB
wewa Av‡ivc K‡i‡Q we`y¨r Dbœqb †evW©, XvKv we`y¨r mieivn KZ©„c¶, evsjv‡`k wegvb, PÆMÖvg e›`i
KZ©„c¶ Ges evsjv‡`k †c‡Ævwjqvg Ki‡cv‡ik‡bi Dci|
miKvi GB wewa wb‡la Av‡ivc Ae¨vnZ †i‡L‡Q cvUKj¸‡jv‡Z Drcv`‡bi mgq| AZx‡Z GB
wbqg Ae¨vnZ wQj †c−‡bi cvBjU, Iqvmvi Kg©x Ges Rvnv‡Ri Kg©x‡`i Dci| miKvi‡K ¶gZv †`qv
n‡q‡Q †h †Kvb niZvj ev Ae‡iv‡ai Av‡M ev c‡i Zv wbwl× Ki‡Z| Avcmidvi †KŠkj, mvwjm Ges
kªg Av`vjZ m¤úwK©Z we‡iva BZ¨vw` kªg m¤úwK©‡Z Aa¨v‡`‡ki AvIZvaxb Ges bZzb kªg AvB‡b
mshyw³K…Z| GB mshyw³i D‡Ï‡k¨ wQj `ª“Z mg‡qi g‡a¨ we‡iva wb®úwË Kiv| †Kvb `vex Av`v‡qi
†¶‡Î Av‡cvl wggvsmv bv n‡j kªwgK‡`i Kg© weiwZi AwaKvi i‡q‡Q| hw` GB Kg© weiwZ 30 w`‡bi
†ewk nq Z‡e miKvi Zv wbwl× Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges wb®úwËi Rb¨ kªg Av`vj‡Z cvVv‡Z cv‡i| hw`I
mv¤cÖwZK eQi¸‡jv‡Z Ggb wKQy N‡Uwb|
†`‡ki Bwc‡RW¸‡jv‡Z miKvi mxwgZ AvKv‡i Bwc‡RW kªwgK msMVb Ges wkí m¤úwK©Z
Aa¨v‡`k (Bwc‡RW AvBb) Aby‡gv`b K‡i‡Q| †`‡ki 8wU Bwc‡RW‡K kªwgK wb‡qvM AvBb, wkí
m¤úwK©Z Aa¨v‡`k, KviLvbv AvBb BZ¨vw`i evB‡i †i‡L‡Q hv kªwgK‡`i msMwVZ n‡Z, Zv‡`i `vex`vIqv Av`v‡q Ges Zv‡`i b¨vh¨ gRyix, cvIbv, wbivcËv, ¯^v¯’¨ BZ¨vw` wel‡q †mv”Pvi nIqv cÖwZnZ
K‡i‡Q| Bwc‡RW KZ©v e¨w³iv Lye †QvU AvKv‡i GB me welq Bwc‡RW Aa¨v‡`‡k cÖwZ¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb|
Bwc‡RW KZ…©c¶ Worker Represenation and Welfare Committee (WRWC) m`m¨‡`i
Ab¨ WRWC m`m¨‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z †`qwb, GgbwK Zv‡`i QywUi mgq¸‡jv‡ZI| A‡bK
KviLvbv gvwjK WRWC m`m¨‡`i PvKzixPz¨Z K‡i‡Qb †ecRv wbe©vnx †Pqvig¨v‡bi AbygwZ e¨wZ‡i‡K
hv AvBb ewnf©~Z| 1jv b‡f¤^i cÖ‡qvMK…Z Bwc‡RW AvBb Abyhvqx kªwg‡Kiv msMVb Ki‡Z cvi‡e, hvi
AvBbx ˆeaZv _vK‡e niZvj Kivi, `vex Av`v‡qi Rb¨ wmweG wb‡qv‡Mi Ges Ab¨vb¨ kªwgK msMV‡bi
39

mv‡_ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi| eQ‡ii †k‡l Bwc‡RW KZ©v e¨w³iv Bwc‡RW GjvKvq †Kvb kªg Av`vjZ ¯’vcb
K‡iwb Ges kªwgK‡`i Awf‡hvM †`qv ev AvBbx mn‡hvwMZv †bevi †Kvb Dcvq †bB|
†g Ges Ryb gv‡m XvKv Bwc‡R‡W kªwgK Am‡š—vl †`Lv †`q| ZLb Bwc‡RW KZ©v e¨w³iv
kªwgK‡`i bvbv iKg fq-fxwZ †`Lvq, B”QvgZ Zv‡`i AvU‡K iv‡L, kªwgK Ges WRWC m`m¨‡`i
h‡_”Q PvKzixPy¨Z K‡i †ecRvi wbe©vnx cwiPvj‡Ki Aby‡gv`b QvovB| hv cy‡ivcywi AvBb ewnf~©Z|
M. †Rvic~e©K ev eva¨Zvg~jK kª‡gi wbwl×KiY : GB AvBb wkïmn eva¨Zvg~jK kªg‡K wbwl× K‡i,
hw`I miKvi Kvh©Kifv‡e GB AvB‡bi e¨envi K‡iwb| KviLvbv, †`vKvb Ges ¯’vcbv m¤úwK©Z
Aa¨v‡`‡k cwi`k©‡bi e¨vcviwU ivLv n‡q‡Q wkï ev †Rvic~e©K kª‡gi e¨envi‡K AbyrmvwnZ Kivi Rb¨|
wKš‘ Gi cÖ‡qvM wQj AcÖZzj| eo ms¯’v¸‡jv‡Z †Rvic~e©K kª‡gi e¨envi †`Lv hvqwb, wKš‘ evmv evwo‡Z
wkïmn †Rvic~e©K kª‡gi cÖPzi e¨envi †`Lv hvq, hv A‡bK mgq kvixwiK AZ¨vPvi GgbwK g„Zz¨ ch©š—
Movq| Kv‡Ri †jv‡Ki Dci kvixwiK wbh©vZ‡bi AmsL¨ wi‡cvU© cvIqv hvq| ‡mme M„nKZ©v ev KΩx
Kv‡Ri †jvK‡`i kvixwiK wbh©vZb K‡i miKvi Zv‡`i wei“‡× kvw¯—g~jK e¨e¯’v †bq| A‡bK Mixe
cwievi UvKv-cqmvi wewbg‡q wbh©vZ‡bi e¨vcviwU Av‡cvl K‡i †d‡j| bvix I wkï cvPvi G eQiI
GKwU mgm¨v wQj|
N. wkï kªg wbwl× Ges PvKzixi me©wbæ eqm : Kv‡Ri cÖKvi‡f‡` Ges wkïi eqm Abyhvqx cÖPzi
AvBb i‡q‡Q| Pig `vwi`ªZvi Kvi‡Y A‡bK wkï Lye Aí eq‡m KvR Ki‡Z ïi“ K‡i| 2003 mv‡j
miKv‡ii RvZxq wkï kªg I ch©‡e¶Y wi‡cvU© Abyhvqx cuvP †_‡K 14 eQi eq‡mi g‡a¨ cÖvq 3.2
wgwjqb wkï 200 iK‡gi wfbœ wfbœ Kv‡R wjß| Òwkï‡`i Rb¨ SzuwKc~Y© Kg©‡¶Î wPwýZKiYÓ welqK
GKwU mgx¶vq ILO cÖKvk K‡i †h 45wU SzuwKc~Y© Kg©‡¶‡Î 22 jvL Kg©Pvixi g‡a¨ 5,32,000 wkï
kªwgK KvR K‡i hv‡`i eqm cuvP †_‡K 17-i g‡a¨| GB Rixc PjvKvjxb mg‡q †Kvb wkï‡K RvnvR
fvOv wkí, ZvgvK KviLvbv, KxUbvkK ˆZwi KviLvbv Ges AvZkevRx KviLvbvq KvR Ki‡Z †`Lv
hvqwb| †h mg¯— SzuwKc~Y© KviLvbvq wkï‡`i Kg©iZ cvIqv †M‡Q †m¸‡jv n‡jv : KivZ Kj (Saw
mill), e¨vUvix wiPvR© KviLvbv, XvjvB KviLvbv, B¯úvZ KviLvbv Ges Qy‡Zvi KviLvbvq
(carpentry)| GB wi‡cv‡U© Av‡iv ejv nq Kg©iZ Ae¯’vq wkïiv cÖvqB kvixwiK wbh©vZ‡bi m¤§ywLb
nq| cÖvmw½Kfv‡eB wi‡cvU©wU‡Z ejv nq ïUwK gvQ cÖwµqvKiY wk‡í eQ‡ii Afv‡ei cuvPwU gvm nvRvi
nvRvi Mixe wkïiv KvR K‡i Ges eo‡`i Øviv wbM„wnZ nq| miKvi GB wb‡qvM e‡Ü I HB wkï‡`i
A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’vi DbœwZK‡í c`‡¶c †bq Ges AZ¨vPvix wb‡qvMKvix‡`i kvw¯— †`q|
cÖPzi wkï evmv-evwo‡Z KvR K‡i| miKvi gv‡S gv‡S AZ¨vPvix M„nKZ©v ev KÎx©i wei“‡×
AvBbvbyM e¨e¯’v †bq| AvBb Abyhvqx `k eQi eqm ch©š— A_ev K¬vm dvBf ch©š— cÖ‡Z¨KwU wkïi ¯‹z‡j
hvIqv eva¨Zvg~jK| wKš‘ GUv‡K me©‡Zvfv‡e djcÖm~ Kivi †Kvb †KŠkj miKvi MÖnY K‡iwb| RvZxq
kªg KwgwU Awf‡hvM K‡i †h, nvi‡f÷ wiP G›UvicÖvBR bvgK GKwU cÖwZôvb Zvi Mv‡g©›Um& KviLvbvq
wkï kªwgK wb‡qvM K‡i‡Q| wKš‘ cÖwZôvbwU G Awf‡hvM A¯^xKvi K‡i| ißvbxgyLx Mv‡g©›Um& wkí Qvov

40

Ab¨vb¨ †¶‡Î wkï kªg AvBb h_vh_fv‡e cvjb Kiv nq bvB| wkï kª‡gi RwigvbvI wQj AwZ bMb¨
Pvi †_‡K `k Wjvi (228 †_‡K 570 UvKv)| †ewkifvM wkï kªg wb‡qvwRZ wQj K…wl mn wewfbœ cÖKvi
†QvU LvU wk‡í †hLv‡b miKv‡ii †Kvb `„wó wQj bv| bZzb kªg AvBb ˆZwii Av‡M PvKzwii ˆea eqm
wewfbœ †m±‡i wewfbœ iKg wQj hv 12 †_‡K 16 eQ‡ii g‡a¨ DVvbvgv KiZ| bZzb AvBb Abyhvqx 15
eQ‡ii bx‡P †h †Kvb ai‡bi PvKzix wbwl×|
O. Kv‡Ri MÖnY‡hvM¨ kZ© : RvZxq †Kvb me©wbæ gRywi wbw`©ó Kiv bvB| RvZxq gÄyix †evW©
gv‡S gv‡S wewfbœ wk‡íi †eZb fvZvw` kªwgK‡`i `¶Zvi Dci wbf©i K‡i wVK K‡i †`q| †ewkifvM
†¶‡Î cÖvB‡fU †m±‡i GB †eZb KvVv‡gv D‡c¶v Kiv nq| Mv‡g©›Um& wk‡íi †¶‡Î †QvU †QvU
KviLvbv¸‡jv‡Z IfviUvBg Kiv‡bv, †`wi‡Z †eZb †`qv BZ¨vw` wbZ¨ ‰bwgwËK NUbv| Bwc‡RW
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