You are on page 1of 93

a'gufwm at? trf? abum M.A., Ph. D., D. Litt., Bar-atLaw, D. Sc., M.L.C.

, tdE´d,w&m;0efBuD;csKyfa[mif; u ar;í
bdu©Lt&d,"r® B.A u ajzMum;aom

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

2

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

3

tdE´d,w&m;0efBuD;csKyfa[mif;
a'gufwm at? trf? abum

M.A., Ph. D., D. Litt., Bar-at-Law, D. Sc.,
M.L.C.,
u ar;í

q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r® B.A (Ak'¨0d[m& bHkbdkif)
ajzqdkaom

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

(bmoma&;qdkif&m pmaycGifhjyKcsuf trSwf 7317)

yOörtBudrf

tkyfa& 4000

1974 Edk0ifbmv

ta&mif½dkuf umvmarmif0if; yHkESdyfwkduf
ykHESdyfol/xkwfa0ol
a&T[oFmyHkESdyfwdkuf (0100) 92? 93-vrf;? &efukefwGif OD;ausmfnGefYu wm0efcHyHkESdyfí
0if;armfOD;pmayjzefYcsda&; (0223) trSwf 511? ukefonfvrf;? &efukefrS OD;wifarmifu xkwfa0onf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

5

rmwdum
q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®\ tw¬KyÜwåd .................................................................................................... 6
ar;cGef;trSwf (1) ................................................................................................................................ 15
ar;cGef;trSwf (2) ................................................................................................................................. 19
ar;cGef;trSwf (3) ................................................................................................................................ 23
ar;cGef;trSwf (4) ................................................................................................................................ 26
ar;cGef;trSwf (5) ................................................................................................................................ 32
ar;cGef;trSwf (6) ................................................................................................................................ 35
ar;cGef;trSwf (7) ................................................................................................................................ 40
ar;cGef;trSwf (8) ................................................................................................................................ 42
ar;cGef;trSwf (9) ................................................................................................................................ 44
ar;cGef;trSwf (10) .............................................................................................................................. 48
ar;cGef;trSwf (11) .............................................................................................................................. 51
ar;cGef;trSwf (12) ............................................................................................................................... 53
ar;cGef;trSwf (13) .............................................................................................................................. 62
ar;cGef;trSwf (14) ..............................................................................................................................68
ar;cGef;trSwf (15) ..............................................................................................................................70
ar;cGef;trSwf (16) .............................................................................................................................. 72
ar;cGef;trSwf (17) .............................................................................................................................. 74
ar;cGef;trSwf (18) ..............................................................................................................................75
ar;cGef;trSwf (19) ..............................................................................................................................77
ar;cGef;trSwf (20)............................................................................................................................... 81
ar;cGef;trSwf (21) ............................................................................................................................... 83
ar;cGef;trSwf (22) ...............................................................................................................................90
ar;cGef;trSwf (23) ............................................................................................................................... 91

6

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®\ tw¬KyÜwåd
0if;armfOD;pmtkyfwkdufu þAk'¨bmomt,l0g'ESifhqdkif&musrf;i,fudk bmomjyefay;&efpmrludk vmay;aom
tcg uRefawmf\pdwfxJwGif q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®\tajzusrf;ESifhrS vmNyD; awGUrSawGYwwfyav[k
atmufarhrd\/ a'gufwmtrfabumESifhtjcm;aomynm&Sifyk*¾dKvfwdkYu ar;jref;avQmufxm;Muaom Ak'¨
bmom ESifh ywfoufonfhar;cGef;wdkYudk wOD;wnf;'kdifcHajz&Sif;awmfrlonfh bHkbdkifNrdKUAk'¨0d[m& ausmif;xdkif
"r®uxdu q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®onf uRefawmfESifh awmifwGif;BuD;q&mawmf t&SifOuú|xHwGif Ak'¨
tbd"r®mESifh urÇmhxif&Sm;onfhbmomt,l0g'wdkYudkqnf;yl;avhvmbufjzpfygonf/ odkY q&mawmf t&Sif
Ouú|xHü bmomt,l0g'wdkYudk twlwlavhvmcJhMuonf[kqdkaomfvnf; uRefawmfonf xdktcsdefu Ak'¨
tbd"r®mESifhtjcm;bmomt,l0g'wkdYudkavhvmumrwårQomavhvmcJh\/ 4if;aemuf bmoma&;udk ab;z,f
xm;NyD; ,cktcsdefxdEdkifiHa&;qdkif&mtbd"r®mESifh tawG;tac: t,ltqwdkYudkomwzufowfavhvmcJhrd\/
xdkYaMumifh t&Sift&d,"r®uJhodkY bmoma&;udkom aZmufcsNyD; avhvmcJhonfh yk*¾dKvfwdkYvdk bmoma&;qdkif&m
A[kokwr<u,f0aMumif; 0efcHygonf/ rnfokdYyifjzpfap t&Sift&d,"r®\ bmoma&;qdkif&m t,l0g'
tm;vHk;wdkYudkrluRefawmfvufrcHEdkifyg/ ol\t,ltqrsm;ESifhuRefawmf\t,ltqrsm;onf tvGefuGmvSrf;
aeygNyD/ awmfvSefaom Ak'¨tbd"r®m q&mxl;wql jzpfawmfrlonfh q&mawmft&SifOuú|ESifhrl tcsdef
umvESifh wGufqíajym&aomf t,ltqcsif; w&mpkacwfpmrQ tvSrf;uGmíaeNyD[k qkd&ygrnf/ odkY&mwGif
Ak'¨t,l0g'? [dE´Lt,l0g'? c&pf,meft,l0g'? r[mar'ift,l0g' ponfh urÇmhbmom t,l0g'rsm;udk
olYae&mESifhol oufqdkifovdk A[kokw <u,f0jynfhpHkpGmESifh &J&J&ifh&ifh ydkif;jcm;a0zef oHk;oyfjyxm;onfh
t&Sift&d,"r®\ bmoma&; tajzusrf;i,fudk jzpfuwwfqef; bmomjyefívnf; rjzpf? jyefvnf;
rjyefxdkuf? jyefvnf;rjyef0Hhojzifh vGefcJhonfhoDwif;uRwfvu q&mawmf t&SifOuú|oDwif;oHk;awmfrl&m
awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKU ewfrSDawm&ausmif;odkY þusrf;i,ftwGif;rS cuf&mcufqpf t,ltqESifh a0g[m&
toHk;tEIef;wdkYudk wdwdususodEdkif&ef oGm;a&mufíavQmufxm; ar;jref;&ygawmhonf/
odkY q&mawmf t&SifOuú|xHokdY oGm;a&mufqnf;uyfvdkuf&onfhtwGuf uRefawmfarQmfrSef;cJhonfxuf ydkí
tusdK;tjrwfxGufcJhygonf/ xdkxGufcJhonfhtusdK;tjrwfum; t&Sift&d,"r®\ tw¬KyÜwådudk wdwdusus
odcJh&jcif;yifjzpf\/ odkYwdwdususod&onfhtwGuf q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®udk ,cifuxufydkrdkí MunfndK
av;pm;rdvmcJh\/ olum; Ak'¨omoemhtusdK;udk o,fydk;aqmif&Guf&if; tar&duwdkuf ruúqDudkjynfü
ysHvGef awmfrlcJh&m ol\tw¬KyÜwådonf ydkíyif pdwf0ifpm;bG,f&m aumif;vmygonf/
t&Sift&d,"r®\ tw¬KyÜwådudka&;&vQif awmifwGif;BuD;q&mawmf t&SifOuú|taMumif;ESifh q&mawmf t&Sif
Ouú| xlaxmifawmfrlcJhonfh awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKU Ak'¨omoemjyK trsdK;om;ausmif;taMumif;rygbJ rjynfhpHk
Edkifyg/ tu,fí a&;cJhygvQif qefrxnfhbJ xrif;tdk;wnfouJhodkYom &Sdygacsrnf/
1933 ckESpfu jzpf\/
uRefawmfonf awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKU q&mawmft&SifOuú|\ Ak'¨omoemjyKausmif;ü q&mawmf\ wkdif;jynf
ESifh vlrsdK;twGufomru Ak'¨omoemtwGuf tvGefjrifhrm;vSonfhapwemESifh vkyf&yfwdkYudk MunfndKvS
ojzifh ukodkvfjzpfq&mtjzpfjzifh tvkyfvkyfvsuf&Sd\/
xdkpOfu q&mawmf\ausmif;wGif ausmif;om; (400)ausmf&Sd\/ (awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKU tpdk;&txufwef;
ausmif;ü ausmif;om; 250 avmufom &Sdao;\/) xdkausmif;om;wynfhrsm;xJü OD;yOÆif;rsm;? omraPrsm;
ESifh a,musfm;uav;ESifh rdef;uav;rsm; yg0ifMu\/ þwynfhrsm;udk pmayoifMum;ydkYcsonfh &[ef;q&m
(15) yg;ESifh vlq&m? q&mr (6)a,muf aygif; (21)a,muf&Sd\/ tcsdKUu tcsdefydkif;ESifh wm0ef,l jyMu\/
tcsdKUu waeYvHk;vHk;jyMu\/ uRefawmfum; tjcm;pD;yGm;a&;ESifhywfoufí rnfonfh tvkyfudkrQ vkyfol

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

7

wa,muf r[kwfojzifh oifMum;jyoonfhtvkyfudkomr[kwfbJ ausmif;ESifhywfoufonfh ½Hk;vkyfief;wkdYudk
vnf; q&mawmf\twGif;a&;rSL;taejzifh wm0efxrf;aqmif&ao;\/ ausmif;zGifhcsdefwGif q&mawmfESifh
wdkifyifNyD; tcsdefydkif;ESifh tvkyfvkyfMuonfh vlq&m? q&mrwdkYtm; olwdkY wm0ef,l EdkifMuonfhtcsdefudk
ar;jref;nd§EdIif;NyD; wausmif;vHk;twGuf tcsdefZ,m;rsm;udk a&;qJG&\/ þtvkyfum; q&mtcsif;csif; nd§&?
eHeufydkif;? aeYv,f ydkif;ESifh udkufnDonfh bmom&yfrsm;udk a&G;cs,f&ESifh tawmf OD;acgif;cJ&onfh tvkyf
jzpf\/ tcsdKU&[ef;q&m (em,uq&mawmf) wkdYum; wzufu q&mawmhfxHrS olwdkY vdkcsifonfh ouú#?
[dE´Lbmompmay wkdYudkvnf;aumif;? tjcm;ynm&yfwkdYudkvnf;aumif; aomufpdkYMu&if; wzufu
ausmif;om;wynfhrsm;tm; pmayydkYcsonfhtvkyfwdkYudk xrf;aqmifMu\/ xdkYaMumifh ausmif;zGifhptcsdefü
þuJhodkYaom yk*¾dKvfrsdK; rsm;rsm;<uvmMuygap [k ESpfpOf qkawmif;aecJh&\/
e,kefvqef; ausmif;zGifhNyD;cgpwaeYü OD;yÍÆif;wyg;onf ausmif;odkYa&mufvm\/ uRefawmfum; txufu
azmfjycJhonfhtvkyfuwzuf? pmoifjyydkYcs&onfhtvkyfuwzufjzifh rtm;rvyfbJjzpfae&onfuwaMumif;?
uRefawmfwdkYausmif;wGif bmoma&;udk a[majymrnfh"r®uxdursm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;? txl;ojzifh
wkdYArmtpnf;t½Hk;0if ocifrsm;uvnf; wnf;p&m cdkp&mr&SdvQif tcsdefra&G;? tcgra&G; vma&mufwnf;cdk
aeus jzpfonfuwaMumif; wdkYaMumifh xdkaeYu tqdkygOD;yÍÆif; a&mufvmonfudk *½krjyK tav;rxm;
rdyg/ nae ausmif;qif;csdef q&mawmfu ac:ojzifh oGm;&m q&mawmfu ...
]]a[h wdkYausmif;rSm txufwef;t*Fvdyfbmomjyr,fh q&mwa,mufawmh wdk;jyefNyDuG/ OD;yÍÆif;wyg;uG/
'gayr,fh olYudk (2)csdef? (3)csdefxufawmh ydkNyD; wm0efray;eJY}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]bmjyKvdkYvJ q&mawmf/ usef;rma&;u odyfraumif;vdkY tcsdefrsm;rsm;r,lEdkifvdkYvm; bk&m; }}
q&mawmf/ / ]]r[kwfygbl;uGm? olu Ak'¨tbd"r®mudk ighqDrSm avhvmcsifao;w,fwJhuG/ olu bHkbdkifNrdKU
pdefYaZ;AD;,m;aumvdyfausmif;u bDat atmifcJhw,f/ txufwef;awGrSm t*FvdyfbmomawGudk aumif;
aumif; jyEdkifygvdrfhr,f/}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]Armpum;aum wwf&Jhvm;bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]tr,f wwfygw,fuG/ Armvdkawmif Ak'¨bmomw&m;udka[mEdkifao;w,f}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]bJGYuawmhaum bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]t&SifO*¾Ho wJhuG}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]wifyghbk&m;? 'Dvdk Armpum;udk aumif;aumif;wwfw,fqdk&if 7wef;vJ wcsdefay;xm;&if
&rSm aygh bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]at; ay;vdkY&ygw,fuGm}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]'Dvdkqdk&if wynfhawmf 7wef;eJY 9wef;rSm wcsdefpD xnfhxm;vdkufyghr,f bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]at;? aumif;NyD}}

okdYESifh uRefawmfonf xdkt&SifO*¾Houdk b,folvJb,f0gvJqdkwmod&atmif oGm;írawGYawmhbJ q&mawmf
teD;rS cGmcJhNyD; ausmif;atmuf ½Hk;cef;odkYjyefvmum tcsdefZ,m;rsm;udk jyefíjyifqifvdkufygonf/
aemufwaeYeHeuf ausmif;okdYoGm;aomtcgrS t&SifO*¾Houdk,fawmfudk oHCmawmfrsm;vufzuf&nf0dkif;ü
awGYjrif&ygawmhonf/ oufawmftm;jzifh 30 ywf0ef;usifwGif &Sdvdrfhrnf[k xif\/ t&SifO*¾Ho um; t&yf
jrifhjrifh? udk,fum, taetxm;tm;jzifh ydefvnf;rydef? 0vnf; r0yg/ trSeftm;jzifh t*Fvdyfukvm;ujym;

8

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

jzpf\/ okdYaomf tom;rjzLyg/ tdE´d,om; ukvm;aoG;u ydkírsm;avovm;rod? ndKpdrfhpdrfhyif jzpfae\/
rsufvHk; tenf;i,fjyL;\/ okdY&mwGif olwyfxm;onfh rsufrSefrSm tenf;qHk; 'D*&D 400 ausmf &Sdrnf
xif\/ aq;jyif;vdyftawmfBudKuf\/ vufu cscsif[efyifr&Sdacs/ pum;ajymvQif tm;&yg;& xufxuf
oefoef ajymwwf\/ tjiif;tcHk tacstwifajym&vQif rMumrDtwGif; a'gojzpfvmwwf\/ toHum;
atmifjrifvS\/
xdkYaemuf uRefawmfonf OD;yÍÆif; OD;O*¾HoESifh cifrif&if;ESD;vmygonf/ rcifrif r&if;ESD;ívnf; rjzpfEdkifyg/
q&mawmfonf ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; A[kokwjzpfyGm;ap&efESifh y&dówfa&SUwGif pum;ajymaumif;?
w&m;a[maumif;olrsm; jzpfvmMuap&ef wvvQif ESpfBudrfus ausmif;vHk;uRwf pum;&nfvkyJGudk usif;y
ay;\/ xdkpum;&nfvkyJGrsm;ü ajymMuonfhpum;&yfrsm;rSm EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? ynma&; ponfhta&;wdkYESifh
pyfqkdifonfhpum;&yfrsm;omjzpfMu\/ wzufESifh wzuf tacstwifajym&mü ausmif;q&m q&mrrsm;?
em,u q&mawmfrsm;? OD;yOÆif;rsm;? omraPrsm;ESifh ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;yg yg0ifMu&\/ xdkenf;
twl q&mawmfhxHwGifbmomt,l0g'trsdK;rsdK;udk wckESifhwck ,SOfwJGavhvmMuolrsm;tzdkY bmom t,l0g'
tcsif;csif;udk wzufESifhwzuf,SOfNydKifí aqG;aEG;apygonf/ Oyrm - wzufu c&pf,mef bufrS aeNyD;
c&pf,mefbmomuaumif;aMumif;? rGefjrwfaMumif;ajymí tjcm;wzufu Ak'¨bmomuaumif;aMumif;?
rGefjrwfaMumif;? rSefuefaMumif; pum;0dkif;zJGYíajymMu&\/ tjcm;bmomt,l0g'wdkYudkvnf; þenf;
twdkif;yif pum;0dkif;zJGYNyD; tacstwif aqG;aEG;Mu&\/ odkY ajymqdkaqG;aEG;Mu&mü rdrdwdkY avhvmxm;
Muaom pmtkyfrsm;rS tcsuftvufwdkYudk udk;um;aqG;aEG; ajymqdkMu&\/ wcgw&H [maeaom
tuGufrsm;&Sdu q&mawmfudk,fwdkifaxmufjyí vdktyfonfhtcsuftvufwkdYudk jznfhpGufay;\/ þenf;jzifh
uRefawmfonf OD;yÍÆif; t&SifO*¾HoESifh cifrif&if;ESD; cJhygonf/ þae&mü t&SifO*¾Ho\ 0goemESifhtusifhudk
tcGifhoifhonfhtavsmuf azmfjyvdkygonf/ OD;yÍÆif;onf Ak'¨bmombufokdY ul;ajymif;umpvnf;jzpf?
Ak'¨bmomudk tvGefMunfndKav;pm;olvnf;jzpfojzifh Ak'¨bmombufrS tNrJwrf;ajymavh&Sd\/ okdY
ajym&müvnf; wzufESifhwzuf bmoma&;ESifh ywfoufí tavhtusifh&Sdatmif aqG;aEG;aeMuonf
[laomtcsufudk arhavsmhum vufoD;vufarmif; wef;vsuf a'gowBuD; ajymwwf\/
t&SifO*¾Ho a&mufNyD; 3? 4&ufavmuftMumwGif q&mawmfu uRefawmfhtm;
]]a[;? wdkY&SifO*¾Houdkawmh awmfawmf ZmwfoGif;,l&vdrfhOD;r,fa[h}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]bmZmwfoGif;,l&rSmvJ bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]wkdYZmwfxJudkayghuG? igjzifh ola&mufvmwJhaeYupNyD; nn aumif;aumif;udk rtdyf&bl;uGm}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]bmjyKvdkYvJ q&mawmf}}
(t&SifO*¾Hoonf q&mawmfESifhwausmif;wnf;aeí q&mawmf\ukwifajc&if;rS olYukwifudk uefYvefY
xm;í oDwif;oHk;\/)
q&mawmf/ / ]]tdk rif;ES,f wnvHk; y&dwfBuD;udk okwfukef&Gwfw,fuG/ NyD;awmhvnf; arwåmydkYao;w,f/
*gxmawGudk pnf;vnf; csao;w,fuG/ tJ'Dawmh nwdkif;nwdkif; em&Djyef 1csuf 2csufxdk;avmufrScsnfh
tdyf &awmhw,f}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]'gjzifh wynfhawmfwdkYZmwfxJ0ifwm r0ifwmu ta&;rBuD;bl; bk&mh? nn q&mawmf
apmapm usdef;&zdkYu ta&;BuD;w,f}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]at;uGm? 'gayr,fh ighrSmvnf; olYudk cRwfaezdkY tcsdefu odyfr&Sdbl;uG}}

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

9

xdkaemuf q&mawmfonf naevrf;avQmufxGufaomtcg t&SifO*¾Houdkac:í awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKU ta&SU
buf uefabmifay:ü vrf;avQmufawmfrlygonf/ þuJhodkY q&mawmfESifh t&SifO*¾HowdkY vrf;avQmufí
(10) &ufavmuf&NyD; weHeufoü vufzuf&nfyJGwGif q&mawmfu oHCmhem,uq&mawmfrsm;ESifh
ausmif;q&m? q&mr wkdYtm;
]]uJ ukd,fawmfawGa&m? q&m? q&mrrsm;yg 'DuaeY 'DtcsdefupNyD; t&SifO*¾Houdk t&Sift&d,"r®vdkY
ac:Muayawmh}} [k NyHK;NyHK;BuD; rdefYawmfrlvdkuf&m uRefawmfwdkYtm;vHk; tHhtm; toifhBuD;oifhrdMu\/
]]bmjyKvdkY 'D t&Sif O*¾HobJGYuaeNyD; t&Sift&d,"r®bJGUudk ajymif;vdkufygvdrfh}} [laomtar;onf
uRefawmf\ OD;aESmufudk tBuD; tus,f tvkyfay;vmygawmhonf/
okdYESifh uRefawmfonf þykpämtwGuf tajz&atmif q&mawmfESifh ESpfOD;csif; rawGYawGYatmifBudK;pm;NyD;
]]q&mawmf? OD;yÍÆif;OD;O*¾Hou bmrsm;pdwful;aygufNyD; OD;t&d,"r®vdkY bJGUajymif;vdkuf&ygvJ bk&mh?
b,fu aA'ifq&meJYrsm;awGYvdkY ,Mwmacsvdkufwmwkef; bk&mh}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]BuHBuHzefzef rifhES,f b,fu aA'ifq&meJYawGY&rSmvJuG/ 'D t&d,"r® qdkwJhbJGUu
igay;wJhbJGYyg uG? olu 'DO*¾Ho qdkwJhbJGYudkrBudKufawmhbl;wJh? igBudKufwJhbJGUudk a&G;NyD;ay;&r,fqkdvdkY
iguay;&wJhbJGUuG}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]ol &[ef;jzpfpOfu olY OyZÑm,fq&mawmfawGu ay;vdkufwJhbJGUudk olu tckrS
bmvdkYrBudKuf awmhwmwJhvJ bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]'DvdkuG? OD;O*¾Ho[m tvGefpdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;w,f/ waeYu igrif;udk ajymygyaum/ ol
nn awmifvkyfajrmufvkyf avQmufavQmufvkyfvGef;vdkY aumif;aumif;udk tdyf&w,fr&Sdbl;vdkY}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]wifygh? tckawmh b,fvdkjzpfoGm;wkef; bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]tck tJ'DtpJGawG uRwfoGm;NyD/ 'gaMumifh 'DtpJGawGeJY wygwnf;ygvmwJh O*¾Ho qdkwJhbJGYudkyg
pGefY NyD; vlopfwa,muf jzpfvmwJhtaeeJY bJGYajymif;csifwmayghuGm}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]vlopfwa,mufjzpfvmatmif q&mawmfu b,fvdkzefwD;ypfvdkufvdkYvJ bk&mh}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]ighrSmvnf; olYudk 'DtpJGawGuRwfavmufatmif tcsdef,lNyD; w&m;ra[mEdkifawmh b,fvdk
vkyfNyD; cRwf&yghrvJvdkY tawmf pOf;pm;&ao;w,f/ aemufawmh igu olYudk vrf;avQmufac:ac:oGm;NyD;
vrf; avQmuf&if; Ak'¨w&m;tppfw&m;trSefudk wjznf;jznf; a[m,l&w,fuG/ aemufqHk;awmh (Sir
Edwin Arnold) qmtuf'Giftm;Edk; a&;wJh ]]tm&Swdkuf&Jhvif;a&mifjcnf}} (Light of Asia) qdkwJh
pmtkyfxJu
"Pray not! The darkness will not brighten! Ask Nought from the Silence, for it cannot
speak! Vex not your mouthful minds with pious pains! Ah! Brothers,Sisters, seek.
Nought from the helpless gods by gifts and hymn, Nor bribe with blood, nor feed with
fruit and cakes, within yourselves deliverance must be sought. Each man his Prison
makes."

udk &GwfjyNyD; olYudk tusufcdkif;w,f/ oabmeJYtESpfom&udkvnf; xkwftMunfhckdif;w,f/ tJ'Dvdkckdif;awmh
'D y&dwf&GwfwmawG? *gxmrTef;wmawG? pnf;cswmawGqdkwJh tpJGawG tukefjyKwfukefawmhwmyJuG}}
'Dpmykd'fav;&Jh t"dyÜm,ftusOf;uawmh ...
qkrawmif;vifh/ tarSmifxku vif;vmvdrfhrnfr[kwf/ qdwfNidrfxkrSvnf; qkrawmif;vifh/
qdwfNidrfxkum; pum;rajymEdkif/

10

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

oifwdkY\ NidKjiifyifyef;aeonfh pdwf"mwfwdkYudk bk&m;w&m;udkMunfndKonfh 'ku©qif;&JwkdYjzifh
taESmuft,Suf rjyKygvifh/
tdk nDawmfaemifawmf ESrawmfwdkY/ tm;udk;&mrJh
"r®*DwoDqdkjcif;wkdYjzifh rcdkudk; Muygvifh/

ewfodMum;wdkYxHwGif

ylaZmfjcif;?

,mZfewfylaZmfjcif;? opfoD; rkefYyJoa&pmwkdYjzifh ylaZmfyojcif;trIwdkYudkvnf; rjyKygvihf/
vGwfajrmufrIudk toifwkdY cE¨mudk,ftwGif;rSmyif &SmazGMuukefavmh/
vlwdkif;vlwdkif; udk,fhtusOf;axmifudk ukd,faqmufwnfaejcif;om jzpf\/
(bmomjyefqdkolY trSm)
uRefawmf/ / ]]OD;t&d,"r®[m 'DtpJGawGudk b,fursm;&cJhygvdrfh q&mawmf}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]tdk 'DtpJGawGudk &cJh,Hkwif b,furvJuG? olYcrsm &[ef;jyK&wmawmif vG,fvG,feJYjyKcJh&wm
r[kwfbl;uG/ b&if*sDbmomuaeNyD; Ak'¨bmomudk ul;vmcJhwJhvl qdkawmh Ak'¨bmomudk wu,fwrf;
pJGvef; ,HkMunfwJhvlrdkY cHEdkifwmayghuGm}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]bmrsm; vkyfcJh&ao;owJhvJ bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]tdk Ak'¨bmomudk vdkvm;oltjzpf zdk;olawmfb0eJY wESpfavmufaecJh&w,fuG/ tJ'Daemuf
t&H ygwD0if omraPtjzpfeJY wESpfavmuf ae&jyefw,f/ tJ'DvkdaeNyD;rSygwD0iftjzpf &[ef;jyK cJh&
owJhuG/ 'DMum; xJ eruúm&awG? y&dwfBuD;awG? arwåmydkYawG? *gxmrEå&m;awGudkvnf; usuf& &Gwf&
ao;wmayghuGm}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]ol q&mawmfhqDudk b,fuaeNyD; b,fvdkqufrdvdkY a&mufvmwmvJ bk&mh}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]olu jzL;bufrSm &[ef;vmjyKwmuG/ olu Ak'¨tbd"r®mudk ygVdvdkawG bmawGxuf
t*Fvdyfvdk avhvmcsifwJhpdwfu ydkrsm;aeawmh t*FvdyfbmomeJY Ak'¨bmomudk avhvmEdkifzdkYae&mudk
&SmaewmayghuGm/ tJ'Dawmh awmifil avmukwå&m odrfukef;q&mawmf t&Sifuk@vu ighqD
vTwfvdkufwmeJYa&mufvmwmyJ}}
uRefawmf/ / ]]q&mawmf OD;uk@veJY q&mawmfwdkY tawmf&if;ESD;Muvm; bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ / ]]at;? i,fi,fu &wemyifpnfausmif;rSmtwlwlaecJhw,f/ BuD;awmhvJ rEÅav;
r[m0dok'¨m½Hk wkdufrSm pmtwlwloifcJh&w,fuG}}
(&wemyifpnfausmif;um; awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKU\ ta&SUajrmufzuf wrdkifcefYwGif&Sdonfh awm&ausmif;
jzpf\/ ,ck q&mawmf &SifOuú| oDwif;oHk;aeawmfrlonfh ewfrSDawm&ESifh wzmvHkcefYuGm\/ awmifil
avmukwå&m odrfukef;q&mawmf t&Sifuk@vonf ausmufuGif; Ak'¨bmomESifh c&pf,mefbmom 0g'
NydKifyJGwGif Ak'¨bmom bufrS em,u q&mawmftjzpfESifh wm0ef,lcJhygonf/ / bmomjyefqkdol
pum;csyf)/
þenf;jzifh t&SifO*¾Hoonft&Sift&d,"r®jzpfvmcJh\/ olonf t&SifOuú|xHwGif Ak'¨bmom t,l0g'
omru urÇmwGif ,aeYxif&Sm;ausmfMum;vsuf&Sdonfh [dE´L? c&pf,mef? r[mar'if ponfh bmomBuD;rsm;
ESifhqkdif&m usrf;*efrsm;? cuf&mcufqpf tcsuftvufrsm;udkyg tm;xufoef&m avhvmqnf;yl;cJh\/
xdktwGif; jynfc½dkif 0ufxD;uefteD; ausmufuGif;&Gmü Ak'¨bmomESifh c&pf,mef bmomwdkY
0g'NydKifyJGusif;y&efudpö ay:aygufcJh\/ þudpö ay:vmojzifh atmifvHNrdKU Ak'¨ omoemjyK ausmif;rS
ausmif;tkyfq&mawmf OD;"r®meE´onf q&mawmftm; bmoma&;0g'NydKifyJGjzpfbkdY&ef tajctaeodkY

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

11

qkdufa&mufaeaMumif;? q&mawmfudk,fwdkif Ak'¨bmombufrS wm0ef,lNyD; a[majymrnfqdkvQif þNydKifyJG
jzpfajrmufatmif pDpOfay;vdkaMumif; udk,fwdkifvma&muf avQmufxm;av\/ þtaMumif;udk q&mawmfu
ausmif;rS em,uq&mawmfrsm;ESifh q&m? q&mrrsm;udk ac:,lajymjyaomtcg tm;vHk;u 0rf;yef;wom
jzpfMu\/ tm;vHk;u ,ckyJGonf q&mawmf\pGrf;&nfowådukd jy&rnfh yJGjzpfaMumif;odMu\/ q&mawmfom
Ak'¨bmombufrS0ifí a[majymvdkufvQif Ak'¨bmombufrS rvJGraoG atmifyJGcH&rnfudkvnf; tcdkiftrm
,HkMunfxm;Mu\/ xdkYaMumif; 0rf;tomBuD;omaeMujcif;yif r[kwfwHkavm/
þuJhodkY 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpfaeMuolrsm;teuf olrsm;wumxuf raeEdkifrxdkifEdkifavmufatmif? £a E´
rqnfEdkifavmufatmif 0rf;omaeolum; t&Sift&d,"r®yifjzpf\/ olonf q&mawmftm; ...
]]'DyJGrSm wynfhawmfyg ygyg&ap/ wynfhawmfu c&pf,mefvlxGufyg/ wynfhawmfudk,fwdkifu c&pf,mef
bmom u xGufNyD; Ak'¨bmombufudk bmaMumifhul;ajymif;vm&ovJ qdkwmudk jyefNyD;ajymvdkuf&&if
wynfhawmf wkdYu tEdkif&rSmyJ bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ ]]at;? udk,fawmfu c&pf,mefxJu xGufNyD; Ak'¨bmomjzpfvmovdk c&pf,mefbufrSmvnf; Ak'¨
bmom &[ef; pmwwfaywwfawGu xGufNyD; "r®q&mawG vkyfaeMuwmvnf; &Sdao;w,f/ 'gayr,fh
udk,fawmfeJYawmh olwdkYeJY &nf&G,fcsufjcif;? arQmfrSef;csufjcif; rwlMubl;aygh/ 'DyJGrSm udk,fawmfhudk
b,favmuf xdatmif avhvmqnf;yl;rdNyDqdkwm od&atmif rSwfwifMunfh&rSmaygh}}
xdkYaemuf q&mawmfonf 0g'NydKifyJGodkYcsDwuf&ef olYwyfudk olwmplygawmhonf/ olYwyfxJwGif yg0ifonfh
olrsm;rSm t&Sifokw? t&Sifa&0w? t&Sift&d,"r®? awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKUrS jrefrmynm&Sd q&mBuD;OD;uGefYESifh
uRefawmf wdkYjzpfMu\/ uRefawmfum; a[majym&efr[kwf/ q&mawmf\ twGif;a&;rSL;taejzifh vkdufyg&ef
jzpf\/ okdYESifh q&mawmf\wyfzJGYonf awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKUrSxGufcJhMu\/ t&Sift&d,"r®onf pdwftm;vnf;
tvGefxufoef? Ak'¨bmomudk olwyg;uxdyg;ajymqdkvQifvnf; tenf;i,frQ rcHEdkifwwfojzifh q&mawmf
u olYtm; wvrf;vHk; a'gorBuD;&ef owday;cJh&\/
ausmufuGif;0g'NydKifyJGonf uRefawmfwdkY arQmfrSef;cJhMuonfxuf ydkí BuD;us,fpnfum;\/ xdkyJGwGif
uRefawmf wkdY arQmfrSef;cJhMuonfxuf ydkí ajymifajrmufonfh atmifyJGudkvnf; qifEJTEdkifcJhMu\/ xdkYaMumifh
uRefawmfwdkY tm;vHk; 0rf;tajrmufBuD;ajrmufMu\/ t&Sift&d,"r®um; rdk;rjrifavrjrifEdkifavmufatmif
yDwdvdIif;jzifh zHk;vsuf &SdacsNyDwum;/
odkY 0g'NydKifyJGrS jyefvmMuNyD;aemuf 0g'NydKifyJGwGif q&mawmf\ bmomt,l0g'a&;qdkif&m A[kokwwdkYrSm
[if;av;tdk;BuD;ozG,f pm;rukefay;rcef;Edkifavmufatmif jynfh0aMumif; ydkrdkí xif&Sm;odvmojzifh
t&Sift&d,"r® onf ,cifuxufyif q&mawmftm; MunfndKtm;udk;vmjyefygonf/
xdktwGif; q&mawmfOD;avmuemx\ tdE´d,odkYajcvsif<u&ef oHCmhtzJGYonf ay:aygufvmcJh\/ t&Sif
t&d,"r®onf þtzJGYwGifvdkufvkdvSojzifh q&mawmftm; tcGifhjyKyg&efavQmufxm;&m q&mawmfu
vG,fvifhwulESifhyif tcGifhjyKvdkufygonf/ odkY&mwGif t&Sift&d,"r®onf rsm;rMumrD jyef<uvmojzifh
uRefawmfu olYtm; ...
]]OD;yÍÆif;? b,fhES,faMumifh rvdkufbJ jyef<uvmwmwkef; bk&m;}} [k avQmufxm;aomtcg olu ...
]]OD;yÍÆif;wdkY OD;avmuemxeJY 0g'csif;rwlbl;/ tJ'Dawmh wJGvdkYrjzpfwmeJY rvdkufbJ jyefvmcJhwmyJ}} [k
jyefí ajzygonf/
xdkYaemuf q&mawmf t&SifOuú|xHrSmyif bmoma&;qdkif&m pmayusrf;*efwkdYudk avhvmjyefygonf/ þum;
'kwd,tBudrfjzpf\/ xdktwGif; waeYü bHkbdkifNrdKU Ak'¨bmomtoif;BuD;udkxlaxmifolESifh Ouú|vnf;jzpfol
a'gufwmem,m;xHrS q&mawmftm; xdktoif;BuD;rS wnfaqmufvSL'gef;xm;onfh Ak'¨0d[m&ausmif;BuD;ü

12

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ausmif;xdkif "r®uxduq&mawmftjzpfjzifh <ua&mufoDwif;oHk;awmfrl&ef yifhpmwapmif a&muf&Sdvm
ygonf/ q&mawmfrSm wzufrS Ak'¨omoemjyKyk*¾dKvfrsm;tjzpfjzifh jrefrmjynfa'o tESHUtjym;odkY apvTwf
&ef oHCmrsm;tm; t*FvdyfbmomESifh Ak'¨bmomusrf;*efwdkYudk ykdYcsjcif;ESifh wzufuvnf; NAdwdoQ
e,fcsJUorm;u olY t*Fvdyfpmudk wefbdk;BuD;BuD; jr§ifhxm;NyD; vl*kPfwef vl&nfwwfwdkY om;orD;rsm;udkom
oifMum;apvsuf ausmif;xGufvQif olYuRefjzpfatmif zefwD;aeonfhpHepfudk wkdufzsuf&ef? xGefwHk;udkpD;NyD;
v,fuefoif;BudKuefoif;Mum;wGif EGm;ausmif;aeMuonfh aus;vufrS EGm;ausmif;om;rsm;ygrusef t*Fvdyf
bmomudk oifay;í NAdwdoQe,fcsJUorm;udk awmfvSefMurnfh awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;jzpfvmatmif zefwD;&ef
Ak'¨omoemjyK trsdK;om;ausmif;BuD;udk zGifhvSpfoifMum; ydkYcsjcif; [laom wm0efESpf&yfjzifh rtm;rvyf
EdkifaomaMumifh a'gufwmem,m; vlpk\qE´twdkif; r<uEdkifacs/ xkdYaMumifh t&Sift&d,"r®tm; ...
]]uJ &Sift&d,"r®? a[m'Du a'gufwmem,m;wdkYvlpk&JU pmudk zwfMunfhprf;ygOD;}}
t&Sift&d,"r®onf pmudk,lzwfNyD;aemuf tvGeftm;&oabmuspGmjzifh ...
]][m q&mawmf&Jh ynmÓPf*kPfowif;udkMum;vdkY yifhwm? q&mawmfeJY tawmfqHk;yJbk&mh/ [kdrSm bmom
aygif;pHkeJY ,SOfNydKifa[m&? ajym&r,fh tcGifhta&;awGudk &rSmbk&mh/ q&mawmf <uom<uawmfrlyg}}
q&mawmf/ ]]udk,fawmfhtjrifeJY udk,fawmfu <uapcsifwmuawmh [kwfygw,f/ 'Dausmif;BuD;eJY 'Dvkdbmom
a&; t,ltqawGa&m pmayawGudkyg vma&mufoifMum;aeMuwJh OD;yÍÆif;awGtwGuf b,folu wm0ef,l
rSmvJ/ NyD;awmh ausmufuGif;0g'NydKifyJGBuD; NyD;uwnf;u bmoma&;qdkif&m tar;awGudk ajz& &Sif;&?
[dku'Du yifhvdkY oGm;NyD; a[m&ajym&eJY em;&w,fawmifr&Sdbl;/ tJ'Dawmh 'DtvkyfawG wdk;vdkYwef;vef;eJY
xm;vdkYrjzpfbl; udk,fawmf}}
t&Sift&d,"r®/ ]]'gjzifh 'Dudpöudk q&mawmf b,fvdkpDrHrvJ bk&m;/ r<uEdkifbl;vdkYbJ pmjyefvdkuf
awmhrSmvm;}}
q&mawmf/ ]]udk,fwdkif<uzkdY qdkwmuawmh udk,fawmfjrifwJhtwkdif;yJ rjzpfEdkifbl;/ tdE´d, bHkbdkifNrdKUuaeNyD;
Ak'¨omoemudk jyKzdkYuvnf; tcGifhtcgaumif;wckyJ/ tJ'Dawmh udk,fawmfhudk wynfhawmfhudk,fpm;
vTwfvdkuf csifw,f/ udk,fawmf <urvm;}}
t&Sift&d,"r®/ ]]jzpfyghrvm;q&mawmf/ wynfhawmftaeeJYtjcm;bmomawGeJYNydKifvdkY jzpfEdkifygOD;rvm;
bk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ ]]jzpfEdkifygw,f/ udk,fawmfhrSm tajccHawmfawmf aumif;oGm;NyDyJ/ a&SUqufavhvm&if jzpfEdkifyg
w,f/ b,fhES,fvJ? udk,fawmfoabmwl&if a'gufwmem,m;qDudk udk,fawmhfudk wynfhawmf&Jhudk,fpm;vS,f
tjzpfeJY vTwfvdkufr,fvdkY pmjyefvkdufr,f}}
t&Sift&d,"r®/ ]]'DudpöeJYywfoufvdkYuawmh q&mawmfyJ qHk;jzwfygbk&m;/ wynfhawmftaeeJYuawmh q&m
awmfu oifhawmfw,f? jzpfEdkifavmufw,fqkdNyD; vTwfvdkuf&if oGm;ygw,fbk&m;/ tultnDvdktyfwJh
tcgrSmvnf; q&mawmfhqD pmay;NyD; tultnDawmif;&rSmayghbk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ ]]'gawGuawmh
pmjyefvdkuf½HkyJ}}

jzpfEdkifygw,f/

uJ

udk,fawmfoGm;r,fqdk&if

a'gufwmem,m;qDudk

þuJhodkY ajymNyD;aemuf q&mawmfonf a'gufwmem,m;wdkYxHodkY oludk,fwdkif bHkbdkifNrdKUodkY r<uEdkifaMumif;?
odkY&mwGif udk,fpm;vS,fwyg;apvTwfonfudk vufcHrnfjzpfygu t&Sift&d,"r®udk apvTwfrnfjzpfaMumif;
ESifh wuG t&Sift&d,"r®\ tw¬KyÜwådtusOf;csKyfESifh tjcm;vdktyfonfhtcsuftvufwdkYudk tjynfhtpHk a&;
om;í pmwapmif jyefMum;vdkufygonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

13

rsm;rMumrDtwGif; a'gufwmem,m;wdkYxHrS q&mawmfhxHodkY t&Sift&d,"r®udkyif olYudk,fpm; apvTwfzdkY&ef
pm ESifhwuG c&D;p&dwf aiG 200d a&muf&Sdvm&m q&mawmfu t&Sift&d,"r®tm; ac:um
]]uJ &Sift&d,"r®? a'gufwmem,m;wkdYqDu udk,fawmfhudk yifhwJhpmeJY c&D;p&dwfaiG 200d awmh ydkYvdkufNyDav/
udk,fawmf<uzdkYom jyifp&m&SdwmawGudk jyifayawmh}}
t&Sift&d,"r®/ ]]wynfhawmfu q&mawmfhwynfhyJbk&m;? oGm;qdkcsufjcif;xoGm;½HkygyJ/ bmypönf;rS
odrf;p&m xnfhp&m r&Sdygbl;bk&m;/ wynfhawmftaeeJYuawmh w,fNyD;roGm;csifvSygbl; bk&m;/ q&mawmfh
tem;rSmyJ qufNyD; ynmqnf;yl;csifao;wmyJbk&m;}}
(t&Sift&d,"r®um; q&mawmfhxHü ynmA[kokwqnf;yl;&mwGif tm;&wif;wdrfrI r&Sdao;acs/)
q&mawmf/ ]]tdk 'gawGuawmh udk,fawmfqufNyD; avhvm&ifjzpfygNyD/ 'DudpöeJYywfoufvdkYawmh ylyifaomu
rsm;raeygeJY udk,fawmf}}
t&Sift&d,"r®/ ]]wifyghbk&m;? q&mawmfu 'DvdktrdefY&Sdjyefawmhvnf; wynfhawmf oGm;tm;&Sdygw,f/
wynfhawmfudk qHk;roGefoifp&m&Sd&if tm;remwrf; qHk;roGefoifygbk&m;}}
q&mawmf/ ]]udk,fawmfhudk txl;oGefoifqHk;rp&mr&Sdygbl;/ oDv (3)yg;udkawmh vHkatmifxdef;&vdrfhr,f/ 'D
oDv(3)yg;udk ususeexdef;Edkif&if ukd,fawmfvkyfcsifwJh Ak'¨omoemjyKvkyfief;[m tdE´d,rSm xajrmuf
atmif jrifrSm trSefyJ}}
t&Sift&d,"r®/ ]]wynfhawmf apmifhxdef;&r,fh oDv(3)yg;u bmawGvJbk&mh/ wynfhawmf q&mawmfajym
orQudk vkdufemyghr,fbk&mh}}
q&mawmf/ ]]uJ udk,fawmf rSwfxm;/ udk,fawmf apmifhxdef;&r,fh oDv(3)yg;[m eHygwf(1)u aq;vdyf
raomufeJY/ eHygwf(2)u pum;enf;enf;ajym/ w&m;pum;udk vmar;rS? aqG;aEG;rS? avQmufxm;rS ajym&
a[m&r,f/ pnfrsm;vdkaygh? rwD;bJeJYrjrnf&bl;/ jrnfae&if oltxifao;wwfw,f/ wD;wJhtcgusrS
yDyDoo [def;aeatmif jrnf&w,f/ aemufqHk; eHygwf(3) oDvuawmh pdwf&Snf&Snfxm;NyD; w&m;udk
aqG;aEG;a[majym &r,f/ onf;cHpdwfarG;NyD; a'goudk csKyfwD;yg/ udk,fawmfhudk olrsm;u a'go jzpfatmif?
a'gojzpf&ifrSm;atmif wdkYwmqdwfwmwdkYudk rcHEdkifbl;/ ao;i,fwJhudpöawGeJY ywfouf&if tavQmhay;yg/
t,ltqeJY oabmw&m; wdkYeJY ywfoufvm&ifawmh BuHUBuHUcdkifcdkif &yfwnf&r,faygh/ uJ wynfhawmf
ajymwmukd oabmaygufNyDvm;}}
t&Sift&d,"r®/ ]]oabmaygufygw,fbk&m;/ q&mawmfu wynfhawmfrSm&SdwJh cRwf,Gif;csufawGudk
wu,fh wynfh&if;wa,muftaeeJY apwemxm;NyD; wdwdusus yGifhyGifhvif;vif; axmufjy a0zef ay;wJh
twGuf tvGefvnf; aus;Zl;wifvSygw,f bk&m;/ waoGrwdrf;vnf; vdkufemusifhoHk;yghr,f bk&m;}}
q&mawmfu þodkYoGefoifp&m&Sdwmudk oGefoif? tBuHÓPfay;p&m&Sdwmudk tBuHÓPfay;NyD;aemuf
q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®onf tdE´d,jynf bHkbdkifNrdKUodkY <uoGm;ygonf/
þuJhodkY tdE´d,jynf bHkbdkifNrdKU Ak'¨0d[m&wGif ausmif;xdkif"r®uxduq&mawmftjzpfjzifh oDwif;oHk;awmf
rlpOf twGif;rSm ,ckþpmtkyfwGifyg0ifMuonfh a'gufwm trf abum trSL;jyKonfh ygarmu©rsm;?
ukefonfBuD;rsm;? c&pf,mefbkef;BuD;? [dE´Lqm'l;BuD; ponfh yk*¾dKvfwdkYar;onfh Ak'¨bmom ESifh
qkdif&mtar;ykpämwkdYudk ajzMum;cJhjcif; jzpfygonf/ odkY Ak'¨0d[m&üoDwif;oHk;aepOftwGif; a'gufwmem,m;
xHrS q&mawmfhxHodkY t&Sift&d,"r® pdwfwdk aMumif;? a'goBuD;aMumif; wkdifpmwapmif a&mufvmojzifh
q&mawmfuolYxHodkY pmwapmifa&;om;ay;ydkYcJh&ao;onf/ xdkYaemuf tdE´d,jynf bHkbdkifNrdKUü (2)ESpfausmfrQ

14

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

oDwif;oHk;í 1938 ckESpfavmufwGif awmifwGif;BuD; q&mawmfhxHwGif bmomt,l0g'rsdK;pHk qkdif&m
ynmA[kokwwdkYudk qnf;uyfavhvmjyefygonf/
odkY avhvm&if;ESifh tar&duwdkufokdY Ak'¨omoemawmfudk oGm;a&mufjyKpkvdkonfh tBuHay:vmjyefojzifh
xdkpOfu tar&dujynfaxmifpk orw ½kpbJh(vf)(wf) xHodkY ]]'g,um orwBuD;wdkYEdkifiHonf
ypönf;Opöm&wemrsm; <u,f0csrf;omonfum; rSef\/ pufrIvkyfief;ESifh odyÜHynmrsm; zHGUNzdK;wdk;wuf\/
odkY&mwGif tvif;a&mifrJhNyD; tarSmifxkzHk;tkyfaeojzifh vlom;wdkY usifhtyfonfh vlUusifh0wf? eDwd"r®wdkY
acgif;yg;aomaMumifh &mZ0wfjypfrI rsm; aMumufzG,fvdvd tajrmuftrsm; usL;vGefvsuf&SdaeMuacsonf/
Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ arwåmu½kPm tvif;a&mifjzifh þtarSmifxkudk NzdKcGif;ygu 'g,umorwBuD;
EdkifiHonf tvGefwifhw,fom,monfh EdkifiHBuD;wEdkifiH jzpfvmacsrnf/ xdkYaMumifh OD;yÍÆif;onf Ak'¨\
om;awmf omoemh0efxrf;wdkY xrf;aqmif&rnfh wm0ef0wå&m;udk odjrifem;vnfonfhtaeESifh vma&mufí
'g,umBuD;wkdYjynfwGif Ak'¨\"r®a&mifjcnfudk xGef;ñdSvdkygojzifh 'g,umorwBuD;u tcGifhjyKEdkif rjyKEdkif
taMumif;jyefMum;&ef arwåm&yfcHtyfygonf}} [lí pmwapmifa&;NyD; ay;ydkYvdkuf&m orw½kpbJh(vf)(wf) u
omoemjyK&ef <uvdkygu<uvmEdkifaMumif;? uefYuGufydwfyifp&m taMumif;r&SdaMumif; pmjyefvdkufyg onf/
orw½kpbJh(vf)(wf)\ þjyefpmudk q&mawmftm; t&Sift&d,"r®u uyfvdkuf&m q&mawmf \ OD;aESmuf
onf ½IyfoGm;av\/ t&Sift&d,"r®udk olYqE´twdkif; tar&dujynfodkY<uvnf;<uapvdk\/ okdY&mwGif
olYudk axmufyHhzdkY&ef c&D;p&dwfum; wjym;rQr&Sdacs/
aemufqHk; b,furQ &SmBuHí&&ef vrf;prjrifawmhonf\ tqHk;ü &efukefNrdKU Ak'¨bmomtoif;rS yk*¾dKvfBuD;
rsm;xH ½kpbJh(vf)(wf)\ pmudkjyNyD; c&D;p&dwf tvSLcH&avawmhonf/ 4if;wdkYxHrS c&D;p&dwfjzifh
tar&dujynfodkY <uí Ak'¨omoemudk qif;qif;&J&J ZGJebJoefoefESifh jyK&if; ruúZDukdjynfrSmyif ysHvGefawmf
rlaMumif; owif;pum; Mum;&\/ b,fenf;b,fyHk ysHvGefawmfrlonfudkrl twdtus rod&ay/
(pmtkyfxJwGif a&;rxm;aomfvnf; q&mawmf t&SifOuú|\ pmrsm;udk tNrJrjywfavhvmzwf½Iolrsm;xHrS
q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®onf ruúqDudkjynfwGif vkyfBuHcH&í ysHvGefawmfrljcif;jzpfaMumif;? pDppfa&;rlt&
xnfhoGif;írjzpfojzifh csefvSyfxm;cJh&jcif;jzpfaMumif; yg;pyfpum; Mum;od rSwfom;zl;ygonf/ twnf
jyKcsuf? taxmuftxm; wpHkw&mr&Sdojzifh xdkowif; rSefrrSef rod&SdEdkifyg/ wifjyol\ pum;csyf )

Ak'¨\om;awmfjrwf tmZmenf armfuGef;urÁnf;xdk;avmufonfh yk*¾dKvfwql ysHvGefawmfrlonfudk b,folrQ
rodvkdufacs/
awmifwGif;q&mawmf t&SifOuú|vnf; vuf½Hk;aumif;wql jyKwfawmfrl&SmacsNyD/
odkY&mwGif t&Sift&d,"r®tpm; Ak'¨\om;awmf tmZmenfyk*¾dKvfxl;wdkYum; tajrmuftrsm; ay:aygufqJ/
awmifwGif;BuD;q&mawmf t&SifOuú| üvnf; t&Sift&d,"r®udk,fpm; vuf½Hk;aumif;rsm; tajrmuftrsm;
&&SdqJyifwum;/
þusrf;i,fudk bmomjyefqdk&mwGif tpp oifjyawmfrlonfh awmifwGif;BuD;q&mawmf t&SifOuú|ESifh
tzufzufrS ulnDMuonfh udkwifatmifESifh udkcifarmifwkwf (vkyfom;aumvdyf) wkdYtm;
aus;Zl;wifygaMumif; rajymí rjzpfEdkifyg [lvdk/

udkudkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)
26? 2? 67

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

15

ar;cGef;trSwf (1)
&Sd&SdorQaomowå0gtm;vHk;onf tewåoabmcsnf;jzpfcJhvQif rnfonfhw&m;onf Zmwdy#doaE¨
wzefjyefí aeygoenf;/ tu,fí 0dnmOfr&SdcJhvQif Zmwdy#doaE¨onf tb,fenf;jzifh wzefjyefí
aeygoenf;/ Ak'¨\ 0g't& Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzefjyefí aejcif;oabmudk tewå odkYr[kwf
0dnmOfrJhw&m;a'oemESifhtnD &Sif;vif; a[mMum;awmfrlyg bk&m;/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - a'gufwm at? trf? abum trfat? yDtdyf(csf)'D? bm;tufavm?
'Dtuf(pf)pD? uG,fvGefol tdE´d,w&m;0efBuD;csKyfa[mif;? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ Ak'¨0g't& Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzefjyefaejcif;oabm[m tvGefeufeJw,f/
&Sif;vif;jyzdkY&mvnf; cufcJw,f/ em;vnfoabmaygufzdkYvnf; cJ,Of;vSw,f/ [dE´L0g' 0dnmOf ul;ajymif;
w,fqdkwJh oabmeJYvnf; vHk;vHk;rwlbl;/ 'gaMumifh 'umBuD; rSefwcsyfudk ,lvmEdkif &ifawmh rSefxJrSm
t&dyfxifvmwJh oludk ½kwfw&uf Zmwdy#doaE¨topfwzefjyefvmwJholtjzpfeJY vufawGY OyrmjyNyD;awmh
&Sif;jyEdkifygvdrfhr,f/
a'gufwm/
(tvGeftHhMooGm;NyD;) touf&Sifvsuf&Sdaeolwa,mufudk Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzefjyefNyD;
aeatmif vkyfEdkifyghrvm; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
Ak'¨&Jh½IaxmifhrSaeNyD; 'Dvdktouf&SifaewJhvl[m Zmwdy#doaE¨jyefaevdkY jzpfEdkifw,fvdkY ajym
&vdrfhr,f/ bmjyKvdkYvJqkdawmh 'D tckawGYjrifae&wJh 'umBuD;wdkY OD;yÍÆif;wdkY&JU ½kyfoP²mefawGrSm taoG;
tom;? t½dk;? taMumqdkwJh ½kyfuvmyfawG[m rsufpdwrSdwf vQyfwjyuftwGif;rSmyif csKyfNidrf; ysufokOf;
aeMuvdkYyJ/ 'D oabmudk ,ck acwfopfodyÜHynmuvnf; [kwfrSefaMumif; 0efcHxm;NyDyJ/
(okdYESifh rSef,lvmaomtcg)
q&mawmf/
('umBuD;tm;ac:NyD;) uJ 'umBuD;? rSefa&SUrSm cP&yfygOD;/ NyD;awmh rSefxJuvleJY
ywfoufwJh ar;cGef;awGudkvnf; owdxm;NyD; ajzygOD;/ uJ 'umBuD;? rSefxJrSm b,folYudkjrifovJ/
'umBuD;/

rSefxJuvl[m wynfhawmfygyJ bk&m;/ wjcm;olr[kwfygbl;/

q&mawmf/

uJ 'gjzifh&if rSefxJuvleJY 'umBuD;[m ESpfa,mufvm;? wa,mufwnf;vm;/

'umBuD;/
(acwåpOf;pm;aeNyD;aemuf) rSefxJuvleJYwynfhawmf[m wa,mufwnf;ygyJ q&mawmf/
'DvlygyJ/ wjcm;vl r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
uJ 'gjzifh&if rSefxJuvlu b,fbufudk rsufESmvSnfhNyD; 'umBuD;u b,fbufudk
rsufESmvSnfh aewkef;/
'umBuD;/
wynfhawmfu ta&SUbufudk rsufESmvSnfhygw,f/ rSefxJuvlu taemufbufudk
rsufESmvSnfh ygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
'umBuD;u ta&SUbufudkrsufESmrlaeNyD; rSefxJuvlutaemufbufudk rsufESmrlaevdkY&Sd&if
'umBuD;eJY tJ'DrSefxJuvl[m wa,mufwnf;? wOD;wnf;yJvdkY b,fhES,fvkyfNyD; 'umBuD; ajymEdkifwmvJ/
'umBuD;/

(tenf;i,ftBuHtdkufoGm;NyD;) wynfhawmftajzudk jyifajzyg&ap q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

ajzEdkifygw,f/

16

'umBuD;/

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

rSefxJuvl[m wynfhawmfr[kwfygbl;/ wynfhawmf&Jh t&dyfyg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
rSefxJuvl[m 'umBuD;awmhr[kwfbl;? 'gayr,fh 'umBuD;&Jh t&dyfyJvdkYqdk&if tJ'Dt&dyfu
'umBuD; vkyforQudk vkdufvkyfEdkifrSmaygh/ [kwf&Jhvm; 'umBuD;/
'umBuD;/

rSefygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'Dvdk 'umBuD;&Jht&dyfrdkYvdkY 'umBuD;vkyforQ tukefvHk;vdkufNyD; vkyfw,fvdkYqdk&if
'umBuD;&Jh t&dyf xifrIyJjzpfwJh? wenf;tm;jzifh 'umBuD;&Jht&dyfyJjzpfwJh "mwfyHka&SUrSm 'umBuD;u vufudk
ajr§mufvdkuf&if 'umBuD;"mwfyHkuvnf; vufudkvdkufNyD; ajr§mufyghrvm;/
'umBuD;/

t&dyfxifxm;wJh "mwfyHkuawmh wynfhawmfvkyfovdk vkdufvkyfrSmr[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'Dvdkqdk&if vlwa,muf&Jht&dyfu tJ'DvlvkyforQ vkdufNyD;vkyfw,fqdkwJh 'umBuD;&Jh
pum;[m rrSefawmhbl;aygh/
'umBuD;/

rrSefygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
uJ 'umBuD;? rSefa&SUrSmcP rwfwwf&yfygOD;/ uJ ... 'umBuD;&Jh nmbufvufudk
ajr§mufNyD; jyefcs vdkufygOD;/ uJ 'umBuD; vkyfovdk rSefxJuvlu vkyfovm;/
'umBuD;/

vkyfygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
uJ 'Dvdk rSefxJuvl[m 'umBuD;vkyfovdk vdkufvkyfvdkY&Sd&if rSefxJuvl[m
"gwfyHkxJuvlvdk 'umBuD;&Jh t&dyfygyJ/ 'umBuD;u r[kwfygbl;vdkYjiif;Edkifyghrvm;/ 'umBuD;u
jiif;aer,fqdk&if y&dówfxJu vlwa,mufudkac:NyD; ar;&OD;rSmvm;/
'umBuD;/
ac:zdkYrvdkawmhygbl; q&mawmf/ rSefxJuvl[m wynfhawmfygyJvdkY wynfhawmf&Jhtajzudk
jyefjyifajz yg&ap q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
uJ OD;yÍÆif;jycJhwJh taMumif;jycsufawGt& rSefxJuvl[m wjcm;vlr[kwfbJ
'umBuD;ygyJvdkYqkd&if 'umBuD;udk OD;yÍÆif; wrsdK;ar;&OD;r,f/ wu,fvdkY rSefudk OD;yÍÆif;u wleJYxkNyD;
cJGvdkuf&if rSefxJuvl[m wcg wnf; aysmufuG,foGm;vdrfhr,f/ tJ'DvdkaysmufuG,foGm;&if
'umBuD;aumwcgwnf;aysmufuG,foGm;rSmvm;/
'umBuD;/

wynfhawmfuawmh b,faysmufuG,foGm;yghrvJ q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'Dvdk rSefxJuvl aysmufuG,foGm;ygvsufeJY 'umBuD;u aysmufuG,froGm;bl;qdkvdkY&Sd&if
'umBuD;eJY rSefxJuvl[m wa,mufwnf;r[kwfawmhbl;/ wjcm;pDaygh/
'umBuD;/
wjcm;pDvnf; r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/ wynfhawmfawmh q&mawmf&Jhar;cGef;awGudk ajzudk
rajzwwf awmhygbl; q&mawmf/ q&mawmfuom Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzefjyefaejcif;qdkwJh oabmudk ykdNyD;
xifxif&Sm;&Sm; odjrifem;vnfatmif &Sif;jyygawmh/
q&mawmf/
rSefxJrSmvmxifwJht&dyf[m
Ak'¨tvdkawmfus
Zmwdy#doaE¨wzefjyefaewJhoabmeJY
wxyfwnf;yJ/ [dE´L0g't& 0dnmOful;ajymif;wJhoabmeJY vHk;0rwlbl; qdkwmudkvnf; xif&Sm;apw,f/
rSefxJut&dyf[m
Zmwd
y#doaE¨wzefjyefaeolonf
uG,fvGefpkawolvnf;r[kwf?
okdYaomf
tjcm;olvnf;r[kwf qdkwJh Ak'¨&Jh pum;eJY vnf; udkufnDw,f/ uJ 'DOyrmudkMunfhNyD;awmh rSefxJrSm
t&dyfxifwJhvl[m rSefa&SUrSm&yfaewJhvl vnf; r[kwf? odkY&mwGif wjcm;olvnf;r[kwf qkdwJh pum;udk
'umBuD; oabmaygufNyD r[kwfvm;/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

17

oAÁnKwÓPfawmf&Sif Ak'¨udk,fawmfwkdif jynfhjynfhpHkpHka[mMum;awmfrlwJh Ak'¨&Jh0g'[m y#dpöorkyÜm'fw&m;
awmf rSm tajcwnfxm;w,f/ NyD;awmh taMumif;w&m;r&SdbJeJY tusdK;w&m;qdkwm ray:aygufEdkifbl;vdkY
twd tvif; jrGufqdkxm;w,f/ Ak'¨0g't& Zmwdy#doaE¨ topfwzefjyefaejcif;oabmeJY qdkifwJh
jyóemrSm 'D y#dpöorkyÜm'fw&m;udk ydkNyD;&Sif;vif;atmif rSefxJuvleJY rSefa&SUrSm&yfaewJhvlawGudk
vufawGYjycJhNyD/ 'Dae&mrSm rSefa&SUrSm&yfaewJhvlu taMumif;w&m;yJ/ rSefxJrSmvmxifwJht&dyfu tusdK;
w&m;yJ 'umBuD;/
wenf;tm;jzifhqdk&&if rSefxJut&dyf[m rSefa&SUuvl&Jh Zmwdy#doaE¨wzefjyefaewJhvlyJ/ 'gayr,fh rSefxJu
t&dyfeJY rSefa&SUuvl[m wa,mufwnf;yJvdkYqkd&ifrSm;vdrfhr,f/ 'DvdkrqdkEdkifayr,fh rSefxJut&dyf[m rSefa&SU
uvl r[kwfbJ wjcm;vlvdkYvnf; rqdkEdkifbl;/ 'gaMumifh 'Dt&dyfeJY vl[m bmvJvdkYar;&if tckeu
ajymcJhovdk wcku taMumif;w&m;jzpfNyD; wcku tusdK;w&m;jzpf&vdrfhr,fvdkYyJ qkd&r,f/
Ak'¨0g't& Zmwdy#doaE¨ topfwzefjyefaejcif;oabm ydkNyD; &Sif;onfxuf&Sif;atmif orkwdopömeJY
y&rw¬ opöm qkdwJh w&m;ESpfyg;udkvnf; qef;ppfbdkY vdkao;w,f/ orkwdopömqdkwmu 'DurÇm
avmuBuD;eJYwuG bHk toD;oD;rSm&SdwJh owå0gawG? w&m;pkawGudk rsufpd? em;? ESmacgif;? vQm? udk,f? pdwf
pwJh w&m;pkeJY jrif? Mum;? erf;? pm;? awGY? xd? cHpm;&wJhtwdkif; trSefwu,f [kwfw,fvdkY ,lqxm;wJh
opömw&m;yJ/ 'Dopömw&m;t& tMuifvlwOD;wa,mufu ig[m igwdkY&Jh ukodkvf aumif;rIaMumifh
igaovdkY&Sd&if
ewfbHkudka&mufvdrfhr,fvdkY
ajymEdkifw,f/
'gayr,fh
'Dopömw&m;[m
wu,fhopömw&m;r[kwfbl;/ vl? ewf? jA[®m qdkwJh yk*¾dKvfwOD;OD; [m wu,fomwnf&Sdr,fqkd&if tJ'D
cE¨mudk,f½kyfaumifBuD;[m olYudk,fol xdef;odrf;Edkif&r,f/ rtdk&bl;? rem&bl;? rao&bl;/ wu,fvdkY
'DcE¨mudk,f½kyfaumifwdkif;rSm rlvADZuwnf;u tdkrif;jcif;? ysufpD;jcif;? emjcif;? aojcif;qkdwJh
oabmawGygvmMuw,fqkd&if 'Dw&m;pkawG[m tedpöaygh/ rNrJbl;/ tdkrif;jcif;? emzsm; jcif;? aoqHk;jcif;
qdkwmawGuvnf; 'ku© qif;&Jjcif;aygh/ aemufqHk; rtdkatmif? rematmif? raoatmif rvkyfEdkifbl;
qkdwmawGuvnf; tewåyJ/ bmrQ tESpfom&r&SdwJhoabmyJ/
y&rw¬opömurS wu,fh opömw&m;jzpfw,f/ 'Dw&m;t& b,fcE¨mudk,f½kyfaumifrS r&Sdbl;/ b,furÇm?
b,fbHk&,fvdkYrS r&Sdbl;/ ½lyu©E¨m? a0'eu©E¨m? onu©E¨m? ocFg&u©E¨m? 0dnmPu©E¨m qkdwJh
cE¨mig;yg;om&Sd w,f/ 'DcE¨mig;yg;rSty tjcm;aom owå0g&,fvdkYrS r&Sdbl;/ opömav;yg;udk
rodrjrifwJhol? 'DjrifhjrwfwJhw&m; pkudk tav;*½krjyKol? em;rvnfolwdkYuom 'D½kyfw&m;awGudk igh&Jh
cE¨mudk,fvdkY pJGrSwfMuw,f/ 'Dvdk ½kyfw&m; awGudk igh&Jh cE¨mudk,fvdkYyJ pJGrSwfMuovdk a0'eu©E¨mwkdY?
onu©E¨mwdkY?
ocFg&u©E¨mwkdY?
0dnmPu©E¨mwdkYudkvnf;
olydkifw&m;awGyJvdkY
pJGrSwfMuw,f/
'DpJGrSwfcsufawGudk t&if;cHNyD; twåtpJG? twåw&m;awG ay:aygufvmMu wmyJ 'umBuD;&Jh/
'gaMumifh Ak'¨&Jh0g't& Zmwdy#doaE¨ topfwzefjyefaejcif;qkdwJh oabmt& twdwfb0u cE¨mig;yg;[m
taMumif;w&m;jzpfNyD; ypöKyÜefb0rSm&SdwJh cE¨mig;yg;u tusdK;w&m;jzpfw,f/ wzef ypöKyÜefb0u
cE¨mig;yg;[m taMumif;w&m;jzpfNyD; a&SUtem*wfb0rSm jzpfay:vm&r,fh cE¨mig;yg;[m tusdK;w&m;
jzpf&r,f/ 'gayr,fh twdwfb0u cE¨mig;yg;w&m;awGeJY ,ck ypöKyÜefb0rSm&SdwJh cE¨mig;yg;w&m;awG[m
twlwlyJvdkYqdk&ifrSm;r,f/ wzef twdwfb0u cE¨mig;yg;w&m;awGeJY uif;vGwfwJh wjcm;cE¨mig;yg;
w&m;awGjzpfw,fvdkYqkd&ifvnf; rrSefbl;/ bmjyKvdkYvJqdkawmh ,ck ypöKyÜefb0rSm&SdwJh cE¨mig;yg;w&m;awGeJY
tJ'D cE¨mig;yg;w&m;pkwdkY&Jh vIyf&Sm;rI? jyKvkyfrIawGuaeNyD; tem*wfb0rSm cE¨mig;yg;w&m;awG ay:vm
&rSmudk; 'umBuD;&Jh/ tJ'Dawmh b,fw&m;[m Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzefjyefaeovJ qkdwJh jyóem[m &Sif;oGm;NyD
r[kwfvm; 'umBuD;/

18

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

½lyu©E¨mw&m;awG? a0'eu©E¨mw&m;awG? onu©E¨mw&m;awG? ocFg&u©E¨mw&m;awG? 0dnmPu©E¨m
w&m;awG 'Dw&m;awGxJu b,fw&m;rS rSefxJudk0ifoGm;wm rjrif&bl;/ 'gayr,fh rSefa&SUrSm&yfaewJhvludk
rSefxJrSm wax&mwnf; vHk;0OóHk tukefjrifae&w,f/ rSefa&SUuvlubmvkyfvkyf? rSefxJuvlu
wckrusef wdwdusus tukefvkdufvkyfw,f/ b,favmuf vkdufvkyfovJqdkawmh tem;uMunfhaewJh
vluawmif rSef xJuvleJY rSefa&SUuvl[m wa,mufwnf;yJvdkY ajym&w,fr[kwfvm;/ wu,fawmh
rSefxJuvleJY rSefa&SUuvl[m wa,mufwnf;vnf; r[kwfbl;? wjcm;vlvnf; r[kwfbl;/ uJ 'umBuD;?
Ak'¨0g't& Zmwd y#doaE¨ topfwzefjyefaejcif;oabmudk oabmaygufoGm;NyDvm;/
'umBuD;/

q&mawmf vufawGYOyrmay;NyD; &Sif;vif;jywJhtwGufoabmaygufem;vnfygNyD/

xdkaemuf w&m;emy&dówfxJrS 'umBuD;wa,mufu xí ...
'D Zmwdy#doaE¨aejcif;oabmeJYywfoufvdkY tckvdk em;vnfoabmaygufatmifa[majymjywmudk 'Dwcg
yxr qHk; Mum;em&ygw,f/ Mum;em&wJhtwdkif;vnf; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; em;vnfoabmaygufygw,f
q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
(ar;cGef;&Sif a'gufwm attrf abum bufvSnfhum) uJ 'umBuD;? Ak'¨0g't& Zmwd
y#doaE¨ wzefjyefaewJhae&mrSm 0dnmOf qdkwmawGYao;&Jhvm;? wenf;tm;jzifh twåqdkwJhw&m;udk awGYao;
&Jhvm;/
'umBuD;/
rSefyg? 0dnmOfwdkY? twåwkdYqkdwJhw&m;awG[m vlawG&JhpdwfawGay:rSm zHk;tkyfaewJh
t0dZÆmw&m;aMumifh wu,f&Sdw,fvdkY xifjrifaeMu&wJh w&m;awGygyJ q&mawmf/ 'Dw&m;awG[m a&S;
orm;½dk;us ,HkMunf,lq vmcJhMuwJhw&m;awGyg/ ,ckawmh uG,faysmufukefygNyD q&mawmf/ wynfhawmf
ar;wJh ar;cGef;udk auseyf&Sif;vif;atmif q&mawmf a[mMum;NyD;ygNyD/ wynfhawmf&Jhar;cGef;udk q&mawmfu
tewå&JhoabmeJY &Sif;vif; atmif ajzqdkNyD;ygNyD/ om"k q&mawmf? om"k om"k/

y&dówftm;vHk;onf q&mawmf\ajz&Sif;csufudk oabmusojzifh om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muukefavonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

19

ar;cGef;trSwf (2)
uH\tusdK;w&m;aMumifh Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzefjyefíae&onf [laomtcsufudk &Sif;jyEdkifygrnfavm
q&mawmf/ xdk uH\tusdK;w&m;onf tMuifyk*¾dKvfwOD;wa,muf rpkawrD tb,ft&yf? tb,fXmewGif
wnf&Sdaeygoenf;/ þ uH\tusdK;w&m;udk q&mawmf jyEdkifygrnfavm/
(uH\tusdK; [laompum;ESifh ur®0dygu pum;onf twlwlyifjzpfygonf/ rSwfcsuf)
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - a'gufwm at? trf? abum trfat? yDtdyf(csf)'D? bm;tufavm?
'Dtuf(pf)pD? uG,fvGefol tdE´d,w&m;0efBuD;csKyfa[mif;? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ uH&Jh tusdK;w&m;? wenf;tm;jzifh um,uH? 0pDuH? raemuHwkdY&Jh
tusdK;w&m;[m vufeJY udkifzrf;vdkYvnf; rjzpfbl;? rsufpdeJYMunfhvdkYvnf; rjriftyfbl;/ 'DuH&Jh tusdK;w&m;
qdkwm[m uHqkdwJh w&m;&Jh yifudk,f tEko,tm;omvQif jzpfw,f/ taMumif;w&m; wkdif;rSm tusdK;w&m;
&Sdwmcsnf;yJ/ tck a[m'D y&dówfrSm&SdaewJhvlwdkif;vlwdkif;[m twdwfb0u uH taMumif;w&m;aMumifh
pGr;f&nfowådtrsdK;rsdK;? *kPfowådtrsdK;rsdK;? pdwfaeoabmxm;trsdK;rsdK;? tusifhpm&dwåtrsdK;rsdK;? ywf0ef;usif
trsdK;rsdK;eJY ½kyfvu©Pm trsdK;rsdK; uJGjym;aeMu&w,f/ 'g[m twdwfb0uuH&Jh rsufjriftusdK;w&m;awGyJ/
'DuHw&m;&Jh t"duaphaqmf wdkufwGef;rI[m apwemESifhwuGaom pdwfjzpfw,f/ ½dk;½dk;ajymaeqkdaeuspum;eJY
ajym&r,fqdk&ifawmh ]]&nf&G,fcsuf}} vdkYyJ ac:&rSmaygh/ ,ckrsufjrifavmu w&m;½Hk;awGrSmvnf;
]]&nf&G,fcsuf}} udk t"duxm;NyD; w&m;pD&if aeMuwmyJ r[kwfvm; 'umBuD;/
'umBuD;/
,ckrsufarSmufb0rSm awGYBuHKcHpm;aeMu&wJh uH&JhtusdK;udkawmh wynfhawmfwdkY
,HkMunfhygw,f q&mawmf/ 'DtusdK;w&m;aMumifh tcsdKUu vpmawG? tjrwfawG? qkawG&NyD; wcsdKU
tjypf'PfawGcHMu&wm vnf; rsufjrifudk,fawGYygyJ q&mawmf/ 'gayr,fh ,ckrsufarSmufb0&Jh
uHtaMumif;w&m;aMumifh tem*wf b0rSm Zmwdy#doaE¨ topfwzefjyefaejcif; qdkwmudkawmh
r,HkMunfEdkifbJ
jzpfaeygw,fq&mawmf/
wu,fvdkY
uH&JhtusdK;w&m;aMumifh
Zmwdy#doaE¨
wzefjyefae&w,fqdkwJhoabmeJYyJ
,HkMunfvufcHxm;OD;
awmh
'DuH&JhtusdK;w&m;[m
tMuifolwOD;wa,mmuf touf&SifaepOfumvtwGif; OD;acgif;xJrSmyJ udef;0yf aeovm;? OD;aESmufxJrSmyJ
udef;0yfaeovm;? tonf;ESvHk;xJrSmyJ udef;0yfaeovm;? 0rf;Adkuf xJrSmyJ udef;0yfaeovm;?
vufawGxJrSmyJ udef;0yfaeovm;? olYtem;rSmyJ udef;0yfaeovm;qdkwm odvkdvSygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
tif; 'DcufcJeufeJwJhjyóemudk yHkyrmeJY&Sif;jyrSyJ 'umBuD;em;vnfoabmaygufrSmqdkawmh
uH&Jh tusdK;w&m;[m tMuifolwOD;wa,muf rpkawrcsif; rnfonfhae&m? rnfonfhXmerSm
udef;0yfaew,f qdkwm OyrmeJY&Sif;jyr,f/ uJ 'umBuD;? ESvHk;oGif;ayawmh/
Oyrm? vlwa,muf[m ntcsdefpma&;csifw,fwJh/ tJ'Dawmh ol[m za,mif;wdkif wwdkifudkxGef;w,f/
NyD;awmh pm&Gufw&Gufudk,lw,f/ tJ'Daemuf riftdk;xJrSm rifwHudkpdkufNyD; pmwapmifudka&;w,f/ tJ'Dvdk
pma&;NyD;wJhaemuf ol[m riftdk;awG rifwHawGudk odrf;NyD;awmhum rD;rIwfNyD;tdyfvdkufw,f/ pdwfeJYcE¨mudk,f
qdkwJh rifwHeJYriftdk;udkvnf; odrf;vdkufNyD/ apwemeJYwlwJh rD;udkvnf; Nidrf;vdkufNyD/ aemufqHk; um,uHrIeJY
wlwJh vufuvnf; ra&;awmhbl;/ &yfvkdufNyD/ 'gayr,fh tusdK;w&m;qdkwJh pm[mawmh [kdpm&Gufay:rSmyJ
&Sd aew,f r[kwfvm;/ tJ'DtusdK;w&m;[m ESpfumv&Snfvsm;pGm wnf&SdaeOD;rSmaygh/ tJ'DvdkyJ
uH&JhtusdK;w&m; [mvnf; xdkolaoonftxd wnf&SdaeNyD; Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzefjyefaeapwmaygh 'umBuD;/

20

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

'umBuD;/
'DudpörSmawmha&;vdkufwJhpm[mpm&Gufay:rSmwifNyD;usefaecJhawmh rsufjrifjzpfNyD;&Sif;ygw,f
q&mawmf/ 'gayr,fh uH&JhtusdK;w&m; udef;0yfwJhae&mXmeeJYywfoufvdkYawmh r&Sif;ao;bl; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/

uJ 'gjzifh 'umBuD;udk OD;yÍÆif;u ar;&OD;r,f/ 'umBuD; ajzygOD;/

'umBuD;/

rSefygh? ajzyghr,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

av[m b,fae&mrSm udef;0yfaeovJ 'umBuD;/

'umBuD;/

b,fae&mrSmrS rudef;0yfygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
av[m b,fae&mrSmrS udef;0yfraeaomfvnf; wu,fuawmh &SdovdkyJ uH&Jh tusdK;w&m;
[mvnf; udef;0yfwJhae&mr&Sdaomfvnf; tMuifolwOD;wa,muf pkawonftxd&SdaeNyD; xdkoludk Zmwd
y#doaE¨ wzefjyefaeapw,f 'umBuD;/
'umBuD;/
wynfhawmfjzifh q&mawmftckay;wJhOyrmeJYvnf; 'Djyóemudk&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; em;rvnf
ao;ygbl; q&mawmf/ uH&JhtusdK;w&m;aMumifh Zmwdy#doaE¨wzefjyefae&w,f qdkwJh oabmeJYywfoufvdkY
r,Hk w0uf? ,Hkw0uf jzpfaeygao;w,f/ tJ'Dawmh 'Dxufxif&Sm;jywfom;wJh Oyrmudk aqmifawmfrlygOD;
q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
'Dvdk xif&Sm;jywfom;wJh Oyrmudk aqmif&atmif 'umBuD;udk OD;yÍÆif;u jyefNyD; ar;cGef;
xkwf& vdrfhr,f/
'umBuD;/

xkwfawmfrlyg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

'umBuD;rSm ynmt&nftcsif;eJYywfoufvdkY bJGUb,fESpfbJGU &SdygovJ/

'umBuD;/

ynmt&nftcsif;eJYywfoufvdkY wynfhawmfbJGU ig;bJGU&xm;ygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

tJ'DbJGYawGudk ajymjyprf;ygOD; 'umBuD;/

'umBuD;/
'DbJGUawGuawmh trfat? yDtdyf(csf)'D? 'Dtuf(pf)pD? 'Dvpf(wf) eJY bm;tuf(wf)avm
bJGUrsm; jzpfygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/

'DbJGUawGudk&atmif 'umBuD; b,fESpfESpfMumatmif BudK;pm;&ovJ/

'umBuD;/

'DbJGUtm;vHk;udk&zdkY&ef tESpfoHk;q,favmufBudK;pm;cJh&ygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

tckeu 'umBuD;ajymcJhwJh bJGUig;bJGUvHk;[m 'umBuD;rSm &Sdovm;/

'umBuD;/

wynfhawmfrSm 'DbJGUig;bJGUvHk; &Sdygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'umBuD;rSm 'DbJGUig;bJGUvHk;eJY ywfoufwJh t&nftcsif;awG&Sdr,fqdk&if tJ'D t&nftcsif;
awGxJu 'Dtuf(pf)pDbJGU (odyÜHynmyg&*lbJGU) &Jh t&nftcsif;awGudk a&G;xkwfNyD;awmh OD;yÍÆif;udk jyprf;yg/
'umBuD;/
(acwåcPrQpOf;pm;NyD;aemuf) 'DodyÜHynmbJGUeJYywfoufwJhvufrSwfudk wynfhawmf xkwfjy
Edkifygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
OD;yÍÆif;u 'umBuD;[m a'gufwm trfabumvdkY wdwdusus rajymEdkifbl;/ tJ'Dawmh
'umBuD;u pm&Gufpmwrf;awG? vufrSwfawGudk xkwfjyvdkY tydkyJ/ OD;yÍÆif;wdwdususvdkcsifwmuawmh
'umBuD;rSm&SdwJh 'D odyÜHynmyg&*lbJGUeJYqkdif&m t&nftcsif;awGudkom vdkcsifwmyJ/
'umBuD;/
q&mawmf/

'Dvdk 'DbJGUeJYqkdifwJh t&nftcsif;awGudk oD;oefYxkwfEIwfjyzdkYuawmh vHk;0 rjzpfEdkifygbl;

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

21

q&mawmf/
'umBuD;ajymwJhtwdkif;qdk&if'umBuD;tckeuajymcJhwJhbJGUig;bJGUeJY ywfoufwJht&nftcsif;
awG 'umBuD;rSm r&Sdbl;vdkYbJ OD;yÍÆif; ,lq&awmhrSmaygh/
'umBuD;/
trSefuawmh wynfhawmfrSm'DbJGUig;bJGUeJYywfoufwJht&nftcsif;awG&Sdygw,f q&mawmf/
NAdwdoQ tpdk;&uawmif 'Dt&nftcsif;awG wynfhawmfrSm &Sdw,fvdkY todtrSwfjyKxm;ygw,f/
q&mawmf/
'umBuD;u tckvdk tcdkiftrmajym&ifjzifh 'umBuD;&Jht&nftcsif;awG[m 'umBuD;&Jh
OD;acgif;xJrSm &Sdw,faygh/
'umBuD;/

OD;acgif;xJrSmawmh r&Sdygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

'gjzifh tonf;ESvHk;xJrSmvm;/

'umBuD;/

tonf;ESvHk;xJrSmvnf; r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

'gjzifh 0rf;AdkufxJrSmvm;/

'umBuD;/

0rf;AdkufxJrSmvnf; r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

'gjzifh vufawGxJrSmvm;/

'umBuD;/

vufawGxJrSmvnf; r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

'gjzifh 'umBuD;tem;rSmyJvm;/

'umBuD;/

tem;rSmvnf; r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'umBuD;[m ESpfaygif; 30eD;yg; 'DbJGUig;bJGUeJY ywfoufwJht&nftcsif;awGeJY
jynfhpHkatmifBudK;pm; vmcJh&w,f/ 'Dt&nftcsif;awGeJY jynfhpHkvmwmvnf; ESpfaygif; 20 eD;yg;&SdNyD/
'Dt&nftcsif;awGeJY 'umBuD; [m wu,fjynfhpHkw,fqkdNyD; NAdwdoQtpdk;&u 'umBuD;udk Oya'ynmqkdif&m
aumvdyfausmif;rSm ausmif;tkyfBuD; &mxl;udk ay;tyfcJhw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'umBuD;[m 'umBuD;&Jh
t&nftcsif;awGudk b,frSmodkavSmif xm;w,fqdkwmudk 'umBuD;rajymjyEdkifbl;/ 'D t&nftcsif; awG
b,frSm udef;0yfaew,f qdkwmudkvnf; rajymjyEdkifbl;/ 'gwGifrubl; 'umBuD;rSm tck&SdaewJh
t&nftcsif;awG[m ,ckrsufarSmufb0rSm 'umBuD;&Jh tm;xkwfrI? BudK;pm;rIwdkYrS ay:xGufvm&wJh
tusdK;w&m;awGyJ/ wenf;tm;jzifhajymr,fqkd&if 'umBuD;&Jh rsufarSmufb0uH&Jh tusdK;w&m;awGcsnf;yJ/
'DtusdK;w&m;awGudk'umBuD;[m aoonfhwkdifatmifcHpm;&r,f/ 'gayr,fh 'umBuD;[m 'DtusdK;w&m; awG
udk jyvnf;rjyEdkifbl;/ b,fae&mrSm olwdkYudef;0yfaew,fvdkYvnf; rajymEdkifbl;/ 'DuH&JhtusdK;w&m;qdkwm
tMuifolwOD;wa,mufaoonftxd xdkolvkyfcJhudkifcJhwJh vkyf&yfrsm; twkdif; olvkyfcJhwm aumif;&ifvnf;
aumif;ovdk? qdk;&ifvnf; qkd;ovdk? aumif;usdK;? qdk;usdK;wdkYudk ay;aewmyJ/ NyD;awmh tckb0rSm
vkyfwJhvkyf&yftvdkuf tem*wfb0rSmvnf; uH&JhtusdK;ay;w&m; aumif;&if vnf; aumif;rGefpGmeJY
Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzefjyefae&r,f/ qdk;&ifvnf; 'ku©qif;&JBuD;pGmeJY Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzef jyefae&r,f/ uJ
'umBuD;? 'D rjriftyf? rjrifEdkifwJh uH&JhtusdK;w&m;aMumifh Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzef b,fvdk jyefae&w,f
qdkwJhoabmudk em;vnfoGm;NyDvm;/
'umBuD;/
rSefygh? q&mawmf&Jh OyrmaMumifh wynfhawmf 'Djyóemudk aumif;aumif;BuD; em;vnf
oabm aygufoGm;ygNyD/ 'D uH&JhtusdK;w&m;eJYywfoufvdkY wynfhawmfrSm oHo,r&Sd? cRif;csufr&Sd ,HkMunf
ygNyD q&mawmf/ 'gwGifrubl;? rSm;,Gif;wJh or½dk;us zefqif;&Sif0g'rSm;awGvnf; ajyaysmufukefygNyD
q&mawmf/

22

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

xdktcsdefwGif y&dówfxJrS zm&pDvlrsdK; 'umwa,mufu xí ...

q&mawmf&Jh uH\tusdK;w&m;eJYywfoufwJh todÓPf? ynmom;ygwJha[majymrIaMumifh trsdK;rsdK;aom
t,ltqrSm;awG? or½dk;ustjrifrSm;awG[mtm;vHk; tarSmifxkudkaea&mifjcnfucGif;vdkufovdk uG,faysmuf
ukefygNyD/ 'DtaMumif;w&m;&Sd&if tusdK;[mvnf;rvJGraoG&Sd&r,fqkdwJh jrifhrm;rSefuefvSwJh a'oemudk
b,folurS rcsdK;zsufEdkifbl;qkdwmudkvnf; wynfhawmfwdkY tckdiftNrJ,HkMunfMuygNyD q&mawmf/

xdkaemuf y&dówfxkBuD; w&yfvHk;u om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

23

ar;cGef;trSwf (3)
Ak'¨0g't& Zmwdy#doaE¨topfwzefjyefaejcif;oabmESifh [dE´L0g't& 0dnmOful;ajymif;jcif;oabmwdkYonf
rnfuJhodkY uJGjym;jcm;em;Muoenf;/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - a'gufwm at? trf? abum trfat? yDtdyf(csf)'D? bm;tufavm?
'Dtuf(pf)pD? uG,fvGefol tdE´d,w&m;0efBuD;csKyfa[mif;? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ Ak'¨0g't& Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzefjyefaejcif;oabm[m y#dpöorkyÜm'fw&m;ay:
rSm tajcwnfw,f/ ,ckrsufarSmufb0rSm &SdaewJh ½lyu©E¨m? a0'eu©E¨m? onu©E¨m? ocFg&u©E¨m?
0dnmPu©E¨mwdkY[m ,ckb0rSmjyKvkyfcJhwJh uH&JhtusdK;? wenf;tm;jzifh um,uH? 0pDuH? raemuHwkdY&Jh tusdK;
w&m;jzifh tm;vHk;ysufpD;rS Zmwdy#doaE¨[m topfwzefjyefaew,f/ 'Dvdk Zmwdy#doaE¨ topfwzefjyefae
wJh ae&mrSm b0a[mif;u 'DajymcJhwJh cE¨mawGxJu b,fcE¨mrS ygroGm;bl;/ ,ck rsufarSmufb0rSm
vkyfudkifcJhorQ uHw&m;wdkY[m tusdK;w&m;csnf;yJ/ NyD;awmh ,ck rsufarSmufb0rSm jyKvkyfcJhorQ?
vkyfudkifcJhorQ uHw&m;wdkY&Jh tusdK;w&m;awGeJY Zmwdy#doaE¨topfwzefjyefae&mrS ay:aygufvmwJh cE¨m
ig;yg;w&m;awG[m tem*wfb0rSm rvJTomra&Smifom jzpfay:vm&r,fh tusdK;w&m;awGyJ 'umBuD;/
t0dZÆmw&m;eJY Oyg'gefw&m;wdkY&Jhavmif;&dyfatmufrSm jyKvkyfaerQ umvywfvHk; 'Dvkyf&yfrsm;
wenf;tm;jzifh uHw&m;rsm;&Jh tusdK;w&m;[m Zmwdy#doaE¨wzefjyefaejcif;jzpfw,f/ wrsdK;ajymr,fqkd&if
t0dZÆmeJY Oyg'gef w&m;wdkYudk t&if;cHNyD; vkyfaeMuorQ umvywfvHk; Zmwdy#doaE¨[m
wzefjyefae&rSmcsnf;yJ/ 'gaMumifh Ak'¨ u 0dyóemw&m;udk tBudK;wukwftm;xkwfNyD; 'D t0dZÆmeJY
Oyg'gefw&m;awGudk jzwfawmufypf&r,f/ aemufqHk; uHw&m;awGudk y,fzsufNyD; aemufqHk; edAÁmef&atmif
BudK;pm;&r,fvdkY a[mawmfrlcJhwmaygh/ wynfh wa,mufu q&m&Jh yg;pyfu&GwfzwfwJhuAsmvuFmawGudk
q&mu olYyg;pyfxJrS wynfhyg;pyfxJudk ul;ajymif; xnfhay;jcif; rjyKbJeJY &GwfzwfEdkifovkdyJ Ak'¨0g't&
Zmwdy#doaE¨[mvnf; wzefjyefaejcif;jzpfw,f/ wenf; tm;jzifhqdk&if rSefwcsyfa&SUrSm&yfaewJhvl&Jh
cE¨mig;yg;xJrS b,fcE¨mrS rSefxJudk 0ifroGm;bJ xdkvl&Jh t&dyf[m rSefxJrSm vmxifovdk Ak'¨0g't&
Zmwdy#doaE¨[mvnf; b,fw&m;rQ ul;ajymif;jcif;r&SdbJeJY topfwzef jyefaejcif; jzpfw,f 'umBuD;/
'gaMumifh [dE´L0g't& 0dnmOful;ajymif;jcif;eJY Ak'¨0g't& Zmwdy#doaE¨ topfwzefjyefaejcif;wkdY[m
tvGefyif uJGjym;jcm;em;w,f/ [dE´L0g't& twå odkYr[kwf 0dnmOfvdkYac:wJhw&m;[m csKyfNidrf;ysufpD;
oGm;wJh ,ck rsufarSmufb0&Jh cE¨mudk,fxJuaeNyD;awmh aemifb0rSm topfjzpfay:vmwJh cE¨mudk,fxJudk
ul;ajymif;oGm;&w,fwJh/ 'g[m [dE´L0g'udk xlaxmifwnfaqmufaeMuwJh jA[®PwdkY&Jh pdwful;eJY
wDxGifcJhMuwJh t,l0g'yJ/ 'D t,l0g'[m tajctjrpfr&SdwJh tay:,HoabmrQomjzpfwJh t,l0g'yJ/
'gaMumifh 'Dtwå odkYr[kwf 0dnmOfvdkY ac:wJh w&m;&Jh *kPfowådeJY t&nftcsif;wdkYudk b,folurS
tcktcsdeftxd &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;ajymrjyEdkifbl;/ topfjzpfwJh cE¨mudk,fxJrSmvnf; b,fae&mrSm 'Dtwå
odkYr[kwf 0dnmOfw&m;[m wnf&Sdw,fvdkYvnf; ajym rjyEdkifbl; 'umBuD;/
ajrGwaumif[m olY&Jhta&a[mif;udk qJGxkwfNyD; ta&opfxJrSm topfwzefjyefNyD; 0ifaeovdk? wenf;
tm;jzifh vlwOD;wa,muf[m olY&JhtusÐa[mif;udk cRwfNyD; tusÐtopfwxnfudkvJ0wfum tJ'DtusÐtopf
eJY tvkyfoGm;vkyfovdk twå odkYr[kwf 0dnmOf[mvnf; cE¨mudk,fta[mif;udkpGefYNyD; cE¨mudk,ftopfxJrSm
b0opf wzefjyefaew,fvdkY b*0g*DwxJrSm (AdóEdk;bk&m;0ifpm;w,fvdkY qdkxm;wJh) &S&Dc&pf&Se bk&m;u
a[mcJhw,fvdkY yl&Pfusrf;jyKq&mawGu a&;om;cJhw,f 'umBuD;/

24

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

wcg r[mbm&wusrf;xJrSmawmh tZÑKe u olY&Jh 0rf;uJGnDtpfudkawmfol 'l&da,m'eudk rowfvdkaMumif;
jiif;qefwJhtcgrSm &S&Dc&pf&Sebk&m;u ]]tZÑKe? tcsif; tZÑKe owfol&,fvdkYvnf; r&Sdbl;? aool
&,fvdkYvnf; r&Sdbl;/ oifh&Jh tvGefxif&Sm;ausmfMum;wJh av;nd§KUudkqJGNyD; oif&Jh tvGef pGrf;yum;
BuD;rm;vSwJh jrm;jzifh 'k&da,m'eudk ypfavavmh}} vdkY trdefY&Sdw,fvdkY a&;om;xm;jyefw,f/ 'D
pum;ESpfcGef;vHk;[m &S&Dc&pf&Sebk&m; udk,fawmfjrwf a[mcJhwJh w&m;csnf;yJwJh/ wcku b*0g*DwxJrSm
ygw,f/ wcku r[mbm&wxJrSm ygw,f/ wckeJYwck[m rudkufnDbl;/ qefYusifaew,f/ trSefuawmh
tajctjrpfr&SdwJh pdwful;csufrsm;? ,lqcsufrsm; om jzpfw,f 'umBuD;/
Ak'¨a[mawmfrlcJhwJh tbd"r®mxJrSm pdwfESifhapwoduf ESpf&yfaygif; emrf(53)yg;? tm½kH (6)yg;?
tm½kHjzpfyGm;ap EdkifwJh½kyf (28)yg;? tm½kHxif&m 'Gg& (6)yg;? (6)'Gg& rSm (6)tm½kHxif[yfwdkif; jzpfay:vmwJh
0dnmOf(6)yg;? wPSm (6)yg;eJY Oyg'gef (4)yg;? tJ'D wPSmeJY Oyg'gefwdkYudk jzpfyGm;apwJh a&aomufjrpf
a0'em(6)yg; ponftm;jzifh ydkif; jcm;xm;w,f/ emrfydkif;rSmvnf; pdwfESifh apwoduf 2rsdK;&SdNyD;
tm½Hkxif[yfrI? tm½HkcHpm;rItvdkuf pdwftrsdK;rsdK; cJGjcm;xm;ao;w,f/ tJ'D[mawGuawmh avmb
t&if;cHwJh avmbrlpdwf (8)yg;? a'got&if;cHwJh a'gorl pdwf (2)yg;? arm[t&if;cHwJh arm[rlpdwf
(2)yg;? aygif; (12)yg;ygyJ/ 'D (12)yg;aom pdwfwdkYudk tukodkvfpdwf vdkY ac:w,f 'umBuD;/
tJ'gtjyif t[dwfpdwf (18)yg;? umraombPpdwf(24)yg;? ½lypdwf (15)yg;? t½lypdwf (12)yg;?
avmukwå&m pdwf tusOf; (8)yg;? tus,f(40) pkpkaygif; pdwftusOf; (89)yg; &Sdw,f/
tus,ftm;jzifhqkd&if (121)&Sdw,f/ pdwfeJY ,SOfwJGaewJh apwodufawGuvnf; zó (awGYxdrI)? a0'em
(cHpm;rI)? onm (rSwfom;rI)? apwem (aphaqmfrI)? {u*¾wm (tm½Hkpkaygif;rI)? ZD0dwd`E´d, (½kyfESifhemrfudk
&Sifoefatmifapmifhxdef;rI)? reoDum& (ESvHk;oGif;rI)? 0dwuf (tm½Hkudk a&SU½IapvTwfrI)? 0dpm&
(tm½HküqifjcifrI)? tcdarmu© (tm½HkudkqHk;jzwfrI)? 0d&d, (vHkYvjyKrI)? yDwd (ESpfoufrI)? qE´ (jyKvkdrI)?
arm[ (awGa0rI)? t[d&du (tukodkvfudkr&SufrI)? taemwåyÜ (tukodkvfudk raMumufrI)? O'¨pö (ysHUvGifhrI)?
avmb (wyfrufrI)? 'd|d (t,lrSm;rI)? rme (axmifvTm;rI)? a'go (trsufxGufrI)? £óm (olwyg;
pnf;pdrfudk remvdkrI)? rpä&d, (rdrdpnf;pdrfudk 0efwdkrI)? ukuúKpö (jyKNyD; tukodkvf? rjyKrdaom
ukodkvfwdkYaMumifh pdwfyifyef;rI)? xde (udk,f\xdkif;rdIif;rI)? rd'¨ (pdwf\xdkif;rdIif;rI)? 0dpdudpäm (oHo,&SdrI)?
o'¨m (,HkMunfrI)? owd (rarhrI)? [d&d (tukodkvfjyK&rnfudk&SufrI)? MowåyÜ(tukodkvf jyK&rnfudk
aMumufrI)? tavmb (pGefYvTwfrI)? ta'go (cspfcifrI)? wMwrZÑwåwm (tv,ftvwf oabm xm;rI)?
um,yó'¨d (udk,f\Nidrf;at;rI)? pdwåyó'¨d (pdwf\Nidrf;at;rI)? um,v[kwm (udk,f\ayghyg;rI)?
pdwåv[kwm (pdwf\ayghyg;rI)? um,rk'kwm (udk,f\El;nHhrI)? pdwårk'kwm (pdwf\El;nHhrI)?
um,ur®nwm (udk,f\trIückdifcHhrI)? pdwåur®nwm (pdwf\trIückdifcHhrI)? um,yg*knwm
(udk,f\uRrf;usifrI)? pdwå yg*knwm (pdwf\uRrf;usifrI)? um,kZkuwm (udk,f\ajzmifhrwfrI)?
pdwåKZkuwm (pdwf\ajzmifhrwfrI)? or®m0gpm (raumif;wmudk rajymjcif;)? or®mur®Eå (raumif;aom
tvkyfudk rvkyfjcif;)? or®mtmZD0 (aumif;pGm toufarG;jcif;)? u½kPm (qif;&Jolukd oem;jcif;)? rk'dwm
(csrf;omrI&olwdkYtwGuf0rf;ajrmufjcif;) tp &Sdonfjzifh (52)yg;&Sdw,f 'umBuD;/
½kyf taetm;jzifhvnf; ajr? a&? av? rD; "mwfBuD;av;yg;vdkY ac:aeMuwJh r[mbkwfav;yg;ESifh t&H½kyfao;
(24)yg;? aygif; (28)yg;&Sdjyefw,f/ tJ'DajymcJhwJh pdwf apwodufawG? ½kyfawGudk wl&mwl&m pkyHkNyD;
zJGUpnf;Munfh vdkufawmh ½lyu©E¨m? a0'eu©E¨m? onu©E¨m? ocFg&u©E¨m? 0dnmPu©E¨m qdkwJh
cE¨mig;yg;yJ&w,f/ tm,we tm;jzifh zJGU&if (12)yg;&Sdw,f/ "mwftm;jzifh zJGY&if (18)yg;&Sdw,f/ tJ'gawG
tm;vHk;udk tusOf;qHk; xyfNyD; csKyfvdkufawmh emrfeJY½kyf (2)yg;om &Sdw,f/
trSeftm;jzifh txufyg ½kyfemrf(2)yg; ocFg&w&m;awG[m rD;pmESifhqDaMumifh awmufavmifaewJh rD;awmuf
rD;vQHvdk tqufrjywf csKyfNidrf;aeNyD; tqufrjywf awmufavmifaewJh w&m;rQomjzpfw,f/ tpOfxm0&

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

25

wnfwHhcdkifNrJaezdkY rajymxm;eJY? rsufpdwrSdwf vQyfwjyuftwGif;rSmyif uka#wodef;cefY csKyfNidrf;ysufpD;&wJh
w&m;omjzpfw,f/ tJ'Dawmh twå odkYr[kwf 0dnmOfqdkwJhw&m;u 'Dw&m;awGudk zefqif;w,f?
jy|mef;w,f? jyKjyifw,f qdkwm bmrQ ,kwåd,kwåmr&Sdbl;qdkwm xif&Sm;aeNyDr[kwfvm;/ 'D twå odkYr[kwf
0dnmOfqdkwJh w&m;[m &Sdvnf; r&Sdbl;/ vltcsdKU&JhpdwfxJrSm &Sdw,fvdkY xifjrif,lqxm;wJh w&m;rQom
jzpfw,f'umBuD;/
twå odkYr[kwf 0dnmOfeJYqkdif&m oabmw&m;ukd yÍövufESifh y&dwfrEåmefacwftwGif;rS &pf(*f)a0'usrf;?
omr a0'usrf;? ck'´*Dwusrf;? tw¬m&a0'usrf; pwJh [dE´Lusrf;*efwdkYxJrSm rawGY&bl; 'umBuD;&Jh/
'gayr,fh ausmuf wHk;? ausmuf½kyfwkdYudk bk&m;toGifxm;NyD; udk;uG,fwJhacwf aemufydkif;usawmhrS
jA[®PawGu twå0g' odkYr[kwf 0dnmOfeJYqkdif&m oabmw&m;udk qJGoGif;vmMuw,f/ 'D0g't& y&rwår
(tjrwfqHk;bk&m;ocif) udk,fawmfjrwfudk zefqif;&SiftaeeJY r[kwfrrSefzefwD;xm;NyD; pMum0Vm wckvHk;
twGif;rSm&SdwJh vl? wd&pämef owå0g &Sd&SdorQwdkY&Jh twåawG[m 'D y&rwårudk,fawmfjrwf&Jh cE¨mudk,frS
vGifhpifusaewJh rD;aygufrD;zGm;awG omjzpfw,fvdkY a[mMu? ajymMu? a&;om;Muw,f/ &pf(*f)a0'?
omra0'? tw¬m&a0'usrf;wkdY&Jh yÍövuf acwftwGif;u yÍövuftwwfawG? rEåmeftwwfawGudk
jzefYcsDaeMuwJh jA[®PawG[m y&rwårudk,fawmf jrwf&Jh udk,fpm;vS,fawmfrsm;taeeJY tylaZmf
tuefawmhcHcJhMuw,f 'umBuD;/ tJ'g [dE´Lt,l0g'xJudk twå odkYr[kwf 0dnmOf0g'udk xdk;oGif;vmcJhyHkyJ
'umBuD;/
Ak'¨0g't& Zmwdy#doaE¨ wzefjyefvnfaejcif;ESifh [dE´L0g't& 0dnmOful;ajymif;jcif;oabmwdkYudk ususee
xifxif&Sm;&Sm;em;vnfoabmayguf&if
'Doabmw&m;ESpfck[m
wckeJYwckt0DpdeJYb0*favmuf
uGmjcm;vsuf &Sdwmudk awGY&ygvdrfhr,f/
a'gufwm/
'D Ak'¨0g't& Zmwdy#doaE¨wzefjyefaejcif;oabmeJY [dE´L0g't& 0dnmOful;ajymif;jcif;
oabmwdkYudk q&mawmfu ,ckuJhodkY tajctjrpfupNyD; jyefvnf&Sif;jyawmfrlvdkufwJhtwGuf 'D jA[®P
awG[m olwdkY udk,fusdK;twGuf vlawGtcsif;csif; ZmwdawGudk cJGjcm;xm;ovdk 'Dtwå0g'udkvnf; wDxGif
xm;Muw,f qkdwmudk wynfhawmfwdkY xifxif&Sm;&Sm;BuD; odjrifoabmaygufvmMuygNyD q&mawmf/

xdktwGif; y&dówfxJrS 'umBuD;wa,mufu xí ...
q&mawmfbk&m;? wynfhawmfwkdYudk,fwdkif [dE´Lbmomudkudk;uG,fMuw,fqkdayr,fh wynfhawmfwdkYudktvGef
aumufuspfyg;eyfvSwJh jA[®PawGu a'0usrf;awG[m olwdkYvdkjrifhjrwfwJh jA[®PawGeJYomqkdifw,f?
omrefvlawG rudkif&? rxd&vdkY wif;wif;MuyfMuyf wm;jrpfxm;MuwJhtwGuf wynfhawmfwdkY&Jh [dE´Lw&m;&Jh
tajccHjzpfwJh a'0usrf;awGeJY ywfoufvdkY bmrQem;rvnfbJ jzpfMu&ygw,f/ uaeYrSyJ q&mawmfu
twå0g' &Jh t&if;tjrpfudk &Sif;vif;a[majymawmfrlvdkufwJhtwGuf wynfhawmfwdkY[m twåeJY y&rwårwdkYeJY
ywfouf wJh jyóemudk em;vnfMuygw,f bk&m;/ 'gaMumifh wynfhawmfwkdYudk zdxm;wJh orm;½dk;us
t,ltqawGudk z,f&Sm;awmfrlvdkufNyD; vrf;rSefudk nTefjyawmfrlvkdufwJhtwGuf q&mawmftm; aus;Zl;
txl;wifvSygw,f bk&m;/

xdkaemuf y&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

26

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (4)
edAÁmef [laomw&m;onf wu,fyif &Sdygovm;bk&m;/ tu,fí &Sdygu xdkw&m;onf tb,frSmenf;/
rnfonfh w&m;ESifhwlygoenf; bk&m;/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - bHkbdkifNrdKU yJGpm;BuD; rpöwmvuf(uf)'g0g;vm;? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf
t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ 'umBuD;&Jhtar;ykpäm[m wcsufckwf oHk;csufjywf ar;cGef;yJ? 'umBuD;&Jh
ar;cGef;udk ajz&mrSm OD;yÍÆif;[m wm0efoHk;ckudk wcgwnf; xrf;aqmif&vdrfhr,f/
yxrwm0efu edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;[m wu,f&SdaMumif; jyzdkYjzpfw,f/
'kwd, wm0efuawmh edAÁmef[m b,fae&mrSm&Sdw,f qdkwm jyzdkYjzpfw,f/
wwd, wm0efuawmh edAÁmef&Jh toGiftjyifvu©Pmudk azmfxkwfjyzdkY jzpfw,f/
yxrqHk;wm0efjzpfwJh edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;[m wu,f&SdaMumif;jyzdkY&m 'umBuD;udk OD;yÍÆif;u jyefNyD;
ar;&vdrfhOD; r,f/ uJ 'umBuD;uvnf; ajzygOD;/
q&mawmf/

,aeY urÇmay:rSm &SdaeMuwJhvlawGtm;vHk;[m toufw&mxdatmif aeMu&yghrvm;/

0g;vm;/

toufw&mxdatmif aeMu&rSm r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

olwdkYwawG bmjzpfukefMuygrvJ 'umBuD;/

þwGif q&mawmfu oifykef;ay:ü wzufrS edAÁmef[laomw&m; wu,fwrf;wnf&SdaeyHkESifh tjcm;wzufrS
pMum0VmBuD;ESifhwuG þpMum0VmBuD;ay:wGif &Sd&SdorQaom owå0gwdkY\ rwnfrNrJazmufjyefwwfonfh
oabmwdkYudk atmufygtwdkif; EdIif;,SOfa&;om;jyygonf/
pMum0VmBuD;

ESifh

qefYusifbufedAÁmef

1/ aojcif;w&m; &Sd\/

1/ aojcif;w&m; r&Sd/

2/ tdkjcif;w&m; &Sd\/

2/ tdkjcif;w&m; r&Sd/

3/ emjcif;w&m; &Sd\/

3/ emjcif;w&m; r&Sd/

4/ 'ku©ESifhqif;&Jjcif; &Sd\/

4/ 'ku©ESifhqif;&Jjcif;wdkYrS uif;Nidrf;onfh wu,fh
csrf;omokc &Sd\/

5/ rwnfNrJ/

5/ wnfNrJ\/

6/ pdwfESifhuHwdkY\ zefqif;rI/

6/ pdwfESifhuHwdkYu rzefqif;/ (tocFw"mwf)

7/ ysufpD;\/ (tedpö)

7/ rysufpD;Edkif/ (edpö)

8/ tptqHk;&Sd\/ (tm'dteEå)

8/ tptqHk; r&Sd/ (tem'dteEå)

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

pMum0VmBuD;

27

ESifh

qefYusifbufedAÁmef

9/ roefY&Sif;acs/

9/ oefY&Sif;\/

10/ arG;zGm;Mu&\/ (Zmwd)

10/ arG;zGm;Mu&jcif;r&Sd (tZmwd)

11/ rodrjrifjcif;?

11/ þw&m;rsm; tm;vHk;rS uif;pif\/

pJGvrf;jcif;?
vdkcsifwyfrufjcif;? pdwfqdk;jcif;? Murf;wrf;jcif;?
&efNidK;zJGUjcif; ponfh w&m;rsm; &Sd\/
(t0dZÆm? Oyg'gef? avmb? a'go)
12/ oHa,mZOfBudK; (10)acsmif;jzifh aESmifzJGYxm;\/

12/ rnfonfh oHa,mZOfBudK;rQ r&Sd/

13/ taESmiftzJGY &Sd\/

13/ vGwfvyf\/

14/ oHo&mtwGif;ü &Sd\/

14/ oHo&mrS vGwfajrmuf\/

15/ t&omrsm; &Sd\/

15/ vGwfajrmufonfht&om wckwnf;om &Sd\/

16/ tmomajyrI r&Sd/

16/ tmomajyvsuf &Sd\/

17/ csdK;ESdrfí &\/ (oH0&oabm &Sd\)

17/ csdK;ESdrfí r&/ (toH0&oabm &Sd\)

18/ tuefYtowf &Sd\/

18/ tuefYtowf r&Sd

19/ cHpm;jcif; (a0'em)ESifh wyfrufjcif; (wPSm) 19/ a0'emESifh wPSmw&m;wdkYrS vGwfajrmuf\/
w&m; wkdYjzifh tDae\/
20/ wu,fr&Sd (y&rwfr[kwf? rNrJ)

20/ wu,f&Sd\/ (y&rwf)? NrJ\/

21/ pMum0Vmonf wu,fr&Sd

21/ edAÁmefonf wu,f&Sd\/

q&mawmf/
(txufygtwdkif; oifykef;BuD;ay:ü a&;om;jyNyD;aemuf ...) uJ 'umBuD;? tck OD;yÍÆif;
a&;jyxm; wJh qef;ppfcsuft& edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;[m wu,fwrf;&Sdw,fqdkwmudk vufcHEdkif&Jhvm;/
0g;vm;/
edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;[m wu,f&Sdw,fqdkwJhtcsufeJYywfoufvdkY q&mawmf &Sif;jywJh tcsuf
tm;vHk;udk wynfhawmfvufcHygw,f/ 'gayr,fh owå0gawGrSm Zmwdw&m; csKyfNidrf;oGm;&w,f qdkwJh
tcsuf udkawmh wynfhawmf OD;acgif;xJrSm r&Sif;ao;bJ jzpfaeygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
'gjzifh OD;yÍÆif;u &Sif;jy&ao;wmaygh/ 'umBuD;? arG;zGm;jcif; (Zmwdw&m;) qdkwm[m
aojcif;&Jh taMumif;w&m;yJ/ edAÁmefa&mufNyD;rS owå0gwOD;OD;[m zGm;&OD;r,fqdk&if xdkowå0g[m ao&rSm
trSefjzpfw,f/ tJ'Dvdk aojcif;w&m;&Sdae&if edAÁmef[m arG;zGm;jcif;? tdkjcif;? emjcif;? aojcif;qdkwJhw&m;awG

28

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

csKyfNidrf;&mw&m; r[kwfawmhbl;/ jrpfwpif;[m jrpfzsm;cH&ma'orSm arG;zGm;NyD; jrpf0txd[m 'Djrpf&Jh
woufwmb0yJ/ 'Denf;twkdif;yJ owå0gwOD;OD;&Jhb0woufwm[m arG;zGm;wJhtcgupNyD; aowJhtcgrSm
tqHk;owf&w,f/ 'gaMumifhedAÁmefqdkwJh w&m;xJrSm arG;zGm;jcif;qdkwJh w&m;r&Sdawmhbl;/ arG;zGm;jcif;eJY ao
jcif;[m BudK;wacsmif;xJyJ/ tpwzufu arG;zGm;jcif;qdkwmjzpfNyD; useftpwzufu aojcif;yJ/ onfhjyif
tcsufwcsufvnf; &Sdao; w,f/ tJ'gu arG;zGm;jcif;eJY aojcif;wdkY[m 'ku©w&m;awGvnf;jzpfw,f/
NrJvnf;NrJwJhw&m;awG r[kwfMubl; 'umBuD;/
0g;vm;/
q&mawmf&Jh &Sif;vif;csufjzifh arG;zGm;jcif;eJY aojcif;w&m;wdkYtaMumif;udk wynfhawmf
&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; em;vnfygNyD q&mawmf/ edAÁmefqdkwJh w&m;[mvnf; arG;zGm;jcif;? aojcif;qdkwJh
w&m;wdkY&Jh uif;Nidrf; &m jzpfw,f qkdwmudkvnf; odjrifem;vnfygNyD q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
tck 'umBuD;u edAÁmefqkdwJYw&m;[m t[kwftrSef&SdaMumif;udk ,Hk,HkMunfMunfeJY
vufcHygNyD qdkawmh OD;yÍÆif;u edAÁmefqkdwJYw&m;[m b,fae&mrSm&SdygovJ qkdwJh 'kwd,tqifh ar;cGef;udk
ajzMum;& OD;r,f/
txufu OD;yÍÆif; &Sif;vif;jycJhwJh tcsuftvufrsm;t& edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m; udef;0yfzdkY ae&mXme &SdvdkY
rjzpfawmhbl;/ tu,fí ae&mXmewck&SdcJhvQif xdkae&mXme&Jh rlvADZw&m;&Sd&r,f/ rlvADZw&m; &SdwmeJY
wNydKifeuf xdkw&m;[m ysufpD;csKyfNidrf;oGm;&r,f/ trSefuawmh edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;[m yx0D? awaZm?
tmayg? 0ga,m qkdwJh r[mbkwfBuD;(4)yg;eJY bmrQrywfoufbl;/ uif;vGwfw,f/ 'D r[mbkwfBuD;
(4)yg;eJY uif;vGwfvdkufwmeJYwNydKifeuf bmw&m;rQr&Sdbl;/ bm½kyf0w¬KrQr&Sdbl;/ bmtoGifoP²mefrSvnf;
r&Sdbl;/ b,fae&mXmerSvnf; r&Sdbl;/ 'D r[mbkwfBuD; (4)yg; pkaygif;jzpfay:&wJhw&m;[lorQrSm ysufpD;
csKyfNidrf;&wmcsnf;yJ/ bmjyKvdkYvJ qkdawmh pwifjzpfay:jcif; (Zmwd)? wdk;wufzGHUNzdK;jcif;? ysufpD;,dk,Gif;jcif;?
csKyfNidrf;jcif; qdkwJh w&m;awG[m 'D r[mbkwfBuD; (4)yg;wdkY&Jh rlvADZu ygvmwJh oabmawGjzpfvdkYyJ
'umBuD;/ 'gudkMunfhjcif;tm;jzifh edAÁmef qdkwJhw&m; wnf&SdzdkYtwGuf ae&mXmeqdkwm rvdkbl; qdkwJh tcsuf
[m xif&Sm;oGm;NyD 'umBuD;/
0g;vm;/
'Dvdk edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m; udef;0yfzdkY ae&mXme&,fvdkYr&Sd&if 'Dw&m;[m b,fvdkvkyfNyD; &SdEdkif
yghrvJ bk&m;/
q&mawmf/

uJ 'gjzifh&if 'umBuD;udk OD;yÍÆif;u jyefar;&OD;r,f/

0g;vm;/

rSefygh q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

avmurSm ]]ÓPfynm}} qdkwJhw&m; &Sdygovm; 'umBuD;/

0g;vm;/

&Sdygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

'umBuD; 'D ]]ÓPfynm}} qdkwJhw&m;udk jrifzl;ovm;/

0g;vm;/

rjrifzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/ 'Dw&m;[m rjrifEdkif? rjriftyfwJh w&m;yg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

'gjzifh&if 'D ]]ÓPfynm}} qdkwJhw&m;[m &Sdw,fvdkY 'umBuD; b,fvdkvkyfNyD; odygovJ/

0g;vm;/

]]ÓPfynm}} qdkwJhw&m;udk pdwftm½HkeJY onmoabmeJY odygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

]]ÓPfynm}} qdkwJhw&m;[m tb,ft&yf? tb,fa'orSm udef;0yfygovJ 'umBuD;/

0g;vm;/
]]ÓPfynm}} qdkwJhw&m;[m b,fae&m? b,fXmerS rudef;0yfygbl; bk&m;/ 'gayr,fh
'Dw&m;[m ay:aygufvdkuf? aysmufuG,fvdkuf? wzefay:aygufvdkufeJY tpOfwpdkuf jzpfysufaeygw,f
bk&m;/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

q&mawmf/

29

]]av}} qkdwJh w&m;[m &Sdovm;/

0g;vm;/
]]av}} qkdwJh w&m;[m&Sdygw,f/ 'D avqdkwJhw&m;r&SdbJeJY wynfhawmfwdkY[m touf&Sif
raeEdkif ygbl; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/

'umBuD; av ukdjrif&ovm;/

0g;vm;/

rjrif&ygbl; q&mawmf/ av[m jrifEdkifwJhw&m; r[kwfygbl;/

q&mawmf/

av [m&Sdw,fqkdwmudk b,fvdkvkyfNyD; odatmif vkyfovJ 'umBuD;/

0g;vm;/
avudk wynfhawmf&JhcE¨mudk,ftwGif;rSma&m? tjyifrSmyg av&Jhtm;udk prf;oyf awGYxdjcif;
tm;jzifh avqdkwJhw&m;[m wu,f&Sdw,fqdkwm od&ygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/

'gjzifh ]]av}} [m b,frSm udef;0yfaeovJ 'umBuD;/

0g;vm;/
]]ÓPfynm}} qdkwJhw&m;vdkygyJ q&mawmf/ av[mvnf; tqufrjywf jzpfay:
uG,faysmuf aewJh w&m;ygyJ bk&m;/
q&mawmf/
]]ÓPfynm}} wdkY? ]]av}} wdkYqkdwJhw&m;awG[m wu,fwrf;&SdygvsufeJY b,fae&m
b,fa'orSm udef;0yfvsuf&Sdw,fvdkY rjyEdkifovdkyJ edAÁmefqdkwJh w&m;[mvnf; wu,f&Sdaomfvnf;
b,fae&m? b,fa'o rSm udef;0yfw,fvdkY rjyEdkifbl; 'umBuD;/ ]]ÓPfynm}} qdkwJhw&m;eJY ]]av}} qkdwJh
w&m;wdkY wu,fwrf;&Sdw,f qdkwmudk tm½HkcHpm;jcif;? awGYxdjcif;qdkwJh oabmwdkYeJYom odEdkif? em;vnfEdkif
ovdk edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;[m wu,f&Sdw,fqdkwmudkvnf; t&[wår*f? t&[wåzdkvf &aeMuwJh yk*¾dKvfrsm;&Jh
avmukwå&mÓPf? tmo0u©,ÓPf wkdYjzifhomodjrifem;vnfEdkifw,f/ uJ 'umBuD;? auseyfNyDvm;/
0g;vm;/
auseyfygNyD q&mawmf/ ]]ÓPfynm}} eJY ]]av}} qkdwJh w&m;awGvkdyJ edAÁmef qdkwJhw&m;[m
wu,f&Sdaomfvnf; b,fae&m b,fXmerSm udef;0yfw,fvdkY jyvdkYrjzpfEdkifwmudkvnf; oabmaygufygNyD
q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
uJ 'kwd,jyóem &Sif;oGm;NyDqdk&if wwd,jyóemjzpfwJh edAÁmef[m rnfonfhw&m;eJY
wlygovJ qdkwJh tcsufudk quf&Sif;Mu&vdrfhOD;r,f/ edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;[m txufu &Sif;jycJhovdkyJ
'DavmuBuD;eJY owåd? t&nftcsif;? toGiftjyif? *kPfvu©PmwdkYrSpí b,fzufurS rwlbJ
vHk;vHk;qefYusifaewJhw&m; jzpfaeav awmh edAÁmefudk ,ckawGYjrifaeMuwJh t&m0w¬KawG? ½kyf0w¬KawGeJY
b,fvdkrS EdIif;,SOfjyvdkYawmh rjzpfaybl; 'umBuD;&Jh/ 'gayr,fh Oyrmuav;wckeJYawmh &Sif;jy&vdrfhr,f/
'umBuD; em;axmifayawmh/
0g;vm;/

rSefyg? emvsufyg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
a&S;u bk&ifBuD;wyg;&SdowJh/ 'Dbk&ifBuD;[m tjcm;bk&iftqlqlu aMumuf&GHU½dkaoNyD;
vufaqmif yPÖmawG BudKU&avmufatmif bkef;wefcdk;BuD;owJh/ a&T? aiG ausmufoHywåjrm;awGqdkwmuvJ
cefYrSef;a&wGufvdkY r&Edkifatmif aygowJh/ ppfonftiftm;uvnf; tvGefBuD;rm;awmifhwif;owJh/ olYudk
vkyf auR;jyKpkMuwJh armif;rrdóHuvnf; axmifaomif;rubl;wJh/ tcsuftjyKwf tausmftarmf
awGuvnf; &omrsdK;pHkwJh cJbG,fabmZOf csdKcsOf ,rumawGudk trsdK;aygif;ra&rwGufEdkifatmif pDrHNyD;
yJGawmfrsm; qufo Mu&owJh/ 'Dvdk trsdK;rsdK;aom pnf;pdrfcsrf;omawGudk cHpm;pHpm;ae&wJh bk&ifBuD;[m
waeYusawmh uk|Elem a&m*gpJGuyfvmowJh/ 'Da&m*gpJGuyfvmwmeJYwNydKifeuf bk&ifBuD;[m txufu
ajymcJhwJh pnf;pdrfawGudkvnf; rcHpm;Edkifawmhbl;/ armif;rrdóHawGeJYvnf; raysmfyg;Edkifawmhbl;/ aemufqHk;
tm½Hkig;yg;rSm b,ftm½HkrS rcHpm; Edkifawmhbl;/ 'Dpufqkyf&GH&SmzG,faumif;vSwJh a&m*gtwGuf tcsdef&Sdoa&GU
pdwfESvHk; qif;&JEGrf;e,f ae&owJh/ aemufqHk;awmh bk&ifBuD;[m usef;rma&;eJY xD;eef;pnf;pdrfudk

30

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

vJypf&onftxd usef;rmatmif vkyfr,f qdkNyD; oHEéd|mef csvdkufowJh/ tJ'Dvdk oHEéd|mef csNyD;wJhaemuf
]]b,folrqdk ol\a&m*gudk aysmufuif;atmif ukoEdkif vdkY&Sd&if xD;eef;pnf;pdrfESifhwuG olY&Jh&wema&TaiG
awGudkyg qkvmbftjzpfeJY &vdrfhr,f}} vdkY wkdi;fjynftwGif; ausnmvdkufowJh/ oludk,fwdkifuawmh
a&m*ga0'em uif;&Sif;oGm;NyD; t&ifuvdk usef;rmvmwmeJYwNydKifeuf xD;eef;udkpGefYNyD; &aohtoGifeJY
awm&rSD;aeawmhr,f vdkY pdwfudkydkif;jzwfxm;owJh/ 'Dvdkausnmvdkufawmh wkdif;jynftwGif; tvGef
emrnfxif&Sm; ausmfMum;vSwJh orm;awmfBuD;awG[m bk&ifha&m*gudk vma&mufuko MuowJh/ 'gayr,fh
orm;awmfBuD;rsm;pGm[m bk&ifBuD;&Jha&m*gudk aysmufuif;atmif rukoEdkifMu&Smbl;wJh/ aemufqHk;
orm;awmfBuD;wqla&mufvmNyD; bk&ifBuD;&Jha&m*gudk ]]oHk;veJYaysmufuif;atmif ukoEdkifygw,f?
wu,fvdkY oHk;veJYaysmufuif;&if t&Sifrif;jrwf uwdxm;awmfrlwJhtwdkif; xD;eef;udkomay;yg/
raysmuf&if uRefawmfrsdK;&Jh OD;acgif;udk jzwfypfygbk&m;}} vdkY avQmufxm;NyD; uko owJh/
'Dorm;awmfBuD;[m wu,fhudk uRrf;usifwwfajrmufwJh orm;awmfBuD;qdkawmh ajymwJhtwdkif;yJ
oHk;vvnf; Muma&m bk&ifBuD;[m yuwdtwdkif;usef;rmoGm;owJh/ a&m*geJYywfoufvdkY bmtikwft&if;rS
r&Sdawmhbl;wJh? 'geJY bk&ifBuD;u olYuwdtwdkif; xD;eef;ESifhwuG &wema&TaiGawGudk orm;awmfBuD;
vufxJtyfNyD; awmxGuf um &aohb0eJY opfwyif&if; 0g;wyifatmufrSm ausmif;ocFrf;uav;aqmufNyD;
w&m;usifhaeowJh/ olY&Jh pdwf"mwf[mvnf; csrf;omokceJY tvGefjynfhpHkaeowJh/ 'Dawmh bk&ifBuD;[m
xD;eef;pnf;pdrfeJYwuG &wem a&TaiGawGxuf usef;rma&;[m wu,fusawmh w,fNyD; tbdk;wef yguvm;
vdkY udk,fawGYodjrifem;vnfvmNyD; ]]atmf ... avmuwGif usef;rmjcif;xuf tbdk;wefwJh &wemum; r&Sdacs
wum;}} vdkY O'gef;usL;vdkufowJh/

(xdkaemuf q&mawmfu rpöwm vufu'g 0g;vm;tm; ...)
uJ 'umBuD;? wu,fyJ usef;rmjcif;qdkwJh w&m;[m 'Dbk&ifBuD; O'gef;usL;ovdk vlwOD;wa,muftm; pdwf
"mwftm;jzifh csrf;omokceJY jynfhpHkatmif zefwD;Edkif&Jhvm;/ 'Dw&m;[m trSefaum &Sd&Jhvm;/
0g;vm;/
'Dbk&ifBuD;ajymovdk
wu,fyJ
vlawG&Jh
pdwf"mwfudk
csrf;omokcay;EdkifwJh?
tbdk;jzwfvdkYr& aumif;wJh usef;rmjcif;qdkwJhw&m;&SdaMumif;udk udk,fwdkiftawGYtBuHKeJY 0efcHygw,f
q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
uJ 'gjzifh 'Dusef;rmjcif;qkdwJhw&m;[m b,fvdk yHkyef;oP²mef&Sdw,fqdkwmudk 'umBuD;
ajymjyEdkif yghrvm;/
0g;vm;/
'Dusef;rmjcif;qkdwJhw&m;rSm toGifoP²mef ½kyfj'yf&,fvdkY rsufpdeJYMunfhvdkYawmh rjrif&
ygbl; bk&m;/ 'gayr,fh 'Dw&m;&Jh tusdK;aus;Zl;udkawmh b,folrQ rjiif;y,fEdkifygbl; bk&m;/
q&mawmf/
tJ 'umBuD; ajymwJhtwdkif; usef;rmjcif;qkdwJhw&m;[m wu,f&SdNyD; 'Dw&m;&Jh
tusdK;aus;Zl;udk vlom;awG[m cHpm;ae&aomfvnf; b,folurQ usef;rmjcif;qdkwJhw&m;[m bmeJYwlw,f?
b,fvdkudkifwG,f prf;oyfvdkY&w,f? b,fvdktbdk;wefw,fqdkwmudk udkifwG,fjyovdkY rjzpfovdkbJ
edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;[mvnf; pMum0VmBuD;twGif;rSm&SdwJh owå0gteEåwdkY cHpm;aeMu&wJh y#doaE¨ae&jcif;?
tkd&jcif;? em&jcif;? ao&jcif; qdkwJh qif;&J'ku©awGeJYwuG tjcm;'ku©awGuyg vGwfNidrf;atmif zefwD;Edkifwm
uawmhrSefygw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'D edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;[m jzLw,f? 0gw,f? eDw,f? ndKw,fvdkYvnf; ajymjyvdkY
rjzpfEdkifbl;/ vHk;w,f? jym;w,f? &Snfw,f? wdkw,fvdkYvnf; ajymjyvdkY rjzpfbl;/ 'Dw&m;udk &wJhvlrSyJ
udk,fwdkifawGYBuHKcHpm;NyD; odtyfwJh w&m;yJ 'umBuD;&Jh/ uJ edAÁmef[m b,fvdktqif;oP²mefeJY jynfhpHkovJ
qdkwJh 'umBuD;&Jh ykpämeJYywfoufNyD; 'umBuD; &Sif;oGm;NyDvm;/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

0g;vm;/

31

rSefyg? q&mawmf ,ckjyvdkufwJh OyrmeJYyJ &Sif;oGm;ygNyD q&mawmf/

xdkaemuf w&m;emy&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

32

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (5)
todÓPfonf OD;aESmufxJwGifr&SdbJ [',½kyf0w¬KxJüom&Sdonf [laomtcsufudk q&mawmf xifxif
&Sm;&Sm; jyawmfrlyg bk&m;
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - ygarmu© a*s? trf? azmhpwm? trfat? trftuf(pf)pD? bHkbkdifwuúodkvf
rS odyÜHynm ygarmu©? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

(q&mawmfu ol\ykpämtwGuf tajzudk azmfxkwf&ef ygarmu© a*s? trf? azmhpwmtm; atmufygar;cGef;udk
jyefvSefí ar;ygonf/)
q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ todÓPf[m OD;aESmufxJwGif&Sdonf[lí 'umBuD; tb,faMumifh ,lq
ygovJ/
azmhpwm/
,ckurÇmrSm xdyfwef;a&mufaewJh aq;odyÜHt& OD;aESmufcHGudk cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmMunfhawmh
todÓPf[m OD;aESmufcHGrSm qHk;wJh taMumawGxJrSm jzpfyGm;w,fvdkY tckdiftvHk awGY&Sdygw,f q&mawmf/ 'D
OD;aESmufxJ&SdwJh taMumawG&JhtrsdK;trnfudk cJGMunfhawmh a0'emaMum? onmaMum? qE´aMum?
orm"daMum? a&mifjyefaMum? ynmaMum? aomwaMum? *E¨aMum? &oaMum? pu©KaMum? jyefvnf awG;awm
wwfwJh taMum? pHkprf;wJhtaMum? qHk;jzwfwJhtaMum? zóaMum? tawG;aMum pwJh taMumawGudk
awGY&ygw,f/
'gwifruao;ygbl;/ tck aemufqHk;ay: pl;prf;csuft& aowJhvlawG&Jh OD;aESmufxJrSm armfawmfum;awG?
rD;&xm;awG? taqmuftODawG tp&SdwJh trsdK;rsdK;aom ½kyf0w¬KwdkY&Jh yHkoP²mefawG[m "mwfyHk½dkufxm;ovdk
ay:aewmudkvnf; awGY&ygw,f q&mawmf/ 'gaMumifh OD;aESmuf[m todÓPfeJYqkdif&m vIyf&Sm;rItm;vHk;
okd avSmif&m tcef; jzpfw,fvdkY ac:aeMuygNyD q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
jrifxm;wJh? Mum;xm;wJh? eHxm;wJh? t&omcHxm;wJh? awG;awmxm;wJh ½kyf0w¬KawGudk
odjrif em;vnf EdkifwJhowåd OD;aESmufrSm &Sdovm; 'umBuD;/
azmhpwm/
q&mawmf/

'Dtm½HkawGeJY

awGYxdwJhw&m;awG

odjrifem;vnfEdkifwJhowåd

OD;aESmufrSm&Sdygw,f

q&mawmf/

"mwfpuf "mwfjym;awGu oDcsif;qdkoH? pum;ajymoHawGudk odkavSmifxm;ovm;/

azmhpwm/

odkavSmifxm;ygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'gjzifh&if "mwfjym;wcsyfudk,lNyD; bmoDcsif;udk odkavSmifxm;ovJvdkY ar;&if bmoDcsif;udk
odkavSmifxm;w,fvdkY tJ'D "mwfjym;u jyefajymrSmvm; 'umBuD;/
azmhpwm/
"mwfjym;[m ½kyf0w¬KwckrQomjzpfNyD; odjrifem;vnfwwfwJhowådr&SdwJhtwGuf bmoDcsif;
udk odkavSmifxm;w,fvdkY ajymEdkifwJhowåd r&Sdygbl; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
OD;aESmuf odkYr[kwf [',½kyf0w¬K odkYr[kwf rsufpd? em;? ESmacgif;? vQm? udk,fcE¨m qdkwJh
w&m;awG[mvnf; ½kyf0w¬KawGom jzpfawmh odjrifjcif;? em;vnfjcif;qkdwJhowåd r&SdMubl;/ 0dnmP"mwf
qdkwJh w&m;rSom odjrifem;vnfjcif;qdkwJhowåd &Sdw,f/ tJ'Dawmh 'D 0dnmP"mwf jzpfyGm;vmyHkudk odom
xif&Sm;vmatmif OD;yÍÆif;ar;wJh ar;cGef;awGudk 'umBuD; ajzprf;ygOD;/
azmhpwm/

rSefygh q&mawmf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

33

q&mawmf/

0dnmP"mwf[m wae&mwnf;rSm jzpfEdkifovm;? ESpfae&mrSm jzpfEdkifovm; 'umBuD;/

azmhpwm/

0dnmP"mwf[m wae&mwnf;rSmom jzpfEdkifygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
tMuifolwOD;wa,muf[m xdwfvefYwkefvIyfoGm;wJhtcg OD;aESmufxJrSm 'D xdwfvefY
wkefvIyfrI jzpfovm;/ 'grSr[kwf&if [',½kyf0w¬KxJrSm jzpfovm;/ wu,fvdkY cspfcifjcif;? Muifemjcif;
qkdwJh w&m;[m ½kwfw&ufjzpfay:vmr,f qdk&ifaum OD;aESmufxJrSm jzpfay:vmovm;? [', ½kyf0w¬K
xJrSm jzpfay: vmovm;/
azmhpwm/

trSeftm;jzifh [',½kyf0w¬KxJrSmyJ jzpfay:vmygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'umBuD;/

wu,fvdkY 0rf;ajrmuf&TifjrL;rI jzpfvmjyefawmhaum b,fae&mrSm jzpfay:vmovJ

azmhpwm/

[',½kyf0w¬KxJrSm jzpfay:vmw,fvdkY xifygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

wcg a'gotrsuf xGufvmjyefawmhaum b,fae&mrSm jzpfw,fvdkY xifovJ 'umBuD;

azmhpwm/

[',½kyf0w¬KxJrSmyJ jzpfyGm;w,fvdkY xifygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
wu,fvdkY tMuifolwOD;wa,muf[m tjcm;olwOD;wa,mufudk cspfcifMuifemrdwJh tcg
rSm ]]ig[m rif;udk OD;aESmufxJucspfw,f}} vdkY ajymovm;? ]]tonf;ESvHk;xJu cspfw,f}} vdkY ajymovm;/
azmhpwm/

tonf;ESvHk;xJu cspfcifw,fvdkY ajymygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
wu,fvdkY rkef;jyefawmhaum OD;aESmufxJu rkef;w,fvdkY ajymovm;? tonf;ESvHk;xJu
rkef;w,f vdkY ajymovm;/
azmhpwm/

tonf;ESvHk;xJu rkef;w,fvdkYyJ ajymygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
uJ tck 'umBuD; ajymovdk cspfjcif;? rkef;jcif;? 0rf;ajrmufjcif;? a'gojzpfjcif;pwJh w&m;
awG[m tonf;ESvHk;xJrSm jzpfyGm;w,fvdkYqkd&if 'Dw&m;awG[m OD;aESmufxJrSm jzpfw,fvdkY qdkEdkifyg
OD;rvm; 'umBuD;/
azmhpwm/
q&mawmf tckvdk &Sif;vif;a0zefjyvdkufwJhtwGuf 'D 0dnmPfw&m;[m OD;aESmufxJrSm
pwifjzpfay:wmr[kwfbJ tonf;ESvHk;xJrSmom pwifjzpfyGm;w,fvdkY wynfhawmf odjrifoabmayguf ygNyD
q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
'umBuD;[m b,fw&m;rSmrqdk t&if;cHtaMumif;w&m;ESpfyg;&Sdw,f qdkwJh 'dGwå0g'
tbd"r®m udk vufcH&Jhvm;
azmhpwm/
odyÜHynmonfwOD;taeESifh avmutwGif; &Sd&SdorQaom oabmw&m;wdkYwGif t&if;cH
taMumif;w&m; ESpfyg;&Sdw,fqdkwJh 'dGwå0g'udk wynfhawmf aumif;aumif;BuD;vufcHygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
"mwfzdkeJY"mwfr? wenf;tm;jzifh ½kyfw&m;eJYemrfw&m;r&SdbJeJY bmw&m;rQ rjzpfyGm;Edkifbl;
qkdwmudkaum oabmwl&Jhvm;/
azmhpwm/

'Doabmw&m;udkvnf; wynfhawmf oabmwlygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
uJ 'Dtcsufudk oabmusvufcHEdkifvdkY&Sd&if 'umBuD;wkdY&Jhaq;ynmu 'D0dnmP"mwf?
wenf;tm;jzifhtodÓPfynmeJYqkdif&m ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;wdkY&Jhoabmudk avhvmpl;prf;NyD; txift&Sm;
&Sif;vif; azmfxkwfEdkifNyDvm;/

34

azmhpwm/

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

wdwdusus txift&Sm; r&Sif;vif; razmfxkwfEdkifao;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'gjzifh 'umBuD;wkdYaq;ynmu emrfw&m;eJYywfoufvdkY wu,fwrf; xdxda&mufa&muf
ravhvm rpl;prf;&ao;bl;aygh/
azmhpwm/

wu,fwrf; jynfhjynfhpHkpHk ravhvmrpl;prf;&ao;bl;vdkYbJ qkd&rSmyg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'gjzifh 'umBuD;wkdY&Jh aq;ynmu todÓPfynm[m OD;aESmufxJrSm pwifjzpfyGm;w,f
qdkwm[m rSef;qcsufavmufyJ &Sdao;wmaygh/ wdwdusus {uef{u wxpfcs rajymEdkifao;bl;aygh/
azmhpwm/

'DoabmyJ qdkufaeawmhwmaygh q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
oAÁnKwa&TÓPfawmfudk &&SdawmfrlNyD; &Sd&SdorQaom w&m;pkwdkYudkvnf; ,xmblwusus
odjrifxm;awmfrlwJh Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwf[m ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;wdkYudk jzpfpOf? ysufpOf 'Dw&m;ESpfyg;wdkY&Jh
wyg;eJY wyg; qufpyfaeyHk? trSDo[JjyKaeyHk ponfwdkYudk t<uif;rJh a[mawmfrlxm;cJhw,f/ tJ'Dvdk a[m
awmfrlcJhwJh w&m;awmfawGxJrSm rsufpd? em;? ESmacgif;? vQm? udk,fcE¨m qkdwJhw&m;awGeJY 'Dw&m;awGeJY
awGYxd½dkufcwfwJh tqif;? toH? teHY? t&om eJY ½kyf0w¬KqdkwJh w&m;awG[m ½kyfw&m;jzpfNyD; 'Dw&m;awG
tcsif;csif; awGYxd ½dkufcwfvdkY ay:aygufvmwJh todÓPfqdkwJhemrfw&m;awG[m [',tdrfrSm jzpfay:
vmw,fvdkY twdtvif; yg&Sdw,f/ 'D todw&m;[m [',ESvHk;tdrfrSm jzpfay:vdkuf? csKyfNidrf;vdkufeJY
tqufrjywf a&tvsOf pD;ovdk jzpfaewJh w&m;yJ/ 0dyóemÓPfeJY ususee½IEdkifrS 'Dobm0udk
jrifEdkifw,f/
,cif 'umBuD;&Jhar;cGef;udk OD;yÍÆif; ajzqdkcJhpOfu todynmqdkwm vl&JhcE¨mudk,ftwGif; b,f
tpdwftydkif;xJrSmrS odkavSmifxm;wmr&Sdbl;/ rD;awmuf[m rD;jcpfqHxJrSma&m rD;jcpfbl;ay:rSm uyfxm; wJh
,rf;jym;xJrSmyg r&SdovdkbJ todÓPf qkdwmuvnf; rD;jcpfqHeJY ,rf;jym;udkjcpfvdkufrS rD;awmufay:vm
ovdk txufuajymcJhwJh rsufpd? em;? ESmacgif;? vQm qdkwJh w&m;awGeJY tjyiftyrS ½kyf0w¬KwdkY&Jh ½dkufcwfrIrS
[',0w¬K qdkwJh ESvHk;tdrfrSm jzpfay:vm&wJh w&m;jzpfw,f 'umBuD;/
tJ'Dawmh todÓPfynm[m OD;aESmufxJrSm jzpfyGm;vm&wJh w&m;r[kwfbJ [',½kyf0w¬KqkdwJh ESvHk;tdrfxJ
rSmom jzpfyGm;vm&w,f qkdwJhtcsufudk 'umBuD; oabmayguf vufcHEdkifNyDvm;/
azmhpwm/
q&mawmf ,ck &Sif;vif;ajymjyawmfrlvkdufwJhtwGuf todÓPfynm[m OD;aESmufxJrSm
pwifjzpfay:vm&w,fqdkwJh
rSef;qcsufudk
wynfhawmf
y,fEdkifNyD;
todÓPfynm[m
q&mawmftrdefY&Sdawmf rlwJhtwdkif; [',0w¬KxJrSm jzpfyGm;&w,fqdkwJhtcsufudk oabmaygufygNyD/
'DjyóemeJYywfoufvdkY wynfhawmfwkdYtm; ,ckvdk &Sif;vif;a[mjyawmfrlwJhtwGuf y&dówf&Jhudk,fpm;
aus;Zl;wifvSygw,f q&mawmf/

þwGif y&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

35

ar;cGef;trSwf (6)
Ak'¨0g'onf acwfopf odyÜHynmxufyif jrifhrm;onf[k tb,fuJhodkYaom taxmuftxm; oufao
om"uwkdYjzifh ajymEdkifygoenf; q&mawmf/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - ygarmu© a*s? trf? azmhpwm? trfat? trftuf(pf)pD? bHkbkdifwuúodkvf
rS odyÜHynm ygarmu©? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ Ak'¨0g'qdkwJhw&m;xJrSm omrefvlom;wdkY&Jh tawGUtBuHKrQomr[kwfbJ urÇmh
taemufjcrf; odyÜHynmu rcsOf;uyfEdkif? rcsOf;uyf0HhwJh tvGefjrifhrm;vSwJh tawGYtBuHK? oabmw&m;awGyg
yg0ifaeavawmh 'D0g'[m tawmhfudk us,fjyefYvSygw,f/ prf;oyfcsufrQ? tawGYtBuHKrQ qdkwJh
w&m;awGay: rSm tajcwnfNyD; wpHkwckaom vsmxm;csufwdkYrS aumufEkwfxm;wJh w&m;aot,ltqrsm;?
t&rf;tuef; ,HkMunfrIrsm;udk pkpnf;xm;wJh a'oemrsdK;r[kwfbJ OyÜm'-0, jzpfjcif;? ysufjcif; qkdwJh
y"meOya'oay:rSm tajcwnfNyD; pMum0Vm wckvHk;twGif; jzpfysufaeMuwJh ½kyf? emrf? 0dnmOf w&m;
tpkpkudk wckrusef t<uif;rJh odjrifEdkifonfh oAÁnKw a&TÓPfawmf&Sif Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwfu &Sif;vif;
xkwfazmf a[majymawmfrlcJhwJh a'oemawmfjrwf jzpfw,f 'umBuD;&Jh/
azmhpwm/

rSefyg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
wzufuMunfh&if acwfopf odyÜHynm[m rsm;jym;vSwJh odyÜHynm&SifawG? tbd"r®mq&m
awGu ½kyfavmuBuD;tay:rSm prf;oyf? pl;prf;? avhvmvdkY&orQtcsufawGay:rlwnfNyD; xlaxmifxm;wJh
ynmw&yfjzpfw,f/ tJ'DvlpkxJrSm c&pfray:rD ouú&mZf 546? wenf;tm;jzifh vGefcJhwJhESpfaygif; (2500)
ausmf avmufu *&dwfjynfrSm xGef;um;cJhzl;wJh ao;(vf)(pf) qkdwJh tbd"r®mq&mBuD;[m yxrOD;qHk;yJ/
ol[m rD;usnf;cJrS rD;jzpfwmudk MunfhNyD;vQif vQyfppf"mwfoabmudk pwifrSef;qMunfhcJhw,f/ NyD;awmh
&Sd&SdorQaom ½kyf0w¬KawG&Jh r[mbkwfw&m;[m a&eJYavjzpfw,fvdkY azmfxkwfa[majymcJhw,f/ tJ'DupNyD;
tEkjrL"mwfudk azmfxkwfjyefw,f/ olYaemufrS odyÜHynm&SifawGeJY tbd"r®mq&mawGu olY&Jh
awGU&SdrSef;qcsufay: tajcwnfNyD; prf;oyfavhvmMujyefw,f/ acwfopfodyÜHynm[m tck wdk;wufwJh
tqifhudk a&mufaeNyDvdkY qkdwmawmifrS rjynfhpHkao;bl;/ vQyfppf"mwftm;eJY owådwdkY&Jh rlvblww&m;udk
rajymjyEdkifao;bl;/ 'gwifruao;bl;? Ak'¨0g'vdk pdwfeJYywfoufwJhtcef;rSm wu,fwrf; eufeufeJeJ pl;pl;
&S&SrawGYjrifEdkifao;bl;/ 'gaMumifhAk'¨0g'[m NyD;jynfhpHkwJhw&m;wckomjzpfwJhtjyif ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;
wdkYeJY ywfoufvdkYvnf; ususee t<uif;rJh odjrifxm;wJhw&m;jzpfwJhtwGuf acwfopfodyÜHynmxuf
jrifhrm; w,fvdkY OD;yÍÆif;u tcdkiftrm ajymqdk&jcif; jzpfw,f 'umBuD;/
azmhpwm/
q&mawmftcktrdefY&SdwJhpum;[m tbd"r®moabmeJYMunfh&if usdK;aMumif;,kwådeJYjynfhpHkwJh
vu©Pm&Sdaomfvnf; acwfopfodyÜHynmxuf Ak'¨0g'ujrifhjrwfw,fqdkwJhtcsufudk wynfhawmfwdkY Mum;em
vdkygw,fq&mawmf/ 'gaMumifh tckacwf odyÜHynm&SifawG? ygarmu©awG&Jh rsufarSmufrSm q&mawmf ,ck
&J&J0Hh0HhBuD; rdefYawmfrlvdkufwJh ]],aeY urÇmw0Srf;vHk;u todtrSwfjyKxm;wJh acwfopfodyÜHynmxuf
Ak'¨0g'u jrifhjrwfw,f? tvGefus,fjyefYeufeJw,f}} qdkwJhpum;udk ckdifvHkxif&Sm;apwJh om"uw&yfudk
rdefYawmfrlygvdkY awmif;yefyg&ap q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/

'gjzifh&if 'umBuD;udk ½lyaA'eJY ywfoufvdkY OD;yÍÆif; ar;vdkw,f/

azmhpwm/

ar;awmfrlyg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

vQyfppf"mwf[m b,fvdkoabmjzpfw,fqdkwm wdwdusus ajzprf;yg 'umBuD;/

36

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

þuJhodkYar;vdkufaomtcg ygarmu© rpöwmazmhpwm tygt0if bHkbdkifwuúodkvfrS ynm&Sifrsm;ESifh
ausmif;om;rsm;onf wOD;rsufESmudk wOD;MunfhMuNyD; (5)rdepfrQ tHhtm;oifhum bmrQ rajzqdkEdkifMubJ idkif
oGm;Muygonf/ xdktcg ...
q&mawmf/
uJ 'umBuD;wdkY b,folrQ rajzEdkifMuyguvm;/ (5)rdepfawmif &SdoGm;NyD/ 'umBuD;&Jh
wynfh awG rajymxm;eJY? 'umBuD;udk,fwdkifuyif bmtajzrQ ray;EdkifbJ jzpfaeNyD/ tJ'Dawmh OD;yÍÆif;&Jh
ar;cGef;udk OD;yÍÆif;udk,fwkdifyJ Ak'¨udk,fwdkif a[mawmfrlcJhwJh w&m;awmfeJYtnD Ak'¨a'oemawmfudk tajccH
xm;NyD; jyefajz&wmaygh/ OD;yÍÆif;&Jh tajzudkvnf; 'umBuD;wkdYtm;vHk;u 0dkif;0ef;NyD; a0zefbdkY&efvnf;
OD;yÍÆif;u awmif;yefvdkw,f/
azmhpwm/
q&mawmftckar;vdkufwJh ar;cGef;udk wynfhawmfwdkYom r[kwfyg? odyÜHynm&SifxdyfoD;awG
awmif ajzEdkifbdkY&m taMumif;r&Sdygbl; bk&mh/ tJ'Dawmh q&mawmfudk,fwdkifyJ q&mawmf&Jhar;cGef;udk jyefNyD;
ajzjyawmfrlyg/ wynfhawmfrsm; ususee rSwfom;xm;yg&ap/
q&mawmf/
uJ OD;yÍÆif;ajymr,fhtcsufawGudk 'umBuD; ususeeom rSwfom;xm;ayawmh/ vQyfppf
"mwf[m trSeftm;jzifh (1) ajr? (2) a&? (3) rD;? (4) av qdkwJh "mwfBuD;(4)yg;wdkY zJGYpnf;xm;wJh"mwfyJ/ 'D
"mwfBuD; (4)yg; rygbJeJY b,f½kyf0w¬KrQ rjzpfay:Edkifbl;/ tck OD;yÍÆif;ajymwJhtcsuf[m rSefrrSef tck
vufawGYoabmeJY qef;ppfMunfh&if jzpfygw,f/ vQyfppf"mwfudk vufeJYwkdYMunfh&if acsmarGYwJhoabmudk
awGY&vdrfhr,f/ tJ'D acsmarGYwJhoabmeJY awGYxdwJhoabm[m ajr(yx0D) "mwf&JhoabmyJ/ aemufowåd
wckuawmh vQyfppf"mwf rSm toGifoP²mef&Sdw,f/ tJ'D toGifoP²mef[m a& (tmayg)"mwfoabmyJ/ 'D
a& (tmayg) "mwfrygbJESifh b,f½kyf0w¬KrQ toGifoP²mefr&Sdbl;/ aemufowådwckuawmh tJ'D
vQyfppf"mwfudk prf;oyfMunfh&if ylwmudk awGY&vdrfhr,f/ tJ'D ylwm[m rD; (awaZm) "mwf&JhowådyJ/ 'D
awaZm"mwfrygbJESifh b,f½kyf0w¬KrQ rylEdkifbl;/ aemufowådwckuawmh vQyfppf"mwf[m ajzmifhwef; ae
wJhoabmyJ/ 'Dvdkajzmifhwef;aewm[m av (0ga,m) "mwf&JhowådyJ/ 'D av"mwfryg&if b,fenf;eJYrQ
ajzmifhwef;raeEdkifbl;/ 'gudkMunfhjcif;tm;jzifh vQyfppf"mwf[m a&? ajr? av? rD; qkdwJh "mwfBuD;av;yg;wdkY
zJGYpnf;xm;wmjzpfw,fqdkwmudk b,folrQ rjiif;Edkifbl;/ jiif;vnf; jiif;vdkYrjzpfbl;/ 'Dtcsufudk
'umBuD;wdkYu vufrcHEdkifbl;qdkwmudk ckdifvHkwJhtaMumif;jycsufeJY ajymEdkifygw,f/
azmhpwm/
q&mawmf tck trdefY&SdawmfrlvdkufwJh vQyfppf"mwf&Jh oabmeJY owåd&,f? 'DvQyfppf"mwfxJ
rSm "mwfBuD;av;yg; yg0ifaew,fqdkwJh tcsuf&,f? 'DtcsufawG[m tvGefxif&Sm;&Sif;vif;vSwJhtwGuf
wynfhawmfwdkY rjiif;Edkifygbl; q&mawmf/ 'Dtcsufudk wynfhawmfwdkY aumif;pGm rSwfwrf;wifxm;ygw,f
bk&m;/
q&mawmf/
vQyfppf"mwfeJY ywfoufvdkY OD;yÍÆif; ajymjywJhtcsufukd oabmusw,f? vufcHw,fqdk&if
OD;yÍÆif;u 'umBuD;udk aemufxyf ar;cGef;wck ar;&tHk;r,f/ 'umBuD; ususee em;axmifNyD; ajzprf;ygtHk;/
azmhpwm/

rSefyg? ajzyghr,f q&mawmf/ ar;awmfrlyg/

q&mawmf/
tck rsufarSmufacwfrSm Munfh&if odyÜHynm[m tm;vHk;udk zefwD;Edkifw,f/ tck
arSmifae&mu vif;apcsif&if wcgxJ cvkyfuav;udk ESdyfvdkuf½HkeJY vif;oGm;wmyJ/ txufudk wufcsif
&ifvnf; vQyfppf"mwf avSum;xJu cvkyfuav;wckudk ESdyfvdkuf½HkeJY wufoGm;Edkifw,f/ ae&m wcku
tjcm; a0;vHwJhae&mwckudk oGm;csif&ifvnf; armif;olrygwJh "mwf&xm;eJY oGm;Edkifw,f/ rdkifaygif;
axmifaomif;ru a0;vHvSwJh t&yf a'orSm &SdwJhvludk vSrf;NyD;pum;ajymcsif&ifvnf; ajymEdkifw,f/
uckefupm;aeMuwJh vlawGudkMunfhcsif&ifvJ jrifEdkifw,f/ rdkifaygif; aomif;eJYcsDNyD; uGma0;wJha'ou
wpHkwa,muf oDcsif;qdkoH? wD;oHudk em;axmifcsif &ifvnf; em;axmifEdkifw,f/ tvGefat;jrwJh &moDOwk
&SdwJhae&ma'o wckudk aEG;atmifvnf; vkyfEdkifw,f/ rdk;&Gmatmifvnf; vkyfEdkifw,f/ rdk;udkvnf; xpfcsKef;

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

37

atmif vkyfEdkifw,f/ yifv,fa&jyifudkvnf; yGufyGufqlatmifvkyfEdkifw,f/ &Sd&SdorQ ½kyf0w¬KawGudk aorif;
a&mifjcnfeJY xdk;NyD; jymusatmifvkyfEdkifw,f/ tdk ... tqHk;owfajym&&if acwfopfodyÜHynm[m xm0&
bk&m;ocifxufawmif wefckd;jym#d[m jyEdkifao;w,f r[kwfvm; 'umBuD;/
azmhpwm/

rSefyg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
tJ'DavmuftpGrf;xufjrufwJh 'umBuD;wdkY&JhodyÜHynm[m tvGefqdk;oGrf;Murf;wrf;,kwfrm
wJh vlwa,mufudk wcgwnf;eJY vlaumif;olaumif;wa,mufjzpfatmif jyKjyifzefwD; ay;Edkifyghrvm;/
azmhpwm/
odyÜHynm[m ouf&Sdowå0gawGtay:rSm bmrQ rvTrf;rdk;Edkifygbl; q&mawmf/ 'gaMumifh
vlqkd;vloGrf; vlMurf;wa,mufudk odrfarGYEl;nHhNyD; vlaumif;wa,mufjzpfvmatmif rzefwD;Edkifygbl; q&m
awmf/
q&mawmf/
uJ tckvdk odyÜHynmu vlqdk;vloGrf;udk vlaumif;olaumif;jzpfatmif rjyKjyif rajymif;vJ
Edkif&if odyÜHynm[m Ak'¨0g'avmuf rxufjrufaMumif;? wenf;tm;jzifh Ak'¨0g'[m odyÜHynmxuf ydkNyD;
jrifhjrwfaMumif; xif&Sm;jyefNyD/ bmjyKvdkYvnf;qdkawmh Ak'¨0g'[m qkd;oGrf;½kefY&if;vSwJhvlawGudk El;nHh
aysmhaysmif;NyD; vlaumif;olaumif;jzpfatmif jyKjyifajymif;vJay;Edkif½Hkwif rubl;? jA[®mawG? ewfawGudka&m?
vlom;xufyif rdkufrJcufxefvSwJh e*g;awG? bDvl;awG? ,u©awGudk aysmhaysmif;El;nHhNyD; oDv orm"d
wnfaqmufcsifvmatmif oGefoifqHk;rEdkifw,f/ uJ 'umBuD;udk aemufxyf ar;cGef;wck ar;&OD;r,f/
*&dwf tbd"r®mq&mBuD; ao;(vf)(pf)u pNyD;awmh ,ckacwf odyÜHynm&SifwdkYjzpfMuwJh qm*sHK;(ef)(pf) wkdY?
rufvDuefwdkYtxd b,fodyÜHynm&Sifrsm;u odyÜHeJYqdkif&m tpGrf;owåd[m b,ftay:rSm tajcwnfxm;
ovJ/ 'grSr[kwf&ifvJ 'Dvdk urÇmrSm BuD;pdk;vTrf;rdk;aewJh odyÜHynm&yf&Jh t"dutaMumif;&if;[m bmvJ
qdkwJhtcsufudk &Sif;vif;azmfjyEdkifcJhygovJ/
azmhpwm/
odyÜHynm[m obm0rSm jzpfysufaeMuwJh tawGYtBuHKeJY &mpkacwftenf;i,ftwGif;
vlawG&Jh vufawGY pl;prf;avhvmcsufwdkYtay:rSm tajcwnfxm;wJh ynm&yfjzpfavawmh wynfhawmfwkdY[m
odyÜHeJYqkdif&m tpGrf;owåd[m b,ftay:rSm tajcwnfaew,fqdkwmudk &Sif;vif;rjyEdkifbJ jzpfaeygw,f
q&mawmf/ 'gwifrubl;? 'DodyÜHynm&yf&Jh t"dutaMumif;[m bmvJqdkwJhtcsufudkvnf; r&Sif;vif;EdkifMu
ygbl; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
uJ 'gjzifh&if odyÜH&Jh tpGrf;owådwdkYeJYqdkif&m t"dutaMumif;w&m;wdkYudk Ak'¨&Jh tbd"r®m
oabm t& &Sif;jyr,f/ 'umBuD;wdkY aoaocsmcsm *½kpdkuf em;axmifMuNyD; a0zefp&m&Sd&ifvnf;
a0zefMuaygh/ r&Sif;vif;wJh tcsufrsm;&Sd&ifvnf; ar;Muaygh/
oAÁnKwÓPfawmf&Sif Ak'¨&Jhtbd"r®mxJrSm &Sif;vif;a[mjyxm;awmfrlwJhtwdkif; ajym&r,fqdk&if odyÜH&Jh
xif&Sm;wJh tpGrf;owåd[m (16)yg; &Sdw,f/ bmawGvJ qdk&if ...
(1) rmaMumjcif;? (2) El;nHhjcif;? (3) zJGYpnf;jcif;? (4) ,dkpD;jcif;? (5) yljcif;? (6) {jcif;? (7) tm;xkwfjcif;?
(8) wGef;uefjcif;? (9) vIyf&Sm;jcif;? (10) ½kef;uefjcif;? (11) ½kyfoP²mefay:jcif;? (12)
ta&miftqif;&Sdjcif;? (13) teHY&Sdjcif;? (14) t&om&Sdjcif;? (15) MoZm"mwfjzpfjcif;? (16) aMunufjcif;?
'gawG[mwckeJYwck cJGjcm;vdkY r&bJ aygif;pyfzJGYpnf;aeMuwJh "mwfBuD;(4)yg;rS ay:aygufvmMu&wJh
*kPfowådawGyJ/ 'D*kPfowådawGudk olY tpkeJY ol? taMumif;&if;udk&Smr,fqkd&ifvnf; rmaMumjcif;eJY
El;nHhjcif;wkdY[m yx0D"mwf&Jh owådyJ/ zJGYpnf;jcif;eJY ,dkpD;jcif;[m tmayg"mwf&Jh owådyJ/ yljcif;eJY{jcif;[m
awaZm"mwf&Jh owådyJ/ wGef;uefjcif;? vIyf&Sm;jcif;? ½kef;uefjcif;wkdY[m 0ga,m"mwf&Jh owådyJ/
'D"mwfBuD;av;yg;[m r[mbkwfBuD; av;yg;yJ/

38

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

tJ'D r[mbkwf"mwfBuD; (4)yg;ay:rSm vHk;vHk;trSDjyKNyD;jzpfyGm;&wJh Oyg'g½kyf (4)yg;&Sdao;w,f/ txufu
ajymcJh wJh ½kyfoP²mefjzpfay:jcif;eJY ta&miftqif;&Sdjcif; qdkwm (1) 0PÖ½kyf&Jh owådyJ/ teHY&Sdjcif;qdkwmu
(2) *E¨½kyf&Jh owådyJ/ t&om&Sdjcif;qdkwmu (3) &o½kyf&Jh owådyJ/ MoZm"mwfjzpfjcif;eJY
aMunufjcif;qdkwmu (4) MoZm½kyf &Jh owådyJ/
(1) yx0D? (2) tmayg? (3) awaZm? (4) 0ga,m? (5) 0PÖ? (6) *E¨? (7) &o? (8) MoZm qdkwJh 'D½kyf(8)yg;
r&SdbJeJY 'DpMum0VmBuD;vnf; rjzpfvmEdkifbl;/ pMum0VmBuD;twGif;rSm&SdwJh ouf&SdoufrJh ½kyf0w¬KawGvnf;
rjzpfay:Edkifbl;/ bmowådrQvnf; ray:aygufEdkifbl;/ jzpfay:jcif;? tkdrif;a[mif;EGrf;jcif;? ysufokOf;jcif;
qkdwm 'D t|uvmyf½kyfBuD; (8)ckwdkY&Jh rlvADZu ygvmwJh owådawGyJ/
½lyaA'? "mwkaA'? eu©wåaA'? yx0DaA' tp&SdwJh ½kyf0w¬KawGeJYqdkif&m odyÜHynmw&yfvHk;udk jzpfyGm;apwJh
t"du taMumif;&if;awG[m obm0"r®eJY pdwfwdkY aygif;pyfxm;wJh orkXmef (4)yg;yJ/ pMum0VmBuD;
wckvHk;[m 'D orkXmef (4)yg;ay:rSm tajcwnfNyD; jzpfay:vm&wmyJ/ 'D orkXmef(4)yg;&Jh aemufuG,frSm
b,f xm0&bk&m;ocif? b,fzefqif;&SifrS r&Sdbl; 'umBuD;/ 'gayr,fh odyÜHynm&SifawGu ]]pMum0Vm
BuD;wckvHk;udk 0dnmPfawmfu zefqif;w,f}} qkdNyD; vufcH,HkMunfaeMuw,f/ 'umBuD;wkdYvlpk[m ynm
ÓPf &ifhoefNyD;om;yk*¾dKvfawGqdkawmh OD;yÍÆif; tck tusOf;csKyf&Sif;jywJh tcsufudk em;vnf oabmayguf
vdrfhr,f vdkY ,lqxm;ygw,f/
uH? pdwf? Owk? t[m& qkdwJh orkXmefav;yg;[m urÇmavmuBuD;rSm ,aeYxGef;um;aewJh odyÜHynmqkdif&m
*kPfowådawG&Jh t"dutaMumif;&if;awGyJ/ odyÜHynm[m owåADZuvmyfawGay:rSm rlwnfNyD; vufawGY
avhvmpl;prf;csufawGudk vkyfudkif&w,fqdkwm b,folrQ jiif;qdkEdkifwJhtcsufawGr[kwfbl; qdkwmuawmh
rSefygw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'DowåADZuvmyfawG[m OwkorkXmefqdkwJh ylrI? {rI&Jh jyKjyifajymif;vJrIr&SdbJeJY
rwnfNrJ Edkifbl;? r&ifhusufEdkifbl;/
aemufwcku 'DowåADZuvmyfawGudk b,fvdkyJ ylrI? {rIqdkwJh Owku jyKjyifjyKjyifNyD; BuD;xGm;atmif?
ysufokOf;atmifvkyfvkyf odyÜHynm&SifwdkY&Jh pdwf"mwfeJY todynmqkdwJh emrfowåd? emrftpGrf;rygbJ odyÜH
ynm[m xGef;um; wdk;wufrvmEdkifbl;/ ,aeYurÇmrSm tHhrcef; xGef;um;aewJh odyÜHynm&yf&Jh tpGrf; owåd
awGvnf; ay:ayguf rvmEdkifbl; 'umBuD;/
tJ'Dvkd odyÜHynm&SifawG[m olwdkY&Jh pdwfwefckd;? pdwf&Jhowåd? wenf;tm;jzifhqdkvQif odyÜHynm&Sif&Jh
todÓPfynmeJY 'DodyÜHynmqdkif&m tpGrf;owådawGudk prf;oyfazmfxkwfEdkifwmudk rodrjrifMubJ 'D tpGrf;
owådudk ]]r[m0dÓPfawmf}} odkYr[kwf ]]r[memrfawmf}} u zefqif;awmfrlvdkY jzpfay:vm&w,fvdkY
txiftjrif t,ltqrSm;aeMuw,f/ 'Dvdk txiftjrif t,ltqrSm;wmawG[m odyÜHynm&SifawGu
avmurSm &Sd&SdorQ ½kyf0w¬KudkvufawGYpl;prf;&SmazGEdkifMuayr,fh pdwf&Jhqef;us,fyHk? pdwf&JhtpGrf;owådeJY
ywfoufvdkY aumif;aumif; avhvmpl;prf;EdkifrI rjyKEdkifMuao;vdkYyJ/ wcg txufu OD;yÍÆif; ajymcJhwJh
t|uvmyf½kyfawG&Jh zJGYpnf;rI? wnfaqmufrI? uJGjym;rI? ysufokOf;rIawGaMumifh? orkXmefw&m;awGaMumifh
½kyf0w¬KawG&Jh owådawG? wefcdk;awG[m jzpfay:vm&w,fqdkwJhtaMumif;eJY pdwf&Jhwefcdk;owådpGrf;tm;
BuD;rm;wJhtaMumif;awGudk rodrjrifEdkifwm [m avmurSm &Sd&SdorQ ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;wdkYudk ,xmblw
usus rjrifatmif zHk;uG,fxm;wJh t0dZÆmqdkwJh tarSmifxkaMumifhjzpfw,f/ oAÁnKwÓPfawmf&Sif Ak'¨
onfomvQif 'Demrf½kyfqdkwJh w&m;ESpfyg;udk t&if;cHNyD; jzpfay:xGef;um;vm&wJh avmurSm &Sd&SdorQaom
w&m;wdkY&Jh taMumif;w&m;udk b,f"mwfcJGcef;? b,f zvfjyGefzvfcGuf? b,ftyl"mwf t{"mwfay;EdkifwJh
ud&d,mwefqmrQ rygbJeJY tukeftpif rsuf0g;xifxif odjrifawmfrlEdkifw,f/ 'gaMumifh 'D oAÁnKw
ÓPfawmf&Sif Ak'¨udk,fawmfwdkif a[majymnTefjyawmfrlcJhwJh Ak'¨0g'[m tjcm;bmomawG? odyÜHynm
tygt0if ynmtoD;oD;awGxuf jrifhrm;w,fvdkY OD;yÍÆif;u tckdiftrm ajymEdkifwmaygh/ uJ 'umBuD;wkdY

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

39

odyÜH ynm&SifawGu tckOD;yÍÆif; a[majymwJhtcsufudk rausrvnfvdkY&Sd&if jyefvnf ar;jref;EdkifMuygw,f/
a0vnf; a0zefEdkifygw,f/
azmhpwm/
tck q&mawmfa[majymwJh tcsuftvufawG[m tvGefrSefuef&Sif;vif;vSygw,f/ wynfh
awmfwdkYtaeeJY jyefvnfar;jref;qef;ppfa0zefbkdY&m rvdkawmhygbl;/ tm;vHk;oabmayguf em;vnfMu
ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh q&mawmfudk,fwdkif Ak'¨bmomtzJGUcsKyfBuD;uwnfaqmufxm;wJh bHkbkdifNrdKU tmeE´m
0d[m&rSm ,cif wcg a[mawmfrlzl;wJh emrf½kyfw&m; ESpfyg;wdkY&Jhoabmudk wcgxyfNyD; a[mjyawmfrlygOD;
q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
,ckvdk odyÜHynmxGef;um;aewJhacwfrSm odyÜHynm&SifawGtay:rSm jzLpifoefY&Sif;wJh
apwem eJY ajym&r,fqkd&if olwdkYwawG[m &Sd&SdorQaom ½kyf0w¬KwdkY&Jh taMumif;w&m;? tusdK;w&m;?
'D½kyf0w¬KwdkY&Jh wu,fhjzpfpOf? wu,fh*kPfowådwkdYudk rodMubJ oufrJh½kyf0w¬KwkdY&Jh *kPfj'yfudk vufawGY
pl;prf;&SmazG avhvm Mu&if; vdk&if;udk ra&mufbJ uG,fvGeftedpöa&mufMu&wJh emrnfausmf
odyÜHynm&SifBuD;awGvnf; renf;bl;/ 'Dvdk BudK;&if;yrf;&if; avhvm&if; pl;prf;&if;eJY vdk&if;udkra&mufbJ
vrf;ckvyfrSm uG,fvGefMu&wJh taMumif;&if; uawmh 'DodyÜHynm&SifawG[m &Sd&SdorQaom ½kyfw&m;
wdkY&JhjzpfpOf? ysufpOf? *kPf? owåd? zJGYpnf;yHk? ysufokOf;yHk pwJh tcsufawGudk odjrifem;vnfrI? wenf;tm;jzifh
t0dZÆmÓPf t&if;cHr&SdbJeJY qifuef;awmwdk; vdkufvHpl;prf;aeMuvdkYjzpfw,f 'umBuD;/
tvGef&Sif;vif;vG,fulNyD; odjrifem;vnfEdkifwJh OyrmeJYajym&&if 'D odyÜHynm&SifawG[m awmifa0S;wacsmif;
eJY vrf;avQmufaewJh rsufrjrif'ku©dwawGeJY wlaeNyD; rsufrjrif'ku©dw wa,muf[m oloGm;vmaeus
ae&mXme wckudk awmifa0S;wacsmif;udk toHk;jyKNyD;awmh avQmufwwf? oGm;wwfygw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'Dvdk
olavQmuf&if; olawGYwJhvl? olYab;rSm&SdwJh taqmuftOD ponfwkdYudkawmh tjcm;olwa,mufudk rar;bJeJY
olrodbl;/ acwfopf odyÜHynm&SifawGvnf; 'DvdkyJ/ olwdkY&nfpl;xm;wJh avhvmprf;oyfrIudk vkyfudkifvdkY
rNyD;ao;cif vrf; ckvyftwGif;rSm awGYjrif&wJh odyÜH½kyf0w¬KwdkY&Jh zJGYpnf;yHk? ysufokOf;yHk? taMumif;w&m;?
tusdK;w&m;? *kPf? owåd ponfwdkYudk rodrjrifMubl;/ 'D odyÜHynm&SifawGrSm Ak'¨a[mawmfrlcJhwJh tbd"r®m
ÓPfawmf? wenf;tm;jzifh 0dZÆmÓPfrsm; &Sdxm;Mu&if tckxuf tHhbG,frcef; xl;qef;wJhatmifjrifrIawGudk
&r,fqdkwm ajrBuD;vufcwf rvJGbl;vdkY OD;yÍÆif;qkdcsifw,f/ tck urÇmrSm odyÜHynm&yfeJY ywfoufvdkY
xdyfwef;tusqHk;jzpfwJh ('kwd, urÇm ppfBuD; rwkdifrDu a[majymcJhonfh w&m;jzpfygonf/ bmomjyefol)
*smreDjynf[m bmjyKvdkY 'Dvdk odyÜHynm bufrSm tjcm;wkdif;jynfawGxuf omae&ovJqkd&if *smreDjynfu
a'gufwm aygvf'dkuf wdkYvdk yk*¾dKvfawGu Ak'¨tbd"r®mudk wzufrS ususeeavhvmxm;MuNyD;
wzufuvnf; odyÜHynmt& avhvmpl;prf;rIwkdYudk jyKvkyfaeMuvdkYyJ jzpfygw,f 'umBuD;/

þwGif ygarmu©azmhpwmu w&m;emy&dówfrsm;udk,fpm; q&mawmftm; aus;Zl;wifaMumif;ESifh
aemifvnf; olESifhwuG odyÜHynm&SifwdkYtm; ½kyfemrfcE¨mudk,fwdkYESifhqdkif&m w&m;wdkYudk a[mMum;awmf
rlygrnfh taMumif; avQmufxm;avonf/

40

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (7)
b0oHo&mwGif tptqHk;r&SdaMumif; xif&Sm;atmif &Sif;vif;awmfrlyg q&mawmf/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - rpöwm t,f(rf) 'g½l;0g;vm;? vTwfawmfa&SUaeBuD;? bHkbdkifNrdKU? ajzqdkol
- q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ b0oHo&m[m puf0dkif;ozG,f tqufrjywfusifvnfaewJhw&m; jzpfavawmh
tptqHk;r&Sdbl; 'umBuD;&Jh/ 'Dvdk tptqHk;r&SdbJ puf0dkif;ozG,f csmcsmvnfaeayr,fh 'Dpuf0dkif;xJu
xGufEdkifwJh vrf;&Sdw,f/ tJ'DxGufaygufvrf;[m a0'emeJYwPSmtMum;rSmyJ/ rsufpdeJY toGifoP²mef? em;eJY
toH? vQmeJY t&om? udk,feJY tawGY? pdwfeJY oabmwdkY&Jh wckeJYwck toD;oD; awGYxd½dkufcwfrIaMumifh
ay:aygufvm&wJh a0'emudk 0dyóemw&m;eJY tqufjzwfNyD; tjrpfjzKwfypfEdkifvdkY&Sd&if wPSmqdkwJh w&m;
udk jzpfay:apwJh taMumif;w&m;[m ay:aygufrvmEdkifawmhbl;/ 'DwPSmqdkwJhw&m;[m Oyg'gefqdkwJh
w&m;&Jh taMumif;w&m;jzpfavawmh 'DwPSmudkjzKwfvdkuf&if olY&JhtusdK;w&m;jzpfwJh Oyg'gefqdkwJhw&m;[m
ray:aygufEdkifawmhbl;/ Oyg'gefw&m; ay:rvmEdkifwmeJYwNydKifeuf ZmwdqdkwJhw&m;[m ay:rvmEdkif jyef
bl;/ 'D Zmwdw&m; csKyfNidrf;oGm;wmeJYwNydKifeuf tdkjcif;? emjcif;? aojcif; qkdwJh w&m;awGyg woDwwef;
BuD; jyKwfoGm;& r,f/ 'D 'ku©w&m;awGeJY jyGef;wD;aewJh b0w&m;awG csKyfNidrf;wmeJY wNydKifeuf b,fawmhrS
NzdKzsufvdkYr&wJh edAÁmefqdkwJh w&m;udk &wmyJ/
'g½l;0g;vm;/ Ak'¨[m b0oHo&mrSm tptqHk;r&Sdbl;vdkY a[mwmu 'Db0oHo&mrSm tptqHk; &Sdaomf
vnf; oludk,fwdkif MunfhvdkYrjrif&wJhtwGuf a[mwm r[kwfygvm; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
'umBuD;? Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwf rjrifwJh? rodwJh w&m;qdkwm avmurSmr&Sdbl;/ 'gayr,fh 'D
b0oHo&mrSmtptqHk;r&SdwJhtwGufr&Sdbl;vdkYa[mawmfrlcJhjcif;jzpfygw,f/ 'Dtcsufudk 'umBuD; &Sif;&Sif;
vif;vif; odjrifem;vnfvmatmif OD;yÍÆif;u Oyrmwckjy&tHk;r,f/ uJ 'umBuD;? OD;yÍÆif;udk ausmckdif;NyD;
y&dówfbufudk rsufESmrlvdkufprf;yg/ OD;yÍÆif;u OD;yÍÆif;bufudk jyefvSnfhvdkYajymrS 'umBuD; jyefvSnfhyg/

(rpöwm 'g½l;0g;vm;onf q&mawmfajymonfhtwdkif; y&dówfbufodkY rsufESmrlvdkufaomtcg q&mawmf
onf ajrjzLwawmifhudk,lí teD;&Sd oifykef;BuD;ay:ü puf0dkif;BuD;wckudk a&;qJGvdkuf\/ xdkYaemuf rpöwm
'g½l;0g;vm;tm; q&mawmfu olYbufokdY jyefvSnfhcdkif;vdkuf\)

uJ 'umBuD;? a[m'D oifykef;BuD;ay:u puf0dkif;xJu pwJhae&meJY qHk;wJhae&mudk OD;yÍÆif;tm; jyprf;yg/
'g½l;0g;vm;/ puf0dkif;wck jzpfaeavawmh tptqHk;&,fvdkY r&Sdygbl; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/

'umBuD; 'Dvdkajymwm[m 'Dpuf0dkif;&Jh tpeJY tqHk;udk rjrifvkdYaygh/

'g½l;0g;vm;/ wynfhawmf[m oifykef;BuD;ay:u puf0dkif;udk aumif;aumif;BuD;jrif&ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'D
puf0dkif;rSm tptqHk;r&SdwJhtwGuf tptqHk;r&Sdbl;vdkY avQmufxm;wmyg q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
'Doifykef;BuD;ay:u tck cPtwGif;urS OD;yÍÆif; ajrjzLeJYqJGvdkufwJh puf0dkif;uav;rSmrS
tptqHk; r&Sd&if pMum0VmBuD;wckvHk;udk ywfaewJh b0oHo&m qdkwJh puf0dkif;BuD;rSm b,fhES,fvkyfNyD; tp
tqHk; &,fvdkY &SdEdkifyghrvJ 'umBuD;/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

41

'g½l;0g;vm;/ q&mawmf &Sif;vif;a[majymawmfrlvdkufwJhtwGuf b0oHo&m puf0dkif;BuD;rSm tptqHk;
r&SdwJhtaMumif; wynfhawmf aumif;aumif;BuD; odjrifem;vnfygNyD bk&m;/

þwGif w&m;emy&dówfwdkYu om"k tEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

42

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (8)
t0dZÆm odkYr[kwf tarSmifw&m;onf b0oHo&m\ y"metaMumif;&if;jzpfcJhvQif t0dZÆmw&m;onf 4if;\
tarSmifxkjzifh b0oHo&mudk rnfuJhodkYjyKjyifzefwD;EdkifygovJ q&mawmf/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - rpöwm *sdK&SD? bDat? t,f(vf) t,f(vf) bD? [kdufukwfa&SUaeBuD;?
bHkbdkifNrdKU? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ t0dZÆmqkdwJh w&m;&Jhtajctaeudk 'umBuD; ususee em;vnfoabmaygufvm
atmif OD;yÍÆif; ar;wJhar;cGef;udk ususee pOf;pm;NyD; ajzapcsifygw,f 'umBuD;/
*sdK&SD/

rSefyg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'umBuD;/

tvif;a&mifeJY tarSmifqdkwJh w&m;ESpfyg;[m wBudrfwnf; wcgwnf; jzpfay:vmEdkifovm;

*sdK&SD/
tvif;a&mifeJY tarSmifw&m;wkdY[m wyg;eJYwyg; ajzmifhajzmifhBuD; qefYusifaeMuwJh w&m;
ESpfyg; jzpfwJhtwGuf wBudrfwnf; wcgwnf; wNydKifwnf; jzpfay:rvmEdkifygbl; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/ 'gjzihf tarSmifw&m;udkjzpfay:apwJh taMumif;w&m;[mvnf; tvif;a&mifyJvm;/ tvif;
a&mifudk jzpfapwwfwJh w&m;uvnf; tarSmifw&m;yJvm;/
*sdK&SD/
tvif;a&mif[m tarSmifw&m;udk jzpfay:apwJh w&m;vdkYqkd&if rrSefygbl; q&mawmf/ wcg
tvif;a&mifudk jzpfapwJhw&m;[m tarSmifw&m;yJqdkvdkYvnf; rjzpfEdkifygbl; q&mawmf/ 'gayr,fh tarSmif
w&m;r&SdwJhtcgrSm tvif;a&mifjzpfay:NyD; tvif;a&mifr&SdwJhtcgrSm tarSmifw&m;jzpfay:&w,fvdkY qkd&if
awmh rSefygvdrfhr,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/ tJ tck 'umBuD;ajymovdkyJ &Sd&SdorQaom½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;awGudk ,xmblwusus
rqifjcif roHk;oyfEdkif&if? rjrifEdkif&if? t0dZÆmqdkwJh tarSmifw&m;[m vTrf;rdk;wmyJ/ wcg &Sd&SdorQaom
½kyfemrf w&m;awGudk tydktvdk? twdk;tqkwfr&Sd olYyuwdtwdkif; aeom;wus MunfhwwfjrifwwfwJh
0dZÆmw&m; wenf;tm;jzifh tvif;a&mif xGef;awmufwJhtcgrSm t0dZÆmqdkwJh tarSmifw&m;[m aysmufuG,f
oGm;&awmh wmaygh/ 'gaMumifh t0dZÆmqdkwJh tarSmifw&m;[m b,fw&m;aMumifh jzpfw,f/ 'Dw&m;&Jh
t&if;cHtaMumif;w&m;[m [kdw&m;yJ? 'Dw&m;yJvdkY &Smaewm[m MuufOudk tp&Smaeovdk yifyef;NyD; t&m
rxifwJhtvkyfyJ jzpfw,f/ bmjyKvdkYvJqdkawmh pMum0VmBuD; w0Srf;vHk;twGif;rSm&SdwJh ouf&Sdowå0g
a0ae,sawGudk jzpfay:apwJh taMumif;w&m;[m t0dZÆmqdkwJh tarSmifw&m;yJ/ 'Dt0dZÆmqdkwJh tarSmif
w&m;u zHk;vTrf;xm;vdkY &Sd&SdorQ owå0gawG[m ouf&Sd oufrJh ½kyf0w¬KtvHk;pHkudk y&rwfoabmeJY rjrifbJ
ynwftjrifeJYomjrifNyD; wyfrufNidwG,faeMuwmjzpfw,f/ t0dZÆmqdkwJh tarSmifw&m;udk aysmufuG,f
oGm;atmif wGef;vSefz,f&Sm;ypf EdkifwmeJY wNydKifeuf owå0gtoD;oD;[m wOD;csif; usifvnfepfrGef;wJh
oHo&mqdkwJh puf&[wfxJu vGwfajrmufoGm;MurSmyJ/ wenf;tm;jzifhajym&&if txufu OD;yÍÆif; ajymcJh
ovdk t0dZÆmqdkwJh tarSmifw&m; aysmufuG,fwmeJY wNydKifeuf 0dZÆmqdkwJh tvif;a&mif vTrf;rdk;BuD;pdk;
vm&rSmyJ 'umBuD;/
*sdK&SD/
,ck q&mawmf&Jh tvif;a&mifeJY tarSmifw&m;wdkY&Jh Oyrm b0oHo&mudk tarSmifw&m;u
b,fvdkzefwD;w,fqdkwmudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;BuD; em;vnfoabmaygufygNyD q&mawmf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

þwGif w&m;emy&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

43

44

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (9)
Ak'¨&Jh edAÁmefudk c&pf,mefbmom0ifwdkY&Jh aumif;uifbHkeef;? r[mar'ifbmom0ifwdkY&Jh O,smOfawmf? [dE´L
bmom0ifwkdY&Jh rkwådwdkYuJhodkY yHkoP²mefudk a[majymNyD; jyEdkifyghrvm; q&mawmf/ 'DvdkrS rjyEdkifcJhvdkY&Sd&if
edAÁmef w&m;[m wu,fwrf; &SdEdkifyghrvm; q&mawmf/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - c&pf,mefbkef;BuD; a*s? 0pf(vf)qif? trfat (atmufpzdkYwuúodkvf)
c&pf,mef bmom&yf yg&*l? bHkbkdifNrdKU? tufvDzifpwHk;aumvdyf? t*Fvdyfbmomygarmu©? ajzqdkol
- q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ tvGefw&mvnf; jrifhjrwf? csrf;omokceJYvnf; vHk;0jynfhpHkNyD; zsufqD;vdkYr&bJ
tpOfxm0&vnf; wnfNrJaewJh edAÁmefw&m;eJY ,SOfNydKifvdkY&wJhw&m;[m avmurSm r&Sdbl;/ 'gaMumifh edAÁmef
qdkwJh w&m;udk oufqkdif&m bmomt,l0g'toD;oD;t& a[majymxm;wJh c&pf,mefbmom0ifwdkY&Jh aumif;
uifbHkeef;wdkY? r[mar'ifbmom0ifwkdY&Jh O,smOfawmfwdkY? [dE´Lbmom0ifwdkY&Jh rkwådwdkY qkdwJhw&m;awGeJYawmh
EdIif;,SOfvdkYr&bl;/ 'Dw&m;awGudk omrefvlom;awG&Jh ÓPfeJY pdwful;vdkY&w,f/
Ak'¨u olY&Jh w&m;a'oemawmfawGxJrSm a[mjyawmfrlcJhwJh edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;udk Ak'¨udk,fawmfwdkifeJY &[Eåm
yk*¾dKvfrsm;omvQif txift&Sm;jrifawmfrlEdkifw,f/ ewfawG? odMum;awG? jA[®mawGawmif rjrifEdkifMubl;/ 'D
edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;udk jrifEdkifodEdkifwJh tajctaeudka&mufzdkYqdkwmuvnf; vG,fulwmr[kwfbl;/ 'Dvdk
odEdkifzdkY&m 1/
emr½ly y&d*¾[ÓPf (pdwfwdkY\wu,fhobm0ESifh ½kyfwdkY\wu,fhobm0udk ydkif;jcm;íodaom
ynm tvif;)
2/
ypö, y&d*¾[ÓPf (pdwfESifhwuG taxmuftyHhoabmwdkYudk4if;? ½kyfESifhwuG taxmuftyHhoabm
wdkYudk 4if; ydkif;jcm;íodaom ynmtvif;)
3/
or®oeÓPf (½kyf\jzpfysufrI? emrf\jzpfysufrIwdkYudk rNrJjcif;? qif;&Jjcif;? tpdk;r&jcif;wkdYjzifh
jrifaom ynm tvif;)
4/

O'´,b,ÓPf (½kyfemrfwdkY\ jzpfysufrIudk ½Ijrifaom ynmtvif;)

5/

b*FÓPf (½kyfemrfwdkY\ tysufudkom ½Iaom ynmtvif;)

6/

b,ÓPf (½kyfemrfudk aMumufzG,f ½Ijrifaom ynmtvif;)

7/

tm'de0ÓPf (½kyfemrfwdkY\ tjypfudk ½Ijrifwwfaom ynmtvif;)

8/

edAÁd'gÓPf (½kyfemrfwdkYudk NiD;aiGYaom ynmtvif;)

9/

rkpödwkurswmÓPf (½kyfemrfysufpD;rIwkdYrS vGwfajrmufvkdaom ½IjrifrI ynmtvif;)

10/

y#docFgÓPf (wzefvGwfvdkaom ½IjrifrI ynm tvif;)

11/

ocFg½layu©mÓPf (jzpfysufrIwdkYudk vspfvsLjyK ½Ijrifaom ynmtvif;)

12/ tEkavmrÓPf (atmufuodNyD;aom ynmtvif;ESifh txufqufod&ef ynmtvif;wdkYudk
avsmfpGm ½Ijrifaom ynm tvif;)

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

45

13/ a*gMwblÓPf (udavom ayusHrI tquftEG,fjywfí avmurS vGwfajrmuf&ef Nidrf;csrf;aom
ynm tvif;)
14/

aomwmywådr*fÓPf (opömav;yg;udk ,HkrSm;uif;pGm tptqHk;odaom ynmtvif;)

15/

aomwmywådzdkvfÓPf (þtxufyg r*fÓPf\ tusdK;)

16/

ou'g*grdr*fÓPf (avmb? a'goESifh awGa0rIwkdYudk xyfíxyfíy,faom ynmtvif;)

17/

ou'g*grdzdkvfÓPf (þtxufyg r*fÓPf\ tusdK;)

18/

tem*grd r*fÓPf (umr? &m*ESifh pdk;&drfpdwfwkdYudk ukefpifatmify,faom ynmtvif;)

19/

tem*grd zdkvfÓPf (þtxufyg r*fÓPf\ tusdK;)

20/

t&[wå r*fÓPf (udk,fwGif;&efol [lorQwdkYudk t<uif;rJhy,faom ynmtvif;)

21/

t&[wå zdkvfÓPf (þtxufyg r*fÓPf\ tusdK;)

22/

ypöa0u©eÓPf (tzefzefqifjcifwkdif; jrifaomÓPf)

'DÓPf(22)yg;udk & &r,f/ Ak'¨eJY olY&[EåmawG[m 'DÓPf(22)yg;udk &&Sdxm;wJhtwGuf edAÁmefqdkwm odjrif
em;vnfawmfrlMujcif;jzpfw,f/
0pfvqif/
edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;udk q&mawmfa[majymawmfrlwJhtwdkif; rnfonfhyHkoP²mef? ta&mif
tqif; &Sdw,fqdkwmudk a[majymzdkY cJ,Of;w,fqdkwJhtcsufudk vufcHygw,f/ 'gayr,fh edAÁmefudk rodEdkif
rjrifEdkifMuwJh vlom;wdkYudk edAÁmefudk vdkcsifvmatmif edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;rSm b,fvdk *kPfowådeJY t&nftcsif;
&Sdw,fqdkwmudkawmh Ak'¨eJYolY&[EåmawG[m a[majymvdkY rjzpfEdkifaybl;vm; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;udk rodEdkif rjrifEdkifMuwJh vlom;awGtm; edAÁmef[m b,fvdkyHkoP²mef?
ta&miftqif; &Sdw,fqdkwmudk b,fvdkyJ a[majymaomfvnf; 'DÓPfynmawGudkrS &rxm;vdkY&Sd&if rodEdkif
rjrifEdkifMubl;/ 'gayr,fh 'Dvlom;awG odjrifem;vnfEdkifavmufwJh edAÁmef&Jh *kPfowådawGudkawmh Ak'¨
udk,fawmfwkdifu a[mawmfrlcJhygw,f/ tJ'D *kPfowådawGuawmh 1/
edAÁmeH tocFwH (edAÁmef[m a&? ajr? av? rD; qdkwJh r[mbkwf"mwfBuD;av;yg;wkdY aygif;pyfzJGYpnf;
wnfaqmufxm;wJh w&m;r[kwfwJhtwGuf jyKjyifajymif;vJrIrS uif;pifjcif;)
2/

edAÁmeH edpöH (edAÁmef[m wnfNrJrI&Sdjcif;)

3/
edAÁmeH y&rokcH (edAÁmef[m wPSm? Oyg'gef pwJh w&m;awGudk jzpfyGm;apwJh a0'emw&m;awGrS
uif;pifwJh taumif;qHk;aom csrf;omokceJY jynfhpHkjcif;)
4/

edAÁmeH "l0H (edAÁmef[m zefqif;xm;wJhw&m; r[kwfbJ tNrJ&SdwJh w&m;jzpfjcif;)

5/

edAÁmeH 0drkwåd&óm (edAÁmef[m vGwfajrmufwJht&omeJY vHk;0jynfhpHkjcif;)

6/

edAÁmeH okbH (edAÁmef[m tvGefwifhw,fjcif;w&m;eJY jynfhpHkjcif;)

7/
edAÁmeH 0da&m"dorÜwåH (edAÁmef[m 1500 udavomw&m;awG? ½kyf? emrf? cE¨mw&m;wdkYrS
ay:aygufvmwJh a0'emw&m;awG? 'ku©awGtm;vHk; uif;vGwfjcif;) qkdwJh (7)yg;aom w&m;awGyJ jzpfw,f/
0pfvqif/
Ak'¨eJY &[Eåmudk,fawmfjrwfrsm;udk,fwdkif odjrifem;vnfxm;wJh edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;udk olwdkY
udk,fwdkif wdwdusus a[majymawmfrlMuygvsufeJY omrefvlom;rsm;u 'DedAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;udk em;rvnfEkdif

46

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

Mubl; qkdwJh tcsufudkawmh wynfhawmfwdkYtaeeJY oabmraygufEdkifbJ jzpfaeMuygw,f q&mawmf/
'gaMumifh 'DjyóemeJY ywfoufvdkY wynfhawmfwdkY em;vnfoabmaygufoGm;atmif &Sif;vif;jyawmfrlygOD;
q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;eJY ywfoufvdkY Ak'¨udk,fawmfwdkif a[mawmifrS omrefvlom;wdkY&Jh ÓPf
rsufpdeJY b,fenf;eJYrS rodEdkif? em;rvnfEdkifbl;qdkwJhtcsufudk &Sif;vif;oGm;atmif 'umBuD;udk Oyrmwck
xyfNyD; jy&vdrfhOD;r,f/
(xdkaemuf q&mawmfu ygarmu© 0pfvqiftm; atmufygar;cGef;rsm;udk ar;ygonf/)

q&mawmf/
tu,fí arG;uwnf;u rsufpdrjrifwJh vlwa,mufudk 'Dy&dówfxJac:vmNyD;
'umBuD;u tJ'D rsufpdrjrifwJhvludk ae&Jh tvif;a&mif[m b,fvkdyHkoP²mef&Sdw,f? b,fvdk ta&miftqif;
&Sdw,f qkdwm udk tJ'Dvl odjrifem;vnfvmatmif &Sif;jyEdkifyghrvm;/
0pfvqif/
'Dvl[m arG;uwnf;u rsufpduG,faewJholqdkawmh aea&mifjcnf[m b,fvdkta&mif?
b,fvdkyHkoP²mef&Sdw,fqdkwmudk olodjrifem;vnfEdkifatmif &Sif;jyEdkifr,f r[kwfygbl;/ bmjyKvdkYvJqkdawmh
'D arG;uwnf;u rsufpduG,fvmwJh vl[m wynfhawmfudk aea&mifjcnf[m wdkovm;? &Snfovm;?
El;nHhovm;? Murf;ovm;? xlovm;? yg;ovm;? vHk;ovm;? jym;ovm;? jrifhovm;? edrfhovm;?
ajzmifhovm;? aumuf ovm;? vufeJYprf;vdkY xdvdkY&ovm;? r&bl;vm; pwJh ar;cGef;awGudk ar;NyD;
wynfhawmfu b,fvdkyJajzajz ol[m em;vnf oabmaygufrSm r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/ aemufqHk;
olar;wJh ar;cGef;awGudk rajzEdkifawmh wynfhawmf[m vufavQmhvdkuf&½HkyJ &SdawmhrSmyg q&mawmf/ 'D
rsufpdrjrifwJhvludk ae&Jhta&mif[m b,fvdk oabm&Sdw,fqkdwmukd odjrifem;vnfEkdifatmif
tvGefuRrf;usif em;vnfwJh orm;awmfeJY rsufpdudk jrifvmatmif ukoay;ygrSjzpfrSmyg q&mawmf/
tck q&mawmfar;wJhar;cGef;udk ajz&Sif;&if;eJY aea&mifjcnf&Jhobm0eJYywfoufvdkY arG;uwnf;u
rsufpduG,f vmwJh vludk b,fvdkyJ&Sif;jyjy odjrifem;vnfrvmEdkifovkdbJ edAÁmef&Jhoabm obm0udk Ak'¨&Jh
&[EåmawG udk,fwdkifu b,favmufyJa[ma[m omrefvlom;awG[m em;vnfzdkY? oabmaygufzdkY
rjzpfEdkifbl; qdkwJh tcsufudk wynfhawmf &Sif;vif;oabmaygufygNyD q&mawmf/
wynfhawmf ArmjynfrSm ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm aecJhpOftcgu 'D edAÁmefeJYywfoufwJhjyóemudk q&mawmfBuD;awG?
ynm&Sdyk*¾dKvfBuD;awGudk avQmufxm;cJhzl;ygw,f/ olwdkYu 'Djyóemudk &[Eåmyk*¾dKvfrsm;om &Sif;vif;
a[majym Edkifw,f/ edAÁmeftaMumif;udk odcsif&if rdrdudk,fwdkif r*¾if&Spfyg;udk usifh&r,fvdkY ajymMuygw,f
q&mawmf/ q&mawmfu arG;uwnf;u rsufaphuG,fvmwJhvl&Jh OyrmeJY&Sif;NyD; a[majymawmfrlvdkufrSyJ
wynfhawmf[m edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;&Jhoabmudk em;vnfoabmaygufvmu wynfhawmf&JhpdwfxJrSm
umv&Snfvsm;pGm ½IyfaxG; aewJh jyóem[m &Sif;vif;oGm;ygawmhw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
ckeu OD;yÍÆif;a[mcJhovdk arG;uwnf;u rsufaphrjrifwJhvludk aea&mif[m b,fvdk
ta&mif tqif;&Sdw,f? b,fvdk yHkoP²mef&Sdw,f? b,fvkdowåd&Sdw,f qdkwmudk b,favmufyif
&Sif;jy&Sif;jy pu©KESpfuGif; tvif;r&ojzifh aea&mif&Jhoabmudk b,fenf;eJYrS em;vnfoabmaygufrSm
r[kwfovkd Ak'¨ESifh &[Eåmt&SifjrwfwdkYom odjrifem;vnfEdkifwJh edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;&Jh oabmESifh
tESpfom&udkvnf; t&[wår*f t&[wåzdkvfÓPfudk r&rcsif; rodEdkif? oabmraygufEdkifbl; qkdwmudk
tm;vHk; em;vnf oabmaygufMu apcsifw,f/ 'Dw&m;udk em;vnfoabmaygufvdkwJh tMuifol wOD;
wa,muf[m t0dZÆmtarSmifxkudk jrLrQ rusefatmif z,f&Sm;ypf&vdrfhr,f/ 'D t0dZÆmw&m;udk y,f&Sm; ypfzdkY
&ef vnf; r*¾if&Spfyg;w&m;udk wu,fwrf; rqkwfrepf tm;xkwf&ygvdrfhr,f/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

47

(þae&mwGif y&dówfxJrS 'umBuD;wa,mufu rwfwwf&yfvsuf)

q&mawmfbk&m;? wynfhawmfwdkY tdE´d,jynfeJY ArmjynfrSm&SdMuwJh tar&duef omoemjyKawGu edAÁmefqdkwm
bmrQr[kwfbJ tm;vHk;zsufqD;ypfwJhw&m;vdkY a[majymaeMuavawmh 'DuaeY q&mawmf a[mawmfrlvdkufrS
yJ wynfhawmfwdkY[m edAÁmefqdkwJhw&m;[m olwdkYajymovdk tm;vHk;udk zsufqD;ypfwJhw&m;r[kwfbJ
wu,fhudk csrf;omokc tjynfht0&SdwJhw&m;rSef; em;vnfoabmaygufMu&ygw,f q&mawmf/

þwGif y&dówftm;vHk;u om"ktEkarm'em jyKMuavukefonf/

48

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (10)
Ak'¨udk,fwdkifu tjcm;olrsm;uJhodkY ZeD;ESifhom; &Sdygvsuf avmb? a'go? wPSm? rme? t0dZÆm ponfh
w&m;wdkYrS uif;pifEdkifygrnfvm; q&mawmf/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - c&pf,mefbkef;BuD; a*s? 0pf(vf)qif? trfat (atmufpzdkYwuúodkvf)?
c&pf,mef bmom yg&*l? bHkbkdifNrdKU? tufvDzifpwHk;aumvdyf? t*Fvdyfbmomygarmu©? ajzqdkol q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ Ak'¨rSm ZeD;vnf;&Sdw,f/ om;vnf;&Sdw,f/ 'gaMumifh Ak'¨[m omrefvlom;
wa,mufomjzpfNyD; bk&m;qdkwJhbJGYxl;eJY rnfonfhenf;eJYrQ rxdkufwefbl; qdkwJhpum;[m Ak'¨&Jh odyÜH
enf;uswJh tbd"r®mw&m;awGudk rodem;rvnfMuwJh c&pf,mefbkef;BuD;rsm;u Ak'¨bmomudk rESpfNrdKUwJh
oabmeJY a[majym 0g'jzefYaeMuwJhpum;omvQif jzpfygw,f/
tvGefjrifhjrwfwJh? NydKifzufr&SdwJh? tvGefpifMu,fjrifhjrwfwJh? oAÁnKwa&TÓPfawmf&SifAk'¨eJY Ak'¨tjzpfudk
a&mufatmif usifhaepOftcgu Ak'¨tavmif;tvsmeJY tvGefuGmjcm;vsuf&Sdw,fqdkwJh tcsufukd olwdkY[m
vHk;0 rodem;rvnfMubl;/
ZeD; ,aomf"&mrif;orD;eJY om;awmf &m[kvmwdkYeJY eef;roHk;aqmifrSm aysmfpHaecJhwJh a*gwrrif;om;?
wenf;tm;jzifh od'¨w¬rif;om;[m Ak'¨&Jhtavmif;tvsm? Ak'¨jzpfzdkY&efBudK;pm;aewJh tMuifvlom;wa,mufyJ
jzpfcJhw,f/ ol[m or®morÁK'¨tjzpfa&mufatmifavhusifh,l&r,fhrif;om;wyg;yJjzpfw,f/ Ak'¨udk,fawmfwdkif
r[kwfao;bl;/
Ak'¨qdkwm bmvJvdkY qkdwmudk uGufuGufuGif;uGif; xifxif&Sm;&Sm;jrifvmatmif OD;yÍÆif;u atmufyg
tcsuf tvufudk &Sif;jyzdkY vdkvdrfhr,f/
Ak'¨tjzpfudk vdkvm;awmifhwNyD;usifhoHk;wJhvludk Ak'¨tavmif;tvsmvdkYac:w,f/ 'D Ak'¨tavmif;tvsm[m 1/

rdrd&Jh pnf;pdrfOpömudk rajymeJY? toufudkyif vmNyD;tvSLcHr,fhvl&Sd&if ay;urf;pGefYBuJr,fqkdwJh 'ge
yg&rD?

2/

toufyif taocHNyD; apmifhxdef;tyfwJh oDvudk apmifhxdef;ygr,f qdkwJh oDvyg&rD?

3/

pnf;pdrfOpöm[lorQwGif omrefvlom;wdkY twyfrufqHk;jzpfwJh xD;eef;pnf;pdrfudkyif pGefYy,fí
awmxGufjcif;? wenf;tm;jzifh þpnf;pdrfOpöm&wem qdkwJh w&m;pkwdkYrS vGwfajrmufatmif
½kef;xGuf wJh edu©ryg&rD?

4/

toufpnf;pdrfcsrf;omudkyif yrmPrjyKbJ trSefw&m;udkom udk,fpm;jyKwJh opömyg&rD?

5/

&Sd&SdorQaomw&m;udk [kwfwdkif;rSef&mtwdkif; cJGjcm;pdwfjzmNyD;odEdkifwJh todÓPfudk qnf;yl; wnf
aqmufwJh ynmyg&rD?

6/

touftdk;tdrfpnf;pdrf[lorQudk yrmPrxm;bJ ork'´&myifv,fBuD;udkyif vufypful;í pGefYpm;0Hh
aom rqkwfrepfonfh ZJGvHkYvxkwfrI 0D&d,yg&rD?

7/

rdrd&Jh om;orD; ZeD;udkomru rdrd&Jhtoufudkyif vkyfBuHowfjzwfrnfhol jzpfyap? rnfuJhodkYrQ
rwkHYjyefbJ onf;cHwJhtusifhudk wnfaqmufwJh cEåDyg&rD?

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

49

8/

&Sd&SdorQaom owå0gwkdYudk rdrd\&ifaoG;&ifESpf om;orD;tppfwdkYuJhodkY cspfcifMuifemjcif; pdwf"mwf
udk wnfaqmufonfh arwåmyg&rD?

9/

rdrdjyKtHh[k &nfrSef;xm;wJh jrifhjrwfwJhta&;udpöt00udk aqmif&Guf&mwGif rnfonfh ab; tEå&m,f
ESifh &ifqdkif&apumrl rqkwfrepfvkyfudkifwJh tavhtusifhudk wnfaqmufwJh t"d|meyg&rD?

10/

rnfolYudkrQ cspfvnf;rcspf? rkef;vnf;rrkef;wJh vGefuJwJhpdwf"mwfrsdK;udk rarG;jrLwwfwJh Oayu©m
yg&rD/

tJ'D yg&rD(10)yg;udk jznfhqnf;cJhNyD; jynfhpHkwJhtcsdefa&mufrS? aemufqHk;Ak'¨tjzpfokdY a&mufr,fhb0usawmhrS
tvGefjrifhjrwfNyD; tusifhodu©meJY jynfhpHkvSwJhrdcif&Jh0rf;MumwdkuftwGif;rSm y#doaE¨aecJhw,f/ 'g[m Ak'¨
tavmif;tvsmwdkY&Jh usifhxHk;yJ/
'DusifhxHk;twdkif;yJ Ak'¨tavmif;awmf a*gwrrif;om;[m r,fawmfrm,m&Jh 0rf;xJrSm y#doaE¨wnfNyD;
arG;zGm; awmfrlcJhw,f/ tJ'Daemuf tcsdefwef t&G,fa&mufvmawmh ,aomf"&mrif;orD;eJY pkvsm;&pfywf
vufxyf xdrf;jrm;NyD; om;awmf&m[kvm zGm;jrifjyefw,f/ tJ'Dtcgu a*gwrrif;om;[m Ak'¨tjzpfudk
ra&mufao;bl;/ Ak'¨&Jh tavmif;tvsmrQom jzpfw,f/ tJ'DaemufrSm xD;eef;pnf;pdrfeJYwuG avmuDpnf;pdrf
t00udk pGefYy,fNyD; awmxGufawmfrlw,f/ awmxJrSm (6)ESpfwdkifwdkif omrefvlom;wdkY pdwful;xJrSmyif
rxnfh0Hhavmufatmif tvGefjyif;jyif;xefxef usifhawmfrlw,f/
vGefcJhwJh b0tqufqufu jznfhqnf;wnfaqmufcJhwJh (10)yg;aomyg&rDt[kefeJY a*gwrrif;om;tjzpfeJY
(6)ESpfwkdifwdkif jyif;jyif;xefxefusifhcJhwJh tusifht[kefjzifh 0gqdkvjynfhaeY 'kwd,nOfh,HwGif opömav;yg;
jrwf w&m;udk q&mr&SdbJ tvdkvdk t<uif;r&SdodjrifawmfrlcJhw,f/ tJ'DtcsdefupNyD; Ak'¨tjzpfudk
a&mufawmfrlw,f/ wenf;tm;jzifh opömav;yg;udk ydkif;jcm;xifxif odjrifawmfrlw,fqdkwm avmb?
a'go? wPSm? rme? rdpäm tp&SdwJh t0dZÆmw&m;[lorQudk jrLrQrusefatmif okwfoify,f&Sm;Edkifawmfrljcif;
jzpfw,f/ 'Doabmudktjyefjyefaumuf,lr,fqdk&if 'Dt0dZÆmw&m;udk jrLrQrusefatmif ry,fzsuf r&Sif;vif;
EdkiforQ b,folrQ opömav;yg; jrwfw&m;udk txift&Sm; rodEdkifbl;? rjrifEdkifbl;/
'gaMumifh Ak'¨[m avmb? a'go? wPSm? rme? 'd|d qdkwJh w&m;awGrSruif;bl;qkdwJhpum;[m vHk;0 ,kwåd
,kwåm uif;rJhwJh pum;omvQifjzpfw,f/ 'Dpum;[m Ak'¨qdkwJhpum;&Jh teuft"dyÜm,fudk rodwJhvlrsm;&Jh
ajympum;omvQif jzpfw,f/
Ak'¨rSm tarqdkwmvnf; r&Sdbl;? tazqdkwmvnf; r&Sdbl;? r,m;vnf;r&Sdbl;? om;vnf;r&Sdbl;? vlYavmu?
ewfavmu? jA[®mavmuqkdwJh avmuawGxJrSm Ak'¨eJY EIdif;tyf,SOftyfwJh yk*¾dKvf wa,mufrQr&Sdawmhbl;/
ol[m vl? ewf? jA[®m owå0gtm;vHk;wdkY&Jh OD;wdkufylaZmf&m q&mjzpfvmawmfrlw,f/
Ak'¨tavmif;tvsmtaeeJY b0aygif; toacsFwdkifatmif (10)yg;aom yg&rDawmfjrwfudk usifhawmfrlcJh
&wmu taMumif;w&m;? aemufqHk;b0rSm q&mr&SdbJ tvdkvdk opömav;yg;jrwfw&m;udk ydkif;jcm;xifxif
odjrifawmf rljcif;u tusdK;w&m;? wzef Ak'¨tjzpfu taMumif;w&m;? tvHk;pHkaom w&m;wdkYudk
odjrifawmfrljcif;u tusdK;w&m;? wzef tvHk;pHkaom w&m;wdkYudk odjrif&jcif;u taMumif;w&m;? edAÁmef
w&m;udk &awmfrljcif;u aemufqHk;tusdK;w&m;yJ 'umBuD;/ 'DtcsufawGudk Munfhjcif;tm;jzifh taMumif;ESifh
tusdK;w&m; wdkY&Jh oabm a&m? Ak'¨qdkwm bmvJqdkwJhtcsufudkyg em;vnfoabmaygufEdkifygw,f/
0pfvqif/
,ck q&mawmf&Sif;vif;a[majymawmfrlrSyJ wynfhwdkY[m Ak'¨qkdwm bmudkac:w,f/ Ak'¨
qdkwm b,fvdk*kPft&nftcsif;eJYjynfhpHk&w,f/ Ak'¨jzpfatmifbmawGvkyf&w,fqdkwmudk em;vnf oabm
aygufMuNyD; wynfhawmfwdkY OD;acgif;xJrSm pJGaewJh t,ltqrSm;rsm;[m ajyaysmufuif;pif oGm;&ygw,f
q&mawmf/

50

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

þwGif vma&mufí w&m;emMuonfhy&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

51

ar;cGef;trSwf (11)
Ak'¨udk,fwdkif tedpöa&muf&NyD; aemufxyfwzef jyefí &SifrvmEdkifbJvsuf Ak'¨tm; teEåÓPfawmf&Sif?
twkr&Sd wefcdk;awmf&Sif[k rnfodkYac:Edkifygrnfenf;/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - c&pf,mefbkef;BuD; a*s? 0pf(vf)qif? trfat (atmufpzdkYwuúodkvf)?
c&pf,mef bmom yg&*l? bHkbkdifNrdKU? tufvDzifpwHk;aumvdyf? t*Fvdyfbmomygarmu©? ajzqdkol q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ Ak'¨ y&dedAÁmefjyKwmudk omrefvlwdkY uG,fvGeftedpöa&mufwJhoabmeJY ,lqjcif;
[m tvGefrSm;,Gif;wJh t,ltqjzpfw,f/ Ak'¨[m y&dedAÁmefjyKjcif;tm;jzifh Zmwdy#doaE¨aejcif;?
aojcif;qdkwJh w&m;wdkY csKyfNidrf;&m edAÁmefudk a&mufjcif;jzpfw,f/
y&dedAÁmefqdkwJh oabmudk wu,fwrf; odjrifem;vnfEdkifatmif wyg;eJYwyg; vHk;0qefYusifzufjzpfwJh
w&m; ESpfyg;udk OD;yÍÆif;a0zefqef;ppfjyyghr,f/ 'Dw&m;ESpfyg;teuf wyg;u rwnfNrJwJh pMum0VmBuD;eJY
tjcm;wyg;u awmh tNrJwrf; wnfNrJaewJh edAÁmefqdkwJh w&m;yJ/ ygVdvdk 'Dw&m;ESpfyg;udk ocFw"mwfeJY
tocFw"mwfvdkY ac: w,f/ pMum0VmBuD;xJrSm OD;yÍÆif;wkdY urÇmvdk urÇmBuD; (10)ck yg0ifw,f/ tJ'D
urÇmawG[mvnf; OD;yÍÆif;wkdY urÇmBuD;vdkyJ (1) yx0D? (2) tmayg? (3) awaZm? (4) 0ga,mqdkwJh
r[mbkwfBuD; (4)yg;wdkY pkaygif;zJGYpnf;xm;wmjzpfw,f/ 'D"mwfBuD; (4)yg;[m ajymif;vJwwfwJh oabm
&Sdw,f/ ysufpD;wwfwJh oabm&Sdw,f/ rwnfNrJwJhoabmvnf;&Sdw,f/ 'gaMumifh 'D "mwfBuD; (4)yg;eJY
wuG 'D"mwfBuD;(4)yg;wkdY zJGYpnf;aygif;pyfxm;vdkY jzpforQw&m;pkudkocFw"mwfvdkYac:w,f/ wzufu
edAÁmef qdkwJhw&m;udkawmh tocFw vdkYac:w,f/ tocFw"mwfqdkwmuawmh tpOfxm0&wnfNrJw,f/
zsufqD;vdkYr&bl;? rysufpD;bl;? Zmwd? Z&m? r&PqkdwJh w&m;awGrS vHk;0uif;pifw,f/ 'gaMumifh Ak'¨[m
ola[majymvdkwJh w&m;awmfudkvnf; a[majymawmfrlcJhNyD; olY&Jhw&m;awmfudk olYudk,fpm; qufvuf
a[majymawmfrlMur,fh olY&Jhcspfom; oHCmawmfrsm;vnf; tajrmuftrsm;&SdvmNyDjzpfavawmh txufu
OD;yÍÆif;ajymcJhwJh Zmwdy#doaE¨ae&jcif;? tdk&jcif;? em&jcif;qdkwJh w&m;pkrS vHk;0uif;pifwJh edAÁmefudk 0ifzdkY
wenf;tm;jzifh y&dedAÁmefjyKzdkY tcsdefawmfNyDvdkY qHk;jzwfawmfrlNyD; y&dedAÁmefjyKawmfrrlrD (3)vu BudKwif
ausnmawmfrlNyD; edAÁmefudk 0ifoGm;awmfrljcif;yJ jzpfw,f/ 'gaMumifh Ak'¨[m uG,fvGeftedpöa&mufw,f
qdkwm tvGefrdkufrJNyD; rSm;,Gif;wJh t,ltqomjzpfw,f/
Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwf[m teEåÓPfawmf&Sif? teEåwefcdk;&Sif[kwfw,f? r[kwfw,f qkdwmudk oludk,fawmf
wdkif &SmazGazmfxkwfNyD; a[majymawmfrlcJhwJh w&m;awGudk avhvmoHk;oyfMunfhzdkYvkdw,f/ Ak'¨udk,fawmfwkdif
azmf xkwfNyD; a[mawmfrlcJhwJh w&m;awmfawG[m
(1)

½kyfw&m;eJYqkdifwJh owådrsm;jzpfMuwJh ½kyfw&m; (28)yg;?

(2)

pdwfeJYywfoufwJh apwodufw&m; (52)yg;?

(3)

pdwfaygif; (89)yg;?

(4)

y#dpöorkyÜm'f qkdwJh taMumif;tusdK; w&m; (12)yg;?

(5)

opömav;yg; w&m;awmf?

52

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

(6)

taMumif;jzpfíaus;Zl;jyKwwfaom a[wkypönf;? tm½Hkjzpfí aus;Zl;jyKwwfaom t&r®Pypönf;?
tBuD;tuJjzpfí tkyfpdk;jcif;jzifh aus;Zl;jyKwwfaom t"dywdypönf;? a&S;a&S;aompdwf (89)
apwoduf (52) wdkYtaeESifh aus;Zl;jyKwwfaom teEå&ypönf; ponfjzifh (24)yg;aom ypönf;?

(7)

owdyXmef (4)yg;?

(8)

or®yÜ'gefw&m; (4)yg;?

(9)

£'¨dyg'f (4)yg;?

(10)

£a`E´ (5)yg;?

(11)

zdkvf (5)yg;?

(12)

aAmZÑmOf (7)yg;?

(13)

r*¾if (8)yg; pwJh w&m;awmfrsm;yg0ifwJh tvGefcufcJeufeJwJh tbd"r®mw&m;awmfjzpfw,f/

'Davmuf cufcJeufeJwJh tbd"r®mw&m;awmfudk b,fbmomt,l0g'udk xlaxmifcJhwJh b,fbmom0g'&SifrQ
razmfxkwf ra[majymEdkifcJhbl;/ olwdkY &SmazGazmfxkwf a[majymcJhMuwJh w&m;awGeJY Ak'¨udk,fawmfwdkif a[m
awmfrlcJhwJh w&m;awmfwdkYudk twdrfteuf? tus,ft0ef;jcif; wkdif;wmMunfhr,fqdk&if uRJvl;tdkifeJY ypdzdwf
ork'´&mwrQ uGmjcm;vsuf&Sdwmudk awGYMu&ygvdrfhr,f/ 'DavmufeufeJwJhw&m;udk vlom;awGrajymxm;eJY?
b,fewf? b,fjA[®murS ra[majymEdkifcJhbl;/
Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwfrsm;rSmom &SdawmfrlwJh vu©PmawmfBuD; (32)yg;? vu©Pmawmfi,f (80) eJY jynfhpHkwJh
a*gwrAk'¨[m pMum0VmwckvHk;twGif;rSm&SdwJh b,fvl? b,fewf? b,fjA[®mrQ rawG;awm rBuHqEdkifwJh
txufuazmfjycJhwJh tbd"r®mw&m;awmfudk ydkif;jcm;xifxif odjrifawmfrl½HkrQrubJ ÓPfawmf (10)yg;?
wefcdk;awmf (10)yg;eJYvnf; jynfhpHkawmfrlw,f/ 'DAk'¨&Jh a&TÓPfawmfuGef,ufudk jzefYvdkuf&if b,fw&m;rS
'D uGefxJu rxGufEdkifbl;/ Ak'¨[m b,ft,ltq? b,fbmom0g'udkrqdk ZD;jzLzefcg;? &Spf&Sm;oD;rsm;udk
vuf0g;xJrSm wifMunfhvdkufovdk jyufjyufxifxif jrifawmfrlNyD; b,f[m rSm;w,f? b,f[mrSefw,f
qdkwmudk csufjcif; ydkif;jcm;a0zef qef;ppfypfEdkifawmfrlw,f/ 'gaMumifhvJ olYacwftwGif;rSm acwfpm;aewJh?
rSm;,Gif;aewJh t,l0g'? wenf;tm;jzifh (62)yg;aom 'd|dawGudk a&TÓPfawmfuGef,ufeJY wcgwnf;zrf;NyD;
acsrIef;ypfEdkifwmaygh/ 'D 'd|d (62)yg;udk zrf;NyD; a0zefwdkufcdkufypfwmudk jA[®ZmvokwfrSm twdtvif;
a[mxm;wmyJ/
'gaMumifh Ak'¨[m twkr&Sd? EdIif;,SOfp&mr&Sdavmufatmif xl;jcm;jrifhjrwfawmfrlw,fvdkY qdkxm;wmaygh/
Ak'¨[m omrefvlom;awGvdk uG,fvGeftedpöa&mufwm r[kwfbl;/ b,fawmhrS rtkdwJh? remwJh? raowJh? tkd?
em? aoab;wdkYrS tpOfxm0& uif;pifvGwfajrmufwJh edAÁmefudk 0ifawmfrljcif;jzpfw,f/ 'gaMumifh Ak'¨[m
teEå ÓPfawmf? teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sif jzpfawmfrlwmaygh/ uJ ygarmu©BuD;? OD;yÍÆif; tcka[mwJhw&m;awGudk
oabmaygufNyDvm;? auseyf&Jhvm;/
0pfvqif/
q&mawmf[m wynfhawmf &nfrSef;arQmfvifhxm;wmxufyif 'DjyóemeJY ywfoufvdkY ydkrdk
&Sif;vif;atmif a[majymEdkifavawmh wynfhawmfrSm q&mawmf&Jh a[majym&Sif;jycsufwkdYudk auseyfESpfNcdKuf
oabmaygufvSygNyD bk&m;/

þwGif w&m;emy&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

53

ar;cGef;trSwf (12)
c&pfawmf\a[majymcsufrsm;onfAk'¨\a[majymcsufrsm;ESifhtb,faMumifhqifwlaeoenf;/ c&pfawmfonf
t&drdawå,sbk&m;tavmif;awmfjzpfonf [laompum; rSefygoavm/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - c&pf,mefbkef;BuD; a*s? 0pf(vf)qif? trfat (atmufpzdkYwuúodkvf)?
c&pf,mef bmom yg&*l? bHkbkdifNrdKU? tufvDzifpwHk;aumvdyf? t*Fvdyfbmomygarmu©? ajzqdkol q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ cspfcifMuifempdwfxm;&Sda&;? u½kPmw&m;yGm;rsm;a&;? onf;cHa&;? tjypfrS
cGifhvTwfa&; pwJh ta&;udpöwdkYeJYywfoufNyD; c&pfawmf a[majymxm;wJhw&m;rsm;[m Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwf
udk,fwdkif a[majymawmfrlcJhwJhw&m;rsm;eJY qifwlygw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'Dvdk qifwlovdkvdk&SdwmeJY c&pfawmf
[m t&drdawå,s tavmif;awmfyJjzpfw,fqdkwJh pum;uawmh taMumif;tusdK;qufpyfrI oabmw&m;eJY
uefYvefYqefYusifjzpfaew,f/ tJ'Dawmh 'Dt,ltqudk y,f&Sm;ypfzdkY&ef OD;yÍÆif;u tar;ykpämtcsdKUudk ar;zdkY
vdkygvdrfhr,f/ tJ'D tar;ykpämawGudk 'umBuD;u ajzqdkapvdkygw,f/
(þuJhodkY q&mawmfu rdefYjrGufawmfrlNyD;aemuf atmufygar;cGef;udk pwifar;ygonf/)

q&mawmf/
b,ft&G,frSm c&pfawmf[m a&[l'DvlrsdK;wdkY&JUbk&m;ausmif;rSxGufcGmNyD; aysmufuG,foGm;
ygovJ 'umBuD;/
0pfvqif/
c&pfawmf[m (12)ESpft&G,frSm a&[l'DvlrsdK;wdkY&JUbk&m;ausmif;rSxGufcGmNyD; trdtbwdkYudk
pGefYcGmoGm;cJhygw,f/
q&mawmf/

c&pfawmf[m b,ft&G,fupNyD; w&m;a[movJ/

0pfvqif/

c&pfawmf[m olY&JUw&m;"r®wdkYudkoufawmf (30)u pwifa[mcJhygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
aeygovJ/

'gjzifh&if touf (12)ESpfu touf(30)txd (18)ESpfvHk;vHk; c&pfawmf[m b,foGm;

0pfvqif/
'D (18)ESpfvHk;vHk; c&pfawmf[m olY&JUarG;pm;zcif oQifa,mo (pdefY*sdK;Zuf) eJYtwlwuG
aexdkifvsuf &Sdygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/

'D tbdk;wefwJh(18)ESpfvHk;vHk; c&pfawmf[m bmrsm; vkyfaaeygovJ/

0pfvqif/
q&mawmf/

olY&JUarG;pm;zcif oQifa,moudk ulnDNyD; vuform;tvkyfudk vkyfae[efwlygw,f

q&mawmf/
'gjzifh c&pfawmf[m vlom;wdkYtm; tukodkvfuHw&m;rS wenf;tm;jzifh i&JbHkrS
u,fwif&ef arG;zGm;vmjcif;r[kwfbJ oQifa,moudk vuform;tvkyfrSm 0ifa&mufulnDzkdY&ef
arG;zGm;vm&w,fvdkY qkdvdk ygovm; 'umBuD;/
0pfvqif/
c&pfawmf[m vlom;wdkYudk tukodkvfuHw&m;rS wenf;tm;jzifh i&JbHkrS u,fwif&ef
zGm;jrifvmjcif; jzpfygw,f/ 'gayr,fh ol\w&m;"r®wdkYudk a[majym&ef zcifxm0&bk&m;ocif &JU
trdefYawmfudk apmifharQmfaejcif;yJ jzpfygw,fbk&m;/

54

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

q&mawmf/
'gjzifh c&pfawmf[m zcifxm0&bk&m;ocif&JUtrdefYawmfudkapmifhaeqJ (18)ESpfumv
twGif; aoMu&wJh oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom vlawG[m aumif;uifbHkeef;udkyJoGm;ovm;? i&JjynfudkyJ
oGm;Mu&ovm;/
0pfvqif/
'D(18)ESpfumvtwGif; aoaMuysufpD;Mu&wJh vlawG[m tukodkvfuHxJepfrGef;NyD;
i&JbHkodkY a&mufukefMu&ygw,f q&mawmf/ bmjyKvdkYvJqdkawmh tJ'Dvlom;awGtwGuf aumif;uifbHkeef;
wHcg; ryGifh ao;vdkYyg q&mawmf
q&mawmf/
'umBuD; ,ckajymwJhpum;t&qkd&if c&pfawmf[m vlom;w&yfvHk;udku,fwifwJhyk*¾dKvf
r[kwfbJ olYudk vuf0g;uyfwkdifrSm uyfcsnfNyD;aemufydkif; aoMu&wJhvlawGudkom u,fwifwJhyk*¾dKvfaygh/
0pfvqif/

'Dar;cGef;[m cufcJ½IyfaxG;wJh ar;cGef;jzpfwJhtwGuf wynfhawmf rajzwwfyg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
yghrvm;/

'umBuD; 'gudk rajzEdkif&if 'umBuD;wkdY&JU *dkPf;rBuD;jzpfwJh t*Fvefjynf*dkPf;csKyfu ajzEdkif

0pfvqif/
'g[m eufeJ½IyfaxG;wJhjyóemw&yfjzpfwJhtwGuf
*dkPf;csKyfBuD; vnf; ajzEdkifrSm r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/

t*Fvefjynf

uifwmbm&DNrdKUu

]]eufeJ½IyfaxG;wJh}} qdkwJhpum;&Jh t"dyÜm,f[m bmvJ 'umBuD;/

0pfvqif/
eufeJ½IyfaxG;w,fqkdwm[m omrefvlom;xuf wwfodem;vnfwJh ewf tp&SdwJh olwdkY
udk,fwkdif rajz&Sif;EdkifwJh vQdKU0Sufxm;wJhtrSefw&m;ygyJq&mawmf/ 'Dw&m;udk xm0&bk&m;ocif udk,fawmf
jrwf omvQif ajz&Sif;Edkifygr,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
'gjzifh 'umBuD;wdkY&JU c&pf,mefbmomrSm vQdKU0SufwJh trSefw&m;rsm;yg0ifvsuf&Sdw,faygh/
'gjzifh&if c&pf,mefbmomw&m;awmf[m rjynfhpHkao;bl;vdkY qkd&ayvdrfhr,f/ ,ckwdkif c&pf,mef bmom
w&m;eJY qkdif&m w&m;tcsdKU[m arSmifxJrSmyJ &Sdaeao;w,faygh/ [kwfovm; 'umBuD;/
0pfvqif/

wynfhawmfrSm tjcm;tajzay;p&mr&Sdavawmh [kwfygw,fvdkYyJ 0efcH&rSmyJ q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
c&pfawmf&JU 'D(18)ESpfvHk;vHk; wdrfjrKyfaysmufuG,faewJYb0udk tar&duwkduf csDum*dkNrdKUu
urÇmausmfc&D;vSnfhvnfol okawoeyk*¾dKvf ygarmu© *dk;&pf(cf) &Jh rSwfwrf;t& OD;yÍÆif; ,ck
&Sif;vif;jyyghr,f/ 'umBuD; *½kpdkufNyD; em;axmifapcsifygw,f/
ygarmu© *dk;&pf(cf)[m wdbufjynf Ak'¨bmombkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;rsm;rS c&pfawmfudk,fwdkif
a[NAJbmomeJY a&;om;xm;wJhrSwfpkudk &cJhNyD; 1925ckESpfu ]]c&pfawmf\ rodao;aom oGefoif
a[majymcsufrsm;}} ( The untold teachings of the Christ by Prof. Goldricke 1925) qkdwJh
emrnfeJY pmtkyfwtkyfudk a&;om;xkwfa0cJhw,f/ c&pf,mefbmomudk tvGefouf0if,HkMunfwJh ygarmu©
*dk;&pf(cf) [m (18)ESpfvHk;vHk; c&pfawmf 'DvdkepfjrKyfuG,faysmufaewJhtaMumif;udk tvGefodvdkvSvdkY
tar&durSm&SdwJh c&pf,mefbmom*dkPf;csKyf *dkPf;tkyfwdkYudk ar;jref;Munfhw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'DudpöeJY
ywfoufvdkY b,folurS olYudk &Sif;vif;rajymEdkifcJhbl;/ 'geJYyJ 'DudpöeJYywfoufvdkY oludk,fwkdif
okawoevkyfief; xGufvkyfw,f/ 'Dvdk b,fovD[ef? a*s½kqvif? udkif½dk? wl&uD? tdE´d,eJY wdbufjynf
awGrSm tm;wufoa&m BudK;yrf;NyD; vdkufvHpHkprf;awmh aemufqHk; wdbufjynfawmifydkif; rGefbkef;awmfBuD;
ausmif;rS ausmif;xdkifq&mawmf r[max&fjrwf udk c&pfawmfudk,fwdkif pm&Gufaygif; (100)ay:rSm
oludk,fwdkif 'D(18)ESpftwGif; awGYBuHKcJh&wJh tawGYtBuHKawGudk rSwfwrf;wifNyD; BudK;eJY ususee csnfaESmif
um olYudk w&m;"r®rsm; a[majymoGefoifwJh taeeJY uefawmhcJhwJhrSwfwrf;udk &cJhw,f/ tJ'DrSwfwrf;xJrSm
c&pfawmfudk,fwdkif atmufygtwdkif; a&;om;xm;wmudk awGY&Sd&w,fvdkY *dk;&pf(cf)u a&;om;jyw,f/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

55

]]uREkfyftm; touf(12)ESpft&G,fodkYa&mufaomtcg a&[l'DvlrsdK;wdkY\ xHk;wrf;tpOftvmt& a&[l'Dbkef;
awmfBuD;ausmif;odkY aEGOD;&moDyJGawmftwGif; ac:oGm;Muygonf/ xdka&[l'Dausmif;ü a&[l'Dq&mawmfBuD;
rsm;onf xm0&bk&m;ocif\ zefqif;jcif;? ol\u½kPm? ol\a'gotrsuf? ol\w&m;rSefuefjcif;
ponfh w&m;wkdYudk aqG;aEG;ESD;aESmaeMu\/ uREkfyftbdk;\ t&Sdeft0gjzifh uREkfyfonf a&[l'Dbkef;awmfBuD;
rsm;tm; uREkfyf rodem;rvnfonfh tcsufwkdYudk 0ifí ar;jref;cGifh&&SdcJh\/ uREkfyf yxrOD;qHk; ar;jref;onfh
ar;cGef;um; ]]a,[dk;0gonf tcsdKUudk vlcsrf;om? tcsdKUudk vlqif;&J? tcsdKUudk ynm&Sd? tcsdKUudk vlYtE¨? tcsdKUudk
vlaumif;? tcsdKUudk vl,kwfrm? tcsdKUudk ½kyf&nftvSty? tcsdKUudk t½kyfqdk;tMunfhwef? tcsdKUudk
touf&Snf&Snf? tcsdKUudk toufwkdwkd? tcsdKUudk rsufpdtaumif;? tcsdKUudk rsufpdrjrif? tcsdKUudk
usef;usef;rmrm? tcsdKUudk a&m*gonf? tcsdKUudk tm;tiftaumif;? tcsdKUudk tm;tiftcsnfhteJY tp
&Sdonfjzifh vltcsif;csif; uJGjym; jcm;em;pGm tb,faMumifh zefqif;xm;ygovJ}} [k jzpf\/
xdktcg a&[l'Dbkef;awmfBuD;rsm;ESifh y&dówftm;vHk;onf tHhtm;oifhoGm;Muí uREkfyf\ar;cGef;udk rajzEdkif
Muojzifh ]]tdk oli,f? þtcsufudk a,[dk;0gomvQif odEdkifonf}} [k a&[l'Dbkef;awmfBuD;rsm;u jyefajymMu\/
wzef uREkfyfu ]]a,[dk;0gonf twdwf? ypöKyÜef? tem*wf[lí oHk;yg;aomumvwdkYudk odygvsufESifh tb,fhaMumifh
i&JbHkudk zefqif;cJhygoenf;}} [k ar;jref;ygonf/
xdktcg a&[l'Dq&mawmfrsm;u ]],kwfrmnpfnrf;olwdkYudk tjypf'Pfay;&ef i&JbHkudk zefqif;cJhonf}} [k jyefajz\/
xdkaemufwzef ]]a,[dk;0gonf ol\zefqif;rIqdkif&m tem*wfumv\oabmudkodjrifygvsufESifh tb,fhaMumifh ,kwfrm
npfnrf;olwdkYudk zefqif;&ygoenf;}} [k uREkfyfu xyfíar;vdkufjyefonf/ xdktcg tm;vHk;aom a&[l'D
bkef;awmfBuD;rsm;onf rnfodkYrQ rajzEdkifMuawmhbJ uREkfyftm; olwdkYtm;vHk;\ *dkPf;csKyftjzpf a&G;aumuf
wifajr§mufMu\/ xkdYaemuf uREkfyfonf uREkfyf\ jrifhjrwfonfh &mxl;t&Sdefudk toHk;jyKvsuf ESifwH
wacsmif;udk ,lum bk&m;wefaqmif;xJü olwdkYvk,ufwdkufcdkufí&aom ypönf;wdkYudk a&mif;csaeMuolrsm;
tm; ESifwHESifh ½dkufNyD; ]]þae&mum; a,[dk;0g bk&m;wefaqmif;jzpfonf/ toifwkdYtwGuf aps;a&mif;p&m ae&mr[kwf}}
[kqdkum ESifxkwfypfvdkuf\/
a,[dk;0g\w&m;um; &SufzG,fjzpfaeaMumif;? tajctjrpfr&SdaMumif;udk odjrifvmaom uREkfyfonf tvGef
jrifhjrwfonfh *kPfxl;? ae&mxl;wdkYudk &aeonfhwkdifatmif þr[kwfrrSefaompum;udk&GH&Smrkef;wD;í
]trSefw&m;} udk rawGYawGYatmif&SmBuHrnf[k oEéd|mefcsvdkuf\/ xdkaemuf uREkfyfonf bk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif;
xJrSxGufí NrdKUawmfrS xGufcGmvmcJh\/ ig;rdkif ajcmufrdkifausmfcefYvrf;avQmufrdaomtcg c&D;oGm;ukefonf
wpk ESifhawGY\/ olwdkY\0wfpm;qif,ifyHkrSm a&[l'DvlrsdK;rsm;ESifhuJGjym;jcm;em;vsuf&Sd&m olwdkYonf
wkdif;wyg;rS vma&mufMuonfh ukefonfrsm; jzpf&rnf[k owdjyKrd\/ odkYESifh olwdkYteD;odkYcsOf;uyfvdkuf&m
uHtm;avsmfpGm olwdkY acgif;aqmifESifh awGYNyD; olwdkYtm; "rnfonfht&yfrS rnfonfhudpöjzifh vmMuoenf;}}
[k ar;jref;vdkufygonf/

56

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

xdktcg c&D;oGm;ukefonfrsm;\acgif;aqmifrsm;u olwdkYonf wdbufjynfrSjzpfaMumif;? wdbufjynf
om;a&rsm;? OD;csdKrsm;ESifh xl;qef;onfhypönf;rsm;udk a*s½kqvifNrdKUrS a&TaiG ausmufoHywåjrm;ESifh tjcm;
tbdk;wefaq;0g;wdkYESifh zvS,f&efvmMuaMumif; ajymjy\/ uREkfyfonf acgif;aqmif\ pdwfaeoabmxm;
udk oabmusrdojzifh pum;ajym&if;qkd&if;ESifhyif avmuü tcsdKUvlwdkYu qif;&J? tcsdKUu ½kyfacsm? tcsdKUu
tusnf;wef? tcsdKUu usef;rm? tcsdKUu csnfheJYvsuf tb,faMumifh rnDrrQarG;zGm;Muoenf; [laom
a&[l'Dbkef;BuD;rsm;tm; yxrqHk;ar;onfh ar;cGef;udk ar;Munfh\/
xdktcg ukefonftzJGUacgif;aqmifu ]]tdk cspfvSpGmaomoli,f? vlom;rsm;teuf tcsdKUu qif;&J? tcsdKUu csrf;om? tcsdKUu ynm&Sd? tcsdKUu
ynmrJh? tcsdKUu ½kyfacsm? tcsdKUu tusnf;wef? tcsdKUu usef;usef;rmrm? tcsdKUu tiftm;csnfheJY tjzpfjzifh
wOD;ESifh wOD; toGifrwlbJ arG;zGm;Mu&onfrSm twdwfb0u um,uH? 0pDuH? raemuHwnf;[laom ur®
owådwdkYaMumifhyifjzpf\/ ½kyftqif;tm;jzifh vSyacsmarGYí vSyaom t0wfwefqmwdkYudk 0wfqifNyD;vQif
rSef a&SUwGif &yfvdkufaomtcg vSyíusufoa&&SdaomtoGifoP²mefonf xifvmum ½kyftqif;tm;jzifh
qdk;0g;í pkwfjywfa[mif;EGrf;aom t0wfwdkYudk 0wfqifxm;olwa,mufonf rSefa&SUwGif &yfvdkufaomtcg
t½kyfqdk;í usufoa&,kwfvSonfh toGifoP²mefonf xifvmbdouJhodkY tcsdKUvlom;wdkYonf twdwf
b0u ur®owådaumif;Muojzifh pnf;pdrfOpömcsrf;omMu\/ ½kyftqif;oP²mefvSMu\/ ynmÓPf
xufjrufMu\/ usef;rmoefpGrf;Mu\/ udk,fvuft*Fg jynfhpHkMu\/ touf&SnfMu\/ tcsdKUvlom;wkdY
um; twdwfb0u ur®owåd nHhzsif;MuaomaMumifh qif;&JEGrf;yg;Mu\/ t½kyfqdk;tusnf;wefMu\/
todÓPfuif;rJhxHkxdkif;Mu\/ tiftm;csnfheJYMu\/ udk,ft*Fg rjynfhrpHkcsdKUwJhMu\/ þuJhodkY vlom;
tcsif;csif; wOD;ESifh wOD; uJGjym;jcm;em;Mu&jcif;rSm txufuajymcJhouJhodkY twdwfb0u ur®owåd tqdk;
ESifhtaumif;t&om jzpf\/ rnfonfh xm0&bk&m;? odkYr[kwf a,[dk;0g\ zefqif;rIaMumifhrQ r[kwfacs/
wenf;tm;jzifh Oyrm ay;&aomf O,smOfrSL;wa,mufonf csdKarT;aomtyifudk pdkufvQif csdKarT;aom toD;
udk pm;&í cg;aomtyif udk pdkufvQif cg;aomtoD;udk pm;&bdouJhodkY jzpf\}}
ukefonfacgif;aqmifBuD;u ajzvdkufonfhtajzudk Mum;vdkufaomtcg uREkfyfonf tvGef0rf;omtm;&jzpf
um olYtm; ]]rnfola[mMum;onfhw&m;wkdYudk vdkufemygoenf;}} [k ar;rd\/
xdktcg ukefonfacgif;aqmifBuD;u - ]]tdk cspfvSpGmaomoli,f? uREkfyfum; Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwf a[mMum;
awmfrlaom w&m;udkomvdkufemusifhoHk;\/ Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwfonf avmuoHk;yg;wGif ynmt&SdqHk;
jzpfonf/ tvHk;pHkaom w&m;wdkYudk t<uif;rJhodawmfrlonfh oAÁnKwa&TÓPfawmf&Sifvnf; jzpfonf/
"r®pMumw&m;&Sifvnf; jzpfonf/ opömav;yg; w&m;awmfudkvnf; ydkif;jcm;xifxif odjrifawmfrlonf/
teEåÓPfawmf? teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sifvnf; jzpfawmfrlonf}} [k jyefí ajzMum;\/ xdktcg uREkfyfonf Ak'¨
udk,fawmfjrwf a[mMum;awmfrlonfh w&m;a'oemwdkYudk vdkufemusifhoHk;vdkvSojzifh uREkfyf\rdwfaqGopf
ukefonfacgif;aqmifBuD;tm; uREkfyfudk wdbufjynfokdY ac:aqmifí q&mawmfBuD;wyg;xH tyfESHay;yg&ef
awmif;yefvdkuf\/ uREkfyfu þuJhodkY awmif;yefvdkufaomtcg ukefonfacgif;aqmifBuD;u - ]]tdk oli,f?
uREkfyfonf oifhtm; uREkfyfwkdYwdbufjynfodkY ac:oGm;vdkyg\/ odkY&mwGif oifonf touft&G,ftm;jzifh
tvGefEke,fí rdbESpfyg;wdkY\ tkyfxdef;jcif;rS ruif;vGwfao;ojzifh oif\rdbrsm;udk,fwdkif oifhtm;
uREkfyf\ vufwGif;odkY rtyfESHorQ uREkfyfonf oifhtm; wdbufjynfodkY ac:íroGm;Edkifyg}} [k
jyefíajzqkdygonf/
þwGif uREkfyfu ]]tdk rdwfaqG ukefonfacgif;aqmifBuD;? þudpöESifhywfoufí pdk;pOf;rQ rpdk;&drfygvifh/ uREkfyfonf touf
t&G,f tm;jzifh tvGefEke,fvSaomfvnf; todynmESifhywfoufaomtcg rEke,fyg/ &mxl;XmeEÅ&tm;jzifh

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

57

jrifhrm;olwOD;jzpfygonf/ uREkfyf\ cefYnm;x,f0gvSonfh0wfpHkESifh þtxdrf;trSwfvufpGyfwkdYudkMunfhyg/
uREkfyfonf þNrdKUrS a&[l'Dbkef;BuD;rsm;xJwGif tcsKyftjcmjzpfygonf/ uREkfyfonf uREkfyfrodrjrifcJhzl;
onfh a,[dk;0g\ rlrrSefaomw&m;wkdYudk rkef;wD;&GH&SmvSojzifh opömw&m;udk r&&atmif? rawGYawGYatmif
&SmazG avhvmrnf [laom qHk;jzwfcsufjzifh uREkfyf\ausmif;udk pGefYcGmcJhol jzpf\/ tu,fíom uREkfyfonf
oifESifh ,ckuJhodkYrawGYcJhygu opömw&m;udk&SmazG&ef awmBuD;rsufrnf;xJodkY a&mufaernfjzpf\/
xkdYaMumifh uREkfyf onf oifESifh awGYonfjzpfap? rawGYonfjzpfap? oifu ac:onfjzpfap? rac:onf
jzpfap? þNrdKU þa'orS trSefrkcs xGufcGmrnf jzpfonf/}}
ukefonfacgif;aqmifBuD;onf uREkfyf\ &J&ifhwdusaompum;ESifh jyif;xefaomqHk;jzwfcsufwdkYudk Mum;aom
tcg uREkfyftm; wdbufjynfokdY ac:oGm;&efESifh wdbufjynfodkYa&mufaomtcg ol udk;uG,fqnf;uyfonfh
q&mawmfBuD;xH tyfESHay;&ef oabmwlav\/
uHaumif;axmufyHhojzifh c&D;oGm;ukefonfwkdYonf xdkaeYrSmyif wdbufjynfodkY jyefMu&ef pDpOfxm;Muaom
aMumifh uREkfyfonf csufcsif;yif olwdkYESifhtwl wdbufjynfokdY vdkufoGm;cGifh&cJh\/ (4)vMumrQ tvGef
jyif;jyif;xefxefESifh c&D;Murf;ESifcJhMuNyD;aemuf uREkfyfonf wdbufjynfawmifydkif; rGefbkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;?
ausmif;xdkifq&mawmf t&Sift&d,ykwår[max&f xHodkYa&mufcJh\/ uREkfyfonf wdbufbmompum;udk
rwwfuRrf; aomfvnf; c&D;oGm;ukefonfacgif;aqmifBuD;\ tultnDjzifh t&Sift&d,ykwår[max&fjrwf
\ ajcawmf&if;wGif ckdvHIvdkaMumif; avQmufxm;EdkifcJh\/
q&mawmfr[max&fjrwfonf uREkfyftm; tprf;oabmjzifh (6)vwdwd ol\ajcawmf&if;wGif ynm
oifMum; ay;um apmifhMunfhcJh\/ xdktcsdefumvtwGif; uREkfyfonf wdbufbmomudk avhvmcJh\/ (6)v
aphaom tcg r[max&fjrwfonf uREkfyf\ qE´jyif;jyrIudk ,HkMunfpdwfcsum uREkfyftm; oHCmtyg; 30
ausmfESifh tvGefBuD;rm;vSonfh y&dówfa&SUarSmufü omraP ZD0ud&dw [laombJGU (a[jAbmomt&
]]a,½I c&pfawmf}}) jzifh &SifomraPtjzpfESifh omoemhabmiftwGif;odkY oGwfoGif;csD;jr§ifhawmf rlav\/}}
]]wdrfjrKyfaeaom c&pfawmf\a[majymcsufrsm;}} [laomusrf;onf pmrsufESmaygif; (600)ausmf&Sd&m xdk
usrf;*ef wckvHk;udk ukefatmif OD;yÍÆif;[m tBudrf (20) xufrenf; a[m&r,fjzpfw,f/ 'gaMumifh usefwJh
tydkif;udk tusOf;csKyfNyD; a[myg&ap/
omraP& ZD0ud&dw (odkYr[kwf) &SifomraP[m 7ESpfESifh6vwkdifwdkif &SifomraPwdkY vdkufemusifhoHk;
&rnfh usifh0wfodu©mwdkYudk ususee xdef;odrf;cJhavawmh &Sift&d,ykwår[max&fjrwfu touf (20)
t&G,fodkY a&mufwJhtcgrSm &[ef;awmftjzpf OyorÜ'g jyKay;awmfrlowJh/
&[ef;awmf &Sifud&dw [m pdwftm;vnf; xufoef? Ak'¨&JUw&m;udkvnf; tvGef,HkMunfudk;pm;awmfrlwJh
twGuf pmayy&d,wfudkvnf; wzufu oiftHusufrSwf? wzufu orxw&m;wdkYudk avhvmtm;xkwfae
awmh rMumrDtwGif;rSm psmeftbdnmOfawGudk&NyD; wefcdk;awGudk jyEdkifvmowJh/ olY&JUq&mawmf t&Sift&d,
ykwå uvnf; &[Eåmwyg; jzpfavawmh c&pfawmf&JU tem*wfta&;udk odjrifawmfrlw,fwJh/
c&pfawmf[m tvGefqdk;0g;wJh aojcif;w&m;eJY awGUBuHK&r,fh ta&;udk jrifawmfrlowJh/ 'gaMumifh
&[ef;awmf ZD0ud&dw u olYt&yf olYXmeodkY jyef&ef tcGifhawmif;awmh tcGifhrjyKbJ jiif;qefaeowJh/
'gayr,fh wBudrfrQ omr[kwfbJ tBudrfBudrf tzefzefavQmufxm; awmif;yefavawmh ]]tdk cspfom; ZD0ud&dw? cspfom;[m atmufygtcsufawGudk vdkufemusifhoHk;r,fqkd&if cspfom;tm;
oGm;cGifhjyK r,f/ q&mawmfvdkvm;wJhtcsufawGuawmh

58

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

(1) tu,fí a&[l'DvlrsdK;rsm; (odkYr[kwf) £oa&vvlrsdK;rsm;uoifhtm; wHawG;rsm;axG;í ½HIUcsuJh&Jh
Muonfhwkdifatmif? cJtkwfrsm;ESifh aygufonfhwdkifatmif? qJa&;wdkif;xGmonfhwdkifatmif cspfom;u
cspfom;\ psmef tbdnmOfwefcdk;udk toHk;jyKí rwHkYjyefygESifh/
(2) tu,fí wpHkwa,mufaomolu oifhtm; r[kwfrrSef rw&m;ojzifh pGyfpJGonfhwkdifatmif cspfom;u
yuwd wnfNidrfaomoabmESifh onf;cH&rnf jzpf\/
(3) tu,fí wpHkwa,mufaomolu oif\rsufarSmufrSmyif Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwfudkvnf;aumif;? w&m;
awmfjrwfudkvnf;aumif;? oHCmawmft&SifjrwfwdkYudkvnf;aumif;? oGm;ykyfavvGifh rw&m;ojzifh ajymonfh
wkdifatmif enf;y&d,m,fudk oHk;vsuf olwdkY\rdkufrSm;rIudk odjrifvmatmif a[majymnTefjy&rnf jzpf\/
taMumif;aomfum; olwdkYonf bmrQrodrjrif em;rvnfMuíom jyKrlMujcif;jzpf&m olwdkYtm; tjypfrS
tcGifh vTwf&rnf jzpf\/
(4) tu,fí wpHkwa,mufaomolu txiftjrifvJGrSm;onf&Sdaomf em;vnfvmonfhwdkifatmif Oyrm
Oyar,s rsm;udkaqmifum a[majym&Sif;vif;&rnfjzpf\/
(5) rnfuJhodkYyifjzpfap? oifhtm; uefYvefYqefYusifjyKvkyfaeMuonfh oif\&efolrsm;tm; rkef;wD;jcif;?
a'go jzpfjcif; ponfh t&dyfvu©PmwdkYudk rjyygESifh/
(6) oifonf tcgrvyf rarhravsmhaompdwf"gwfESifh psmeftbdnmOfw&m;wdkYudk yGm;rsm;ygav/ arwåm
ur®|mef; udk yGm;rsm;um urÇmavmuBuD;w0Srf;vHk;udk oif\arwåmu½kPmw&m;jzifh vTrf;rdk;ygap/
(7) tu,fí wpHkwa,mufaomol (odkYr[kwf) vlwpku oifhtm;½dkufESufowfjzwfapumrl aoonf
txd todw&m;uif;rJhpGm rdkufrSm;olwdkYtay:wGif arwåm? u½kPmw&m;rsm; yGm;rsm;um aemufqHk;
aoonfhtcsdeftxd Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwf\ *kPfawmfw&m;udk tcgrvyf qifjcifatmufarhygav/ okdYrSom
vQif oifonf aoonf\tjcm;rJhü tvGefcsrf;omokcESifh jynfhpHkaom jA[®mhbHkodkY a&mufrnfjzpf\/
cspfom;? oifonf þtcsuf (7)csufudk vdkufemusifhoHk;ygrnf[k uwday;cJhvQif oifonf a&[l'D
vlrsdK;rsm; tm; rnfonfhenf;ESifhrQ rjyKjyif rajymif;vJEdkifrSef;udk odvsufESifh tcGifhay;&acsrnf/ oifonf
£oa&vvlrsdK;rsm;tm; jyKjyifEdkifaomfvnf; olwdkYonf oif\w&m;rsm;udk txiftjrifrSm;um oif
uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf oifa[majymonfhw&m;wdkYxJrS (1) cspfcifMuifemjcif;? (2) u½kPmyGm;rsm;jcif;? (3)
av;pm;jcif;? (4) Oayu©m jyKjcif;? (5) onf;cHjcif;? (6) tjypfrScGifhvTwfjcif; (7) BudK;yrf;tm;xkwfjcif;
ponfh tcsuftvufwdkYudkom qufvufxdef;odrf;í oif\emrnfjzifh bmomt,l0g'w&yfudk
xlaxmifMuvdrfhrnf}} [lí trdefY&Sdum t&d, ykwå rax&fjrwf[m ZD0u&dw tm; jyefcGifhjyKvdkufw,f/
ZD0u&dwuvnf; olY&JUq&mawmf trdefY&SdawmfrlwJh tcsuftvufawGudk aoonftxd vdkufemusifhokH;
yghr,fvdkY uwdu0wfjyKum ol&Jh ae&yfXmeokdY jyefvmcJh w,f/
tJ'Daemuf ,k',mNrdKUrSm c&pfawmf yxrOD;qHk; w&m;a[mwJhtcgrSm w&m;emolawGu a,[dk;0g
bk&m;ocif udk,fawmfjrwf&Jh w&m;awGr[kwfbJ Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwf a[mwJhw&m;awGom jzpfw,fvdkYqkdNyD;
olYudk 0dkif;NyD; ykwfcwf ajymqdkMuw,f/ a*s½kqvifeJY bomvD[efNrdKUawGrSma[mjyefawmhvnf; 'Dtwdkif;bJ
jzpf&jyefw,f/ olwdkYu ola[mwJhw&m;awG[m b,favmufyJaumif;aumif; wenf;enf;eJYwdkufzsufum
½HIUcsykwfcwfMu owJh/
'DvdktjzpftysufeJY&ifqdkif&wJhtcgrSm c&pfawmf[m olY&JUq&m t&d,ykwårax&fu olYudkrSmvdkufwJh
y&d,m,f oHk;&r,fqdkwJhpum;udk trSwf&NyD; ola[mwJhw&m;[m a,[dk;0ga[mwJh w&m;rsm;jzpfaMumif;?
ol[m a,[dk;0g&Jh om;awmfjzpfaMumif;jzifh vSnfhpm;NyD; ajymvdkufowJh/ trSefuawmh ol[m y&d,m,f
oHk;&r,fqdkwJh pum;udk t"dyÜm,ftaumufrSm;NyD; ,ckvdkvSnfhpm;vdkufjcif;jzpfw,f/ 'DvdktvSnfhpm;

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

rSm;vdkufwJhtwGuf c&pfawmf[m
towfcHoGm;&owJh/

59

vuf0g;uyfwdkifrSmuyfNyD;

a&[l'Dbkef;BuD;rsm;eJY

a&mrvlrsdK;wdkY&Jh

c&pfawmf[mwefcdk;jym#d[mawGudkjyEdkifayr,fh a&[l'DvlrsdK;awGeJY a&mrvlrsdK;awG&Jh ESdyfpufrIawGudk aoonf
txd wnfNidrfpGmeJYyJ cHoGm;&Smw,f/ ol[m olY&JUq&mu rSmvdkufwJhtwdkif; rnfonfh psmeftbdnmOfudkrQ
roHk;wJh wu,fhtmZmenfyk*¾dKvfyDyD aojcif;w&m;udk &ifqdkifoGm;cJhw,f/ 'gaMumifh a&[l'DvlrsdK;awG[m
c&pfawmfvdk olawmfaumif;wa,muf&Jhtoufudk &uf&ufpufpufowfjzwfrdMuwJhtwGuf ,aeYtxd udk,fh
wdkif;jynf&,fvdkY vufnd§K;xdk;jyp&m wdkif;jynfr&Sdbmr&SdeJY uavu0 jzpfaeMu&wmaygh/
tJ'D ygarmu© rpöwm*dk;&pf(cf)awGY&Sdxm;wJhrSwfwrf;t& c&pfawmf[m xm0&bk&m;ocif&Jh om;awmf r[kwf
bl; qdkwJhtaMumif;udk aumif;aumif;BuD;vufcHEdkifNyDr[kwfvm;/ 'gayr,fh olu - ]]uREkfyfum; xm0&
bk&m;ocif a,[dk;0g\om;awmfjzpfonf}} [laom pum;udkajymum a&[l'DvlrsdK;awGeJY £oa&v vlrsdK;
awGudk olYw&m;udkvkdufemMuNyD; olYaemufodkYvkdufvmatmif y&d,m,foHk;cJhw,f/ 'gayr,fh olY&JU
q&mawmfu edrdwfzwfvdkufwJhtwkdif;yJ olY&JUaemufvdkufawGu olY&JUa[majymcsufawGudk wrsdK;wzHk olwdkY
vdkovdk qJGoHk;MuNyD; a,[dk;0g udka&m? c&pfawmfudkyg udk;uG,fqnf;uyfMuw,f/
]]uREkfyfonf a,[dk;0gxm0&bk&m;ocif\ "r®a[mif;udk y,fzsufNyD; "r®opfudkwDxGifonf/ uREkfyfonf
bk&m; wefaqmif;a[mif;udk NzdKzsufí bk&m;wefaqmif;opfudk wnfaqmufonf/ uREkfyfonf ta&awmfudk
jzwfvSD;íbmomt,l0g'a&;&mt& uifyGef;wyfonfh xHk;wrf;"avhudk wDxGifonf}} [laom c&pfawmf&Jh
oHk;cGef;aom pum;wdkYudk olY&hJaemufvdkufrsm;u rSm;,Gif;wJh teuft"dyÜm,fjzifh aumuf,lcJhMuw,f/ 'gay
r,fh 'Dpum;awGudk Munfhjcif;tm;jzifh olY&JU bmomt,l0g'[m a,[dk;0g&Jh bmomt,l0g'eJY vHk;0 rwl
aMumif;udk txift&Sm;odjrifEdkifygw,f/ 'gayr,fh c&pf,mefbmom0ifawGu 'gudk em;rvnfMuao;bl;/
oabmraygufMuao;bl;/ c&pfawmf&Jh oGefoifa[majymcsufawG&Jh teuft"dyÜm,fudk em;rvnfMu
ao;bl;/
txufu OD;ÍÆif;a[majymcJhwJh wu,fhwdus[kwfrSefwJh oufaoom"uawGtjyif c&pfawmf[m xm0&
bk&m;ocif&Jh om;awmf r[kwfaMumif;udk aemufxyf oufaoom"u jyygOD;r,f/ xm0&bk&m;ocif&Jh
w&m; awGeJY c&pfawmfa[mwJh w&m;awG&Jh jcm;em;csufawGudk wu,fwrf; pDppfMunfh&if c&pfawmf[m
xm0& bk&m;ocif&Jh &efol? wenf;tm;jzifh qefYusifoljzpfaMumif;udk vG,fvifhwuleJY odjrifEdkifygw,f/
"r®a[mif;usrf;pmxJrSm xm0&bk&m;ocifu tjA[rftm; ]]tu,fí oif\rsufvHk;udk wpHkwa,mufaomolu xdk;azmufí ,loGm;cJhonf&Sdaomf xdkol\ rsufvHk;
udkvnf; oifu xdk;azmufí ,lav/ tu,fí wpHkwa,mufaomolu oif\ESmacgif;udk vSD;jzwfypfonf
&Sdaomf xdkol\ ESmacgif;udk oifuvnf; vSD;jzwfypfygav/ tu,fí wpHkwa,mufaomolu
oif\touf udk owf&efBudK;yrf;cJhonf&Sdaomf oifuvnf; xdkol\toufudk owfjzwfygav/ igum;
a'gow&m;jzifh xHk tyfonfh xm0&bk&m;ocifwnf;/ igonfoifhtm; vufpm;acsa&;w&m;tNrdKufaq;udk
wkdufauR;awmfrl\}} [k tav;teuf a[majymawmfrlcJhw,f/
'gayr,fh u½kPmw&m;yGm;rsm;vSwJh c&pfawmfuawmh ]]tu,fí wpHkwa,mufaomolu oif\NcHKapmifudk ,loGm;cJhonf&Sdaomf xdkoltm; oif\tusÐyg cRwfí
ay;urf;vSL'gef;ygav/ tu,fí wpHkwa,mufaomolu oif\vusfmbufyg;udk ½dkufcJhonf&Sdaomf xkdol
tm; oif\vuf0Jbufyg;udkyg ½dkufygap/ tppudkonf;cHyg/ onf;cHjcif;onfomvQifukodkvfw&m;udk
yGm;rsm; ay;apEdkifonf/ oif\tdrfeD;csif;rsm;udk oifhudk,fudkcspfcifouJhodkY cspfcifyg/ rnfonfhouf&Sd
owå0g udkrQ tEÅ&m,f rjyKygESifh}} vdkY olY&JUaemufvdkufawGudk a[majymoGefoifcJhw,f/

60

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

xm0&bk&m;a,[dk;0geJY c&pfawmfa[mwJh'Dw&m;ESpfck[m wckeJYwckpyfvdkY[yfvdkYr&atmif uGmjcm;aewmudk
awGYae&ygw,f/ 'ghaMumifh c&pfawmf[m a,[dk;0g&Jhom;awmfr[kwfbJ xm0&bk&m;a,[dk;0g&Jh &efol jzpf
aMumif;udktodÓPf&SdwJholwdkif;txift&Sm;em;vnfoabmaygufEdkifygw,f/ 'Denf;eJYc&pfawmf[m xm0&
bk&m; a,[dk;0g&Jh "r®a[mif;udkcsdK;azmufzsufqD;EdkifcJhw,f/ a,[dk;0g&Jhbk&m;wefaqmif;udk zsufqD;cJhw,f/
ta&jym;udk jzwfvSD;NyD; bmomt,l0g'qkdif&m uifyGef; wyfwJh xHk;wrf;"avhudk y,fzsufcJhw,f/
'Dae&mrSm tcGifhoifhvdkY c&pfawmf jyefvnf&Sifvmjcif;qdkwJh udpöeJYywfoufvdkY OD;yÍÆif; tusOf;csKyfoabm
enf;enf; a[mcsifygao;w,f/ c&pfawmfaoNyD; wwd,ajrmufaeYrSm jyefvnf&Sifoefvmw,fqdkwJh tjzpf
tysuf uav;uawmh awmfawmfuav; OD;aESmufaumif;aumif;eJY wDxGifvdkufwJh Zmwfvrf;uav;wyk'f
jzpfw,f/ 'DZmwfvrf;udk wDxGifvkdufwJholuawmh jynfhwefqmvkyfpm;wJh jypfrIeJY a&[l'Dw&m;½Hk;u
trdefYt& a&[l'DawGu cJawGeJY 0dkif;aygufjcif;cH&wJh ar&Druf(*)'gvDem (Mary Magdalene) qkdwJh
trsdK;orD; wa,mufjzpfw,f/
a,[dk;0g ouú&mZf (3201) ckESpfrSm a&mrvlrsdK;bk&ifcH yGefwD,yf(p)ypfav;u ]]c&pfawmfuG,fvGefjcif;ESifh
vdrfvnfvkyfBuHxm;aom jyefvnf&Sifvmjcif;}} [laom pmwrf;wapmifudk xkwfa0cJhygw,f/ 'Dpmwrf;
uawmh ]]bufov[rfNrdKUrS ar&D\om;? tifema,½Ic&pf\ajr;onf a,[dk;0g\t,l0g'udk rxDrJhjrif ao;odrf
,kwfnHhatmif jyKvkyfvsuf&Sdonf[laom a&[l'Dbkef;BuD;rsm;\ w&m;pJGqdkcsuft& a&mrvlrsdK;wdkY\ Oya'
t& 4if;tm; &mZ0wfaumifrsm;udk um;wifí uGyfrsufaeusjzpfonfh qDEdkifawmifxdyfay:rS vuf0g;
uyfwkdifü um;wifíuGyfrsufypfvdkuf\/ xdkYaemuf c&pf,mefbmom0ifwkdYtm; c&pfawmf\ tavmif;udk
rnfolrQ wl;azmfa&TUajymif;jcif;rjyK&[k trdefYxkwfqifhxm;aomfvnf; c&pf,mefbmom0if wdkYu wl;azmf
a&TUajymif;ypfMuvdrfhrnf[laom aumv[vowif; jzpfyGm;aeojzifh ol\tavmif;udk ausmuf*lxJwGif
jr§KyfNyD; tvGefBuD;rm;aom ausmufwHk;BuD;rsm;udkwifxm;av\/ 4if;jyif a&mrppfonfawmf(50)udk tapmifh
csxm;av\/ c&pfawmfonf wefcdk;jym#d[mwdkYudk jyEdkifoljzpf&um; a&mrvlrsdK;bk&ifonf olwefjyefí
&Sifvmrnfudk pdk;&drf vSojzifh tapmifhppfom;rsm;tm; txl;*½kwpdkuf apmifhMuyf&ef trdefYxkwfav\/
c&pfawmf towfcH&NyD; 'kwd,nü ar&Druf(*f)'gvDemonf ucsonft0wfwdkYudk 0wfqifNyD; aq;pyf
xm;onfht&ufeDudk zefwaumif; wckwGifxnfhum c&pfawmfjr§Kyf&m ausmuf*lteD;odkY csOf;uyfav\/
a&mrppfonfawmfwdkYu ruf(*f)'gvDem onf c&pfawmftm; wu,fwrf;MunfndKolwa,muf jzpfonfh
taMumif;udkvnf;aumif;? c&pfawmf\tavmif;udk vma&mufí ,l&efvmonfh ol\taMumif;udk
vnf;aumif; rodMuaomaMumifh olYtm; olwdkYa&SUwGif uckefoDqdkcGifh jyKxm;rdMu\/ olonf qdk& u&í
armvmaomtcg t&uf zefwaumif;udk zGifhí aomuf[efjyKav\/ obm0tavsmuf t&ufudk wyfruf
Muonfh ppfonfawmfwdkYonf ruf(*f)'gvDemu olwdkYtm; t&ufwaumif;udkay;vQif tm;yg;w& aomuf
Muav\/ ppfonfawmfwdkif; tvGefjyif;xefonfh aq;rsm;udk cyfxm;onfh ruf(*f)'gvDem\ t&ufudk
wzefcGufpDaomufMu\/ rdepf tenf;i,f Mumaomtcg aq;cyfxm;onfht&ufwefcdk;aMumifh ESpfESpf
NcdKufNcdKufBuD; tdyfaysmfMu&m (3)&ufMumrS Edk;Mu\/ a&mrppfonfawmfrsm; tdyfaysmfaepOftwGif; ruf(*f)
'gvDemonf c&pf,mefbmom0ifwdkYudk pkum c&pfawmf\tavmif; jr§KyfESHxm;onfh *lay:rS ausmufpdkif
ausmufwHk;BuD;rsm;udk z,f&Sm;ypfMuí tavmif;udk wl;azmf,lum tpdk;&tmPmydkifrsm; rodonfhae&modkY
wdwfwqdwfajymif;a&TUjr§KyfESHvdkuf\/ aemufaeY eHeufapmapmtcsdefwGif ar&Druf(*f)'gvDemonf eef;awmf?
w&m;vTwfawmf? aps;ESifh Zmwf½Hkrsm;qDodkYoGm;&m vrf;av;cGü c&pf,mefbmom0ifrsm;pGmwdkYudk pk½Hk;NyD; ]]tdk
uREkfyfwdkY\ a,½Iociftm; ouf0if,HkMunfMuol tcsif;wdkY? MunfhMuukefavm/ a,½Iudk,fawmfjrwf\
usufoa&&SdvSpGmaom½kyfoP²mefawmfudk zl;arQmfMuavmh/ udk,fawmfjrwfum; aumif;uifbHkeef;odkY <ujref;
awmfrlvsuf&Sdonfudk MunfhMuukefavmhh}} [k [pfatmf a<u;aMumfMuavonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

61

a&[l'Drsm;? a&mrvlrsdK;rsm;ESifh tjcm;bmomrsm;udk ouf0if,HkMunfMuolwdkYu ]]oif\ c&pfawmfum;tb,frSmenf;/ c&pfawmfonf aumif;uifbHkeef;odkY<ujref;vsuf&Sdonf[k oifwkdYu
rnfrQyif [pfatmf<um;0gaeMuaomfvnf; igwdkYonf rjrifacswum;/ oifwdkYonf vdrfvnfaejcif;
omjzpf\}} [k jyefí ajymMu\/
xdktcg ar&Druf(*f)'gvDemu ]]c&pfawmftm; ,HkMunfudk;uG,fí ta&jym;udk jzwfonfh xHk;wrf;"avhudk rvdkufem rusifhoHk;olwdkYomvQif
c&pfawmf aumif;uifbHkeef;okdY<ujref;awmfrlonfudk jrifMu&acsrnf/ ocifa,½Iudk,fawmfjrwfudk ouf0if
,HkMunfrI r&SdbJ owfjzwfvkyfBuHMuonfh oifwdkY'd|drsm;um; c&pfawmfudk jrifMu&rnfr[kwfacs/ oifwdkY
tu,fí r,HkMunfu qDEdkifawmifxdyfay:odkYwufíMunfhMuavmh/ xm0&bk&m;ocif\ wrefawmfu
ol\ *lay:wGif wifxm;onfh &maygif;rsm;pGmaom vlrsm;tm;ESifhrS a&TUEkdifaom ausmufwHk;BuD;udk a&TUNyD;
vQif tpdwfpdwftrTmrTm cJGypfonfudk awGYMu&rnf/ 4if;jyif a&mrppfonfawmf (50)udk wrefawmfu rl;arh
aeatmif ½dkufESufxkaxmif;xm;cJhonfudkvnf; MunfhMuOD;avmh}} [k qkdjyef\/
c&pf,mefbmom0ifwkdYu rnfrQyif [pfatmfa<u;aMumfaeMuaomfvnf; c&pfawmf aumif;uifbHkeef;odkY <u
jref;onfudk rjrif&onfh tpdk;&tzJGUtmPmydkifrsm;? a&[l'DvlrsdK;rsm;ESifh a&mrvlrsdK;wdkYonf qDEdkifawmifxdyf
ay:odkY wufMunfhMu&m c&pfawmf\*lay:wGif wifxm;onfh ausmufwHk;BuD;ESifh c&pfawmf\
tavmif;wdkYudk rawGYMu&awmhacs/ 4if;jyif a&mrppfonfawmfwdkY rl;arhaeMuonfudk awGYjrifMuav\/
þtjzpftysufudk bmwckrQ rodvdkufMuaom a&mrppfonfawmfwdkYtm; a&mrtmPmydkifwdkYu axmifxJodkY
ydkYMu\/ okdY&mwGif wwd,aeYü a&mrppfonfawmfwdkYonf owd&vmMuí ruf(*f)'gvDemu olwdkYudk
tu tqdkjzifh ajzazsmfNyD;aemuf aq;cyfxm;onfht&ufudkwdkufaMumif;? xdkYaemuf olwdkY owdvpfoGm;Mu
aMumif; jyefajzMuav\/ þuJhodkY tjzpftysufrSefudk odMuaomtcg a&mrtmPmydkifwdkYonf ruf(*f)
'gvDem ESifhwuG c&pf,mefbmom0ifa&[l'Drsm;ESifh £oa&vvlrsdK;aygif; (1000)ausmfwdkYudk zrf;qD;í
acgif;jzwfypfvdkuf Mu\/
'g[m wefcdk;jym#d[mawG jyEdkifwmawmh rSefygw,f/ 'gayr,fh vludk,fwdkifu toufaooGm;NyD;jzpfawmh 'D
wefcdk;jym#d[mawGuvnf; bmrS toHk;r0ifawmhbl;aygh/ c&pfawmf[mvnf; tjcm;owå0gawGvdkyJ
aoNyD;wJh aemuf b,fenf;eJYrS jyefr&SifEdkifawmhbl;aygh/
0pfvqif/
wynfhawmfwdkY wcgrQ rMum;zl;wJh tckq&mawmf a[majymawmfrlwJh a&mrbk&ifcH ypfav;
&JhrSwfwrf;udk Mum;&rSyJ c&pfawmf[m wdbufjynfu Ak'¨bmom &[ef;awmfwyg;&Jh wynfhom0u jzpfwJh
twGuf olajymjywJhw&m;awGeJY Ak'¨&Jh w&m;rsm;eJY wlaeaMumif;udk od&ygw,f/ aemufwckuawmh ol[m
t&drdawå,s bk&m;tavmif;awmfr[kwfbJ q&mawmfwdkYvdk Ak'¨bmom &[ef;awmfwyg;jzpfaMumif;? psmef
tbdnmOf&aMumif; wkdYudkvnf; wynfhawmf vufcHygw,f/ olvnf;yJ yx0D? awaZm? 0ga,m? tmayg
qkdwJh "mwfav;yg; taqmuftODjzpfwJhtwGuf toufaoNyD;wJhaemuf jyefNyD; wzefrxEdkifawmhbl;
qkdwmvJ wynfhawmf ,HkMunfygNyD q&mawmf/
q&mawmf[m bmomt&yf&yfESifhwuG odyÜHynmudkyg ESHUESHUpyfpyf todtjrif rsm;wJhtwGuf wynfhawmfu
q&mawmfudk MunfndKygw,f/ ,ck q&mawmf a[mjywJh tcsuftvufwdkYudkvnf; wynfhawmf ,HkMunfyg
w,f q&mawmf/

þwGif y&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

62

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (13)
Ak'¨onf [dE´Lbmomt,l0g'rS taumif;qHk;aomtpdwftydkif;wdkYudk aumif;pGm wwfajrmufuRrf;usifonf
r[kwfygavm/ Ak'¨onf [dE´La0'usrf;wdkYwGif epfjrKyfzHk;uG,faeonfh tcsdKUw&m;wdkYudk jyefvnf azmfxkwf
aeonf r[kwfavm/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - a0'usrf;rsm;? qifajctwwf? yl&Pfusrf;rsm;udk aumif;pGm uRrf;usif
onfh [dE´Lbkef;awmfBuD; y@dwf tuf(pf) tuf(pf) ½luv*sD? bHkbkdifNrdKU? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf
t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ Ak'¨[m y@dwfBuD;xifaeovdk [dE´Lbmomt,l0g'rS tqDtESpfawG? taumif;
qHk;tpdwftydkif;awGudkruRrf;usifyg/ a0'usrf;rsm;wGif epfjrKyfzHk;uG,faewJhtcsdKUw&m;wdkYudkvnf; jyefvnf
azmfxkwf a[majymraeyg/ Ak'¨[m av;oacsFeJY urÇmwodef;wkdifwkdif yg&rD (10)yg;udk jznfhqnf; usifhoHk;
cJhwJhtwGuf q&mr&SdbJ opömav;yg;w&m;awmfudkydkif;jcm;xifxifodjrifawmfrlw,f/ ola[majymcJhwJhw&m;
awG[m 'D opömav;yg;w&m;awmfudk tajccHNyD; a[mawmfrlcJhwJhw&m;awGomjzpfw,f/ [dE´La0'usr;fawG
xJuvnf; r[kwfbl;/ b,f bmomt,l0g'xJurS ,lNyD; a[mawmfrlwJh w&m;awGvnf;r[kwfbl;/ ol
a[mawmfrlcJhwJh w&m;awG[m opfvGifwJhw&m;awGvnf;jzpfw,f/ b,f bmomt,l0g'udk xlaxmifcJhwJh
vlrS ol a[mawmfrlcJhwJh w&m;awGudk odvnf; rodcJhzl;bl;? Mum;vnf; rMum;cJhzl;bl;/
OD;yÍÆif; ,ck a[majymcJhwJhtcsufeJY ywfoufvdkY tudk;tum;taxmuftxm;jyK&r,fqkd&if tZD0u
*kdPf;0if Oyu ar;wJh ar;cGef;udk Ak'¨[m bk&m;tjzpfudk &vQif&csif;? wenf;tm;jzifh t0dZÆmtarSmifw&m;
[lonfudk y,f&Sif;EdkifvQif y,f&Sif;Edkifcsif; ajzMum;awmfrl&if; rdefYawmfrlcJhwJh ]]Oyu? igum; &ef[lorQ
tukefvHk;udk z,f&Sm;okwfoifNyD;ayNyD/ igum; tvHk;pHkaomw&m;wdkYudk rsuf0g;xifxif odjrifawmfrlacsNyD/
igonf tnpftaMu;[lorQ jrLrQrusefatmifuif;pifawmfrlayNyD/ igum; &Sd&SdorQaom w&m;wdkYudk pGefYcGm
NyD;NyD/ xkdYaMumifh igonf rnfonfhw&m;udkrQ wyfrufjcif;r&SdawmhNyD/ igudk,fwdkif todÓPf[lorQudk
ydkifxm;NyD;jzpf&m rnfolYudk q&mac:&rnfenf;/ ighwGif q&mr&SdNyD/ igESifhEdIif;,SOftyfolum; r&SdNyD/
vlYavmu? ewfavmuwGif igESifh wlolum; r&SdNyD/ igum; avmuwGif tjrifhjrwfqHk;? avmuwGif
twwfqHk;? todqHk;q&mjzpf\/ igum;csrf;omokcESifhjynfhpHkvS\/ igum; tocFw"mwf jrwfaom edAÁmef
udk &&SdayNyD/ igonf "r®pMumw&m;awmfudka[mawmfrl&ef Am&mPoDjynfodkY <uawmfrlrnf/ þ
tarSmifxkjzifhNyD;onfh avmuBuD;wGif b,faomtcgrQ rqdwfokOf;onfh trwpnfBuD;udk ½dkufwD;aytHh}}
qdkwJh pum;awGeJY om"uaqmifjy&ayr,f/ 'DAk'¨udk,fawmf wkdif a[majymawmfrlcJhwJh pum;awGtjyif
y@dwfBuD;&Jh pdwfxJrSmpJGaewJh rSm;,Gif;wJh t,ltqawG uif;pif oGm;atmif OD;yÍÆif;u
atmufygar;cGef;awGudk ar;&vdrfhr,f/
(xdkuJhokdY ajymqdkNyD;aemuf)
q&mawmf/

y@dwfBuD;[m bHkbdkifNrdKUrSm&SdwJh jA[®PawGxJrS ynm&SdyJ r[kwfvm;/

y@dwfBuD;/ wynfhawmf[m jA[®PawGxJu ynm&Sdwa,mufjzpf½Hkruygbl;? [dE´Lt,l0g'eJYqkdif&mrSm
vnf; uRrf;usifwwfajrmufNyD; [dE´LawG&Jh bkef;awmfBuD;wyg;vnf; jzpfygw,f/
q&mawmf/
'gjzifh&if y@dwfBuD;[m [dE´Lusrf;*efawGteuf b,fusrf;*efudk ydkNyD; wwfuRrf;
em;vnfyg ovJ/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

63

y@dwfBuD;/ wynfhawmf[m a0'usrf;? jA[®m? AdóEdk;? oQD0 pwJh bk&m;oHk;qleJY ywfoufwJhusrf;?
eu©wfusrf;? aA'ifusrf;? yl&Pfusrf;? a0'Eåusrf; pwJh usrf;awGtm;vHk;udk uRrf;usifvdr®mygw,f
q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
Ak'¨[m [dE´Lt,l0g'eJY tESpfom&awGudkuRrf;usifNyD; [dE´La0'usrf;*efxJrS wdrfjrKyfaewJh
w&m;awGudk azmfxkwfaew,fqdkwJhtaMumif;udk &pf(*)a0'usrf;xJrSm awGYzl;ovm; y@dwfBuD;/
y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

twåm&0 a0'usrf;xJrSmaum y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

Z,a0'usrf;xJrSmaum y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

omra0'usrf;xJrSmaum y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

yÍöa0'usrf;xJrSmaum y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

ck'´*Dwusrf;xJrSmaum y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

b*0g*Dw xJrSmaum y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

r[mbm&wusrf;xJrSmaum y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

&mrm,meusrf;xJrSmaum y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

OyedoQusrf;xJrSmaum y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

yl&Pfusrf;xJrSmaum y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/

rawGYzl;ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
'gjzifh&if &Sefu&usmv,qkdwJh [dE´Lq&mBuD; jyKpkcJhwJh a0'Eåusrf;awGxJrSm y@dwfBuD;
awGY &wm r[kwfvm;/
y@dwfBuD;/ 'Dtwkdif; rSefygw,fq&mawmf/ q&mawmfar;wJh ar;cGef;awGudk axmuf½IMunfhjcif;tm;jzifh
q&mawmf[m [dE´Lusrf;*efawGudk tawmfyJ ESHYESHYpyfpyf zwf½Iavhvmxm;aMumif; xif&Sm;ygw,f/
q&mawmf/

y@dwfBuD;wkdY&Jh q&mBuD; &Sefu&usmv, [m b,frSm zGm;jrifygovJ/

64

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

y@dwfBuD;/

tdE´d,jynfawmifydkif; x&pfAef'&efNrdKUrSm zGm;jrifygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

ol[m b,folY&Jhom;vJ y@dwfBuD;/

y@dwfBuD;/ rSwfwrf;rsm;t&ajym&vQif ol[m *kPfoa&&Sd jA[®PtEG,f0if trsdK;orD;wa,muf&Jhom;
jzpfygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
tJ'D jA[®PtEG,f0if [dE´LtrsdK;orD;BuD;[m &Sefu&usmv,udk rarG;zGm;rD ESpfaygif;
tawmfMum rkqdk;rBuD; jzpfcJhw,fr[kwfvm; y@dwfBuD;/
y@dwfBuD;/

rSwfwrf;xJrSmawmh 'Dtwdkif;yJ ygygw,f/

q&mawmf/
y@dwfBuD;wkdY&JhrSwfwrf;xJrSm &Sefu&usmv,[m ajrmufydkif;tdE´d,udkroGm;rD x&pf
Aef'&rf NrdKUrSm Ak'¨bmom&[ef;awmftjzpfeJY (3)ESpfwdwd aexdkifoGm;ao;w,f r[kwfvm;/
y@dwfBuD;/ q&mawmfbk&m;? 'D[mawGar;aevdkYtusdK;r&Sdygbl;bk&m;/ 'Dudpöudk 'Dae&mrSmyJ&yfygawmh/
Ak'¨&Jhw&m;awmfawG[m urÇmhb,fbmomt,l0g'rS w&m;awGeJYrQ a&mpyfjcif;r&Sdbl;qdkwm q&mawmf ajym
a[mxm;wJh tcsufawGeJYyJ ckdifvHkvSygNyD/
þwGif w&m;yJGobmywdyk*¾dKvfonf xkdif&mrSxí y@dwf½lumv*sDtm; ...
]]uREfkyf[m y@dwfBuD;tm; tmrcHcsuf oHk;csufeJY oifar;vdkwJhar;cGef;udk q&mawmftm; ar;cGifhjyKw,f/
'gaMumifh 'DtmrcHcsuf oHk;csufteuf wcsufcsuf oifazmufzsuf&if a[m'D q&mawmf&Jhw&m;yJGudk
vma&muf zsufwJhtaeeJY w&m;pJG&vdrfhr,f/ y@dwfBuD;u q&mawmfar;wJhar;cGef;udk [dE´Lusrf;pmrsm;t&
rajzqdkbJ w&m;yJGrSxGufoGm;r,fqkd&if y@dwfBuD;[m ay;xm;wJhtmrcHcsufawGudk csdK;zsufwJhtaeeJY w&m;
pJGqdkzdkYyJ &Sdygawmhw,f}} [k ajymav\/
xdktcg y@dwf½lumv*sDu ...
]]obmywdvlBuD;rif;? uREfkyfay;xm;wJh tmrcHcsufawGudk uREkfyf ,ckvdk trSwfrxif csdK;zsufrdwJhtwGuf
0rf;enf;ygw,f/ uREkfyf[m q&mawmfar;wJh ar;cGef;rsm;udk ususee ajzqdkygawmhr,f/ q&mawmfuom
qufvufNyD; ar;vdk&m ar;ygawmh}} [k jyefajzav\/
þwGif q&mawmfu qufvufí ...
]]y@dwfBuD;? OD;yÍÆif;aemufqHk;ar;wJh ar;cGef;udkom jyefNyD; ajzyg}}
y@dwfBuD;/
ygw,f/

rSwfwrf;t&qkd&if &S&D&Sefu&usmv,[m Ak'¨bmom&[ef;awmftjzpfeJY (3)ESpfaexdkifcJhzl;

q&mawmf/
'gjzifh&if &S&D&Sefu&usmv,[m bmjyKvdkYAk'¨omoemhabmifrSxGufNyD; tdE´d,jynf ajrmuf
ydkif; wuúodkvfjynfudk oGm;&wmvJ/
y@dwfBuD;/ ol[m Ak'¨omoemhabmiftwGif;rSm BuD;av;wJhtjypfwckckudk usL;vGefrdvdkY omoemh
abmif rS ESiftxkwfcH&wmeJY wlygw,fq&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
6v 7v ausmfausmf ajcvsifc&D;jyif;ESifNyD; bm&nf&G,fcsufeJY tdE´d,jynf ajrmufydkif;udk
oGm;&w,fvdkY ,lqovJ y@dwfBuD;/
y@dwfBuD;/
jzpfygw,f/

'Dvdk ajrmufydkif;tdE´d,udk 'ku©qif;&JcHNyD; oGm;wmuawmh oeEåew&m;awmfudk a[mzkdY

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

q&mawmf/

65

'DoeEåew&m;udk b,folYqDu olavhvmoifMum;oGm;wmvJ y@dwfBuD;

y@dwfBuD;/ &S&D&Sefu&usmv,[m 'D oeEåew&m;udk &S&Dukrm&vdvmbwå qDrSm avhvmoifMum;
ygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/
ukrm&vdvmbwå[m wuúodkvfjynf Ak'¨wuúodkvfausmif;awmfBuD;rS q&mawmfa[mif;
r[kwfzl;vm;/
y@dwfBuD;/

q&mawmftrdefY&SdwJhtwkdif;yJ [kwf[efwlygw,f bk&m;/

q&mawmf/
&S&Dukrm&vdvmbwåa&m? &S&D&Sefu&usmv,a&m ESpfOD;pvHk;[m Ak'¨omoemhabmifu ESif
xkwfcHMu&awmh Ak'¨bmom&Jh wu,fh&efolBuD;awG jzpfoGm;Muw,f r[kwfvm;/
y@dwfBuD;/

'Dvdkvnf; jzpfEdkifygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
&S&D&Sefu&usmv,[m a0'Eåomoemudk xlaxmifzkdY&m b,folYqDu tcsuftvufawGudk
&ovJ y@dwfBuD;
y@dwfBuD;/ &S&D&Sefu&usmv,[m a0'Eåomoemudk xlaxmifzkdY&m tcsuftvufawGudk &S&Dukrm&
vdvmbwåqDu &wmyJ jzpf&rSmyg q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/

tJ'D tcsuftvufawG[m bmawGvJ/

y@dwfBuD;/

wynfhawmf rodygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/
y@dwf½lumv*sD? 'Dukrm&vdvmbwåqDu &S&D&Sefu&usmv, &wJhtcsufawG[m wjcm;
r[kwf/ Ak'¨udk,fawmfwkdif a[mawmfrlcJhwJh rZÑdredum,fxJrS w&m;awGjzpfw,f/ rZÑdredum,feJY wax&m
wnf;yJ jzpfw,f/ tJ'Dawmh Ak'¨[m [dE´L0g'xJu taumif;qHk; tqDtESpfawGudk Ak'¨u wwfuRrf;wm
r[kwfbl;qkdwm xif&Sm;aeNyD/ Ak'¨ a[mawmfrlxm;wJh w&m;awGudk [dE´Lt,l0g'u NrdKxm;wmom
jzpfw,f/ 'D Ak'¨ a[mawmfrlxm;wJh w&m;awGudkom ukrm&vdvmbwåu &Sefu&usmv,udk ,lay;wmyJ
jzpfw,f/ 'gaMumifh [dE´Lbmom0ifawGu &Sefu&usmv,udk a0a&m"eAk'¨ (½kyfzsufxm;wJhAk'¨) vdkY
ac:Muwmaygh/
Ak'¨bmom0ifawGu oydwfarSmufypfvdkufvdkY tdE´d,jynfawmifydkif; x&pfAef'&rfNrdKUu xGufcGmoGm;NyD;wJh
aemuf &Sefu&usmv,[m Ak'¨&Jh t,l0g'udk zsufqD;zdkY? rsdK;rjyKwf jyKwfatmifjzKwfypfzdkY opöm
"d|mefjyKvdkufyg w,f/ tJ'Daemuf tepöubk&if&Jh rdzk&m;udkolYbufygvmatmif qJGaqmifum tepöu
bk&ifudk tqdyfauR;NyD; towfcdkif;w,f/ tepöubk&ifudk 'DvdkvkyfBuHNyD;wJhaemuf rdzk&m;BuD;eJY jA[®P
vlrsdK;rSL;rwfawG&Jh tultnDeJY rdzk&m;BuD;&Jh *k½kvnf; jzpfvmw,f/ [dE´Lt,l0g'eJYqkdif&mrSmvnf;
tBuD;tuJ jzpfvmw,f/ orkdif;t& ajym&&if &Sefu&usmv,[m rdzk&m;BuD;qDu Ak'¨bmom
&[ef;awmfawGeJY Ak'¨bmom Oyoum? OyouDawG udkyg owfjzwfuGyfrsufypf&r,fqdkwJh trdefYawmfudk
&atmif,lNyD; tJ'Dvdk trdefYxkwfNyD;wJhaemuf tESpf 20 ausmfausmf ESpfq,fhig;ESpfavmufMumwJhtcg
Ak'¨bmom &[ef;awmf2oef;eJY Ak'¨bmom0ifawGudk &uf&uf pufpuf owfjzwfypfvdkufwJhtwGuf
aemufqHk; Ak'¨&Jh t,l0g'[m tdE´d,jynfrSm aysmufuG,foGm;&owJh/
Ak'¨[m [dE´L0g'&Jh tqDtESpfawGudk aumif;pGmwwfuRrf;w,fqkdwJhpum;[m r[kwfrSefwJhtjyif Ak'¨&Jh
t,l0g' xJrS w&m;a'oemwdkYudkom tvGefyg;eyfusifvnfvSwJh &Sefu&usmv,u [dE´LbmomxJudk
qJGoGif;cJhwm awGudk ,ckvdk om"utudk;tum;awGeJY txift&Sm;jyNyD;wJhaemuf Ak'¨&Jh t,l0g'eJY
[dE´Lt,l0g'wkdY[m ajzmifhajzmifhBuD; qefYusifwJhtaMumif; atmufygtcsuf (25)csufudk rlwnfNyD;
&Sif;vif;azmfjyygOD;r,f/

66

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

Ak'¨0g'

[dE´Lt,l0g'

1/ t0dZÆm[lorQudk vHk;0 y,fzsufawmfrlNyD;jzpfwJh 1/ y&rwår0dnmOfawmf?
Ak'¨udk,fawmf?
2/ tewå?

2/ twå? odkYr[kwf 0dnmOf?

3/ opömav;yg; w&m;awmf?

3/ opömw&m; r&Sd?

4/ r*¾if &Spfyg;?

4/ r*¾ifw&m; r&Sd?

5/ tbd"r®m w&m;awmf?

5/ tbd"r®mw&m; r&Sd?

6/ y#doaE¨ wzefjyefae&jcif;?

6/ 0dnmOful;ajymif;jcif;?

7/ bk&m;udk,fpm;vS,fawmf r&Sd?

7/ bk&m;udk,fpm;vS,fawmf &Sd?

8/ pwkorkXme ½kyfoabmt& jzpfjcif;?

8/ zefqif;&Sif (£ó&d,edr®me) udk,fawmfu
zefqif;jcif;?

9/ edAÁmefw&m;?

9/ rkwådw&m;?

10/ udk,fhudk,fudk n§Of;yef;rI r&Sdjcif;?

10/ udk,fhudk,fudk n§Of;yef;rI &Sdjcif;?

11/ ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;wdkY\ vIyf&Sm; ajymif;vJ 11/ ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;wdkY\ vIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJrI
rIrsm;
ESifh &Sif;vif;rI r&Sdjcif;?
12/ t&rf;tuef;,HkMunfrI?
uif;pifjcif;

t,lonf;rIwdkYrS 12/ t&rf;tuef;,HkMunfrI?
jyGrf;wD;aejcif;?

13/ *gxmrEå,m;rsm; r&Sdjcif;?

t,lonf;rIwdkYjzifh

13/ *gxmrEå,m;rsm; &Sdaejcif;?

14/ todÓPfynm (0dZÆm)w&m;ay:wGif tajcwnf 14/ t&rf; tuef; ,HkMunf udk;uG,frI?
tyfonfh ,HkMunfrI?
15/ y#dpöorkyÜm' w&m;awmf&Sdjcif;?

15/ y#dpöorkyÜm' w&m;awmfr&Sdjcif;?

16/ vufawGY0dyóem w&m;&Sdjcif;?

16/ qkawmif;? qk,lrI &Sdjcif;?

17/ orxESifh 0dyóemw&m; yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfjcif;? 17/ a,m*Dw&m; tm;xkwfjcif;?
18/ a0zefjcif;? ar;jref;jcif;trIwkdYudk jyKcGifhay; 18/ a0zefjcif;? ar;jref;jcif;wkdYudk jyKvkyfcGifhrjyK?
xm;jcif;?
19/ twif;tMuyfudkifrI? trdefYay;rI rygjcif;?

19/ twif;tMuyfudkifrIESifh trdefYay;rI ygjcif;?

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

67

Ak'¨0g'

[dE´Lt,l0g'

20/ taMumufw&m;? tajr§mfw&m;wdkYrS uif;pif 20/ taMumufw&m;? tajr§mfw&m;wdkY&Sdjcif;?
jcif;?
21/ (1500) udavomw&m;rS uif;pifjcif;?

21/ rkef;wD;jcif;? wyfrufjcif;? rSm;,Gif;jcif;?
0dZÆmw&m;? udk,fhudk,fudk txifBuD;jcif;? rSm;,Gif;
pGm ,lqjcif; ponfh w&m;rsm;&Sdjcif;?

22/ xHk;wrf;pOfvmESifh orm;½dk;ust,ltqwkdYudk 22/ xHk;wrf;pOfvmESifh orm;½dk;ust,ltqwkdYudk
tav;*½k trIrxm;jcif;?
vkdufemjcif;?
23/ ZmwftrsdK; ponfwkdY a&G;cs,frIr&Sdjcif;?

23/ trsdK;Zmwf ponfwdkY&Sdjcif;?

24/ ,mZfylaZmf yojcif;udk wif;wif;MuyfMuyf 24/ vlom;ESifh wd&pämefwdkYudk ,mZfylaZmf yo
wm;jrpfjcif;?
&jcif;?
25/ vlewfjA[®m owå0gtm;vHk; avhvmusifhoHk; 25/ [dE´Lusrf;*efrsm;udk jA[®PtEG,f0ifwkdYomvQif
&rnfh w&m;rsm;?
avhvmcGifh&Sdjcif;?

uJ txufyg rl(25)csuft& Ak'¨t,l0g'eJY [dE´Lt,l0g'wkdY[m wckeJYwck vHk;0qefYusifvsuf&Sdw,fqdkwm
xif&Sm;oGm;ygNyD/ 'Dtcsuf xif&Sm;oGm;wmeJYwNydKifeuf Ak'¨bmom&Jh &efolawGu Ak'¨[m [dE´Lt,l0g'&Jh
tqD tESpfawGudk aumif;aumif; uRrf;usifwwfajrmufNyD; tJ'D tqDtESpfawGudkom azmfxkwf a[majym
vsuf &Sdw,f qdkwJhtcsuf[m vHk;0tajctjrpf r&Sdbl;qdkwmudk txl;ajymzdkY vdkawmhr,frxifawmhbl;
y@dwfBuD;/
y@dwfBuD;/ Ak'¨t,l0g'eJY [dE´Lt,l0g'wkdY rnfa&GUrnfrQtxd uJGjym;jcm;em;vsuf&Sdw,fqkdwmudk
,ckvdk Mum;em&wm[m yxrqHk;tBudrfyJ jzpfygw,f/ 'gayr,fh q&mawmfa[mwJhtcsufawG[m
tvGefcdkifrmvSwJh twGuf wynfhawmf em;vnfoabmaygufNyD; ,ckvdk xifxif&Sm;&Sm; &Sif;vif; a[majym
awmfrlwJhtwGuf tvGef aus;Zl;wifvSygw,f q&mawmf/

68

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (14)
Ak'¨onf oAÁnKwa&TÓPfawmf&SifjzpfygvsufESifh 0denf;odu©myk'fwkdYudk wBudrfwnf;ESifh tm;vHk;tNyD;
tb,fhaMumifh rynwf rjy|mef;awmf rlygoenf;/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - rpöwm bmbmq[pf? zefqDodk;arG;pufydkif&Sif? rmvbmukef;jrifh?
bHkbdkifNrdKU? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ tvHk;pHkaomw&m;wdkY&Jh twdwfujzpfpOf? ypöKyÜeftajctae? tem*wf
wGifjzpfrnfh tvm;tvm pwJh tcsuftvufwdkYudk t<uif;rJh odjrifawmfrlwJh twkr&Sda&TÓPfawmfBuD;vSwJh
Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwf[m udk;uka#rQaom0denf;odu©myk'fwdkYudk wcsdefwnf;? wcgwnf;eJY jy|mef;vdkufr,fqdk&if
b,fvdktusdK;w&m;rsdK; ay:xGufvmr,fqdkwmudk aumif;pGmodjrifxm;awmfrlwJh twGuf 'D 0denf;
odu©myk'fBuD;i,fwdkYudk taMumif;rJh rjy|mef; rowfrSwfbJ xm;cJhjcif;jzpfw,f/ tcgtm;avsmfpGm ta&;udpö
ay:aygufvmrSom oufqkdif&m jypfrIudkusL;vGefwJh &[ef;wyg;yg;udka0zefqHk;rNyD; aemufaemif oHCm
wzJGYvHk; tvm;wljypfrIudkrusL;vGefrdatmifom 0denf;odu©myk'fudkowfrSwfjy|mef;awmfrlcJhw,f 'umBuD;/
zefqD/
0denf;odu©myk'ftm;vHk;udk wcgwnf;ESifh tNyD;owf jy|mef;vdkufwJhtwGuf rvdkvm;tyfwJh?
tusdK;rJhwJh tjzpfrsdK;udk jzpfapvdrfhr,f qdkwJhpum;udk wynfhawmf r&Sif;vif;bJ jzpfaeygw,f q&mawmf/
wynfhawmf em;vnfoabmaygufatmif &Sif;awmfrlygOD;/
q&mawmf/ 'DudpöeJY ywfoufvdkY 'umBuD;udk OD;yÍÆif;jyefNyD;ar;&OD;r,f/ OD;yÍÆif;ar;wJhar;cGef;awGudk
ajzMum;&if;eJYyJ 'umBuD; r&Sif;wJhtcsufawG[m &Sif;vif;oGm;ygvdrfhr,f/

(þodkYajymNyD;aemuf q&mawmfu)
'umBuD;wdkYrSm bHkbdkifNrdKU puf½Hkydkif&Sifrsm;tzJGY qkdwJh tzJGY&Sdw,f r[kwfvm;/
zefqD/
rSefyg q&mawmf/ wynfhawmfwkdYrSm puf½Hkydkif&Sifrsm;tzJGY &Sdygw,f/ wynfhawmf[m 'DtzJGYrSm
tzJGY0if wa,mufjzpfygw,f/
q&mawmf/ ta&;udpöay:aygufvmwJhtcg rMumcPqkdovdk 'umBuD;wdkYtzJGYu pnf;rsOf;Oya'opfawG
udk owfrSwfjy|mef;w,f r[kwfvm;/
zefqD/

rSefyg? ta&;udpöay:wkdif; pnf;rsOf;Oya'opfawGudk owfrSwfjy|mef;&ygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/ 'umBuD;wdkYtzJGYrSm Oya'pnf;urf; (70)ausmf (80)avmuf &Sdw,fr[kwfvm;/
zefqD/

pnf;urf;Oya' (80)avmuf&Sdygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/ 'D (70)ausmf (80) avmuf&SdwJh pnf;urf;Oya'udk 'umBuD;wdkY toif; xlaxmifpuwnf;
u tukefvHk; bmta&; bmudpörQ ray:bJeJY owfrSwfypfvkdufw,fqkd&if 'umBuD;wdkYtoif;rSm
toif;om; OD;a&[m enf;r,fxifovm;? rsm;r,fxifovm;/
zefqD/
pnf;urf;Oya' (80)avmufudk wBudrfwnf; wcgwnf;eJY toif;zJGYzJGYcsif; owfrSwf jy|mef;
vdkufr,f qkd&if wynfhawmfwdkYtoif;xJ b,folrS 0ifr,f r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

69

q&mawmf/ tJ 'umBuD;wdkY&Jh (80)avmuf&SdwJh pnf;urf;Oya'awGudk wcgwnf;eJY tukefvHk;jy|mef;vdkuf
&if toif;om;wa,mufrS &SdrSmr[kwfbl;qdkawmh (9)uka#avmuf&SdwJh 0denf;odu©myk'fawGudk
wBudrfwnf;? wcgwnf;eJY tNyD;jy|mef;vdkufr,fqdk&if Ak'¨&JhomoemhabmiftwGif;udk 0ifr,fhvl &SdygOD;
rvm;/ 'Dvdkjzpfay: vmr,fh tusdK;w&m;udk BudKwifodjrifxm;wJhtwGuf Ak'¨u 'Davmufrsm;jym;vSwJh
0denf;odu©myk'fawGudk wcgwnf;eJY tNyD; rjy|mef;wm jzpfw,f 'umBuD;/ 'DavmufeJYyJ 'umBuD; &Sif;vif;
oabmayguf em;vnfoGm; NyDvdkY OD;yÍÆif;uawmh ,lqrdw,f/
zefqD/
rSefyg? t&Sifbk&m;ay;wJh OyrmeJYyJ 'Djyóemudk wynfhawmf &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; em;vnf
oabmayguf oGm;ygNyD bk&m;/

þwGif w&m;emy&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

70

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (15)
Ak'¨onf udoa*gwrDtm; ol\ uG,fvGeftedpöa&mufoGm;aom om;i,fESifhywfoufí w&m;a[mawmf rl
&mwGif rkom;pum;qdk&m ra&mufaybl;vm;/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - rpöwm t,f(rf) at? rlvm? 0wfvHkawmf&? bHkbdkifNrdKU? ajzqdkol q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ Ak'¨tavmif;tvsm[m uyfuyÜmaygif;ra&rwGufEdkifatmif (10)yg;aom
yg&rDwdkYudk jznfhqnf;aeawmfrlpOfumvuyif r[kwfrrSefwJhpum; wcGef;rQ rajymqdkcJhzl;bl;/ [kwfrSefwJh
pum;qdkvQif toufudkowfr,fvdkY Ncdrf;acsmufxm;awmifrS r[kwfrrSefwJhpum;udk rqdkcJhbl;/ tJ'Davmuf
odu©myk'fudk apmifhxdef;cJhwJh Ak'¨[m oAÁnKwa&TÓPfawmf&NyD; t0dZÆm[lorQudk z,f&Sm;um Ak'¨tjzpf
a&mufcgrS rkom;pum;udk qkdzdkY rajymxm;eJY? [kwfrSefwJhpum;udkawmif tv[ó taMumif;rJhoufouf
ajymqdkawmfrrlawmhbl;/ tck 'umBuD; odvkdwJhtcsufudk &Sif;vif;oGm;atmif OD;yÍÆif;u 'umBuD;udk
ar;cGef;tcsdKU ar;&vdrfhr,f/ OD;yÍÆif;ar;wJh ar;cGef;awGudk ajz&if;eJYyJ 'umBuD;odvdkwJhtcsufudk &Sif;vif;
oabmayguf oGm;vdrfh r,f/

(þuJhodkYajymNyD;aemuf q&mawmfu)
'umBuD;rSm om;orD; b,fESpfa,muf&SdovJ/
rlvm/

wynfhawmfrSm uav;(5)a,muf &Sdygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/ 'umBuD;&Jhuav;awG armfawmfum;awG? ,mOfawG tvGef½IyfwJhvrf;ay:rsm; wcgwcg xGuf
xGuf roGm;Mubl;vm;/
rlvm/
wcgwavrS xGufxGufoGm;Muwmr[kwfygbl; bk&m;? aeYwkdif;vkdvdkyJ xGufxGufoGm;Mu
ygw,f bk&m;/ tJ'DvdkxGufxGufoGm;wJhtcg wynfhawmfu olwdkYudk y&d,m,foHk;NyD; acsmufvSefYxm;&
ygw,f bk&m;/
q&mawmf/ 'umBuD; uav;awGudk vrf;ay:wufwufNyD; rupm;atmif b,fvdk y&d,m,fawGrsm; oHk;NyD;
acsmufvSefYovJ 'umBuD;/
rlvm/
wynfhawmfu olwdkYudk vrf;ay:rSm wcgwav bDvl;BuD;waumif vmwwfw,f/ tJ'D
bDvl;BuD;[m vG,ftdwfBuD;wvHk;udkvnf; vG,fvG,fvmwwfw,f/ wcgwav uav;awGudkawGY&if
olYvG,ftdwfxJ zrf;xnfhoGm;NyD; olYae&ma&mufwJhtcg vnf*kwfawGudk csdK;csdK;pm;wwfw,f/ wcgwav
usawmhvnf; wynfhawmfu xef;yifavmuft&yfjrifhwJh bDvl;waumif[m avQmufavQmufvmNyD;
uav;awGudkawGY&if zrf;um twif;rsdKwwfw,fvdkY ajymjyygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/ 'gjzifh 'umBuD; uav;awGudk vdrfvdrfajymwmayghav/
rlvm/
'gu y&d,m,fygbk&m;/ rkom;ajymwJhoabmeJY vdrfwm r[kwfygbl; q&mawmf/ 'Dy&d,m,f
rsdK; udkawmh rdbrsm;u om;orD;awGtay:rSm? q&mrsm;u wynfhawGtay:rSm? tpdk;&uawmif wcgwav
jynfolvlxk tay:rSm aumif;apvdkwJh qE´eJY toHk;cs&ygw,f q&mawmf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

71

q&mawmf/ tJ tck 'umBuD;ajymwJhtwdkif;yJ? r[mu½kPmawmf&Sif vl? ewf? jA[®m owå0gwdkY&Jh rSDcdk
qnf;uyf&m jzpfawmfrlwJh Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwf[m r*fzdkvf &oifh&xdkufolawGeJY awGYwJhtcgrSm wa,mufpD
wa,mufpD&Jh 0goem txHkudkvdkufNyD; xdkufoifhwJh y&d,m,fudk oHk;awmfrlw,f/ udoa*gwrD&Jh udpörSm
vnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ? udoa*gwrDudkb,fvdktuRwfw&m;&atmifvkyf&yghrvJvdkY pOf;pm;awmfrlNyD; oleJYudkufnD
wJh y&d,m,fudk oHk;jcif;tm;jzifh Zmwd? Z&m? Asm"d? r&P qkdwJhw&m;udk wcgwnf;eJY txift&Sm; em;vnf
oGm;atmif vkyfawmfrlvdkufwmyJjzpfw,f/ 'umBuD;&JhpdwfxJrSm xifaeovdk vdrfvdkufwm r[kwfbl;/
'D&nf&G,fcsufeJY Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwfu ]]cspforD; udoa*gwrD? oif\om; aoqHk;onfhtwGuf rylyif
raMumifhMuvifh? oif\om; toufjyef&Sif&eftwGuf ESrf;aphvufwqkyfpmcefY&vQif awmfayNyD}} vdkY
rdefYawmfrljcif; jzpfw,f/ tJ'Dtcgusawmh udoa*gwrDu ]]tb,fuJhodkYaom ESrf;aphvufwqkyfpmrQudk
vdkawmfrlygoenf; t&Sifbk&m;}} vdkY jyefNyD;avQmufxm;ar;jref;jyefw,f/ 'Dtcgusawmh Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwf
u ]]tdk cspforD;? ,lcJh&rnfh ESrf;aphvufwqkyfpmcefYum; tjcm;t&yfrS r[kwfyg/ trdaomfvnf;aumif;?
tzaomfvnf;aumif;? tbdk;aomfvnf;aumif;? tbGm;aomfvnf;aumif;? om;aomfvnf;aumif;?
orD;aomfvnf;aumif;? ajr;aomfvnf;aumif;? jrpfaomfvnf;aumif;? wlaomfvnf;aumif;? wlraomf
vnf;aumif;? tapcHrdef;raomfvnf;aumif;? tapcHa,musfm;aomfvnf;aumif;? wOD;wa,mufrQ rao
aMu rysufpD;zl;onfh tdrfrSjzpf&rnf/ þuJhodkYaom tdrfwtdrfrS ESrf;aphvufwqkyfpmrQ&onfESifh
wNydKifeuf tjrefjyefvmcJhavmh/ oif\om; toufjyefí &SifaptHh}} vdkY rdefYawmfrlvdkufw,f/
tJ'Dvdk rdefYawmfrlpOfu Ak'¨u udoma*gwrD[m b0tqufqufu jznfhqnf;cJhwJhyg&rDt[kefeJY csufcsif;
aomwywådr*fudk qkdufNyD; tJ'Db0rSmyJ t&[wår*f? t&[wåzdkvf a&mufr,fholjzpfaMumif; aumif;pGm
odawmfrlw,f/ 'gayr,fh oludk,fwdkif vlraozl;wJhtdrfudk avQmuf&SmNyD; rawGYrS ]]owå0g[lorQ[m
arG;vQif ao&r,f}} qkdwJh oabmudk txift&Sm; em;vnf,HkMunfvdrfhr,fqdkwmukd odxm;awmfrlw,f/
wu,fvdkY Ak'¨[m tJ'Dtcgu 'Dy&d,m,fudkroHk;bJ ]]tdk cspforD; udoa*gwrD? aojcif;w&m;udk b,folrQ
rvGefqefEdkif wum;? oif\om;onf tb,fenf;ESifhrQ toufjyefí &Sifvdrfhrnfr[kwfacs}} [k wJhwdk;
rdefYawmfrlvdkufvQif udoa*gwrD[m om;&JhaZmeJY &ifuJGemusNyD; i&JbHkuszdkYom &Sdawmhw,f/ 'gaMumifh
Ak'¨u vlraozl;wJhtdrfu ESrf;aphvufwqkyfpmcefYudk t&Smcdkif;jcif;jzpfw,f/ 'DESrf;aph r&EdkifwJhtcgusawmh
udoa*gwrD[m olY&Jh rSm;,Gif;wJhtcsufudk oljrifNyD;awmh olYuav;udk vkwfwdkif;ukef;rSmpGefYum olYqDudk
w&m;a&at; wdkufauR;awmfrlygvdkY vmNyD; awmif;yefavQmufxm;vdrfhr,f/ 'DtcgrSm w&m;wyk'f
a[mvdkuf½HkeJY edAÁmefa&mufzdkY vrf;aMumif;ay:wufrdNyD; &[Eåmr jzpfvdrfhr,fvdkY jrifawmfrl xm;w,f/
aemufqHk; Ak'¨&Jh y&d,m,faMumifhyJ Ak'¨jrifawmfrlxm;wJhtwdkif;yJ udoa*gwrD[m edAÁmefudk &oGm;w,f
r[kwfvm;/ tJ'Dawmh 'umBuD;u Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwfu udoa*gwrDudk vdrfvnfvSnfhjzm;NyD; rkom;
ajymw,fvdkY pGyfpJGcsif ao;ovm;/
rlvm/
wynfhawmf rlvuwnf;u Ak'¨a*gwru udoa*gwrDudk vdrfvnfNyD; rkom;pum;
ajymw,fvdkY pGyfpJGvdkwJh qE´ r&Sdygbl; q&mawmf/ wynfhawmfrSm Ak'¨u bmjyKvdkY 'Dae&mrSm udoa*gwrDudk
]]aojcif;w&m;rS b,folrQ vGwfatmif rajy;Edkifbl;}} vdkY wkduf½dkufra[mawmfrlbJeJY ]]vlraowJhtdrfu
ESrf;aphvufwqkyfpmcefYom &SmcJh/ oif\om; toufjyef&Sifaphr,f}} vkdY vSnfhpm; &wmvJvdkY oHo,0ifvdkY
q&mawmfudk avQmufrdjcif; jzpfygw,f/ ,ckawmh wynfhawmfrSm &SdaewJh oHo, &Sif;oGm;wJhtjyif Ak'¨&Jh
ÓPfynmBuD;rm;vSyHkudk em;vnf oabmaygufNyD; ,cifuxufyif ydkí MunfndK rdygw,f bk&m;/

þwGif w&m;emy&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

72

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (16)
Ak'¨onf tcsdKUtar;ykpämwkdYudk tb,fhaMumifh rajzqdkbdoenf;/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - a0'usrf;? eu©wfusrf;? yl&Pfusrf; ponfh [dE´Lusrf;*efwdkYudk
uRrf;usifonfh jA[®PEG,f0if y@dwf ½lumv*sD? bHkbkdifNrdKU? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf
t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ Ak'¨[m olYacwf olYvufxuftwGif; bmomt,l0g'toD;oD;rSm ay:ayguf
aewJh tvGefxif&Sm;wJh tar;ykpäm (14)yk'fudk oAÁnKwa&TÓPfawmf&Sif Ak'¨u ajzqdkawmf rrlcJhwmawmh 'D
tar;ykpämawGudk ajzqdkvdkYtusdK;r&Sdbl;/ 'Dtar;ykpämawG&Jh tajzudkodvdkYvnf; jrifhjrwfwJh? t0dZÆmuif;wJh
b0udk a&mufroGm;bl;/ NyD;awmh 'Dtar;ykpämawG[m todÓPfynmt& tvGefjrifhrm;vSwJhtwGuf
t&[wår*f? t&[wåzdkvf ra&mufrcsif; b,folrSvnf; em;rvnfEdkifbl;/ aemufqHk;tcsufuawmh Ak'¨
&Sifawmfjrwf[m owå0gwOD;wa,muftwGuf tu,faumif;usdK;okceJYjynfhpHkwJhpum;rSom a[mawmfrlavh
&SdwJhtcsufyJ/
oAÁnKwa&TÓPfawmf&Sif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu rajzqdkbJ xm;cJhwJh tar;ykpäm (14)ckuawmh ...
1/ (u) uyÜmBuD;onf tpOfwnfNrJoavm/ (c) rwnfNrJbJ ysufpD;oGm;oavm/ (*) wnfvnf;wnfNrJ?
ysufpD;vnf; ysufpD;oavm/ (C) rwnfvnf;rwnfNrJ? rysufpD;vnf; rysufpD;bl;avm/
2/ (u) uyÜmBuD;onf umvtydkif;tjcm;tm;jzifh oufwrf;&Sdoavm/ (c) uyÜmBuD;onf umv tydkif;
tjcm;tm;jzifh oufwrf;r&SdNyDavm/ (*) uyÜmBuD;onf umvtydkif;tjcm;tm;jzifh oufwrf;vnf;&Sd?
r&Sdvnf; r&SdNyDavm/ (C) uyÜmBuD;onf umvtydkif;tjcm;tm;jzifh oufwrf;&Sdonfvnf;r[kwf? r&Sdonf
vnf; r[kwfNyDavm/
3/ (u) Ak'¨onf y&dedAÁmefjyKNyD;onfh tjcm;umvü &Sdao;oavm/ (c) r&SdawmhNyDavm/ (*) &Sdvnf;&Sd?
r&Sdvnf;r&SdNyDavm/ (C) &Sdonfvnf;r[kwf? r&Sdonfvnf;r[kwfNyDavm/
4/ (u) toufESifh cE¨mudk,f [laom w&m;ESpfyg;onf twlwlyifavm/ (c) 4if;w&m;ESpfyg;onf wuJG
wjym;pDavm/
'Dtxufygar;cGef;awGeJYywfoufvdkYajymqdkajz&Sif;&mrSm Ak'¨udk,fawmfwdkif rZÑdredum,fxJrSm a[mawmfrl
cJhwJh tcsdKUtcsuftvufawGudk tenf;i,fudk;um;NyD; ajymvdkygw,f/ tJ'Dudk;um;vdkwJh Ak'¨&Jh pum;awG
uawmh ]]tu,fí Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfudk,fwdkifu yxrqHk; uyÜmBuD;onf xm0&wnf&Sdrnfavm? acwå
,m,DrQomwnf&Sdrnfavm? uyÜmBuD;onf tptqHk;&Sdonfhw&m;avm? r&Sdonfhw&m;avm? toufESifh
cE¨mudk,fwdkYonf wckwnf;aom w&m;avm? odkYwnf;r[kwf wckESifhwckuJGjym;jcm;em;oavm? Ak'¨
&Sifawmfjrwfonf y&dedAÁmef jyKNyD;aemuf &Sdaeao;oavm ponfh ar;cGef;wdkYudk ra[mMum;rD Ak'¨
&Sifawmfjrwf\ omoemhabmiftwGif; r0ifvkdolum; þtar;ykpämwkdYESifh ywfoufí Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu
&Sif;vif;a[mMum;awmfrlrNyD;cifyif uG,fvGeftedpöa&muf&rnfjzpf\/ xdkolum; tqdyfvl;aomjrm; rSefxm;
onfh olwa,mufudk orm;wa,mufu ukrnfjyK&mwGif aq;0g;tukto rcHrD ]uREkfyftm; þjrm;ESifh
ypfvkdufaomolonf rSL;rsdK;rwfEG,f xJrSavm? rif;rsdK;rif;EG,fxJrSavm? aus;uRefvlwef;pm;xJrSavm?
xdkol rnfolrnf0genf;? rnfolYrsdK;½dk;xJrSenf;? t&yfjrifhoavm? t&yfedrfhoavm? tvHk;t&yf redrfhrjrifh
xJrSavm} ponfhar;cGef;wdkYudkar;NyD; þtcsuftvufwkdYudk rod&orQ uREkfyf\cE¨mwGif;rS jrm;udk tEkwfrcH
[kqkd&if; tqdyfwufum aooGm;&ol uJh okdYyif jzpfacsonf/}}

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

73

txufu Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf rdefYawmfrlcJhwJhpum;Munfh&if tjcm;bmrQravhvm rusifhoHk;bJ 'Djyóem
(14)ck&Jh tajzudkom &SmaeMuwJh bmomtoD;oD;rS vlawG[m rnfrQrdkufrJw,fqkdwmudk txift&Sm;
odjrifEdkifw,f/ 'DvlawG[m tqdyfvl;wJhjrm;udk tcRwfrcHbJ 'Djrm;udk ypfwJhvl&JhtaMumif; ar;jref;ae&if;eJY
aooGm;&r,fh vlrsdK;xJuyJ/ 'Dtar;ykpämawG[m edAÁmefa&muf&ma&mufaMumif;w&m;om r[kwfw,f? tvGef
cufcJeufeJvSwJhjyóemawGjzpfw,f/ omref&Sif;vif;a[majymjy½HkeJY vlomrefrsm; em;vnf oabmaygufzdkY
tvGefcufcJvSw,f/ 'DudpöawGudk t0dZÆmw&m;[lorQudk ckwfxGify,f&Sm;xm;NyD; jzpfwJh Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf
omvQif t<uif;rJhvHk;0OóHkodjrifem;vnfawmfrlw,f/ edAÁmefa&muf&ma&mufaMumif;w&m;udk tm;rxkwfbJ
'DjyóemawG twGuf tajz&&m&aMumif; BudK;pm;wm[m tvGeftbdk;xdkuf tbdk;wefvSwJh tcsdefawGudk
tv[ó jzKef;wD;ypfvkdufwmyJ jzpfr,f/ 'D tar;ykpämawGudk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu wpHkwa,mufaomoltm;
a[majymawmfrlonfhwdkifatmif xdkolonfr*fÓPfzdkvfÓPfudk&xm;olr[kwfu em;vnfEdkifoabmayguf
EkdifrSm r[kwfbl;/ 'gaMumifhvJ Ak'¨udk,fawmfjrwfu 'Dtar;ykpämawGudk rajzMum;bJ aeawmfrlwmaygh/
'Dae&mrSm y@dwfBuD;vdk usrf;*efpmayawGudk wwfajrmufuRrf;usifxm;wJh yk*¾dKvfwOD;u 'DedAÁmefa&muf&m
a&mufaMumif;twGuf bmrQtaxmuftulrjzpfwJh 'Dar;cGef;awGudk oAÁnKwa&TÓPfawmf&Sif vl? ewf?
jA[®m qdkwJh owå0goHk;yg;wdkY&Jhq&mjzpfwJh Ak'¨u ajzqkdawmfrrlwmudk Ak'¨[m 'Dar;cGef;awGudk ajzqdkEdkifpGrf;
r&Sd vdkY ,lqjcif;[m tvGef0rf;enf;zG,faumif;aeNyD/ aemufwcku 'Dar;cGef;awGtwGuf tajzr&&atmif
vdkufvH&SmazGavhvm½HkeJY pdwf&Jhcsrf;omrI? udk,f&Jhcsrf;omrIwdkYudk &Edkifr,f? r&Edkifbl; qkdwmudkyJ y@dwfBuD;
udk,fwkdif odjrifem;vnfxm;vdrfhr,fvdkY OD;yÍÆif;u ,lqxm;w,f/
y@dwfBuD;/ wynfhawmf[m Ak'¨u 'Dtar;ykpäm(14)yk'fudk tb,fhaMumifh rajzqdkawmfrlrSef; odyg
vsufeJY wrifoufouf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfudk ½HIUcsvdkwJhoabmeJY ,ckvdkar;jcif;r[kwfyg/ 'gayr,fh
tvHk;pHkaom w&m; wkdYudk xdk;xGif;odjrifem;vnfawmfrlwJh Ak'¨[m 'Dykpäm(14)ydk'fudk tb,fhaMumifh
a[mawmfrrlbJ csefxm;cJh& ovJ qdkwJhtcsufudk pdwfxJrSm r&Sif;vif;wmeJY ar;jref;avQmufxm;jcif;
jzpfygw,f q&mawmf/ wynfhawmf[m Ak'¨&Jh tvGefBuD;rm;wJh ÓPfawmfudk MunfndKvSygw,f q&mawmf/

þwGif y&dówftm;vHk;u om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavukefonf/

74

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (17)
emrfw&m;wdkY\oufwrf;onf rnfrQ Mum&Snfygoenf;/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - a'gufwm ,efuwfa&mif;? yg0,f(vf)ukrÜPD? vrifwefvrf;? bHkbdkifNrdKU?
ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf a[mawmfrlcJhwJh tbd"r®mw&m;awmft& ajym&r,fqdk&if
pdwf[m b,favmufvsifjrefpGmvIyf&Sm;EdkifovJqdk&if tvGefwdkawmif;vSwJh vQyfwjyuftcsdefuav;twGif;
rSmyif tBudrfaygif;uka#wodef;jzpfay:csKyfNidrf;Edkifw,f/ pdwf"mwf wcgwcg vIyf&Sm;pOfumvtwGif;rSmyif
Oyg'f (pwifjzpfay:jcif;)? XD (wdk;wufBuD;xGm;jcif;)? bif (csKyfNidrf;jcif;) &,fvdkY tqifhoHk;qifh&Sdw,f/
'Dtqifh uav; wqifhwqifhudk ]]cPi,f}} vdkY ac:w,f/ 'DtqifhoHk;qifhvHk;udk aygif;vdkufwJhw&m;udk
pdwåu©P vdkYac:w,f/ 'gaMumifh pdwåu©Pwck&Jhoufwrf;udktcsdefumvtydkif;tjcm;tm;jzifh b,favmuf
&Snf w,f qkdwmudk b,fvdkrS wGufcsufwkdif;wmvdkYawmif rjzpfEdkifbl;/
½kyfw&m;&Jh vIyf&Sm;rIuawmh pdwf"mwf&JhvIyf&Sm;rIxuf tcsdefumvtm;jzifh ydkNyD;&Snfvsm;w,f/ b,favmuf
ydkNyD; &Snfvsm;ovJqkd&if pdwf"mwftBudrfaygif; (51)Budrf vIyf&Sm;wJh tcsdefumvtwGif;rSm ½kyf"mwf
(17)Budrf vIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJw,f/ 'Dvdk ½kyf"mwfu (3)q ydkNyD; tcsdef&Snfvsm;pGm vIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJw,fvdkY
qkd&ayr,fh 'D ½kyf"mwf vIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJrIudk rDatmif b,fu&d,meJYrQ wkdif;wmvdkYr&Edkifbl;/
'Dvdk pdwf"mwfeJY ½kyf"mwfwdkY&Jh vsifjrefpGmvIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJwJhtaMumif;udk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu vGefcJhwJh
ESpfaygif; (2560)ausmfavmufu a[mcJhwmudk ,ckacwf odyÜHynm&yfu b,f½kyfw&m;rS wnfNrJw,fvdkY
r&SdaMumif;? ½kyfw&m;[m tNrJwrf; vIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJvsuf&SdaMumif;udk 0efcHae½HkrQrubl; toH½kyfawG[m
(tvif;½kyfjzpfygonf/ wifjyol) wpuúefYtwGif; rSm rkdifaygif; (186000) awmif vIyf&Sm;oGm;vm
Edkifw,fvdkY ajymaeNyD/ 'gaMumifh emrfeJY½kyfwkdY&Jh vIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJrI[m b,favmufjrefw,fqdkwmudk
ajymaezdkY vdkr,f rxifawmhbl;/
'Dvdk b,fenf;eJYrQ wGufcsufrSef;q a[majymvdkY rjzpfwJh tcsdefumvtwGif;rSm vIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJ jzpfysuf
wwfwJh ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;wdkY&Jh jzpfpOfobm0udk Ak'¨eJY &[Eåmyk*¾dKvfwkdYuom wdwdususjrifEdkif? xifEdkif
w,f/ bmjyKvdkY omrefrsufaph? omrefÓPf? omrefud&d,mwdkYeJY rjrifEdkif? rodEdkif? em;rvnfEdkifovJqkd&if
'Dw&m;awG[m tjywftawmufr&Sd pOfwkduf? qufwkduf jzpfaewmuwaMumif;? tvGefvsifjrefjcif;u
waMumif;? qifjcifoHk;oyfavhvmolawG&Jh ÓPfynmudkvnf; t0dZÆmtarSmifwkdufu zHk;tkyfxm;wmu
waMumif;wkdYaMumifh jzpfw,f/ 'D emrfw&m;wdkY&Jh vsifjrefwJht&Sdefudk odjrifem;vnfcsif&if t0dZÆmw&m;udk
ydkifonfhwdkifatmif r*¾if&Spfyg;udk usifhzdkY vdkw,f/
a&mif;/
q&mawmfu ,ckvdk Ak'¨&Jhtbd"r®mudk odyÜHynmESifh axmufcHudk;um;NyD; &Sif;vif;a[majym
awmfrlwJhtwGuf wynfhawmf[m emrfw&m;? ½kyfw&m;wdkY&Jh vIyf&Sm;rI? ajymif;vJrIwdkY[m b,favmuf
vsifjrefw,f qkdwmudk aumif;pGm em;vnfoabmaygufNyD; aus;Zl;wifvSygw,f bk&m;/

þwGif y&dówftm;vHk;u om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

75

ar;cGef;trSwf (18)
]]cspfom; &[ef;wkdY? tm½Hkajcmufyg;um; &m*rD;? a'gorD;? arm[rD; wnf;[laom rD;awmufrD;vQHwkdYudk
jzpfyGm; apí toifwkdYtm; tNrJwrf;awmufavmifvsuf &Sdacsonf}} [k a[mawmfrljcif;tm;jzifh Ak'¨onf
&[ef;wdkYudk owfjzwf&modkY ra&mufapbl;avm/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - rpöwm uuf&SfrD,mqif;? t,f(rf)at? t,f(rf)tuf(pf)pD?
ausmif;tkyfBuD;? tm(vf)qm aumvdyfausmif;? bHkbdkifNrdKU? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ r[mu½kPmawmf&Sif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf&Jh arwåmw&m;[m uyÜmavmuwckvHk;&Jh
ta&SU? taemuf? awmif? ajrmuf qkdwJh t&yfav;rsufESmvHk;udk ysHUESHYvsuf &Sdw,f/ 'D ysHUESHUwJhae&mrSmvnf;
vlrsdK;ra&G;? bmomra&G;? tom;a&mifra&G;? t0gtjzLra&G;? ESmacgif;tcReftjym;ra&G;? t,kwf? tvwf?
tjrwfra&G; &Sd&SdorQ owå0gwdkYtay:rSm nDwlnDrQ yGm;xm;awmfrlw,f/ wcsdefwnf;rSmyif pMum0Vm
twGif; &Sd&SdorQaom vl? ewf? jA[®m owå0gawGtmm;vHk;tay:rSm olY&Jhr[mu½kPmeJY arwåmw&m;awmf
wkdY[m ysHUESHY vsuf&Sdw,f/ 'gaMumifh tm½Hkajcmufyg;[m rD;awmufrD;vQHBuD;rsm;ozG,f awmufavmifvsuf
&Sdw,fvdkY Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu a[mMum;awmfrlwJhtwGuf aoG;pdrf;yGufyGuftefNyD; ysufpD;MuwJh &[ef;oHCm
rsm;[m Ak'¨u 'Dw&m;udk a[mvdkYajymvdkY ysufpD;wm r[kwfbl;/ olwdkY&Jhtwdwfb0u jyKcJhzl;MuwJh uHw&m;
aMumifhomjzpfw,f/ wenf;tm;jzifh ajcmufyg;aom tm½HkwdkYaMumifh rD;awmufrD;vQHrsm; awmufavmif
&w,f qkdwJh w&m;udk uJh&Jh½HIUcsrdMuvdkY ysufpD;Mu&wmjzpfw,f/ 'gaMumifh olwdkYwawG ysufpD;MuwmeJY Ak'¨
a[mawmfrlwJhw&m;eJY bmrQ rywfoufygbl; 'umBuD;/
qif;/
q&mawmf ,ckajzqdka[majymvdkufwm[m Ak'¨a[mawmfrlcJhwJh w&m;awmft&awmh rSefuef
ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh wynfhawmf pdwfxJrSm&SdwJh oHo,uawmh rajyaysmufao;ygbl; bk&m;/ bmjyKvdkYvJ
qkdawmh Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfuom 'Dw&m;udkra[m&if 'D&[ef;awG[m aoG;pdrf;yGufyGuftefNyD; ysufpD;ukefMu
rSm r[kwfbl;vdkY wynfhawmf&Jh OD;acgif;xJrSm pJGaevdkYyg/ 'gaMumifh wynfhawmfudk 'DoHo, uif;&Sif;oGm;
atmif xyfNyD; &Sif;vif;awmfrlygOD; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/ 'umBuD;&JhpdwfxJrSm udef;atmif;aewJh oHo,udk &Sif;oGm;atmif OD;yÍÆif; aemufxyf&Sif;jy
OD;r,f/
teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sif teEåÓPfawmf&Sif Ak'¨[m 'Dw&m;awmfudk ra[mrDuwnf;u olY&Jha&SUarSmufrSm a&muf
aeMuwJh &[ef;rsm;&Jh twdwfujyKvkyfcJhwJhuHawG? ypöKyÜefrSm jyKvkyfaeMuwJh uHawG? tem*wfrSm
awGUBuHK&r,fh tjzpftysufawG? 'Dw&m;tm;vHk;udk xifxif&Sm;&Sm;odjrifawmfrlw,f/ 'gwifruao;bl;? ol
a[mawmfrlr,fh w&m;tqHk;rSm xkdxdkaom&[ef;awG[m aoG;pdrf;yGufyGuf tefNyD; ysufpD;ukefMu&r,f
qdkwmudkvnf; odawmf rlw,f/ 'DvdkaoG;pdrf;yGufyGuftefNyD; ysufpD;Mu&wJh&[ef;awG[m (80)ausmf (90)
avmuf&Sdvdrfhr,fxifw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'Dw&m;udk a[mawmfrlwJhtqHk;rSm tjcm; waxmifaom &[ef;rsm;
[m wcgwnf;eJY t&[wår*feJY t&[wåzdkvfudk a&mufukefMuvdrfhr,fqdkwmudkvnf; Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf[m
odxm;awmfrlw,f/ 'Dvdk aoG;pdrf; yGufyGuftefNyD; ysufpD;ukef&r,fh &[ef;awGudk rysufpD;&atmif wm;jrpf
vdkY rjzpfovdkbJ t&[wår*f? t&[wåzdkvf udk a&mufukefMur,fh waxmifaom &[ef;awGudkvnf;
r*fw&m;? zdkvfw&m;udk r&atmif wm;vdkY rjzpfbl; qdkwmudk Ak'¨u odawmfrlw,f/ 'D&[ef;awG[m olwdkY
udk,fwdkif twdwfumvujyKvkyfcJhwJhw&m;twdkif;jzpfMu&wJhtwGuf b,folurS0ifrpGufEdkifbl;/ a&SmifuGif;
vdkYvnf; r&bl;/ 'gwifrubl;? 'D aoG;pdrf;yGufyGuftefNyD; ysufpD;Mu&wJh &[ef;awG[m ,ckb0
wGifr[kwfbl;? aemif tem*wfumvrSm yGifhMur,fh Ak'¨&SifawmfjrwfawG&Jh vufxufrSmvnf; 'Dw&m;udk

76

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

a[mNyD;wJhtcgrSm ckvdkyJaoG;pdrf;yGufyGuftefNyD; uyÜmw&mwdwd ysufpD;Mu&vdrfhOD;r,fqkdwmudkvnf; odjrif
xm;awmfrlw,f/ txufuajymcJhwJhtcsufawGudk axmuf½Ijcif;tm;jzifh 'D&[ef;awG[m Ak'¨aMumifh ysufpD;
Mu&wm r[kwfbl;qkdwmudk 'umBuD;&Sif;vif;oGm; avmufNyDvdkYxifw,f/
qif;/
'D&[ef;awG[m twdwfb0awGwkef;u olwdkYjyKvkyfcJhwJh uHaMumifh ,ckvdk ysufpD;Mu&w,f
qkdwmudkawmh wynfhawmf oabmaygufygNyD q&mawmf/ 'gayr,fh 'Dw&m;udk Mum;NyD;wJhaemufrS bmvdkY
tckvdk ysufpD;&w,fqkdwmudk wynfhawmf r&Sif;bJ jzpfaeygw,f/
q&mawmf/ 'Dvdkjzpf&wmuawmh olwdkYwawG[m 'DrGefjrwfwJhw&m;&Jh
rSm;,Gif;wJh t"dyÜm,feJYaumuf,lNyD; ½HIUcsuJh&JhcJhMuvdkYyJ jzpfw,f/

tvGefaumif;wJhtESpfom&udk

qif;/
,ck q&mawmf trdefY&SdvdkufwJhtcsufudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; em;vnfoabmraygufao;ygbl;
q&mawmf/ rGefjrwfaumif;rGefwJh w&m;awmfqdkwm[m 'Dvlwa,muftwGuf tusdK;&SdovdkyJ tjcm;vl
wa,muf twGufvnf; tusdK;&SdrSmyJ r[kwfvm; q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/ uJ 'umBuD;? tpmt[m&qkdwm vlwdkif;twGuf touf&SifapNyD; aumif;wJhtusdK;udk
jyKovm;/
qif;/

rSefygw,f q&mawmf/ t[m&qdkwm vlwdkif;twGuf aumif;wmcsnf;ygyJ/

q&mawmf/ 'gayr,fh 'D t[m&jzpfwJh tpm;tpmudk vdkwmxufydkNyD;pm;wJhvl[m tpmraMubJ aoaMu
ysufpD;&w,f r[kwfvm;/
qif;/
rSefyg? tcsdKUtwGufrSmawmh tpm;tpm[m t[m&rjzpfbJ ab;Oyg'fjzpfwm awGY&ygw,f
q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/ 'Dtwdkif;yJ 'umBuD;? Ak'¨&Jhw&m;awmfawG[m tvGefrGefjrwfNyD; aumif;rGefaomfvnf; 'D
aumif;wJh? rGefjrwfwJhw&m;udk tqdk;vdkY ,lqMuwJh &[ef;rsm;twGuf ab;'ku©tEå&m,f jzpfukefMu&
wmaygh/ uJ 'umBuD;? 'DudpöeJYywfoufvdkY &Sif;oGm;NyDr[kwfvm;/
qif;/
,ckvdk q&mawmftm; tjyeftvSef ar;jref;avQmufxm;cGifhjyKwJhtwGuf rsm;pGm aus;Zl;wif
ygw,f/ 'gwifruao;bl;? wynfhawmf avQmufxm;ar;jref;wJh ar;cGef;twGuf wynfhawmf &nfrSef;
xm;wmxuf auseyf &Sif;vif;avmufwJh tajzudk &wJhtwGuf txl; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om jzpfrdygw,f
bk&m;/ bmjzpfvdkYvJ qkdawmh wynfhawmf[m vyfuaemif? uvuwåm;? Ak'¨*g,m? oD[dkVf pwJh
a'orsm;u &[ef;awmfrsm;udk avQmufxm;Munfhwkef;u olwdkYu ]]Ak'¨[m 'D&[ef;awGudk aoapwm
r[kwfbl;? olwdkY tvdktavsmuf ysufpD;Mu&wm}} vdkYyJ jyefajzqkdcJhMuw,f/ 'gayr,fh wynfhawmfu
r&Sif;vif;vdkYjyefavQmufwJhtcgrSm ]]OD;yÍÆif;wdkYajymwm[m trSefyJ/ 'umBuD; vufcHEdkif&if vufcHaygh}} vdkY
om jyefajzMuygw,f q&mawmf/ 'gaMumifh t&Sifbk&m;&Jh tajzudk oabmusjcif; jzpfygw,f/

xdktcg y&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

77

ar;cGef;trSwf (19)
Ak'¨0g'[m opömw&m;ay:rSm t&if;cHxm;wJh opöm0g'jzpfw,fvdkY tb,fhaMumifh ,lqygovJ q&mawmf/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - rpöwm uuf&SfrD,mqif;? t,f(rf)at? t,f(rf)tuf(pf)pD?
ausmif;tkyfBuD;? tm(vf)qm aumvdyfausmif;? bHkbdkifNrdKU? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ Ak'¨&Jh0g'[m opömw&m;ay:rSm tajcwnfxm;wJh bmomt,l0g'jzpfwJh
taMumif; ckdifcdkifcHhcHh tusdK;eJYtaMumif;eJY a[majym&r,fqkd&if OD;yÍÆif;[m uyÜmhb,fbmom? b,f0g'udkrQ
riJhuGuf? rn§mwmbJ [kwfwdkif;rSef&mudk wdwdvif;vif;eJY bGif;bGif;BuD; ajym&ygvdrfhr,f/ 'gaMumifh
wu,frSefuefwJh w&m;udk odvdkemvdkMuvdkY ,ck 'Dae&mrSm vma&mufpka0;MuwJh 'g,um? 'g,dumr
tm;vHk;udk OD;yÍÆif;u b,f bmom? b,ft,l0g'udkrQ raxmufrn§mbJ a[majymwJhtwGuf pdwfvuf
rMunfrom rjzpfzdkY&efvnf; awmif;yefxm;vdkygw,f/ OD;yÍÆif;udk,fwdkif uyÜmrSm&SdwJh bmomt,l0g'
aygif; (29)rsdK;udk (22)ESpfausmfausmf avhvmvdkufpm;NyD;rS opöm0g'udk awGY&Sd&vdkY 'D opöm0g'udk vufcHum
tvGefpdwftm;xufoefvSwJh A&if*sD bmom0ifwa,muftjzpfu Ak'¨&Jh omoemhabmifxJ0ifNyD; omoemh
0efxrf; &[ef;b0udk cH,lcJhjcif; jzpfyg w,f/
tJ'Dawmh ,ck OD;yÍÆif;a[mr,fh w&m;udkvnf; rdrdwdkY&Sd&if;bmomt,l0g'tpJGtvef;awGudk acwå
ajzazsmuf xm;NyD; pdwfoabmxm;BuD;BuD;eJY Mum;emum b,fbmom? b,ft,l0g'tay:rSmrS bufrvdkuf
bJ wu,fwrf; ajzmifhrwfrSefuefwJhESvHk;om;eJY a0zefydkif;jcm;NyD; em;axmifMur,fqkd&if tvGefrGefjrwfvSwJh
opömw&m; udkvnf; odjrifem;vnfoGm;Muvdrfhr,fvdkY OD;yÍÆif; ,HkMunfarQmfvifhygw,f/ tck OD;yÍÆif;
ajymcJhwJh oabmeJY em;axmifr,fqkd&if opömw&m;eJY ywfoufvdkY OD;yÍÆif;&Sif;vif;jyr,fhtcsufawGaMumifh
pdwfxJrSm taESmuft,Suf rjzpf½Hkwifru pMum0VmBuD;eJYwuG owå0gtm;vHk;tay:rSm vTrf;rdk;BuD;pdk;aewJh
opömw&m;eJY ywfoufwJh taMumif;tcsufawGudkvnf; aumif;aumif;BuD; odjrif oabmaygufoGm;MurSm
jzpfygw,f/
wcsdefwnf;rSmyif ,ck tar;ykpämudk avQmufxm;ar;jref;wJh rpöwm uuf&SfrD,mqif; udkvnf; 'g,um
'g,dumr taygif;u aus;Zl;txl;wifzdkY aumif;vSygw,f/ bmjyKvdkYvJqdkawmh vlom;trsm;pk[m
rd½dk;zvm bmomt,l0g'tpJGtvef;awG&SdaeMuawmh rSefuefwJhw&m;udk rSefuefwJhtwdkif; ajymwma[mwm
udk rMum;vdk? em;raxmifvkdMubl;/ tJ'Dawmh OD;yÍÆif;[m 'umBuD;qif;uom 'Dar;cGef;udk rar;jref;cJhvdkY
&Sd&if 'D opömt,l0g'eJYywfoufvdkY a[mjzpfrSm r[kwfwJhtwGufyJ/
OD;yÍÆif;[m uyÜmhbmom t,l0g'aygif; (29)rsdK;udk avhvmvdkufpm;cJhzl;awmh Ak'¨&Jh0g'[m tjcm;bmom
t,l0g' (28)rsdK;vdk w&m;ao oabmw&m;awG? t&rf;tuef;,HkMunfrIawG? rd½dk;zvmudk;uG,frIawGay:rSm
tajccHxm;wJh bmomt,l0g'r[kwfbJ wu,fhpdwf? cE¨mudk,f? pMum0VmwdkYeJY ywfoufwJh odyÜHynm&yf
ay:rSm wnfaqmufxm;wJh bmomt,l0g'jzpfw,fvdkY &J&JBuD; tckdiftrm ajym0Hhqkd0Hhw,f/
'Dt,l0g'[m ...
(1) 'ku©opöm? (2) ork',opöm? (3) r*¾opöm? (4) eda&m"opöm qkdwJh opömw&m; (4)yg;ay:rSm tajcwnf
xm;wJh w&m;jzpfw,f/
wcg 'Dopömav;yg; w&m;awmfudk atmufyg zsufqD;ajymif;vJvdkYr&wJh (16)yg;aom w&m;rsm;tjzpf cJGjcm;
xm;jyefw,f/

78

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

(1)

taMumif;tusdK;oabm?

(2)

rlvtaMumif;w&m;eJY xdktaMumif;w&m;udk y,fzsufonfh oabm?

(3)

y#dpöorkyÜm'foabm?

(4)

tnrnoabm?

(5)

ur®oabm? tusdK;ay;jcif;eJY tusdK;ray;jcif;oabm

(6)

emrfESifh½kyfw&m;wdkY\ vIyf&Sm;rIoabm?

(7)

tedpö? 'ku©? tewåoabm?

(8)

edpöESifh y&rwfoabm?

(9)

obm0"r® (jzpfjcif;? ysufjcif;oabm)?

(10)

obm0xufvGefuJonfh oabm (jzpfjcif;? ysufjcif;wkdYrS uif;vGwfonfhoabm)?

(11)

tusdK;w&m;ESifh cHpm;rIoabm?

(12)

okcESifh 'ku©oabm?

(13)

aESmifwwf zJGYwwfonfhoabm?

(14)

vGwfajrmufjcif;oabm?

(15)

vGwfvyfjcif;oabm?

(16)

qJGaqmifjcif;oabm?

'gaMumifh pMum0VmBuD;wckvHk;eJY tJ'D pMum0VmBuD;twGif;rSm&SdwJh owå0gawG? cyfodrf;aomw&m;awG[m
txufu ajymjycJhwJh opömav;yg;w&m;xJrSm tBuHK;0ifMuwJh (16)yg;aom w&m;oabmrsm;t& jzpfMu&?
ysufMu&w,f/ 'Dw&m;oabmawGrSty pMum0VmtwGif; &Sd&SdorQaom ouf&SdoufrJhw&m;wdkYudk zefqif;
EdkifwJh? zsufqD;EdkifwJh w&m;&,fvdkY r&Sdbl;/
'g[m vGefcJhwJh ESpfaygif; (2500)ausmf? (2600)avmufu Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfa[mawmfrlcJhwJhtwdkif;yJ/ tJ'D
w&m;udk ,ckacwfrSm ay:aygufxGef;um;aewJh odyÜHynm&yfu [kwfrSefaMumif; axmufcHvsuf&Sdw,f/ odyÜH
ynmt& qkd&if avmurSm rnfonfh½kyfw&m;rS aemufwcPodkY tajymif;rcHbl;/ tvGefao;i,fwJh qD;ESif;
aygufuav;uaeNyD; tjrifhrm;qHk;owå0gtxd tvGefvsifjrefwdkawmif;vSwJh tcsdefumvtwGif;rSmyif
½kyfuvmyfawG[m jrLuav;rsm;tjzpfjzifh vIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJvsuf&Sdw,f/ pdwfw&m;uqkd&if ½kyfw&m;awG
vIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJwmxufawmif ydkjrefao;w,f/ b,favmufjrefovJqkd&if wpuúefYtwGif;rSm tBudrf
aygif; (1000) uaeNyD; (15000)xd vIyf&Sm;ajymif;vJvsuf&Sdw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'D pdwfw&m;? ½kyfw&m;
awG[m wckwnf;xif&avmufatmif tvGefvsifjrefNyD; OD;yÍÆif;wdkY 'umBuD;wdkY&Jh todÓPfudkvnf; t0dZÆm
tarSmifwdkufu ydwfzHk;xm;awmh 'Dajymif;vJvIyf&Sm;wJh oabmobm0udk rjrifEdkifbJ jzpfaeMu&wmaygh/
odyÜHynmeJY 'D obm0udk prf;oyf pHkprf;zl;wJh vlawGuawmh 'DtcsufudkvufcHMuygvdrfhr,f/
uJ tck pMum0VmBuD;eJY 'DpMum0VmBuD;twGif;rSm &SdorQ ouf&SdoufrJhw&m;awGeJY ywfoufvdkY Ak'¨&Sifawmf
jrwfudk,fwdkif a[mawmfrlcJhwJh tcsuftvufawG? odyÜHynm&Sifrsm; pl;prf;&SmazGvdkY awGY&SdwJhtcsuftvuf
awG? tJ'gawGtm;vHk;udk acwåz,fxm;NyD; OD;yÍÆif;eJYwuG 'g,um? 'g,dumrtm;vHk; atmufygtwkdif;
qifjcif avhvm oHk;oyfMupdkY/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

79

(1) tu,fí zefqif;ol&Sd&if zsufqD;olvnf; &Sd&r,f/ bmjyKvdkYvJqkd&if zefqif;wm[lorQ[m
ysufpD;&wm csnf;rdkYvdkY Zmwdw&m;&SdaeorQ r&Pw&m; &SdaevdkYyJ/ 'g[m b,fouf&SdoufrJh w&m;urQ
a&SmifuGif;vdkY r&wJh obm0yJ/
(2) tu,fí zefqif;&SifwOD;wa,muf &Sdr,fqkd&if tJ'Dzefqif;&Sif[m wpHkwckudk taMumif;jyKNyD; pwif
jzpfay:&r,f/ tJ'Dvdk wpHkwckudk taMumif;jyKNyD; pwifjzpfyGm;&wJh w&m;[lorQ[m aemufqHk; ysufpD;&
rSmyJ/ 'gvnf; vl? ewf? jA[®m owå0g[lorQ a&SmifuGif;vdkYr&wJh obm0yJ/
(3) tu,fí zefqif;&Sif[m wpHkwckaomtaMumif;w&m;aMumifhjzpfay:&w,fqkd&if pMum0VmBuD; wckvHk;
eJY 'DpMum0VmBuD;twGif;rSm&SdMuwJh ouf&SdoufrJhw&m;pkawGuvnf; 'DtaMumif;w&m;udk tpJGjyKNyD; jzpf&
r,f/ 'DtaMumif;w&m;[my#dpöorkyÜm'fw&m; wenf;tm;jzifh taMumif;tusdK;qufw&m;omvQifjzpfw,f/
(4) 'D taMumif;tusdK;qufw&m;rSm taMumif;w&m; (12)yg; eJY tusdK;w&m; (1)yg; yg0ifvQuf&Sdw,f/
(5) tJ'DtxJrSm t"dutaMumif;u t0dZÆmw&m;yJjzpfw,f/ 'Dt0dZÆmw&m;aMumifh jyKjyifzefwD;wwfwJh uH
w&m; ay:vm&w,f/ 'D jyKjyifzefwD;wwfwJh uHw&m;udk t0dZÆmw&m;u zHk;vTrf;xm;wJh rsufapheJY
Munfhawmh zefqif;&Sif&Jh zefqif;jcif;vdkY xifaeMuw,f/ tJ'D t0dZÆmw&m;udk z,f&Sm;okwfoif
ypfvdkufwmeJY wNydKifeuf 0dZÆmÓPfvdkufNyD; ol? ig qkdwJh owå0gr&SdaMumif;? pMum0VmBuD;&,fvdkY
r&SdaMumif; odjrifNyD; ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m; wdkY&Jh tqufrjywf 'vpyfvIyf&Sm;? jzpfay:? ysufokOf;? ajymif;vJ
aeMuwmawGudkom awGYjrif&vdrfhr,f/ trSeftm;jzifh ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;wkdY&Jh wzGm;zGm; jzpfay:?
ysufokOf;? ajymif;vJaejcif;[m jrpfa&tvsOfvdkyJ/ jrpfa&tvsOf[m cPuav;rQ rwnfNrJaomfvnf;
vlawGu 'Djrpfa&[m tpOfxm0& wnfNrJaew,fvdkY txiftjrifvJGaeMuw,f/ jrpfxJu tvsOfrjywf
pD;qif;aewJha&tvsOfudk y,fxkwfvkduf&if bmrQ rusef awmhovdkbJ ol? ig up pMum0VmBuD; wckvHk;
xJu tpOfwpdkuf jzpfvkduf? ysufvdkuf? ajymif;vJvdkufjzpfaeMu wJh ½kyfrIefYawG? ½kyfuvmyfawGudk
y,fxkwfvdkuf&ifvnf; bmrQrusefawmhbl;/
(6) owå0gawGeJY pMum0VmBuD;wckvHk;[m trSefpifppftm;jzifh t0dZÆmw&m;u vSnfhpm;xm;vdkY olyJ? igyJ?
ightdrfyJ? igh,myJ? ighOpömyJ? olYOpömyJvkdY jrifae&wJh w&m;awGyJ jzpfw,f/ wu,fawmh t0dZÆmw&m;[m
bmeJY wlovJ qkd&if y&dówfw&yfvHk;udk vSnfhpm;NyD; r[kwfwmudk t[kwfvkyfNyD; jyaewJh rsufvSnfh
q&mBuD;yJ/ 'gaMumifh 0dyóemÓPfudk tpGrf;ukef BudK;yrf;tm;xkwfNyD; ,xmblwÓPfudk &atmif
vkyfzdkYvdkw,f/ 'D,xmblwÓPfudk &vdkufwmeJY wNydKifeuf ol? ig? owå0gupNyD; pMum0VmBuD;ygrusef
bmrQr[kwfyg uvm;vdkY odjrifvmvdrfhr,f/ tJ'Dvdk jrifvmwmeJYwNydKifeuf tvHk;pHkaom ½kyfw&m;awG?
emrfw&m;awG&Jh rNrJrIawGudk jrifvmNyD; 'Dw&m;pkawGxJrS vGwfajrmufvmcsifvdrfhr,f/ tJ'Dvdk 'Dw&m;awG
xJrS vGwfajrmufatmif wu,fBudK;yrf;tm;xkwfwJhtcgusawmhrS vGwfajrmufa&;w&m;? edAÁmefw&m;udk
&vmr,f/ 'Dw&m;[m vlom;awGudkrajymxm;eJY? ewf? jA[®mawGuawmif rjiif;EkdifwJh obm0 jzpfw,f/
(7) t0dZÆmw&m;udk t&if;cHNyD; olol igig owå0gawG jzpfvm&w,f/ 'Djzpfvm&wJh owå0gawG[mvnf;
tjzpfw&m;&Sdovdk tysufw&m;eJY qHkMu&w,f/ 'ghaMumifh &Sd&SdorQ owå0gawG? ½kyfw&m;awG? emrfw&m;
awGudk y&rwfusus jrifr,f? tJ'Dvdk y&rwfÓPf 0ifvmwmeJYwNydKifeuf t0dZÆmtarSmifxk[m wcgwnf;
uG,faysmufoGm;&r,f/ 'D t0dZÆmw&m;uG,faysmufoGm;wmeJYwNydKifeuf y#doaE¨ae&jcif;? tkd&jcif;? em&jcif;
qkdwJh w&m;awGrS uif;pifvGwfajrmufoGm;r,f/ wenf;tm;jzifh edAÁmefudk a&mufoGm;r,f/ 'Dobm0[m vl?
ewf? jA[®m[lorQawGxJu b,folrS rjiif;Edkif ry,fEkdifwJh obm0yJ/
Ak'¨a[mawmfrlcJhwJhw&m;awGudkvnf; rudk;um;? odyÜHynm&Jh &SmazGazmfxkwfrIudkvnf; tm;rudk;bJ obm0
"r®twGif;u wu,fhjzpfpOfjzpf&yfawGudk wdwdusus? rSefrSefuefuefavhvmNyD; qifjcifoHk;oyfvdkufwmeJY

80

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

wNydKifeuf txufu OD;yÍÆif;ajymcJhwJh ow¬Kcscsuf (7)csuf[m xGufay:vmr,f/ 'gayr,fh aemufqHk; 'D
ow¬KcscsufawG[m Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf a[mawmfrlwJh w&m;awGeJY xyfwlxyfrQ wlaewmudk awGYMu&w,f/
wcg 'D ow¬Kcscsuf (7)csuft& Munfhjyefawmh 'DpMum0VmBuD;eJYwuG ol igup owå0g&Sd&SdorQawG[m
uG,faysmufoGm;&wmaygh/ 'Dw&m;awGtm;vHk;[m tNrJwef; jzpfay:ajymif;vJvIyf&Sm;aewJh ½kyfw&m;?
emrfw&m;pkyJ/ tJ'Dawmh 'Dw&m;awGudk zefqif;w,fqdkwJh zefqif;&Sifudk,fawmfjrwfvnf;r&Sdawmhbl;/
tJ'Dawmh 0dZÆmynm&yfeJY wxyfwnf;udkufnDaewJh Ak'¨t,l0g'omvQif rSefuefaMumif; xif&Sm;vmr,f/ Ak'¨
uvnf; ololigig owå0gqdkwmr&Sd? ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;wdkY&Jh jzpfysufajymif;vJ vIyf&Sm;rIwkdYom&Sdw,fvdkY
a[mawmfrlcJhw,f/ trSeftm;jzifh 'D ½kyfw&m;? emrfw&m;awG[m tqufrjywf jzpfyGm;aeMuvdkY? tjzpf
tysuf tajymif;tvJ tvGefjrefvGef;vdkY? aemufwckuawmh vlawGrSm t0dZÆmtarSmifw&m;u zHk;vTrf;
xm;vdkY 'Dw&m;awGudk vlawG u rjrifEdkif rxifEdkifbJ jzpfaeMu&w,f/ 'Dw&m;awGrS vGwfajrmufatmif
opöm (4)yg;w&m;udk wcgwnf; xifatmif jrifatmif ½IEkdifMuvdrfhr,f/ 'g[mAk'¨&Jh tvdkawmfyJjzpfw,f/
'ghaMumifh urÇmhtjcm;bmomt,l0g' (28)yg;eJY Ak'¨&Jht,l0g'[m rwlbJ uJGjym;jcm;em;aewmyJ jzpfw,f/
'ghaMumifh opöm(4)yg;ay:rSmtajcwnfxm;wJh Ak'¨0g'vdkY OD;yÍÆif; &J&J0Hh0HheJYckdifckdifrmrmajym0Hhw,f/ w&m;ao
0g'? t&rf;tuef;,HkrI? rd½dk;zvmxHk;wrf;pOfvmt& udk;uG,fqnf;uyfrIawGom tajcwnfxm;wJh tjcm;
bmomawG[m opömt,l0g'r[kwfbl;vdkY wzufuvnf; OD;yÍÆif;u &J&JBuD; ajymvdkufygw,f/ 'Dy&dówf
xJu b,folrqdk tck OD;yÍÆif;ajymwmudk rauseyf&if a0zefzdkY zdwfMum;ygw,f/
qif;/ q&mawmf ,ck a[majymwJh todÓPfeJYvnf;,SOf? odyÜHynmeJYvnf; udkufnDqDavsmfvSwJh w&m;
aMumifh wynfhawmfwdkYtay:rSm zHk;aewJhtarSmifw&m;[m rD;½I;wefaqmifatmufrSm aysmufuG,foGm;ovdk
jzpfNyD; 'Dowå0gawG? ouf&SdoufrJh ½kyf0w¬KawGeJY ywfoufvdkY tjrifrSefudk&Muygw,fq&mawmf/ 'gaMumifh
q&mawmf&Jhw&m;udk a0zefzdkY&ef rvdkygbl; bk&m;/ q&mawmftm; ,ckvdk a[majym&Sif;jywJhtwGuf aus;Zl;
wifvSygw,f bk&m;/

þwGif w&m;emy&dówfrsm;u om"ktEkarm'em jyKMuavukefonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

81

ar;cGef;trSwf (20)
Ak'¨\ bkef;awmf? ÓPfawmfESifh Ak'¨\ "mwfawmf arGawmfwkdYudk udk;uG,fqnf;uyfjcif;tm;jzifh rnfuJhodkY
aom tusdK;aus;Zl;wdkYudk cHpm;&ygoenf;/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - rpöwm uuf&SfrD,mqif;? t,f(rf)at? t,f(rf)tuf(pf)pD?
ausmif;tkyfBuD;? tm(vf)qm aumvdyfausmif;? bHkbdkifNrdKU? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ teEåÓPfawmf? teEåwefcdk;awmf? teEåbkef;awmf&SifjzpfwJh Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf&Jh
bkef;awmf? ÓPfawmfeJY arGawmf "mwfawmfwkdYudk wu,fwrf; ,Hk,HkMunfMunf apwem o'¨gw&m;
xufxuf oefoefeJY udk;uG,fqnf;uyfMuwJhvlawG[m tusdK;aus;Zl;tm;jzifh ESpfrsdK;cHpm;Mu&ygw,f/ 'Dvdk
cHpm;Mu&wJh aus;Zl;w&m;ESpfrsdK;rSm wrsdK;u ,ckrsufarSmufb0rSmyJ ab;Oyg'ftEå&m,fuif;w,f? vmbf
vmb &Tifw,f? ulnDapr,fhvl aygw,f? vlcspfvlcifrsm;w,f? ewfjA[®mawGuvnf; cspfcifapmifha&Smuf
w,f? Nidrf;csrf;om,mNyD; okccsrf;omeJY ae&wwfw,f? aemufwrsdK;uawmh aemifwrvGefb0rSm vlYbHk?
ewf bHk? jA[®mhbHkrSm usifvnf&NyD; csrf;omokceJY jynfhpHk&wJh tusdK;aus;Zl;yJ/
qif;/
Ak'¨ukd,fwdkifu y&dedAÁmefjyKxm;awmfrlygvsufeJY 'DvlawG[m q&mawmftrdefY&Sdovdk tusdK;
aus;Zl;awGcHpm;&r,fqdkwmudk wynfhawmf em;rvnfEdkifbJjzpfaeygw,f/ q&mawmf qufNyD;
&Sif;awmfrlygOD;/
q&mawmf/ 'DudpöeJYywfoufvdkY
'umBuD; u ajzyg/

'umBuD;em;vnfoabmaygufoGm;atmif

qif;/

rSefyg q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

rD;vdkYac:wJh t&m0w¬Krsm; &Sdygovm;/

OD;yÍÆif;

ar;r,f/

uJ

qif;/
wu,f&Sdygw,f q&mawmf/ rD;r&SdbJeJY wynfhawmfwkdY xrif;[if;wdkYukd csufjyKwfpm;Edkifr,f
r[kwfygbl;/
q&mawmf/ tMuifolwOD;wa,mufu rD;arT;vdkufvdkY&Sd&if rD;u tusdK;cHpm;&ovm;? rD;arT;wJhvlu
tusdK;cHpm; &ovm;/
qif;/

rD;arT;wJhvluom tusdK;trsdK;rsdK;cHpm;&NyD; rD;uawmh tusdK;aus;Zl;rcHpm;&ygbl; q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

rD;udk Nidrf;vdkufNyD;aemuf tJ'DrD;[m wcg jyefvmygtHk;rvm; 'umBuD;/

qif;/
wcgNidrf;vdkufvdkY aooGm;wJhrD;[m aemufwcgjyefNyD;awmh &SifrvmEdkifygbl;/ aemufwcg
xyfoHk;zdkY rD;topf wzefarT;&ygw,f q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/

vlawGu rD;udk b,fvdk&atmif vkyfMuovJ/

qif;/

rD;jcpfqHeJY rD;jcpfbl;udk jcpfNyD; rD;&atmif vkyfMuygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

rD;[m rD;jcpfqHxJrSm &Sdovm;? 'grSr[kwf&ifvnf; rD;jcpfxJrSm &Sdovm;/

qif;/

'D[mESpfckxJrS b,ftxJrSmrS rD;r&Sdygbl;/ olwdkYESpfck jcpfrdrS rD;xGufvmygw,f q&mawmf/

q&mawmf/

rD;[m b,ft&yf b,fa'ou xGufvmwmvJ 'umBuD;/

82

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

qif;/
rD;[m b,ft&yfuvmw,fvdkY ajymvdkYrjzpfEdkifygbl; q&mawmf/ 'gayr,fh ausmufcJESpfckudk
yGwfvdkuf&if? opfom;ajcmufESpfacsmif;udk yGwfvdkuf&ifawmh rD;[m xGufvmwmygyJ q&mawmf/
q&mawmf/ rD;awmufjzpfvmwJhtwGuf rD;rSm bmrQtusdK;r&SdovdkbJ y&dedAÁmef jyKawmfrlNyD;jzpfwJh Ak'¨
&SifawmfjrwfrSmvJ olYudk o'¨gw&m;eJY MunfndKwJhvlawG b,fvdkyJ MunfndKMunfndK? b,fvdkyJ ylaZmfylaZmf
bmrQ tusdK;r&Sdygbl;/ rD;arT;wJhvl[m rD;udk trsdK;rsdK; toHk;csNyD; trsdK;rsdK;tusdK;&Sdovdk Ak'¨udk MunfndKNyD;
ylaZmf ouúm&jyKwJhvlawGrSmvnf; ,ck ypöKyÜefb0rSmvnf; tusdK;&Sdw,f/ aemifwrvGefb0rSmvnf;
tusdK;cHpm; &w,f/ rD;[m wcgNidrf;vdkufvdkY aysmufuG,foGm;NyD;wJhaemuf aemufxyfwBudrfjyefNyD; rvm
ovdkbJ Ak'¨ [mvnf; y&dedAÁmefjyKNyD;aemuf 'DrNrJwJh? 'ku©qif;&Jjcif;jzifh jynhfESufaewJh? tESpfom&r&SdwJh
'DurÇmBuD;qDudk b,fawmhrS jyef<uawmfrl rvmawmhbl;/ rD;[m Nidrf;NyD;wJhaemuf b,fae&m b,fa'orSm
oGm;NyD;aew,f qkdwm wdwdusus r&SdbJ rodbJeJY wkwfESpfacsmif;udk yGwfvdkufwJhtcgrSm rD;yGifhNyD;
awmufvmovdkyJ Ak'¨[m y&dedAÁmefjyKNyD;wJhaemuf b,fae&m b,fa'oudk a&mufoGm;w,fqdkwm
rodrjrifEdkifaomfvnf; Ak'¨udk wu,fMunfndKwJh o'¨mwJh vlwOD;wa,mufu Ak'¨a[mawmfrlcJhwJhw&m;udk
oabmaygufvdkufwmeJY wNydKifeuf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfudk tJ'Dvl[m zl;jrifvdkuf&wmeJY twlwlyJ/
tJ'Dvl&JhpdwfxJrSm Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf <uvmawmfrlwmyJ/ bmjyKvdkYvJqkdawmh Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfudk,fwdkifu
y&dedAÁmeokwfxJrSm ]]cspfom; tmeE´m? igbk&m; y&dedAÁmefjyKNyD;aemuf igbk&m;tm; rjrif&bl;?
rzl;&awmhbl;vdkY ratmufarhESifh? igbk&m; a[mawmfrlcJh wJh r*¾if&Spfyg;w&m;awmfudk igbk&m; a[mawmfrl
cJhwJhtwkdif; oabmaygufem;vnfol[m igbk&m;udk zl;jrif& vdrfhr,f}} vdkY a[mcJhvdkYyJ/
'gaMumifh Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftay:rSm r,drf;r,dkif ckdifNrJvSwJh o'¨mpdwf? ,HkMunfpdwf? MunfndKpdwfeJY Ak'¨&Jh
*kPfawmfeJY Ak'¨&Jh arGawmf "mwfawmfwdkYudk udk;uG,fqnf;uyfylaZmfwJholawG[m OD;yÍÆif;txufu a[mcJhwJh
twkdif; tusdK;aus;Zl;cHpm;&vdrfhr,fvdkY OD;yÍÆif;u ,HkMunfpdwfcspGmeJY? oHo,pdwfuif;pifpGmeJY a[m0Hhajym0Hh
ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh Ak'¨tay:rSm ckdifckdifNrJNrJ rMunfndKbJ? ,HkMunftm;udk;jcif; r&SdbJ Ak'¨&Jh*kPfawmfawG?
bkef;awmfawGudk &Gwfqdk½Hk&GwfqdkaevdkYawmh txufu OD;yÍÆif;ajymcJhwJh tusdK;aus;Zl;awGudk cHpm;&rSm
r[kwfbl;/ uJ OD;yÍÆif; ,ck a[majymvdkufwJh tcsufeJYywfoufvdkY r&Sif;wJh? em;rvnfwJh tcsufrsm;
&Sdao;ovm;? oHo,rsm;aum &Sdao;ovm; 'umBuD;
qif;/
q&mawmf ,ck &Sif;vif; a[mjyawmfrlwJh tcsufawGeJY ywfoufvdkY bmrQ r&Sif;wm
rvif;wm r&Sdygbl; bk&m;/ oHo,vnf; r&Sdygbl; bk&m;/ ,aeYrSpNyD; wynfhawmf[m
q&mawmfa[mvdkuf wJhtwGuf Ak'¨tay:rSm wu,fhudk ,Hk,HkMunfMunfeJY o'¨mw&m; xufxufoefoefeJY
Ak'¨&Jh *kPfawmf? wefcdk;awmfeJY "mwfawmf arGawmfwdkYudk udk;uG,fqnf;uyfygawmhr,f bk&m;/

þwGif y&dówfu om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

83

ar;cGef;trSwf (21)
[dE´Lbmom0ifwdkY&Jh rkwådw&m;? c&pf,mefbmom0ifwkdY&Jh aumif;uifbHkeef;? r[mar'ifbmom0ifwdkY&Jh
y&pf(pf)xm;? Ak'¨&Jh edAÁmefqdkwJh w&m;awG[m tcsif;csif; b,fvdkuJGjym;jcm;em;ygovJ q&mawmf/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - A,f(vf)csef? ukefonfyJGpm;BuD;? t,fvDzifpwkef;t0dkif;? bHkbdkifNrdKU?
ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ bmomt,l0g' trsdK;rsdK;udk udk;uG,f,HkMunfqnf;uyfaeMuwJh vltrsdK;rsdK;
vma&muf Mum;emaeMuwJh w&m;yJGBuD;rSm 'Dvdk ta&;BuD;NyD; ½IyfaxG;vSwJh ar;cGef;wckudk ajzMum;zdkY&ef
udpö[m OD;yÍÆif;twGuf tvGef wm0efBuD;av;vSygw,f/ bmjyKvdkYvJ qkdawmh OD;yÍÆif;u 'Dar;cGef;udkajzwJh
ae&mrSm tvGefrGefjrwfvSwJh opömw&m;udkt&if;cHNyD; bmomt,l0g'toD;oD;&JhaemufqHk;&nfrSef;csufudk
a0zef oHk;oyfNyD; a[majym&r,fqdkawmh tcsdKU bmomt,l0g'udk xdcdkufoGm;r,fhta&;udk BudKwifjrifrd
vdkYygyJ/ 'gaMumifh ,ckw&m;yJGudkvma&mufMuwJh t,l0g'toD;oD;0if ynm&SifawG[m ,ck OD;yÍÆif;
ajyma[m&Sif;vif;r,fhtcsufawGeJYywfoufvdkY pdwfxJrSm b,fvdkrS tmCmww&m;rxm;MubJ ,kwåd,kwåm
usus rSm;w,f rSefw,fqdkwmudk qHk;jzwfNyD;,lMur,fvdkY uwday;Mu&ifjzifh OD;yÍÆif;u 'Dar;cGef;udk ajz&Sif;
yghr,f/ 'DvdkrS 'umBuD;wdkYu uwdray;EdkifMu&ifjzifh OD;yÍÆif; rajzqdkyg&apeJYvdkY awmif;yefvkdygw,f/

(xdkaemuf w&m;yJGodkY w&m;emvma&mufMuonfh y&dówfu q&mawmfawmif;qdkonfh uwdudk wnD
wnGwfwnf; ay;tyfMuaomtcg q&mawmfu atmufygtwdkif; qufvufa[mMum;awmfrlavonf/)

Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf a[mawmfrlcJhwJh edAÁmefw&m;eJY [dE´Lbmom0ifwkdY ,HkMunfaeMuwJh rkwådw&m;? c&pf,mef
bmom0ifwkdY ,HkMunfaeMuwJh aumif;uifbHkeef;? r[mar'ifbmom0ifwkdY&Jh y&pf(pf)xm; w&m;awG[m
rEdIif;tyf? r,SOfomatmif uGJjym;jcm;em;vsuf&SdMuygw,f/ edAÁmefrSty tjcm;w&m;awG[m 'DpMum0VmBuD;
twGif;rS b,fenf;eJYrQ vGwfajrmufEdkifwJh w&m;awG r[kwfbl;/ Ak'¨&JhedAÁmefqkdwJh w&m;uawmh 'DpMum0Vm
rajymeJY? b,fpMum0VmeJYrQ rywfoufawmhbl;/ 'Dw&m;awGudk OD;yÍÆif;u c&pf,mefbmom0if wdkY arQmfrSef;
aeMuwJh aumif;uifbHkeef;upNyD; aemufqHk; edAÁmefw&m;yg wckNyD;wck &Sif;vif;ajymjyyghr,f/ 'DvdkajymjywJh
ae&mrSmvnf; olYqkdif&mqkdif&mt,l0g'eJYqkdif&musrf;*efawGudkudk;um;NyD;a[majymyghr,f/ 'grSom 'umBuD;
wkdYvnf; b,fw&m;[m NrJw,f? rNrJbl;? wu,f&Sdw,f? r&Sdbl; tp&SdwJhoabmeJY trSeftuefudk qHk;jzwf
EdkifMur,f jzpfygw,f/
uJ tck OD;yÍÆif;u c&pf,mefbmom0ifwdkY&Jh aumif;uifbHkeef;eJYywfoufvdkY yxrOD;qHk; &Sif;vif;
ajymjyr,f/
c&pf,mefbmom t,l0g'&Jh yifrt,l0g'[m A&if*sDbmomxJrSm owårajrmuf [ife&Dbk&ifvufxufu
pNyD; *dkPf;cJGawG ay:xGufvmcJhw,f/ tJ'D A&if*sDbmom t,l0g'xJu a'oemw&m;t& ajym&r,fqdk&if
t&ifu aumif;uifbHkeef;qdkwm r&SdcJhbl;wJh/ 'gayr,fh 'Daumif;uifbHkeef;udk xm0&ocifudk,fawmfjrwfu
atmufygtwdkif; zefqif;cJhw,fwJh/

84

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sif xm0&bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwf[m tcsdefumv&Snfvsm;pGm wOD;wnf; pHpm;aeawmfrl
owJh/ waeYawmh udk,fawmfjrwf[m wOD;csif;ae&wm NiD;aiGYvmawmh vSyNyD; usufoa&r*FvmtjzmjzmeJY
jynfhpHkwJh aumif;uifbHkeef;BuD;wckudkzefqif;r,f/ 'Daumif;uifbHkeef;rSm olY&Jhtaygif;tazmfeJY tvkyform;
tjzpf vSvnf;vSywifhw,f? wefcdk;tmPmvnf;&SdwJh wrefawmfawGudk taeckdif;r,fqkdwJh tBuHÓPfawmf
&&SdvmowJh/
tJ'Daemuf bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfu ]]aumif;uifjyifBuD;wckvHk;udkzHk;vTrf;xm;wJhtvGefvSyNyD;usufoa&r*Fvmtaygif;eJYjynfhpHkvSwJh aumif;uif
bHkeef;BuD;wck ay:aygufvmap/ aumif;uifbHkeef;xdyfü igbk&m;ocifudk,fawmf pHy,fawmfrl&ef tvGef
w&m cefYnm;x,f0gawmfrlvSonfh yv’ifawmfwck ay:aygufvmap/ xkdyv’ifawmf\ a&SU vuf0J? vusfm
wkdYwGif wbufwbufü udk;uka#pD ta&twGuf&Sdaom ae&mxdkifcif;rsm; ay:aygufvmap/ wzef þae&m
xdkifcif;rsm;ü aexdkifMu&eftwGuf (18)uka#rQaom wrefawmfrsm; ay:aygufvmMuap}} qkdNyD; trdefYawmf
csrSwfawmfrlvdkufowJh/ tJ'Dvdkvnf; t&Sifudk,fawmfu trdefY&Sdawmfrlvdkufa&m wrefawmf (18)uka#vnf;
wcgwnf; ay:vmMuNyD; olwdkYtwGufzefqif;xm;wJh ae&mxdkifcif;awGrSm toD;oD; 0ifa&mufaexdkifMu
owJh/ vusfmbufrS (9)uka#&SdwJh wrefawmfawG&Jh tBuD;trSL;tjzpf a*;b&pf,,f(vf) (Gabriel) udk
cefYxm;w,f/ vuf0JbufrS (9)uka#&SdwJh wrefawmfawG&Jh tBuD;trSL;tjzpf avmha*ghpf (Logos) udk
cefYxm; owJh/ NyD;awmh bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfu vusfmbufwrefawmfawGeJY vuf0Jbufwrefawmf
awGudk igudk,fawmf&Sifjrwfatmuf 'DwrefawmftBuD;trSL;awGudkyJ vusfmvuf0JbufrSm&SdMuwJh wrefawmf
toD;oD; ½dkaoMu&r,f/ 'Dwrefawmf tBuD;trSL;ESpfa,muf[m igudk,fawmf t&Sifjrwfatmuf toif
wkdYudk tkyfcsKyfpDrHvdrfhr,fvdkY trdefYawmfjrwf owfrSwfxm;awmf rlvdkufowJh/
'DvdkeJYyJ xm0&bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfeJY olY&Jh tajcGt&H tvkyftauR;rsm;jzpfMuwJh wrefawmfawG[m
aysmfaysmfyg;yg; pHjref;aeMuowJh/ waeYawmh xm0&bk&m;ocif udk,fawmfjrwfu olY&Jh vuf0J? vusfm
bufrS wrefawmfrsm;tm;vHk; aysmfyg;aeMuwmudk jrifavawmh olY&JhpdwfxJrSm ]]'D vusfm vuf0JrSm &SdMuwJh wrefawmfawGteuf b,fbufuwrefawmfawGu ightay:rSm ydkNyD;
opömawmf apmifhxdef;w,fqdkwmudk od&atmif igh&Jhwefcdk;awmfeJY udk,fa,mifazsmufawmfrlxm;vdkufOD;rSyJ}}
vkdY MuHpnfpdwful;awmfrlNyD; ½kwfw&uf wrefawmf (18)uka#u olYudk rjrif&atmif udk,fa,mifazsmuf
vdkufowJh/
'Dvdk bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwf aysmufuG,foGm;NyD;wJhaemuf tcsdeftwefMumwJhtcg vuf0Jbufu
wrefawmfawG&Jh tBuD;trSL;jzpfwJh avmha*gh(pf)&Jh pdwfxJrSm ]]tif; bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwf aysmufuG,f
oGm;wmawmh tcsdeftawmfMumoGm;NyD/ udk,fawmfjrwf[m <uvmcsifrS <uvmawmhrSm/ tJ'Dawmh ig[m
bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwf pHpm;wJhyv’ifay:rSm wufNyD;xdkifvdkuf&&if ig[m wefcdk;awmfteEå&Sif xm0&
bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwf jzpfvmvdrfhr,f/ wu,fvdkY ig[m 'Dyv’ifay:rSm wufrxdkifEdkif&if 'D teEå
wefcdk;awmf&Sif udk,fawmfjrwftpm; tjcm; bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfwOD; a&mufvmvdrfhr,f}} vdkY pdwful;
NyD; wjznf;jznf; yv’ifay:wufwJhavScg;xpfawGtwdkif; wxpfcsif; wxpfcsif; wufoGm;owJh/ tJ'Daemuf
xdyfqHk; avScg;xpfay:a&mufawmh ol[m cPavmuf&yfNyD; tvGefvSycefYnm;wJh yv’ifawmfBuD;udk
ususeeMunfh½ItuJcwfowJh/ tJ'Daemuf bmtwm;tqD;eJYrQrawGY&awmh yv’ifay:wufxkdifNyD; olY&Jh pdwf
xJrSm&JvmowJh/ tJ'Dvdk&Jvmawmh ]]tif; teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sifbk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfawmh aysmufuG,f
oGm;NyD? b,fawmhrS jyefMuGvmawmhrSm r[kwfbl;/ ig[m teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sif bk&m;ocifopf jzpfawmfrlNyD/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

85

wrefawmfawGudk igudk,fawmft&Sifjrwftm; ½dkaoudk;uG,fvmatmif trdefYawmfxkwfvdkufrSyJ}} vkdY BuHNyD;
awmh vusfmbuf vuf0Jbuf ESpfzufpvHk;rSm &SdMuwJh wrefawmfawGtm;vHk;udk ]]18 uka#rQaom wrefawmftaygif;wdkY? ightm; MunfhMuukefavmh/ igum; teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sif bk&m;ocif
udk,fawmfjrwf\ tvGef bkef;wefcdk;tmEkabmf BuD;awmfrlvSonfh yv’ifawmfay:wGif pHy,fawmfrlrdacsNyD/
teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sifbk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfvnf; uG,faysmufoGm;avNyD/ xdkYaMumifh igonf teEåwefcdk;
awmf&Sif udk,fawmfjrwftopf jzpfacsNyD/ xkdYaMumifh oifwkdYtm;vHk;onf oifwdkY\ae&mrSxí ightm;
OD;nTwfMuukefavmh}} vdkY trdefY&SdawmfrlvdkufowJh/
tJ'Dvdk olu trdefYay;vdkufwJhtcgrSm vuf0Jbufu (9)uka# wa,mufavsmh ta&twGuf&SdwJh wrefawmf
awGu tvGef½dkaoav;pm;wJhtaeeJY olwdkYae&mawGrS xNyD; ]]topfyGifhawmfrlaomf teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sifbk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwf bkef;awmf wefcdk;awmf teEåESifh jynfhpHk
awmfrlygapownf;/ uREkfyfwkdYum; t&Sifudk,fawmfocifjrwf\ owå0grsm;aywnf;/ topfyGifhawmfrlonfh
teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sif bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfu uREkfyfwdkYtm; ab;tEÅ&m,ftaygif;rS umuG,f
apmifha&Smufawmf rlygbk&m;/ uREkfyfwkdYuvnf; t<uif;rJh ,HkMunfudk;uG,f qnf;uyfMuygonf bk&m;}} vdkY
avQmufxm;MuowJh/
tJ'Daemuf vuf0JwrefawmftBuD;trSL; avmha*gh(pf)u ]]aumif;avpG? aumif;avpG/ ig\cspfom; vuf0J&HwrefawmfwdkY? igonf oifwdkY\½dkaojcif;? OD;cdkufjcif;?
ylaZmfouúm&jyKjcif;wkdYukd vufcHawmfrlonf/ toifwkdYavQmufxm;onfhtwdkif; toifwkdYtm; umuG,f
awmfrlrnf? apmifha&Smufawmfrlrnf/ toifwkdY xkdifaeusae&müyif xkdifMuavmh}} vdkY rdefYawmfrlvdkufowJh/
'DvdkrdefYawmfrlNyD;wJhaemuf yv’ifawmf&Jh vusfmbufrSm&SdwJh wrefawmfawGbufvSnfhNyD; ]]tdk toifwkdY? vusfmbufrSm&SdMuwJh (9)uka#aom wrefawmfwdkY? topfyGifhawmfrlaom teEå wefcdk;awmf
&Sif igbk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwftm; xí OD;nTwfMuukefavmh? &Sdcdk;ylaZmfMuukefavmh/ tu,fí
oifwkdYonf ightm; ylaZmfjcif;? OD;nTwfjcif; rjyKcJhMuonf&Sdaomf igonf toifwkdYtm; tjypf'Pfcwfawmf
rlrnf}} vkdY rdefYawmfrlowJh/
tJ'Dtcgusawmh vusfmbufu wrefawmfawGu rm;rm;rwfrwfBuD;xdkifaewJh olwdkY&JhtBuD;trSL;jzpfwJh
a*;b&pf,,f(vf)udk MunfhMuNyD; olYvdkyJ[efrysufrm;rm;rwfrwfaexkdifMuowJh/ b,folurS avmha*gh(pf)
ajymwJhpum;ukd ta&;rvkyfbl;wJh? tJ'DtawmtwGif;rSm teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sif bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwf[m
½kwfw&uf a'gowBuD;eJY ay:vmNyD; wrefawmfavmha*gh(pf)udk zrf;NyD; aumif;uifbHkeef; Murf;jyifay:wGif
udkifaygufvsuf ]]tdk ,kwfnHhodrfzsif;vSwJh tukodkvfaumif avmha*gh(pf)? oif[m rmefrmew&m; tvGefBuD;xGm;NyD; oifhtm;
zefqif;ol oif&Jhaus;Zl;awmf&Sif igbk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfudkyif r½dkraorav;rcefYjyKNyD;awmh b,fenf;
ESifhrQ tcGifhrvTwfEdkifaomjypfrIudk usL;vGefxm;acsNyD/ oifESifhwuG oifhaemufvkduf wrefawmfawG[m
'Dtjypf'Pfjzifh ysufpD;MuukeftHh/ oifwkdYtwGuf igonf i&JbHkudk zefqif;tHh/ oifwkdYonf tvGef
jyif;xefvSpGmaom a0'emudk cHpm;Mu&ukeftHh/ toif avmha*gh(pf)onf ,aeYrSpí vlpDzm; [kwGifNyD;
i&JbHk\bk&if jzpfaptHh/ tjcm;olrsm;udkvnf; raumif;rIudkjyKvkyf&ef aphaqmfwdkufwGef;aetHh/ oif\
aemufvkdufrsm;onfvnf; bDvl;obufjzpfMuaptHh/ oifonf rnf;arSmifaomtoGifoP²mefodkY ul;ajymif;
NyD; OD;csdKESpfacsmif;ESifh tNrD;wacsmif; aygufaptHh/ oif\cHwGif;rSvnf; rD;awmufrD;vQHrsm; xGufaptHh/

86

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

aESmif;umvü igbk&m;ocif udk,fawmfjrwfonf vlom;wkdYudk zefqif;í ynwfawmf (10)csufudk
txdef;odrf;ckdif;tHh/ þenf;jzifh olwkdYonf raumif;rIudkjyK&ef oif\wkdufwGef;EdI;aqmfcsufudk rz,f&Sm;
EdkifbJ oif\tvdkqE´twdkif; vkdufemjyKvkyfMuonfh vlom;wdkYonf i&JbHkwGif i&JrD;\ avmifNrdKufjcif;udk
tpOfxm0& cHpm;aeMu&ukeftHh/ odkY&mwGif igbk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwf\ ynwfawmf (10)csuftwdkif;
vdkufemMuí oif\aphaqmfwkdufwGef;csufudk jiif;qefNyD; oifEdI;aqmfonfhtwdkif; rvkyfMuonfh vlom;wdkY
um; þaumif;uifbHkeef;wGif tpOfxm0& pHpm;Mu&aptHh}} [k trdefYxkwfjyefNyD; aumif;uifbHkeef;
atmufwGif i&JbHkudk zefqif;NyD;wJhaemuf bk&m;ocif udk,fawmfjrwfu aumif;uifbHkeef;Murf;jyifudk
wcgwnf;cJGypfvkdufNyD; raumif;rItukodkvfuHusL;vGefMuwJh wrefawmf (9)uka#udk wcgwnf; i&JjynfxJ
csvdkufowJh/ tJ'Daemuf olwdkYwawG&Jh tom;[m tukefvHk; rnf;arSmifukefMuNyD; tvGefaMumufp&m
aumif;vmMuowJh/ olwkdY&Jh acgif;awGay:rSm csdKESpfacsmif;pDaygufNyD; olwdkYaemufrSmvnf; arsmufawGvdk
tNrD;awG aygufukefMuowJh/
tJ'D txufuazmfjycJhwJh aumif;uifbHkeef;&Jhorkdif;udkMunfhjcif;tm;jzifh aumif;uifbHkeef;[m tpuwnf;
u r&SdbJ bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfuzefqif;vdkY ay:vm&w,fqkdwm xif&Sm;w,f/ tJ'Dawmh zefqif;wm
[lorQ[m ysufpD;&wJhoabmt& bk&m;ocifudk,fawmft&Sifjrwf zefqif;xm;wJh aumif;uifbHkeef;BuD;[m
vnf; ysufpD;&rSm trSefjzpfw,f/ aemufwcku vuf0Jbufu wrefawmf (9)uka#udk bk&m;ocifu
a'gojzpfNyD; aumif;uifbHkeef;Murf;jyifudk trdefYeJYcJGum i&JbHkxJypfcsvdkufwmvnf; tukodkvfuHyJ
jzpfw,f/ wzef oefY&Sif;wJh? tukodkvfuHuif;pifwJh aumif;uifbHkeef;[mvnf; 'DoefY&Sif;wJh? tukodkvfuH
uif;pifwJh aumif;uifbHkeef;xJrSm pdk;pHae&if; vuf0Jawmf&H wrefawmftBuD;trSL; avmha*gh(pf)[m tvGef
BuD;rm;vSwJh rmew&m; olY&JhOD;acgif;xJrSm 0ifvdkuf wJhtwGuf aumif;uifbHkeef;BuD;[m roefY&Sif;awmhbl;/
tukodkvfuHvnf; ruif;pifEdkifawmhbl;/ ]]'g[m aumif;aomtaMumif;w&m;rS aumif;aomtusdK;w&m;
ay:xGuf&r,f? xdkYtwl qdk;aomtaMumif;w&m;rS vnf; qdk;aomtusdK;w&m; ay:xGuf&r,f}} qkdwJh
obm0eJYvnf; qefYusifw,f/ tukodkvfuHrS uif;pifwJh owå0g wOD;wa,muf[m b,fenf;eJYjzpfjzpf
tukodkvfrS uif;pifae&r,f/ aumif;uifbHkeef;rSm&SdwJh owå0g tm;vHk;[m zefqif;xm;wJh owå0gawG
jzpfwJhtwGuf waeYaeYrSm aoMu&r,f? ysufpD;Mu&r,f/ 'g[m obm0yJ/ zefqif;jcif;[m ysufpD;jcif;&Jh
taMumif;w&m;yJ/ arG;zGm;jcif;[m aojcif;&Jh taMumif;w&m;yJ/ 'Dtajctaet& c&pf,mefbmom0ifwkdY&Jh
aumif;uifbHkeef;[m rNrJbl;/ 'ghaMumifh aumif;uifbHkeef;rSm&SdwJh wrefawmfawGeJY tjcm;owå0gawG[m
aoqHk;jcif;? ½kwfw&ufuG,faysmufjcif; ponfjzifh aemufqHk; ysufpD;Mu&rSmcsnf;yJ/
c&pf,mefbmom0ifawGrSm aumif;uifbHkeef; wckyJ&Sdw,f/ Ak'¨bmom0ifawGrSmawmh ewfawGaewJh ewfbHk
(6)xyfeJY jA[®mawGaewJh jA[®mbHk (20) &Sdw,f/ 'DewfawG? jA[®mawG[m wrefawmfawGxuf ydkNyD;
wefcdk;vnf; BuD;w,f? oefYvnf; oefY&Sif;pifMu,fw,f/ olwdkYwawG[m uHtaMumif;w&m;aMumifh
jzpfvmwJhtwGuf waeYrSm aojcif;w&m;eJY awGY&rSmcsnf;yJ/
Ak'¨&JhedAÁmefbHk[m c&pf,mefwdkY&Jh aumif;uifbHkeef;wdkY? Ak'¨bmom0ifwkdY&Jh ewfbHk? jA[®mhbHkwkdYeJY
vHk;0rwlbl;/ edAÁmefbHk[m zefqif;xm;wmvnf; r[kwfbl;/ (edpöppfeJYvnf; jynfhpHkw,f) wnfvnf;
wnfNrJw,f/ wu,fh csrf;omokcjzpfw,f/ emjcif;? aojcif;w&m;wdkYrS vGwfuif;w,f/ 1500 udavom
w&m;awGvnf; csKyfNidrf; w,f/ 'ku©qif;&JtrsdK;rsdK;rSvnf; uif;pifw,f/ cE¨mig;yg; ½kyfemrfw&m;wdkYvnf;
r&Sdbl;/ 'gaMumifh Ak'¨&JhedAÁmefeJY c&pf,mefbmom0ifwkdY&Jh aumif;uifbHkeef;wkdY[m ajzmifhajzmifhBuD; qefYusif
aewmaygh/ Ak'¨&JhedAÁmefu tpOf xm0& wnfNrJw,f/ vHk;0 csrf;omokceJY jynfhpHkw,f/ y#doaE¨aejcif;?
tdkjcif;? qif;&Jjcif;qkdwJh 'ku©qif;&J taygif;rS vHk;0uif;pifw,f/ c&pf,mefbmom0ifwkdY&Jh aumif;uif

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

87

bHkeef;uawmh zefqif;xm;wmqdkawmh tpOfxm0& rwnfNrJbl;/ y#doaE¨aejcif;? aojcif;qkdwJh w&m;awG
eJY ruif;bl;/ tukodkvfw&m;? rmew&m;? rkef;wD;jcif;w&m;? t0dZÆmw&m;wkdYeJY ,SOfwJGvsuf&Sdaew,f/
wrefawmfavmha*gh(pf)[m t0dZÆmw&m;aMumifh rmew&m;udk arG;rdNyD;ysufpD;&w,f/ xm0&bk&m;ocif
udk,fawmfjrwfudk,fwdkif t0dZÆmw&m;&JhydwfzHk;rIaMumifh aumif;uifbHkeef;[m a'gow&m;? rkef;wD;jcif;w&m;
wkdYjzifh vTrf;rdk;cJhw,f/ uJ Ak'¨&JhedAÁmefeJY c&pf,mefbmom0if wkdY&Jh aumif;uifbHkeef;wkdY[m b,favmuf
uGmjcm;w,fqkdwmudk &Sif;jyNyD;aemuf r[mar'ifwkdY&Jh y&pf(pf) xm; taMumif;udk &Sif;jy&OD;r,f/
r[mar'ifbmom0ifwkdY&Jh y&pf(pf)xm; qkdwm tvmudk,fawmfjrwfeJY olY&Jh wrefawmfrsm; pHpm;&m bHkeef;
jzpfw,f/ tvm&Jh y&pf(pf)xm;[m c&pf,mefbmom0ifwdkY&Jh aumif;uifbHkeef;eJY twlwlyJ/ "r®a[mif;t&
ajym&r,fqkd&if a&[l'DwkdY? c&pf,mefbmom0ifwkdY? r[mar'ifbmom0ifwkdYqkdwm twlwlyJ/ teEå
wefcdk;awmf&Sif bk&m;udk emrnftrsdK;rsdK; ac:aeMuwmyJ uJGjym;w,f/ a&[l'DawGu 'Dbk&m;udk a,[dk;0gvdkY
ac:Muw,f/ c&pf,mefbmom0ifawGu xm0&bk&m;ocifudk,fawmfjrwfvdkY ac:Muw,f/ r[mar'if
bmomt,l0g'udk xlaxmifcJhwJh r[mrufudk,fawmfjrwfu a,½Ic&pfawmf[m xm0&bk&m;ocif
udk,fawmfjrwf&Jhom; r[kwfbl;/ olvdkyJ tvmudk,fawmfu qif;oufwmyJwJh/ bk&m;rsm;jzpfwJh
tmjA[HwkdY? rdk;qufwdkY? a,½Ic&pfwkdY[m r[mar'ifbmom0ifwkdY&Jh tvmudk,fawmfjrwf? odkYr[kwf
c&pf,mefbmom0ifwdkY&Jh teEåwefcdk;awmf&Sif xm0&bk&m;ocif? odkYr[kwf a&[l'DwkdY&Jh a,[kd;0g bk&m;
udk,fawmfjrwf&Jh tquftEG,fawGcsnf;yJ/ 'gaMumifh r[mar'ifbmom0ifwkdY&Jh y&pf(pf)xm;eJY aumif;uif
bHkeef;eJYywfoufvdkY ajymcJhwJhpum;awGudk jyefNyD;ajymae&rSmrdkY OD;yÍÆif; tus,fcsJUNyD; rajymawmhygbl;/ 'D
r[mar'ifbmom0ifwkdY&Jh y&pf(pf)xm;[mvnf; c&pf,mefbmom0ifwdkY&Jh aumif;uifbHkeef;eJY bmrQ
rxl;bl;qdkwmudk rSwfxm;Muyg/ r[mar'ifwdkY&Jh y&pf(pf)xm;[m c&pf,mefbmom0ifwdkY&Jh aumif;uif
bHkeef;vdkyJ Ak'¨&JhedAÁmefeJY ajzmifhajzmifhBuD; qefYusifaew,f/ Ak'¨&JhedAÁmef[m xm0&wnfNrJw,f/ wu,fh
oEådokceJY jynfhpHkw,f/ Zmwd? Z&m? Asm"d? r&P? aomu? y&da'0 qkdwJh w&m;awGtm;vHk;rS uif;pifw,f/
y&pf(pf)xm;uawmh zefqif;xm;wJhw&m;jzpfwJhtwGuf rwnfjrJbl;/ aysmf&TifrI &SdovdkyJ 'ku©qif;&Jvnf;
&Sdw,f/ y#doaE¨aejcif;? tkdjcif;?emjcif;? aojcif;? qif;&Jjcif; tp&SdwJh w&m;awGrS rvGwfuif;bl;/ wPSm?
rme? 'd|dpwJh w&m;awGrSvnf; rvGwfuif;Edkifbl;/
Ak'¨&JhedAÁmefudk c&pf,mefbmom0ifwkdY&Jh aumif;uifbHkeef;eJY r[mar'ifbmom0ifwkdY&Jh y&pf(pf)xm;wdkYeJY
,ckvdk EdIif;,SOfvdkY jyNyD;wJhaemuf? 'Dbk&m;awG&Jh aemufqHk;&nfrSef;csufwkdYudk jyNyD;wJhaemuf tck [dE´LwdkY&Jh
rkwådw&m;eJY ywfoufvdkY OD;yÍÆif; &Sif;vif;jy&tHk;r,f/
,ck [dE´Lbmomt,l0g'vdkY ac:aeMuwJh jA[®Pbmom t,l0g'[m a*gwrAk'¨ yGifhawmfrrlrD ESpfaygif;
(2500)ausmfavmufu ay:aygufcJhwJh bmomw&m;jzpfw,f/ tJ'Dtcgwkef;uqkd&if &pf*f? twåm&0? omr
pwJh rlva0'usrf;BuD;awGrSm rkwådw&m;qkdwm rygcJhbl;/ &pf*fa0'xJrSm wd&pämefawG? vlawGudk ,ZfylaZmf
yo jcif;eJYqkdif&m"r®oDcsif;awGomygw,f/ twåm&a0'usrf;xJrSmqkd&if ,ZfylaZmfyoyHk yoenf;? xHk;edoQ
awGom ygw,f/ omra0'xJrSmqkd&if odMum;wdkY (tif'&m)? rD;ewfom; (t*¾ed)? avewfom; (0½ke)wkdYudk
,ZfylaZmf yowJhtcgoDqkdMu&r,fhoDcsif;awGomygcJhygw,f/ 'D[mpkrSty rkwåd odkYr[kwf vGwfajrmufjcif;
eJY ywfoufwJh w&m;qdkvdkY bmrQ rygcJhbl;/
rkwådeJYywfoufwJh jyóem[m aESmif;umvusrS ]]jA[®Pvrf;pOfw&m;usrf;}}? ]]Oyedóm'usrf;}}? ]]owyx
jA[®Pusrf;}} pwJh usrf;oHk;usrf;u azmfxkwfvmcJhwJh jyóemyJ/
]]jA[®Pvrf;pOfw&m;usrf;} uawmh 'Dvdkqkdw,f'umBuD;&Jh/ yZmywdewfrif; (zefqif;&Sif)BuD;[m [kdyxr
wkef;uawmh tcsdefumvMumjrifhpGmwyg;wnf;xD;xD;ay:aygufNyD;aexdkifcJhw,f/ 'geJY waeYawmh olYudk,fcJG

88

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

jzpfwJh yxrOD;qHk; jA[®mudk zefqif;cJhw,f/ yZmywdewfrif;BuD;[m oludk,fwdkif aorsdK;xJyg0ifaomfvnf;
yxrOD;qHk;jA[®muawmh aorsdK;xJ rygbl;wJh/ tJ'D jA[®mhudk,fcE¨mxJu rD;yGm;av;awGxGufNyD;awmh tJ'D
rD;yGm;awGudk twåvdkYac:owJh/ yxrOD;qHk; rD;yGm;udkawmh y&rwårvdkY ac:owJh/ 'DtwåawG[m wckeJYwck
yl;aygif;MuNyD; tukodkvftrIawGudk jyKvkyfMuowJh/ tJ'Dvdk raumif;rIudk jyK&mrS wd&pämefawG? bDvl;awG?
*E¨AÁ awG? iSufawG? ajrGawG? ig;awG? tajcav;acsmif;&SdwJh owå0gawG? i&JjynfrSm cHpm;aewJh i&Jom;awG
jzpfukef MuowJh/ tJ'Daemuf aumif;rIukodkvfawGudk jyKMujyefawmh vlawG? ewfawG jzpfvmMuowJh/
aemufqHk; olwkdY[m raumif;rI tukodkvfawG uif;pifMuNyD; yxrOD;qHk; tzefqif;cH&wJh jA[®mxH
('Dyk*¾dKvfawGrSm uyfaewJh rD;yGm;uav;awG[m) jyefoGm;EdkifMuowJh/ tJ'Dvdkjyefa&mufNyD;wJhaemuf bmrQ
jyefrjzpfawmhbl;wJh/ 'g[m [dE´Lbmom0ifwkdY&Jh "rkwåd" yJ/
Oyedóm'usrf;t& ajym&r,fqdk&if zefqif;&Sif wOD;wnf;aewJhyZmywdewfrif;u yxrOD;qHk;jA[®mudk
zefqif;owJh/ tJ'Daemuf twåqdkwJh yxrOD;qHk; ZD0 (touf) udk zefqif;owJh/ yxrOD;qHk;
zefqif;vkdufwJh jA[®m[m tvGefus,fjyefYwJh r[myx0DajrBuD;eJYwlNyD; twå[m 'DurÇmBuD;&Jh tESpfom&eJY
wlowJh/ tJ'Daemuf txufu ajymcJhwJhtwdkif; tukokdvfawGvkyf? owå0gawGtrsdK;rsdK;jzpfwmujzpf?
i&JuswmuusukefMuNyD; aemufqHk; tukodkvfw&m;awG uif;pifNyD; vGwfajrmufjcif;udk &owJh/ tJ'D
vGwfajrmufjcif;qkdwm ]]rkwåd}} yJ/ owyxjA[®Ptvkdt& ajym&r,fqdk&if zefqif;&SifjA[®P u urÇm
avmuBuD;udk zefqif;NyD;wJhaemuf? ig[m 'DurÇmavmuBuD;xJudk b,fvdkvkyfNyD; qif;&yghrvJvdkY pOf;pm;
NyD;wJhaemuf emr½lyqkdwJh w&m;ESpfyg;&Jh tultnDeJY qif;vmcJhw,f/ 'Demr½lyqkdwJh w&m;ESpfyg;[m 'D
zefqif;&Sif jA[®mBuD;&Jhtiftm;pkESpf&yfyJ/ 'D jA[®mBuD;&Jhtiftm;pkESpf&yfjzpfwJh emr½lyoabmudk wu,fwrf;
odem;vnfwJhvl[m wefcdk;tmPmBuD;w,f/ aemufqHk; zefqif;&Sif jA[®mBuD;eJY yl;aygif;rdNyD; y#doaE¨
ae&jcif;? touf&Sifae&jcif;? aojcif;qdkwJh w&m;awG csKyfNidrf;&m ]]rkwåd}} udk a&muf&owJh/ zefqif;&Sif?
wefcdk;awmf&SifjA[®mu b,fawmhrQraoaMurysufpD;wJh twåudkzefqif;w,f/ 'gayrJh 'Dtwå[m raumif;rI
tukodkvfuHeJY a&m,SufNyD;awmh roefY&Sif;rpifMu,fbJ jzpfvm&w,f/ 'Dvdk roefY&Sif;rpifMu,f&mu
aeNyD;awmh b0oHo&mtwGif;rSmavQmufvnfae&owJh/ tJ'D vnfae&mrS wzef tnpftaMu;qdkvdkY bmrQ
r&SdawmhatmifoefY&Sif;pifMu,fum twå[m y&rwår odkYr[kwf zefqif;&SifjA[®mBuD;eJY jyefNyD; yl;aygif;rd
owJh/ tJ'g rkwådyJ/
txufuajymcJhwJh rkwådeJYywfoufwJh ordkif;oHk;&yfudk avhvmMunfhr,fqdk&if rkwåd okdYr[kwf vGwfvyfrIvdkY
ac:wJh w&m;[m zefqif;vdkYjzpfay:vmwJhw&m;? wenf;tm;jzifh zefqif;xm;wJhw&m;yJjzpfw,f qkdwmukd
awGY&w,f/ 'gaMumifh 'Dzefqif;vdkYjzpfay:&wJh rkwådw&m;[m aemufqHk;ysufpD;&r,f/ NyD;awmh jA[®mBuD;
uvnf;
urÇmavmuBuD;udk
rD;jzpfjzpf?
avjzpfjzpf?
a&jzpfjzpf?
'DoHk;ckxJu
wckcku
zsufqD;ypfvdkufawmhr,fh 0dZÆmw&m;udk &&Sdw,f/ trSefw&m;udk jrifvmw,f/ tJ'DtcgrSm jA[®mtopfwyg;
jyefvnfay:aygufvm&r,fwJh/ 'gudk [dE´Lbmomt,l0g'u [kwfrSefw,fvdkY vufcHxm;w,f/ Zmwdjzifh
jzpfay:&wJh w&m;[lorQ[m? aoaMuysufpD;&orQ zefqif;rIaMumifhjzpfay:&wJh w&m;[lorQ[m aemufqHk;
csKyfNidrf;ysufokOf;&ovdk t0dZÆmw&m; zHk;vTrf;xm;rIaMumifh edpö"l0wnfwefYcdkifNrJaew,fvdkY xifae&wJh
rkwådw&m;[mvnf; rckdifNrJbJ ysufpD;&wmyJ/ tJ'D rkwådw&m;[m pMum0VmBuD;eJY bmrQrqkdifwJh
y#doaE¨aejcif;? tkdjcif;? emjcif;? aojcif;qkdwJh w&m;pk tm;vHk;rS uif;vGwfwJh Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkY&Jh edAÁmef
w&m;eJY vHk;0rwlbl;/ Ak'¨bmom0ifwkdY&Jh edAÁmefw&m;[m wu,fh csrf;omokcESifhjynfhpHkw,f/ uJ
Ak'¨bmom0ifwkdY&Jh edAÁmefeJY c&pf,mefbmom0ifwkdY&Jh aumif;uifbHkeef; wdkY? r[mar'ifbmom0ifwkdY&Jh
y&pf(pf)xm;wkdY? [dE´Lbmom0ifwdkY&Jh rkwådwdkY[m vHk;0 ajzmifhajzmifhBuD; qefYusif vsuf &Sdw,fqdkwmudk
'umBuD;wkdY em;vnfoabmaygufMuNyDvm;/ aemufxyf &Sif;&OD;rSmvm;/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

89

&Sm;/ q&mawmf &Sif;jyvdkY Ak'¨&JhedAÁmeftaMumif;udk aumif;aumif;BuD; em;vnfoabmaygufMuygNyD/
q&mawmf[m edAÁmefeJY aumif;uifbHkeef;wdkY? y&pf(pf)xm;wkdY? rkwådwkdY&Jh &nfrSef;csufcsif;vnf; rwlaMumif;
udk wynfhawmfwdkY em;vnfoabmaygufatmif &Sif;vif;jywJhtwGuf txl;aus;Zl;wifygw,f bk&m;/

þwGif w&m;emvma&mufMuonfh y&dówftaygif;u om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

90

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

ar;cGef;trSwf (22)
Ak'¨a*gwr[m q&mwqlrQr&SdbJeJY Ak'¨tjzpfukd &&Sdw,fqkdwmudk q&mawmf b,fenf;eJY odygovJ bk&m;/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - rpöwm bmbmq[pf? zefqDodk;arG;pufydkif&Sif? bHkbdkifNrdKU? ajzqdkol q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ tvGefrSefuefNyD; b,fawmhrS razmufjyefwJh taMumif;&Sd&if tusdK;w&m;
ay:ayguf&r,fqkdwJh taMumif;tusdK;qufw&m;t& Ak'¨a*gwr[m b,fq&murQ oifjyjcif;r&SdbJeJY Ak'¨
tjzpfudk a&muf&w,fqkdwm vufawGYoabmtm;jzifh tvGefxif&Sm;vSygw,f/ Ak'¨tavmif;tvsm qdkwm
Ak'¨tjzpfudk &atmif av;oacsFeJYurÇmwodef;wkdifwkdif (10)yg;aom yg&rDukd 'Davmufawmif umv
Mumjrifhatmif usifhwmu taMumif;w&m;yJ/ aemufqHk; b,folurQ roifbJ? rjybJeJY opömav;yg;w&m;
udk ydkif;jcm;xifxif odjrifawmfrlNyD; Ak'¨tjzpfudk &wmu tusdK;w&m;yJ/ 'gaMumifh opömav;yg;w&m;udk
t<uif;rJhodjrifoabmaygufwJhyk*¾dKvfudk Ak'¨ odkYr[kwf twkr&SdoAÁnKwa&TÓPf&SifvdkYac:wmaygh/
'Dae&mrSm Ak'¨a*gwr[m Ak'¨tjzpfudk r&rD tmvm&umvmreJY &r®ykwåqkdwJh q&mESpfqlpDrSm enf;emedos
cH,lw,f qkdwJhpum;[m rrSefbl;vm;vdkY apm'uwufp&m &Sdw,f/
'Djyóemudk ajz&Sif;zdkYu tvGefvG,fygw,f/ 'D tmvm&umvmr eJY &r®ykwåwkdYqDrSm t½lypsmeftbdnmOfeJY
ywfoufvkdY enf;emedoscHcJhpOftcgu Ak'¨a*gwr[m Ak'¨tjzpfudk r&ao;bl;/ Ak'¨ tavmif;tvsm tjzpf
rSmyJ&Sdao;w,f/ tJ'Daemuf 'DpsmeftbdnmOfw&m;awGudkusifhaejcif;tm;jzifh olvdkcsifwJh 'ku©qif;&Jtaygif;
rS csKyfNidrf;&ef edAÁmefudk ra&mufEkdifrSef;odawmh 'D q&mESpfqlukd pGefYcGmcJhNyD; olwOD;wnf; (6)ESpf wkdifwdkif
'kuú&p&d,m usifhawmfrlw,f/
tJ'Daemuf Ak'¨tjzpfudk&awmhr,fh tcsdefumvusa&mufvmwJh nwnrSm tdyfruf jrifrufawmfrlw,f/ 'D
tdyfrufudk rufvnf;rufvdkufa&m aemufwaeY ol Ak'¨tjzpfudka&mufawmhr,fqdkwmukd odawmfrlw,f/
'DvdkeJYyJ aemufwaeYeHeufusawmh olYa&S;a&S;b0aygif;rsm;pGmu wnfaqmufcJhwJh (10)yg;aom yg&rD
t[kefeJY rZÑdry#dy'gvrf;pOftwkdif; usifhvdkufwmeJY wNydKifeuf Ak'¨tjzpfudk a&mufawmfrlw,f/
vu©Pma&;oHk;yg;udk jrifNyD; qGrf;bkOf;ay;awmfrlw,f/ tJ'Daemuf opfyif&dyfatmufrSm em;NyD; naecsrf;
tcsdefusawmh *,ma'o pm&D MuGawmfrlw,f/ tJ'DaeYn yv’ifay:rSmyJ b,fq&m&Jh oifjyrIrQ r&SdbJeJY
opömav;yg;w&m;udk ydkif;jcm;xifxif odjrifawmfrlw,f/ 'Denf;eJYyJ Ak'¨tjzpfudk a&mufawmfrlw,f/ Ak'¨
tjzpfudk a&mufwJhyk*¾dKvfudk aAm"dvkdY ac:w,f/ tJ'Dyk*¾dKvf oAÁnKwa&TÓPf&wJh opfyifukd aAm"dyifvdkY
ac:w,f/
uJ OD;yÍÆif; tck a[majymwmeJY ywfoufvkdY bmrsm;r&Sif;ao;wHk;/ bmrsm;ar;csifao;ovJ 'umBuD;/
zefqD/ wynfhawmf &Sif;ygNyD q&mawmf/ aemufxyf ar;zdkY rvdkawmhygbl; bk&m;/

þwGif w&m;emy&dówfrsm;u om"ktEkarm'em ac:Muavonf/

Ak'¨0g'jyóemrsm;

91

ar;cGef;trSwf (23)
Ak'¨onf AdóEdk;ewf&Jh udk,fpm;vnfawmf odkYr[kwf AdóEkd;ewf&Jh e0rajrmuf 0ifpm;ol r[kwfygvm;
q&mawmf/
(ar;jref;avQmufxm;ol - rpöwm ae0gcsef;('f)&Sm;? ukefonfBuD;? t,fvDzifpwkef; t0dkif;BuD;?
bHkbdkifNrdKU? ajzqdkol - q&mawmf t&Sift&d,"r®/)

q&mawmft&Sift&d,"r®/ urÇmaygif;ajrmufjrm;pGmtwGif;rSm yGifhwJh Ak'¨tqlqludk a&wGufvkdYr&Edkifbl;/ 'D
Ak'¨awG[m **FgjrpfxJrSm&SdwJh oJxkxJu oJyGifhuav;awGxufawmif ta&twGuftm;jzifh ydkrkdrsm;ao;w,f/
tck a*gwrAk'¨&Sifawmfjrwf[m 'DaemifawmfAk'¨awG&Jh vrf;pOftwdkif;usifhNyD; aemifawmfAk'¨awG a[mwJh
w&m; awGudkyJa[mawmfrlwmyJ/ 'gaMumifh a*gwrAk'¨[m AdóEdk;ewf&Jhudk,fpm;vnfawmf b,fenf;eJY
jzpfEkdifyghrvJ/ yl&Pfusrf;udk jyKpkMuwJh vlawG[m Ak'¨qdkwJh pum;&JhoabmeJY t"dyÜm,fudk rodMuavawmh
Ak'¨a*gwrudk AdóEdk;ewf&Jh e0rajrmuf0ifpm;olqkdNyD; trSm;rSm;t,Gif;,Gif;eJY a&;Mu? ajymMuw,f/
'Dvdkqkd&if ra&rwGuf Edkifavmufatmif rsm;jym;vSwJh aemifawmfAk'¨awGudkvnf; 'DvkdyJ AdóEdk;ewf&Jh
udk,fpm;vnfawmfawGvkdYyJ ac:MuawmhrSmvm;/
'Dtcsufukdy,fxm;NyD; wjcm;pOf;pm;p&m &Sdao;w,f/ wb0rS wb0odkY 0dnmOful;ajymif;w,f qkdwJh t,l
tqudk Ak'¨&Jh t,l0g'u tvGefrSm;,Gif;wJh t,ltqtaeeJY ½Iwfcsxm;w,f/ NyD;awmh twå0g'udk Ak'¨u
rSm;,Gif;wJh0g'w&yfjzpfw,fvdkY owfrSwfxm;w,f/ 'Dtcsuf ESpfcsufudk Munfhjcif;tm;jzifh Ak'¨[m AdóEdk;
ewf 0ifpm;wJh ukd,fpm;vnfawmfrjzpfEdkifbl;qkdwm xif&Sm;ygw,f/ [dE´Lbmomt,l0g't& AdóEdk;ewf
&Jh t0wm&? odkYr[kwf udk,fpm;vnfawmf[m urÇmavmuBuD;udk jyKjyifzkdYeJY vlom;awGukd umuG,f
apmifha&SmufzkdY aumif;uifu qif;vm&wmjzpfw,f/ 'gayrJh oAÁnKwÓPfawmf&Sif Ak'¨yGifhawmfrlwmu
AdóEdk;ewfudk,fpm;vnfawmfay:aygufvmwmeJY enf;enf;rQrwlbl;/ Ak'¨tjzpfudkr&rD Ak'¨&Jhtavmif;tvsm
[m urÇmaygif; av;oacsFeJYwodef;wdkifwkdif (10)yg;aom yg&rDudk usifh&ao;w,f/ aemufqHk; Ak'¨tjzpf
a&muf&r,fhb0a&mufwmawmifrS jyif;jyif;xefxefusifhBuHtm;xkwfNyD;wJhaemuf b,folurQ roifrjybJeJY
opömav;yg;w&m;udk ydkif;jcm;xifxifodjrifawmfrlvm&w,f/ tJ'DvkdAk'¨jzpfNyD;wJhaemuf ESpfaygif;ajrmufrsm;
pGm owå0gtrsm;tm; tvGefrGefjrwfvSwJhw&m;a&at; wkdufauR;awmfrlw,f/ wdkufauR;NyD;wJh tcgusrS
y&dedAÁmefjyKawmfrlw,f/ 'gaMumifh Ak'¨udk vlom;pifppfu udk,fhtm;udk,fudk;NyD; rqkwfrepf usifhMuH
tm;xkwfcJhvdkY jzpf&wJhbk&m;? Oxm;(&f) vkdYac:&r,f/ b,fewfrif;? b,fjA[®mrif;wdkYwefckd;udkrQacwåiSm;NyD;
vlYjynfudk udk,fpm;vnftjzpfeJY vm&wJh udk,fpm;vnfawmf (t0wm&) vkdY rac:Edkifbl;/ [kwfvnf;
r[kwfbl;/ uJ 'DtaMumif;awGudkaxmufcsifhjcif;tm;jzifh Ak'¨[m AdóEdk;ewf&Jh udk,fpm;vnfawmf r[kwfbl;
qdkwmudk oabmaygufem;vnfMuNyDvm;/
&Sm;/ tckvdk wkdwkdwkwfwkwfeJY vkd&if;tcsufudk wdwdusus &Sif;jyawmfrlvdkufwJhtwGuf wynfhawmfwkdY
tm;vHk; em;vnfMuygNyDbk&m;/ q&mawmfu ,ckvdk wynfhawmfwkdY ar;avQmufxm;orQudk pdwf&Snf
vuf&SnfeJY &Sif;vif;jyawmfrlwJhtwGuf tm;vHk;udk,fpm; wynfhawmfu aus;Zl;wifaMumif; avQmufxm;
yg&ap bk&m;/
q&mawmf/
OD;yÍÆif;uvnf; Ak'¨&Jhomoemawmfudk toufxufqHk;jyKr,fvdkY qHk;jzwfxm;awmh ,ckvdk
rod em;rvnfwJh tcsufawGudk avQmufxm;MuwJhtwGuf OD;yÍÆif;&Jh yg&rDudk jznfhwJhtaeeJY txl;yJ aus;Zl;

92

udku dkBuD; (awmifwGif;BuD;)? 0if;armfOD; pmay

wifvSygw,f/ aemifvnf;tcgtcGifhMuHKwJhtcg
avQmufxm; EdkifMuygw,f/

wOD;csif;jzpfjzpf

,ckvdk

w&m;yJGusif;yvkdYyJjzpfjzpf

þwGif y&dówftm;vHk;u om"ktEkarm'em ac:í w&m;yJGudk ½kyfodrf;vdkufMuavownf;/

-------------------------------

pm½dkufNyD;aeY/ c&pfouú&mZf 2009 ckESpf? rwfv (20)&uf? jrefrmouú&mZf 1370 jynfhESpf
waygif;vjynfhausmf (10)&uf? aomMumaeY? jrefrmpH awmfcsdef rGef;vJG 12em&D 10rdepf? &efukefNrdKU/

tdE´d,w&m;0efBuD;csKyfa[mif;
a'gufwm a t? trf? abum M.A., Ph. D., D. Litt.,
Bar-at-Law, D. Sc., M.L.C., u ar;í
q&mawmf OD;t&d,"r®-bDat (Ak'¨0d[m& bHkbkdif)
ajzqdkaom