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What The Buddha Taught

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19-10-78
26-10-79
27-12-80
1-8-84
25-4-88

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6

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ta=umif;/ wynfhom0ursm;. *k%fawmfrsm;ta=umif; ponfw@kd udk tjynfhtpHka&;om;I yd@k ay;vdkufjcif;
jzpf.? ,if;vufaqmifawmfudk ykuUKomwdrif;onf a&$eef;jy\m'ftxufbkHtqifho@kd ,laqmifoGm;I
wpfyg;wnf; &dkaoav;jrwfpGm zwf&_&mrS a&S;yg&rD"gwfcH&ifhoefonfhtavsmuf/ a&$jym;yk&ydk'fudk zwf&_&if;yif
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=uHawmfrlav.? ykuUKomwdrif;onf t=unfawmfjzpfaom AdrdŠom&rif;. a&$o0%fv$mudk zwf&_&I
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aom igbk&m;onf xdk ykuUKomwdrif;tm; ulnDcsD;jrSihfaytHh[k ESvHk; ydkufawmfrlcJhavonf?
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ouJhodk@ ‘wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; odusGrf;=uonf r[kwf’ onfrSmrl xif&Sm;aeygonf? q&mawmf &m[kvmu "gwk
0db*Fokwfawmfudk ukd;um;&mwGif opPmw&m;udk xdk;xGif;odjrif&efom t"dujzpfonf? rnfolu a[m=um;
onfudk od&efrSm ta&;r}uD;yg[k qdkvkd&if;om jzpfayonf? ykuUKomwd&[ef;onf "gwk0db*Fokwfvm
eufeJaom w&m;rsm;udk rnfolu a[m=um;aeonf[k rodyJESifhyifv#if tem*grdzdkvfodk@ qdkufa&muf
oGm;a=umif; wifjyjcif;omv#ifjzpfI jrwfpGmbk&m;. oAŠnKwa&$^m%fawmfudk rxDrJhjrifjyK&m ra&mufyg
a=umif; &Sif;vif; wifjytyfygonf?
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1986 ck/ pufwifbmv (12) &ufae@?

7

q&mawmf a'gufwm 0gvfydkvm &m[kvm t&Sifoljrwf.
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0gvfydkvm&m[kvm q&mawmf tavmif;tvsmudk oD&dvuFm[k ac:wGifv#uf&dSonfh oD[kdVfEkdifiH
awmifydkif; a*:vfc&dkiftwGif;&dS 0gvfykdvm ed*kH;&GmwGif 1907 ck/ arv 9 &ufae@Y zGm;jrifawmfrlcJhayonf? i,f
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ayonf? oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifhaqmhupm;onfukd q&mu }udrfjzifhqHk;ryJhjyifonf? &m[kvmuav;u =udrfjzifh
&dkufESufrnfudk vufrcHEdkif? E_wfjzifhom qHk;roifhonf[k apm'uwufonf? xdkrSpI twef;ausmif; ac:
tpdk;&ausmif;wGif ynmroifawmhacs? &GmOD;&dS Ak'<bmom bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;wGif bkef;}uD;ausmif;om;
jzpfvmI &dk;&mAk'<pmay/ ygVdpmayESifh oD[kdVfbmompmay/ ordkif;wdk@udk &dk;&mpepftwdkif; oif=um;cJhayonf?
13 ESpft&G,fwGif rdbrsm;u ouFef;0wfay;I udk&ifuav; &m[kvm b0jzifh bkef;}uD;ausmif;wGif
qufvuf ynmoifcJhonf? touf 20 jynfhaomtcg &Gmausmif;bkef;}uD;udk OyZÆ,fjyKI &[ef;b0od@k
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tqifhqifhatmifjrifcJhjyD;aemuf xif&Sm;aom ausmif;wdkuf}uD;rsm;wGif "rRmp&d, pmcsq&mawmf wpfyg; jzpf
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Todk@ usrf;&dk;oifwef;wdk@ukd yd@k csvmaom OD;yOPif;ysdKt&G,f q&mawmf&m[kvmonf 1930 ckESpf
avmufrSpI EdkifiHa&;pdwf"gwfudef;0ifvmcJhayonf? trSefpifppf a&S;a[mif;pHepfudk awmfvSefypfvdkaom pdwf
"gwfrSm q&mawmftwGuf arG;&mygpdwf"gwfyif jzpfonf[k qdkEkdifayonf? 1930 jynfhESpfwGif &dk;&mynm
jynfhpHkjyD;aom q&mawmfonf rdrdb0ESihfwuG EdkifiHjcm;vufatmuf usGefoaygufjzpfaeaom oD[kdVf(oD&d
vuFm) wpfEdkifiHvHk;. tajctaeudk oHk;oyf=unfhrdavonf?
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enf;yg;onf? tpdk;&zGifhausmif;rsm;od@k twef;pmoif&ef vli,frsm; ajymif;a&$@ ynmoifae=uonf? pmar;yJG
atmifvufrSwf&v#if vcpm;vkyfief; 0ifvkyfukdif=uonf? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;}uD;rsm;wGif EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm; }uD;
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tajctaeudk vspfvsLjyKI ae=uonf?
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ajymif;jyefvSefypf&ef enf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazGpdppfcJhonf? Tod@k pdppf&mrS t"dutajzrSm bkef;}uD;rsm;onf
t*Fvdyfpm oif=um;wwfajrmuf=u&rnf? acwfynmrsm; oif=um;wwfajrmuf&rnf? xdkodk@wwf&dSvmaom
acwfynmrsm;udk bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;udk,fwkdif wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;udk oif=um;ay;&rnf? bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;
onf Todk@ OD;aqmifr_udk oHCmawmfrsm;rSwpfqifh w&m;awmfY ouf0if,Hk=unfr_ jyefvnf zHG@jzdK;vmap
&rnf? w&m;awmfY ouf0if,Hk=unfr_ &dSvmonfESihftr# Ak'<&Sifawmfbk&m;od@k OD;nGwf&kdusdK;jyD;aemuf
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rdcJhavonf?
q&mawmfonf rdrd=uHq csrSwfonfhpDrHudef;udk taumiftxnfazmf&ef rdrdudk,fwdkif &[ef;0g (3) 0g
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tm;vHk;udk twef;ausmif;wGif raeyJ tvGwfynmoiftjzpf jyifyq&mrsm;xHwGif qnf;yl;oif=um;cJhonf?
,leDAmpDwD aumvdyfrS t*Fvdyfpm ygarmuQ}uD;wpfOD;u &[ef;i,ftm; t*Fvdyfpm oif=um;ay;I udkvHbkd
pdef@*dsK;ZufaumvdyfrS ocsFmuxdu wpfOD;u ocsFmbmomudk aumif;rGefpGmjyoay;avonf? xdkyk*~dKvf ESpfOD;

8

pvHk;rSm oD[dkVfom; Ak'<bmom0ifrsm; r[kwf=uacs? ESpfOD;pvHk; bmomuJGjym;aom EdkifiHjcm;om; jzpfaomf
vnf; acwfynmwwfvdkonfqdkaom Ak'<bmom oD[kdVf&[ef;i,ftm; pdwfjzLpifpGmjzifh ulnDtm;ay;cJh=u
avonf?
Todk@acwfynmudk tvGwfoif=um;,laepOfwGifyif ausmif;wdkufrsm; twGif;Y udef;atmif;aeawmf
rl=ujyD;/ &yf&Gmta&;/ wdkif;jynfta&;rsm;udk vpfvsLjyKaeawmfrl=uaom oD[dkVfAk'<bmom &[ef;oHCmawmf
wdk@tm; Edk;=um;vm=uap&ef Ed_;aqmfwyfvSe@f I wkdufwGef;awmfrlonf? a[majymyJGrsm;usif;yonf? aqG;aEG;yJG
rsm; jyKvkyfonf? pm&Gufpmwrf; &dkufESdyfa0iSonf? ‘A[kZem [dwm,/ A[kZem okcg,’ vltrsm;.
aumif;usdK;csrf;omtwGuf ausmif;wdkufrsm;twGif; cdkatmif;raebJ bk&m;. tvdkqENawmftwdkif;
wdkif;jynfwGif;Y vSnfhvnfI ynmay;yg/ oif=um;jyoyg/ vrf;n$efay;awmfrl=uyg [k txl; vH_@aqmf
ay;cJhonf?
t&Sif&m[kvmonf xdkacwf xdktcsdefu EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGifvnf; yg0ifaqmif&GufcJhojzifh
jAdwdo# tpdk;&. zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifjcif; cH&zl;onf? udkvHbkd &Jpcef;tcsKyfcef;wGif (3)&uf pHjref;awmfrlcJhzl;onf?
1936 ckESpfwGif 10 wef;pmar;yJG tvGwf ajzqdkatmifjrifjyD;aemuf xdktcsdefu vef'efwuUokdvf.
vufatmufcH oD[dkVf,leDAmpDwDaumvdyfwGif ausmif;om;tjzpf pm&if;oGif;vdkufonf? oD[dkVfordkif;wGif
acwfwuUodkvf ausmif;om;tjzpf yxrOD;pGm ay:xGufvmaom Ak'<bmom bkef;awmf}uD;wpfyg;[k
wpfEdkifiHvHk; [dk;[dk;ausmfoGm;cJhonf? q&mawmf a[majymvkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk rESpfjrdK@onfh todkif;t0dkif;rS
a&S;t,ltq rpGef@v$wfEdkifolrsm;onf q&mawmfukd ykwfcwfajymqdk a0zefr_rsm; wdk;Iwdk;IjyKvkyfvmae
=uacsonf? TwGif wpfzufY acwfwuUokdvfrS pmayynm&yfrsm;udk qnf;yl;oif=um;aeqJrSmyif wpfbufrS
wdkufcdkufxdk;ESufvmaom a0zefcsufrsm;udk wGef;vSefajz&Sif; z,f&Sm;cJh&onfrSm ae@pOfESifhtr#jzpfayonf?
xdka0zefr_rsm;udk jyefvnfwdkufcdkufajz&Sif;cJhaom pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk oD[dkVfbmomjzifh &[ef;i,frsm;.
vufpJGtjzpfjzifh vnf;aumif;/ vlr_0efxrf;vli,frsm;twGuf vlr_0efxrf;vkyfief;vrf;n$ef enf;jycsufrsm;
tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ pmtkyfwpftkyftjzpf yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhayonf? ,if;pmtkyfudk t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh The
Heritage of the Bhikkhu (&[ef;. tarG) [k ,cktcsdeftxd yHkEdSyfxkwfa0v#uf &dSayonf?
Todk@ wuUodkvfausmif;om;tjzpf acwfynmrsm;udk tcsdefjynfh oif=um;,lcJhjyD;aemuf 1941
ckESpfwGif vef'efwuUodkvf. bDat*k%fxl;bJ@G udk (tif'kdtm&,ef) bmom&yfwGif qGwfcl;EdkifcJhayonf?
xdk@aemuf umvuwWm; wuUodkvfwGif wdAufbmom/ w&kwfbmompum;rsm;udk oif,l&if;/ r[m,me
Ak'<bmomta=umif;udk avhvmqnf;yl;cJhavonf? jrefrmjynfodk@ *syef0ifa&mufvmaomtcg t&Sif
&m[kvmonf oD[dkVfEdkifiHodk@jyefoGm;I emrnf}uD;ygarmuQ a'gufwm rmvmaq;u& xHwGif okawoe
jyKvkyf&if; “ oD[dkVfomoem0if” usrf;udkjyKI a'gufwm(yg&*l)bJ@G ukd qGwfcl;awmfrlcJhonf?
1947 ckESpfwGif q&mawmfonf aemufqkH;EdkifiHa&;vkyfaqmifcsuftjzpf e,l;a'vDwGif *s0g[vm
ae&l;u usif;yjyKvkyfaom “tm&Swkdufom;csif; ESD;aESmzvS,fyJG” (Asians Relations Conference) udk
oD[dkVf udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;tjzpf wufa&mufcJhayonf? ,if;EDS;aESmzvS,fyJGokd@ rvGwfvyfao;aom ta&S@
awmiftm&SrS wdkif;jynfrsm;jzpfonfh tif'kdcsdKif;em; (AD,uferf/ uarŠm'D;,m;/ avm)/ rav;&Sm;/ tif'kdeD;&Sm;/
jrefrm/ tdEdN,/ oD[dkVfedkifiHwdk@rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk zdwf=um;I vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; rnfo@kd &atmif aqmif&Guf
=urnf/ vGwfvyfa&;&jyD;aemuf tm&Swkdufom; tcsif;csif; rnfodk@qufoG,f=urnf/ qufqH=urnf paom
EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ ynma&;/ vlr_a&; ESihf qdkif&mqdkif&m ,Ofaus;r_zvS,fa&;udpPrsm; tygt0if bufpkH
aqG;aEG;=u&aom ta&;ygt&ma&mufonfh uGefz&ifh tpnf;ta0;}uD;jzpfygonf?
xdktpnf;ta0;}uD;Y tdEdN,EdkifiHrS xdyfoD;acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;jzpf=uonfh yef'pf*s0g[mvmae&l;/
&m*sif'&my&mq'f (tdEdN,EdkifiH. yxrqHk;orRw)/ a'gufwm &m'gu&pf&Sem/ y&muwf*sfe&def;/ a'gufwm
trfbuf'fum;(Zmwfedrfh[dENLwdk@.acgif;aqmif) ponfw@kd udk,fwkdifyg0if aqG;aEG;cJh=uayonf? acgif;aqmif
}uD; r[wWr*EDN udk,fwdkifvnf; tpnf;ta0;yJG nDvmcH}uD;od@k ºua&mufcsD;jrSifhcJhayonf?
wdkufwdkufqdkifqdkif T 1947 ck/ e,l;a'vDY usif;yaom tm&SEdkifiHrsm;ESD;aESmzvS,fyJG}uD;udk
Tbmomjyefoludk,fwdkifvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHrS udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;tjzpf wufa&mufcJh&ayonf? jrefrm
udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG@udk 0wfvHkawmf&OD;ausmfjrifhu acgif;aqmifI tzJG@0ifrsm;tjzpf EdkifiHa&;e,fy,fESihf

9

wuUodkvfe,fy,frS ynm&Sifrsm;yg0ifcJh&m rSwfrdoa&G@ jrefatmifOD;wif/ trf/at &m&Spf/ q&m}uD; OD;b/ jrdK@r
ausmif;q&m}uD; OD;bvGif/ OD;odef;[ef/ OD;0ef/ trdsK;orD;rsm;rS a':cifrdsK;cspf ESifh aemfavmfz&ifhawm wdk@ yg0ifcJh
ayonf?
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vGef;vSojzifh rdrdwdk@toD;oD; wm0efcJGa0owfrSwfI tpnf;ta0;wufcJh=u&onf? xdkpOftcgu oD[kdVf
udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG@wGif &[ef;awmfwpfyg; yg0ifonfukd owdjyKrdcJhaomfvnf; q&mawmf&m[kvm [k
rod&dScJhay? xdkq&mawmfonf ,Ofaus;r_ESihf vlr_qufqHa&;bmom&yfrsm; u¾wGifyg0ifI pma&;olrSm ody`H
ESifh pufr_vufr_u¾wGif aqmif&GufcJh=uojzifh wpfOD;ESihfwpfOD;awG@qHkEdkifcGifh rñuHcJh&yg?
tjcm;wdkufqdkifcsufwpfckrSm 1947 ckESpfwGif ,if;nDvmcHrS jyefvmjyD;uwnf;u pma&;olonf
EdkifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;wGif yg0ifjcif;rjyKawmhyg? q&m}uD;OD;&mZwf. wm0efay;csuft& rEWav;
wuUodkvf jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf ynma&;udkom aZmufcs aqmif&GufcJhayonf? xdkenf;wlpGm q&mawmf
&m[kvm t&Sifonfvnf; xdktcsdefrSpI ynma&;ESihfbmoma&;oufoufudkom OD;wnfaqmif&GufawmfrlcJh
I EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_tm;vHk; pGef@ypfvkdufcJhayonf?
a'vDnDvmcHrS jyefvmjyD;aemuf q&mawmfonf xdktcsdefwGif pwifwnfaxmifvdkufonfh
bkef;awmf}uD;wuUodkvf 0dZ…mvuFm&y&da0ewGif taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r_;csKyf (armfuGef;xdef;) tjzpf
aqmif&GufawmfrlcJhayonf? xdk@aemuf 1950 jynfhESpfwGif jyifopftpdk;&u csD;jr‡ifhaom paumvm;&Spfqkjzifh
yg&DjrdK@ aqmfAGefwuUodkvfwGif ynmqufvuf oif=um;awmfrlonf? aqmfAGefwuUodkvfonf ouUÉbmom
oif=um;ay;jcif;/ r[m,meAk'<bmomudk avhvmokawoejyKvkyfjcif;rsm;wGif emrnf}uD;vSayonf?
,if;wuUodkvfwGif 8 ESpfr#ynmoif=um;&if; jyifopfbmompum;udk aumif;pGm wwfajrmufvmonfh
tavsmuf to*F. eufeJcufcJvSonfh tbd"rRmorkpP, usrf;}uD;udk jyifopfbmom jyefqdkjyKpkEkdifcJh
ayonf? ,if;usrf;}uD;udk jyKpkjcif;jzifh aqmfAGefwuUokdvfrS a'gufwmbJG@udk qGwfcl;EdkifcJhjyefayonf?
1964 ckESpfwGif tar&duef/ tDvDEGdKufjynfe,f/ taemufajrmufwuUokdvfwGif bmoma&;pmay
qdkif&m ygarmuQtjzpf cef@tyfjcif;cH&onf? taemufEkdifiHwuUodkvfrsm;wGif a&S;OD;ygarmuQtjzpf cef@tyfjcif;
cH&aom Ak'<bmom bkef;awmf}uD;jzpfavonf?
1965 ckESpfwGif q&mawmf. *dk%f;jzpfaom oD&duvsm%D or*D~oHCmhoAŠ u q&mawmftm; ynm
t&mwGif tjrifhqHk;bJG@xl;jzpfaom “wdydÉu 0*FoGm&mp&d,” bJG@udk ay;tyfonf? oD&dvuFmEdkfifiHwGif T
bJG@xl;aqmif q&mawmfrsm;rSm ,ckwkdif ESpfyg;/ oHk;yg;r#om &dSonf[k od&onf?
1966 ckESpfwGif oD&dvuFmEdkifiHY topfzGihfvSpfvkdufaom 0daZ…m', wuUodkvfwGif 'k-t"dywdtjzpf
oD[dkVftpdk;&u cef@tyfcJhonf?
1977 ckESpfwGif tar&duef yifq,fvfaA;eD;,m;jynfe,f/ qGqfrkd;wuUodkvfYvnf;aumif;/ 1978 ck
ESifh 1979 ckESpfrsm;wGif umvDzdk;eD;,m;jynfe,f wuUokdvfESifh ta&S@wdkif;ynm&yf wuUodkvfrsm;wGif
vnf;aumif; {nfhygarmuQtjzpf Ak'<bmompmayrsm;udk yd@k cs oif=um;ay;awmfrlcJhonf?
1978 ckESpfwGif oD&dvuFmwuUokdvfrS *k%fxl;aqmif a'gufwmbJG@jzifhvnf;aumif;/ urBmay:wGif
a&S;tusqHk;wuUodkvfwpfckjzpfonfh emvENwuUokdvfrS (0dZ…m 0&d'd<)/ /'DvpfbJG@xl;jzifhvnf;aumif; csD;jr‡ihfjcif;
cH&onf? 1979 ckESpfwGif umvDzdk;eD;,m;wuUokdvfrS *k%fxl;aqmif a'gufwmbJG@jzifh csD;jr‡ifhjcif;cH&jyefonf?
1980 ckESpfwGif oD[dkVf auved,wuUokdvfrS *k%fxl;aqmif a'gufwmbJG@jzifh csD;jr‡ifhjcif;cH&onf?
1974 ckESpfrSpI q&mawmf. wljzpfol wpfOD;. zdwf=um;jcif;ESifh t*FvefygVdawmf toif;}uD;.
twGif;a&;r_; rpPpf a[mfem;(uG,fvGef) . yifhav#mufawmif;yefjcif;rsm;a=umifh q&mawmfonf vef'efjrdK@
wGif tajcpdkuf oDwif;oHk;I aexdkifawmfrlcJhayonf? t*FvefygVdawmf toif;wGif tr_aqmifwpfOD;tjzpf
yg0ifI bmomjyef vkyfief;rsm; vkyfudkif&if;/ bmoma&;pmtkyftrdsK;rdsK; a&;om;jyKpkawmfrlv#uf &dSonf?
Todk@ vef'efwGif oDwif;oHk;awmfrlv#uf&Sdaomfvnf; tar&duef/ Oa&myESifh *syefwuUodkvfrsm;odk@ c&D;vSnhf
vnfI pmayydk@csv#ufyif &dSavonf?
txl;tm;jzifh rdrd. EdkifiH&if;jzpfaom oD&dvuFmwGif auved,wuUokdvf. 'k-t"dywdtjzpf
vnf;aumif;/ y&r"rRAk'<wuUodkvf. t}uD;tuJtjzpfjzifh vnf;aumif;/ aqmif&Gufawmfrlv#uf &dSygonf?

10

,if;wuUodkvfonf oD&dvuFmEdkifiH orRw}uD;ESihf 0ef}uD;csKyfw@kd . awmif;yefcsuft& q&mawmfu 1982
ckESpfwGif wnfaxmifzGifhvSpfay;vdkufaom wuUokdvfopfwpfck jzpfayonf? ,if;wuUokdvfwGif vlrdsK;ra&G;/
bmomra&G;/ ygVdpmayESifh Ak'<pmaywd@k udk tqifhjrifhjrifh oif=um;ay;v#uf&dS&m T tjynfjynfqdkif&m Ak'<
wuUodkvfrdsK; urBmwGif Twpfckom &dSao;a=umif; od&Sd&ayonf?

11

ed'gef;

,ae@ urBmwpf0ef;vHk;wGif Ak'<bmomESihfywfoufI pdwf0ifpm;r_ wdk;wufjrm;jym;v#uf &dSae
ayonf? Ak'<bmomavhvm&ef toif;tzJ@G ESihf avhvma&;tkyfpkaygif; rsm;pGmwdk@ ay:aygufvm=uI Ak'<
&Sifawmfbk&m;a[m=um;awmfrlaom a'oemawmfrsm;ta=umif; pmtkyfaygif;rsm;pGmvnf; xGufay:cJhayjyD?
odk@&mwGif 0rf;enf;p&maumif;vSonfrSm TuJho@kd pmtkyftrsm;tjym;udk trSefwu,f wwfusGrf;em;vnf
jcif; r&dSolrsm;u a&om;ae=ujcif; jzpfayonf? wzef wpfjcm;bmomrsm;rS qif;oufcJhaom xifa,mif
xifrSm;jzpfapaom rSwf,lcsufrsm;udk ‚wd@k .pmrsm;wGif oGwfoGif;a&;om;=uojzifh (Ak'<a'oem) udk
t"dy`g,f aumuf,lrSm;jcif;/ tvJGazmfjyjcif;wd@k jzpfaeayonf? r=umao;rDu Ak'<bmom pmtkyfwpftkyfukd
jyKpka&;om;aom (bmom0g' Ed_if;,SOfavhvma&;ynm) ygarmuQwpfOD;onf Ak'<jrwfpGmbk&m;tm; =unfndK
av;pm;pGmjzifh tvkyftausG;jyKpkcJhol t&Sifjrwf tmeENmudk bduQKrax&fwpfyg; jzpfonf[k rod&SdbJ
OyoumwpfOD;[k xifjrif,lqcJhavonf? TuJho@kd aompmtkyfrdsK;rS aygufyGm;vmrnfh Ak'<bmomESihf
ywfoufonfh todynmonf rnfuJho@kd &dScsdrhfrnfudk pm&_olrsm; pOf;pm;pdwful;Iom =unfh=uapvdkygawmh
onf?
usGEfkyfonf Tpmtkyfi,fukd Ak'<bmoma&;&mudk pepfwusavhvmoif=um;r_ r&cJhaomfvnf; Ak'<
u rkcsa[m=um;awmfrlcJhaom w&m;a'oemtrSefukd od&Sdvkd=uonfh ynmwwftod^m%f&dSol/ pmay
tESH@tjym;zwfwwfol yk*~dKvfwdk@tm;/ &nfpl;Ia&;om;ygonf? ‚wdk@tusdK;iSm Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwf E_wfawmfrS
{uef¹rufqdkonfh pum;vHk;rsm;udk wdusrSefuefpGm twwfEkdifqkH; vG,fvG,fwnfhwnfh enf;jzifh tusOf;csKyf
azmfjy&ef &nfoefygonf? ‚rkcygXfawmfvm pum;vHk;rsm;rSmvnf; a&S;tusqHk; tuQ&mwif rSwfom;xm;
aom Ak'<a'oemawmfrsm;jzpfonf[k wpfurBmvHk;&dS ynm&Sifrsm;u vufcHtodtrSwfjyKxm;onfh wdydÉu
awmf. rl&if;ygVdawmfrsm;wGif awG@&dS&onfh pum;vHk;rsm;yifjzpfygonf? a&;om;xm;onfhta=umif;t&mESihf
toHk;jyKxm;onfh pmydk'frsm;onf rl&if;ygVdawmfrsm;rS wdkuf&kdufwnfhwnfh udk;um;xm;csufrsm;jzpfygonf?
tcsKd@ae&mrsm;wGifrl aemufay:usrf;pmrsm;udkvnf; &nfn¸ef;udk;um;xm;ygonf?
Ak'<a'oemawmfrsm;udk tawmftoifh oif=um; avhvmcJhzl;jyD; qufvufqnf;yl;vdkao;aom
yk*~dKvfrsm;udkvnf; usGEfkyf&nf&G,f&dk;&if; ESvkH;oGif;rdygonf? xdkta=umif;a=umifh t"dua0g[m&rsm;twGuf
ygVdpum;vHk;rsm;udk azmfjyay;xm;&Hkom r[kwfao;/ rl&if;ygVdawmftwGuf usrf;nïef;rsm;udkvnf; atmufajc
rSwfom;csufwGifa&;om;xm;ygonf? tudk;tum;pmtkyfpm&if;udkvnf; oD;oef@a&G;cs,fwifjyxm;ygonf?
Tpmtkyfa&;om;&mwGif tcuftcJ trsm;tjym; ñuHawG@cJh&.? Ak'<bmomqdkif&m vlodrsm;jyD;aom
ta=umif;t&mESifh rodr=um;zl;ao;aom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk cJGjcm;pdppfI vnf;aumif;/ Ak'<a[majym
cJhaom a'oemawmfrsm;udk ta=umif;t&mESihfa[majymyHkrl&if; [efrysuf ,ckrsufarSmuf t*Fvdyfpmzwf
y&dowfwdk@ tvG,fwul em;vnf oabmouf0ifEkdifatmifvnf; ñud;pm;=uHaqmif azmfjy&onfrSm
rvG,fulvSay?
Tpmtkyfa&;om;&mwGif a&S;a[mif;ygVdawmf usrf;}uD;rsm;onf usGEfkyf.pdwf0,f ay:aeay.? E_wf
xuf&G&G usufrSwfaomtpOftvmt& usGEkfyfw@kd vufcHrSwfom;cJh&aom bk&m;rkcygXfawmfvm a'oemrsm;
wGif yg&dSonfh t"dy`g,fwl pum;vHk;rsm;ESihf xyfumwvJvJ pum;ajymyHkrsm;udk wrifwum rjyKjyifbJ xm;yg
onf? TuJhodk@ xm;jcif;jzifh Ak'<.a[majymyHkenf;[efukd tawmftwef oabmoufa&mufEkdifrnf
jzpfygonf? bmomjyef&mwGif rl&if;t"dyg` ,ftwdkif; ay:vGifEkdifor#ay:vGifapI vG,fulacsmarmpGm zwf&_Ekdif
ap&ef óu;pm;xm;ygonf?
odk@&mwGif Ak'<udk,fawmfjrwf qdkvkdawmfrl&if;t&mudk t"dyg` ,frysufap&ef óu;pm;&mwGif vG,ful
acsmarmaom 0gusrsm;tjzpf ra&;Edkifaom t}udrfrsm; awG@&ayonf? (jrwfAk'<a'oem) [k pmtkyftrnfukd
a&G;cs,fxm;&um; Ak'<udk,fawmfjrwfokH;EH_;onfh pum;vHk;rsm;twdkif;ESifh yHkaqmifaom 0wˆKrsm;twdkif; ra&;
om;ygu rSm;,Gif;ayrnf[k usGEfkyf,lqygonf? ydkrkdvG,fulpGm em;vnfap&ef &nfoefv#uf bmomjyefcsuf
wGif jyKjyifa&;om;vdkufygu qdkvdk&if; t"dyg` ,f csGwfacsmfwdrf;yg;oGm;rnfh tEW&m,f &dSaeayonf?

12

Ak'<omoemawmfwGif tajctjrpf rlvyifrjzpfI txl;tav;jyKtyfjyD; rygv#ifrjynfhpHkay[k
trsm;u,lqxm;onfh w&m;a'oemrsm;tm;vHk;vdkvkdyif TpmtkyfYxnfhoGif;aqG;aEG;xm;ygonf? ‚
w&m;awmfrsm;rSm opPmav;yg;/ r*~if&Spfyg;/ cE<mig;yg;/ uH/ b0opf/ yÉdpPorky`g'f/ tewWw&m;ESifh owdyXmef
w&m;awmfrsm;yif jzpfygonf? Tw&m;awmfrsm;udk aqG;aEG;&mwGif taemufEkdifiHom; pmzwfolrsm;twGuf
r=um;zl;/ rusGrf;usifaom toHk;tEH_;rsm; yg0ifrnfrSm "rRwmyifjzpfygonf? ‚wdk@onf a&S;OD;pGm yxrqHk;
tcef;udk zwf&_jyD;aemuf tcef;(5)/(7) eSihf (8) wd@k od@k ckefausmfzwfum a,bk,soabm ydkrkd&Sif;vif;xif&Sm;
ay:vGifvmrSom tcef;(2)/(3)/(4) ESihf (6) wd@k ukd jyefvnf zwf&_=u&ef t=uH^m%fay;vdkygonf?
Ak'<a[m w&m;rsm;ta=umif;udk pmwpftkyfa&;om;&mwGif ax&0g'ESifh r[m,me Ak'<bmomwd@k u
Ak'<0g'.tajccHrlv[k vufcHjyKxm;aom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk rxnfhoGif;razmfjybJ a&;om;I rjzpfEdkifyg?
ax&0g', udk [de,me(,mOfi,f) [laoma0g[m&udk odusGrf;em;vnf=uaom ynm&Sifyk*d~Kvfw@kd
u oHk;pJGjcif;rjyK=uawmhay? ax&0g'udk rax&f}uD;rsm;*dk%f;*% [k bmomjyefEdkifI r[m,meudk ,mOf}uD;
*dk%f;[k ,lqtyf.? ‚.trnfemrrsm;rSm rsufarSmufurBmwGif xif&Sm;ay:vGifv#uf&Sdaom Ak'<bmom0if
*dk%f;}uD;ESpf*dk%f;udk ac:a0:oHk;pJGjcif;jzpfayonf? Ak'<bmomyifukd,frl&if;trSef[k rSwf,lcH&aom ax&0g'udk
oD[dkVf/ jrefrmjynf/ ,dk;',m;/ uarBmZ/ avmESihf ta&S@ygupPwef/ ppfwaumif;e,frsm;wGif vdkufem=uI
tawmftwefumvaemufusrS jzpfxGef;ay:aygufvmaom r[m,me*dk%f;udk w&kwfjynf/ *syef/ wdAuf/
rGef*dkvD,m; paom wdkif;EdkifiHrsm;wGif vdkufem=uonf? T*dk%f;}uD;ESpf*dk%f;wGif txl;ojzifh oabmt,l
tq/ usifhxHk;"avhESifh odrSwfvdkufemr_rsm;wGif tcdsK@aom uJGvJGjcm;em;csufrsm;&dSvifhupm; TpmtkyfwGif
aqG;aEG;wifjyonfh ta&;t}uD;qHk; Ak'<. a'oemawmfrsm;wGifum; ESpfaxGuJGjym;rjcm;em;yJ wnDwnGwf
wnf; ax&0g'ESifh r[m,mewdk@ oabmwlnDr_ &dS=uygonf?
Tpmtkyfudk a&;om;ðypk&ef usGEkfyftm;wdkufwGef;aom ygarmuQ tD;/ tufzf/ pD/ vl'dk0pf tm;
vdkaom tultnDrsm;ay;um pdwfyg0ifpm;pGmjzifh t=uH^m%frsm;ay;I pmrl=urf;udk zwf&_ay;jcif;a=umifh
txl; aus;Zl;Oyum&wif&dSa=umif; azmfjyygonf? pmrl=urf;udk zwf&_I t=uH^m%faumif;rsm;ay;aom rpfpf
ar&D,Hr_ef;tm;vnf; txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sdygonf?
ed*Hk;csKyftm;jzifh Oa,smZOfukda&;om;ay;aom yg&pfjrdK@&dS usGEkfyf.q&m ygarmuQ aygvf'DrD,JADa,;.
aus;Zl;um; }uD;rm;vSyga=umif; azmfjytyfygonf?
yg&pfjrdK@
Zlvdkif/1958 ckESpf

0gvfykdvm &m[kvm

13

TpmrsufESmwGif -urBmavmu. tema&m*grsm;ud
tema&m*grsm;udk ukpm;ay;awmfrlaom/ bdouU/ aboZ…*k&k orm;awmf}uD;tjzpf
jrwfpGmbk&m;tm; ylaZmf&yHk?
vuf0JvufawmfwGif aq;0g;ñuwfudkpJGudkifI vuf,mvufawmfjzifh ab;&efuif;jidrf;apaom0f
[lonfh txdfrf;trSwfudk jyawmfrlonf? (*syef)

-- [k pmwrf;ygonfh Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwf. ykHudk azmfjyxm;ygonf?

14

TpmrsufESmwGif -Dr WALPOLA RAHULA t&Sifjrwf. ykHukd azmfjyxm;ygonf?

"gwfykHrsm;udk usGefawmf scan rul;awmhyg? TyHkrsm;udk cJ jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ a&aq;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;
usGefawmfa&;qJGjyD;rS ydk@vdkufygrnf?

15

TpmrsufESmwGif -OD;udkav;twGufxkwfay;xm;aom Dr Walpola Rahula
letter udk azmfjyxm;ygonf?

.bmomjyefqkdcGihf authorization

16

(r%d) odk@
oAŠ'geH "rR'geH ZdZdemwd?

Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwf
rdsK;EG,ftrnf a*gwr/ udk,fykdiftrnf od'<wˆ[kac:wGifaom Ak'<bk&m;&Sifawmfjrwfonf bDpD 6
&mpkESpftwGif;wGif tdEdN,ajrmufykdif;Y oufawmfxif&Sm;aexdkifawmfrlcJhayonf? ‚.bcrnf;awmf
oka'<g'eonf ousrif;wdk@. wdkif;EdkifiH (,ckeDaygjynf)wGif bk&ifrif;jrwfjzpfayonf? r,fawmfrSm rm,m
rdzk&m;}uD;jzpfygonf?
xdkacwftcgu "avhxHk;pHtwdkif; od'<wˆrif;om;onf toufi,f&G,fpOf (16) ESpfom;Y acsmarm
ajyjypfI opPmwnfwHhaom rif;orD;ydsK ,aomf",mESihf xdrf;jrm;vufxyfcJhavonf? od'<wˆrif;om;uav;
onf vdkw&Edkifaom pnf;pdrfcsrf;omjzifh ‚.eef;awmfxufwGif aexdkifawmfrlcJh&.? odk@&mwGif b0.
oabmtppftrSefESifh vl@avmu. 'kuQqif;&Jjcif;rsm;udk awG@jrifod&dSvdkufonfESifh wjydKifeuf wpfavmuvHk;
&dS owW0gwdk@. 0Éfqif;&JrS vGwfajrmufa&;enf;vrf;udk &SmazG&ef &kwfw&uf csufjcif; pdwfjyÏmef;csuf csrSwfcJh
onf? wpfOD;wnf;aom om;awmf&m[kvmudk arG;zGm;jyD;I rsm;r=umrD oufawmf ESpfq,fhudk;ESpft&G,fwGif
od'<wˆonf xD;eef;udk pGef@ypfcJhI 0Éfqif;&JrS vGwfajrmufa&;enf;vrf; &SmazG&ef awmxGufawmfrlcJhavonf?
awmxGufvmaom a*gwronf **Fgjrpf0Srf;wGif vSnhfvnfI emrnfausmf=um;aom bmoma&;
w&m;a[mq&mrsm;ESifhawG@qHkum ‚wd@kd . enf;emed\,rsm;udk avhvmoHk;oyfv#uf udk,fawmfwdkif
jyif;jyif;xefxef txl;ðcd;jcHpGm (6)ESpfwkdifwkdif usihfawmfrlcJhavonf? TuJhodk@vGefrif;pGm usifh=uHjcif;jzifh ‚.
vdktifqENrSm jynfh0jcif;r&dScJhay? xdk@a=umifh tpOftvmtm;jzifh qif;oufvmcJhaom orm;&dk;us bmom
0g'rsm;ESifh usifh=uHenf;rsm;udk pGef@y,fawmfrlI udk,fawmfwkdif w&m;vrf;udk &SmazGcJhavonf? odk@ESihf nae
csrf;wpfcsdef0,f ae&Í,mjrpfurf;yg; Ak'<*,m (,ckbD[me,f-*,mðrd@teD;) Y opfyifwpfyif (TumvrSpI
xdkopfyiftm; aAm"danmifyif/ anmifAk'<a[yif [kac:wGifonf) atmufwGif xuf0,fzJG@acG xdkifaeawmfrlpOf
oufawmf (35) ESpf&G,f&dS a*gwr&Sifawmfjrwfonf oAŠnKw^m%fawmfudk&I bk&m;tjzpfodk@ a&mufawmfrl
onf? xdkrSpI oAŠnKw^m%fawmf&Sif Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwf[lI bJ@G awmfudk cH,lawmfrlayonf?
oAŠnKw a&$^m%fawmf&jyD;aemuf Ak'<a*gwronf Am&m%oDteD; Áodywe (,ck- qm&feof) &dS
orifwdk@. O,sOfwGif;Y a&S;tcgu w&m;usihfazmfusihfzuf jzpfcJhzl;aom yÌ0*~D t&Sifwdk@tm; w&m;OD;udk
a[mawmfrlavonf? xdkae@rSpI (45)ESpfywfvkH; bk&ifESihfaus;awmom;/ ykÀm;ESihf,mpum/ abm*0gESihf
olawmif;pm;/ cdk;om;ESifhvlolawmf[lI jrLwpfpdwfr# cJGjcm;r_rxm;bJ a,musfm;rdef;r r[l tm;vHk;aom
vltrsdK;tpm;wdk@tm; w&m;a&at;udk wdkufausG;awmf rlcJhavonf? &Sifawmfjrwfonf trdsK;Zmwd/ &mxl;
*k%fodef tqifhtwef; cJGjcm;r_rsm;udk vufcHawmfrrlbJ ‚. r*~ifw&m;udk od&dSem;vnfap&ef qEN&SdI
vdkufemusifh=uHvdkol a,musfm;rdef;r tm;vHk;wd@k tm; a[m=um;awmfrlavonf? toufawmf(80)wGif
ukodEMm&Hk (,ck Owmy&ma'h&fS) Y Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwfonf y&dedAŠmefjyKawmfrlavonf?
,cktcgwGif Ak'<0g'udk oD[kdVf/ jrefrmjynf/ ,dk;',m;/ uarŠm'D;,m;/ avmjynf/ AD,uferf/ wdAuf/
w&kwf/ *syef/ rGef*dkvD,m;/ udk;&D;,m;/ azmfrkdqmESihf tdEdN,jynf tcdsK@tydkif;/ ygupPwef/ eDaygESifh qdkAD,uf
,leD,HwGif awG@&dS&ayonf? Ak'<bmom udk;uG,fol vlOD;a&aygif;rSm urBmay:wGif oef;aygif; (500) ausmf
&dSayonf?

17

tcef;(1)

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;
vltrsm; rSwf,lem;vnfaeonfh t"dyg` ,ftwdfkif; udk;uG,fonhfbmomw&m;wpfckukd ðypk
wnfaxmifolwpfOD;[k Ak'<tm;ac:qdkEkdifcGihf&Sdygu urBmay:&dSbmomw&m;trsdK;rdsK;udk wnfaxmifcJh=uaom
q&m}uD;rsm;wGif Ak'<wpfyg;omv#kif rdrdukd,fukd rEk\vlom;pifppf &Sif;&Sif;omv#ifjzpfonf[k tcdkiftrm
qdkcJhayonf? tjcm;q&m}uD;rsm;rSmrl a*gh'f [laom bk&m;ocif/ odk@r[kwf bk&m;ocif. &kyfo¿mef
vuQ%m yHkyef;trdsK;rdsK;udk cH,lol/ odk@r[kwf a*gh'fu tm;ay;wdkufwGef;vdkufolrsm; jzpf=uayonf? Ak'<onf
rEk\vlom;wpfOD;om jzpf&Hkr[kwfao;/ rnfonfhewfbk&m;/ tjcm;jyify wefcdk;&Sifwdk@xHrS tm;ay;ulnD
wdkufwGef;Ed_;aqmfjcif;udk wpfqifhcH,lr_r&dSay (olr[kwfay)? vlom;wdk@. vHk@v/ 0D&d,/ vlom;wdk@. yËdoaE<
^m%fjzifhom Ak'<onf ‚&nfrSef;aom yef;wdkifo@kd a&muf&SdI vdktyfaomqkvmbfrsm; (oAŠnKw a&$^m%f
awmf) udk rkcsatmifjrifcHpm;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf[k ta=umif;jyayonf? rEk\a,musfm; vlom;omv#if bk&m;
tjzpfodk@a&muf&dSEdkifavonf? vlwkdif;vlwkdif;wGif wu,fomvdktifqEN&dSI vH@k vjyKygu Ak'<bk&m;jzpfEdkif
aom pGrf;yum;owdW &dS=uonfomjzpfavonf? Ak'<jrwfbk&m;udk xl;uJaumif;rGefvSaom a,musfm;jrwf
(0g) OwWryk&do [k ac:qdkEdkifayonf? Ak'<onf rEk\vlom;yDo&mwGif csGwf,Gif;r_r&dS/ tjypftemtqm
uif;&Sif;pGm aphijynfhpHkvSojzifh umva&G@avsmvmaomtcg trsm;em;vnfaom bmoma&;udpP&yfrsm;Y
vlxufvGefuJI vlwdk@"rRwmw&m;udk vGefajrmufaom yk*~dKvf[k xifrSwfjcif;udk cH,lvm&ayawmhonf?
Ak'<bmomw&m;awmft& vl@b0onf trGefjrwfqkH;jzpfayonf? vlonf rdrdudk,fydkif t&Sifocif
jzpfI ol.b0jzpfpOfudk pD&ifqHk;jzwf&ef rnfonfhwefckd;tm%m&Sif od@k r[kwf txufyk*d~Kvfr# &dSonf
r[kwfay?
“rdrdonfomv#if rdrd. udk;uG,f&mjzpf.? rdrdrSwpfyg; tv,folonf (rdrd.) udk;uG,f&m
jzpfEdkifygtHhenf;” 1 [k Ak'<jrwfbk&m;u rde@f cJhavjyD? ‚. wynfh&[ef;wd@k tm; “rdrdudk,fomtm;udk;=uav?
tjcm;wpfyg;Y udk;uG,f&m r&SmavESihf” 2 [lIvnf; =o0g' ay;cJhao;.?
vlowW0gonf udk,fydkifóu;pm;r_ESihf yifukd,f^m%ftm;jzifh taESmiftzJG@tm;vHk;wdk@rS vGwfajrmufEkdif
pGrf;&dS&um; Ak'<jrwfpGmonf yk*d~Kvfwkdif;tm; rdrd. wddk;wufa&;ESifh vGwfajrmufa&;udk rdrdudk,fwkdif óu;yrf;,l
&ef tm;ay;vH_@aqmfoGefoif qHk;ray;awmfrlcJhayonf? “oifw@kd udk,fwdkif tm;xkwf=u&ukefrnf? bk&m;&Sif
(wxm*w) 3 wdk@onf vrf;udkom n¸efjy=uukef.?” 4 [k Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwfu ¹ruf=um;awmfrl.? Ak'<
jrwfbk&m;tm; u,fwif&Sif[k ac:wGif&rnfqkdygv#if vGwfajrmufa&;pcef;jzpfaom edAŠmefo@kd oGm;&m c&D;vrf;
a=umif;udk &SmazGawG@olESifh vrf;n¸efjyol tjzpfjzifhom ac:qdk=u&rnf jzpfayonf? edAŠmefodk@qdkufa&muf&ef
rSmrl Tc&D;vrf;a=umif;twdkif; usGEfkyfw@kd udk,fwkdif av#mufoGm;=u&ayrnf?
TuJhodk@ wpfOD;wpfa,mufpDudk,fwkdif wm0efcH,ljcif;[laom usihfpOfrlt& Ak'<u wynfh&[ef;wd@k
tm; vGwfvGwfvyfvyfaexdkifcGifhudk ay;awmfrljcif; jzpfavonf? r[my&dedAŠmeokwfawmfwGif jrwfpGmbk&m;
u oHCm5 tm; csKyfcs,fxm;&ef pdwfrul;cJha=umif;/ oHCmuvnf; bk&m;tay:wGif rDScdkraeapvdka=umif;
wdk@udk a[m=um;awmf rlcJhavonf?
_--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? "rRy'/ 12-4/ 'k 94-379?
2? 'DCedum,f 2 (udkvHbdk/1929) pmrsufESm 62/ r[my&dedAŠmeokwf?
3? wxm*w ] trSefodk@a&muf&dSol/ trSefw&m;udk&SmazGawG@&dSol/ Ak'<udk,fawmfjrwfonf rdrdudk,fawmfwdkif odk@r[kwf
Ak'<bk&m;trsm;ESifhywfoufu Ttac:ta0:udk toHk;jyKonf?
4? "rRy'/ 20-4?
5? oHC]vltaygif;/ y&dowftaygif;? odk@&mwGif Ak'<bmomwGif oHC onf &[ef;taygif; odk@r[kwf &[ef;tzJG@tpnf;[k
n$efjyayonf? Ak'</ "rR(w&m;)/ oHC(oHCmawmftzJG@tpnf;) wd@k udk udk;uG,fqnf;uyf&moHk;yg; odk@r[kwf &wemoHk;yg;
(}wd&we) [kac:wGifonf?

18

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

‚.w&m;awmfwGif xdefcsefzkH;tkyfxm;onfh tcsuf[lIr&dS? tmp&d,rkÏdac: q&mhvufqkyf
vufudkifjzpfI wynfhwdk@tm; roif=um; rjyobJ uG,f0Sufxm;onf[lIr&dS? wpfenf;qdkaomf q&mpm;
csefxm;aom ta=umif;rsm;r&dS[k Ak'<u ¹rufqkdcJhavonf? 1
Ak'<ucGifhjyKawmfrlaom vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:r_ukd tjcm;bmoma&;&mordkif;rsm;wGif =um;r#yifr=um;
&bl;acs? TvGwfvyfr_rSm ta&;w}uD;vdktyfvSayonf? ta=umif;rl Ak'<.tqdkt& vl.vGwfajrmufa&;
onf opPmw&m;udk udk,fwdkif &SmazG&,lEkdifjcif;tay:wGifom wnf&dSonf? rnfonfhewfbk&m; wefckd;&Sifw@kd
urS olwdk@. =oZmcHI aumif;rGefpGmusihf=uHonfhtwGuf qkvmbftjzpfjzifh csD;jr‡ifhEdkifaom t&m r[kwfay?
tcgwpfyg;Y Ak'<onf aumovjynf auoykwWjrdK@i,f wpfcko@kd a&muf&dSvmcJhonf? Tòr@aevl
taygif;udk umvmr trdsK;tEG,frsm;[k ac:wGif=uavonf? ‚wdk@òr@odk@ Ak'<a&muf&dSvma=umif; =um;aom
tcg umvmrtrdsK;om;wdk@onf Ak'<xHo@kd qnf;uyfI Tod@k av#mufxm;=uukef.?
“t&Sifbk&m;/ auoykwWo@kd &aohykÀm;tcsK@dw@kd a&muf&Sdvm=uygonf? olwdk@onf olw@kd .
t,l0g'rsm;udkom &Sif;vif;jy=uI xif&Sm;apukef=uygonf? olwpfyg;.t,l0g'rsm;udk rxDav;pm; jyK=u
ygonf? &_wfcs=uygonf? ypfy,f=uygonf? xd@k aemuftjcm;u &aohykÀm;wdk@ a&mufvm=ujyefygonf?
olwdk@uvnf; olwdk@. t,l0g'rsm;udkom &Sif;vif;jy=uI xif&Sm;apukef=uygonf? tjcm;olrsm;. t,l0g'
rsm;udk rxDav;pm;jyK=uygonf? &_wfcs=uygonf? ypfy,f=uygonf? bk&m;wynfhawmfwdk@rSm =unfndK
av;jrwfzG,faom T&aohykÀm;rsm;wGif rnfolu trSefpum;ajymI rnfolu rrSefw&m; a[moGm;=u
onfudk ra0cJGEdkifatmif tpOfpdwf&_yfayGum oHo,jzifh awGa0v#uf &dS=u&ygonf bk&m; ”
xdktcg Ak'<&Sifawmfbk&m;u bmoma&;qdkif&m ordkif;wpfav#mufwGif xl;xl;jcm;jcm; òyifbufuif;
onfh T=o0g'pum;udk ¹ruf=um;awmf rlvkdufayonf?
“[kwfayonf umvmrtrdsK;om;wd@k / ,HkrSm;zG,f&mudpPwGif oHo,jzpfay:vmaoma=umifh oifwdk@
onf ,HkrSm;oHo, &dSoifh=uayonf? pdwf&_yfayGjcif; jzpfoifh=uayonf? ,ck &_=uayavmh umvmr
trdsK;om;wdk@ owif;pum;udk =um;&Hkr#jzifh em;ra,mifESihf? tpOftvmjzpfayonf [lIvnf; vufrcHESifh? vlajym
olajym wpfqifhpum;udkvnf; r,HkavESihf? bmoma&;usrf;}uD;rsm;udk udk;um;ajymIvnf; rSefvSjyD rxifav
ESifh? wuUenf;ESifh qifjcif=uHq ,l&kHr#ukdvnf; em;ra,mifavESifh? yHkyef;tjrif o¿mef=unfhIvnf;
rqHk;jzwfESifh? a&mf&rf;rSef;q,l&aomoabm xifjrifcsufukdvnf; trSef[k rrSwf,lESifh? jzpfEdkifaumif;.[k
xifjrif&&Hkjzifhvnf; r,Hk=unfygavESihf? toifw@kd udk;uG,fqnf;uyf&m q&morm;jzpfayonf[laom
oabma=umifhvnf; rSefvSjyD[k wxpfcs rrSwf=uukef&m?
tdk-umvmrEG,fzGm; trdsK;om;wd@k / tcdsK@aomta=umif;w&m;onf tukodkvfjzpfonf/ rrSefuef/
raumif;udsK;udkjzpfaponf[k oifw@kd udk,fwkdifukd,fus od&Sd.? xdkta=umif;w&m;rsm;udk pGef@y,f=uukef
avmh? tcdsK@ta=umif;w&m;rsm;rSmrl ukokdvfjzpfonf/ aumif;udsK;udkjzpfaponf[k toifwdk@ udk,fwkdif
udk,fusod.? xdkta=umif;w&m;rsm;udk ESpfoufpGmvufcHI vdkufem usifh=uH=uayawmh? ” 2
Ak'<u TxufyifvGefuJI qdkayao;onfwpfpHkwpfa,muftm; rdrdq&mtjzpf vufcHvkdufemrnfqkdv#if wxm*wudkyifaomfvnf; trdsK;ppf
tzdk;wef rSefrrSef xif&Sm;odjrifEkdif&ef aocsmpGm ppfaq;prf;oyf avhvmoifhonf? -[k ‚. &[ef;wdk@tm; rdfef@¹rufcJhavonf? 3
Ak'<. a[majymcsuft& ,HkrSm;oHo,&dSjcif; (0dpdudp>m) onf trSefw&m;udk rsuf0g;xifxif od&Sd
em;vnf&efvnf;aumif;/ bmoma&;vkyfief; wdk;wufr_&&ef (od@k r[kwf rnfonfh wdk;wufr_twGuf) aomf
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? 'DCedum,f 2/ (udkvHbdk/ 1929) pmrsufESm 62?
2? t*FkwW&edum,-y/(udkvHbdk/1929) pmrsufESm 115?
3? 0DrHouokwW/ trSwf 47? rZdÆredum,?

19

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

vnf;aumif;/ ydwfyifwm;qD;aponfh (eD0&%w&m;)1 ig;yg;teuf wpfyg;jzpfavonf? od@k &mwGif Ak'<0g'Y
‘,Hk=unfvufcH&rnfh ynwfcsufrsm;’ [lI r&dS&um; ,HkrSm;oHo,&dSjcif; 0dpdudp>m onf 'kp&dkuf tjypfwpfck
r[kwfacs? trSefrSm Ak'<0g'wGif tjcm;bmom0g'rsm;u em;vnf,lqaom sin qif; ac: 'kp&dkuftjypf [lI
r&dSay? raumif;r_tm;vHk;wdk@. tajctjrpfonf tod^m%fuif;rJhjcif; (t0dZ…m) ESihf azmufjyefaomtjrif
a=umifh rSm;aomt,ludk&dSjcif; (rdp>m'dÏd) omv#ifjzpfayonf? ,HkrSm;oHo, &dSjcif;/ awGa0&_wfaxG;jcif;/ pdwfr
wnfrus vGifhyg;jcif;wdk@ &dSaeor# rnfonfhwkd;wufr_ukdr# &&dSEkdifrnfr[kwfonfrSm jiif;qdkEkdifaom tcsuf
r[kwfay? xdk@twl ta=umif;w&m;wpf&yfukd aumif;pGmem;rvnfor#/ xifvif;pGm odjrifr_ r&dSor# ,HkrSm;
oHo, 0ifaernfudkvnf; jiif;qdkEdkifrnf r[kwfay?
xdk@a=umifh a&S@odk@qufvufwkd;wufEkdifapjcif;iSm ,HkrSm;awG;awmr_udk okwfoify,fazsmuf&ef vHk;0
vdktyfayonf? wzef ,HkrSm;awG;awmr_ukd okwfoify,fazsmufypf&ef &Sif;vif;pGm odjrif&ayvdrfhrnf?
,HkrSm;awG;awmr_ r&dSoifhbl;/ ,Hk=unfr_ xm;&rnf[k wdkufwGef;jcif;rSm vdk&if;odk@ ra&mufEdkifay?
“usGEfkyf,Hk=unfygonf” [k ajymumr#jzifh wu,fem;vnfI wu,fodjrifr_&dSonf[k r,lqEdkifay? pmoif
om;wpfOD;onf ocsFmwpfyk'fudk wGufcsuf&mwGif a&S@od@k qufvufI rwGufEdkifaomtqifhodk@ a&mufvm
aomtcg pdwf&_yfayGjcif;/ odk@avmodk@avmawG;awmjcif; ponfwdk@0ifa&mufvmavonf? TuJhodk@awG;awm
r_ &dSaeor# ‚onf a&S@odk@wdk;wufEdkifrnf r[kwfay? T,HkrSm;awG;awmr_udk y,fazsmuf&ef enf;vrf;rsm;
&dSayonf? “usGEfkyf,Hk=unfygonf/ usGEkfyfY ,HkrSm;oHo,rsm;r&dSyg” [kqdkumr#jzifhrl jy\emudk ajz&Sif;Ekdifrnf
r[kwfacs? rdrdudk,frdrd ZGwftwif; ,Hk=unfr_&SdapI rodem;rvnfbJESifh vufcHjcif;onf EdkifiHa&;qefqef
aqmif&Gufjcif;omjzpfI bmoma&;&maqmif&Gufjcif;/ tod^m%fjzifh aqmif&Gufjcif;[k rqdkdEdkifay?
Ak'<onf ,HkrSm;oHo,&dSr_ukd y,fazsmufay;&ef tpOf tmoDoxm;awmfrlayonf? y&dedAŠmef
jyKawmfrrlcif rdepfydkif;uav;tvdkrSmyif wynfh&[ef;rsm;tm; ‚. a[majymcsufrsm;wGif ,HkrSm;oHo,
&dSygu ar;jref;=u/ aemifwGif ToHo,udpPrsm;udk r&Sif;vif;vdkuf&bd[k aemifw&um 0rf;enf;ylyefqif;&J
rjzpf=uapvifh[k Ak'<u t}udrf}udrfwkdufwGef; ajym=um;cJhayonf?
odk@&mwGif rax&frsm;onf qdwfqdwfaecJh=uay.? xdktcg Ak'<u “a[m=um;vdkufaom pum;vHk;
rsm;onf ESpfvdk=unf!dkbG,f&m jzpfygbd.? q&morm;jzpfv@kd &dkaoor_a=umifh (tm;emr_zufI ar;vdkv#uf
ESifh) rar;bJawmh raeESifh/ &[ef;azmfwpfOD;tm; ta=umif;=um;ygav (&[ef;wpfOD;tm; ol@udk,fpm; wpfqifh
ar;ay;Edkif&ef ajymyg?)” 2
vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac: =uHqr_t&mwGifomr[kwfao;? vGwfvyfpGm udk;uG,fqnf;uyfr_wGifvnf; Ak'<
u onf;cHcGifhðyawmfrljcif;rSm bmoma&;&mordkif;pOfukd avhvmaom ynm&Sifrsm;tm; tHh=oapaom
ta=umif;wpf&yf jzpfaponf?
wpf&Ha&mtcg jrwfpGmbk&m;onf emvENY oDwif;oHk;aeawmfrlpOf Oygvd trnf&dSaom xifay:
ausmf=um;aom olaX;}uD;wpfOD;onf jrwfpGmbk&m;xHawmfarSmufo@kd a&muf&Sdvmavonf? Oygvdonf
ed*¿emËykwW (*sdef;r[m0D&) . ausmf=um;xif&Sm;aom wynfh}uD;jzpfI r[m0D&udk,fwdkifu Ak'<ESihfawG@qHk
&ef Oygvdtm; apv$wfvdkufjcif;jzpfayonf? uH uH. ta=umif;tudsK;w&m;ESifh ywfoufI Ak'<. t,ltq
ESifh r[m0D&. xifjrifcsufwdk@rSm rwdkufqkdif/ uJGjym;jcm;em;v#uf &dS&um; Ak'<udk TudpPwGif pum;ppfxkd;
tEdkif,l&ef Oygvdtm; apv$wfvdkufjcif; jzpfayonf? 3
odk@&mwGif xifjrif ar#mfvifhonfhtwdkif;jzpfrvmacs? w&m;aqG;aEG;yJG tjyD;wGif Ak'<. t,ltqrsm;
onfrSefuefI ‚.q&m ed*¿. ,lqcsufw@kd rSm vJGrSm;aea=umif; Oygvdonf aumif;pGm oabmouf0if
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? eD0&%w&m;ig;yg;rSm - (u) umrp>ENeD0&% ] umr*k%fYtvdk&dSjcif;? (c) Asmyg'eD0&% ] raumif;=uHjcif;? (*) xderd'<
eD0&% ] pdwfa&mudk,fyg xdkif;rd_if;jcif;/xHkjcif;/nd_;EGrf;jcif;? (C) O'pP ukuUKpP eD0&% ] pdwfrjidrfouf ysH@vGifhjcif;/ pdk;&drfylyef
jcif;? (i) 0dpdudp>m eD0&% ] ,HkrSm;awG;awmjcif;
2? 'DCedum,f 2/ (udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 95? t*FkwˆdKvf (udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 239?
3? r[m0D&onf *dsef;bmomudk wDxGifoljzpfI Ak'<ESifhacwfjydKifjzpfonf? Ak'<xuf touftenf;i,f }uD;[ef&dSonf?

20

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

,Hk=unfoGm;avawmhonf? odk@,Hk=unfonfhtwdkif; ‚udk wynfhOyoumwpfOD;tjzpfjzifh oGwfoGif;csD;jr‡ifh
&ef Ak'<tm; Oygvdu yef=um;avawmhonf? od@k &mwGif Ak'<u Oygvdtm; jyefvnfpOf;pm;&efESifh “toif
uJhodk@ xif&Sm;I vlodrsm;aom yk*d~KvftwGuf aocsmpGm pOf;pm;&efaumif;a=umif;/ tvsOfpvdk rðyvkyfoifh
a=umif;” wdk@udk ajym=um;avonf? Oygvdu Ak'<tm;xyfrHI yef=um;jyefaomtcg ‚. bmoma&; q&m
a[mif;rsm;tm; a&S;,cifuuJhodk@yif &dkaoor_ 0wf}uD;0wfi,f qufvufðypkjrJ ðypk&ef Ak'<u arwWm&yfcH
ayonf? 1
Ak'<. TrGefjrwfvSaom pdwfxm;}uD;r_/ pmemr_rsm;udk pHerlemðyI bDpD 3 &mpkESpftwGif;wGif Ak'<
bmom0ifjzpfaom taomu {u&mZfrif;jrwf}uD;onf ‚. us,fjyef@aom tifykdif,mEdkifiHawmf}uD;
twGif;&dS tjcm;aom bmom0iftm;vHk;wd@k tm; av;pm;csD;jr‡ihf axmufyHhjcif; ðycJhayonf? ,ae@wdkif zwf&_
Edkifaom ausmufpmtjzpf xkxGif;xm;cJhonfh ‚.trde@f awmf &mZoHwpfckwGif {u&mZfbk&if}uD;u
a=unmcJhonfrSmrdrdudk;uG,fonfh bmomudkom csD;jr‡ihfajr‡mufpm;I tjcm;bmomrsm;udk zdEdSyf&_wfcsjcif;udk
rðyvkyf&Hk omr[kwfao;? Tta=umif; xdkta=umif;rsm;a=umifh tjcm;bmom 0g'rsm;udk av;pm;
csDjr‡ifh=u&ayrnf? TuJhodk@ðyvkyfjcif;jzifh rdrd.bmomudk }uD;yGm;wdk;wufapjyD;v#if tjcm;bmom
wdk@tm;vnf; ulnDaxmufyhH avonf? TuJho@kd rvkyfrl rdrdbmom. ocõsKif;udk rdrdwl;&ma&mufI
tjcm;bmomrsm;udkvnf; tEW&m,f jyK&ma&mufayonf? rdrdudk;uG,fonfhbmomudkom csD;jr‡ihf
ajr‡mufpm;I tjcm;bmomrsm;udk zdESdyf&_wfcsolrsm;onf rdrdbmomudk =unf!dkpdwfjzifh “ighbmom
*k%fodef xGef;awmufaprnf” [k awG;awm,lqjyD; ðyvkyf=ujcif; trSefjzpfayonf? odk@&mwGif T
uJhodk@ ðyrlaqmif&Gufjcif;a=umifh ‚. bmomudk ydkrkdav;eufpGm tudsK;,kwfysufjym;apygonf?
xdk@a=umifh om,mnDnGwfjcif;onf rGefjrwfayonf? vltaygif;wdk@ rSwfom;vdkufem
=uavmh? tjcm;olrsm;. bmom0g'rsm;ukd av;pm;=um;em=uukefavmh? 2
TuJhodk@ =uifemiJh!Sm udk,fcsif;pmaom oabmw&m;rsm;udk bmom0g'a&;&mrsm;wGifom r[kwf/
tjcm;ta=umif; udpPrsm;wGifvnf; toHk;ðyusihfaqmifoifha=umif; usGEfkyfwdk@u xyfavmif;I azmfjy&ayrnf?
TuJhodk@ =uifemiJh!Sm udk,fcsif;w&m;onf tpueOD;uyif Ak'<0g'qdkif&m ,Ofaus;r_udpPrsm;wGif txGwf
tjrwfxm;jcif; cH&onfh w&m;rGwfwpfyg;jzpfcJhayonf? xd@k a=umifhyif vltaygif;wkd@tm; Ak'<0g'odk@ ouf0if
ul;ajymif;ap&mwGifvnf;aumif;/ ESpfaygif; (2500) twGif; Ak'<omoemjyKvkyfief;rsm; vkyfaqmifcJh=u&mwGif
vnf;aumif; wpfpHkwpfa,mufudkr# !SOf;yef;EdSyfpufcJhjcif;/ aoG;wpfayguf usqHk;apcJh&jcif; vHk;0r&dScJhay?
Ak'<0g'onf tm&SwdkufwpfckvkH;wGif jidrf;csrf;om,mpGm ys@H ES@H cJh&m ,cktcg Ak'<bmom0ifaygif;
oef;aygif; (500) ausmf &dSayjyD? rnfonfhta=umif; y&d,m,fESihfr# rnfonfht=urf;zufr_rdsK;udkr# rðyvkyf&ef
Ak'<u vHk;0wm;jrpfawmfrlonf?
Ak'<0g'onf udk;uG,fonhf bmomw&m;avm/ zDavmfaqmfzDac: '\eduaA'/ ememe,
usdK;a=umif;jy ynm&yfwpfckayavm[k r=umc% ppfa=umar;jref;=uayonf? rnfo@kd yifac:ac: ta&;r}uD;
vSyg? rnfonfhtrnfemray;ay;/ Ak'<0g'onf Ak'<0g'yif jzpfaeayrnf? trSwfwHqdyfonf t&m0ifaom
ta=umif;r[kwf? ta&;r}uD;yg? Ak'<a[m=um;awmfrlcJhaom w&m;a'oemrsm;udk ‘Ak'<0g'’ [k ay;tyfxm;
onfh trSwfwHqdyfonfyif a&;}uD;cGifus,f r[kwfvSyg? ac:a0:onfh trnfemronf r&dSrjzpfonhf
ta=umif;wpf&yf r[kwfygacs?
a&$ESif;qD b,frnfay;/ ar$;rysuf &dSrnfom?
rnfemrm vdk&ma&G;/ a&; r}uD;yg?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? OygvdokwW/ trSwf 56/ rZdÆredum,f?
2? taomu ausmufpm 12?

21

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

xdk@twl opPmw&m;onf trnfwHqdyfrvdkyg? opPmonf Ak'<bmomydkifvnf; r[kwf/ c&pf,ef/
[dENL/ rGwfqvif ydkifvnf;r[kwf/ rnfol wpfOD;wpfa,mufykdifr# r[kwfay? *dk%f;trnf wHqdyfrsm;onf
opPmw&m;udk vGwfvyfpGm em;vnfoabmayguf&ef [ef@wm;ydwfyifaponf? xd@k jyif vlrsm;.pdwfwGif
tudsK;,kwfaponfh txiftjrifvJGr_ rsm;udkvnf; jzpfay:apwwfayonf? A[kokw todynmESihf
bmoma&;&m udpPrsm;omr[kwfao;? vlr_a&;&m udpPrsm;wGifvnf; TuJhodk@yifjzpfwwfayonf? OyrmusGEfkyfwdk@onf vlwpfa,mufudk qHkpnf;rd&mwGif ‚tm; vl;om;wpfOD;[k rrSwf,lbJ t*FvdyfyJ/ jyifopfyJ/
*smref/ tar&duef/ a&0wDyJ paom trnfwHqdyfukd cwfESdyfvdkuf=uayonf? xdk@aemuf usGEfkyfw@kd pdwfY
‚trnfwHqdyfESifhyl;wJG pJGuyfv#uf&Sdaom vJGrSm;onfh ,lqcsufrsm;jzifh xdkvltm; =unfh&_ayawmhonf?
wpfzufom; ol@crsmrSmrl usGEfkyfwdk@pJGvrf;xifrSm;aeaom ta=umif;jcif;&mrsm; vHk;0uif;&Sif;aumif; uif;&Sif;
aeayvdrfhrnf?
vltaygif;wdk@onf cJGjcm;cJGjcm;jzpfaponfh trSwfwHqdyfrsm;udk cHkrifvS=u&um; vltm;vHk;wd@k wGif
awG@&dSEdkifonfh *k%ft&nftcsif;ESifh pdwfv_yf&Sm;r_t&mrsm;udkyif vdkufvHtrSwfwHqdyfrsm; qJGuyfvdkuf=uay
onf? tvSL'geðyjcif;udk Ak'<bmomtvSL/ c&pf,eftvSL[k wHqdyfcJGjcm;wyfqifv#uf wHqdyfrwlaom tvSL
udk txiftjrif ao;avh&dS=uayonf? od@k &mwGif 'ger_ukd *dk%f;/ bmomcJGI r&paumif;ay? 'ger_onf
c&pf,efvnf;r[kwf/ Ak'<bmom/ [dENL/ rGwfqvifvnf; r[kwfay?
rdrd&ifaoG;tm; cspfjrwfEdk;aom rdcif. cspfpdwfonf Ak'<bmomvnf;r[kwf/ c&pf,efvnf;r[kwf/
rdcifarwWmomv#if jzpfayonf? vlom;wd@k vuQ%mt&nftcsif;ESifh pdwfv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;qdkif&m cspfarwWm/
tvSL'ge/ oem;jcif;/ onf;cHjcif;/ cGihfv$wfjcif;/ rdwfusGrf;0ifjcif;/ tvdkqENjzpfjcif;/ rkef;wD;jcif;/ &efjidK;xm;jcif;/
rdkufrJjcif;(ynmuif;rJhjcif;) ESifh rmeaxmifv$m;jcif; ponfw@kd onf *dk%f;jcm;aom trSwfwHqdyfrsm; rvdkay?
‚wdk@udk rnfonfhbmomESifhom oufqkdifonf[k r,lqEdkifay?
trSefw&m;udk &SmazGaeoltm; oabmw&m;wpfckukd rnfonfhae&mrSyif&onfjzpfap/ ae&monf
ta&;r}uD;yg? ‚oabmw&m;onf rnfonfhtajcrS jzpfay:cJhonf? rnfuJhodk@ wdk;wufjyef@yGm;vmcJhayonf
ponfwdk@rSm ynm&Sifwdk@ aqG;aEG;&efom jzpfavonf? trSefpifppf opPmw&m;udk em;vnfbdk@&eftwGuf Ak'<
udk,fawmf a[m=um;aomw&m;avavm/ tjcm;wpfpkHwpfa,mufu a[m=um;xm;avoavm[k od&Sd
ae&efyif rvdkay? opPmw&m;udk wu,fodjrifI oabmaygufem;vnf&efom t"du jzpfayonf? rZdÆr
edum,f/ okwWHtrSwf 140 wGif Ttcsufukd xif&Sm;apaom ta&;}uD;onfh yHk0wˆKwpfyk'fyg&dSavonf?
tcgwpfyg;wGif Ak'<onf tdk;xdef;onfwpfOD;. wif;ukyfY1 wpfnOfhtdyfem;ae.? xdkwif;ukyfrSmyif
tvsifa&muf&dSESifhaeaom awmaysmf (awmxGuf) &aohwpfOD; &dSaeayonf? wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; odusGrf;=uonf
r[kwfacs? Ak'<onf xdk&aohudkjrifI “T&aohi,f. trlt&mrsm;onf ESpfvkdzG,f &dSvS.? ol@ta=umif;udk
pHkprf;&ygrl aumif;avpG” [k atmufarhjyD;v#if ³³³³³
“tdk bduQL2 --oifrnfol@udk&nfrSef;I awmxGufcJhayoenf;/ oifhq&mum; rnfolayenf;/ rnfo@l
t,l0g'udk oifESpfðcdufayoenf;” [k ar;jref;avonf?
“tdk igh&Sif/ousrif;rdsK;wdk@udkpGef@v$wfI awmxGufoGm;cJhaom ousomuD0if a*gwrqdkol awmxGuf
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? tdEdN,jynfwGif tdk;xdef;onfwif;ukyfwdk@onf us,fus,f0ef;0ef;ESifh wdwfwdwfqdwfqdwf&dS=uonf? ygVdawmfrsm;Y Ak'<ukd,f
awmfwdkifESifh &aohwyoD a,m*Dyk*~dKvfwdk@ a'opm&DvSnfhvnf oGm;vm=u&mwGif tdk;xdef;onf wif;ukyfrsm;wGif nOfhtdyf
nOfhae wnf;cdk=ua=umif; azmfjy=uonf?
2? Ak'<bmom&[ef;awmfrsm;udkom ac:qdkonfh bduQK[laomtmvkyfjzifh T&aohtm; Ak'<u ac:qdkonfrSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,f
jzpfayonf? aemufydkif;wGif T&aohonf bduQKr[kwfa=umif;/ oHCmawmf*dk%f;0ifyif r[kwfa=umif; Ak'<xH&[ef;jyKcGihf
awmif;cHjcif;jzifh od&onf? Ak'<vufxufu bduQKtoHk;tEH_;rSm tjcm;bmom0ifrsm;udkvnf; rcJGjcm;bJ oHk;cJhoavm/ Ak'<
udk,fawmfwdkifu TtoHk;tEH_;udk wdwdusus toHk;rðyIayavm? bduQKt"dy`g,frSm‘bkef;awmif;,mpum’awmif;cHpm;
aomufol [lI&dS&um; Tae&mwGif pum;vHk;.rl&if;pmayt"dy`g,ftwdkif; toHk;ðyxm;[ef&dSayonf? odk@aomf ,ck acwf
oHk;t"dy`g,frSm bduQKonf Ak'<bmom &[ef;awmf[k qdkvdkI txl;ojzifh ax&0g'xGef;um;&m oD[dkVf/ jrefrm/ xdkif;/
uarBmZESifh ppfwaumif;a'owdk@wGif txl;toHk;rsm;onf?

22

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

&[ef;wpfyg;&dSygonf? olonf&[EWmjzpfjyD/ orRmorŠK'<bk&m;jzpfjyD [k ausmf=um;v#uf &dSygonf? Tbk&m;
a*gwrudk wdkifwnfI usGEfkyfawmxGufcJhygonf/ Ak'<onf usGEkfyfq&mjzpfI ‚.0g'udk ESpfðcdufygonf” [k&aohi,fu jyefvnf ajz=um;ayonf?
“T orRmorŠK'< bk&m;&[EWmonf ,ckb,frSm oDwif;oHk;aexdkifawmfrlygoenf;”?
“igh&Sif/ TrS ajrmuft&yfa'owGif om0wdˆjynf}uD;&dSayonf? tJ'D om0wdˆjynfwGif xdk orRmorŠK'<
bk&m;&[EWm ,ck oDwif;oHk; aexdkifawmfrlygonf”?
“xdkjrwfpGmbk&m;udk toifzl;ajrmfzl;ygoavm/ jrifawG@&v#if jrwfpGmbk&m;[k od&dSrSwfrdygrnfavm”
“rzl;ajrmfbl;yg/ jrifv#ifvnf; odrnfr[kwfyg”?
T trnfrod&ao;aom vli,fonf rdrdtm; tm&HkðyI awmxGufjyD; &aohvkyfvma=umif; Ak'<
onf &dyfpm;rdvmonf? udk,fawmfwkdif rnfoljzpfa=umif; xkwfazmfI rajymjyao;bJ“tdk bduQL/usGEfkyfw&m;a[mjyrnf?*&kwpdkufem=um;avmh/a[mjyrnf” [k Ak'<u¹ruf=um;avonf?
“aumif;vSygjyD igh&Sif” [k &aohi,fu oabmwlavonf? xdktcgwGif Ak'<u &aohi,ftm; opPm
w&m;ta=umif;udk xl;uJpGm &Sif;vif;a[mjyawmfrlavonf? (tusOf;csKyfudk aemufwGif azmfjyxm;onf) 1?
a'oemjyD;qHk;rSyif ykuUKomwdtrnf&Sdaom T&aohi,fonf w&m;"rRjzifh ‚tm; csD;jr‡ifhaeolrSm
Ak'<udk,fawmfwdkifyifjzpfa=umif; od&Smayonf?
xdk@a=umifh ae&mrSxI Ak'<a&S@awmfarSmufo@kd oGm;a&muf ajcawmf&if;Y 0yfwGm;jyD;v#if Ak'<tm; rod
rSm;,Gif;I “igh&Sif”2 [k ac:a0:rdonfukd &dSckd;awmif;yefavonf? xd@k aemuf &[ef;tjzpf csD;jr‡ihf&ef
cGifhawmif;cH avonf?
Ak'<u ‚tm; oydwfESifh ouFef;rsm; toifh&Sdr&dS ar;jref;avonf? (bduQKwpfyg;wGif ouFef;
oHk;xnfESifh qGrf;cH&efoydwf &dS&jrJjzpfonf?) ykuUKomwdu r&dSa=umif;ajymaomtcg Ak'<u wxm*w
rnfonf oydwfESifh ouFef;r&dSbJ &[ef;ðyay;&dk;r[kwf[k ¹ruf=um;awmf rlavonf? xdk@a=umifh ykuUKomwd
onf oydwfESifh ouFef;&SmazG&ef xGufcGmoGm;cJh&m uHraumif;ta=umif;rvSI EGm;rwpfaumif3 ta0S@cH&jyD;
v#if toufqHk;& &Smavonf?
aemufwGif T0rf;enf;zG,f owif;udk Ak'<=um;&aomtcg ykuUKomwdonf tusGwfw&m; &oGm;jyD
jzpfa=umif;/ edAŠmefwHcg;0ta&muf aygufa&mufoGm;cJha=umif;/ ,cka&mufoGm;onfhb0wGif &[EWm4 jzpfjyD;
aemuf oHo&mrS xGufajrmufoGm;awmhrnf jzpfa=umif; a[m=um;awmfrlavonf? 5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? wwd,ajrmuf opPmta=umif; tcef;wGif azmfjyxm;onf?
2? toHk;jyKaompum;vHk;rSm ‘tm0kaom’jzpfI ‘igh&Sif’odk@r[kwf ‘rdwfaqG’[k t"dy`g,f &onf? wef;wljcif; &dkaoor_ ac:a0:
jcif;jzpfonf? wynfh&[ef;wdk@u Ak'<tm; T ‘tm0kaom-ihg&Sif’qdkaom toHk;tEH_;jzifh av#mufxm;avhr&Sdyg? ‚tpm;
‘baEW’ [kom oHk;jrJjzpfI t&Sifbk&m;/ t&Sifjrwfbk&m; [k t"dy`g,f&avonf? Ak'<vufxufawmfu &[ef;awmfrsm;onf
wpfyg;ESifh wpfyg;tm; ‘tm0kaom’[k ac:a0:cJh=uonf? odk@&mwGif y&edA‡ŠmefpHvGefawmfrrlrD Ak'<u &[ef;i,frsm;tm; rax&f
}uD;wdk@udk baEW t&Sifbk&m; odk@r[kwf tm,oRm =unfndKzG,f(touf&Snfaom) t&Sif[k av#mufxm;=u&ef ynwfawmf
rlcJhavonf? rax&f}uD;rsm;u &[ef;i,frsm;tm; trnfjzifhvnf;aumif;/ ‘tm0kaom’[kvnf;aumif; ac:=u&onf? T
tavhtusifhonf Ak'<bmom oHCmawmfrsm;wGif ,ckwdkif wnfjrJv#uf &dSaeayao;onf?
3? tdEdN,wGif EGm;rrsm; vrf;r}uD;rsm;ay: usufpm;=ua=umif;udk vlodrsm;=uayonf? T0wˆKt& Ttavhtusifhonf a&S;
ya0%Duyif &dScJha=umif; od&ayonf? odk@&mwGif trsm;tm;jzifh EGm;rrsm;onf ,Ofyg;aeI a0S@wwfjcif;/ tEW&m,fðywwf
jcif; r&dS=uay?
4? &[EWmqdkonfrSm avmb/a'go/arm[/ tbdZÆm/ rmefrmepaom udavom tnpfta=u;rsm;rS uif;pifjyD;aom yk*d~Kvfjzpf
avonf? edAŠmefodk@a&muf&dS&ef tqifhrsm;wGif pwkwˆ odk@r[kwf aemufqHk;tqifhodk@a&muf&dSjyD;jzpfI ^m%fynm/ u&k%m
paom t&d,mwdk@. t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh jynfhpHkjyD; jzpfayonf? xdkpOfu ykuUKomwdrSm tem*grd(umrbHkodk@ rvmvwW@H aom
yk*d~Kvf) ac:wGifaom wwd,tqifhodk@om a&muf&dSoGm;onf? 'kwd,tqifhudk ou'g*grd(umrbHkodk@ wpf=udrfomvmrnfh
yk*d~Kvf) [k ac:wGifI yxrtqifhrSm aomwmyef(r*fa&tvsOfodk@a&mufol) jzpfonf?
5? um;vf*sDvm&yfa&;aom bk&m;zl;c&D;onf uredw ac:pmtkyfonf T ykuUKomwd 0wˆKudk rDS;I a&;om;xm;[ef wlonf?

23

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

ykuUKomwdonf Ak'<w&m;udkem,lI oabmaygufem;vnfpOfu rnfolu w&m;a[maerSef;/
rnfol. bmom0g'jzpfrSef;roda=umif; T0wˆKrSm xif&Sm;ayonf? ykuUKomwdonf trSefw&m;udk od&Sd
em;vnfoGm;ayonf? aq;pGrf;u a&m*gaysmufuif;ayrnf? xdkaq;udk rnfolazmfpyfonf/ b,fu&&dSonf
[k odae&ef rvdkawmhay?
bmom0g'wdkif;vdkyif ,Hk=unfr_(rsufpdrSdwf,kH=unfr_) ay:wGif tajcwnf=uavonf? Ak'<0g'rSmrl
ouf0if,Hk=unfr_ay:wGif tajcrjyKbJ jrifr_/ odr_/ em;vnfr_ay:wGifom tajccHavonf? Ak'<0g'pmayrsm;
wGifawG@&dSaom o'<g [laom pum;vHk;udk trsm;tm;jzifh ‘ouf0ifr_/ ,Hk=unfr_’ [k bmomjyefavh &dS=u
onf? odk@&mwGif ‘o'<g’ qdkonfrSm ‘,Hk=unfr_’ rnfumrwWr[kwf? udk,fwdkif ausauseyfeyf &Sif;&Sif;
vif;vif; od&dSem;vnfI jzpfay:vmaom ‘pdwfcs,Hk=unfr_’ rdsK;jzpfayonf? trsm;em;vnfaom Ak'<0g' ESifh
usrf;pmrsm;wGif omrefa&;om; oHk;pJG&mY o'<gqkdonfrSm bk&m;/ w&m;/ oHCmwdk@tm; ‘udk;uG,f,kH=unf
onf’ qdkaom t"dy`g,frdsK;&dSonfudkrl 0efcH&ayrnf?
at'D 4 &mpkESpfqDu xif&Sm;cJhaom Ak'<tbd"rRmq&m}uD; to*F. tvdkt& o'<gwGif atmufyg
vuQ%moHk;rdsK;&dSayonf?
1? ta=umif;t&mwpfckonf t[kwftrSef&Sdonf jzpfonf[k jynfhpHkcdkifcHhpGm od&dSem;vnfjcif;/
2? aumif;aomt&nftcsif;rsm;wGif yDwd&Sdjcif;/
3? &nfrSef;csufudk atmifjrif&&dSvkdaom qEN? 1
tjcm;bmom0ifwdk@ em;vnf=uaom ‘ouf0ifr_’ od@k r[kwf ‘,Hk=unfr_’ ponfw@kd onf Ak'<0g'ESifh
ywfoufjcif; r&dSay? ,Hk=unfjcif; [laom udpPonf odjrifr_(tjynfhtpHkod&dSem;vnfr_) r&dSrSjzpfay:ayonf?
odjrifem;vnfonfESifhwpfðydifeuf ,Hk=unfjcif;[laom jy\emr&dSEdkifawmhacs? vufxJwGif ausmufrsuf&JG
wpfvHk;udk qkyf0Sufxm;ygonf[k ajymygrl udk,fwkdifrsufpdjzifh rjrif&I ,Hk=unf&aom udpPr#om jzpfayonf?
vuf0g;udkjzef@I ausmufrsuf&JGudk xkwfjyygv#if rsufpdjzifh udk,fwdkifjrif&jyDjzpfI ,Hk=unf&HkudpPr[kwfawmhay?
Tonfudk&nfI a&S;usaom Ak'<usrf;pmrsm;wGif ‘ausmufrsuf&JG/ odk@r[kwf (zefcg;oD;)udk vuf0g;jyifwGif
jrif&ouJhodk@ oabmaygufem;vnfonf’ [laom toHk;tEH_;rsm;udk azmfjyavh&dSonf?
Ak'<. wynfhwyef; &[ef;wpfyg;jzpfaom rkoDv u tjcm; &[ef;wpfyg;tm; atmufygtwdkif;
rdef@=um;zl;avonf“igh&Sifo0dÏ/ udk;uG,fouf0if ,Hk=unfr_a=umifhr[kwfbJ =unf!kdjcif;/ udkif;&d_if;jcif;a=umifhr[kwfbJ
wpfqifhpum; olrsm; ajym=um;Ivnf; r[kwfbJ/ rd&kd;zvm,Hk=unfr_a=umifhvnf; r[kwfbJ/ [kwfrSefavmuf
ayonf [k }uHpnfpOf;pm;Ivnf; r[kwfbJ/ t,ltq trdsK;rdsK;udk awG;awm}uHq oabmusIvnf;
r[kwfbJ b0.csKyfqHk;&monf edAŠmefjzpfonf[k usGEkfyfukd,fwkdif odjrifayonf?” 2
Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwfuvnf; “&[ef;wd@k / udavom tnpfta=u;wdk@udk csGwfaq;ypfjcif;onf odaom/
jrifaom yk*d~KvftwGufomjzpfI rodaom/ rjrifaom yk*~dKvftwGuf r[kwfay” [k rdef@¹rufawmf
rlcJhavonf? 3
odjcif;jrifjcif;onfomv#if y"mejzpfI ,Hk=unfjcif;rSm t&mr[kwfygacs? Ak'<. a'oemrsm;wGif
“{[dy\du” [kyg&dS&m vmI &_vSnhfavmh [kom zdwfac:ayonf? “vmI ,Hk=unfvufcHyg” [k rqdkay?
tusGwfw&m;aygufa&mufjyD;aom yk*~dKvfw@kd . ta=umif;udk azmfjy&mwGif Ak'<usrf;pmwdk@Y “jrLr_ef
tnpfta=u;uif;aom opPmrsufpd("rRpuQK) yGihfcJhjyD?” “opPmw&m;udk rsufjrifjzpfayjyD/ opPmw&m;udk
qGwfcl;rdayjyD”? “opPmw&m; udk od&SdayjyD/ opPme,fwGif;od@k azmufxGif; 0ifa&mufrdacsjyD/ ,HkrSm;oHo,
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? tbd"rRm orkpP,/ to*F (oHwdedauwH 1950/ pmrsufESm 6)?
2? oH,kwWedum, 2/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 117?
3? ‚ - 3/ pmrsufESm 152?

24

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

e,fudk ausmfvGefoGm;cJhjyD/ ,drf;,dkifawGa0r_rS uif;vGwfayjyD/ ,xmblwuspGm tod^m%fjzifh trSefudk
jrifayjyD” ponfjzifh a&;om;xm;ayonf? 1 udk,fawmfwkdif orRmorŠK'< oAŠ!kw a&$^m%fawmfukd &&dSonfh
ta=umif;ESifh ywfoufI puQHKO'yg'd/ ^m%HO'yg'd/ ynmO'yg'd/ 0dZ…mO'yg'd/ tmavmaum O'yg'd ] ^m%f
rsufpd xif&Sm; jzpfay:vm.? tod^m%f xif&Sm; jzpfay:vm.? ^m%fynm xif&Sm; jzpfay:vm.? 0dZ…m"gwf
xif&Sm; jzpfay:vm.? tvif;a&mif xif&Sm; jzpfay:vm. - [k a[m=um;awmf rlcJhavonf? 2 tod^m%f
odk@r[kwf ^m%fynmjzifh xdk;xGif;odjrifrSom (^m%'\e) tusGwfw&m; &=uonfjzpfI ,Hk=unfouf0ifr_
oufoufjzifh usGwfwrf; 0ifEdkif=uonfr[kwfay?
jAm[R%0g'wGif t,lonf;olw@kd u ‚wd@k rd&kd;zvm t,l0g'udk ouf0if,Hk=unfapI ‚0g'onf
om trSefw&m;ppfppfjzpfonf[k t&rf;vufcHap&ef wdkufwGef;aecsdefwGif TAk'<. ^m%'\evrf;pOfudk
vlóuufrsm;vmavonf?
wpfcsdefwGif xif&Sm;aom ya&m[dwfwpfpkonf Ak'<xHyg;od@k a&mufvmI Ak'<ESifh tcsdef=umjrifhpGm
w&m;aqG;aEG;=uavonf? ‚wdk@txJwGif txl;^m%fynmpGrf;&nf xufjrufvSonf[k todtrSwfjyKjcif;
cH&aom touf (16)ESpf&G,f umyËdutrnf&Sd ykÀm;vli,fwpfOD;u Ak'<tm; tar;ykp>m ðyvkyfavonf? 3
“t&Sifa*gwr/ tpOftqufrjywf E_wfwkduf&G&G &GwfzwfI qifhuJqifhuJ usufrSwfcJh&aom rd&dk;
zvm a&S;a[mif;jAm[R%usrf;}uD;rsm; &dSygonf? Tusrf;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI jAm[R% vlrdsK;wdk@u “ 'grS
trSefw&m;jzpfonf/ tjcm; b,f[mrSrrSef” [k wpfxpfcs ,Hk=unfqHk;jzwf=uygonf? t&Sifa*gwr/ tJ'D
ta=umif;t&mESifh ywfoufI bmrsm;ajymvdkygovJ?”
“jAm[R%vlrdsK;rsm;wGif ‘'grS trSefw&m;jzpfonf/ tjcm;b,f[mrSrrSef’ qdkwmudk udk,fwkdif
jrifonf/ odonf[k ajymzl;ol wpfpHkwpfa,muf &dSygovm;” [k Ak'<u ar;jref;avonf?
ykp>m&Sif ykÀm;av;u &dk;om;rSefuefpGmyif “r&dSygbk&m;” [kajz=um;avonf?
“'gjzifh,if q&mwpfa,mufwavr#/ 'grSr[kwf aqGpOf 7 qufqif;oufcJhwJh q&mhq&mawGxJrS/
'grSr[kwf 'Dusrf;}uD;awGudk a&;om;cJh=uwJh usrf;ðyyk*~dKvfawGxJu “'grS trSefw&m;jzpfonf/ tjcm;
b,f[mrS rrSef” qdkwmudk jrifonf/ odonf[kajymzl;ol wpfa,mufwavrsm; &dScJhovm;”?
“r&dScJhyg”
“'gjzifh,if rsufrjrifawG wpfa,mufESihfwpfa,muf vufqifhurf; &yfae=uovdkaygh? yxrvlu
rsufrjrif/ tv,fvluvJ rsufrjrif/ aemufqkH;vluvJ puQKtvif;r&dS? 'gha=umifh jA[R%vlrdsK;wdk@ jzpfaeyHk u
rsufrjrifawG pDwef;ae=uovdkyJ vdk@ oabm&w,f?”
xdk@aemuf Ak'<u xdkjA[R%ykÀm;wd@k tm; ta&;t}uD;qHk;aom =o0g'wpfckukd rdef@¹rufcJhavonf?
“opPmw&m;udk xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufol ynm&dSonf T[momv#if trSefw&m;jzpfonf/ tjcm;
bmrqdk rSm;,Gif;onf [kajymqdkjcif;iSm roifhacs?”
opPmw&m; xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufjcif; oabmudk &Sif;vif; a[mjyyg&ef ykÀm;vkvifrsm;u
awmif;yef av#mufxm;&mwGif “yk*~dKvfwpfOD;Y ,Hk=unfr_wpfck&SdtHh/ “T[monf usGEfkyf. ,Hk=unfr_ jzpfyg
onf” [kqdkaomf Ttcsdeftxd ‚onf trSefw&m;udk xdef;odrf; apmifha&Smufxm;onf rnfayonf?
xdk@xufvGefI “T[mom trSefw&m;jzpfonf/tjcm;bmrqdk rSm;,Gif;onf” [k ,wdjywf qHk;jzwfr_udk
rjyKtyfay?
wpfenf;qdk&aomf yk*d~KvfwpfOD;wpfa,mufonf rdrdóuufovdk ,Hk=unfEdkifI “T[mudk usGEkfyf
,Hk=unf.” [kajymqdkEdkifyg.? Tod@k ajymqdkonfhwkdifatmif trSefw&m;udk xdef;odrf;xm;ayao;onf?
odk@aomf Todk@ rdrd,Hk=unf ouf0ifr_&Sd&kHr#jzifh ‚. ,Hk=unfr_onfom trSefw&m;jzpfI tjcm;bmrqdk
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? oH,kwWedum,f 5/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 423/ 3/ pmrsufESm 103? rZdÆredum,f 3/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 19?
2? oH,kwf 5/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 422?
3? puôokwW/ trSwf 95/ rZdÆredum,f ?

25

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

rSm;,Gif;onf[k rajymqdktyfay? ” 1 [k rdef@¹rufawmf rlcJhonf?
t&mwpfck(t,ltqwpfrdsK;) udk pJGvrf;ESpfoufI tjcm;t&mrsm;(t,ltqrsm;)udk nHhzsif;onf
[k EdSrfhcswwfjcif;udk ynm&dSwdk@u “taESmiftzJ@G ”[k orkwfa=umif; Ak'<u a[m=um;xm;ayonf? 2
w&Ha&mtcg Ak'<u wynfhom0ursm;tm; yËdpPorkyg'f w&m;udk a[m=um;awmfrl.? &[ef;rsm;u
w&m;awmfudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; od&Sdem;vnf=ua=umif; av#mufxm;=u.? xdktcg Ak'<u “tdk &[ef;wd@k / T
tvGef&Sif;vif;jywfom;vSaom w&m;udkawmifrS toifw@kd onf qkyfukdifxm;v#if/ ,k,ydkufaxG;xm;v#if/
jrwfEdk;pGm odrf;qnf;xm;v#if/ pJGvrf;aev#if/ w&m;awmfonf azmifESifhwla=umif;/ wpfbufurf;od@k
ul;cyfoGm;&efom toHk;ðy&rnfjzpfa=umif;/ qkyfukdifxm;&ef r[kwfa=umif; oifwdk@em;rvnf=uao;” [k rdef@
¹rufawmfrlavonf? 3
wjcm;wpfae&mwGif w&m;awmfukd azmifESihf E_if;,SOfjyjyD;v#if wpfbufurf;odk@ ul;cyf&mY toHk;ðy
&efomjzpfI ausmukef;xufwGif o,fykd;aqmif,loGm;&ef/ qkyfudkifxm;&ef r[kwfa=umif; xif&Sm;pGm Oyrm
aqmif a[m=um;xm;cJhayonf?
“tdk &[ef;wdk@/ vlwpfa,mufonf c&D;xGufcJh.? olonf us,fjyef@aom a&jyif}uD;wpfcko@kd
qdkufa&mufvm.? TrSmbufurf;&dk;onf tEW&m,fxlajym.? tjcm;bufrSmrl ab;uif;&ef&Sif;jzpf.?
ab;uif;&ef&Sif;aom xdkbufurf;od@k avSvnf;roGm;/ ausmfjzwfoGm;&ef wHwm;vnf;r&dS? xdkolu
pOf;pm;.? Tyifv,fa&jyifum; us,fjyef@vS.? Tbufurf;&dk;onf tEW&m,fxlajym.? tjcm;bufwGif
ab;uif;&ef&Sif;.? xdkbufurf;odk@ avSvnf;roGm;/ ausmfjzwfoGm;&ef wHwm;vnf;r&dS? jruf/ opfom;/
opfudkif;ESifh opf&Gufrsm; pkaqmif;I azmifaqmuf&aomf aumif;avpG/ ‚azmifudktoHk;jyKI ig. ajcvuf
rsm;jzifh avSmfcwfI wpfbufurf;od@k ab;uif;pGm ul;oGm;aytHh?” Todk@pOf;pm;jyD;aemuf xdkolonf
jrufajcmuf/ opfom;/ opfudkif;/ opf&Gufrsm;udk pkaqmif;I azmifwnfaqmuf.? ‚azmifudk toHk;ðyI
rdrd. ajcvufwdk@jzifh avSmfcwfjyD;v#if wpfbufurf;od@k ab;uif;pGmul;ajrmufoGm;cJh.?
TuJhodk@ ul;ajrmufI wpfbufurf;od@k a&mufjyD;aemuf ‚vlwGif “Tazmifonf ightwGuf
tvGeftoHk;0ifcJhbd.? ig.ajcvufw@dk jzifh avSmfcwf&mwGif wpfbufurf;odk@a&mufatmif ydk@aqmifcJhay.?
xdk@a=umifh Tazmifudk ig. ausmxufrSm vnf;aumif;/ OD;acgif;xufrSm vnf;aumif; o,f,loGm;&aomf
aumif;aytHh” [k t}uHjzpfay:vm.?
tdk-&[ef;wdk@/ toifwdk@ rnfo@kd oabm&oenf;? xdkvlonf Tt}uHtwdkif; aqmif&Gufaomf
azmifESifh ywfoufI avsmufywfpGmaqmif&Gufjcif; rnfygoavm? “rrnfygbk&m;”? 'gjzifh tb,fuJho@kd
aqmif&GufrS azmifESifhywfoufI avsmufywfpGm aqmif&Gufjcif; rnfrvJ? wpfbufodk@ ul;ajrmufjyD;aemuf
Tvlu TuJhodk@ }uHpnfaytHh? “Tazmifonf ihgtwGuf tvGeftoHk;0ifcJh.? ig. ajcvufw@kd jzifh
avSmfcwf&mwGif wpfzufurf;odk@a&mufatmif ulnDy@kd aqmifcJhay.? Tazmifudk urf;wGif qJGwifxm;I
vnf;aumif;/ urf;wGifuyfjyD; csnfaESmifIvnf;aumif;/ xm;cJhjyD;aomf usGEfkyfoGm;vdk&modk@ qufvufxGufcgG
oGm;&aomf aumif;aytHh” Tt}uHtpnftwdkif; aqmif&GufrSom xdkazmifESifh ywfoufI avsmufywfpGm
aqmif&Gufonf rnfayonf?
tdk-&[ef;wdk@/ xdkenf;wlpGm azmifESifhwlaom w&m;"rRukd igbk&m;jyoawmfrlayjyD? wpfbufurf;odk@
ull;ajrmuf&ef twGufomjzpfI ,laqmifoGm;&ef (qJGukdifxm;&ef) r[kwfay? oif &[ef;wdk@onfvnf; w&m;
"rRonf r*~ifazmifESifh wlnDa=umif; em;vnf oabmaygufygu aumif;rGefaomt&mrsm; ("rR) udkyif
pGef@v$wf=u&ayrnf? raumif;rGefaom t&mrsm;(t"rR) udkrl pGe@f v$wf=u&efrSm tb,fqdkbG,f &dSawmhthH
enf;? 4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? okwWedygw (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 151?
2? r[mw%SmocF,okwW/ trSwf 38/ rZdÆredum,f ?
3? rZdÆredum,f (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 260?

4? rZdÆredum,f (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 134/135?

26

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

Ak'<.a'oemawmfrsm;onf vlom;wd@k tm; ab;uif;&m/ jidrf;csrf;&m/ aysmf&$if&m/ wnfjidrf&m edAŠmef
odkd@ta&muf o,f,lydk@aqmif&efjzpfa=umif;udk TyHkjyifrSm aumif;pGmxif&Sm;vSayonf? Ak'<.a'oem wpf&yf
vHk;onf T&nf&G,fcsufodk@ OD;wnfayonf? ^m%fynmupm;&efom Ak'<u t&m&mudk a[mjycJhonf
r[kwfay? vufawG@oifjyaom q&mwpfql jzpfawmfrlonfhtavsmuf vlom;wdk@tm; jidrf;csrf;r_ESifh aysmf&$ifr_
udkay;pGrf;Edkifrnfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udkom a[m=um;jyoawmfrlayonf?
wpf&Ha&mtcg jrwfpGmbk&m;onf aumordŠjynf&Sd (,ck tvmAmbmh'f) &if;wdkufawmtkyfwGif
oDwif;oHk;aeawmfrl.? opf&Gufwpfqkyfukd vufwGifukdifawmfrlI wynfh&[ef;wdk@tm; Todk@ Ak'<u ar;awmf
rl.? “tdk &[ef;wdk@/ toifwdk@ rnfo@kd xifjrifoenf;/ ig.vufwGif qkyfukdifxm;aom opf&GuftcsdK@ESifh
tay:u opfawmrSm&dSaom opf&GufawG b,f[mu ydkrsm;ayoenf;”? “t&Sifbk&m;vufawmfwGif qkyf
udkifxm;onfh opf&Gufrsm;rSm tenf;i,fr#om jzpfygonf? &if;wdkufawmtkyfrSm &dSwJh opf&Gufrsm;u tq
rsm;pGmydkrdkrsm;ygonf bk&m;”?
“TuJhodk@yJ &[ef;wdk@/ igbk&m;od&Sdonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;teuf a[majymjyonfrSm tenf;i,f
r#om jzpfayonf/ ra[majymcsefxm;onfrSm trsm;tjym;&dSonf/ tb,fha=umifh ra[mrajymbJ xm;o
enf;? tudsK;aus;Zl; r&dSI/ edAŠmefodk@ ra&mufapEdkifI xdkta=umif;rsm;udk ra[majymbJxm;onf?” 1
Ak'<onf od&dSem;vnfaomfvnf; ra[m=um;bJxm;onfh ta=umif;rsm;udk tcsdK@ynm&Sifrsm;u
yifyifyef;yef; óu;pm;I qifjcif}uHqae=uonfrSm tcsnf;EDS;tm;xkwfr_yif jzpfayonf? pdwful;,Of jy\em
rsm;jzpfay:apI ajrmfac:}uHqr_oufoufr#omjzpfaom tusdK;rrsm;onfh wuUdu (pdwfydkif;qdkif&m) ykp>mrsm;
(Metaphysical)udk aqG;aEG;&ef Ak'<onf pdwfr0ifpm;acs? ‚wd@k udk “0g'uEWm&” (Wilderness of
opinions) [lIom rSwf,lawmfrlonf? Tod@k Ak'<uoabmxm;awmfrlonfudk ‚.wynfh &[ef;rsm;wGif
rauseyf oabmraygufaom &[ef;tcdsK@ &dScJh[efwlayonf? ta=umif;rl rmvkusykwW trnf&Sd&[ef;wpfyg;
onf olrauseyfr_udk azmfxkwfjyD;v#if pHwifavmufatmif xif&Sm;aom wuUduykp>m (10) ck udk Ak'<tm;
av#mufxm;I tajzudk awmif;cHcJhayonf? 2
wpfae@oY rmvkusykwWonf urRXmef;cGifrSxI Ak'<xHyg;csOf;uyfjyD; &dScdk;0yfwGm; av#mufxm;onf
rSm - “t&Sifbk&m;/ wynfhawmf wpfOD;wnf; bm0emyGm;rsm;aepOf pdwfY Ttwdkif; jzpfay:vmygonf?
jrwfpGmbk&m;onf Tykp>mrsm;udk &Sif;vif;rjy/ vufrcH/ y,f&Sm;awmfrlonf1? p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJwnfoavm/
2? rwnfoavm/
3? p=um0Vmonf tuef@towf&Sdoavm/
4? r&dSoavm/
5? 0dnmOfonf um,ESifh twlwlyifavm/
6? 0dnmOfuwoD;wjcm;/ um,u woD;wjcm;yifavm/
7? wxm*wonf aoonf.tjcm;rJhY wnf&Sdoavm/
8? aoonf.tjcm;rJhY rwnf&Sdoavm/
9? aoonf.tjcm;rJhY (wpfòyifeuf) wnf&Sd-rwnf&dSoavm/
10? aoonf.tjcm;rJhY (wpfòyifeuf) rwnf&Sd-rwnf&dSr[kwfoavm/
Tykp>mrsm;udk jrwfpGmbk&m;u ightm;&Sif;vif;rjyay? Ttcsufudk igrauseyf/ oabmròcuf/
bk&m;xHoGm;I ar;jref;rnf/ jrwfpGmbk&m;u &Sif;vif;a[mjyv#if &[ef;0wfjzifh qufvufI ‚xHY w&m;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? oH,kwf 5 (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 457?
2? plVrmvkusokwW trSwf 63/ rZdÆredum,f?

27

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

usifhaexdkifrnf/ &Sif;vif;a[mjyjcif; rðyvkyfv#if &[ef;0wfukd pGef@ypfI xGufcGmoGm;awmhrnf? jrwfpGmbk&m;
onf p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJwnf&Sdonfukd odygu ‚ta=umif;udk &Sif;vif;a[mjyygap/ jrwfpGmbk&m;
onf p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJrwnf&Sda=umif; odv#ifvnf; r&dSa=umif;ajymygap/ p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJ
wnf&dSonf/ p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJrwnf&Sdponfw@kd udk rodygu rodonfhtavsmuf ruG,fraxmufbJ
“igrodbl;/ igrjrifbl;” [k jrwfpGmbk&m;u yGifhyGifhvif;vif;yJ ajymjy&efom&dSonf?”
,ae@urBmwGif oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom vltaygif;wd@k onf tqdkyg wudUuykp>mrsm;ESifh tzdk;xdkufwef
vSaom tcsdefrsm;udkðzef;ypfI rdrdudk,fukdrdrd pdwfrcsrf;omr_ukd tv[\ zefwD;ae=uayonf? rmvkusykwW
tm; Ak'<u ajz=um;awmfrlaom w&m;rsm;onf xdkolrsm;twGuf tudsK;aus;Zl;rsm;pGm &dSayrnf?
“rmvkusykwW/ igbk&m;u oifhtm; ‘rmvkusykwW/ vmavmh/ ighxHY &[ef;0wfvSnfhavmh/ 'Dykp>mrsm;
udk ig&Sif;vif;a[mjyrnf’ [k ajymzl;ygovm;”?
“rajymzl;ygbk&m;”
“oifuaum/ ‘t&Sifbk&m;/ t&Sifbk&m;xHY &[ef;0wfygrnf/ Tykp>mrsm;udk &Sif;vif;ajymjyyg’ [k
awmif;yefzl;/ av#mufxm;zl;ovm;”?
“rav#mufxm;zl;yg bk&m;”?
“rmvkusykwW/ tckawmifrS igbk&m;u oifhtm; ighxHvmI &[ef;ðyavmh/ oifhtm; Tta=umif;
t&mrsm;udk &Sif;vif;a[mjyrnf[k rajym/ oifuvnf; t&Sifbk&m;xH &[ef;0wfI aexdkifygrnf/ Tykp>mrsm;
udk ajz&Sif;jyawmfrlyg[k rav#mufxm;/ TuJho@kd jzpfjcif;a=umifh rnfolu rnfol@udk n‡Of;qJonf[k ac:qdk&
rnfenf; toifvlrdkuf”? 1
“rmvkusykwW/ wpfpHkwpfa,mufaomolonf jrwfpGmbk&m;xHY Tykp>mrsm;udk rajzrcsif; &[ef;
r0wf[k ajymjim;tHh/ ‚olonf wxm*wxHrS Tykp>mwd@k . tajzudkr&&dSbJ toufomv#if qHk;&H_;aumif;
qHk;&H_;oGm;ayrnf?”
“rmvkusykwW/ tu,fI vlwpfa,mufukd tqdyfvl;aomjrm; xdtHh/ ‚. rdwfo*F[ aqGrsd K;
om;csif;wdk@u orm;wpfa,mufxH aqmif=uOf;oGm;tHh/ xdktcgwGif vlemu ‘usGEfkyftm; jrm;jzifhypfoludk
rod&or# jrm;udk rðzwf&jyD/ jrm;ypform;onf cwdW, (ppfonfawmfwef;pm;) rsdK;EG,favm/ jAm[R% (&[ef;
ykÀm;) trdsK;EG,fyifavm/ odk@r[kwf a0\ (ukefonfv,fvkyf) twef;tpm;avm/ ok'<(Zmwfedrhf) xJu
yifavm/ ol@trnf/ ol.aqGrdsK;trnfu tb,fjzpfoenf;/ t&yfjrifhovm;/ykovm;/ tv,ftvwf
yJvm;/ tom;ta&u rnf;ovm;/ !dkovm;/ a&$a&miftqif;vm;/ b,f&Gm/ b,fòr@/ b,fed*kH;u
vmcJhoenf;?
tb,fav;rdsK;jzifh ypfcGif;vdkufonfufkd rod&or# jrm;udk rðzwf&jyD/ rnfuJhodk@av;óu;udk toHk;ðy
vdkufoenf;/ jrm;wHu rnfonfhtrdsK;tpm;jzpfoenf;/ jrm;wHay:wGifrnfonfh tarG;zGm;rsm; wyfxm;
oenf;/ jrm;OD;udk rnfonfht&m0wˆKjzifh ðyvkyfxm;oenf;/’ ponfjzifh ar;jref;pHkprf;onf[k qdkygawmh/
xdkolonf ‚odvdkaom Tta=umif;t&mrsm; wpfckr#rod&SdEfkdifrD toufaoqHk;&ayrnf?”
“rmvkusykwW/ Tenf;wlpGmyif wpfpkHwpfa,mufaomolonf p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJ
wnfoavm/ rwnfoavm tp&dSaom ykp>mwd@k ukd rajzrcsif; jrwfpGmbk&m;xHY &[ef;r0wf[k ajymjim;tHh/
xdkolonf toufaoqHk;onfhwdkifatmif wxm*w xHrS Tykp>mrsm;. tajzwdk@udk &&dSrnf r[kwfay”?
xdk@aemuf Ak'<onf rmvkusykwWtm; &[ef;0wfI olawmfaumif;w&m;usifhEdkif&ef Tt,ltq
oabmw&m;rsm;tay: rwnf&dSa=umif; &Sif;vif;a[mjyawmfrlavonf? Tjy\em&yfrsm;ESihf ywfoufI
rnfuJhodk@ xifjrif,lqapumrl Zmwd/ Z&m/ Asm"d/ r&%/ aomu/ y&da'0/ 'kuQ/ a'gre\ wdk@ &dSjrJ&dSaernf?
‘Tb0Yyif ‚wdk@csKyfjidrf;&m (edAŠmef) udpPukdom igbk&m; a[m=um;awmfrlayonf’ [k rde@f jrGufawmfrlav
onf?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? ESpfOD;pvHk;vGwfvGwfvyfvyf &dSonf? wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; uwd0efcHcsufrsm;jzifh csnfaESmifxm;r_r&Sd[k qdkvdkonf?

28

Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm;

“rmvkusykwW/ 'ga=umifh rnfonfhta=umif;t&mrsm;udk igbk&m;a[m=um;oenf;/ rnfonfh
ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk igbk&m; ra[m=um;/ &Sif;vif;rjyoenf; qdkonfwdk@udk aumif;pGm ESvHk;oGif;xm;
avmh? rnfonfhta=umif;t&mrsm;udk igbk&m; ra[m=um;oenf;/ p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJwnfoavm/
rwnfoavm/ (txufazmfjyyg t,ltq 10 rdsK;) ponfw@kd udk igbk&m; &Sif;vif;azmfjy a[m=um;awmfrrl?
rmvkusykwW/ Tta=umif;t&mrsm;udk igbk&m; tb,fa=umifh ra[m=um;ayoenf;? Tt,ltq
oabmw&m;rsm;onf toHk;r0if/ t&mra&muf? olawmfjrwfwdk@. vkyfief;usifhpOfESifh tajccH qufpyfjcif;
r&dS? jiD;aiG@&HG&Smjcif;/ wG,fwmr_uif;jcif;/ csKyfjidrf;jcif;/ csrf;ajrhjcif;/ xdk;xGif;odjrifjcif;/ edAŠmefodk@a&mufjcif;
tvdk@iSm axmufyHhulnDr_rðy? xdk@a=umifh Tta=umif;t&mrsm;udk oifhtm;ra[m=um;jcif;jzpfonf?
'gjzifhv#if rmvkusykwW/ oifhtm; tb,fw&m;rsm;udk igbk&m; a[m=um;ayoenf;/ oifhtm;
'kuQta=umif;udk &Sif;vif;a[m=um;onf? 'kuQjzpfay:jcif;(ork',) ta=umif;/ 'kuQcsKyfjidrf;jcif;(eda&m")
ta=umif;/ 'kuQcsKyfjidrf;&m a&muf&efvrf;pOf ('kuQeda&m" *grdedyËdy'g) 1 ta=umif;udk a[m=um;onf?
tb,fha=umifh Tta=umif;t&mrsm;udk a[m=um;ayoenf;? rmvkusykwW/ Tta=umif;t&m
rsm;onf toHk;0if t&ma&mufonf? olawmfjrwfw@kd . vkyfief;usifhpOfESifh tajccH qufpyfv#uf &dSonf?
jiD;aiG@&HG&Smjcif; jzpfaponf/ wG,fwmr_uif;aponf/ csKyfjidrf;aponf/ csrf;ajrhaponf/ xdk;xGif;odjrifjcif;/
edAŠmefodk@a&mufjcif; tvdk@iSmom axmufyhHulnDr_ ðyonf? xd@k a=umifh Tta=umif;t&mrsm;udk igbk&m;
&Sif;vif; a[mjyjcif;jzpfayonf?” 2
rmvkusykwWtm; Ak'<u &Sif;vif;a[mjyaom opPmav;yg;w&m; . ta=umif;udk ,ck usGEkfyfw@kd
avhvm=uaytHh?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? TopPmav;yg;w&m;rsm;udk aemuftcef; 4 wGif &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;onf?
2? Ak'<. qdkqHk;rpum;onf rmvkusykwWtm; vdktyfaom tusdK;udkjyD;ap[ef &dSayonf? ta=umif;rl tjcm;wpfae&mwGif
rmvkusykwWonf Ak'<xHodk@wpfzefqnf;uyfjyefI w&m;cH,ljyD;aemuf &[EWmjzpfoGm;a=umif; azmfjyxm;ayonf? t*FkwˆdKvf
(udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 345/ 346?

29

tcef;(2)

t&d, opPmav;yg;
yxr t&d,opPm - 'kuQ

Am&m%oDteD; (qm&feof) ÁodywewGif w&m;usihfazmfusifhzuf jzpfcJhonfh &[ef;ig;yg;tm;
w&m;OD; 1 a[m&mwGif &Sif;vif; a[m=um;awmfrlcJhaom t&d,opPmav;yg; ( pwWm&d t&d, opPmed) wGif
Ak'<a'oemawmf. tqDtESpfonf udef;atmif;wnf&Sdavonf? rlv ygVdawmfrsm;wGif awG@&dS&onfh T
w&m;OD;a'oemawmfwGif opPmav;yg;w&m;udk tusOf;csHK;Iom azmfjyxm;ayonf? od@k &mwGif a&S;tusqHk;
Ak'<pmay usrf;*efrsm;wGifrl ae&mtES@H tjym;Y opPmav;yg; w&m;rsm;udk enf;trdsK;rdsK;jzifh xyfwvJvJ
tao;pdwf cJGjcm;&Sif;vif;xm;ayonf? xdkpmayusrf;*efyg &nf!$ef;udk;um;csufESifh &Sif;vif;csufrsm;udk
vufpJGðyI t&d,opPmav;yg;w&m;udk avhvmoHk;oyfygu Ak'<. t"du a'oemawmfrsm;udk
rlvygVdawmfrsm;wGif yg&dSonfhtwdkif; wdusrSefuefpGm od&Sdem;vnfEdkif=uayrnf?
t&d,opPmav;yg; [lonf1? 'kuQ2 - 'kuQ/
2? ork', - 'kuQ.tp/ od@k r[kwf jzpfay:&jcif;/
3? eda&m" - 'kuQ. csKyfjidrf;&jcif;/
4? r*~ - 'kuQ. csKyfjidrf;&mod@k !$efjy a&S;&_onfhvrf;?
yxr t&d,opPm - 'kuQ

yxrt&d,opPm ('kuQt&d,opPm) udk tm;vHk;aomynm&Sifwdkif;vdkyif ‘yifyef;qif;&Jjcif; t&d,
opPm’ [k bmomjyefqdkavh &dS=ujyD; Ak'<0g't&qdkv#if avmuY aexdkifr_onf ‘yifyef;qif;&Jr_’ r#om
jzpfonf [k t"dy`g,faumuf,l=uonf? bmomjyefykHESihf t"dyg` ,faumuf,lcsuf ESpfckpvHk;onf auseyfzG,f
r&dS&Hkomru xifa,mifxifrSm;yif jzpfaponf? TuJho@kd usOf;usOf;ESifh tvG,ftvGwf bmomjyefjcif;/
tay:,du t"dy`g,faumuf,ljcif;rsm;twGuf Ak'<0gponf tqkd;bufudkom =unfhwwfaom raumif;jrif
0g'[k vltrsm;tm; xifjrifvGJrSm;aponf?
Ak'<0g'onf tqdk;tysufbufukdom wpfbufowf=unfhwwfaom 0g'vnf;r[kwf/ taumif;buf
tjzpfbufudkom jrifwwfaom 0g'vnf;r[kwfa=umif; a&S;OD;pGmxkwfazmf&ayrnf? avmuESifh b0.
wu,fyuwd tjzpfrSefudkom qifjcifokH;oyf&um; Ak'<0g'onf obm0"rRtwdkif; &_jrifaom0g'jzpfonf [k
omqdk&ayrnf? ‚0g'onf ta=umif;t&m[lor#ukd ,xmblwusatmif avhvmoHk;oyfonf? Ak'<0g'
onf pdwful;,OfavmuY arhavsmhaysmfyg;aeap&ef arSmufrSm;aom ESpfodrfhr_udkvnf;ray;? tjypfrsm;
tEW&m,frsm;udk awG;awmI pdk;&drfaomu a&mufaeatmif ajcmufvSe@f EdSyfpufr_vnf;rðy? rdrd. yuwd
tppftrSef ywf0ef;usifavmu. tajctae tjzpfoepfrSefukd twdtus ,xmblwusus ajymjyI vHk;0
vGwfvyfa&;/ jidrf;csrf;a&;/ wnfjidrfa&;ESihf csrf;ajrhaysmf&$ifa&;udk &Edkif&ef vrf;!$ef jyoay;ayonf?
orm;wpfOD;onf a&m*gtajctaeudk ‘tvGefpkd;&drfzG,f&Sdonf’ [k csJ@xGifajymqdkI ar#mfvifhcsufr&dS
awmh[k xifjrifap.? tjcm;orm;wpfOD;u rodrvdrRmpGm ‘rnfonfha&m*grS r&dS/ aq;uko&ef rvdkyg’ [k
ajymI vlemtm;arSmufrSm;aom ESpfodrhfr_ukd ay;.? yxrorm;tm; tqdk;bufukdom =unfhwwfol[lI
vnf;aumif;/ 'kwd,orm;tm; taumif;bufukdom =unfhwwfol[lI vnf;aumif;/ ac:qdkEdkifyg.? ESpfOD;
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

1? "rRpuUy0wWeokwW ‘opPmw&m;puf0ef;udk vSnfhvnfapjcif;’ r[m0*~/ (tvGwf*gr/ pmrsufESm 9)?
oH,kwfedum,f 5 (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 420?
2? 'kuQ - Ta0g[m&udk atmufwGif azmfjyygta=umif;rsm;a=umifh t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh teuft"dy`g,f rzGifhawmhyg?

30

yxr t&d,opPm

pvHk;yif nDwlnDr# a=umufrufzG,f aumif;ayonf? wwd,orm;url a&m*g. vuQ%mudk rSefuefpGm
ppfaq;I a&m*g.oabmESifh jzpfjcif;ta=umif;udk od&Sdem;vnfoGm;.? aysmufuif;atmif ukoEdkifa=umif;
&Sif;vif;pGmodjrif&um; owdW&dS&dSjzifh ydkifEkdifpGmukoav&m vlem toufcsrf;omavawmhonf? Ak'<onf
wwd,orm;ESifh wlawmfrlI urBmavmu. tema&m*grsm;udk ukoay;&ef vdrRmusGrf;usifaom
avmu"gwfynm&Sif orm;awmf}uD; (bdouU/ aboZ…*k&k) jzpfawmfrlayonf?
ygVdpum;vHk; 'kuQ (ouUw - 'kc) onf omreftoHk;wGif ‘qif;&JcH&jcif;’/ ‘emusifjcif;’/ ‘0rf;enf;
ylyefjcif;’/odk@r[kwf ‘òijiifqif;&Jjcif;’ [lI ‘aysmf&$ifjcif;’/ ‘oufomjcif;’/ ‘ryifyef;jcif;’ paom okc.
qef@usifbuf teuft"dy`g,fudk aqmifonfrSm rSefygonf? od@k &mwGif Ak'<. avmuESifh b0tay:tjrifukd
azmfxkwfaqmifaom yxrt&d,opPm tjzpfjzifh toHk;ðyxm;onfh ‘'kuQ’ wGif ‚wdk@xuf eufeJonfh
t"dy`g,f ('\eÏ) &dSI tvGefydkrdk us,fjyef@vSaomteufukd aqmifayonf?
yxrt&d,opPm. ‘'kuQ’ wGif‘qif;&JcH&jcif;’ [lonfh omrefteuf xif&Sm;pGmyg&dSa=umif; 0efcHyg
onf? odk@&mwGif ‚tjyif ydkrdkeufeJonfh oabmrsm;udkaqmifaom ‘csGwf,Gif;jcif;’ ‘rwnfjrJjcif;’
‘[if;vif;Avmjzpfjcif;’ ‘tESpfom&j'yfuif;rJhjcif;’ paom t"dyg` ,frsm;vnf; yg0ifayonf? yxr
t&d,opPm jzpfaom 'kuQ pum;vHk;. us,f0ef;aom t"dyg` ,frsm;udk tjynfhtpHk csKyfiHkEdkifonfh bmomjcm;
pum;wpfvHk;udk &SmazG&ef cJ,Of;vSayonf? xd@k a=umifh qif;&JcH&jcif;/ emusifjcif; ponfwdk@jzifh vG,fulpGm
jyefqkdvdkufI teuft"dy`g,f rjynfhrpHk rSm;rSm;,Gif;,Gif; jzpfaprnfxuf bmomrjyefbJ ‘'kuQ’ [lIyif
oHk;pJGonfu ydkrdkoifhjrwfayonf?
'kuQ qif;&Jjcif;&dSonf[k a[majymjcif;jzifh avmuwGif aysmf&$ifr_okcr&dS[k Ak'<u jiif;qdkawmfrljcif;
r[kwfay? &[ef;rsm;ESifh 0wfa=umifrsm;twGufyg avmuD avmukwW&m ESpfjzmaomCmersm;wGif aysmf&$ifr_
okc trdsK;rdsK;&dSa=umif; Ak'<u 0efcHawmfrlayonf? Ak'<a'oemawmfrsm; pkaygif;xm;&m rlvedum,fig;&yf
ygVdawmfwdk@wGif tygt0ifjzpfonfh t*FkwˆdKvfedum,fY (okcged) [k aysmf&$ifcsrf;ajrhr_rdsK;pHk pm&if;udk zwf&_&
onf? tdrfaxmifb0wGif csrf;omr_/ &[ef;b0wGifcsrf;omr_/ umr*k%fpnf;pdrf csrf;omr_/ awmxGuf pGe@f pm;
jcif;. csrf;omr_/ cifrifwG,fwmjcif;. csrf;omr_/ pGe@f ypfa&SmifcGmoGm;jcif;. csrf;omr_/ udk,fcsrf;omr_/ pdwf
csrf;omr_ ponfwdk@jzpfayonf? 1 odk@&mwGif ‚wdk@tm;vHk;onf 'kuQwGif tusHK;0if=uonf [k qdkxm;ay
onf?
txufwef; bm0emvkyfief;jzifh &tyfaom omrefvlw@kd em;vnfonfh 'kuQ. t&dyfta,mifr#yif
r,Sufoef;/ uif;&Sif;aom okcoufouf[kyif qdkEkdifavmufaom tvGef=unfvif oef@pifonfh
avmukwW&m psmef tajctaeudkvnf;aumif;/ okca0'em/ 'kuQa0'emwdk@ uif;vGwfI OayuQmESifh
odr_omv#if&dSaom psmeftajctaeudkvnf;aumif; xdkuJho@kd tqifhtwef; jrifhrm;vSonfh avmukwW&m
psmef t*Fg&yfrsm;udkyif 'kuQpm&if;wGif oGwfoGif;xm;ayonf? rZdÆredum,f(rlvedum,f ig;&yftygt0if) yg
okwfwpfokwfwGif xdkxdk psmefrsm;. avmukwW&mokcudk csD;rGrf;jyD;aemuf ‚wdk@onf rwnfrjrJ/
qif;&Jazmufjyefwwfonf? (tedpPm/ 'kuQm/ 0dy&d%mr"rRm)2 [k a[m=um;xm;ayonf? TY 'kuQ[laom
pum;vHk;udk twdtvif; xifxif&Sm;&Sm; toHk;ðyxm;a=umif; owdðy=u&ayrnf? omref teuft"dyg` ,f
t& qif;&Jjcif;&dSaeI 'kuQ [k ,l&onfr[kwf? rwnfjrJaom oabmjzpfI 'kuQ[k rSwf&onf? (,'edpHP/ wH
'kuQH)?
Ak'<onf wu,fyuwd wnf&Sdaom tjzpfrSef/ tajctaerSefrsm;udk ,xmblwuspGm qifjcif
oHk;oyfawmfrlonf? avmutwGif; aexdkif&mYvnf;aumif;/ umr*k%fpnf;pdrfrsm;udk cHpm;&mwGif
vnf;aumif; ta=umif;jcif;&m oHk;ckukd &Sif;vif;pGm odem;vnfxm;&rnf[k rdef@¹rufcJhavonf?
1? wyfrufom,mjcif;/ odk@r[kwf csdKjrdef cHpm;jcif; (t\m')?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? t*FkwdˆKvf (udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 49?
2? r[m'kuQuQE<okwW/ rZdÆredum,f twJG 1 (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 90?

31

yxr t&d,opPm

2? raumif;udsK;tjypf/odk@r[kwf ab;tEW&m,f/od@k r[kwf csrf;ajrhESpfvdkzG,f&m r[kwfjcif; (tm'De0)
3? vGwfvyfjcif;/ odk@r[kwf xGufajrmufjcif; (ed\&%)
acsmarmvSy ESpfvdkzG,f &kyfqif; &lyum,&dSol wpfOD;tm;jrifv#if wyfrufpJGvrf;onf? ‚olukd
tzefwvJvJ awG@jrifvdkonf? awG@jrif&wdkif;vnf; om,mESpfodrfh=unfEl;onf? ‚tjcif;t&mudk wyfruf
om,mcHpm;jcif;udk t\m'[k ac:I udk,fawG@rsufjrif &dSzl;=uonfh ta=umif;rSefwpf&yf jzpfayonf? od@k
om,m=unfEl;pGm wyfrufcHpm;&jcif;onf tpOfxm0& wnfjrJaom ta=umif;udpPrsm; r[kwfay?
xdkenf;wl xdkacsmarmvSyolESifh ‚.ESpfvkdzG,faom &kyfqif;&lyum,wdk@onfvnf; =um&SnfwnfjrJ
ae=urnf r[kwfay? tajctaeajymif;vJoGm;ojzifh ‚oltm; rjrifrawG@Edkifv#if ,cifcHpm;cJh&aom
om,mESpfodrfhr_rdsK; rcHpm;&awmhojzifh 0rf;enf;yufvufjzpf&awmhonf? a=umif;usdK;rqifjcifEkdif/
pdwfua,mifacsmufcsm;jzpfum rdkufrJazmufjyefaom tðytrlrsm;udkyif ðyrdaumif; ðyrdayvdrfhrnf? T
tjcif;t&mrSm raumif;usdK;tjypf (0g) csrf;ajrhESpfvkdzG,f&m r&dSjcif; (0g) ab;tEW&m,f xlajymjcif; paom
(tm'De0) oabmaqmifjcif; jzpfayonf? T tjcif;t&monfvnf; udk,fawG@rsufjrif cHpm;zl;=uonfh
ta=umif;rSefwpf&yfyif jzpfacsonf? ,ck ‚yk*~dKvftm; wyfrufpJGvrf;jcif;r&dSbJ vHk;0oHa,mZOfwG,fwmr_
uif;oGm;v#if vGwfvyfr_&onf[k qdk&I tcsKyftaESmifrS xGufajrmufjcif; (ed\&%) jzpfayonf?
rnfonfh avmuD umr*k%fpnf;pdrf cHpm;&mwGifrqdk T ta=umif;jcif;&m oHk;ckESifh trSefwu,f awG@ñuH&ay
rnf?
txufyg tcsuftvufrsm;udk axmuf&_I taumif;bufukdom =unfh&_jcif;/ tqdk;bufukdom
=unfh&_jcif; paomjy\emrsm; ay:aygufp&mr&dSbJ avmuobm0udk jynfhpkHpGmESihf ,xmblwuspGm od&dS
em;vnf&ef avmu. aysmf&$ifcHpm;r_rsm;omrubJ ylaqG;'kuQrsm;ESifhwuG ‚wdk@rS vGwfajrmufr_ta=umif;
tm;vHk;wdk@udk qifjcifoHk;oyf=u&ayrnf? Tenf;jzifhomv#if xGufajrmufr_ tppftrSefudk &&dSEkdifayrnf?
Tta=umif;t&mESifh ywfoufI Ak'<u atmufygtwdkif; rde@f ¹rufxm;.?
“tdk &[ef;wkd@/ t=uif &[ef; ykÀm;onf umr*k%fY aysmf&$ifcHpm;r_udk aysmf&$ifcHpm;r_[k
vnf;aumif;/ ‚.tjypftEW&m,fukd tjypftEW&m,f[kvnf;aumif;/ ‚rS vGwfajrmufr_udk vGwfajrmufr_
[k vnf;aumif; ,xmblwuspGm od&Sdem;rvnfao;? xdk&[ef;ykÀm;onf rdrdukd,fwkdif umr*k%fY pJGvrf;
wyfrufaom w%Smudk jynfhpHk&Sif;vif;pGm em;vnfonf r[kwfao;I tjcm;yk*d~KvfwpfOD;tm; xdkta=umif;
udk a[m=um;jyoEdkifrnf r[kwfay? xkdtjcm;yk*~dKvfonfvnf; umr*k%fY pJGvrf;wyfrufaom w%Smudk
jynfhpHk&Sif;vif;pGm em;vnfEdkifrnf r[kwfay?
tdk-&[ef;wdk@/ t=uif &[ef;ykÀm;onf umr*k%fY aysmf&$ifcHpm;r_udk aysmf&$ifcHpm;r_ [k
vnf;aumif;/ ‚.tjypftEW&m,fukd tjypftEW&m,f[kvnf;aumif;/ ‚rS vGwfajrmufr_udk vGwfajrmufr_
[k vnf;aumif; ,xmblwuspGm od&Sdem;vnf.? xdk&[ef;ykÀm;onf rdrdukd,fwkdif umr*k%fY pJGvrf;
wyfrufaom w%Smudk jynfhpHk&Sif;vif;pGm em;vnfonfjzpfI tjcm;yk*d~KvfwpfOD;tm; xdkta=umif;udk
a[m=um;jyoEdkifayrnf? xkdtjcm;yk*~dKvfonfvnf; umr*k%fY pJGvrf;wyfrufaom w%Smudk jynfhpkH
&Sif;vif;pGm em;vnfEdkifayrnf?” 1
'kuQoabmw&m;udk oHk;rdsK;oHk;pm; cJGjcm;rSwfom;Edkifayonf?
1? omrefqif;&Jjcif; oabm&dSaom 'kuQukd 'kuQ 'kuQ/
2? azmufjyefysufpD;r_a=umifh jzpfay:&aom 'kuQukd 0dy&d%mr'kuQ/ ESifh
3? ðyjyifpD&if;jcif; cH&onf. oabm'kuQukd ocFg& 'kuQ
[lI cJGjcm; ,lqEdkifayonf? 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1? rZdÆredum,f twJG 1 (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 87?
2? 0dok'd<r*~ (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 499?
tbd"rRmorkpP,/ pmrsufESm 38?

32

yxr t&d,opPm

avmuwGif awG@ñuHcHpm;=u&aom yËdoaE<ae&jcif;/ tdk&jcif;/ em&jcif;/ ao&jcif;/ rcspfrESpfvkdtyf
aom owW0g ocFg&wdk@ESifh twlwuGaygif;,SOf&jcif;/ cspfESpfvkdtyfaom owW0gocFg&wdk@ESifh auGuGif;cJGcGm&jcif;/
rdrdvdktifqEN rjynfh0jcif;/ pdk;&drfylaqG;&jcif;/ idkaºu;&jcif;/ pdwfESvHk;rom,mjcif; ponfh udk,fpdwfESpfjzm òijiif
ylyefjcif;wdk@onf wpfurBmvHk;u od&Sdem;vnfxm;=uonfh qif;&Jyifyef; cHpm;&jcif;rdsK;jzpfI omref
qif;&Jjcif;oabm teuf&dSaom 'kuQ 'kuQwGif tusHK;0ifavonf?
aysmf&$ifaom pdwfESvHk;csrf;omaom b0tajctaewd@k onf tpOfxm0& wnfjrJckdifchH=uonf r[kwf
ay? taES;ESifhtjref wpfrdsK;wpfzHk ajymif;vJonfomjzpf.? TuJhodk@ ajymif;vJaomtcgY emusifjcif;/
qif;&Jjcif;/ pdwfrcsrf;ajrhjcif;wdk@ jzpfay:&.? Tod@k azmufjyefajymif;vJjcif;rS jzpfay:vmaom qif;&J'kuQukd
0dy&d%mr 'kuQwGif xnfhoGif;&.?
TazmfjyjyD; 'kuQESpfrdsK;ESpfpm;rSm em;vnf&efvG,fulI rnfolr# tjiif;yGm;rnfr[kwfay? em;vnf&ef
vG,fulonfhtavsmuf yxrt&d,opPmwGif Ttcsuftydkif;udk vlodrsm;=uayonf? odk@&mwGif wwd,
ajrmuf 'kuQjzpfaom ta=umif;w&m;wd@k . ðyjyifpD&ifjcif;cH&onfh tjzpfaqmifaom ocFg&'kuQonf yxr
t&d,opPmwGif ta&;t}uD;qHk; tbd"rRmtcsuftydkif; jzpfayonf? ‚tcsuftydkif;udk em;vnf&ef
‘owW0g’/ ‘ig’ [k ,lq=uaomt&mrsm;udk t&if;tjrpfodonfhwdkifatmif &Sif;vif;azmfjy&efvdkayonf?
Ak'<tbd"rRmt& ‘owW0g’/ ‘yk*~dKvf’/ ‘ig’ [k ac:qdkae=uonfrSm tpOftjrJ ajymif;vJjzpfysuf
ae=uonfh &kyfemrfwdk@. tpkta0;omv#ifjzpfI ‚wd@k udk cE<mig;yg; (yOPuQE<m) [k ig;pkcJGxm;Edkifayonf?
“tusOf;csKyftm;jzifh Tig;yg;aom pJGvrf;wyfrufr_ tpkta0; (Oyg'geuQE<m) onf 'kuQqif;&Jaywnf;” [k
Ak'<u a[m=um;xm;.? 1
tjcm;wpfae&mwGifvnf; 'kuQukd yOPuQE<m[k xifxif&Sm;&Sm; owfrSwf azmfjyxm;ayonf?
“tdk-&[ef;wdk@/ 'kuQonf tb,fenf;? 'kuQonf yOPKyg'geuQE<myif jzpfonf[k qdk&rnf?”2
Tae&mwGif 'kuQESifh cE<mig;yg;onf ESpfrsd K;ESpfpm;uJGjym;jcm;em;onf r[kwfa=umif; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;
em;vnfxm;&ayrnf? cE<mig;yg;onfyif 'kuQjzpfawmhonf? ‘owW0g’ [k ac:qdkaom cE<mig;yg;ta=umif;
tenf;i,f od&dSvmaomtcgwGif Ttcsufukd ydkrkd&Sif;vif;pGm em;vnfvmygvdrfhrnf? cE<mig;yg; [lonf
tb,fenf;?
cE<mig;yg;
yxrcE<m rSm &kyfwdk@. tpktaygif; &lyuQE<m jzpfonf? &kyfw@kd . tpktaygif; qdk&mwGif rma=umjcif;/
,dkpD;jcif;/ ylat;jcif;/ v_yf&Sm;jcif; [laom yx0D/ tmayg/ awaZm/ 0ga,m tpOftvm "gwf}uD;av;yg;
(pwWm&d r[mblwmed) ESifh ‚wdk@udk tpJGðyI jzpfay:vmaom Oyg'g,&kyfrsm; yg0ifavonf? 3
Oyg'g,&kyfrsm;wGif puQK/ aomw/ Cme/ Zd0gS / um, [laom yom'&kyf 5-yg;/ jyifyavmu&dS
‚wdk@ESifh oufqdkif&m tm&Hkrsm;jzpf=uaom &lyg&Hk/ o'Ng&Hk/ *E<m&Hk/ &om&Hk/ azmÏAŠm&HkESifh "rRm,wee,f 4 wGif;
rS "rRm&Hkrsm;jzpfonfh tcsdK@aom }uHpnfpdwful;,lqcsufrsm; tusHK;0ifyg0if=uonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh tZÆwW/
A[d'<&kyfavmu wpfckvHk;onf &lyuQE<mwGif tusHK;0if=uonf?
'kwd,cE<m onf tm&HkcHpm;r_rsm; tpktaygif; (a0'euQE<m) jzpfonf? jyifytm&Hkrsm;ESifh &kyf'Gg&raem
wdk@ xdawG@I jzpfay:vmor#aom csrf;ompGmcHpm;jcif; (okca0'em)/ qif;&JemusifpGm cHpm;jcif; ('kuQa0'em)/
rqif;&J/ rcsrf;om tv,ftvwfcHpm;jcif; (t'kuQ rokc a0'em) tm;vHk;onf Ttpkta0;Y yg0ifonf?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? oHcdawWe yOPKyg'geuQE<m 'kuQm/ oH,kwf 5 (ywp) pmrsufESm 421?
2? oH,kwf 3 (ywp) pmrsufESm 158?
3? oH,kwf 3 (ywp) pmrsufESm 19?
4? to*F. tbd"rRmorkpP,usrf; (pHwdedauwH 1950) pmrsufESm 4?

33

yxr t&d,opPm

puQKyom' t=unf"gwfESifh &lyg&Hk/ aomwyom'ESihf o'Ng&kH/ Cmeyom'ESifh *E<m&Hk/ Zd0Sgyom'ESifh &om&Hk/
um,yom'ESifh azmÏAŠm&Hk/ b0ifpdwfre(Ak'<tbd"rRmwGif pdwfonf qÏrajrmuf t=unf"gwf/ odk@r[kwf
'Gg&wpfyg;jzpfonf) ESifh "rRm&Hk(}uHpnf&mpdwful;csuf) wd@k aygif;qHkxdawG@I jzpfay:vmaom cHpm;jcif; a0'em
rsm;[lI 6 rdsK;&dSonf? 1 udk,f/pdwf ESpfrsd K;vHk;jzifh tm&HkcHpm;or# TtpkwGif tusHK;0if=uonf?
Ak'<tbd"rRmwGif raemac:wGifaom pdwfta=umif;udk tenf;i,f &Sif;jy&efvdkayonf? pdwfonf
&kyfj'yfESifh qef@usifbufjzpfaom 0dnmOf (spirit)r[kwfa=umif; &Sif;vif;pGm odem;vnfxm;&ef vdkayonf?
wcsdK@bmom0g'ESifh tbd"rRmw&m;rsm;wGif vufcH=uouJho@kd &kyfj'yf.qef@usifbufjzpfaom oD;jcm;0dnmOf
&dSonf[k Ak'<0g'u todtrSwfrðyay? rsufpd/ em;rsm;uJho@kd pdwf(re)onf 'Gg& odk@r[kwf t*Fg (ÁajEN)
wpfyg;om jzpfayonf? tjcm;t*Fgrsm;uJho@kd yif ‚tm;xdef;odrf;tkyfcsKyfI wdk;wufzHG@òz;ap&ef aqmif&GufEkdif
ayonf? Ak'<onf T'Gg&ajcmufcktm; csKyfxdef; odrf;qnf;jcif;. tusdK;aus;Zl;rsm;udk r=umc% a[majym
avh&dS.? puQKESifh raem'gG&t*Fgrsm; jcm;em;csufrSm puQKu tqif;ESifh &lyg&kHwdk@udk odjrifcHpm;I raem'Gg&u
pdwful;t=uHtpnf awG;awmjcif; paom "rRm&Hkw@kd udk xdawG@cHpm;jcif;jzpfayonf?
tm&HktrdsK;tpm;tvdkuf od&SdxdawG@cHpm;r_ trdsK;tpm; uJGjym;onf? tqif;udk r=um;Edkif/
jrif&onf? toHudk rjrifEdkif/ =um;&onf? usGEkfyfw@kd . &kyf0wˆK t*Fg ig;yg; (puQK/aomw/Cme/Zd0Sg/um,) jzifh
tqif;/ toH/ teH@/ t&om/ tawG@avmuwd@k udk oHk;oyf=uonf? odk@&mwGif Ttm&Hkrsm;onf avmu}uD;
wpfckvHk; tjynfhtpHkr[kwfao;? wpfpdwfwpfa'or#om &dSao;onf? tawG;tac: t}uHtpnf rsm;vnf;
avmu. tpdwftydkif;tjzpf yg0if=uao;onf? rsufpd/ em;/ ESmacgif;/ v#m/ udk,f paomt*Fgrsm;jzifh ,if;
tawG;tac: t}uHtpnfrsm;udk xdawG@cHpm;aygufzGm;Edkifjcif;r&dS? pdwfESvkH;ac: raem'Gg&tm;jzifhom ‚wdk@udk
xdawG@aygufyGm;apEkdifonf?
yOP'Gg&jzifh awG@od&aom tm&HkavmurS uif;uGmIvnf; tawG;tac:t}uHtpnfrsm; rjzpfyGm;Edkif
ay? trSeftm;jzifh ‚wdk@onf &kyftm&HkawG@ñuHcHpm;r_ay:wGif ta=umif;ðyI wnf&dS=uonf? xdk@a=umifh puQK
ESpfuGif; tvif;r& arG;zGm;vmaomolonf tqif;.oabmudk wdkuf&dkufodEkdifjcif;r&dSay? toH/od@k r[kwf
tjcm; 'Gg&wdk@jzifh awG@od&onfh tm&Hkw@kd ESihf tvm;wl oabm&dSayrnf[k &dyfpm;rd&Hkr#xuf ydkI od&dSem;vnf
Edkifrnfr[kwfay? Tenf;jzifh avmu. tpdwftydkif;wpfckjzpfonfh tawG;tac: t}uHtpnfrsm;onf
&kyftm&HktawG@tñuHrsm;udk ta=umif;ðyI jzpfay:vmjyD; pdwfu ‚wdk@tm; xifjrifvm&jcif; jzpfayonf?
xdk@a=umifh pdwfudk tm&HkodpGrf;onfh t=unf"gwf/ od@k r[kwf rsufpd/ em;wdk@uJhodk@ ÁjENd,wpfyg; jzpfonf[k
,lqtyf.?
wwd,cE<m onf tm&Hkudk trSwfðyI odaom onmapwodufrsm; . tpktaygif; jzpfaom
onmuQE<m jzpf.? a0'emtjym;uJho@kd yif onmwGifvnf; twGif;yom' 6-rdsK;/ jyifytm&Hk 6-rdsK;wdk@ESifh
qdkif&mqdkif&m ,SOfI 6-yg;tjym;&dS.? a0'emrsm;uJho@kd yif twGif;yom' 6-rdsK;ESifhjyifytm&Hk 6-rdsK;wkd@ awG@xd
r_rS aygufyGm;vm.? &kyftm&Hk raemtm&Hk [lor#ukd trSwf&jcif;/ trSwftom;ðyjcif; udpPtwGuf onmu
aqmif&Guf.? 2
3
pwkwˆcE<m rSm apwoduftpktaygif; jzpfaom ocFg&uQE<m jzpf.? TtpkwGif apwem vH_@aqmfr_
tm;vHk;rS jzpfay:vmaom aumif;r_/ raumif;r_tm;vHk; tusHK;0ifavonf? uH/ urR[k a,bk,s od&dSae
=uaom tr_taygif;onf TtpkwGif yg0ifonf? Tae&mwGif jrwfpGmbk&m;udk,fawmfwdkif zGifhqdkaom urR
. teuft"dy`g,fudk owd&dS=u&ayrnf?
“&[ef;wdk@ apwemudk uH [lI igbk&m;rde@f qdk.? qENðyjyD;aemufrS udk,f/ E_wf/ ESvHk;tr_ (um,uH/
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? oH,kwf 3 (ywp) pmrsufESm 59?
2? oH,kwf 3 (ywp) pmrsufESm 60?
3? apwoduftpktaygif; [laom toHk;tE_ef;udk ,cktcg cE<mig;yg;pm&if;wGif yg0ifaom ocFg&. us,f0ef;aom
t"dy`g,ftjzpf toHk;ðyonf?

34

yxr t&d,opPm

0pDuH/ raemuH) wdk@udk ðy=uonfom jzpf.?” 1 apwemonf raemzefwD;r_/ v_yf&Sm;r_jzpf.? ‚.vkyfief;rSm
ukodkvf/ tukodkvf/ tAsmuw tr_rsm;twGuf pdwfukd appm;!$ef=um;&efjzpf.? 2 a0'em/ onmrsm;rSm
uJhodk@yif apwemwGifvnf; 6-rdsK; uJGjym;.? twGif; Oyg'g,&kyf 6 rdsK;ESihf ‚wd@k ESihf oufqkdifonfh jyifytm&Hk
6 rdsK; (&kyftm&Hk/ raemtm&Hk 2 rdsK;pvHk;) wd@k ESihf qufpyfI apem 6 rdsK; uJGjym;jcif;jzpf.? 3 a0'emESihf onm
wdk@onf apwemtr_rsm; r[kwf=uay? ‚wd@k onf uHtudsK;w&m; (0dyguf) udkjzpfyGm;apr_ r&dS=uacs?
apwemtr_rsm;jzpfaom reodum&/ qEN/ t"darmuQ/ o'Ng/ orm"d/ ynm/ 0D&d,/ &m*/ yËdC/
t0dZ…m/ rme/ ouUm,'dÏd ponfw@kd uom uHtudsK;w&m;jzpfxGef;aponf? ocFg&uQE<mwGif tusHK;0ifonhf
TuJhodk@ apwodufaygif; 50 &dSavonf?
ig;ckajrmufcE<m onf 0dnm%uQE<m jzpf.? 0dnm%fonf puQK/aomw/ Cme/ Zd0gS / um,0wˆK&kyfrsm;ESifh
&lyg&Hk/ o'Ng&Hk/ *E<m&Hk/ &om&Hk/ azmÏAŠm&Hk/ "rRm&Hkponfh jyifytm&Hkwdk@xdcdkufonfrS jzpfay:vm&jcif;jzpfonf?
Oyrmtm;jzifh puQK0dnm%fonf puQK0wˆK&kyfESihf &lyg&Hkw@kd awG@xdr_rS ay:aygufvmonf? raem0dnm%fonf
reESifh "rRm&Hk ("rR) wdk@rS jzpfay:vmonf? xd@k a=umifh 0dnm%fonf tjcm; 0wˆK/ tm&Hkrsm;ESifh qufoG,fv#uf
&dS.? a0'em/ onm/ ocFg&uQE<mrSmuJho@kd twGif;0wˆK&kyf 6 yg;/ jyifytm&Hk 6 yg; ay:wGif rSDI 0dnm%f
wGifvnf; 6 rdsK;tjym;&dSavonf? 4
yOP0dnm%fonf tm&Hkudkf cJGjcm;oddr_ r&dSa=umif; aumif;pGm&Sif;vif; em;vnf=u&ayrnf? tm&Hkwpfck
&dSaea=umif; odae&Hkodaer_omv#if 0dnm%f. oabmjzpf.? rsufpdonf Oyrm-tjyma&miftqif;ESifh
xdcdkufawG@qHk&ygrl ta&mifwpfck&dSaea=umif; od&Sd&kHod&Sdaom puQK0dnm%fpdwfonf jzpfay:vm.? ‚
0dnm%fpdwfonf ta&miftqif;&dSrSef; od&kHomodI tjyma&mif[k uJGjym;odr_r&dSay? TtajctqifhwGif
uJGjym;odr_r&dSao;acs? onmuomv#if (txufwGifaqG;aEG;cJhaom onmuQE<m) tjyma&mif[k uJGjym;
todtrSwfðyavonf? puQK0dnm%f[k ac:wGifaom tbd"rRmpum;vHk;onf t&yfoHk;pum; ‘jrifjcif;’ ESifh
teuf t"dy`g,f twlaqmifonf? ‘jrifjcif;’ onf uJGjym;odjcif;/ todtrSwfðyjcif; r[kwfacs? xd@k twl
tjcm;0dnm%frsm;. oabmudkvnf; od&SdEkdifayjyD?
Ak'<tbd"rRmt& &kyf.qef@usifbufjzpfI xm0&wnfjrJ rajymif;vJGonfh ‘ig’/ ‘qdk;vfac:
0dnmOfaumif’ odk@r[kwf twW [k ac:qdk&rnfh 0dnmOfaumif r&dSay? txufazmfjyyg cE<mig;yg;0if 0dnm%f
udk ‘&kyf.qef@usifbuf 0dnmOfaumif’ [k r,ltyf? T&Sif;vif;csufudk txl;av;eufpGm azmfjy&ayrnf?
ta=umif;rl a&S;ya0%DrS ,ckwdkifatmif 0dnm%fonf ‘igaumif’ 0dnmOfaumifjzpfI wpfoufywfvHk;
wnfjrJaeaom t&m0wˆKjzpfonf[k t,lrSm;/ tpJGrSm;rsm; udef;atmif;ae=uI jzpfonf?
Ak'<. wynfhwpfa,mufjzpfaom omwd trnf&Sd&[ef;onf ‘T0dnm%f wpfckwnf;omv#if b0
ul;ajymif;vSnfhvnf oGm;vmaea=umif; jrwfpGmbk&m; a[m=um;awmfrlonf’ [k t,l&dSaeavonf?
‚tm; jrwfpGmbk&m;u 0dnm%f[lI rnfonfukdqkdvkda=umif; ar;jref;&m omwd. ajz=um;csufrSm
‘ajymqdkwwfaomoabm/ odwwfaomoabm/ xdkb0 Tb0Y ukodkvf/ tukodkvf. tusdK;udk cHpm;
wwfaom oabm udkqdkvdkygonf/’[k av#mufxm;av.?
‘rdkufrJaom(tcsnf;ESD;jzpfaom) a,musfm;/ rnfo@l tm; TuJho@kd igbk&m; a[m=um;onfudk
oif=um;zl;oenf;? 0dnm%fonf ta=umif;udkpJGI jzpfay:vmonf? ta=umif;uif;rJhI 0dnm%frjzpfay: [k
enf;trdsK;rdsK;jzifh igbk&m;a[m=um;cJhonf r[kwfavm?’ [k Ak'<u xdk&[ef;tm; ar;jref;I qdkqkH;rjcif;
ðyavonf? xdk@aemuf 0dnm%fudk tao;pdwf&Sif;vif;pGm Ak'<u qufvuf a[m=um;awmfrlonfrSm
‘t=uift=uif ta=umif;udk pJGI odr_0dnm%fonf jzpfay:vm.? xdkxdkta=umif;jzifhomv#if 0dnm%f [k
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? t*FkwdˆKvf (udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 590? apwem [H bduQa0/ urRH 0'grd? apw,dwGm urRH ua&mbd uma,e 0gpm,
reom?
2? tbd"rRmorkpP, - to*F / pmrsufESm 6?
3? oH,kwf 3 (ywp) pmrsufESm 60?
4? oH,kwf 3 (ywp) pmrsufESm 61?

35

yxr t&d,opPm

ac:a0:.? rsufpdESifh tqif;wdk@udk pJGI odr_0dnm%fjzpfay:vm.? rsufpdod[lIomv#if ac:a0:.? em;ESifh
toHwdk@udk pJGI odr_0dnm%f jzpfay:vm.? em;od [lIomv#if ac:a0:.? ESmacgif;ESifh te@Hwdk@udk pJGI
odr_0dnm%f jzpfay:vm.? ESmacgif;od [lIomv#if ac:a0:.? v#mESifh t&omwdk@udk pJGI odr_0dnm%f
jzpfay:vm.? v#mod [lIomv#if ac:a0:.? udk,fESihf tawG@txdw@kd udk pJGI odr_0dnm%f jzpfay:vm.?
udk,fod [lIomv#if ac:a0:.? (t}uHtpnf/ pOf;pm;pdwful;/ tm0Z…mef;ESifhwuG b0if)pdwfESifh obm0"rR
wdk@udk pJGI odr_0dnm%f jzpfay:vm.? pdwfod [lIomv#if ac:a0:.?’
xdk@aemuf Ak'<u qufvufI Oyrmaqmifum &Sif;vif;a[m=um;awmfrl.? rD;udk awmufavmif
apaom t&m0wˆKypPnf;udkpJGIom trnfukd ac:a0:=u.? opfom;xif;udkpJGI rD;onfawmufavmif.?
xdkrD;udk opfom;xif;rD;[k ac:qdk.? aumuf&kd;jrufajcmufukdpJGI rD;onfawmufavmif.? xdkrD;udk aumuf&kd;
jrufajcmufrD;[k ac:qdk.? xdk@twlyifv#if t=uifta=umif;udkpJGI odr_0dnm%fjzpfay:vm.? xdkta=umif;
jzifhomv#if ac:a0:.?
tÏuxmynmausmf Ak'<aCmoonf Tta=umif;t&mESihf ywfoufI &Sif;vif; azmfjycJhonfrSm
‘opfom;xif;udk pJGIawmufavmifaom rD;onf opfom;xif;&dSaeor#om awmufavmif.? opfom;xif;
ukefqHk;onfESifh wpfòyifeuf xdkae&mwGifyif jidrf;csKyf.? ta=umif;rl awmufavmifapaom ta=umif;&if;pJG
ajymif;vJcJhaoma=umifhjzpf.? rD;onf xif;puav;rsm;od@k ul;ajymif;I xif;prD; tp&dSonf jzpfay:vmjrJ
r[kwf? Tenf;wlpGm rsufpdESifh tqif;wGif ta=umif;&if;pJG&dSaom odr_0dnm%fonf rsufpd/ tqif;/
tvif;a&mifESifh a&S;&_tm&Hkxm;r_ reodum&ESvkH;oGif;r_ paom ta=umif;&yfrsm; jynfhpHkrS rsufpdwHcg;ayguf
wGif jzpfay:vmI xdkta=umif;&yfrsm; csKyfjidrf;oGm;onfESifh wpfòyifeuf jzpfay:&if; ta=umif;pJG
ajymif;vJoGm;&um; xkdae&mwGifyif rsufpdodvnf; csKyfjidrf;.? od@k &mwGif rsufpdodonf em;odk@ul;ajymif;I
em;odponfwdk@ jzpfay:rvmay?’1
odk@avmodk@avm awG;awmzG,fr&dSap&ef &Sif;vif;aocsmpGm Ak'<u odr_0dnm%fonf &kyf/ a0'em/
onm/ ocFg&rsm;ay:wGif trDSo[J ta=umif;pJG&Sd&onf? ‚wdk@rS =uOfI rjzpfay: rwnf&dSEdkif[k
a[m=um;awmfrlcJhayonf?
‘0dnm%fonf &kyfodk@uyfa&mufIrlvnf; wnf&m.?(&lykyg,H)/ &kyfudk tm&HkðyI (&lyg&rR%H)/ &kyfukd
rDScdk&mðyIvnf; (&lyywdÏmeH) wnf&m.? xdk0dnm%fonf ESpfoufr_w%Smjzifh jyD;aptyfaomf }uD;yGm;jcif;/
pnfyifjcif;/ jyef@ajymjcif;odk@ a&muf&m.? 0dnm%fonf a0'emod@k uyfa&mufIrlvnf; ---onmodk@ --ocFg&odk@ uyfa&mufIrlvnf; wnf&m.? ocFg&udk tm&HkðyI ocFg&udk rDScdk&mðyIvnf; wnf&m.?
xdk0dnm%fonf ESpfoufr_ w%Smjzifh jyD;aptyfaomf }uD;yGm;jcif;/ pnfyifjcif;/ jyef@ajymjcif;odk@ a&muf&m.?’
wpfpHkwpfa,mufaomolu ‘&kyfukdz,fxm;I/ a0'em/ onm/ ocFg&wdk@udkz,fxm;I 0dnm%f.
vmjcif;/ oGm;jcif;/ aoqHk;jcif;/ jzpfay:jcif;/ }uD;yGm;jcif;/ pnfyifjcif;/ jyef@ajymjcif;wdk@udk jyotHh[k qdkacsaomf
r&dSEdkifaom ta=umif;udk qdkjcif;om jzpfayrnf?’ 2
TqdkcJhjyD;onfum; cE<mig;yg;. tusOf;csKyfaywnf;? ‘owW0g’/‘vl’/‘ig’ [kac:&mwGif T cE<mig;yg;
udk vG,fulaomtrnf/ trSwftom; ay;xm;jcif; omv#ifwnf;? ‚wdk@tm;vHk;onf rwnfjrJ/ tpOf
azmufjyef ajymif;vJv#uf &dS=u.? rwnfjrJor# onf 'kuQaywnf;? (,'edpPH/ wH/ 'kuQH) ‘oHcdawWe
yOPKyg'geuQE<m 'kuQm ] tusOf;tm;jzifh pJGvrf;&m tm&Hkjzpfaom cE<mig;yg; wdk@onf qif;&Jjcif;wnf;’ [k
jrwfpGmbk&m; a[m=um;&mwGif T t"dyg` ,f&if;udk azmfxkwfjcif;jzpfayonf? wpfc%ESifh wpfc% rwl=u?
TudpPwGif tuQ&mocsFmrSmuJhodk@ ‘u’ ESihf ‘u’ onf rnDr#? wpfc%r# jzpfay:vmI &kwfjcnf;
uG,faysmufoGm;jcif;jzifh tpOf ajymif;vJae=uonfom jzpfayonf?
‘tdk jAm[R%/ awmifrS pD;qif;vmaom jrpfa&tvsOfonf t[kwfjyif;pGm vsifpGmjzifh c&D;a0;od@k
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? rZdÆredum,f tXuxm/ yOPyol'eD (ywp) pmrsufESm 306-307?
2? oH,kwf 3 (ywp) pmrsufESm 58?

36

yxr t&d,opPm

awG@or#udk o,f,loGm;.? wpfrk[kwfr# wpfc%r# wpfpuUe@f r# &yfwnfonfr&dS? tpOfrjywf qufvuf
pD;qif;v#uf&dS.? jAm[R%/ vl.b0c&D;onfvnf; awmifusjrpfa&ESifh wlvSpGm.?’ 1 &Ïygvtm; Ak'<
a[m=um;awmfrlouJhodk@ ‘urBm}uD;onf tpOfazmufjyef ajymif;vJaeI rwnfjrJay?’
ta=umif;ESifhtusdK; uGif;qufrsm; pDwef;ae&mwGif wpfpkHwpf&m uG,faysmufysufðyef;oGm;jcif;onf
tjcm;wpfck jzpfxGef;ay:aygufvmap&ef ta=umif;azmfay;jcif;omjzpfayonf? ‚wd@k twGif; (tZÆwW) Y
rajymif;vJaom 0wˆKypPnf; [lIr&dS? ‚wd@k aemufuG,fY tpOfwnfjrJaom udk,ftwW (tmwrH) yk*~dKvf/
odk@r[kwf tu,ftppf ‘ig’ [kac:qdkEkdifonfh t&m[lI bmr#r&dSacs? &kyfudkaomfvnf;aumif;/ a0'em/
onm/ ocFg& wpfckckudk aomfvnf;aumif; 0dnm%fudkaomfvnf;aumif;/ ‘ig’[lI owfrSwf ac:qdkEdkifonf
r[kwfa=umif; oabmwl=uayvdrfhrnf? 2 odk@&mwGif wpfckESihfwpfck rqufrpyf oD;jcm;jzpfaom &lyuQEMm ESifh
emruQE<m Tig;ckwdk@onf twlwuG yl;aygif;I &kyfemrf 2-yg; ‘puf,EW&m;’ 3 tjzpf aqmif&Gufvmaomtcg
‘ig’[laom oabmt,l jzpfay:vmayonf? Tt,lum; rSm;,Gif;aomt,lyifjzpfI txufwGif azmfjyjyD;
jzpfaom ocFg&uQE<mwGif yg0ifonfh 52-yg;aom apwodufw@kd teuf wpfyg;omjzpfayonf? ‘ig’[k rSm;,Gif;
,lqonfh ouUm,'dÏdyifwnf;?
ynwfa0g[m&tm;jzifh ‘owW0g’[k orkwftyfaom TcE<mig;yg;onfyif 'kuQjzpfayonf? (ocFg&
'kuQ)/ ‚ cE<mig;yg;. aemufuG,fY &yfwnfI 'kuQukd cHpm;tyfaom ‘owW0g’odk@r[kwf ‘ig’ [lI tjcm;
r&dSjyD?
&SifAk'<aCmo rdef@¹rufouJho@kd ‘'kuQonfom&dS.? 'kuQukd cHpm;wwfaomol wpfpHkwpfa,mufr#r&dS?
ðyjyifjcif;omv#if &dS.? ðywwfolr&dS?’ 4
v_yf&Sm;r_aemufuG,fwGif &yfwnfaeaom v_yf&Sm;ol[lIr&dS? v_yf&Sm;r_r#omjzpfonf? avmu}uD;
onf v_yf&Sm;v#uf&dSonf [k qdkrl rrSefuefacs? avmuonfyif v_yf&Sm;r_jzpfayonf? avmuESifh v_yf&Sm;r_
onf uJGjym;jcm;em;aom t&mESpfckr[kwfay? wpfenf;qdkaomf }uHpnfpdwful;r_aemufuG,fY }uHpnfpdwful;
ol [lI r&dSay? pdwft}uHtpnfonfyif pdwful;oljzpfayonf? }uHpnfpdwfudk y,fazsmufI pdwful;olukd
&SmazGrawG@Edkifay? ‘ig }uHpnfpdwfulonf/ xd@k a=umifh ig&Sdonf’ [k ,lqaom 17 &mpkacwf jyifopf
tbd"rRmq&m a';uyf (Descarter) . ,lqcsufESifh Ak'<bmomwd@k ,lqcsufrSm zDvmuef@vef@ jzpfaeonf
udk Tae&mwGif owdðyrd=urSm rvJGay?
,cktcg avmu (b0) Y tp&dSoavm [laom ykp>mudk ar;jref;aumif;ar;jref;vdk=uayrnf? Ak'<.
w&m;awmft& ouf&dSowW0gwdk@. b0a&tvsOftpudk r}uHpnfEdkif[k ajz&ayrnf? bk&m;ocifu b0udk
zefqif;onf[k ,Hk=unfolrsm;onf Ttajzudk tHh=oayvdrhfrnf? odk@&mwGif ‚tm; ‘bk&m;ocifu
b,fupoenf; ’ [kar;jref;rl ‘bk&m;ocifY tpr&dS’[k rqdkif;rwG ajz=um;ayvdrfhrnf? Todk@ajz=um;onf
udkawmh‚u rtHh=oacs? Ak'<u ‘tdk &[ef;wd@k / Tvnfywfv#uf&dSaom oHo&mpuf0dkif;Y jrifEdkifaom tqHk;
r&dS? t0dZ…mzHk;v$rf;v#uf w%Smjzifh csnfaESmifjcif;cH=u&jyD; 0dkif;um w0Jvnfvnf ajy;oGm;usifvnfae=u
&aom owW0gwdk@. OD;pGmtpudkvnf; jrifEkdiftyfonf r[kwf?’ [k rdef@¹rufawmfrlcJhayonf? 5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? t*FkwdˆKvf (udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 700? Tpum;&yfudk vGefavjyD;aom ESpfaygif;toacsFu tmoa0guif;jyD;jzpfaom
t&utrnf&dS q&m}uD;u ¹ruf=um;cJha=umif; Ak'<u a[mawmfrlonf? Tae&mY bDpDESpf 500 avmufu [D&muvdwyfpf
. 0g'udk owdjyKrd=uayrnf? ,if;. 0g't& t&m&monf rwnfrjrJ/ tpOfajymif;vJv#uf&dS.? ‘jrpfwGif;odk@ ajccsqif;
v#if ajcwpfvSrf;ESifh wpfvSrf;rwlnDEdkif/ topftopfaoma&wdk@onf oifhay:odk@jzwfI pD;qif;oGm;aeonf’ [kolu
qdkcJhonf?
2? tewWoabmw&m;udk tcef; 5 wGif aqG;aEG;wifjyygrnf?
3? trSefpifppf t&SifAk'<aCmoonf ‘owW0g’udk opfom;puf,EW,m; ('g&k,EW) ESifh Ed_if;,SOfazmfjycJhayonf? 0dok'd<r*~ (ywp)
pmrsufESm 594-595?
4? 0dok'd<r*~ (ywp) pmrsufESm 513?
5? oH,kwf 3/ pmrsufESm 178/ 179? 149-151?

37

yxr t&d,opPm

‚jyif b0. usifvnfajy;oGm;&ef t"duta=umif;jzpfaom t0dZ…mESifh ywfoufI ‘TtcgrS
a&S@Y t0dZ…m rjzpfzl;ao;? xdkrSaemufY jzpfcJhjyD’ [k t0dZ…m. a&S@tpGef;udkrowfrSwfEdkif [kvnf; a[m=um;cJh
ayonf? 1 xdk@a=umifh wdusaom rSwfom;csufwpfckðyI ‚.a&S@Y b0rwnf&dScJhay[k b0. a&S@pGef;udk
owfrSwf&ef rjzpfEkdifay?
Tum; 'kuQt&d,opPm. teuft"dyg` ,f tusOf;csKyfaywnf;? T yxrt&d,opPmudk aumif;pGm
oabmaygufem;vnf&ef vGefpGmta&;}uD;ayonf? tb,fha=umifhqdkaomf Ak'<a[m=um;awmfrlonfhtwdkif;
‘'kuQqif;&Judkjrifaomolonf qif;&Jjzpfay:a=umif; udkvnf; jrif.? qif;&JcsKyfjidrf;&m(edAŠmef) udkvnf; jrif.?
qif;&JcsKyfjidrf;&m (edAŠmef) odk@ oGm;&mvrf;a=umif;/ a&mufa=umif; tusifhudkvnf; jrifaoma=umifh
jzpfayonf?’ 2
tcdsK@yk*d~Kvfwdk@ rSm;,Gif;pGm awG;ac:=uouJho@kd Ak'<bmom0ifwpfOD;. b0onf aomuòijiif
raysmf&$ifp&m[k rrSwf,loifhay? trSefrSm Ak'<bmom ppfppfwpfOD;onf pdwftcsrf;omqHk;/ taysmf&$ifqkH;
owW0g wpfOD;omjzpfayonf? ol@Y a=umuf&@HG zG,f/ pdk;&drfzG,f udpP[lIr&dS/ tpOfojzifh wnfjidrfat;csrf;I
ta=umif;t&mwdk@udk tjzpfoepfrSeftwdkif; od&Sd&um; rnfonfhajymif;vJGr_/ od@k r[kwf ab;tEW&m,fwdk@ESifh
&ifqdkif&apumrl wkefv_yfacsmufjcm;jcif; uif;ayonf? Ak'<onf rnfonfhtcgur# pdwfrom,mjcif;/ awGa0
npfrd_if;jcif; rjzpfcJhay? tpOfojzifh &$ifðyH;aeawmfrlonf?
(rd[dw ykAŠ*Fr) [k Ak'<vufxufawmfukd rDvkdufolw@kd u azmfjyajymqdk=uonf? yef;csDum;rsm;ESifh
&kyfwkrsm;wGif Ak'<tm; =unf&$ifaom/ wnfjidrfaom/ auseyfa&mifh&Jaom/ =uifemaom rsufESmawmfjzifhom
xkwfazmfwifjy=uayonf? tenf;i,fr#yif òijiifyifyef;/ emusif/ qif;&JaeyHkudk rawG@jrif=u&ay? 3 Ak'<
bmomESifhywfoufonfh tEkynmvuf&mrsm;/ taqmufttHkrsm;/ bk&m;ausmif;rsm;txdavhvmygu
pdwfnpf!l; xdkif;rd_if;r_udk rjzpfapbJ wnfjidrfat;csrf;onfh t&omudk cHpm;=u&ayonf?
b0c&D;vrf;a=umif;wGif qif;&J'kuQukd awG@=u&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; Ak'<w&m;udk vdkufemolonf
aw@GñuH&aom qif;&J'kuQtwGuf ylyefjcif;/ a'goxGufjcif;/ pdwfr&Snfjcif; rjzpfapoifhay? avmu&dS
raumif;r_ 'kp&dkuf}uD;rsm;wGif Ak'<w&m;awmft& pufqkyfrkef;wD;jcif;onf wpfcktygt0ifjzpfonf? pufqkyf
rkef;wD;jcif;(yÉdC) . teuft"dy`g,fukd ‘ouf&SdowW0gwd@k tay: raumif;pdwfxm;jcif;/ 'kuQqif;&JtwGuf
pdwfESvHk;rom,mjcif;/ 'kuQqif;&Jjcif;ESihf ywfoufor#tay: raumif;oabmxm;jcif;’[lI zGifhqdkonf?
‚.udpPrSm aysmf&$ifjcif;uif;rJhaom b0.tajccHESihf raumif;r_rsm;jzpfap&ef jzpfonf [k jyonf? 4
xdk@a=umifh 'kuQESifh&ifqdkif&I pdwfwdkjcif;onf rSm;aomoabmxm;jzpfonf? 'kuQqif;&Jjzpfonfukd pdwfr&Snf
jcif;/ a'gotrsufxGufjcif;jzifh rajzazsmufEkdifacs? rajzazsmufEdkif&Hkru rESpfòr@zG,fjzpfaeaom udpPwpfckukd
ydkItajctaeqdk;um 'kuQydkrdkI wdk;vm&efom &dSayonf? pdwfwdkjcif;/ trsufxGufjcif;onf 'kuQukd
ukpm;enf;r[kwf? 'kuQ. oabmw&m;udk em;vnfI rnfo@kd jzpfvmonf? rnfuJho@kd ajzazsmufrnf
ponfwdk@udk qifjcifI pdwfvuf&SnfpGm tod^m%f/ ZGJ/ 0D&d,wd@k udk toHk;ðyIom ukpm;Edkifayrnf?
ax&*gxm/ ax&D*gxm[laom a&S;a[mif;Ak'<pmay ESpfapmifwGif jrwfpGmbk&m;. w&m;a&at;udk
aomufoHk;&I jidrf;csrf;aysmf&$ifr_udk &=uaom bk&m;om;awmf/ orD;awmfw@kd . &$ifvef;0rf;ajrmufpGm oDusL;
xm;aom ¹ruf[csufrsm;udk zwf&_Edkif=uayonf? aumovjynfh&Sifbk&ifrif;jrwfu jrwfpGmbk&m;tm;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? t*FkwdˆKvf 5 (ywp) pmrsufESm 133?
2? oH,kwf 5 (ywp) pmrsufESm 457? trSeftm;jzifh opPmav;yg;wGif wpfyg;yg;udkjrifaomolonf usefoHk;yg;udkvnf; jrifawmh
onf[k Ak'<u a[m=um;awmfrlonf? opPmav;yg;wdk@onf tcsif;csif;qufpyfv#uf &dS=uayonf?
3? *E<m&e,frS &kyfwkwpfckESifh w&kwfjynf ylusife,frS &kyfwkawmfwpfckwGif a*gwryHkawmfudk eH&dk;tðydif;ðydif;xI ydefvDScsdeJ@ae
aom w&m;usifh yk*d~KvfwpfOD;tjzpf azmfjyxm;onf? yHkrsm;rSm orRmorŠK'<bk&m;tjzpfodk@ra&mufrD 'kuQ&p&d,mtusifhjzifh
rdrdudk,fudk ðidkjiifpGm n‡Of;yef;cJhpOf tcsdefu &kyfyHkawmfudk azmfjyxm;jcif;om jzpfayonf? oAŠnKw a&$^m%fawmf&jyD;aemuf
xdk qif;&Jyifyef;aom usifhpOfrsm;udk Ak'<onf uJh&J@&_wfcs ypfy,fcJhayonf?
4? tbd"rRm orkpP,/ to*F/ pmrsufESm 7?

38

yxr t&d,opPm

“t&Sifjrwf. wynfhom;&[ef;rsm;onf tjcm;bmoma&; *dk%f;0ifrsm;. wynfhwyef;rsm;uJho@kd ydefñuH&H_@rJh/
=urf;wrf;/ azsmhawmh/ vDSuif;/ acgif;yg;I &kyfysufqif;ysuf r[kwfbJ tvGef&$ifvef;tm;& ([ÏyÏ)/ jrL;xl;
wufºupGm (O'*~K'*~)/ &[ef;b0Y aysmfykdufaom oabm&dSI tvGefarG@avsmf (tbd&w&ly)/ jynfhòz;aom
ÁajEN&dSukefv#uf (yD%djEdN,)/ a=umifh=urJh (tay`g\kuU)/ ylyifuif; (yEMavmr)/ jidrf;csrf;pGm (y&'0kwW)/
om;orifpdwfxm;jzifh (rd*blaweapwom) pdwfayghyg;pGm ae=uygukefonf bk&m;” [k wpf}udrfaomtcg
av#mufxm;zl;avonf?
TuJhodk@ aumif;jrwfaompdwfxm;jzifh aeEdkif=uonfrSm xdk&[ef;wd@k onf jrwfpGmbk&m;.
w&m;awmftqDtESpf jynfhjynfh00udk trSefrkcs aomufokH;cHpm;xm;jyD;jzpfIom aeEdkif=uonf[k ,Hk=unf
a=umif;udkvnf; bk&ifu av#mufxm;ao;onf? 1
Ak'<bmomonf opPmw&m;udk azmfxkwf&,l&ef aESmifh,Suf [ef@wm;aponfh òijiifjcif;/
0rf;enf;jcif;/ aemifw&jcif;/ ukuUKpPjzpfjcif;/ !d_;rdSefjcif; paom pdwfoabmxm;rdsK;ESifh vHk;vHk;qef@usifonf?
pdwf&$ifvef;r_ (yDwd) ukdrl edAŠmef&apjcif;iSm óu;pm;tyfonfh aAmZÆif (7) yg;wGif t*Fgwpfyg;tjzpf xnfhoGif;
xm;onfudk usGEfkyfwdk@ rSwfom; owdðy=u&ayrnf? 2

--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? rZdÆredum,f 2 (ywp) pmrsufESm 121?
2? aAmZÆif (7) yg;ta=umif;udk urRXmef;tcef;wGif =unfh&_yg?

39

tcef;(3)

'kwd,t&d,opPm ork',
ork', ] 'kuQjzpf
jzpfay:jcif;ta=umif;

'kwd,t&d,opPmonf 'kuQjzpfay:jcif; od@k r[kwf jzpfay:&mrlvta=umif;jzpfonf? ('kuQork',
t&d,opPm)? ygVdawmfrsm;wGif ae&mtES@H tjym;Y awG@&dS&I vlrsm; tod&dSqHk;jzpfonfh ork',opPm.
t"dy`g,f azmfjycsufrSm “t=uifw%Smonf wpfzefb0opfukd jzpfapwwf. (aygaemAB0dum)? ESpfoufjcif;
wyfrufjcif;ESifh wuGjzpf. (eEDN&m*o[*wm)? xdkxkdtm&HkY vGefpGm ESpfoufwwf. (w=wmw=wmbdeEdNeD)?
T wyfrufr_w%Sm [lonf tb,fenf;?
1? umr*k%fY qmavmifwyfrufr_ (umrw%Sm)/
2? b0Y qmavmifwyfrufr_ (b0w%Sm)/
3? b0uif;jywfjcif;Y wyfrufr_ (0db0w%Sm) wd@k wnf; ” [lI jzpfonf? 1
enf;trdsK;rdsK; y&d,m,ftoG,foG,fjzifh ay:xGufxif&Sm;vmwwfaom T wyfrufr_/ w%Sm/
&rRuf/ avmb/ awmifhwr_onf 'kuQaygif;pHkukd jzpfxGef;ay:aygufapI owW0gwdk@. b0pOfqufa&;udk
zefwD;ay;avonf? odk@&mwGif ‚tm; rlvta=umif;&if;tjzpf rxifrSwftyfay? Ak'<0g'wGif t&m&monf
wpfckckESifh qufpyfrDSwG,f ,SOfòyifae&um; rlvta=umif;&if;[lI r&paumif;ay? 'kuQ.tp/ 'kuQ.
jzpfa=umif;[k ,lq&aom Tw%Smonfyif ‚udk,fwkdifjzpfay:&ef tm&Hkt&om cHpm;r_ (a0'em) 2 tay:
wGif wnf&dSaeI a0'emonfvnf; xdawG@r_(z\) &dSrS jzpfay:vmEdkifonf? Tod@k v#if wpfckay:wpfck rDScdkI
yËdpPorky`g'f puf0dkif;tjzpf vSnfhywfaeayonf? T yËdpPorkyg` 'f puf0dkif;ta=umif;udk aemufwGif aqG;aEG;
wifjyygrnf?
xdk@a=umifh w%Smonf 'kuQukdjzpfapaom a&S;OD;rlvta=umif;vnf; r[kwfacs? wpfckwnf;aom
ta=umif;vnf;r[kwfacs? odk@&mwGif xdkw%Smonf todomqHk;ESifh eD;pGmaom ta=umif;jzpf&um;
“tm;vHk;ðcHI t"duw&m;cH” jzpfvm&onf? Tta=umif;rsm;a=umifh ygVdawmf tcsdK@ae&mrsm;Y 'kuQ.
jzpfa=umif;ork',udk zGifhqdk&mwGif w%Smudk a&S;OD;wifjyjyD;aemuf tjcm;udavomESihf obm0"rRrsm;udk
vnf; azmfjy=ujcif;jzpfayonf? 3 us,fjyef@pGmaqG;aEG;&ef ae&mr&dS&um; T w%Sm . A[dkr¾dKifonf
t0dZ…mrSjzpfay:vmaom ouUm,'dÏdyifjzpfonf[k rSwfom; owdðyrdu vHkavmufayjyD?
Tae&mY ‘w%Sm’ [lonf umr*k%fpnf;pdrf ypPnf;OpPm &wemESifh wefcdk;tm%mwd@k ukd pJGvrf;
wyfrufjcif;[kom r,l&bJ pdwful;pdwfoef;/ txiftjrif/ oabmt,ltq/ awG;awmcsuf/ ,Hk=unfcsuf
wdk@udk pJGvrf;qkyfudkifxm;jcif; onfvnf; w%Sm ("rRw%Sm) 4 wGif tygt0if jzpfayonf? yk*d~Kvfa&;
ta=umif;t&mrsm;a=umifh tdrfaxmifpkcsif; cdkuf&efjzpfyGm;=uonfrS vlrsd K;csif;/ wdkif;jynfcsif; wdkufcdkuf=u&
onfh ppfyJG}uD;rsm;wdkifatmif urBmavmuwGif tefwkzufòyif ab;'kuQqdkifavor# Ak'<. pdppfa0befcsuft&
Tudk,fudsK;&_w%Sm4 rS jzpfyGm;ay:aygufvmjcif;om jzpfonf? T&_axmifhrS=unfhaomf tm;vHk;aom pD;yGm;
a&;/ EdkifiHa&;/ vlr_a&;&m jy\emwdk@onf udk,fusd K;&_ w%SmwGif tajccHv#uf &dSayonf? ppfrufa&;&mrsm;
ESifh tjynfjynfqdkif&m jiif;cHkr_rsm;udk aqG;aEG;ajz&Sif;=uaom urBmhacgif;aqmif}uD;wdk@onf Tjy\emrsm;udk
pD;yGm;a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;e,fy,ftwGif;rSmom oHk;oyfaeor# jy\em. tajctjrpfrSefwkdifatmif Ed_ufE_dufcsGwf
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? r[m0*~/ 0denf;(tvGwf*gr 1922) pmrsufESm 9? oH,kwf 5 (ywp) pmrsufESm 421?
2? a0'em ork',m w%Smork'a,m/ rZdÆredum,f 1 (ywp) pmrsufESm 51?
3? 0db*F (ywp) pmrsufESm 106?
4? rZdÆredum,f 1 (ywp) pmrsufESm 51? oH,kwf 2 pmrsufESm 7? 0db*F/ pmrsufESm 380?
5? rZdÆredum,f 1 (ywp) pmrsufESm 86?

40

'kwd,t&d,opPm

csGwf avhvmwwfonf r[kwfbJ tay:,Hur#om aqmif&Gufaejcif; jzpfavonf? &Ïygvtm; Ak'<rde@f ¹ruf
awmfrlonfhtwdkif; ‘urBmavmu}uD;onf ar#mfvifhzifhEJ$v#uf ,ufuef,ufuefjzifh w%Smhaus;uGsef(w%Sm
'gaom) jzpfae&onf?’
urBmhjy\emt&yf&yfESifh qif;&J'kuQtaygif;wd@k onf twW[dw udk,fusdK;&Sm avmb&rRufa=umifh
jzpfay:vm&onf[k vlwdkif; oabmwl vufcH=uayonf? em;vnf&ef rcufcJvSaom t&may? od@k &mwGif
T tmom&rRuf ‘w%Sm’onf b0opfukd rnfuJho@kd jyefvnf jzpfay:aponf (aygaemAB0dum) udkrl
vG,fvG,foabmaygufEdkfif=urnf r[kwfay? Tae&mwGif yxrt&d,opPm. tbd"rRm oabmw&m;rsm;
ESifh ,SOfv#uf 'kwd,t&d,opPm. ydkrkdeufeJaom tbd"rRm oabmw&m;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;=u&rnfjzpf&m
uHESifhb0opfwdk@ ta=umif;udk tenf;i,f oabmaygufxm;&efvdkayonf?
owW0gwdk@. wnf&dSa&;ESifh b0tpOf qufvufjzpfay:a&;twGuf tm[m&av;yg;wnf;[laom
ta=umif;w&m;rsm; nD!Gwf=u&rnf? ‚wd@k rSm 1? omrefae@pOf tvkyftavG; pm;rdsKtyfaom tpm;tpm (uAVDum&m tm[m&m)
2? (b0ifpdwftygt0if) 'Gg& 6 yg;ESihf jyifytm&Hkw@kd xdckdufawG@qHkr_ (z\m[m&)
3? todpdwf (0dnm%m[m&) ESihf
4? apwem apwoduf (raemoaÌwem[m&) wd@k jzpfonf? 1
Tav;yg;wdk@teufwGif apwemapwodufonf b0Y &yfwnf&ef/ wpfzefb0opfjzpfay:&ef/
b0pOfquf&ef ESifh b0aygif;rsm;pGmjzpfay:&ef vdkvm;Ed_;qGaeaom pdwftvdk tmomqENyif jzpfayonf? 2
aumif;r_ESifhraumif;r_rsm; ðyvkyfjcif;tm;jzifh (ukovm ukovurR) 3 TtvdkqENonf b0&yfwnfa&;ESifh
pOfqufa&;. a&aomufjrpfudk zefwD;avonf? TtvdkqENonf apwem4 yifjzpfonf? apwemonf uH
yifjzpf.[k Ak'<&Sif;vif;jya=umif; a&S@ydkif;wGif azmfjycJhjyD;ayjyD? txufazmfjyyg raemoaÌwem[m& ESihf
ywfoufI ‘raemoaÌwem[m& udk em;vnfoabmaygufv#if w%SmoHk;yg; 5 ta=umif;udk od&dS
em;vnfjyD’ [k Ak'<u rdef@qdkcJhavonf? Tenf;jzifh w%Sm/ apwem/ raemoaÌwem[m&/ uH ponfwdk@
onf oabmteuf wpfckwnf;udkom aqmif=uayonf? ‚teuft"dy`g,fum; ‘b0wnf&dS&ef/ b0opf
xlaxmif&ef/ b0aygif;rsm;pGmjzpfvm&ef/ wdk;yGm;onfxuf wdk;yGm;vm&ef/ pkaygif;onfxuf pkaygif;vm&ef’
tvdkqEN tmom&rRufyifjzpfonf? Tonfyif 'kuQqif;&Jjzpfay:jcif;. ta=umif;jzpfI owW0gwnf; [l
aom cE<m 5 yg;wGif ocFg&uQE<mY tusHK;0ifawG@&dS&onf? 6
Ttcsufonf Ak'<a'oemwGif ta&;t}uD;qHk;ESihf txl;*&kðytyfaom tcsuf}uD;rsm;teuf wpf
csufjzpfayonf? xdk@a=umifh 'kuQjzpfay:apaom ta=umif;t&m/ 'kuQ. rdsK;aphonf 'kuQw&m;udk,fwGif;rSm
om&dSI tjyiftywGif r[kwfa=umif; usGEkfyfw@kd &Sif;vif;aocsmpGm rSwfom;=u&ayrnf? xdkenf;wl 'kuQ
jzpfay:apaom ta=umif;. csKyfjidrf;&m/ 'kuQrsd K;aph ysufðyef;&monf 'kuQw&m;. twGif;rSmom&dSI tjyify
wGif r[kwfa=umif; rSwfom;owdðy=u&rnf? ygVdawmfrsm;wGif awG@&dS&onfh ‘,HudÌd ork',"rRH/ oAHŠwH
eda&m" "rRH’] jzpfay:jcif;oabm&dSaom w&m;[lor#onf csKyfaysmufjcif; oabm&dS.? 7 [kqdk&mY T
t"dy`g,fudk qdkvdk&if;jzpfayonf? owW0gaomfvnf;aumif;/ t&m0wˆKaomfvnf;aumif;/ tzJG@tpnf;wpfck
aomfvnf;aumif; rdrdtwGif;Y jzpfay:jcif;/ aygufyGm;jcif; obm0 udef;atmif;yg&Sdaeygu udk,fwdkifcsKyfjidrf;&m
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? rZdÆredum,f 1 (ywp) pmrsufESm 48?
2? Tapwemapwodufudk acwfopf pdwfynmrS ‘vDAD'dk’ ac:umrpdwfESifh Ed_fif;,SOf=unfhEdkifonf?
3? rZdÆredum,f tXuxm/ yyOPol'eD 1 (ywp) pmrsufESm 210?
4? raemoaOPwemwd apwem {0 0kpPwd? yyOPol'eD/ pmrsufESm 209?
5? oH,kwf 2/ pmrsufESm 100? (1) umrw%Sm/ (2) b0w%Sm/ (3) 0db0w%Sm?
6? oH,kwf 2/ pmrsufESm 22?
7? rZdÆredum,f 3 (ywp) pmrsufESm 280? oH,kwf 4/ pmrsufESm 47-107? oH,kwf 5/ pmrsufESm 425?

41

'kwd,t&d,opPm

ysufðyef;&moabmESifh ADZrdsK;aphvnf; rdrd.twGif;Y wpfygwnf; uyfv#uf wnf&dSjrJjzpfonf? Tenf;jzifh
'kuQ (cE<mig;yg;) onf ‚.w&m;twGif;Y jzpfay:jcif;oabm&dS&um; ‚. csKyfjidrf;jcif;oabmvnf; ‚.
twGif;Yyif udef;atmif;wnf&dSaeayonf? Ttcsufukd wwd,t&d,opPm eda&m" ta=umif; aqG;aEG;&m
wGif xyfrHwifjyygOD;rnf?
ygVdpum;vHk; ‘urR’ odk@r[kwf ouUwpum;vHk; ‘u&fr’ ("gwf-u&fðyvkyf&ef) . a0g[m& pmay
t"dy`g,fonf ‘tr_’/ ‘aqmif&Gufjcif;’ [lIjzpfonf? od@k &mwGif Ak'<0g'wGif ,lqaom ‘urR’.oabmrSm
wdusxl;jcm;aom teufudkjyI aqmif&Guf vkyfukdifr_wkdif;udk rqdkvdk/ apwem. tr_udkom uH[k qdkvkday
onf? vltrsm;rSm;,Gif;I ayghayghqq oHk;pJG,lqaeouJho@kd urR. tudsK;w&m;udkvnf; qdkvkdonf
r[kwfay? Ak'<bmompmaywGif urRonf tudsK;w&m;[k t"dyg` ,f roufa&mufay? urRa=umifh jzpfay:
vmaom tudsK;w&m;udk urRzv od@k r[kwf urR0dygu [lI ac:wGifonf?
qENavmbonf aumif;onfvnf;&dS/ qdk;onfvnf; &dSouJho@kd apwemonfvnf; taumif;tqdk;
(2) rdsK; &dSEdkif&um; uHwGif taumif;tqdk; &dS&onf? aumif;aomuH (ukov)onf aumif;udsK;udk jzpfay:ap
I raumif;aomuH (tukov) onf raumif;udsK;udk ay;avonf? w%Sm/ apwem/ uHwdk@wGif aumif;v#if
aumif;ovdk/ qdk;v#if qdk;onfhtav#muf tudsK;tjzpfjzifh qufvufwnf&dS jzpfay:&ef tm;t&dSef&dS=uonf?
taumif;/ tqdk;[lonf Ed_if;cdkif;I oHk;EH_;xm;jcif;omjzpfI oHo&mpuf0kdif; twGif;rSmyif wnf&dS&ayonf?
&[EWmonf tr_udpPudk ðyrlaqmif&Gufaomfvnf; uHt&mra&mufacs? ta=umif;rl &[EWmonf ouUm,
'dXd y,fcGmjyD;jzpfI b0qufwnf&ef/ jzpfay:&ef w%SmESihf tjcm;udavom tnpfta=u; (obm0"rR) rsm;
rS uif;vGwfjyD; jzpaoma=umifhaywnf;? ‚twGuf b0wpfzef rjzpfawmhjyD?
uHoabmw&m;udk avmuusihf0wftwdkif; w&m;pD&ifr_/ od@k r[kwf qkvmbf ESifh tjypf'g%f [k
ac:qdk=uonfh 0g'rsm;ESifh r&_yfaxG;rd&ef owdðy&ayrnf? ‘usifh0wft& w&m;r#wapjcif;’/ ‘qkvmbfawmf
csjcif;’/ ‘tjypf'g%fxm;jcif;’/ paom t,loabmwd@k onf ‘xm0& bk&m;ocif’0g'rS qif;oufvmjcif;
jzpfonf? xm0& bk&m;ocifonf trSm;trSefukd a0zefqkH;jzwfI w&m;Oya'rsm; owfrSwfcsxm;jcif;/
w&m;pD&if qHk;jzwfjcif;rsm; ðyonf[k ,Hk=unf=uonf? ‘w&m;r#wapjcif;’[laom a0g[m&onf r&Sif;vif;
rjywfom;bJ tEW&m,frsm;udk jzpfay:aponf? vl@avmuwGif T ‘w&m;r#wapr_’udpPrsm;a=umifh
aumif;usdK;xuf qdk;jypfudk ydkI cH,lae=u&onf? uH t,l0g'rSmrl ta=umif;ESifh tudsK;oabmw&m;/
v_yf&Sm;r_ ESifh wHk@jyefr_oabmw&m;rsm;om jzpfonf? Toabmw&m;onf obm0"rRjzpfI ‘w&m;r#wr_’/
‘qkvmbfcsr_’/ ‘tjypf'g%fcwfr_’ paom 0g'rsm;ESihf rnfo@kd r# roufqdkifay?
rnfonfhapwemuHrqdk ‚.tusdK;w&m;udk jzpfay:aponf? aumif;aom aqmif&Gufr_twGuf
aumif;usdK;xGufay:I raumif;r_twGuf raumif;udsK;cH,l&ayrnf? rnfonfhyk*~Kdvf/ rnfonfh wefcdk;tm%m
&Sifur# rdrdtðytrludk a0zefqHk;jzwfcsufcsjcif;/ omemnDr#apjcif;/ qkvmbfcsawmfrljcif;/ tjypf'g%fcwfjcif;
rsm; ðyvkyfonfr[kwfbJ obm0"rRt& tvdktav#muf aumif;udsK;/ raumif;udsK; ay:xGuf&jcif;yif
jzpfonf? Ttcsufudk od&dSem;vnf&ef cJ,Of;vSrnfr[kwfay? apwemuH. tudsK;onf b0oufwrf;
ukefqHk;jyD;aemuf b0opfrSmvnf; qufvufay:vGifEkdifonf[lonfh tcsufudkrl vG,fvG,fjzifh em;vnfEkdif
rnf r[kwfay? Tae&mY Ak'<0g't& ‘aoqHk;jcif;’[laom ta=umif;jcif;&mudk &Sif;vif;wifjy&ayrnf?
‘owW0g’qdkonfrSm &kyfemrfwnf;[laom tm;(0g) pGrf;tifrsm; aygif;pyfaejcif;r#om jzpfa=umif; a&S@
wGif azmfjyjyD;jzpfonf? ‘aojcif;’qdkonfrSm &lyum,onf rdrdaqmif&Guf&ef tr_udpPtm;vHk;udk raqmif&Guf
awmhbJ vHk;0csKyfjidrf;oGm;jcif; jzpfayonf? Tod@k &lyum,u tr_udpPtm;vHk; raqmif&Gufonfh tcsdefwGif
txufazmfjyyg tm;(0g) pGrf;tiftm;vHk; &yfpJoGm;ygoavm[k ar;jref;&ef &dSayonf? Ak'<0g't&
ajz=um;csufrSm ‘r&yfpJyg’[kyifjzpfonf? b0wnf&Sdapvdkaom/ b0udk qufvufapvdkaom/ wpfb0jyD;
wpfb0 xyfumxyfum jzpfapvdkaom tmomqEN/ apwem/ aZm/ &rRuf/ w%Smonf tvGef}uD;rm;aom
tiftm;wpfckjzpf&um; wpfoufwmvHk;aomfvnf;aumif;/ wpfb0vHk;udkaomfvnf;aumif;/ urBm}uD;wpfck
vHk;udkaomfvnf;aumif; a&G@&Sm;/ v_yf&Sm;apEdkifayonf? urBmwGif Ttiftm;xuf }uD;rm;aom tiftm;

42

'kwd,t&d,opPm

r&dSjyD? Ak'<0g't& &lyum,onf tr_udpPtm;vHk; aqmif&Gufr_&yfpJI aoqHk;jcif; a&mufjyD[k qdk&aomtcsdef
wGif TpGrf;tif t[kefonf wef@&yfr_r&dSbJ tjcm;&kyfo¿mefwpfckY qufvufI xif&Sm;jy jyefayonf?
Todk@jzifh b0opf wpfzefjzpfay:vm&ayonf?
TwGif jy\emwpf&yfay:vmjyefonf? twW od@k r[kwf 0dnm%faumifuJhodk@ xm0&wnfjrJaom
rajymif;vJaom t&m0wˆK/ odk@r[kwf txnfukd,f[lI r&dS[kqkdygu aoonf.tjcm;rJhY wpfzefjyefvnf
jzpfay:vmaom b0topf jyefvnfxlaxmifaomt&monf rnfonfht&m jzpfygoenf;? aoonf.
tjcm;rJhY jzpfay:vmaom b0udk raqG;aEG;rD ,ck ypPuQb0oufwrf;onf tb,f&menf;? tb,fuJho@kd
qufvufjzpfay:aeoenf; [laomta=umif;udk pOf;pm;=u&ayrnf? b0/ avmu/ oufwrf; qdkonfrSm &kyf
emrfwnf;[laom tiftm;pGrf;tifw@kd aygif;pyf jzpfay:vmonfhcE<mig;yg;tpkta0;omjzpfa=umif; xyfcgwvJ
vJ azmfjycJhjyD;jzpfayonf? ‚wdk@onf tpOfojzifh ajymif;vJv#uf&dS&m wpfc%rSonf aemufwpfc%wdkif
qufvufwnfjrJjcif; r&dS? c%wdkif;c%wdkif; arG;zGm;vdkuf(jzpfay:vdkuf)/ aoqHk;vdkuf(ysufjyKef;vdkuf)
jzpfae=uonf? “tdk-&[ef;wdk@/ cE<mwd@k jzpfay:vdkuf/ &ifha&mfvkduf/ ysufjyKef;vdkufwkdif; oifwdk@onf arG;zGm;
vdkuf/ ,dk,Gif;vdkuf aovdkuf jzpfae=uonf?” xd@k a=umifh Twpfoufwm b0twGif;rSmyif c%wdkif;
c%wdkif; usGEfkyfwdk@onf arG;vdkuf/ aovdkufjzpfaev#ufESihf qufvufwnf&dSae=u&onf? Twpfoufwm b
0twGif; twW/ odk@r[kwf 0dnmOfaumifuJho@kd rajymif;vJwnfjrJaom txnfudk,f r&dSygbJv#uf qufvuf
wnf&dSaejcif;udk em;vnfEdkifygu &lyum, csKyfjidrf;jyD;aemuf Ttiftm;pkrsm;yif twW od@k r[kwf 0dnmOf
aumif rygbJ qufvufwnf&dSaeEdkifjcif;udk em;rvnfEkdifp&mr&dSyg?
T&lyum,onf tr_cyfodrf; raqmif&GufawmhbJ csKyfjidrf;oGm;aomtcgwGif tm;pGrf;tifrsm;onf
‚ESifhwuG csKyfjidrf;ysufokOf;roGm;bJ b0opfwnf;[laom tjcm;&kyfykHo¿mefwpfckukd qufvufwnf&dS
aeayonf? uav;i,fY um,/ pdwW/ ^m% pGrf;tifw@kd onf El;nhHcsdeJ@v#uf&dSaomfvnf; zGH@òz;aomvl}uD;
wpfOD; jzpfay:vmap&ef ikyfv#dK;aeaom wefckd;owWdw@kd udef;atmif; yg0ifjyD;jzpfayonf? owW0gwpfOD;.
&kyfemrfwnf;[laom tm;pGrf;tifrsm;wGifvnf; &kyfykHo¿mefopfwpfckukd,l&ef tpGrf;owWdwdk@ udef;atmif;
v#uf &dSI ,if;wdk@onf wjznf;jznf;zH@G òz;vmum tjynfhpkHqkH;tajcodk@wdkifatmif wdk;wuf}uD;yGm;vm=uay
onf?
tpOfwnfjrJaom rajymif;vJaomt&m0wˆK[lI r&dS&um; wpfc%rSonf wpfc%odk@ rnfonfh
t&mr# ul;ajymif;oGm;onfr[kwfay? xd@k a=umifh wpfb0rSwpfb0odk@ rnfonfhwnfjrJaom/ rajymif;vJ
aom t&mr# a&$@ajymif;ul;oef;roGm;a=umif; xif&Sm;vSayonf? c%wdkif;/ c%wdkif; ajymif;vJaeaomf
vnf; tqufrjywfjzpfay:aeonfh tpOfr#omjzpfonf? trSefpifppf TtpOfonf a&G@vsm;v_yf&Sm;r_ wpfck
omjzpfayonf? nvHk;aygufxGefawmufaeonfh rD;v#HwpfckuJho@kd yifwnf;? rD;v#Hxyfwlvnf; r[kwf/ tjcm;
rD;v#Hvnf; r[kwfay? uav;i,frS touf (60) &G,fo@kd a&mufoGm;&mwGif touf (60) &dSolrSm ,cifESpf
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wGifaoI tjcm;wpfae&mwGif b0opf,lolrSm ,cifyk*~dKvfvnf;r[kwf/ tjcm;yk*d~KvfwpfOD;vnf; r[kwfacs?
(e p aom/ e p tanm) ,cif tpOfoEœmefwpfckwnf;. tqufomv#if jzpfacsonf? aojcif;ESifh arG;jcif;
wdk@. jcm;em;jcif;onf pdwfwpfc%omjzpfonf? Tb0. aemufqkH;pdwfwpfc% (pkwdpdwf) onf aemuf
b0. yxrOD;qHk;pdwfwpfc% (yËdoaE<pdwf) udkay:aygufap&ef ta=umif;udk zefwD;ay;&um; tpOfoEœmef
wef;wGif wpfqufwnf;omjzpfayonf? Twpfoufwm b0Yyifv#if a&S@pdwfwpfc%onf aemufpdwfwpf
c%. jzpfay:apa=umif;udk zefwD;avonf? xd@k a=umifh Ak'<0g'Dwdk@. tjrift& aoonf.aemufYjzpfay:&
aom b0ta=umif;onf eufeJvd#K@0SufvSonfh udpPwpf&yfr[kwf&um; Tjy\ema=umifh Ak'<bmom0if
wpfOD;onf ylyefpdk;&drfjcif;r&dSvSay?
b0wnf&dS&efESifh jzpfay:&efpJGvrf;aom w%Sm &dSaeor# oHo&mpuf&[wfonf vnfywfjrJ
vnfywfaernfom jzpfonf? ,if;puf&[wftm; ckwfarmif;aeonfh tiftm;wnf;[laom T w%Sm udk

43

“trSefw&m;opPm (0g) edAŠmef” udk rsufarSmufðyaomynmjzifh jzwfawmufEdkifrSom ToHo&m puf&[wf
tvnf&yfEdkifayrnf?

44

tcef;(4)

wwd, t&d,opPm eda&m"
eda&m" ] 'kuQcsKyf+idrf;jcif;

wwd,ajrmuf t&d,opPmonf 'kuQrSaomfvnf;aumif;/ 'kuQoHo&mrS aomfvnf;aumif;/
vGwfajrmufr_/ u,fwifr_/ vGwfvfr_&Sda=umif;yif jzpfonf? TvGwfajrmufr_onf 'kuQcsKyfjidrf;aom trSef
w&m; ('kuQeda&m" t&d,opPm) jzpfI ouUwbmomjzifh ed&f0g% - ac: todrsm;=uaom edAŠmefyifwnf;?
'kuQudk vHk;0y,fxkwf&ef txufwGif azmfjycJhonfhtwdkif; 'kuQ. yifrt&if;jzpfaom w%Smudk
tjrpfrS y,fjzwfypf&ayrnf? xd@k a=umifh edAŠmefukd “w%SmukefqHk;jcif;/ w%SmuQ,” [lIvnf;
ac:a0:=uonf?
edAŠmefqdkonf tb,fenf;[k ar;jref;=uayvdrhfrnf? TuJho@kd obm0usI ar;jref;oifhaom ykp>m
&dk;&dk;udkajz=um;&ef usrf;aygif;rsm;pGm; a&;om;jyD;=uayjyD? od@k &mwGif tajzusrf;rsm;a&;om;avav ykp>mukd
&Sif;vif;aprnfhtpm; ydkrdk&_yfaxG;apavavjzpfaeayonf? Tykp>mudk pum;vHk;tm;jzifhjynfhpkHpGmESihf auseyf
zG,f&m rajzpGrf;Edkifyg[k jyef=um;jcif;onfom toifhavsmfqkH;jzpfayonf? ta=umif;rl edAŠmefonf “tºuif;rJh
rSefuefaomw&m;”/ odk@r[kwf “rlvyifrjzpfaomopPmw&m;” jzpf&um; ‚. oabmw&m;rSefudk azmfjy
Edkif&ef vlwdk@. a0g[m&pum;onf jynfhpkHvkHavmufpGm rºu,f0acs? vltaygif;wdk@onf ‚wdk@. yom'&kyf
t=unf"gwfESifh re"gwfwdk@wGifawG@ñuH&aom ta=umif;t&mrsm;/ pdwful;rsm;udk azmfjy&ef bmompum;rsm;
udk wDxGifoHk;pJG=ujcif;jzpfonf? “tºuif;rJh rSefuefaomw&m;”uJhokd@aom tawG@tñuHrdsK;onf avmuDe,frS
ausmfvGefaom avmukwW&mudpP&yfjzpfI txufazmfjyonfh vlwdk@. tawG@tñuHrdsK;wGif ryg0ifacs?
odk@jzpfI ig;owW0gwGif ukef;ajrta=umif;udk azmfjyEdkif&ef a0g[m&r&dSouJhokd@ vlwdk@wGifvnf;
avmukwW&m tawG@tñuHudk azmfjyEdkif&ef pum;vHk;r&dSacs? vdyfu ‚.rdwfaqGig;tm; ukef;ay:rSmvrf;
av#mufI a&uefodk@jyefvma=umif; ajymjyonf? ig;u “atmf/[kwfvm;/ a&ul;vmcJhwmr[kwfvm;” [k
jyefar;avonf? vdyfu ukef;ay:wGifa&rul;Edkifa=umif;/ ukef;ajronf rmausma=umif;/ vrf;av#mufIoGm;&
a=umif; &Sif;jyonf? odk@&mwGif ig;u vdyfajymaomukef;ajruJho@kd r&dSEkdifa=umif;/ a&uefuJho@kd yif vd_if;td
uav;rsm;ESifh a&jyifomjzpf&rnfjzpfI a&ul;Edkif/ a&ikyfEkdifrnfomjzpfa=umif; ZGwfjiif;qdkavawmhonf?
pum;vHk;rsm;onf usGEfkyfw@kd od&Sdaomt&mrsm;/ pdwful;rsm;udk xifvif;azmfjyaom trSwftom;
oauFwrsm;jzpfonf? ,if;wdk@onf omrefta=umif;t&m/ 0wˆKrsm;. oabmw&m;rSefudkyif raqmif=uOf;
Edkif/ raqmif=uOf;=uay? opPmw&m;udk &Sif;vif;azmfjy&mY bmoma0g[m&onf xifa,mifxifrSm; jzpfap
wwfonf? vJG!¸efwwfonf [k ,lq=uonf? vuFm0wm& okwWwGif ynmrJhaomolwdk@onf &$H@EGHwGifepf
aom qifajymifuJhodk@ pum;vHk;rsm;wGif epfðrwfae=ua=umif; azmfjyxm;onf? 1
odk@wap bmoma0g[m&r&dSIvnf; rjzpfay?od@k &mwGif edAŠmefudk wdkuf&dkufpum;vHk;rsm;jzifh teuf
ay;I azmfjy&Sif;vif;ygu xdkpum;vHk;rsm;ESihf ,SOfwJGaeaom oabmt,ltqrsm;udk &kwfw&ufpJG,lvdkufEdkif
aoma=umifh ajzmihfajzmifhqef@usifaom t"dyg` ,f aumufcsufcsrSwfEdkif=uonf? odk@jzpf&um; tjypftEW&m,f
ydkIuif;aomenf;udkoHk;I qef@usifbuf teuft"dyg` ,frsm;jzifh edAŠmefudk azmfjywwf=uonf? 2 xdk@a=umifh
edAŠmefudk w%SmukefqHk;jcif; (w%SmuQ,)/ ta=umif;w&m;wd@k raygif;qHk rjyKjyif/ rpD&iftyfaom w&m;
(tocFw)/ &m*uif;jidrf;jcif; (0d&m*)/ csKyfjidrf;jcif; (eda&m")/ jidrf;owfjcif;/ r_wfjidrf;jcif; (edAŠme) paom qef@
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? vuFm0wm&okwW/ eef*sD,dk/ usdKwdk/ 1923/ pmrsufESm 113?
2? wcgw&Hrl ajzmifhajzmifhteuft"dy`g,faqmifonfh od0]csrf;omjcif;/aumif;jrwfjcif;? acr]ab;uif;jcif;? ok'd<]pif=u,fjcif;?
'Dy]usGef;? o&%]udk;uG,fvJavsmif;&m? wm%]tumtuG,ftapmifhta&Smuf? yg&]wpfbufurf;/tjcm;wpfzuf?
oEdW]jidrf;csrf;jcif;/ jidrfoufjcif; paom pum;vHk;rsm;jzifh edAŠmefudk azmfjy=uonf? oH,kwWedum,f/ tocFwoH,kwfwGif
edAŠmefudk &nf!$ef;onfh t"dy`g,fwlpum;vHk;aygif; 32 vHk; toHk;jyKxm;ayonf?

45

wwd,t&d,opPm

usifbuf teufpum;vHk;wdk@jzifh r=umc% &nf!$ef;=uonf?
ygVdawmfrsm;wGif yg&dSonfhtwdkif; edAŠmef. t"dyg` ,f azmfjycsufrsm;udk wifjy&aomf xdkw%Sm. vHk;0
csKyfjidrf;jcif;/ pGef@ypfjcif;/ vufv$wfjcif;/ xdkw%SmhusGefb0rS vGwfajrmufjcif;/ xdkw%SmrS vGwfajrmufjcif;/
xdkw%SmrS pGef@cGmcJGxGufjcif;/1 jyKjyifpD&iftyfaomw&m;tm;vHk;udk jidrf;at;apjcif;/ udavom tnpfta=u;
[lor#udk pGef@v$wfjcif;/ w%Smudk jidrf;owfjcif;/ pGe@f cGmjcif;/ csKyfjidrf;jcif;/ edAŠmef?2
tdk-&[ef;wdk@/ ta=umif;w&m;wd@k rðyjyifrpD&iftyfaomw&m; (tocFw) onf tb,fenf;? tdk&[ef;wkd@/ w%Sm&m* ukefqHk;&m (&m*uQa,m)/ trsufa'goukefqHk;&m (a'gouQa,m)/ awGa0rdkufrJjcif;
ukefqHk;&m (arm[uQa,m) udk tocFw[k ac:a0:.? 3
“tcsif; &m"/ w%SmukefqHk;jcif; (w%SmuQa,m) onf edAŠmef yifwnf;?” 4
“tdk-&[ef;wdk@/ tðyjyifcHw&m;/ od@k r[kwf tðyjyifuif;w&m; &dSor#wd@k wGif &m*rSpGe@f cGmcJGxGufjcif;
(0d&m*) onf tjrwfqHk;jzpfonf? axmifv$m;r_rS vGwfuif;&m/ w%SmudkzsufqD;&m/ pJGvrf;r_udk tjrpfjzpf&m/
cE<mtpOfudk jzwfawmuf&m/ w%SmukefqkH;&m/ cJGxGuf&m/ csKyfjidrf;&m edAŠmefonf tjrwfqHk;aywnf;?” 5
y&dAdkZfwpfOD;u tb,fonf edAŠmefjzpfoenf;[k wdkuf&kdufar;jref;I Ak'<. t*~om0u}uD;jzpfaom
t&Sifom&dykwW&mu ajz=um;&mwGif Ak'<&Sif;jyaom tocFw (txufwGifazmfjyjyD;) twkdif; “w%Sm
ukefqHk;&m/ awGa0rdkufrJjcif;ukefqHk;&monf edAŠmefyifwnf;” [k ajz=um;avonf? 6
Oyg'geuQE<mig;yg;wdk@Y pJGvrf;awmifhw/ wyfrufr_ukd pGe@f y,fjcif;/ ðzdzsufjcif;wnf;[laom 'kuQ.
csKyfjidrf;jcif; 7 cE<mtpOfESifh b0csKyfjidrf;jcif; (b0eda&m") onf edAŠmefyifwnf; 8 ponfwdk@jzpfonf?
edAŠmefESifhpyfvsOf;I Ak'<rdef@¹rufonfw@kd udk qufvufazmfjy&aomf “tdk-&[ef;wdk@/ arG;zGm;jcif;/ tdkrif;
}uD;xGm;jcif;/ ocFg&ðyjyifjcif;wdk@ uif;jidrf;&m[lI &dS.? arG;zGm;jcif;/ tdkrif;}uD;xGm;jcif;/ ocFg&ðyjyifjcif;wd@k
r&dSv#if arG;zGm;jcif;/ tdkrif;}uD;xGm;jcif;/ ocFg&ðyjyifjcif;rS xGufajrmuf&ef vrf;r&dSay? arG;zGm;jcif;/ tdkrif;
}uD;xGm;jcif;/ ocFg&ðyjyifjcif;wdk@rS uif;jidrf;&m[lI &dS&um; arG;zGm;jcif;/ tdkrif;}uD;xGm;jcif;/ ocFg&ðyjyifjcif;
wdk@rS xGufajrmufEdkif=uonf?” 9
“edAŠmefwGif yx0D/ tmayg/ awaZm/ 0ga,m [laom "gwf}uD;av;yg;r&dS? tvsm;ESifhteH/ tEkESihf
t=urf;/ taumif;ESifhtqdk;/ trnfemrESihf &kyfo¿mef ponfhoabmwdk@onf vHk;0ysufðyef;.? TurBm
vnf;r[kwf/ tjcm;urBmvnf; rrnf/ vmjcif;/ oGm;jcif;/ &yfwnfaejcif;/ aoqHk;jcif;/ arG;zGm;jcif;r&dS/ tm&Hk
0wˆK[lIvnf; rawG@&awmhay?” 10
edAŠmefudk TuJhodk@ r&dS/ rjzpf ponfh yËdao" toHk;tEH_;rsm;jzifh azmfjy&um; edAŠmefonf yËdao"
t&mjzpfI rdrdudk,frdrd azsmufzsufjcif;jzpfonf[lI vlaygif;rsm;pGm rSm;,Gif;oabmayguf ae=uayonf?
edAŠmefonf rdrdudk,frdrd azsmufzsufypfjcif;r[kwfonfrSm aocsmvSonf? ta=umif;rlazsmufzsufypfvkduf&ef
rdrdudk,f [lIyifr&dSaoma=umifhyifwnf;? azsmufzsufypfvkdufjcif;[kqdk&ygv#if “rdrdudk,f” [k rSm;,Gif;ae
aom xifa,mifxifrSm; jzpfaeaom t,ltqudkom azsmufzsufjcif;jzpfrnf?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? r[m0*~/ pmrsufESm 10/ oH,kwf 5/ pmrsufESm 421?
2? oH,kwf 1/ pmrsufESm 136?
3? oH,kwf 4/ pmrsufESm 359?
4? oH,kwf 4/ pmrsufESm 190?
5? t*FkwdWK&f 2/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 34?
6? oH,kwf 4/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 251?
7? rZdÆredum,f 1/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 191? t&Sifom&dykwW&m. pum;vHk;rsm;?
8? oH,kwf2/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 117? Ak'<.tjcm;wynfhwpfOD;jzpfaom rkoDv. pum;vHk;rsm;?
9? O'ge (udkvHbdk 1929)/ pmrsufESm 129?
10? ‚ pmrsufESm 128? 'DCedum,f/ (udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 172?

46

wwd,t&d,opPm

edAŠmefudk ‘r&dS/rjzpf’ (Negative) [lIvnf;aumif;/ ‘t&dS/tjzpf’ (Positive) [lIvnf;aumif;
ajymqdkv#if rrSefuefacs? ‘r&dS/rjzpf’ ESihf ‘t&dS/tjzpf’ paom oabmt,ltqonf tcsif;csif;iJhaom
Ed_if;cdkif;aom tnrnt&mjzpfI 'dGpkH/ ,rut,le,fy,f (Realm of duality) wGif;I &dSayonf? ,ru
ESifh tnrne,fudk vGefajrmufoGm;aom yuwd (y&rwf) opPm edAŠmefukdrl Ttac:ta0:rsm;jzifh razmfjy
Edkifay?
wm;jrpfjcif;/ jiif;qdkjcif; (yËdao")/ r&dSjcif; teufaqmif pum;vHk;wdkif; ‘r&dS/rjzpf’[laom oabm
udkazmfjyonf[k r,lqEdkifay? Oyrm-usef;rmjcif;udk ygVdESihf ouUwbmomwGif ‘tma&m*s’a&m*guif;jcif;/
temr&dSjcif; [laom ‘r&dS/rjzpf’teufaqmif pum;vHk;jzifhac:a0:.? odk@&mwGif usef;rmjcif; [lonfrSm ‘r&dS/
rjzpf’ aom tajctaer[kwfay? edAŠmefESihf oabmt"dyg` ,fwl pum;vHk;jzpfaom‘trw’onf ‘raojcif;’
[k qdkaomfvnf; ‘r&dS/ rjzpf’ aom tajctaer[kwfay? qef@usifaom teuft"dyg` ,fukd wm;jrpfjcif;onf
‘r&dS/ rjzpf’ r[kwfay? vlodtrsm;qHk; edAŠmeft"dyg` ,faqmif pum;vHk;wpfvHk;rSm vGwfvyfjcif; ‘rkwdW’ [k
ygVdwGif ac:a0:onf? vGwfvyfjcif;udk r&dSaomtajctae[k rnfolr#orkwfrnf r[kwfay? odk@&mwGif vGwf
vyfjcif;rSmyif qef@usifbufoabm &dSao;onf? vGwfvyfonfqkdonfrSm aESmifh,SufydwfqD;xm;onfrS
raumif;aomtajc qef@usifbuftajcrS vGwfajrmufonfukd qdkvdkonf? odk@&mwGif vGwfvyfjcif;onf ‘r&dS/
rjzpf’ r[kwfay? xdk@a=umifh edAŠmef/ rkwdW/ 0drkwdWonf raumif;r_tm;vHk;rS/ avmb/ a'go/ arm[rS uif;vGwf
jcif; ,ru/ tnrn/ umv/ tmumo ponfh tac:ta0:t,ltqwdk@rS uif;vGwfjcif;yif jzpfayonf?
edAŠmefonf y&rwˆopPmjzpfa=umif; rZdÆredum,f okwftrSwf 141/ "mwk0db*Fokwfawmfukd zwf&_
v#if aumif;pGm oabmaygufEdkifayrnf? T vGefpGmta&;}uD;aom okwfw&m;awmfudk tdk;xdef;onf.
wJwGif wpfnwmtwlwuG aexdkif&mrS wdwfqdwfjidrfoufv#uf&dSaom nOfh,HtcgY w&m;awmfudk =unf!kd
av;pm; odjrifem;vnfayrnf[k odawmfrlaoma=umifh ykuUKomwdrax&ftm; jrwfpGmbk&m; a[m=um;awmf
rlavonf(txufwGifazmfjyjyD;)? T okwfrS t"duta&;}uD;aom tqDtESpfudk oufqdkif&m tydkif;rsm;rS
aumufE_wfI atmufygtwdkif;azmfjyvdkufayonf“vlyk*d~KvfwpfOD;onf yx0D/tmayg/awaZm/0ga,m/ tmumo/0d^m% paom "gwf}uD;ajcmufyg;
jzifh zJG@pnf;xm;.? olonf ,if;"gwfajcmufyg;tm; cJGjcrf;pdppf=unfhvdkuf&m rnfonfh"gwfr# ‘igydkifr[kwf’/
‘igr[kwf’/ ‘ig.twWr[kwf’a=umif; awG@&Sd&onf? olonf 0d^m%f.jzpfay:jcif;/ csKyfaysmufjcif;ta=umif;
udk em;vnfonf? okca0'em/ 'kuQa0'em/ OayuQma0'emwdk@ jzpfay: csKyfaysmufjcif;ta=umif;udkvnf;
em;vnfod&dSonf? Todk@od&dSem;vnfaom tod^m%fa=umifh ‚.pdwfonf wG,fwmr_ uif;vm.?
‚aemuf pif=u,fjzLpifaom OayuQmomv#if ºuif;usefawmh&m ‚OayuQmudk tvdk&dS&mpsmefo@kd
aqmif,lEdkifI &SnfjrifhpGmaom umvywfvkH; wnf&SdEkdifonfukd od&dSavonf? xdk@aemuf xdkolonf Tod@k
od.‘igonf Todk@xuf0ef;usif pif=u,faom jzLpifaom TOayuQmudk tmumomeÌm,wepsmef
odk@ tu,fI aqmifjim;thH/ xdk tmumomeÌm,wepsmef odk@ tpOfvdkufaom (&lypsmef)pdwfukdvnf;
yGm;jim;tHh? T tmumomeÌm,wepsmefonf ðyjyiftyfaom‘ocFww&m;wnf;’/ igonf Todk@xuf0ef;
usifpif=u,faom 0dnm%Ìm,wepsmef od@k / tmudÌnm,wepsmefodk@/ ae0onmemonm,wepsmefo@kd
tu,fI aqmifjim;thH/ xdk ae0onmemonm,wepsmefo@kd tpOfvdkufaom (&lypsmef) pdwfukdvnf;
yGm;rsm;tHh/ T ae0onmemonm,wepsmefonf ðyjyiftyfaom ‘ocFw’w&m;wnf; [kod.?”
xdkolonf }uD;yGm;jcif;iSmvnf;aumif;/ qkwf,kwfjcif;iSmvnf;aumif; xdkOayuQmudk rðyjyif/
raphaqmf? olonf }uD;yGm;jcif;iSmvnf;aumif;/ qkwf,kwfjcif;iSmvnf;aumif; rðyjyif/ raphaqmfaomf
avmuY wpHkw&mudkr# rpJGvrf;? rpJGvrf;aomolonf rawmifhw? rawmifhwaomolonf pdk;&drfylyefjcif;rS
uif;.? pdk;&drfylyefjcif;rSuif;ojzifh udk,ftwGif;Y vHk;0jidrf;at;.? (ypPwWH-a,0 y&dedAŠm,wd) ‘yËdoaE<ae&
r_ ukefavjyD/ jrwfaomtusifhudk usifhokH;jyD;jyD? wpfyg;aomðyzG,fudpPr&dSawmhjyD?’ 1 [k od.?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? Tpmydk'f.t"dy`g,fum; &[EWmjzpfavjyD [k qdkvdkonf?

47

wwd,t&d,opPm

xdkolonf okca0'em/ 'kuQa0'em/ OayuQma0'emudk tu,fI cHpm;&tHh/ xdka0'emonf tjrJr&dS/
tedpP[k od.? xdka0'emonf ‚tm;csnfaESmifr_r&dS[k odI &m*gEko[ESifh r,SOfbJomv#if cHpm;.?
rnfonfha0'emudk rqdk udavomESihf r,SOfbJ (0doH,kawWm) uyfjidjcif;uif;pif;pGmjzifhom cHpm;.? rD;pmESifh
qD ukefcrf;v#if rD;tv#Hjidrf;&bdouJho@kd cE<mysufðyef;v#if TcHpm;r_tm;vHk; jyD;jidrf;rnf[lIvnf; xdkol
odonfomwnf;?
“xdk@a=umifh tdk-&[ef;/ Tod@k jynfhpkHaom yk*~dKvfonf tvGefjrwfaom ynmESihf jynfhpHkonf rnf.?
tb,fha=umifh[lrl cyfodrf;ukefaom qif;&J'kuQw@kd ukefqkH;I jzpfay:vmaom T^m%fonf tvGeftuJjrwf
aom ynmaywnf;?
xdkoltm; Tjrwfaomynmonf y&rwˆopPmY tm&Hkwnf&um; rysufpD;/ r,drf;,dkifawmhay? tdk&[ef;/ csGwfvJGaom oabm&dSaomw&m;onf rrSefuef (armo"rR)/ rcsGwfvJGaom oabm&dSaomw&m;
(tarmo"rR) onf edAŠmefwnf;/ opPmw&m;wnf;? xd@k a=umifh tdk-&[ef;/ TqdkjyD;aom vuQ%mESifh jynfhpHk
aom yk*d~Kvfonf tvGefjrwfaom y&rwˆopPmESihf jynfhpkH.? tvGeftuJjrwfaom t&d,opPmonf (y&rH
t&d,opPH) csGwfvJGysufpD;jcif;r&dSaom edAŠmefomwnf;?”
tjcm;wpfae&mwGifvnf; opPm[laom pum;vHk;udk edAŠmeftpm;wdkuf&kduftoHk;ðyI a[m=um;
awmfrlao;.?
“ig bk&m;onf opPm1udkvnf;aumif;/ opPmod@k a&mufapaomvrf;udkvnf;aumif; jyawmfrlrnf”
[k a[m=um;awmfrl&m Tae&mwGif ‘opPm’ onf ‘edAŠmef’ [k wdwdusus t"dy`g,foufa&mufayonf?
TwGif ‘y&rwˆopPm[lonf tb,fenf;’ [kapma=umzG,f&m&dSonf? Ak'<0g't& TavmuY
yuwdwnfjrJr_r&dS? t&m&mwdkif;onf tedpPoabmom jzpfonf? ðyjyifr_cH&onf? tnrn oabmjzifh
qufpyfaeonf?
rajymif;vJaom xm0pOfcdkifchHaom udk,f/ twW ponfh yuwd wnfjrJaom0wˆK[lI twGif;tjyif
vHk;0r&dSay? Toabmw&m;onfyif y&rwˆopPmjzpfawmhonf?
‘r&dSopPm’[laom a0g[m&udk trsm;oHk;pJGavh&Sd=uonfhwkdifatmif opPmw&m;onf ‘r&dS’w&m;
rjzpfEdkifay? T y&rwˆopPmudk rsufarSmufðyonf [l&mY oabmw&m;wdk@udk t0dZ…muif;&Sif;pGmjzifh ,xm
blw usepGmxifjrifjcif;2 w%Sm&m*csKyfjidrf;jcif; (w%SmuQ,)/ 'kuQrS uif;vGwfjcif; (eda&m") udkyif
qdkvdkonfjzpf&m edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðyonfh t"dyg` ,fyif oufa&mufayonf?
r[m,me0g't& edAŠmefonf oHo&m3ESifhuJGjym;jcif;r&dS[k qdk=uonf? &_=unfhykHukdvkdufI oabm
w&m;wpfckxJonf edAŠmefaomfvnf;aumif;/ oHo&maomfvnf;aumif; jzpfonf[k ,lqonf? T r[m
,me0g'onf usGEfkyfwdk@ txufwGifaqG;aEG;cJhaom rlvax&0g' ygVdawmfvm oabmw&m;rsm;rS csJ@xGif
aygufyGm;jcif; jzpfaumif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf?
edAŠmefudk w%Smukefcef;jcif;rS jzpfay:vmaom tusdK;w&m;[k r,lqaumif;ay? edAŠmefonf
rnfonfh tudsK;oufa&mufr_rS r[kwfay? tudsK;w&m;jzpfonf[k qdkygu xdktudsK;w&m;udkjzpfay:aponfh
ta=umif;w&m; &dS&ayrnf? xdk@a=umifh edAŠmefonf zefwD;r_/ ðyjyifr_a=umifh ay:aygufvm&aom‘ocFw’
w&m;jzpf&ayawmhrnf? odk@aomf edAŠmefonf ta=umif;w&m;aomfvnf;aumif;/ tudsK;w&m;aomfvnf;
aumif;r[kwfay? ta=umif;tudsK;w&m;wd@k ukd vGefajrmufjyD;jzpfayonf? psmef/ orm"dwdk@uJhodk@ azmfxkwf,l
&onfh pdwftajctaevnf; r[kwfay? opPmw&m;onf xif&Sm;&dSonfom/ edAŠmefonfxif&Sm;&dSonfom
jzpf.? ‚udk jrif&efomvdkonf? rsufarSmufðy&efomvdkonf? edAŠmefo@kd ta&mufy@kd Edkifonfh r*f [laom
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? oH,kwf 5/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 369?
2? vuFm0wm&okwW/ pmrsufESm 200? “tdk-r[mrwdedAŠmefqdkonfrSm t&dSudkt&dStwdkif; jrifjcif;yifwnf;?”
3? em*gZke u “oHo&monf edAŠmefESifh rjcm;em;/ edAŠmefonf oHo&mESifh rjcm;em;”[k xif&Sm;pGmqdkonf? rmZmrdu
um&dum/ em*gZke?

48

wwd,t&d,opPm

vrf;r}uD;um; &dS.? odk@&mwGif edAŠmefonfxkdvrf;r}uD;. tudsK;w&m;um; r[kwfay?1 vrf;a=umif;wpfck
twdkif; vdkufoGm;ygu awmifwpfcko@kd a&mufrnfqkdv#if xdkawmifonf vrf;a=umif;a=umifh jzpfay:vmaom
&v'fr[kwfay? tvif;a&mifwpfckukd jrif&onfqkdv#if ‚tvif;a&mifonf rsufpda=umifh jzpfay:vmaom
tudsK;w&m; r[kwf [lonfh oabmyifwnf;?
‘edAŠmef.tjcm;rJhY bm&dSoenf;’ [k r=umc% ar;jref;avh&Sd=uonf? edAŠmefonf opPmwumwdk@.
txGwftxdyf/ tqHk;pGef tEWdropPm jzpf&um; Tykp>may:ayguf&ef rvdkay? tEWdr tqHk;pGefjzpfjcif;a=umifh
‚aemufY rnfonfht&mr# &dSEdkifrnf r[kwfay? ‚.aemufqG,fY wpfpHkwpf&m&dSao;onfqdkygu xdkt&m
onfom tEWdropPmjzpfI edAŠmefonf tEWdropPm r[kwfEkdifawmhay?
&m"rnfaom &[ef;wpfyg;onf wpfcgu Ak'<jrwfpGmtm; Tykp>mudk yHkpHwpfrdsK;jzifh av#mufxm;cJh
zl;jyD? ‘edAŠmefodk@a&mufjcif;onf tb,ftudsK;&dSygoenf; bk&m;’? edAŠmef. tusdK;&nf&G,fcsufudk ar;jref;&m
wGif edAŠmefYaemufqufwJG&dSa=umif; Tykp>mu óuwifcef@rSef;xm;jcif; jzpfayonf? xd@k a=umifh jrwfpGmbk&m;
u “&m"/ jy\em vGefoGm;jyD (ar;p&mrvdk)? jy\em. tqHk;udk ,l&ef rpGrf;Edkif/ jrwfaom tusifhudk
usifhoHk;ol. &nfrSef;csufonf edAŠmefo@kd ouf0if&ef/ edAŠmefv#ifvJavsmif;&ef/ edAŠmefv#if tqHk;owf&ef jzpf.”
[kajz=um;awmfrlonf? 2
jrwfpGmbk&m;onf uG,fvGefjyD;aemuf edAŠmef od@k r[kwf y&dedAŠmefodk@ pH0ifonfpaom rrSefruef
ajymqdka&;om;r_rsm;a=umifh edAŠmefESihfywfoufI pdwful;awG;awmr_rsm; ay:aygufvm=uonf?3
“jrwfpGmbk&m;onf edAŠmef od@k r[kwf y&dedAŠmefo@kd pH0ifonf” [laom toHk;tEH_;udk =um;onfESifh
wpfðydifeuf edAŠmefudk jynfe,fwpfck/ wdkif;EdkifiHwpfck/ b0&yfwnf&mXmewpfck[k ,lrSwfvkdufI ‘b0’
[laompum;ESifh qufoG,fv#uf odaeus t"dyg` ,frsm;udk aumuf,l=uawmhonf? trsm;oHk;pJGae=uonfh
‘edAŠmefodk@ pH0ifonf’ [laomtoHk;tEH_;udk rlvygVdawmfwGif rawG@&dS&ay? ‘aojyD;aemuf edAŠmefodk@pH0ifonf’
[lI rjzpfEdkifay? edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðyjyD;jzpfaom bk&m;/ &[EWmwdk@ uG,fvGefonfudk azmfjy&ef
‘y&dedAŠKawm’[laompum;vHk;udk oHk;jim;aomfvnf; edAŠmef pH0ifonf[lI t"dy`g,froufa&mufay? bk&m;/
&[EWmwdk@ uG,fvGefjyD;aemuf b0topfjyefvnf rjzpf&um; y&dedAŠKawm . t"dy`g,frSm ‘vHk;0vGefajrmuf
oGm;jyD’/ ‘vHk;0csKyfjidrf;oGm;jyD’/ ‘vHk;0aysmufpJoGm;jyD’[lIom &Sif;&Sif;qdkvdkonf?
‘bk&m;/&[EWmwdk@ y&dedAŠmefðyjyD;aemuf rnfuJhodk@jzpfoenf;’[k ykp>mwpfrsd K; ar;jref;=uao;.?
Tykp>monf jrwfpGmbk&m;rajzqdkaom (tAsmuw) ykp>mrsm;wGif wpfyg;tygt0ifjzpfonf?4 Tta=umif;
t&mESifh ywfoufI a[majymawmfrl&mwGif &[EWmuG,fvGefjyD;tjcm;rJhY rnfodk@jzpfonfudk ajymjyEdkif&ef
vlwdk@a0g[m&pum;vHk;r&dSa=umif; Ak'<u &Sif;vif;jyawmfrlonf?
y&AdkZf 0p>a*gwW av#mufxm;onfukd ajz=um;&mwGif ‘arG;onf (b0 jzpfay:onf)/ rarG;onf (b0
rjzpfay:onf)’ paom a0g[m&wdk@onf &[EWmESihf rywfoufa=umif; rdef@=um;awmfrlonf? ‚a0g[m&wd@k
onf &kyf/a0'em/onm/ocFg&/0dnm%wd@k ESifhom qufpyfjcif;&dSI &[EWmtwGufrl xdkt&mwd@k udk vHk;0acsr_ef;
jyD;om;/ tjrpfvJSjyD;om;jzpf&um; uG,fvGefjyD;aemuf jyefvnfjzpfay:&ef r&dSawmhay?5
uG,fvGefjyD;aom &[EWmudk xif;ukefIjidrf;oGm;aomrD;uJho@kd vnf;aumif;/ rD;pmukefqDcef;ojzifh jidrf;
oGm;aom rSeftdrfrD;awmufuJhodk@vnfaumif; Oyrm aqmifavh&Sd=uonf?6 TOyrmrsm;wGif xifxif&Sm;&Sm;/
wdwdusus em;vnf&efvdkonfhta=umif;rSm jidrf;oGm;aom rD;ESihf rD;awmufwdk@ESifh Ed_if;,SOfjyxm;onfrSm
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? avmukwW&m "rR 9 yg;teufrS edAŠmefonf r*fESifh zdkvfudk vGefajrmufa=umif; owdðy=u&rnf?
2? oH,kwf 3/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 189?
3? tcsdK@yk*d~Kvfrsm;onf “jrwfpGmbk&m; y&dedAŠmefðyawmfrljyD;aemuf” [k qdk&rnfhtpm; “jrwfpGmbk&m; edAŠmefpH0ifawmfrljyD;
aemuf” [kajymqdka&;om;=uonf? “jrwfpGmbk&m; edAŠmefpH0ifonf”qdkonfhtoHk;tEH_;rSm t"dy`g,fuif;rJhI Ak'<bmom
pmaywGif rawG@&dSEdkfifay? “jrwfpGmbk&m; y&dedAŠmefðyawmfrljyD;aemuf” [lIom awG@=u&onf?
4? oH,kwf 4/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 375?
5? rZdÆredum,f 1/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 486?
6? rZdÆredum,f 1/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 487? ‚-3/ pmrsufESm 245? okwWedygw (ywp) 5/ pmrsufESm 41?

49

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edAŠmefr[kwfbJ edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðyoGm;aom cE<mig;yg;tpkr#omjzpfonfh owW0gom jzpfayonf? T
jcm;em;csufudk av;av;eufeufazmfjy&onfrSm tcdsK@ynm&Sif}uD;rsm;tygt0if vltrsm;pkonf TOyrm
tm; edAŠmefudk&nf&G,fonf[k t"dy`g,faumuf vJGrSm;rd=uaoma=umifh jzpfayonf? edAŠmefudk jidrf;oGm;aom
rD;awmufrD;v#HESifh rnfonfhtcgr# rcdfkif;Ed_if;ay?
twWr&dSv#if ‘ig’ r&dSv#if rnfol edAŠmefukd rsufarSmufðyoenf;[k trsm;ar;avh&Sdayao;onf? T
ykp>mvm edAŠmefudk raqG;aEG;rD ‘ig’ r&dSv#if,ck rnfolpOf;pm;=uHpnfoenf; [laom tjcm;ykp>mwpfckukd ar;
jref;=uygpdk@? a&S@tcef;wGif t=uHtpnfuom =uHpnfpdwful;onf/ pdwful;.aemufuG,fY pdwful;orm;r&dS[k
&Sif;jycJhjyD;jzpfonf? xdkenf;wlpGmyif rsufarSmufðyjcif;udk ynmuom rsufarSmufðyonf/ tjcm;yk*d~Kvf owW0g
[lI ynm.aemufuG,fY r&dSacs? 'kuQjzpfay:jcif;.ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;cJh&mwGif owW0gjzpfap/ t&m0wˆK
jzpfaom tzJG@tpnf;wpfckjzpfap rdrd. udk,fwGif;Yjzpfay:jcif;/ aygufzGm;jcif;obm0 &dSaeygu ‚.
csKyfjidrf;&m ysufðyef;&m oabmESifh ADZrdsK;aphw@kd onf ‚. udk,fwGif;Y wpfygwnf; uyfv#uf ygvmjyD;
jzpfa=umif;udk odjrifcJhjyD;jzpfayonf? 'kuQoHo&m/ b0pufbD;onf jzpfay:aygufzGm;jcif; oabm &dS&um;
ysufðyef;csKyfjidrf;jcif; oabmvnf; &dS&ayrnf? 'kuQonf w%Sma=umifh jzpfay:vmI ynma=umifh csKyfjidrf;
&onf? a&S@wGif wifjycJhjyD;twdkif; w%SmESihfynm ESpfyg;pvHk;yif cE<mig;yg;Y tusKH;0if=uayonf?
xdk@a=umifh ‚wdk@udk jzpfay:vmapaom ADZESihf csKyfjidrf;aprnfh ta=umif;w&m; rdsK;aphwdk@onf cE<m
ig;yg;twGif;Yom udef;atmif; wnf&Sdae=uayonf? ‘TwpfvHr#om&dSaom udk,fum, twGif;Yom
avmu&dSonf/ avmujzpfay:vmonf/ avmucsKyfjidrf;onf/ avmucsKyfjidrf;&m r*~ifvrf;&dSonf?’1 [k Ak'<
a[m=um;&mwGif Tt"dy`g,fudk qdkvkd&if;jzpfonf? wpfenf;qdkaomf t&d, opPmav;yg; w&m;rsm;onf
cE<mig;yg;wnf;[laom usGEfkyfwdk@. udk,fwGif;Yyif wnf&Sd=uayonf? Tae&mwGif 'kuQtpm; avmu [k
oHk;E_H;xm;onf? xdk@a=umifh 'kuQjzpfay:apjcif;/ csKyfjidrf;apjcif;udk rnfonfh jyify wefcdk;tm%m&Sif urS
zefwD;onf r[kwf[k em;vnf=u&ayrnf?
aemuftcef;wGif azmfjyrnfh pwkwˆajrmuf t&d,opPmESihf avsmfnDpGm ynmudk jznfhqnf;ygu/
&ifhoefapygu b0. vd#K@0Sufcsuf ta=umif;pHkukd trSeftwdkif;odjrifayrnf? trSefudkjrifI b0.vd#K@0Sufcsuf
rsm; ay:oGm;ygv#if 0dyv†mow&m;rsm; zHk;v$rf;jcif;a=umifh oHo&mpuf}uD;udk tylwjyif;vSnfhvnfaeaponfh
tm;t&dSefrsm;onf +idrfoufvm&ayrnf? 0dyv†mo uG,faysmufI (rsufpdvnfaysmufI) b0w%Sm ukefqkH;
onfESifh ‚tm;t&dSefwdk@onf aemufxyfocFg&rsm;udk rjzpfay:Edkif apawmhay? vlem&Sifu a&m*g.
ta=umif;ESifh vd#K@0Sufcsufudk awG@&dSodjrifonfhtcg a&m*gaysmufuif;&onfh pdwWZa0'emESifh xyfwlyifwnf;?
bmom tm;vHk;wdkif;vdkvdkwGif (txGwftxdyfb0) tjrifhjrwfqHk; tqifhodk@ b0uG,fvGefjyD;rS
omv#if a&muf&dSEdkif=uonf? edAŠmefukdrl Tb0Yyif rsufarSmufðyEdkifayonf? edAŠmefudk ‘a&muf’ &ef
aoonfhwdkifatmif apmifhqdkif;p&mrvdkay?
edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðyjyD; (trSefw&m;udk vufukdifðyjyD;) olonf urBmwGif pdwftcsrf;omqHk; yk*~dKvf
jzpfawmhonf? tjcm;olrsm;tm; EdSyfpuf !SOf;yef;v#uf &dSonfh 'kuQ/aomursm;/ tjyif;txefpJGvrf;r_rsm;/
‘igrme’. óu;qJGcH&jcif;rsm;rS olonf uif;&Sif;.? olonf pdwWokcESifhvnf; jynfhpkH.? vGefcJhjyD;onfY ylaqG;
aemifw&jcif;r&dSbJ/ tem*gwfudk ar#mfrSef;Ivnf; ra=umifh=u/ ypPKy`gefwnfhwnfhYom aysmfarG@v#uf&Sd.?2
xdk@a=umifh olonf rmea&mufr_ryg0ifbJ toef@&Sif;qHk;aom cHpm;r_rsm;udk ESpfjcdKufpGmoHk;aqmif.? ‚onf
&$ifvef;.? jrL;xl;wufºu.? tvGefarG@avsmfaomoabm/ jynfhòz;aom ÁajEN&dSukefv#uf a=umifh=urJhpGm
wnfjidrfat;csrf;.?3 wpfudk,faumif;qEN/ a'go/ arm[/ rme/ axmifv$m;jcif;/ rmef,pfjcif; paom tnpf
ta=u;rsm;rS uif;&Sif;&um; olonf jzLpifoef@&Sif;.? odrfarG@El;nhH.? avmutvHk;udk arwWmjzifh v$rf;ðcHI
udk,fcsif;pmemjcif;/ =uifemoem;jcif;/ odwwfjcif;/ onf;cHjcif; ponfh *k%fwdk@ESifh jynfhpHk.? olwpfyg;tm;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? t*FkwdˆKvf (udkvHbdk 1929)/ pmrsufESm 218?
2? oH,kwf 1/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 5?
3? rZdÆredum,f 2/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 121?

50

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wpfudk,faumif;pdwfrxm;bJ oef@pifrGefjrwfaom pdwfjzifhom ulnDapmifrwwf.? ouUm,'dXd uif;uGmjyD;/
b0w%SmrS usGwfvGwfjyD;jzpf&um; udk,fusd K;twGuf ukokdvftr_rsm;udkyif r&SmazG rpkaqmif;awmhay?
edAŠmefonf 'dGpHk,ruoabmw&m;/ tnrnoabmw&m;wd@k rS vGefajrmufjyD;jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh
usGEfkyfwdk@ od&dSem;vnf=uonfh taumif;tqdk;/ trSm;trSef/ b0/ tb0 paom udpP&yfwdk@udk vGefajrmufae
ayonf? edAŠmefudk azmfjy&ef toHk;ðyavh&Sdonfh ‘csrf;omr_okc’ [laom pum;vHk;onfyif teuft"dy`g,f
wpfrdsK;aqmifayonf? wpfcgu t&Sifom&dyk=wmrax&f}uD;onf ‘igh&Sif/ edAŠmefonf csrf;omr_}uD;ygwum;/
edAŠmefonf csrf;omr_}uD;ygwum;’ [k csD;usL;¹rufqkdrd&m O'g,Drax&fu ‘igh&Sif/ a0'emcHpm;r_ r&dS[kqkdv#if
tb,fcsrf;omr_ &dSEdkiftHhenf;’ [k ar;avonf? ‘a0'em r&dSr_onfyifv#if csrf;omtppf jzpfygbdonf’
[laom t&Sifom&dyk=wm. ajz=um;csufonf tbd"rRmoabmt& vGefpGmeufeJI omreftm;jzifh em;vnf
&ef vG,fulvSrnf r[kwfay?
edAŠmefonf awG;awm=uHq qifjcifpOf;pm;r_ e,fy,fukd vGefajrmufonf (twuUm 0p&)? edAŠmef/
y&rwˆopPm/ tEdWr trSefw&m;ta=umif;udk rnfr#yif ar#mfvifh}uD;pGmjzifh rSef;qcsifhcsdefaqG;aEG;I ^m%fupm;
=unfhygaomfvnf; xdkenf;jzifh em;vnfod&SdEkdifrnf r[kwfay? oli,fwef;wGif pmoif=um;aeqJ uav;
oli,fwpfOD;onf (&Dav;wpfADwDoDtkd&D) tnrnoabmw&m;udk jiif;cHkaqG;aEG;&ef roifhavsmfay? rdrd
ynmudkom pdwf&Snfvuf&SnfESifh 0D&d,xlaxmifI oiftHavhvmygu wpfae@wGif ‚oabmw&m;udk
aumif;pGm od&dSem;vnfEdkifayvdrfhrnf?
edAŠmefudk ynm&dSwdk@onf ‚wd@k . udk,fwGif;Yomv#if rsufarSmufðytyf&mjzpfonf? (ypPwHW a0'd
waAŠm 0d!l[d)? r*~ifc&D;vrf;a=umif;twdkif; pdwfvuf&SnfpGm jyif;pGmaom 0D&d,jzifh av#mufoGm;jyD;aemuf
udk,fudk pif=u,fap&ef usifh=uHtm;xkwfI vdktyfaom oDv/ orm"d/ ynmESifh jynfhpHkapygv#if usGEfkyfw@kd onf
wpfae@wGif udk,fwGif;Yyif edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðyEdkifay&monf? pdwf&_yfaxG;p&m tac:ta0:/ cufcJonfh
pum;vHk;}uD;rsm;jzifh usGEfkyfwdk@udk,fukd EdSyfpufaep&m rvdkay?
xdk@a=umifh edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðyEdkifap&ef !$efjyaom r*~ifc&D;vrf; ta=umif;udk avhvm=uygp@kd ?

51

tcef;(5)

pwkwˆ t&d,opPm
r*~ ] vrf;

pwkwˆajrmuf t&d,opPmonf 'kuQ.csKyfjidrf;&mudk !$efjyaom r*~]vrf; [lonfh ‘'kuQeda&m"
*grdeD yËdy'g’ yifjzpfonf? tpGef;ESpfbufukd z,f&Sm;aomvrf;pOf jzpfIvnf; tv,fvrf; (rZdÆr yËdy'g) [k
ac:wGifonf? tpGef;ESpfbuf [lonfwGif yxrtpGef; a&mufr_onf edrfhnhHaom omrefvlw@kd . tavhjzpf
aom/ tudsK;aus;Zl;r&dSaom umr*k%ftm&Hkukd vdkufpm;jrL;wl; aysmfyg;jcif;tm;jzifh csrf;omr_udk &SmazGjcif;jzpf
onf? 'kwd,tpGef; a&mufr_onf qif;&Jjcif;udkjzpfapaom/ rxdkufwefaom/ tudsK;aus;Zl;r&dSaom rdrdukd,f
udk EdSyfpuf!SOf;qJI óu;yrf;tm;xkwf&aom usihfpOftrdsK;rdsK;tm;jzifh csrf;omr_udk &SmazGaomenf;jzpfonf?
T tpGef;ESpfbufjidaom vrf;pOfrsm;udk a&S;OD;prf;oyfcJhI tusdK;rJh tcsnf;EDS;jzpfa=umif;udk odawmfrlaom
Ak'<jrwfpGmbk&m;onf ynmrsufpdESifh tod^m%fukd yGihfvif;apjyD;/ pdwfjidrf;csrf;jcif;udk jzpfapI xl;xl;jcm;jcm;
odjrifjcif;/ trSefoabmudk xdk;azmufjrifjcif;jzifh edAŠmefo@kd qdkufa&mufapEdkifonfh rZdÆr yËdy'g tv,ftvwf
vrf; udk udk,fawmfwdkifprf;oyf&SmazG awG@&dScJhayonf? Ttv,fvrf;udk atmufyg &Spfyg;aom ta=umif;
t&m t*Fg&yfESifhjynfhpHkaoma=umifh t&d,r*~if (8) yg; (t&d, tÏ*ôu r*~) [lI trsm;ac:wGif =uonf?
orRm'dÏd
orRmouFy`
orRm0gpm
orRmurREœ
orRmtmZD0
orRm0g,mr
orRmowd
orRmorm"d

] rSefaomtjrif
] rSefaomt}uH
] rSefaompum;
] rSefaomtvkyf
] rSefaomtoufarG;r_
] rSefaomtm;xkwfr_
] rSefaomatmufarhrSwfom;r_
] rSefaomwnfjidrfr_

(45) ESpfywfvHk; tywfwukwf a[m=um;jyooGm;awmfrlonfh Ak'<. w&m;a'oemawmf tm;vHk;
eD;yg;onf Tr*~if (8)yg; w&m;awmfESihf wpfenf;r[kwf wpfenf; oufqdkif qufpyfcJhayonf? Ak'<onf
vltrddsK;rdsK;tm; yg&rD tEkt&ifh ^m%ftwdrfteufvkdufI enf;toG,foG,f/ pum; toHk;tE_ef; tzHkzHk
wdk@jzifh w&m;a[m=um; &Sif;vif; jyoawmfrlcJhonf? od@k &mwGif Ak'<usrf;*efrsm;Y ta&twGuftm;jzifh axmif
aygif;rsm;pGm ysH@EHS@v#uf&dSaom a'oemawmf tm;vHk;. tqDtESpfudk T r*~if&Spfyg; w&m;awmfwGif awG@&dS
oHk;aqmifEdkif=uayonf?
txufwGif pm&if;ðyvkyf azmfjyxm;aom r*~if&Spfyg;. t*Fg&yfrsm;udk trSwfpOftvdkuf wpfyg;jyD;
wpfyg; vdkufem usifhoHk;&rnf[k rrSwf,loifhyg? rdrdpGrf;tm;tvdkuf wwfEdkifor# t*Fg&yftm;vHk;udk
wpfòyifeufqdkovdk vdkufemjznfhpGrf;=u&ef jzpfygonf? t*Fgwpfyg;ESifhwpfyg;onf qufpyfae&um; wpfyg;udk
usifhoHk;jcif;jzifh tjcm;wpfyg;udkvdkufem&mY tultnD&&dSayonf?
T t*Fg&yf(8)yg;onf Ak'<0g'wGif rvJGraoGusihfokH;aqmufwnf qnf;yl;&rnfh oDv/ orm"d/ ynm
wdk@udk jzpfxGef;ay:ayguf jynfhpHkap&ef a&S;&_ayonf?1 xdk@a=umifh oDv/ orm"d/ ynm acgif;pOfjzifh (3) pkcJGI
,if;t*Fg&Spfyg;udk avhvmygu ydkrdkavsmfuefI ydkrkd&Sif;vif; tudsK;rsm;ayvdrfhrnf? oDvudk Ak'<a'oemawmf
rsm;. tajccHjzpfonfh owW0gtaygif;tm; =uifemoem;jcif;ESihf u&k%mxm;jcif;[laom us,fjyef@vSonfh
oabmw&m;ay:wGif wnfaqmufxm;onf? Ak'<0g' ta=umif;t&mESifhywfoufI a[majyma&;om;=u&m
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? rZdÆredum, 1/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 301?

52

pwkwˆ t&d,opPm

wGif ajcmufaoG@ jiD;aiG@zG,faumif;aom '\edu tcsuftvufrsm;/ tbd"rRm jiif;cHkcsufrsm; wGifom
usufpm;=uv#uf T Ak'<w&m;. rGefjrwfvSaom &nfrSef;csufudk ynm&Siftrsm; arhavsmh *&krðyae=uonf
rSm 0rf;enf;zG,fyifjzpf.? Ak'<jrwfpGmonf owW0grsm;tm; tpOfoem;awmfrlonfjzpfI trsm;. aumif;usdK;
twGuf/ trsm;. csrf;omr_twGuf (A[kZe[dwm, A[kZeokcg, avmumEkur`m,) w&m;a[m=um;
awmfrljcif;yifjzpfonf?
Ak'<bmomwGif pG,fpHkjynfh0aom a,musfm;jrwfwpfOD;jzpfap&ef u&k%mESifh ^m%fynm*k%fxl;
t&nftcsif;ESpf&yfudk nDwlnDr# qnf;yl; jznfhwif;jyD; jzpf&ayrnf? TwGif u&k%m qdkonfrSm arwWm
a&S;&_jcif;/ axmufxm;!Smwmjcif;/ =uifemoem;jcif;/ onf;cHjcif;paom ESvHk;om;. rGefjrwfaom t&nf
tcsif;rsm; jzpf=uI ynmonfum; ta=umif;tudsK; oHk;oyfa0zefwwfaom ^m%ft&mjzpfayonf? ESvkH;
om;rS xGufvm&aom arwWm/ u&k%mw&m;wd@k udkom jzpfxGef;apI qifjcifwdkif;xGmwwfaom ^m%fynm
udk vspfvsL&_ygu oabmjynfh0onfh vl@Amv}uD;tjzpfo@kd a&mufayrnf? wpfzef ESvHk;om;.aphaqmfr_rsm;
udk vspfvsLðyI qifjcifpOf;pm; ^m%fappm;&mudkom tav;xm;aqmif&Gufygv#if =uifemuif;rJhaom
&ufpuf=urf;ñuwfonfh ^m%f}uD;&SifwpfOD; jzpfaeayrnf? xd@k a=umifh pG,fpkHjynfh0ap&ef u&k%mESifh ynm
ESpfrdsK;pvHk;udk jznfhwif;=u&ayrnf? Ak'<0g'vrf;pOft& aexdkifonfqdkonfrSm TESpfrdsK;jynfhpHkr_udk ar#mfrSef;
aqmif&Gufjcif;jzpfayonf? Tvrf;pOft& aexdkifusifhokH;&mwGif a=umif;udsK;qifjcifr_ (ynm)ESifh oem;
=uifemzufr_ (u&k%m) wdk@onf 'GefwJGae=uv#uf oD;jcm;cJGxkwfI r&Edkifonfudk r=umrDawG@&aytHh?
arwWm/ u&k%may:wGif tajccHonfhoDvY t&d,r*~if (8)yg;teuf rSefaomajymqdkr_/ rSefaom
ðyvkyfr_/ rSefaom toufarG;r_wnf;[laom oduQmoHk;&yf yg0ifonf?
rSefaom ajymqdkr_ (orRm0gpm) [lonfrSm 1? r[kwfrrSef ajymqdkjcif;udk a&Smif=uOfjcif;?
2? vl@toif;tzJG@/ odk@r[kwf vlyk*~dKvftcsif;csif; pdwf0rf;uGJjym;rnDrnGwfjzpfapI rkef;wD;jcif;/
&efðid;zJG@jcif;udk jzpfaprnfhpum;/ tremypum;/ ukef;acsmpum;wdk@udk a&Smif=uOfjcif;?
3? &kef@&if;=urf;wrf;aom/ &dkif;pdkif;aom/ &ifhonf;aom/ tusdK;,kwfaprnfjzpfaom/
qJa&;wdkif;xGmjcif; jzpfaom pum;rsm; ajymqdkjcif;rS a&Smif=uOfjcif;?
4? tcsnf;EDS;jzpfaom/ odrfzsif;aom/ t"dyg` ,frJhaom pum;rsm;ajymjcif;ESifh pum;a&mif;/ pum;0,f
ðyvkyfjcif; (twif;ajymjcif;) wdk@jzpfonf?
txufazmfjyyg tEW&m,fyGm;aprnfh rSm;,Gif;aom tajymtqdkrsm;rS a&Smif=uOfEdkif&ef rSefuefaom
pum;udkom qdk&ayrnf? tudsK;&dSaom/ t"dyg` ,f&Sdaom/ nifomajyjypfaom/ rdwfo[m, jzpfapaom/
tudsK;udkqdkaompum;vHk;rsm;udkom oHk;&ayrnf? rnfonfhpum;udkrqdk owdw&m;uif;rJhpGmjzifh rajym=um;
oifhay? oifhjrwfaomtcsdef/ oifhavsmfaomae&mYom pum;udk¹rufqdk&onf? wpfpHkwpf&m tudsK;aus;Zl;
jzpfyGm;ap&ef rajymEdkifygv#if wHk%dSbma0 wdwfqdwfaeoifhonfomwnf;?
rSefaomðyvkyfr_ (orRmurR
urREœ) oduQm. &nf&G,fcsufrSm avmuusihf0wfukd xdef;odrf;I oabmxm;
jrifhjrwfpGmjzifh jidrf;csrf;pGm aexdkifaqmif&GufEkdifr_yifjzpfonf? usGEfkyfwdk@tm; udk,fwdkiftoufowfjcif;/ cdk;,l
jcif;/ r&dk;om;pGmðyrlqufqHjcif;/ rw&m;aom umr*k%fcHpm;jcif;wdk@rS a&Smif=uOf&efqHk;rI olwpfyg;tm;
vnf; rSefuefjrifhjrwf/ jidrf;csrf;pGm aexdkifEkdifa&;twGuf ulnDapmifr&ef wdkufwGef;onf?
rSefaomtoufarG;r_ (orRmtmZD0) qdkonfrSm vdrfvnfaumufuspfjcif;/ wd&dp>mefrsm;udk owfjzwf
jcif;/ tqdyf/ ao&nfao&uf/ vufeufcJ,rf;rD;ausmuf ponfwdk@udk a&mif;0,fazmufum;jcif; paom ol
wpfyg;tm; ab;tEW&m,fjzpfaprnfh vkyfief;aqmifwmrsm;jzifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;jcif;udk a&Smif=uOf&rnf
[k qdkvdkonf? usGEfkyfwdk@onf olwpfyg;tm; ab;tEW&m,f rjzpfapaom/ tjypfuif;pif aumif;rGef jrifhjrwf

53

pwkwˆ t&d,opPm

onfh toufarG;r_jzifh aexdkifpm;aomuf&ayrnf? aoapwwfaom vufeufcJ,rf;rD;ausmuf a&mif;0,f
azmufum;jcif;onf qdk;,kwfaom rw&m;aomenf;vrf;jzifh toufarG;r_jzpfonf[k Ak'<bmomu orkwf
onf?
T (orRm0gpm/ orRmurREœ/ orRmtmZD0 ) rSefaomajymqdkr_/ rSefaomðyvkyfr_/ rSefaomtoufarG;r_
[lonfh oduQm (3) &yfonfyif oDvjzpfayonf? Ak'<bmomY oDvESifh usifh0wfw&m;rsm;onf vlwpfOD;
wpfa,mufomru vl@tzJG@tpnf;wpfckvkH; aysmf&$ifnD!GwfpGm aexdkifoGm;Edkif&ef &nfoefavonf? ,if;
usifh0wfoDvonf txufwef;avmukwW&m vkyfief;rsm;twGuf r&dSrjzpfaom tajccHw&m;jzpfonf? oDv
tajcrygbJ rnfonfhavmukwW&m tqifhtwef;udkr# wufvSrf;aygufa&mufEdkifrnf r[kwfacs?
rSefaom tm;xkwfr_/ rSefaom atmufarhrSwfom;r_/ rSefaom wnfjidrfr_ paom aemuf oduQm (3)
yg;onf t&d,r*~if (8) yg;wGif pdwfukd qHk;roGefoifjcif;ESihf pyfqkdifonfh oduQm&yfrsm;jzpff=uonf?
1? qdk;oGrf;npfnrf;I rGefjrwfjcif;r&dSaom pdwfrsm;rjzpfay:ap&ef?
2? jzpfjyD;aom qdk;oGrf;npfnrf;I rGefjrwfjcif;r&dSaom pdwfrsm;udk z,f&Sm;ypf&ef?
3? rjzpfay:ao;aom oef@pifrGefjrwfonfhpdwfrsm; jzpfay:vmap&ef?
4? jzpfay:wnf&dSjyD; oef@pifrGefjrwfonfhpdwfrsm;udk ydkrkdwkd;wufyGm;rsm;vmap&efjyif;jyaom qENjzifhaqmif&Gufr_onf rSefaomtm;xkwfjcif; rnfayonf?
1? udk,fwGif jzpfysufv_yf&Sm;aejcif;rsm; (um,)/
2? awG@xdcHpm;&r_rsm; (a0'em)/
3? pdwfwGif jzpfysufv_yf&Sm;aejcif;rsm; (pdwW) ESihf
4? pdwful;=uHpnfr_/ awG;awm,lqr_rsm;ESihf ta=umif;jcif;&mrsm; ("rR) udk tywfwukwf vHk@vðyI
aphikpGm rvGwfapbJ apmifh=uyf=unfh&_/ owdðyaejcif; udk rSefaom atmufarh rSwfom;r_ [kac:onf?
pdwfwnfjidrf&ifhoefap&ef ðyvkyf&aom avhusihfr_rsm;wGif xGufouf0ifoufudk owdðy apmifh=unfh
&onfh (tmemyge\wd) vkyfief;onf um,mEky\emtjzpfxif&Sm; ausmf=um;aom avhusifhr_wpf&yf jzpf
avonf? um,mEky\emwGif tusHK;0ifaom tjcm;avhusihfr_rsd K; trsm;tjym; &dSayao;onf?
awG@xdcHpm;r_udk &_=unfh&onfh a0'emEky\em vkyfief;wGif awG@xdcHpm;&or# aumif;onf/
qdk;onf/ aumif;vnf;raumif;/ qdk;vnf;rqdk; [lor#udk aphikpGm apmifh=unfhae&I ‚wdk@rnfodk@ jzpfay:
vmonf/ rnfodk@aysmufuG,foGm;onf ponfw@kd udk od&Sdae&onf?
pdwWmEky\emvkyfief;Y rdrd.pdwfonf &m*ESihf ,SOfaeonf/ &m*rSuif;vGwfonf/ a'gojzifh zHk;v$rf;
aeonf/ a'gorS uif;pifonf/ awGa0rdkufrSm;aeonf/ awGa0rdkufrSm;r_rS uif;onf/ ysH@vGifh ayghavsmhaeonf/
wnfjidrfpl;pdkufaeonf ponfwdk@udk tpOfodae&ayrnf? pdwf.v_yf&Sm;r_ESifh ‚jzpfay:vmyHk/ csKyfjidrf;oGm;yHk
wdk@Y owdouf0ifae&onf?
pOf;pm;/ pdwful;/ awG;awm/ }uHpnf,lqjcif; paom w&m;oabmrsm;udk &_=unfh&m ("rRmEky\em)
wGif ‚wdk@. obm0ESifhwuG jzpfay:vmyHk/ csKyfjidrf;oGm;yHk/ wdk;yGm;vmyHk/ EdSyfuGyfxm;yHk/ acsr_ef;ypfyHkwdk@udk od&Sd
em;vnf&ayrnf?
pdwf wnfjidrf&ifhoefap&ef avhusifh&aom T tEky\em urRÏmef;usifhpOf (4) yg;ta=umif;udk
owdyXmeokwfwGif tao;pdwf&Sif;vif; azmfjyxm;ayonf?1
pdwfudk qHk;roGefoifjcif;ESifh pyfqkdifonfh oduQm (3) yg;wGif; aemufqHk; wwd,ajrmuf oduQmonf
(orRmorm"d) psmeft*Fg (4) yg;udk &&dSapEdkifonfh rSefaom wnfjidrfr_ jzpfayonf?
yxrpsmef tqifhwGif 0wˆKumr udavomwd@k rS uif;qdwfI umr*k%fY tvdk&dSjcif;/ raumif;=uH
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? tcef;(7) urRXmef; bm0emtcef;wGif &_yg?

54

pwkwˆ t&d,opPm

jcif;/ pdwfa&mudk,fyg xdkif;rd_if;!d_;EGrf;jcif;/ pdwfrjidrfrouf ys@H vGihfjcif;/ ,HkrSm;awG;awmjcif; paom eD0&%
w&m;wdk@udk y,fazsmufjyD;jzpf&um; tenf;i,faom }uHpnfr_/ pOf;pm;r_rsm;ESifhom ESpfodrfhcsrf;omjcif;/ (yDwd/
okc) wdk@udk cHpm;&onf?
'kwd,psmef tqifhwGif }uHpnfr_/ pOf;pm;r_ ponfh ^m%fv_yf&Sm;r_ tm;vHk;wd@k ukd zdESdyfv#uf pdwfukd
pdwfwGifom pl;pdkufxm;jcif;tm;jzifh =unfvifwnfjidrfapv#uf yDwdESifh okcwdk@udk qufvufcHpm;&onf?
wwd,psmeftqifhodk@ a&mufaomtcgrl xif&Sm;pGmcHpm;&aom ESpfodrfhr_yDwdudkyif pGef@ypfv#uf pdwf
.csrf;omr_wpfckwnf; cHpm;um tnDtr#&_v#uf odv#ufom aeawmhonf?
pwkwˆpsmef tqifhwGifrl cHpm;r_tm;vHk;udk pGe@f v$wfvkdufjyD; csrf;om/qif;&J/ 0rf;omjcif;/ 0rf;enf;jcif;
uif;pGm tnDtr# (OayuQm) &_v#uf owd&SdpGm aewwfonf?
Todk@ rSefaom tm;xkwfr_/ rSefaom atmufarhrSwfom;r_/ rSefaom wnfjidrfr_rsm;jzifh pdwfudk qHk;r
oGefoif yJhjyif,l&ayonf?
usef&dSao;onfh rSefaom t=uHESihf rSefaom tjrif oduQmESpfyg;rSm ^m%fynmt&mrsm; jzpfayonf?
rSefaom =uHpnfr_ [lonfrSm udk,fusdK;pGe@f v$wfvkdjcif;/ owW0gtm;vHk; tay:wGif arwWmpdwf xm;jcif;/
=urf;ñuwf &ufpufaompdwf r&dSjcif; ponfw@kd jzpfonf? udk,fusdK; pGef@v$wfvdkjcif;/ arwWmpdwfxm;jcif;/
=urf;ñuwf &ufpufaompdwfudk z,f&Sm;jcif; ponfw@kd udk ^m%fynmt&mwGif xnfhoGif;xm;onfh tcsufrSm
ta&;}uD;I pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&m jzpfayonf?
Ttcsufudk axmuf&_I ^m%fynmtppftrSef &dSolonf TrGefjrwfaom t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf
vnf; jynfhpHka=umif; odEdkif.? xdk@jyif yk*~dKvfa&;&m/ vlr_a&;&m/ EdkifiHa&;&m ponfjzifh t&m&mwdkif;wGif
wpfudk,faumif;pdwfxm;/ a'go/ tmCmwpdwfxm;/ &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfaom pdwfxm;wdk@onf ^m%ftajrmf
tjrif uif;rJh&mrS jzpfay:vm&onfrSmvnf; xif&Sm;awmhonf?
rSefaom tjrif (orRm'dÏd) qdkonfrSm ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk razmufrjyef rSefuefpGm odjrifem;vnf
jcif; jzpfonf? t&d,opPm av;yg;onf ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk razmufrjyef rSefuefpGm &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;
onf? xdk@a=umifht&if;ppfvdkufaomf orRm'dÏdqkdonfrSm t&d,opPmav;yg;udk aumif;pGm odjrifem;vnfjcif;
yif jzpfonf? Todk@ y&rwˆw&m;udk xdk;xGif;odjrifjcif;onf ^m%fynmt&mwGif txGwftxdyfodk@ a&muf
jcif;vnf;jzpfayonf? Ak'<bmomwGif odjrifem;vnfr_ ESpfrdsK;ESpfpm; uJGjym;pGm&dSonf? a,bk,stm;jzifh em;
vnfod&dSonfqdk&mwGif rSwf^m%fjzifh qnf;yl;avhvmxm;aom todynmESifh tcsuftvuf ta=umif;
t&m wpfckckudk rDSI ydkif;jcm;odjrifwwfonfh ^m%fpGrf;wd@k udk qdkvdkonf?
Todk@ odjrifjcif;udk ‘avsmufywfpGmodjcif;’ (tEkaAm") [k ac:qdk&I eufeJjcif;r&dSvSacs?
trSefwu,f eufeJpGmodjrifr_udk ‘xdk;xGif;odjrifr_’ (yËda0") [kac:I trnfynwfwdk@udk z,fcGmjyD;aemuf
obm0 tppftrSefudk odjrifjcif; jzpfonf? TuJho@kd xdk;xGif;odjrifEdkif&ef pdwfonf tnpfta=u;tm;vHk;rS
uif;pifI urRXmef; 0dy\emvkyfief;jzifh wefckd;xufjrufv#uf &dSae&ayrnf?1
txufwGif tusOf;csKyf azmfjycJhonfhtwdkif; r*fvrf;c&D;onf vlyk*d~KvfwpfOD;pD toD;oD; udk,fwkdif
udk,fus vdkufem avhvm xlaxmif usifhokH;&rnfh aexdkifr_ vrf;pOfjzpfa=umif; aumif;pGm od&dSEdkif=uayrnf?
udk,fE_wfESvHk;udk aumif;pGmxdef;odrf;qHk;rI rdrdukd,fwkdif tywfwukwf óu;yrf;tm;xkwfjyD; rddrdukd,frdrd
pif=u,fap&aom vrf;pOfjzpf&um;/ ,Hk=unfr_/ qkawmif;r_/ udk;uG,fr_/ tcrf;tem;usif;yr_rsm;ESifh rnfo@kd r#
qufpyfr_ r&dSay? Toabmt& r*fvrf;c&D;onf vltrsm;ac:a0:em;vnfaeonfh bmoma&;=unf!dkr_rdsK;
r[kwfay? oDv/ orm"d/ ynm t*Fg (3) &yfukd jynfhpkHatmifxlaxmifjcif;jzifh tqHk;pGef at;jidrf;jcif;/ csrf;om
jcif;/ vGwfvyfjcif;jzpfaom edAŠmefodk@ a&mufapEdkifonfh vrf;omjzpfayonf?
Ak'<bmomxGef;um;aom wdkif;jynfrsm;Y bmoma&;ESihf ywfoufaom tcg}uD;&uf}uD;rsm;wGif pdwf
=unfEl;zG,faumif;aom &dk;&m"avh tcrf;tem;yJGrsm; ðyvkyfavh &dS=uaomfvnf; ‚wdk@onf edAŠmefo@kd yd@k
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? 0dok'd<r*~ (ywp) pmrsufESm 510?

55

pwkwˆ t&d,opPm

aqmifaom r*fvrf; tppftrSefESifh rnfo@kd r# roufqkdifay? od@k aomfr&ifhoefao;aom yk*d~Kvfwdk@. bmom
w&m; =unf!dkpdwfudk jznfhpGrf;xufoefapI r*fvrf;od@k wjznf;jznf;a&mufapaom tultnDtaxmuf
tyHhtjzpfjzifhrl ‚wdk@onf wefzdk; &dSoifhoavmuf &dSayonf?
t&d, opPm av;yg;ESifh ywfoufI aqmif&Guf&ef udpP (4) &yf &dSayonf?
yxropPm onf 'kuQopPm jzpf.? ‚opPmt& b0. oabmtppftrSef/ b0. 'kuQ/ ‚.aysmf&$if

r_/ qif;&Jr_/ rjynfhpHkr_/ ESpfoufauseyfzG,f r&dSr_/ rwnfjrJr_/ 0wˆKj'yf taumiftxnf qdyfuif;r_ ponfw@kd udk
&Sif;vif;jynfhpHkpGm od&dSem;vnf&ef (y&dan,s) rSm yxra&S;OD; aqmif&Guf&rnfh udpP jzpfayonf?
'kwd,opPm onf w%SmESifhwuG tjcm;aom udavom tnpfta=u; jrLr_efwkd@onf 'kuQudk jzpfay:
aponf [laom 'kuQork',opPm jzpfonf? TwGif ork',opPmudk od&Hkr#jzifh udpPrjyD;ao;ay? xdk udav
om/ w%Smwdk@udk pGef@ypf/ y,fazsmuf/ zsufqD;/ xdk;ckwf/ tjrpfrS E_wfypfy,frSom (y[mwAŠ) udpP jyD;ajrmuf
onf rnfayonf?
wwd,opPm onf 'kuQwdk@. csKyfjidrf;jcif;/ eda&m"opPmjzpfI usGEkfyfw@kd aqmif&Guf&rnfh udpPrSm
y&rwˆopPmwnf; [laom edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðy&ef (op>dumwAŠ) jzpfayonf?
pwkwˆopPm onf edAŠmefodk@ a&mufapaom r*~ifvrf;jzpf.? ,if; r*~ifvrf;ta=umif;udk rnfr#yif
pHkvifpGm od&dSem;vnfaomfvnf; udpPrjyD;ajrmufay? vrf;pOftwdkif; usifh=uHvdkufem/ aqmif&Guftm;xkwf
(bma0wAŠ) =u&rnfom jzpfayonf?

56

tcef;(6)

tewW ( 0dnmOfaumifr&dS ) w&m;awmf
ouUwbmomwGif ‘tmwrH’ [k vmI 0dnmOfaumif/ ig/ twW [k trsm;ajymqdk oHk;pJGae=uonfh
pum;vHk;rsm;onf rsufjriftm;jzifh ajymif;vJaeonfh avmu}uD;. aemufuG,fwGif rajymif;vJaom tpOf
wnfjrJaom rlv"gwftESpfonf ‘vl@udk,fwGif;Y udef;atmif;wnf&Sdaeonf’ [lonfh oabmudk &nf!$ef;
jyqdk avonf? tcdsK@bmom t,l0g't& bk&m;ocifu zefqif;xm;aom xdkuJhodk@ 0dnmOfaumifrsd K;onf
vlwdkif;wGif toD;oD;&dS=u.? aoqHk;uG,fvGefjyD;aemuf zefqif;&Sif bk&m;ocif. tvdkawmftwdkif; i&J
odk@r[kwf aumif;uifbHkY xm0&aexdkif oGm;=u&onf? tjcm;bmom t,l0g'rsm;t&rl ‚0dnmOfaumif
onf vHk;0oef@jyef@pif=u,fonfhwdkifatmif b0rsm;pGm ul;ajymif;oGm;vmI aemufqHk;Y ‚.rlvyifr
jzpfaom tmwrH/ odk@r[kwf/ jA[Rm}uD;/ od@k r[kwf bk&m;ESihf oGm;a&muf yl;aygif;vdkufonf qdk.? vl@udk,f
wGif;Y&dSaom T 0dnmOfaumif odk@r[kwf twWonfyif t=uHtpnfwdk@udk awG;awm}uHpnf.? cHpm;zG,frsm;
udk cHpm;.? aumif;r_/ raumif;r_wdk@. tudsK;tjypfw@kd udk cH,lonf[k qdk.? TuJhodk@ ,lqaom t,l0g' udk
twW0g' [k ac:wGifonf?
twW/ igaumif/ 0dnmOfaumif &dSa=umif;udk Ak'<0g'wpfckwnf;uom vufrcH/ jiif;y,fjcif;onf
vlwdk@. awG;awm=uHqr_ ordkif;wGif xl;jcm;aeaom tcsuf}uD; jzpfayonf? Ak'< a[m=um;awmfrlaom
a'oemrsm;t& twWt,l0g'onf pdwfxifr#omjzpfaom rrSefuefonfh t,l0g'jzpfI pdwful;tvdkESihf
udkufnDpGm taumiftxnfrkcs trSefr&dSay? ‚0g'onf ‘ig’/ ‘igh[m’ ponfh ab;tEW&m,fjzpfay:apaom
pdwft=uHtpnf/ wpfudk,faumif;pdwfxm;/ avmbw%Sm rufarmjcif;/ a'go tmCmwxm;jcif;/ rme
}uD;jcif;/ axmifv$m;jcif; ponfwdk@ESihf tjcm;tnpfta=u;rsm; jy\emrsm;udk jzpfxGef;aponf? T0g'onf
vlyk*d~Kvftcsif;csif; cdkuf&efjzpfyGm;onfrStp wdkif;jynftcsif;csif; ppfrufjzpfyGm;&onftxd urBmh 'kuQ
jy\emtaygif;wdk@. rlvta=umif;&if;yifjzpf.? twkdcsKyfqkd&aomf urBmwGif raumif;r_[lor#onf T
rSm;,Gif;aom 0g'wGif tajccHavonf?
pdwfobm0t& vlwGif rdrdukd,frdrdumuG,f&efESihf rdrdukd,fukd ysufokOf;roGm;ap&ef t}uHtpnf
pdwful;ESpfrdsK;onf tjrpfwG,fv#uf &dSonf? ‚tm; tumtuG,fay;&ef bk&m;udk }uHpnfzefwD;xm;
avonf? uav;i,fonf rdciftm; rDSckdouJho@dk ‚.vHkðcHr_/ ab;&efuif;r_/ umuG,fr_twGuf ,if;bk&m;udk
udk;uG,f tm;xm;onf? wpfzef rddrdukd,fukd ysufokOf;roGm;ap&ef xm0&wnfjrJaeonfh twW/ ZD0/ t,l0g'
udk wDxGif}uHq ,lavonf? ^m%fynmuif;rJhI ab;tEW&m,frsm;udk xdwfvef@aeaom wefckd;rJhonfh
avmbom; vlonf tqdkyg pdwful;ESpfrsd K;jzifh rdrdukd,frdrd ESpfodrfhae&ayonf? xkd@a=umifh ‚wdk@udk
vufrv$wfEdkifbJ wpf,loef pJGjrJ qkyfukdifxm;jcif; jzpfonf?
Ak'<.w&m;awmfrsm;onf Tod@k avmbjzifh zHk;v$rf;jcif;/ a=umuf&GH@xdwfvef@jcif;/ cdkudk;&mrJhjzpfjcif;/
rodem;rvnfjcif;rsm;udk axmufcHtm;ay;r_rðybJ ‚wd@k udk tajctjrpfrS òzcGif;acsr_ef;jcif;jzifh vludk
tod^m%fay;avonf? Ak'<0g't& xm0&bk&m;ocif t,l/ twWZD0 t,lwdk@onf rSm;,Gif;azmufjyef
tESpfuif;rJhaom t,lrsm;om jzpfayonf? pdwful;&ifhoefpGmjzifh xkwfaqmif}uHq xm;vifhupm; ‚t,l
0g'wdk@onf eufeJ&_yfaxG;aom '\edu tbd"rRmpum;vHk;rsm;jzifh wefqmqifxm;onfh odrfarG@aom pdwf
ul; }uHpnfr_rsm;om jzpfayonf? Tpdwful;awG;awmcsufrsm;onf vlY tjrpfwG,fv#uf&dSjyD; vGefpGm jrwfEkd;
ESpfoufzG,f jzpfae&um; ,if;wdk@ESihf qef@usifaom 0g'rsm;udk vlonf em;vnf oabmaygufcsifaom qEN
r&dS/ em;axmifvdkaom qENyif r&dSacs?
Ak'<onf Ttcsufudk aumif;pGm od&Sdawmfrlonf? trSefpifppf &Sifawmfbk&m; a[m=um;awmf
rlaom w&m;rsm;onf vl. wpfudk,faumif; qENukd qef@usifaom a&qefoGm;ae&aom (ywdaomw*grd)
w&m;rsm;jzpfonf[kyif rdef@awmfrlavonf? oAŠ!kw a&$^m%fawmf &awmfrljyD;aemuf pwkwˆajrmuf
owWm[wGif aAm"dyif&if;Y pHy,fawmfrl&if;-

57

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

“ynm&dSrsm;om oabmouf0ifEkdifaom/ em;vnf&efcufcJaom/ odjrif&ef rvG,fulaom/ tvGef
eufeJaom T opPmw&m;rsm;udk igukd,fawmfjrwf rsufarSmufðy&jyD/ udavomjzifh v$rf;ðcHjyD;
tarSmifxkjzifh zHk;tkyfaeaom vlw@kd onf T odrfarG@aom/ eufeJaom/ jrifhrm;aom/ em;vnf&ef
cufcJaom/ ‚wdk@. vdktifqENESihf qef@usifI a&qefoGm;aeaom T opPmw&m;xl;rsm;udk
odjrifEdkif=urnf r[kwfacs”[k wpfyg;wnf; awG;awm qifjcifrdawmfrlavonf?
Todk@ qifjcifrd&um; udk,fawmfwdkif rsufarSmufðyjyD;aom opPmw&m;udk owW0grsm;tm; a[majym
jcif;jzifh tcsnf;EDS; tv[\yif jzpfaeayrnfavm/ csDwkHcswkH }uHqaerdjyefao;onf? xd@k aemufrl avmu
}uD;tm; =umtdkifwpfckESifh Ed_if;,SOf=unfh.? =umtdkifwGif =umyef;tcsdK@onf a&atmufwGif epfðryfae=u.?
tcsdK@aom=umyef;wdk@onf a&rsufESmjyif txdom wufa&mufEdkif=uao;.? tcsdK@rSmrl a&rsufESmjyifrS
uif;&Sif;ausmfvGef xdk;wufoGm;Edkif=u.? xd@k twl avmuwGifvnf; ^m%fynmtqifhtwef; trdsK;rdsK;ESihf
vlrsm;&dSay.wum;? tcsdK@yk*d~Kvfwdk@onf opPmw&m;udk em;vnfaumif;wef&m.? Tod@k oHk;oyf=unfhrdrSom
Ak'<onf w&m;a[majym&ef qHk;jzwfawmfrlonf?1
yËdpPorky`g'f w&m;awmf

tewWw&m;onf cE<m (5) ig;yg;ESihf yËdpPorkyg` 'fw&m;2 wdk@udk cJGjcrf;pdwfjzm qifjcifokH;oyf&mrS tvdk
tavsmuf qufoG,faygufyGm;vmaomw&m; jzpfonf?
yxrt&d,opPmwnf;[laom 'kuQopPmudk aqG;aEG;&mY yk*~dKvf/ owW0g[k ac:&mwGif cE<mig;yg;om
&dSa=umif; azmfjycJhjyD; jzpfayonf? cE<mig;yg;udk aocsmpGm cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmI ppfaq;=unhfaomtcgY ‚wd@k
aemufuG,fwGif ig/ twW/ ZD0[k rSwf,lp&m xm0&wnfjrJaom t&m[lI bmr#r&dSa=umif; awG@&ayonf?
Tum; cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmI qifjcifoHk;oyfaom (0dbZ…) enf;vrf; jzpfayonf?
zJG@pnf;aygif;pyfI qifjcifoHk;oyf&aom (orl[) enf;jzpfonfh yËdpPorky`g'fw&m; enf;vrf;jzifhvnf;
Ttajzudkyif &avonf? yËdpPorkyg` 'fw&m;awmft& avmuwGif rnfonfht&mr# y"metcsKyf[lI r&dSay?
t&m&mwdkif; wpfckay:wpfck trDSo[J tnrnðyI a=umif;udsK;qufpyf ae=u.? Tonfyif Ak'<.
‘tnrn ed,mr’ (&Dav;wpfADwD oDtkd&D) jzpfawmhonf?
tewWta=umif; oufoufukd raqG;aEG;rD yËdpPorkyg` 'fw&m;udk tenf;i,f tusOf;r# oHk;oyf&ef
vdkayonf?
yËdpPorky`g'fw&m;. oabmudk atmufyg ygVd 4-a=umif;wGif tusOf;csHK;I azmfjyxm;ayonf?
ÁroRö owd Á'Ha[mwd/
Ár\ky`g'g Á'H Oy`Z…wd/
ÁroRö towd Á'H e a[mwd/
Ár\ eda&m" Á'H ed&kZÆwd?
‘Tta=umif;&dSaomf xdktusdK;&dS.?’
‘Tta=umif;jzpfay:jcif;a=umifh xdktusdK;jzpfay:.?’
‘Tta=umif;r&dSvwfaomf xdktusdK;r&dS?’
‘Tta=umif;csKyfjcif;a=umifh xdktusdK;csKyf.?’3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? r[m0*~ (tvGwf*gr 1922) pmrsufESm 4? rZdÆredum,f 1 (ywp) pmrsufESm 167?
2? atmufwGif &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;onf?
3? rZdÆredum,f 3 (ywp) pmrsufESm 63? O'ge/ 79/ qÏ? oH,kwfedum,f 2/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 28/95?
acwfrDyHkpHjzifhjy&aomf - ‘u’ &dSv#if ‘c’ &dSonf? ‘u’ jzpfay:v#if ‘c’ jzpfay:onf?
‘u’ r&dSv#if ‘c’ r&dS? ‘u’ csKyfuG,fv#if ‘c’ csKyfuG,fonf?

58

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

b0wpfckvHk;. jzpfay:jcif;/ wnfaejcif;/ csKyfjidrf;jcif;wd@k onf Todk@ ta=umif;tudsK; qufpyfr_/
tnrntjzpf wnfr_/ wpfcktay:wpfck rDSckdr_ paom oabmw&m;rsm;wGif tajccHaea=umif;udk yËdpP
orky`g'fw&m;wGif tao;pdwf&Sif;jyxm;ayonf?
yËdpPorky`g'fw&m;awmfwGif t*Fg (12) yg; yg0ifayonf?
1? t0dZ…m ypP,m ocFg&m?
?t[kwftrSefukd rodjrifr_[laom ta=umif;a=umifh ðyjyifpD&ifaom
ocFg&r_ukd jzpfyGm;.?
2? ocFg& ypP,m 0dnm%H?
?ðyjyifpD&ifaom ocFg&r_w@kd a=umifh tm&Hkukdodaom 0dnmOf jzpfyGm;.?
3? 0dnm% ypP,m emr&lyH?
?tm&Hkodaom 0dnmOf jzpfay:jcif;a=umifh emrf&kyftpkonf jzpfyGm;.?
4? emr&ly ypP,m oVm,weH? ?emrf&kyftpkjzpfay:jcif;a=umifh tm&Hkpka0;wnf&Sd&m t=unf 6 yg;
jzpf.?
5? oVm,we ypP
ypP,m za\
za\m? ?tm&Hkpka0;wnf&Sd&m t=unf 6 yg; jzpfay:jcif;a=umifh tm&Hkudk
xdawG@r_ [laom z\ jzpfyGm;.?
6? z\ ypP,m a0'em?
?tm&HkxdawG@r_ [laom z\ jzpfay:jcif;a=umifh tm&HkcHpm;r_ [laom
a0'em 6 yg; jzpfyGm;.?
7? a0'em ypP,m w%Sm? ?tm&HkcHpm;r_[laom a0'emjzpfay:jcif;a=umifh om,mwyfrufaom
w%Sm jzpfyGm;.?
8? w%Sm ypP,m Oyg'geH? ?om,mwyfrufaom w%Smjzpfay:jcif;a=umifh pJGvrf;aom Oyg'gef
jzpfyGm;.?
9? Oyg'ge ypP,m ba0g?
?pJGvrf;aom Oyg'gefjzpfr_a=umifh b0opf jzpfyGm;.?
10? b0 ypP,m Zmwd? ?b0opfjzpfay:jcif;a=umifh yËdoaE<aer_ jzpfyGm;.?
11? Zmwd ypP,m ? ?12? ? Z&m r&%H ææ yËdoaE<ae&r_a=umifh tdkrif;&ifha&mf/ aoqHk;
ysufðyef;/ pdk;&drfylaqG;/ idkaºu;jrnfwrf;/ yifyef;qif;&Jjcif;wd@k jzpfyGm;ukef.?
Todk@omv#if b0oHo&monf jzpfay:vdkuf wnfaevdkufESihf vSnfhvnfoGm;vmaeayawmhonf?
T yËdpPorky`g'f t*Fg&yfrsm;udk (yËdvkH) ajymif;jyef oHk;oyfygu oHo&mpuf tvnf&yfoGm;yHkukd
awG@jrif&ayrnf?
t[kwftrSefudk rodrjrifr_[laom t0dZ…m csKyfjidrf;jcif;a=umifh ðyjyifpD&ifaom ocFg& csKyfjidrf;.?
ocFg& csKyfjidrf;jcif;a=umifh 0dnmOfcsKyfjidrf;.? ææ yËdoaE<ae&r_ csKyfjidrf;jcif;a=umifh tdkrif;&ifha&mf/ aoqHk;
ysufðyef;/ pdk;&drfylaqG;/ idkaºu;jrnfwrf;/ yifyef;qif;&Jjcif;wd@k csKyfjidrf;ukef.?
txufyg t*Fg (12) &yfw@kd wGif t*Fgwpfyg;pDonf tudsK;w&m; (yËdpPorky`) vnf;jzpf/ ta=umif;
w&m; (yËdpPorky`g') vnf; jzpf=uonf?1 xdk@a=umifh ,if;wd@k onf wpfckESihfwpfck rDSckdqufoG,f tnrn
jzpfaeI rnfonfht&mr# wpfckwnf; xD;xD;rDSckduif;pGm wnf&SdEkdif=uonf r[kwfay? xd@k a=umifhvnf; Ak'<0g'
wGif a&S;OD;pGm jzpfaom rlvta=umif;&if;&dSjcif;udk vufrcH[k a&S@wGif jyqdkcJhayonf? yËdpPorky`g'fudk óu;wpf
acsmif; uJhodk@ tpOftwef;[k r,l&bJ puf0kdif;o¿mef rSwf,ltyfayonf?2
taemufEdkifiH tbd"rRmESifh pdwfynmpcef;wGif oabm&dS&m oabm&dSðyEdkifaom vGwfvyfaom pdwf
tvdk (Free Will) ta=umif;udk ta&;ay;I aqG;aEG;=uonf? od@k &mwGif yËdpPorkyg` 'f w&m;t& Ak'< tbd
"rRmwGif Toabmw&m;onf ay:aygufp&m ta=umif;r&dSay? aqG;aEG;p&m rvdkay? b0wpfckvHk;onfyif
ta=umif;w&m;rS jzpfay:&I tcsif;csif;axmufyhH &dkif;yif;ae&onfjzpf&m pdwftvdk (will) wpfckwnf;om
uGufI oabm&dS&m ðyEdkifpGrf;aom vGwfvyfr_ukd rnfo@kd &&dSaeEdkifayrnfenf;? ‘pdwftvdk’ onfvnf; tjcm;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? 0dok'd<r*f (ywp) / pmrsufESm 517?
2? TvGefpGmta&;}uD;vSaom yËdpPorky`g'fw&m;awmfudk usrf;av;tHhpdk;I TYtjynfhtpHkraqG;aEG;awmhjyD? yËdpPorkyg` 'f
w&m;awmfoufoufudk pma&;ol r=umrDxkwfa0rnfhpmtkyfwGif tjynfhtpHk a0zefaqG;aEG; wifjyxm;ygonf?

59

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

pdwful;t}uHtpnfrsm;enf;wl ta=umif;w&m;ay:wGif wnf&dS&ayonf? ‘vGwfvyfr_’ qdkjcif;onfyif
ta=umif;w&m;rS jzpfay:&I tnrnoabm aqmifayonf? t&m&mwdkif;onf tcsif;csif; axmufyhHae&/
iJhae&onfjzpfI &kyfemrfESpfyg;pvHk; rnfonfht&mr# yuwd vGwfvyfonf[lI r&dSEdkifay? ‘vGwfvyfaom
pdwftvdk’ qdkonfhpum;vHk;rsm;wGif ta=umif;w&m;/ tudsK;w&m;wdk@rS uif;vGwfjcif;/ ðyjyifzefwD;r_rS
uif;&Sif;jcif; [laom t"dy`g,f yg0ifaeayonf? b0wpfckvkH;onfyif yËdpPorky`g'fw&m;awmfY tusHK;0ifI
ðyjyifzefwD;cH/ tnrn w&m;oabm jzpfae&um; ‘pdwftvdk’/ odk@r[kwf rnfonfht&mrqdk ta=umif;
tudsK;ðyjyifzefwD;r_rS uif;vGwfI rnfuJho@kd jzpfay:vmEdkifcsdrfhrnfenf;? Tae&mwGif ‘vGwfvyfaom
pdwftvdk’qdkonfh oabmt,lonf xm0&bk&m;/ 0dnmOf/ w&m;r#wjcif;/ '%fcwfjcif; ponfht,l0g'rsm;
ESifh tajccHqufoG,fr_ &dSaeayonf? trSefrSmrl vGwfvyfonfqkdaom pdwftvdkonf rvGwfvyfonfom
ru ‘vGwfvyfaom pdwftvdk’ t,l0g'onfyif a=umif;udsK;w&m;rS uif;vGwfr_r&dSbJ ðyjyifzefwD;cHr#om
jzpfayonf?
yËdpPorky`g'f w&m;awmfenf;t& aomfvnf;aumif;/ cE<mig;yg;tjzpf cJGjcrf;pdwfjzm =unfh&_enf;jzifh
aomfvnf;aumif; =unfh&_qifjcifv#if vl.twGif;Yjzpfap/ tjyifYjzpfap twW/ owW/ ZD0/ ig [k ac:onfh
xm0&wnfjrJonfht&m&dSonf[laom t,l0g'onf rSm;,Gif;aomt,l/ pdwf.}uHqr_om jzpfa=umif; ay:
vGifayonf? Tonfum; Ak'<. tewW0g'yif jzpfayonf?
em;vnfr_&_yfaxG;jcif; r&dSap&ef a0g[m& toHk;jzpfaom orRKwdopPmESihf yuwdtrSefjzpfaom
y&rwˆopPm[lI opPmESpfyg;&dSa=umif; Tae&mY azmfjyxm;&ayrnf? 1 ae@pOfoHk;pum;wGif ‘ig’/ ‘oif’/
‘yk*d~Kvf’/ ‘owW0g’ [lI oHk;pJG&mY ‘yk*~dKvf’/ ‘owW0g’ r&dSbJESihf ajymqdkae=ujcif;onf r[kwfrrSefaom pum;
udkqdkonfr[kwf? avmuwGif ynwfac:a0:ae=uonfhtwdkif; oHk;pJGajymqdk=ujcif;om jzpf.? odk@&mwGif ‘ig’/
‘owW0g’ [lI y&rwˆw&m;wGif r&dSjcif;um; trSefpifppfjzpfayonf? r[m,me/ olw&m vuFmusrf;yg
twdkif; ‘yk*d~Kvf’[lI ynwft&om ac:qdkaeaomfvnf; y&rwˆt& trSefwnf&dSaeonf r[kwfay? 2
[de,meESifh r[m,me *dk%f; (2) ckpvHk;onf ‘rysufpD;Edkifaom twW’ &dSjcif;udk jiif;y,fxm;=u.?
xdk*dk%f;ESpf*dk%f;onf Ak'<.w&m;rsm;udk rdrdw@kd *dk%f;tvdkuf tpOftvmtwdkif; qif;oufqufcH,lvm=u
aomfvnf; T ‘twWr&dS’[laom ,lqcsufwGif wnDw!Gwfwnf; oabmudkufnD&um; rlv a[m=um;
awmfrlcJhonfhw&m;rS aoGznfcsGwfacsmfoGm;jyD[k rSwf,lEkdifp&m ta=umif;r&dSay? 3
xdk@a=umifh Ak'<0g'. oabmt"dyg` ,fESihf qef@usifvSaom twW0g'udk bk&m;a[m a'oemrsm;wGif;
odk@ ynm&SiftcsdK@u 4 rw&m;oGwfoGif;,l&ef r=umrDu tcsnf;ESD;óu;pm; }uHaqmifvmjcif;onf xl;qef;
tHh=ozG,f&mjzpfaeayonf? ,if;ynm&Sif}uD;rsm;onf Ak'<ESihf ‚a[m=um;awmfrlaom w&m;awmfrsm;Y
av;pm;r_/ =unf!dkr_/ jrwfEdk;r_ um; &dS=uyg.? Ak'<.0g'udk &dkaoav;jrwfpGmjzifh tm;udk;tm;xm;vnf; ðy=u
yg.? odk@&mwGif &Sif;vif;pGm/ eufeJpGm/ qifjcif}uHqwwfol[k ‚wd@k u todtrSwfðyxm;onfh Ak'<onf
olwdk@Y tvGefvdkaeaom ‘twW’ &dSa=umif;udk jiif;y,fawmfrlcJhrnfr[kwf[k awG;awm}uHqae=u ayonf?
olwdk@Y tvGefvdkaeaom ‘twW’ &dSa=umif;t,l0g'twGuf Ak'<.taxmuftulukd rodrom &SmazG
}uHqI ,lae=uayonf? Ak'<.axmufcHcsufukd &SmazG,lae=uonfrSm udk,fcE<mtwGif;Y wnf&dSonfqkd
aom tao;tzJG ‘twWi,f’twGuf r[kwfyg? p=um0VmtES@H tjym;wnf&dSaeonfh ‘twW}uD;’twGufom
jzpfayonf? 5
wpfpHkwpfOD;onf twW0g'Y ,Hk=unfouf0ifygrl Tod@k ,Hk=unfouf0ifa=umif; yGifhvif;pGm ajymqdk -------------------------------------------------------------------------1? om&wˆyumoeD/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 77?
2? r[m,me/ olw&mvuFm&/ to*F/ (yJ&pf/1907) pmrsufESm 92?
3? rpf'vfa0;r*~Zif; (1957/azazmf0g&Dv) tdyfcsf/ AGef*vm-qifeyf a&; ‘a0'EWESifhAk'<bmom’ aqmif;yg;/ pmrsufESm 154?
4? uG,fvGefol rpfpf&D;pfa';ApfESifh tjcm;ynm&Sifrsm;/ rpfpf&D;pfa';Apf a&; ‘vlom;qefonfh a*gwr’/ ‘omus odk@r[kwf Ak'<0g'
rl&if;rsm;’/ ‘Ak'<bmomvufpJG’/ ‘yif&if;Ak'<0g' tb,fenf;’ paom usrf;rsm; &_yg?
5? ‘twWi,f’‘twW}uD;’t"dy`g,fudk pmrsufESm 63 wGif bmomjyefol. rSwfcsufudk &_yg?

60

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

oifhayonf? odk@r[kwf twWr&dSa=umif; Ak'<,lqonfrSm vHk;0rSm;,Gif;aeonf[k ajymqdkvdkuvnf; ajymqdk
Edkifygonf? odk@&mwGif vuf&dSrlvydËuwfygVdawmfrsm;rS od&Sd&or# twW0g'udk Ak'<u vufcHawmfrrlbJESifh
,if;0g'udk Ak'<0g'wGif;odk@ oGwfoGif;,lvmjcif;rSmrl vHk;0avsmfuef oifhjrwfonf r[kwfay?
xm0&bk&m;ocifESifh twW (0dnmOfaumif) Y ,Hk=unf=uaom bmomw&m;rsm;wGif ‚0g'ESpf&yf
udk uG,f0Sufxm;=uonf r[kwfay? ruG,f0Sufonfhjyif pum;vHk;ajymifajrmufpGmjzifh r&yfrem; xyfum
xyfum a=ujimv#uf &dS=uayonf? Ak'<onfvnf; bmomtm;vHk;wGif ta&;}uD;vSaom Toabmt,l
tq ESpf&yfudk vufcHawmfrlcJhygv#if tjcm;w&m;rsm;udk a[mawmfrlouJhodk@ ‚wdk@udkvnf; vly&dowf
tm;vHk;tm; yGifhyGifhvif;vif; a[mjyawmfrlcJhayrnf? y&dedAŠmefðyawmfrljyD; ESpfaygif; 2500 =umrS ^m%f}uD;&Sif
rsm; &SmazGawG@&dS&ef uG,f0SufzHk;tkyf xm;awmfrlcJhrnf r[kwfay?
Ak'<.tewWw&m;awmfa=umifh ‚wd@k ydkifqkdifaeonf[k xif&Sdaeaom twWonf ysufðyef;oGm;&acs
awmhrnf[k vltaygif;wdk@ ylyifaomua&muf=uonf? Ak'<onf Ttcsufukd rodr[kwfcJhay?
“t&Sifbk&m;/ rdrdudk,fwGif;Y wnfjrJaeonfukd &SmIrawG@aomtcgY ylyifaomua&muf&aom
tr_udpPrsm; &dSygovm;” [k tcgwpfyg;wGif &[ef;wpfyg;u jrwfpGmbk&m;tm; av#mufxm;.?
“&dSay. &[ef;/ wpfpHkwpfa,mufonf Tt,l&Sd./ “p=um0Vm}uD;onf xdktmwrH jzpf.?
iguG,fvGefaomf rajymif;vJaom/ xm0&jrJaom/ cdkifchHwnfwhHaom xdktmwrHjzpfoGm;avI urBm tpOf
tqufrysuf wnfjrJoGm;aytHh” xdkolonf igbk&m;uaomfvnf;aumif;/ ig.wynfh&[ef;rsm;u aomf
vnf;aumif; a[m=um;onfh odk@avm od@k avm awG;awm}uHqaom t,ltm;vHk;udk zsufqD;ypfI w%Sm/
Oyg'efwdk@ csKyfjidrf;apaom edAŠmef w&m;awmfrsm;udk em=um;rdaomf “igonf ysufðyef;&awmhrnf/ igcsKyfodrf;
&awmhrnf/ ig[lI &dSawmhrnfr[kwf”[k awG;rdawmhonf? xdktcg ‚onf &ifbwfudk vufcwfwD;
idkaºu;jrnfwrf;um aomuy&da'0rD; awmufavmifI jyif;pGmawGa0jcif;odk@ a&muf.? &[ef;/ Tod@k jzifh rdrd
udk,fwGif;Y wnfjrJaeonfudk &SmrawG@aomtcgwGif ylyifaomua&muf&aom tr_ udpPrsm; &dSay.?” 1 [k
jrwfpGmbk&m;u ajz=um;awmfrlzl;avonf?
tjcm;wpfae&mwGifvnf; “&[ef;wd@k / ynm^m%fr&dSaom ykxkZOfwdk@twGuf ‘igr&dS/ igr[kwf’
[laom oabmw&m;onf vGefpGm xdwfvef@zG,f jzpfbd.” [k a[m=um;zl;avjyD? 2
Ak'<0g'wGif ‘twW’udk &SmazGawG@&dSvkdolw@kd onf atmufygqifajcqifvufrsm;udk wifjyavh &dS=u.?
Ak'<onf owW0gudk &kyf/ a0'em/ onm/ ocFg&/ 0dnm% [laom cE<m (5) yg;tjzpf cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmI oHk;oyf
awmfrlygonf? ‚cE<m (5) yg;onf ig/ twWr[kwf [k a[m=um;awmfrlonfrSm rSefygonf? odk@&mwGif T
cE<m (5) yg;tpkrSvJGI vlwGifvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;ae&mwGifvnf;aumif; twWr&dS[k rdef@awmfrrlbl;yg [k
qifajcwufonf?
Tjiif;qdkcsufonf atmufygta=umif; (2) cka=umifh tajctjrpfr&dSa=umif; odomEdkifonf?
1? Ak'<a'oemawmft& owW0gwGif cE<m (5) yg; om &dSonf? tydktrdk bmr#r&dS? rnfonfhae&m/
rnfonfhtcgr# owW0gwGif cE<m (5) yg;tjyif tydkrsm; &dSao;onf[k Ak'<u a[m=um;awmf
rrlcJhay?
2? t}udrfaygif;rsm;pGm/ ae&maygif;rsm;pGmwGif p=um0Vm&dS vl.udk,fwGif;Yjzpfap/ jyifyYjzpfap/
rnfonfhae&mrSmrqdk ig/ twW/ ZD0 [lI r&dSa=umif; twdtus/ jywfjywfom;om;/
&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; Ak'<u rde@f ¹rufcJhjyD; jzpfayonf?
om"ursm;udk &SmazG=unfh&_=uaytHhAk'<w&m;awmfwGif t"dujzpfI vGefpGmta&;}uD;aom *gxm (3) yk'fukd "rRy'wGif awG@&dS&onf?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? rZdÆredum,f 1/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 136/137 ?
2? yyOPol'eD (ywp) pmrsufESm 112 wGif udk;um;jycsuf?

61

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

‚wdk@onf "rRy'/ tcef;(20)/ trSwf (5/6/7) od@k r[kwf *gxmyk'fa& (277/278 ESifh 279) wdk@ jzpf=uonf?
yxr (2) yk'fwGif oaAŠocFg&m tedpPm ] ta=umif;w&m;wd@k ðyjyiftyfaom cyfodrf;ukefwdk@onf rjrJukef?
oaAŠocFg&m 'kuQm ] ta=umif;w&m;wd@k ðyjyiftyfaom cyfodrf;ukefw@kd onf qif;&Jukef.?
[kqdkI wwd,yk'fwGif oaAŠ"rRm tewWm ] tvHk;pHkaom w&m;wd@k onf twWr[kwfukef/ twWr&dSukef 1 - [k qdkxm;.?
yxr (2) yk'fwGif ‘ta=umif;w&m;wd@k ðyjyiftyfaom cyfodrf;ukefaom ocFg&m’ [laom pum;vHk;
udk toHk;ðyI wwd,yk'fwGif ,if;tpm; ‘"rR’[laom pum;vHk;udk oHk;EH_;xm;jcif;udk txl;owdðy&ef vdkay
onf? wwd,yk'fwGif ta=umif;w&m;wd@k ðyjyiftyfaom cyfodrf;ukefaom ‘ocFg&m’ [laom pum;vHk;udk
tjcm; (2) yk'frSmuJhodk@ toHk;rðybJ ,if;tpm; ‘"rR’[laom pum;vHk;udk tb,fha=umifh oHk;EH_;xm;&oenf;?
,ckaqG;aEG;aeonfh jy\em wpf&yfvkH;. t"du tusqkH;tcsufukd Tykp>mrsm;u aqmif,lxm;onf?
ocFg& 2 [lonf cE<mig;yg;udk qdkvkdonf? &kyf/emrf ESpfyg;vHk;ESihfoufqkdifaom/ ta=umif;w&m;wd@k udk
ðyjyiftyfukefaom/ wpfckESifhwpfck tnrnoabmt& rDSckdqufpyfaeaom cyfodrf;ukefaom ta=umif;
jcif;&m tajctaewdk@onf ocFg&Y tusHK;0ifayonf?
txufyg wwd,yk'fonf ‘oaAŠocFg&m tewWm’ [kjzpfaeygrl ta=umif;w&m;wdk@ ðyjyifpD&if
tyfukefaom t&m[lor#onf twWr&dSukef/ r[kwfukefaomfvnf; cE<mig;yg;rS oD;jcm;I ta=umif;w&m;wd@k
jyKjyifpD&ifjcif;uif;aom t&mwdk@rlum; twW&Sdukef./ [kwfukef. [k t"dyg` ,faumuf,lEdkifayrnf? TuJho@kd
vJGrSm;aumuf,ljcif;rS uif;vGwfap&ef ‘"rR’[laom pum;vHk;udk oHk;xm;&jcif;jzpfayonf?
‘"rR’.t"dy`g,fonf ‘ocFg&’xuf us,fjyef@onf? Ak'<bmomoHk; pum;vHk;rsm;wGif ‘"rR’xuf
t"dy`g,f us,fjyef@aom pum;vHk;r&dSawmhay? ‘"rR’.oabmt"dyg` ,fwGif ta=umif;w&m;wdk@ ðyjyifpD&if
tyfukefaom tajctae ta=umif;jcif;&mtm;vHk; yg0ifonfomru ta=umif;w&m;wdk@ ðyjyifpD&ifjcif;
uif;aom tºuif;rJhyuwdjzpfaom edAŠmefonfyif oufa&muftusHK;0if&ayonf? p=um0Vm wGif;-jyif ESpfck
pvHk;wGif taumif;tqdk;[lor# ta=umif;w&m;wd@k ðyjyifpD&iftyfukefonf/ rtyfukefonf r[l yuwd
oabm/ tnrnoabm rcJGjcm; &dS&Sdor# t&mcyfodrf;wd@k onf ‘"rR’wGif tusHK;r0ifonfr&dS? tm;vHk;
tusHK;0if=u&onfcsnf;jzpfayonf? xd@k a=umifh ‘oaAŠ"rRm tewWm’ [kqdkxm;&um; cE<mig;yg;wGifom ig/
twWr&dSonfr[kwf/ ‚wdk@. tjyifty/ ‚wd@k ESihf oD;jcm;wGifvnf; ‘ig/ twW’[lI r&dSa=umif; 3 odom
xif&Sm;ayjyD?
xdk@a=umifh ax&0g't& yk*d~KvfwGifvnf;aumif;/ w&m;"rRrsm;wGifvnf;aumif; twWr&dS[k qdkvkdjcif;
jzpfonf? r[m,me*dk%f; Ak'<tbd"rRmwGifvnf; "rRtemwRef/ yk*~vtemwRef [lI tav;teufðyum
azmfjyxm;ojzifh TtcsufwGif ax&0g'ESihf oabmt,l xyfwljzpfI tenf;i,fr# uJGjym;wdrf;apmif;jcif;
r&ddSay?
rZdÆredum,f tv*'NLyrokwfwGif Ak'<u “&[ef;wd@k / twW0g'udk pJG,loltm; ylaqG;jcif;/ idkaºu;jcif;/
udk,fqif;&Jjcif;/ pdwfqif;&Jjcif;/ jyif;pGmyifyef;jcif; wd@k rjzpfEkdifrl xdk twW0g'udk pJG,l&m.? odk@aomfvnf;
pJG,loltm; ylaqG;jcif;/ idkaºu;jcif;/ udk,fqif;&Jjcif;/ pdwfqif;&Jjcif;/ jyif;pGmyifyef;jcif; wdk@ rjzpfEdkif&maom
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1? ‘Ak'<. oDvvrf;pOf’pmtkyf (r'&yf/1929/ pmrsufESm 69)wGif tufzft,fvf0k'f0g'f u ‘"rR’udk ‘ta=umif;w&m;wdk@ jyKjyif
pD&ifxm;tyfonfh cyfodrf;ukefaom tajctae ta=umif;jcif;&mrsm;’[k bmomjyefqdkcsufrSm vHk;0csGwfvJG rSm;,Gif;ayonf?
ta=umif;w&m;wdk@jyKjyifpD&ifxm;tyfonfh cyfodrf;ukefaom tajctaeta=umif;jcif;&mrsm;onf ‘ocFg&’rsm;omjzpfI
‘"rR’ rsm;r[kwfay?
2? cE<mig;yg;tpkwGif yg0ifaom ‘ocFg&’. t"dy`g,frSm umr0dygufrsm;udk jzpfyGm;aponfh ‘apwem’odk@r[kwf‘oaOPwem’
apwodufrsm;udk qdkvdkonf? Tae&mYrl cE<mig;yg;tygt0if ta=umif;w&m;wdk@ðyjyifpD&iftyfaom cyfodrf;ukefaom
t&mrsm;[k qdkvdk&if;jzpfonf? ocFg&[laom a0g[m&onf ajymqdka&;om;onfh pum;pyf tpOfudkvdkufI teuf t"dyg` ,f
uJGjym;jcm;em;Edkifayonf?
3? rZdÆredum,f (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 228? oH,kwf 2/ pmrsufESm 132/133?

62

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

twW0g'rdsK;udk oifwdk@awG@jrif=uukefoavm” [kar;awmfrl.? 1
“t&Sifbk&m;/ rawG@jrif=uyg” [k &[ef;wd@k u jyef=um;av#mufxm;.?
“&[ef;wdk@/ aumif;ay.? pJG,loltm; ylaqG;jcif;/ idkaºu;jcif;/ udk,fqif;&Jjcif;/ pdwfqif;&Jjcif;/ jyif;pGm
yifyef;jcif; wdk@ rjzpfEdkif&maom twW0g'rsdK;udk igvnf;rjrif” [k rdef@¹rufawmfrlavonf?
twW0g' wpfrdsK;rdsK;udk Ak'<vufcHcJhygu Tae&mwGif &[ef;wk@d tm; &Sif;vif; a[m=um;cJhayrnf?
ta=umif;rl Ak'<u &[ef;wkd@tm; qif;&Jyifyef;jcif;udk rjzpfEdkif&maom twW0g'rdsK;&dSrl vufcH&m.[k cGihfðy
awmfrlaoma=umifhaywnf;? odk@&mwGif Ak'<onf xdktwW0g'rdsK; r&dS[k od&dSjyD;jzpfawmfrlonf? rnfonfh twW
0g'rdsK; rqdk eufeJa,mif/ odrfarG@a,mif &dSaomfvnf; rSm;,Gif;.? pdwft=uHtpnfr#om jzpfonf?
‚wdk@onf jy\emtrdsK;rdsK;udk zefwD;v#uf aemufqufwJGtm;jzifh ylaqG;jcif;/ idkaºu;jcif;/ udk,fqif;&Jjcif;/
pdwfqif;&Jjcif;/ jyif;pGmylyefjcif; paom qif;&Jtaygif;udk jzpfay:aponf[kvnf; od&dS,lqjyD; jzpfawmfrlonf?
TokwfYyif qufvufa[m=um;awmfrl&mY “&[ef;wd@k / udk,ftwWudkvnf;aumif;/ udk,ftwWykdif
OpPmudkvnf;aumif; trSeftm;jzifh tcdkiftrmtm;jzifh &SmazGr&cJhaomf xdkigonf avmu (p=um0Vm) wnf;/
xdkigonf udk,f ‘twW’wnf;/ wrvGefb0Y xdkigyifjzpfthH/ jrJtHh/ cdkifcHhtHh/ azmufjyefjcif; oabm r&dStHh/
umv tqHk;tpr&dS wnfthH [laom pJG,lr_onf tºuif;rJh tjynfhtpHk rdkufrJjcif;/ ynm^m%f uif;jcif;
r[kwfygavm” [k ar;jref;awmfrlavonf? 2
Ta'oemawmfY “ig”/ udk,f/ twW udk trSeftm;jzifh b,fae&mrSmrS &SmazGI r&Edkifa=umif;ESihf ig/
udk,f/ twW &dSa=umif; ,Hk=unfjcif;onfyif vGefpGm rdkufrJjcif;yifjzpfa=umif; Ak'<u twdtvif; azmfjycJh
ayonf?
Ak'<a'oemrsm;wGif ‘twW’udk vdkufvH&SmazGolw@kd onf ygVdawmfrS aumufE_wfcsuftcsdK@udk wifjy
=u.? odk@wifjy&mwGif ‚wdk@onf yxr rSm;,Gif;pGm bmomjyefqdk=ujyD;aemuf t"dyg` ,fukd rSm;,Gif;pGm
aumuf,l=ujyefonf? xdkolwdk@wifjyavh&Sdaom aumufE_wfcsufwpfckrSm "rRy' (tcef; 12/ trSwf 4/
odk@r[kwf *gxmtrSwf 160) rS xif&Sm;aom ‘twWm[d twWaem emaxm’ yk'fyif jzpfayonf? xdkyk'fukd
‘udk,fomv#if udk,f.t&Sifocifjzpf.’ [k bmomjyefqdk=uI ‘twWt}uD;’omv#if ‘twWti,f’. t&Sif
ocifjzpfonf[k t"dy`g,faumuf,l=uavonf?
a&S;OD;pGmjzifh T bmomjyefqkdcsufonf rSm;,Gif;v#uf&Sd.? Tae&mwGif ‘twW’onf udk,f ‘twW’
[laom teuft"dy`g,fr&dSay? ygVdbmomwGif txufY awG@&dScJh=uonfhtwdkif; twW0g'ESifh ywfoufI tbd
"rRmoabmt& wduspGmajymqdkvdkaom udpPtenf;i,frSty ‘twW’udk trsm;tm;jzifh oypPm*r emrfpm;
tjzpf oHk;avh&dSayonf? "rRy' tcef; (12) rSm uJho@kd wGifvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;ae&m trsm;tjym;wGif
vnf;aumif; trsm;tm;jzifh ‘twW’udk oypPm*remrfpm;tjzpftoHk;ðyI ‘usGEfkyfudk,fusGEfkyf’/‘oifhukd,foif’/
‘ol@udk,fol’/‘rdrdudk,frdrd’ [k t"dy`g,fjyef&ayonf? 3
‘emaxm’[lonfrSmvnf; ‘t&Sifocif’r[kwfacs? ‘udk;uG,f&m’/ ‘tm;xm;&m’/ ‘tultnD’/
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1? rZdÆredum,f (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 137?
2? rZdÆredum,f 1 (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 158? Tpmydk'fudk &nf!$ef;um tufpf/&m'gu&pf&Seefonf ol. pmtkyf tdEdN,
tbd"rRm (vef'ef/1940) pmrsufESm 485 Y ‘rdrd. twWi,fonf tpOftjrJ qufvufwnfwHhaeonf[k aºu;a=umfae
onfh t,lrSm;udkom Ak'<u jiif;y,fawmfrlonf’[k a&;om;xm;ayonf? usGEfkyfwdk@onf TrSwfcsufudk oabmrwlEkdifyg?
trSefpifppf Ak'<onf Tpmydk'ft& p=um0VmtEHS@tjym;wnfonfqdkaom tmwrHudk jiif;y,fawmfrljcif; jzpfavonf?
txuf a&S;OD;ydkif;pmydk'fwGif azmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif; Ak'<onf ‘twWi,f’udkaomfvnf;aumif;/ ‘twW}uD;’udkaomf
vnf;aumif; vufcHawmfrrlacs? tmwrH0g'tm;vHk;onf rSm;,Gif;aomt,l/ pdwf. }uHqr_omjzpfonf[k Ak'<u ,lq
awmfrlonf?
bmomjyefol.rSwfcsuf? ? ‘twWi,f’rdrdudk,fwGif;Y wnfjrJudef;atmif;aeonf[k xifjrif,lqonfh 0dnmOfaumif?
‘twW}uD;’p=um0VmtESH@tjym; wnfonfqdkaom tmwrH?
3? 1957 ck/azazmf0g&Dvxkwf rpf'vfa0;r*~Zif;wGif‘a0'EWESifh Ak'<bmom’aqmif;yg;Y tdyfcsf/AGef*vmqifeyfonf Ttcsufukd
aumif;pGm &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;ayonf?k

63

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

‘tapmifhta&Smuf’[lonfht"dy`g,fomjzpfonf? 1 xdk@a=umifh ‘twWm[d twWaem emaxm’[laomyk'fonf
‘rdrdomv#if rdrdtultnD/odk@r[kwf tm;xm;&m jzpfonf’[k qdkvdkonf? tbd"rRmoabmyg0ifonfh ‘ig/
twW’ESifh vHk;0rywfoufay? oifhukd,fomv#if oiftm;udk;&rnf/ tjcm;olrsm;udk rrDScdk&[k &Sif;&Sif;
vG,fvG,fyif t"dy`g,faqmifayonf?
Ak'<a'oemwGif;odk@ ‘twW0g'’udk oGwfoGif;vdkpdwfjzifh }uHaqmifaom tjcm;OyrmwpfckrSm r[m
y&dedAŠmeokwf 2 rS ta=umif;t&mvGwf aumufEkwfwifjyxm;aom xif&Sm;ausmf=um;onfh ‘twW-'Dyg
0d[&x/ twW o&%m teno&%m’[laom yk'fyif jzpfavonf? Tyk'fukd pmoabmtwdkif; twdtus
bmomjyef&aomf ‘oifhudk,fom oif.usGef;i,f(tm;xm;&m)ðyI/ oifhudk,fom oif.rDScdk&m ðyI aeukef
avmh/ olwpfyg;udk oif.rDScdk&m rjzpfapvifh’ 3 [k qdkvdkayonf? Ak'<0g'wGif ‘twW/ udk,f’ yg0ifonfudk
jrifvdkol wdk@onf ‘twW'Dyg’udk ‘udk,ftm; qDrD;wdkiftjzpf’/ ‘twWo&%’udk ‘udk,ftm;rDScdk&mtjzpf’4 [lI
t"dy`g,faumuf,l=uayonf?
Tyk'frsm;onf Ak'<u &SiftmeENmtm; y&dedAŠmefrðyrD qHk;r a[m=um;awmfrlaom w&m;awmfvm
yk'frsm;jzpfay&m oabmt"dy`g,fudk jynfhjynfhpkHpkHod&Sdem;vnfEdkif&ef xdkw&m;rsm;udk a[m=um;awmfrl&onfh
aemufcHta=umif;t&mrsm;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;=u&ayrnf?
xdkw&m;rsm;udk aAVK0&GmwGif jrwfpGmbk&m; pHy,fawmfrlpOf a[m=um;awmfrljcif;jzpfonf? y&dedAŠmef
rðyrD (3) vtcsdefu jzpfayonf? xdktcgu jrwfpGmbk&m;onf oufawmf (80) &dSjyDjzpfI uG,fvGefawmfrl&
eD;yg; (rm&%EdWu) jyif;xefpGm emrusef;jzpfaeawmfrlonf? wynfh}uD;i,fwdk@tm; todray;bJ y&dedAŠmef
ðyawmfrrloifh[k oabmydkufawmfrlojzifh a&m*ga0'emudk xll;uJaom owWd/ 0D&d,rsm;jzifh onf;cHawmfrlI
ausmfvGefaysmufjidrf;apawmfrlonf?
tema&m*g ESdyfpufjcif;rS uif;vGwfoGm;jyD jzpfaomfvnf; usef;rma&;um; csdK@wJhqJyifjzpfonf?
wpfae@wGif ausmif;ocFrf; tjyifbuf opfyif&dyfwpfckwGif pHy,fawmfrlaepOf Ak'<tm; txl;uJqHk; =unf!kdpGm
0wfðyaeol &SiftmeENmonf jrwfAk'< xHyg;od@k csOf;uyfI “t&Sifbk&m;/ &Sifawmfbk&m; usef;rma&;twGuf
wynfhawmfonf tpOf*&kðy apmifha&SmufcJhygonf? udk,fawmf emrusef; &dScJhpOfuvnf; vkyfausG;0wfðycJh
ygonf? &Sifawmfbk&m; emrusef;jzpfawmfrlaomtcg wynfhawmfY t&yfrsufESmwdk@onf arS;rdSefcJhygonf?
w&m;Y qifjcifaom ^m%frsm;vnf; rxif&Sm;/ r_efr$m;oGm;cJhygonf? &[ef;oHCm tzJ@G tpnf;udk &nfI qHk;r
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1? "rRy' tXuxmwGif ‘emaxmwd ywdXm’emaxm[lonf‘taxmuftyHh (rDScdktm;xm;&m/tultnD/tapmifhta&Smuf)’[k
t"dy`g,f&a=umif; azmfjyxm;onf?("rRy'/tXuxm 3 (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 148)? a&S;a[mif;oD[dkVfrl "rRy'usrf;wGif
‘emaxm’udk yd[db0aEM,H/ taxmuftyHh(rDScdktm;xm;&m/ tultnD) [k zGifhonf? ("rRy' yk&m%foEM,/ udkvHbdk 1926/
pmrsufESm 77)? emaxm. yËdao"pum;vHk;udk,lv#if T zGifhqdkonfh teuft"dy`g,f rSefuefa=umif;ydkrdkcdkifvHkjyefonf?
‘temx’.teufrSm t&Sifocifr&dS/ t&SifocifrJh [lI rvm/ ‘ulnDrJh’/‘taxmuftyHhrJh’/‘tumtuG,frJh’/‘qif;&Jaom’
[lIom t"dy`g,faumuf,l&onf? ygVdtoif;}uD;rSxkwfa0aom ygVdtbd"gefwGifyifv#if ‘emx’udk ‘apmifha&SmufumuG,f
ay;ol’/‘rDScdktm;xm;&m’/‘tultnD’[lIom &Sif;jyonf? ‘t&Sifocif’[k rqdkay?
‘avmuemx’udk ‘vltaygif;wkd@.u,fwif&Sif}uD;’[k vlodrsm;aom c&pf,meftoHk;tEH_;twdkif; vdkufI bmom
jyefqdk=uonfrSm rrSefuefay? Ak'<onf u,fwif&Sifwpfyg;r[kwfay? Tpum;vHk;. t"dy`g,ftppftrSefrSm ‘vltaygif;wd@k .
rDScdktm;xm;&m’[lIom jzpfayonf?
2? 'DCedum,f 2/ (udkvHbdk 1929)/ pmrsufESm 62?
3? &dpfa';Apf. 'DCedum,fbmomjyef 2/ pmrsufESm 108? ‘rdrdonf rdrdudk,ftm; qDrD;wdkif jzpfapavmh? rdrdonf rdrdukd,ftm;
rDScdk&m jzpfapavmh? olwpfyg;wGif oif. rDScdk&m r&Smvifh’?
4? Tae&mwGif ‘'Dyg’onf ‘qDrD;wdkif’[krqdkvdk? ‘usGef;’[lIom rcsGwfrvJG t"dy`g,f&ayonf? 'DCedum, tXuxm
(oD[kdVfrl/ pmrsufESm 380) wGif ‘'Dyg’pum;vHk;udk t"dyg` ,fzGifhqdk&mY ‘r[mork'N*wH 'DyH 0d, twWmeH 'DyH ywdXH uxm
0d[&x’[lI azmfjyxm;onf? r[mork'N&mwGif;rS usGef;wpfckuJhodk@yif oifhudk,foif (rDScdkaxmufwnf&m) usGef;ðyI aexdkif
avmh [k qdkvdkayonf? b0pOfquf vSnfhvnfoGm;vm oHo&mudk ork'N&mESifhEd_if;,SOfazmfjyavh&dSonf? (oHom&/ om*&)?
ork'N&mwGif;0,f rDScdkaxmufwnfzG,f&m cdkifrmaom ajrom;/ ausmufom;xk usGef;wpfckudkom tvdk&dStyfayonf? ‘qDrD;
wdkif’ rDScdktm;xm;zG,f&m rjzpfEdkifay?

64

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

!$ef=um;csufrsm; rxm;&ao;bJ jrwfpGmbk&m;onf y&dedAŠmefðyawmfrrl&m[k pOf;pm;jcif;jzifhomv#if pdwfudk
ESpfodrfhapcJhygonf bk&m;” [k av#mufxm;avonf?
xdktcg jrwfpGmbk&m;onf ‚tm; =unf!kdpGm0wfðyaeaom cspfpGmaom tmeENmtm; vGefpGm
oem;aom u&k%mjzifh “tmeENm/ &[ef;oHCmwd@k onf igbk&m;xHrS tb,fudk ar#mfvifhawmifhw=u
oenf;? igbk&m;onf w&m;awmfrsm;udk twGif;tjyif cJGjcm;jcif;rðybJ a[mtyfjyD;jyD? w&m;"rRwdk@Y igbk&m;
onf tºuif;xm;I a[monfr&dS? (q&mpm; tmp&d,rkVd csefxm;jcif; r&dS)? tmeENm/ tu,fI wpfpkH
wpfa,mufonf oHCmwdk@udk igonf OD;aqmifOD;&GufðyaytHh/ oHCmwdk@onf ighY rDSckd&tHh[k rSwf,lygtHh?
‚tm; oHCmwkd@udk&nfI wpfpHkwpfckaom =o0g'w&m;rsm;udk a&;qJGap&monf? igbk&m;Yrl Todk@ pdwful;
}uHpnfcsufr&dS? xdk@a=umifh oHCmwd@k udk&nfI =o0g'w&m;rsm;udk igbk&m;u rnfonfhtwGuf xm;cJhvwW@H
enf;? tmeENm/ igbk&m;onf ,cktcgY tdkrif;jyD; touf(80)od@k a&mufcJhjyD? vSnf;tdkukd ðyjyifpD&if ay;jcif;
jzifhom armif;ESifae&ouJhokd@ igbk&m;. &lyum,onfvnf; ðyjyifpD&ifay;aeIom qufvufwnfae&
ayonf? xdk@a=umifh tmeENm/ oifhukd,fukdoif usGef;i,f (tm;xm;&m) ðyI oifhudk,fudkoif rDSckd&mðyI
aeayavmh? olwpfyg;onf oif. rDSckd&m rjzpfapvifh/ w&m;udkomv#if oif.usGef;i,f (tm;xm;&m) ðyukef
I w&m;omv#if oif.udk;uG,f&m &dSukefonfjzpfI/ w&m;rSwpfyg; udk;uG,f&mr&dSukefonf jzpfI
aeukefavmh” [k at;jidrf;nifompGm ajym=um;awmfrl.? 1
jrwfpGmbk&m;u tmeENmtm; em;vnfapvdkaom ta=umif;t&mrSm &Sif;vif;vSayonf? tmeENm
onf pdwfi,ftm;avsmh 0rf;enf;ylaqG;jzpfaeonf? jrwfpGmbk&m; uG,fvGefawmfrljyD;aemuf acgif;aqmifr&dS/
udk;uG,f&mr&dS/ tultnDrJh/ xD;xD;usefaecJh=urnfukd pdk;&drfylyefaeayonf? xdk@a=umifh “rdrdudk,frdrdtm;udk;/
a[m=um;xm;cJhaom w&m;awmfudkukd;uG,f&mðy/ tjcm;rnfo@l udkr#/ rnfonfht&mudkr# udk;uG,f&mrðyESihf”
[k ajym=um;jcif;jzifh jrwfpGmbk&m;u tmeENmtm; pdwfoufomapI udk,fhudk,fudk ,Hk=unfr_/ owWd&Sdr_w@kd udk
jzpfaponf? tbd"rRmESifh pyfvsOf;aom udk,hftwWonf Tae&mwGif roufqkdif/ tusHK;r0ifEkdifay?
xdk@jyif rnfodk@ rdrdudk,frdrd usGef;i,fðyI udk;uG,f&mðyI/ w&m;awmfudkomv#if usGef;i,fðyI
udk;uG,f&mðyI ae&rnfudk Ak'<u qufvuf&Sif;vif;azmfjyawmfrl&mwGif um,mEky\em/ a0'emEky\em/
pdwWmEky\em/ "rRmEky\em (owdyXmefw&m;av;yg;) 2 udk usifhokH; aqmufwnfI ae&rnf[k a[mcJhay
onf? ‘twW/ udk,f’[laom ta=umif;t&mrsm; vHk;0ryg&dScJhay?
Ak'<0g'wGif ‘twW’udk &SmazGawG@&dSvkdolw@kd r=umc% udk;um;aom tjcm;&nf!$ef;csuf wpfckrSm
atmufygtwdkif;jzpfayonf? tcgwpfyg;wGif jrwfpGmbk&m;onf Am&m%oDrS O&ka0Vod@k oGm;&mvrf;&dS
awmtkyfwpfckwGif opfyifwpfyifatmufY pHy,faeawmfrl.? xdkae@wGifyif oli,fcsif;rsm;jzpfaom rif;om;
ydsK (30) wdk@onf ‚wdk@. ZeD;onfrsm;ESihftwl xdkawmtkyfxJodk@ aysmfyJGpm; xGufvm=uukef.? tdrfaxmif
zufr&dSao;aom rif;om;wpfyg;u ol.tazmftjzpf jynfhwefqmr wpfOD;udk ac:cJhav.? rif;om;rsm;ESihf
taygif;tazmfwdk@ aysmf&$ifjrL;xl;ae=upOf xdkjynfhwefqmronf tzdk;wef 0wˆKypPnf;rsm;udk cdk;0Suf,laqmif
um xGufajy;uG,faysmufoGm;av.? rif;om;rsm;onf olrtm; awmtkyftwGif;Y tEHS@tjym; vdkufvH
&SmazGpOf opfyifwpfyifatmufY pHy,faeawmfrlaom jrwfpGmbk&m;tm;jrif=uI ‘rdef;rwpfa,mufukd
jrifvdkufygoavm’ [k av#mufxm;ar;jref;=u.? jrwfpGmbk&m;u tudsK;ta=umif;udk pHkprf;jyD;aemuf
‘vkvifwdk@/ toifwdk@ todk@xifoenf;/ rdef;rwpfa,mufukd vdkufvH&SmazGaejcif;ESifh oifwdk@udk,foifwdk@
&SmazGpl;prf;jcif;onf oifwdk@twGuf b,f[mu ydkrkdtudsK;&dSrnf xifoenf;’ [k ar;jref;awmfrlavonf? 3
Tae&mY jrwfpGmbk&m;u &dk;&dk;&Sif;&Sif;ESihf obm0usvSaom ykp>mwpfckudk ar;jref;jcif;yifjzpf&m
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1? 'DCedum,f 2/ (udkvHbdk 1929) / pmrsufESm 61/62? aemufqkH;0gusudkom ygVdawmfvmpum;&if;twkdif; bmomjyefa&;xnfh
vdkufonf? usefazmfjycsufonfum; r[my&dedAŠmeokwfvm ta=umif;t&mrsm;udkom tusOf;csHK;I a&;om;xm;jcif;
jzpfayonf?
2? 'DCedum,f 2/ (udkvHbdk) / pmrsufESm 62? owdyXmef 4 yg;ta=umif;/ tcef; 7/ urRXmef;bm0em tcef;wGif &_yg?
3? r[m0*~/ tvGwf*gr 1929/ pmrsufESm 21/ 22?

65

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

&Snf&Snfa0;a0; tbd"rRmESifhpyfqdkifonfh ‘udk,f/twW’ wdk@udk qJGiifoGwfoGif;,ljcif;rSm vHk;0ravsmfuef roifh
jrwfay? rif;om;wdk@u rdrdwdk@udk,frdrdw@kd &SmazGpl;prf;jcif;u ydkrdk tudsK;rsm;rnfjzpfa=umif; ajz=um;
av#mufxm;aomf jrwfpGmbk&m;u ‚wd@k tm; xdkif=u&efajymI w&m;"rR&Sif;vif;jyoawmfrlavonf? &&dS
Edkifor# ygVdawmfrl&if;rsm;wGif rif;om;wd@k tm; a[m=um;awmfrlaom jrwfpGmbk&m;. w&m;awmfY ‘twW’
ESifh ywfoufI wpfvHk;wpfyg'r# azmfjyxm;jcif;udk rawG@&ay?
y&AdkZf 0p>a*gwW u ‘twW’ &dSr&dS ar;jref;onfukd jrwfpGmbk&m; ajz=um;awmfrrlbJ qdwfqdwf
aeonfh ta=umif;t&mESifhywfoufI pmaytajrmuftrsm; a&;om;jyD;=uayjyD? 0p>a*gwW onf jrwfpGm
bk&m; xHawmfodk@ csOf;uyfI “a*gwrt&Sifbk&m;/ twWonf &dSygoavm” [k av#mufxm;.?
Ak'<u qdwfqdwf aeawmfrl.? “a*gwrt&Sifbk&m;/ twWonf r&dSygoavm” Ak'<u qdwfqdwf aejrJ
aeawmfrl.? xdktcg 0p>a*gwWonf ae&mrSxI bk&m;xHrS xGufcGmoGm;av.?
yk&AdkZf}uD; xGufcGmoGm;jyD;aemuf “0p>a*gwW av#mufxm;onfudk rnfonfhta=umifha=umifh rajz
=um;ygoenf;” [k t&SiftmeENmu av#mufxm;&m Ak'<u ‚. oabmxm;udk Todk@ ajz=um;awmf rlay
onf? “tmeENm/ 0p>a*gwW u ‘twW&Sdoavm’[k ar;onfudk igbk&m;u ‘twW&Sdonf’ [k ajz=um;v#if
b0quf o\w0g'ukd vufcHxm;aom &[ef;/ ykÀm;wd@k tm; axmufcH&m usaeayrnf?”
“tmeENm/ 0p>a*gwW u ‘twWr&dSoavm’[kar;onfukd igbk&m;u twWr&dS [k ajz=um;jyefv#if
vnf; b0jywf Oap>' 0g'udk vufcHxm;aom &[ef;/ ykÀm;wd@k tm; axmufcH&m usaeayrnf?” 1
“wzef/ 0p>a*gwW u ‘twW&Sdoavm’[kar;jref;onfukd igbk&m;u ‘twW&dSonf’ [k ajz=um;v#if
igudk,fawmfwdkif odxm;aom cyfodrf;aomw&m; "rRwGif ‘twWr&dSukef’ [lonfh tod^m%fESifh udkufnDyg
rnfavm?” 2
“rudkufnDEdkifyg bk&m;”?
“wpfzef tmeENm/ 0p>a*gwW u ‘twWr&dSygoavm’[k ar;jref;onfukd igbk&m;u ‘twWr&dS’[k ajz
=um;vdkufv#if tpurS pdwf&_yfawGa0ae&Smaom 0p>a*gwWonf ydkrdkpdwf&_yfawGa0 oGm;ayvdrfhrnf? 3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? wpf}udrfwGif T yk&AdkZf 0p>a*gwWudkyif jrwfpGmbk&m;u Ak'<onf obm0w&m;tppftrSefudk &_jrifrsufarSmufjyKjyD;jzpfaom
a=umifh t,l[laompum;/ pdwfxifr#omjzpfaom0g'rdsK;(Theory)udk y,fxm;jyD;jyD [k &Sif;jycJhzl;ayjyD? (rZdÆredum,f 1
(ywp)/ pmrsufESm 486)? Tae&mwGifvnf; Ak'<onf rnfonfhpdwfxif0g'(Theory) t,lESifhr# qufpyfvdkr_ r&dSa=umif;
jyawmfrlayonf?
2? oaAŠ"rRm tewWm? (txufwGif azmfjyjyD;jzpfonfh "rRy' 20/ (7)vm yxrpma=umif;. pum;vHk;rsm;twdkif; xyfwlxyfr#
jzpfonf)?
Tpma=umif;udk 0k'f0g'fu ‘t&mcyfodrf; rwnfrjrJ’ [k bmomjyefjcif;onf (oH,kwWedum,/ pmrsufESm 282) vHk;0
rSm;,Gif;aeayonf? yrm'avcjzpf[ef&dSaomfvnf; tvGef}uD;rm;aomtrSm; jzpfaeayonf? Tbmomjyef csGwf,Gif;r_
onf Ak'<. qdwfqdwfaejcif;ESifhywfoufI a&;}uD;cGifus,f ajymqkda&;om;ae=ujcif;. ta=umif;wpf&yfjzpfzG,f&m &dSav
onf? Tpma=umif;wGif ta&;}uD;qHk;jzpfaom ‘tewW’ pum;vHk;udk ‘rwnfrjrJ’ [kbmomjyefqdkxm;ayonf? ygVdawmf
rsm;udk t*Fvdyfbmomjyefqdk&mwGif TuJhodk@ trSm;}uD;rsm;/ trSm;uav;rsm;yg0ifae=uonfudk awG@=u&onf? yrm'
avc owdcsGwfacsmfr_/ rlv ygVdbmomudkrusGrf;usifr_rsm;a=umifh bmomjyefqdk&mwGif Todk@trSm;rsm; ygae&jcif;jzpfonf?
rnfonfhta=umif;a=umifh trSm;ðy&onfjzpfap/ rlvygVdawmfrsm;udk rzwf&_Edkif=uaom pmzwfy&dowftrsm; Ak'<bmomESihf
ywfoufI t,ltq vJGrSm;csGwfacsmfae=u&onfrSm TbmomjyeftrSm;rsm;a=umifhjzpfa=umif; a&S;OD;bmomjyefqkd
cJh=uonfh yk*d~Kvf}uD;rsm;tm; av;pm;pGmjzifhyif azmfjy&ayrnf? xdk@a=umifh ygVdpmaytoif;}uD;. twGif;a&;r_; rpfpf tdkif/bD/
a[mem;u ygVdawmfrsm;udk topfbmomjyefqdkI bmomjyefjyD;rsm;udk jyefvnfppfaq; jyifqifrnf[k =um;od&onfrSm
0rf;ajrmufzG,fjzpfayonf?
3? trSefpifppf ,cifapmapmwpf}udrf Ak'<u &[EWmuG,fvGefjyD;aemuf rnfodk@jzpfonfqdkonfh eufeJodrfarG@aom jrifEdkifcJaom
jy\emwpf&yfudk &Sif;vif;a[mjypOfu 0p>a*gwWu Todk@ av#mufxm;cJhzl;ayjyD?
‘t&Sifa*gwr/ Tt&mY tusGEfkyfonf em;rvnfjcif;odk@ a&mufcJhyg./ Tt&mY tusGEfkyfonfawGa0jcif;odk@a&mufcJhyg./
t&Sifa*gwr. a&S;OD;ajymqdkaompum;jzifh tusGEfkyfrSmjzpfay:vmaom =unfvifjcif;r#onfyifv#if ,cktcg uG,faysmuf
oGm;ygavjyD’[k av#muf.? ( rZdÆredum,f 1/ (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 487)? xdk@a=umifh jrwfpGmbk&m;u 0p>a*gwW tm;
ydkrdk&_yfaxG; awGa0roGm;apvdkawmhay?

66

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

,cifu ighrSmtwW&dScJhonf? ,ck ighrSm twWr&dSawmhygwum; [k olawG;awm }uHqayvdrfhrnf? 1
txufygazmfjycsufrsm;udk zwf&_jyD;aemuf Ak'<u tb,fha=umifhqdwfqdwfaeawmfrla=umif; &Sif;vif;
oGm;avmufayjyD? ,ckxufydkrdkI &Sif;vif;em;vnfEkdif&ef ykp>mrsm;ay:wGifvnf;aumif;/ ykp>mar;olrsm;ay:wGif
vnf;aumif; Ak'<.oabmxm;ESifh ykp>mar;jref;jcif;. aemufcHta=umif;t&mrsm;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&
ayrnf? Ak'<hqdwfqdwfaeawmfrljcif;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;olw@kd onf azmfjyygaemufcH ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk vHk;0
vspfvsLðycJh=uayonf?
Ak'<onf rnfoluar;ar;/ ar;or# ykp>mrsm;udk qifjcifpOf;pm;r_uif;pGm ajz=um;aom tajzxkwf
uGefjyLwm puf,EW,m;wpfckr[kwfay? ^m%ftajrmftjrifESihf jynfhpkHawmfrlI oem;u&k%m }uD;rm;awmfrl
aom vufawG@oif=um;jyoay;onfh q&mwpfqlom jzpfawmfrlayonf? Ak'<onf udk,fawmfwkdif tod
^m%fynm }uD;us,fawmfrla=umif; azmfjyvdkI ar;vmaomykp>mrsm;udk ajz=um;awmfrlonf r[kwfay? ykp>m
ar;olrsm;udk oHo&m0ËfrS usGwfvGwfEkdif&ef ulnDapmifrawmfrljcif;om jzpfayonf? vltrsm;tm; w&m;
a[m=um;&mwGif ‚wdk@. yg&rDtqifhtwef;/ ‚wd@k .txHk0goem/ pdwfaeoabmxm;ESifh p&dkuf/ ykp>m
wpfckudk em;vnfEdkifrnfht&nftcsif; &dSr&dSponfw@kd udk tpOfxnfhoGif;pOf;pm;jyD;rS a[majymawmfrljcif;
jzpfayonf? 2
Ak'<. a[majymcsuft& ykp>mrsmudk udkifwG,fajz&Sif;&ef enf;vrf; (4) oG,f &dSayonf?
1? tcsdK@ykp>mrsm;udk wdkuf&dkufwnfhwnfh ajz=um;&ayonf?
2? tcsdK@ykp>mrsm;udk cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmaomenf;jzifh ajz=um;&ayonf?
3? tcsdK@ykp>mrsm;udkrl ykp>mjyefvSefar;jcif;tm;jzifh ajz&Sif;&I
4? aemufqHk;ajzqdkenf;rSm ykp>mrsm;udk y,fcsypfaomenf;vrf; yif jzpfavonf? 3
ykp>mwpfckudk y,fcsypfaom enf;trdsK;rdsK; &dSEdkifayonf? T 0p>a*gwW yif ‘avmuonf xm0&
wnfjrJoavm/rwnfjrJoavm’tp&dSonfh emrnfausmfykp>mrsm;udk wpf}udrfru av#mufxm;&mY 4 Ak'<u
rajz=um;/ r&Sif;vif;/ qdwfqdwfaeawmfrljcif;tm;jzifh y,fypfawmfrlonf[k qdkEdkifayonf? tvm;wl ykp>m
rsm;udk rmvkusykwWESifh tjcm;yk*d~Kvfrsm;u ar;jref;cJh=u&m Tenf;ESifESif y,fypfIom ajz=um;awmfrlcJh
avonf? twW&dS/r&dS ykp>mudkrl Ak'<u tpOfaqG;aEG; &Sif;vif;jyjyD;jzpfI y,fypfonf[k ,lq&ef ta=umif;r&dS
ay? 0p>a*gwW av#mufxm;&mwGif twW&Sdonf[k rajzEdfkifjcif;rSm udk,fawmfwdkif odxm;awmfrlaom ‘cyfodrf;
aomt&mwdk@Y twWr&dSukef’ qdkonfESihf qef@usifEkdifrnfh ta=umif;a=umifh jzpfonf? 0p>a*gwWonf Tykp>m
ESifh qifqifwlaom ykp>mrsm;udk Ak'<tm; av#mufxm;zl;&m xdktcgu jrwfpGmbk&m; ajz=um;awmfrlonfukd
em;rvnf/ awGa0aeygonf[k 0efcHav#mufxm;cJhzl;ayjyD? 5 xdk@a=umifh oem;zG,fjzpfaeaom 0p>a*gwW tm;
ta=umif;rJh rvdktyfbJ awGa0acsmufcsm; roGm;ap&ef twWr&dS[kvnf; rajz=um;vdkjcif; jzpfayonf?
0p>a*gwWonf tewW oabmw&m;udk em;vnfxifjrifEkdifaom tajctae tqifhtwef;odk@ ra&mufao;?
xdk@a=umifh Tae&m/ TudpPoufoufwGif qdwfqdwfaejcif;jzifh ykp>mudk y,fzsufjcif;onfom toifhavsmfqkH;
jzpfayonf?
0p>a*gwWudk Ak'<odvmonfrSm umv=umjrifhaejyD jzpfa=umif;udkvnf; owdðy&monf? T y&dAkdZf
onf ,ckt}udrfom jrwfpGmbk&m;xH vma&mufzl;ajrmfzl;onf r[kwfay? pdwf&_yfawGa0pGmjzifh vSnhfvnf
w&m;&Smaeaom T y&dAdkZftwGuf ^m%fawmf}uD;rm;I oem;u&k%mjzifh jynfhpHkawmfrlaom jrwfpGmbk&m;
onf txl;qifjcifpOf;pm; pdwf0ifpm;awmfrlayonf? avmu}uD;jrJ-rjrJ/ twW&dS-r&dS paom jy\emrsm;wGif
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? oH,kwf 4/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 400/ 401?
2? Ak'<. T^m%fynmawmfudk ÁjENd, ya&my&d,wW^m% [k ac:qdkavonf? rZdÆredum,f 1/ (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 70?
0db*F (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 340?
3? t*FkwdˆKvf/ (udkvHbdk/ 1929)/ pmrsufESm 216?
4? OyrmoH,kwf 4/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 393/395? rZdÆredum,f 1/ (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 484?
5? pmrsufESm 66/ rSwfpk 3 udk &_yg?

67

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

tpJGtvrf;}uD;vSI pdwf&_yf/yifyef;ae&Smaom y&dAkdZf 0p>a*gwWonf jrwfpGmbk&m;ESifh wynfhrsm;xH r=um
r=umvmI ykp>mqifwlrsm;udk xyfwvJvJ ar;jref;av#mufxm;a=umif; ygVdawmfrsm;wGif tESH@tjym;awG@&dS&
ayonf? 1 Ak'<. qdwfqdwfaer_onf tm0Z…ef;&$ifpGm pum;vHk;rsm;rsm;ESihf aqG;aEG;ajz=um;ay;jcif;xuf
0p>a*gwWudk tusdK;ðy[ef &dSayonf? 2
tcsKd@yk*d~Kvfwdk@onf twW [lonfrSm trsm;odaeaom pdwf (od@k r[kwf) 0dnmOfyif jzpfonf[k ,lq
=u.? odk@&mwGif jrwfpGmbk&m;u wpfpkHwpfa,mufaom olonf twWudk rdrd. &lyum,[k ,lygu
awmfao;.? pdwf/ raem/ 0dnmOf[lIrl r,lqoifh [k a[m=um;awmfrl.? &lyum,onf txnfj'yf
tm;jzifh ydkrdkcdkifrm[ef&dSao;I pdwf/ raem/ 0dnmOfrlum; udk,fum,xuf v#ifjrefpGm ae@nrjywf tpOftjrJ
ajymif;vJ azmufjyefaeaoma=umifh aywnf;?
‘ig jzpf.’ [k 0dk;wdk;0g;wm; xifa,mifrSm;jcif;a=umifh tppftrSef wu,fr&dSaom twWt,lpJG
jzpfay:vm&jcif; jzpfonf? ToabmtrSefukd xdk;xGif;odjrifEdkifygu edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðy&jcif;yif
jzpfayonf? ,if; udpPum; rvG,fulpGmh?
oH,kwfedum,f ygVdawmfvm 3 &Sifacru bJ@G rnf&dS &[ef;wpfyg;ESihf &[ef;awmftcsdK@w@kd ajymqdk
aqG;aEG;=uyHkonf Tta=umif;tcsufESihf pyfvsOf;I tod^m%fudk vGefpGmxGef;vif;aponf?
&[ef;rsm;u acru &[ef;tm; ‘cE<mig;yg;Y wpfpkHwpfckukd ig [lIvnf;aumif;/ ig. OpPm[lI
vnf;aumif; jrifygoavm’ [k ar;jref;=uukef.? &[ef;acru u ‘rjrifyg’[kajz=um;.? ‘Tod@k cE<mig;yg;
Y wpfpHkwpfckudk ig [lIvnf;aumif;/ ig. OpPm[lI vnf;aumif; rjrifcJhrl tmoa0gukefjyD;aom &[EWm
jzpfygoavm’[k ajym=um;=ujyef.? t&Sifacru u cE<mig;yg;Y wpfpHkwpfckudk ig [lIvnf;aumif;/ ig.
OpPm[lI vnf;aumif; rjrifyg? odk@aomfvnf; ‚onf tmoa0gukefjyD;aom &[EWmvnf; r[kwfyg [k
0efcHjyD;aemuf ‘igh&Sifwdk@/ ightm; Oyg'geuQE<mig;yg;Y ‘igjzpf.’[k xifjrif&,l.? odk@&mwGif ‘Tt&monf
igjzpf.’[lIum; &Sif;vif;pGm rjrif&yg [k qdk.? xd@k aemufqufvufI ‘igjzpf.’[l&mY &kyfudkigjzpf.[k rqdk/
a0'emudk igjzpf. [krqdk/ onmudk--/ ocFg&udk---/ 0dnm%fukd igjzpf.[k rqdk/ ‚wd@k rS wpfyg;vnf;
igjzpf. [k rqdk? odk@aomf ihgtm; Oyg'geuQE<mig;yg;Y ‘igjzpf.’[krl xifjrif&,lyg.? Todk@&,lonfhwdkifatmif
‘Tt&monf igjzpf.’[k rlum; xifvif;pGm rjrif&yg [k &Sif;vif;ajymjyonf?
xyfrHI yef;wpfyGifh. &eH@ESihf yHkE_dif;jy&mwGif ,if;&eH@onf yGihfcsyf.teH@vnf;r[kwf/ tqif;ta&mif
. teH@vnf;r[kwf/ 0wfqH. teH@vnf;r[kwf/ yef;yGihf. teH@omjzpfa=umif; ajymavonf?
atmufydkif;oHa,mZOfrsm;udk y,fxm;jyD;jzpf=uaom t&d,mrsm;yif ‘igjzpf.’[laom txifudk
ry,f&ao;? pJGuyfaeqJyifjzpfa=umif;/ od@k aomf w&m;&_zefrsm;I &ifhusufwdk;wufvmaom aemufumv
wGifrl av#mfzGwfjyD;p t0wftxnfukd aowWmYxnfhodrf;xm;jcif;jzifh r=umrD qyfjymeH@ponfwkd@ aysmuf
uG,foGm;&uJhodk@ ‘igjzpf.’[laomtxifonf vHk;0aysmufuG,foGm;&onf jzpfa=umif; qufvuf&Sif;vif;
ajymjyayonf?
TaqG;aEG;r_onf vGefpGmtudsK;&dSI tod^m%fukd xufjrufxGef;vif;ap&um; aqG;aEG;yJGtjyD;wGif
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? OyrmoH,kwf 3/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 257/ 267? oH,kwf 4/ pmrsufESm 391/ 395/ 398/ 400? rZdÆredum,f 1/ pmrsufESm 481/
483/489? t*FkwdˆKvf 5/ pmrsufESm 193?
2? ta=umif;rl tcddsefumv twef=umjyD;aemuf 0p>a*gwWonf Ak'<tm; tzl;tajrmfa&mufvmonfudk usGEfkyfwdk@ awG@&
jyefonf? Twpf}udrfwGifrl ar;aeus ykp>mrsm;udk jrwfpGmbk&m;tm;rar;jref;awmhay? ‘t&Sifa*gwrESifh w&m;raqG;aEG;
&onfrSm umvtwef=umcJhayjyD? tusGEfkyftm; t&Sifa*gwru aumif;r_/raumif;r_ (ukovH/ tukovH) ta=umif; udk
twdkcsKyf a[majymawmfrlv#if aumif;avpG’[lIom av#mufxm;avonf? jrwfpGmbk&m;u aumif;r_/raumif;r_
ta=umif;udk twdkcsKyfomru us,fus,fjyef@jyef@a[mjyrnf[k rdef@jrGufjyD;v#if xdkw&m;udk Ak'<u &Sif;vif;a[m=um;awmf
rlavonf? aemufqHk;Y 0p>a*gwWonf Ak'<jrwfpGm. wynfhom0uwpfOD;jzpfvmjyD; tqHk;tr =o0g'udk vdkufemusifhoHk;jcif;
tm;jzifh &[EWmjzpfoGm;I y&rwˆopPmESifh edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðyoGm;Edkif ayonf? twWESifh tjcm; jy\em&yfrsm;onf
0p>a*gwWtm; rzdpD;/ rEdSyfpufEdkifawmhay? (rZdÆredum,f 1(ywp)/ pmrsufESm 489)?
3? oH,kwf 3/ (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 126?

68

tewW 0dnmOfaumifr&dS w&m;awmf

t&Sif acru tygt0if &[ef;tm;vHk;wd@k onf ‘igjzpf.’[laomtxifudk tjyD;ydkifpGef@v$wfum tmoa0g
ukefjyD;aom &[EWmrsm;jzpfoGm;=ua=umif; ygVdawmfwGif azmfjyxm;onf?
Ak'<a[m=um;aom w&m;awmft& ‘igYtwWr&dS’ [k,lv#ifvnf; Oap>'0g' jzpfI rSm;,Gif;onf?
‘igY twW&dS.’[k ,ljyefv#ifvnf; o\w0g'jzpfI rSm;,Gif;jyefonf? ‚t,l ESpfckpvHk;yif ‘igjzpf.’
[laom rSm;,Gif;,Hk=unfr_rS ay:xGufvmaom taESmiftzJ@G rsm;jzpf=uonf? tewWESifhywfoufI oabmrSef
xm;&dSaomenf;rSm rnfonfhtjrif/ rnfonfht,lukdr# vufcHpJG,ljcif;r&dSbJ ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pdwful;
t=uHtq uif;&Sif;pGmjzifh ‚wdk@obm0twdkif;jrif&ef &_=unfhenf;yifjzpfonf? yk*d~Kvf/ owW0g/ ig [lI ac:
ae=uonfrSm yËdpPorky`g'fw&m;twdkif; ta=umif;tudsK;qufI c%rqdkif;jzpfysufaeaom &kyfemrfcE<m tpk
taygif;r#omjzpfa=umif; avmuwpfckvkH;wGif cdkifjrJonf/ xm0&wnfaeonf/ rajymif;vJ[lI bmr# r&dS
a=umif;udk jrifatmif&_enf;yif jzpfonf?
“ig/ twW [lIr&dSv#if ðyvkyfor#aom uHrsm;.tudsK;udk rnfolcHpm;&oenf; ” [k ar;jref;v#if
obm0usayrnf? Tykp>mudk jrwfpGmbk&m;xuf rnfolr# omvGefaumif;rGefpGm ajz=um;Edkifrnf r[kwfay?
&[ef;wpfyg;u Tjy\emudkyif jrwfpGmbk&m;tm; wifjy&mY jrwfpGmbk&m;u ‘&[ef;wd@k t&m&mwdkif;onf ðyjyifpD&iftyf.? ta=umif;udkpJGI jzpfay:vm&.? xkdtcsufudk jrifatmif&_=uavmh’[k
a[mxm;jyD;a=umif; rdfef@awmfrlavonf? 1
Ak'<a[m=um;awmfrlaom ‘ig/ twWr[kwf’ [lonfh tewWw&m;awmfukd r&dS0g'/ ysufokOf;aom0g'
[k yËdao"oabm rrSwf,l&m? edAŠmefESihf tvm;wl trSefw&m;/ opPmw&m;om jzpfonf[k rSwf,l
&monf? trSefwu,fr&dSbJ pdwful;wGifjzpfay:onfh twWt,lomv#if r&dS0g' jzpfonf? tewWw&m;awmf
onf rSm;,Gif;aom t,l. trdkufarSmifudk y,fazsmufI ynmta&mifukd xGef;vif;aponf? yËdao"
teuf r&ay? t&Sif to*Fu tvGefoifhjrwfpGm azmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif; “twWr[kwf[lonfh ta=umif;
onf trSefyif &dSayonf”? 2

--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? rZdÆredum,f 3 (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 19?
oH,kwf 3/ pmrsufESm 103?
2? tbd"rRm orkpP,/ to*F/ pmrsufESm 31?

69

tcef;(7)

pdwfavhusifha&;
urRÏmef; bm0em

“&[ef;wdk@/ tema&m*g[lonf ESpfrsd K;tjym;&dS.? tb,fESpfrsd K;enf;? udk,femrusef;jcif;ESihf pdwf
emrusef;jcif; wdk@wnf;? 1-ESpf/ 2-eSpf/ ESpfaygif;wpf&m/ wpf&mxufykdIvnf;aumif; udk,femrusef;jcif;rS
uif;&Sif;yHk&olrsm; &dSayonf? odk@aomfvnf; &[ef;wd@k / udavomtnpfta=u; uif;pifjyD;ukefaom &[EWm
wdk@rSty c%r# pdwfemrusef;jcif; uif;ol[lI avmuwGif &Sm;vSbdjcif;” [k Ak'<u rde@f ¹rufcJhonf? 1
Ak'<.w&m;rsm;/ txl;ojzifh urRXmef;w&m;rsm;onf pdwf. }uHhcdkifr_/ wnfjidrfr_/ at;csrf;r_ukd &ap
&ef &nfoefavonf? Ak'<a'oemrsm;teuf urRXmef;ESihfywfoufonfh w&m;rsm;udk Ak'<bmom0ifa&m Ak'<
bmom0ifr[kwfolrsm;yg t"dy`g,ftvJGrSm;qHk; aumuf,lae=uonfrSm 0rf;enf;zG,fjzpfayonf? ‘urRXmef;’
[laom pum;vHk;udk oHk;vdkufonfESihf wòyifeuf ae@pOfvkyfaeusvkyfief;rsm;udk pGef@ypf&rnf[k awG;vdkuf=u
onf? vlolav;yg;uif;a0;aom vdk%f*l/ ausmif;cef;ponfY &kyfqif;wkwpfqluJhokd@ wifysOfacG xdkif&vdrhf
rnf[k awG;vdkuf=uonf? vd#K@0SufeufeJaom/ em;vnf&efcufaom psmefvkyfief;wpfckckwGif tm&Hkpl;pdkufI
pOf;pm;}uHq,if; epfðryfrdef;armae&ayrnf[k awG;xifvkduf=uayawmhonf? Ak'<. urRXmef;w&m;tppfrSm
TuJhodk@ xGufajy;vGwfajrmufr_[k t"dyg` ,fraygufacs? Ak'<. urRXmef;w&m;rsm;udk tenf;i,fom oabm
aygufjcif;/ rSm;,Gif;I em;vnfjcif;wd@k a=umifh umva&G@avsmvmonfESifhtr# urRXmef; avhusifhenf;rSm
csGwf,Gif;wdrf;yg;um vkyf&dk;vkyfpOf tcrf;tem;/ od@k r[kwf 0wfðyr_wpfrdsK;tjzpfodk@ qkwf,kwfysufjym;
vm&ayonf? 2
urRXmef;/ odk@r[kwf a,m*Dvkyfief;wGif pdwfyg0ifpm;=uolw@kd onf trsm;tm;jzifh tjcm;yk*d~Kvfw@kd
rydkifqdkifaom/ xl;jcm;pGm jrifpGrf;Edkifaom vd#K@0SufeufeJonfh wefcdk;Á'd<yg'frdsK;udk &,lvdk=ujcif;om jzpfay
onf? r=umao;rDu tdENd,jynfwGif Ak'<bmom0if r,foDv&ifwpfOD;onf yuwdrsufpdESpfvHk;jzifhjrif&onf
udk tm;&auseyfr_r&dSao;bJ em;rSvnf; txl;jrifpGrf;apEdkifaom wefcdk;rdsK;&&dS&ef óu;pm;tm;xkwfcJhayonf?
TuJhodk@ }uHpnfjcif;onf ‘bmoma&;vkyfief; vJGacsmfr_’yif jzpfayonf? wefcdk;tm%mY wyfrufr_ w%Sm
pifppfomjzpfayonf?
t*Fvdyfpum;vHk; (meditation) onf pdwfukdavhusihfay;r_/ yGm;rsm;ay;r_[k teuf&onf? rl&if;
pum;vHk; bm0em avmuf t"dy`g,frjynfhpkHay? Ak'<bmom ‘bm0em’ [lonf pdwfudkoef@&Sif;pif=u,fap&ef
avhusifhðyjyifay;jcif;[k t"dy`g,ftjynfhtpHkyg0ifonf? b0em.tr_onf pdwf. tnpfta=u;/ taESmuf
t,Sufrsm;jzpfonfh umr*k%fcHpm;vdkjcif;/ trsufa'goxGufjcif;/ idkufrsOf; xdkif;rd_if;jcif;/ ysH@vGifhjcif;/ ylyefjcif;
ESifh ,HkrSm;jcif;wdk@udk &Sif;vif;okwfoifjyD;aemuf orm"d/ owd/ ynm/ qEN/ 0D&d,/ orRoe^m%f/ o'<g/ yDwd/
okc paom aumif;jrwfonfh *k%frsm;udk wdk;yGm;jzpfxGef;apI aemufqHk;Y obm0w&m;wd@k udk [kwfwdkif;
rSefpGm odjrifEdkifonfh t"dynmudk &,lum y&rwˆopPmwnf;[laom edAŠmefudk rsufarSmuf ðy&efyif jzpfonf?
bm0em ESpfrdsK;&dSayonf? wpfrsd K;onf pdwfukd rys@H vGihfatmif apmifhxdef;um orm"dudk ðypkxlaxmif
&aom orxbm0em jzpf.? usrf;*efrsm;wGifvm&dSonfh enf;trdsK;rdsK;jzifh pdawWu*~wm (wpfckwnf;aom
tm&HkY pdkufxm;aompdwf) &jyD;aemuf tmudOPnm ,wepsmef (pdk;pOf;r#r&dSjcif; [laomtm&Hk)/ ae0onm
emonm ,wepsmef (&dSonfvnf;r[kwf/ r&dSonfvnf;r[kwfaom tm&Hk) paom psmef ormywfrsm;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? t*FkwdˆKvf (udkvHbdk/1929)/ pmrsufESm 276?
2? a,m*g0p&vufpJG/ (wD/'AvsL/&D;pfa';Apf wnf;jzwfonf? vef'ef 1896) ac: 18-&mpkwGifoD[dkVfYa&;om;aom urRXmef;
usrf;Y xdkpOfu urRXmef;avhusifhenf;onf *gxmrsm;&Gwfzwfjcif;/ za,mif;qDrD;xGef;!dSjcif;ponfh 0wfðytcrf;tem;tjzpf
qkwf,kwfysufjym;oGm;yHkudk azmfjya&;om;xm;onf?
0gvfydkvm &m[kvma&; oD[dkVfAk'<0if (udkvHbdk/ 1956) tcef; 12/ ‘awmxGuf w&m;usifhxHk;’ tcef; pmrsufESm 199
wGifvnf;&_yg?

70

pdwfavhusifha&; urRXmef;bm0em

0ifpm;onftxd usifhaqmifaomenf; jzpfonf? Ak'<tvdktm;jzifh T psmefpcef;rsm;onf pdwf.zefqif;r_/
xlaxmifr_/ ðyjyifr_ (ocFw) w&m;rsm;om jzpfayonf? yuwdtppftrSefw&m;/ opPmw&m;/ edAŠmefESifh
rnfodk@r# roufqdkifacs? T bm0em vkyfief;rdsK;onf Ak'<acwf rwdkifrDuyif xGef;um; wnf&dScJhayonf?
xdk@a=umifh Ak'<bmompifppf vkyfief;&yf r[kwfay? od@k pifwrl Ak'<bmom bm0emvkyfief;&yfrsm;wGif rxnfh
oGif;bJ csefxm;jcif;vnf; r[kwfay? edAŠmefukd rsufarSmufðy&ef udpPtwGufrl vdktyfaomvkyfief;&yf r[kwf
ay? Ak'<udk,fawmfwdkif oAŠnKw a&$^m%fawmfr&rD a&S;umvu q&mtrdsK;rdsK;wdk@xHarSmufwGif T a,m*D
vkyfief;rsm;udk avhusifhI txufqkH; psmefpcef;rsm;od@k a&mufcJhzl;ayjyD? y&rwˆtppftrSefw&m;udk xdk;xGif;
rodapjcif;/ vHk;0vGwfajrmufr_udk ray;pGrf;Edkifjcif;wd@k a=umifh xdkvkyfief;&yfukd Ak'<onftm;& wif;wdrfawmf
rrlcJhay? ‚psmefpcef;rsm;udk Tb0twGuf csrf;ompGmaexdkif&r_ ('dÏ"rRokc 0d[m&)/ jidrf;csrf;pGmaexdkif&r_
(oEdW0d[m&) wdk@xuf bmr#rydk[k ,lqawmfrlavonf? 1
xdk@a=umifh Ak'<onf 0dy\em[kac:wGifaom tjcm;bm0emwpfrsd K;udk &SmazGwnfaxmifawmfrlav
onf? T 0dy\em bm0emonf Ak'<bmomppfppf urRXmef; pdwfavhusihfr_ vkyfief;jzpfI obm0w&m;udk
xdk;xGif;odjrifjyD;aemuf pdwf. vHk;0 vGwfvyfr_ &jcif;a=umifh/ edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðyap Ekdifonf? owdjzifh
apmifh=unfhr_/ Edk;=um;r_/ owdjzifh rSwfr_rsm;wGif tajcðyaom oHk;oyfqifjcif a0zefppfaq;onfh enf;vrf;
jzpfayonf?
Tr#us,f0ef;vSaom bmom&yfwpfckukd pmrsufESmtenf;i,fr#jzifh jynfhpHkpGm a&;om;azmfjyEkdifrnf
r[kwfyg? Tae&mwGif Ak'<bmomqdkif&m urRXmef; ESifh pdwfavhusihfr_/ pdwfwkd;wufr_ vufawG@vkyfief;rsm;
udk t=urf;oabmem;vnf&ef tusOf;tm;jzifhom azmfjyvdkufygonf?
pdwfwdk;wufr_ (bm0em) ESihf ywfoufI Ak'<a[m=um;awmfrlaom a'oemrsm;wGif ta&;t}uD;qHk;
a'oemonf 'DCedum,fokwf (22) od@k r[kwf rZdÆredum,fokwf trSwf (10) wGif vmaom owdyXme
okwf jzpfayonf? tpOftvmtm;jzifh Tokwfw&m;awmfukd txl;av;pm;=u&um; Ak'<bmom bkef;awmf
}uD;ausmif;rsm;wGif rSefrSef&Gwfzwf&Hkru Ak'<bmomaetdrfrsm;wGif rdom;pkrsm;pka0;=uum &Gwfzwfonfukd
=unf!dko'<gjzifh em=um;avh &dS=uayonf? aocgeD;vlem. tdyf,mab;wGifvnf; ‚. aoi,faZm
aumif;rGefoef@&Sif;ap&ef r=umc% T okwfukd &Gwfzwfay;avh&Sd=uonf?
TokwfwGif a[m=um;xm;aom bm0emw&m;rsm;onf avmuESifh tqufjzwfI avmu}uD;udk
a&Smifz,foGm;ap&ef r[kwfonfomru usGEkfyfw@kd .b0/ usGEkfyfwdk@. ae@pOfvkyfief;aqmifwmrsm;/ 0rf;omr_/
ylaqG;r_rsm;/ tajymtqdk/ t}uHtpnfrsm;ESihf usifh0wfoDv/ tod^m%fqdkif&m vkyfief;rsm;ESifhyif oufqkdifay
onf?
owdyÏmeokwfudk (4) ydkif; cJGjcm;xm;onf? yxrydkif;onf rdrdudk,fY jzpfysufr_udk&_aom um,
Eky\em owdyÏmef/ 'kwd,ydkif;onf rdrdawG@xd cHpm;aom a0'emwpfckY jzpfysufr_ukd &_&aom a0'em
Eky\em/ wwd,ydkif;onf rdrdpdwfwpfckY jzpfysufr_ukd &_&aom pdwWmEky\em owdyÏmef jzpfI pwkwˆydkif;
onf udk,fusifhoDv ^m%fynmqdkif&m w&m;pkY jzpfysufr_udk &_&aom "rRmEky\em owdyÏmef wdk@
jzpfonf?
rnfonfh urRXmef;w&m;wGifrqdk t"duaqmif&Guf&efudpPrSm owdjrJpGm&dSae&efESifh tzefwvJvJ
&_ae&ef (tEky\em) jzpfa=umif; od&Sdxm;oifhayonf?
xif&Sm;ausmf=um; vlodrsm;aom vufawG@urRXmef;w&m;rSm xGufouf/ 0ifoufudk &_rSwf&onfh
tmemyge owdyÏmefw&m;yifjzpfonf? T urRXmef;vkyfief;wpfcktwGufomv#if xl;xl;jcm;jcm; wdwdusus
aexdkif&rnfh yHk[efudk okwfrsm;Y owfrSwfay;xm;onf? tjcm; urRXmef;vkyfief;rsm;twGufrl oabm
tavsmuf xdkifvdkuxdkifEdkifI/ &yfjcif;/ p}uFefav#mufjcif;/ vJavsmif;jcif;wdk@udk pdwfóuuftwdkif; ðyvkyfEdkifay
onf? xGufouf/ 0ifouf &_rSwf&mwGifrl usrf;*eft& wifysOfacGxdkif&I udk,fudk ajzmifhrwfpGmjzifh owdukd
Edk;=um;pGm xm;&ayonf? vlrdsK;wdkif;twGuf txll;ojzifh taemufEdkifiHom;rsm; twGuf wifysOfacGxdkif&ef
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? rZdÆredum,f / oav†cokwf/ trSwf 8 =unfhyg?

71

pdwfavhusifha&; urRXmef;bm0em

vufawG@tm;jzifh rvG,fulvSay? xd@k a=umifh wifysOfacGxkdif&ef cufcJolrsm;onf ukvm;xdkifrSmyif xdkifI
udk,fudk ajzmifhrwfpGmjzifh owdudk Edk;=um;pGmxm;Edkif=uayonf? T urRXmef;vkyfief;udk avhusihfolonf
udk,fudk ajzmifhrwfpGmxm;&efomvdkonf? awmifhawmifhwif;wif;xm;&ef rvdkyg? vufESpfbufudk aygifay:
wGif oufompGmwifI rsufpdudk pHkrSdwfIaomfvnf;aumif;/ ESmoD;zsm;udkpdkufIaomfvnf;aumif; oifhovdk
xm;Edkifayonf?
usGEfkyfwdk@onf ae@nrjywf touf&ªoGif;/ &d_ufxkwf ðyvkyfaevifhupm; ,if;tcsufudkowdðyrd=u
onf r[kwfay? wpfpuUef@r#yif touf&ª&_dufr_tay:wGif tm&Hkrpl;pdkufcJhrd=uay? tmemyge\wd urRXmef;
Yrl Ttvkyfudkyif vkyf=u&ayrnf? txl;vH@k vrðybJ/ tm;rpdkufbJ rSefrSefcgwdkif;uJhodk@ toufukd &ªoGif;/
&d_ufxkwfvkyfyg? Todk@ &ªoGif;/ &d_ufxkwf vkyfaeonfwGif pdwftm&Hkpl;pdkufxm;yg? xdk@aemuf udk,hfpdwfukd
touf&ªr_/ &d_ufr_udkom apmifh=unfhaeygap? owdEkd;=um;pGmjzifh &ªr_/ &d_ufr_udkom &_aeygap? wpfcgwpf&H
touf&ª&mwGifjyif;pGm &d_ufI &ªwwf=uonfrSm ta&;r}uD;yg? obm0twdkif;yHkrSefyif touf &ªay;yg?
jyif;pGm&ªv#if jyif;pGm&ªvdkufonf[kom odIaeyg? jznf;nif;pGm&ªv#if jznf;nif;pGm&ªvdkufonf[k vdkufI od
aeyg? touf&ª-&d_ufr_wGifom tm&Hkukdpl;pdkufxm;jcif;jzifh &ªav/ xkwfav. v_yf&Sm;r_/ajymif;vJr_ [lor#udk
odIae&rnf jzpfayonf? ab;ywf0ef;usif todkif;tm;vHk;udk arhaysmufI xm;yg? rsufpdudkvSefI rnfonfh
t&m0wˆKudkr# vSrf;r=unfhygESifh? ig;rdepfwefonf/ q,frdepfwefonf Tavhusifhr_udk ðyvkyfyg?
tpueOD;Y touf&ª-&d_ufr_ay:wGif tm&Hkpl;pdkufxm;&ef tvGefcJ,Of;a=umif; awG@&ayvdrfhrnf?
pdwfonf xm;&mYrae/ ckefysHajy;v$m;aeonfukd tHh=ozG,f&mawG@&ayvdrfhrnf? axG&mav;yg;udk awG;rdonf?
tjyifrStoHrsm;udk =um;ae&onf? pdwfysuftm;avsmhrdayvdrhfrnf? odk@&mwGif wpf}udrfv#if 5-rdepf/ 10rdepf=um n/reuf wpfae@ESpf}udrfavhusifhay;ygv#if wjznf;jznf;/ wpfpwpfp touf&ª&_dufr_tay:wGif tm&Hk
pdkufxm;vmEdkifygvdrfhrnf? r=umrD jyifyavmuqdwfokOf;I teD;tem;rS toHudkyif r=um;awmhaom tm&Hk
pl;pdkufr_udk touf&ª&d_uf&mwGif puUe@f ydkif;tm;jzifh xm;&dSvmEdkifayvdrfhrnf? w'*Fr#omjzpfaomfvnf; T
tawG@tñuHonf oifhtwGuf tvGefxl;jcm;aom tawG@tñuHjzpfaeI csrf;omr_/ aysmf&$ifr_/ jidrf;at;r_ t&
omudk cHpm;vdkuf&um; qufvufawG@ñuHcHpm;aecsifayvdrhfrnf? odk@&mwGif cHpm;EdkifOD;rnf r[kwfay? rSefrSef
avhusifhay;jcif;jzifh w'*FtawG@tñuHonf tcsdefykdIydkI =umvmEkdifayonf? T w'*Ftcsdefuav;onf
oifhudk,foif touf&ª&d_ufr_tm&HkY arhaysmufypfvdkufaom tcdkuftwef@yif jzpfayonf? oifhudk,foif T
odk@ od&dSowdpJGaeor# umvywfvHk; tjcm;rnfonfh ta=umif;t&may:r# tm&Hkpdkufxm;Edkifrnf r[kwfay?
tmemyge\wdonf ðyvkyf&efvG,fulonfhjyif txufpsmefrsm;&onfhwkdifatmif orm"dukd jzpfyGm;
apEdkifonf? orm"d&ifhusufrSvnf; eufeJaom obm0w&m;rsm;udk xdk;xGif;od&dSem;vnfEdkifI edAŠmefukd
rsufarSmufðyEdkifayrnf?
T tcsufrsm;tjyif tmemygemEk\wdonf vufiif;tudsK;aus;Zl;rsm;ay;pGrf;Edkifonf? udk,fvuf
t*Fgusef;rmoefpGrf;vmapI ayghyg;zswfvwfjcif;/ ESpfòcufpGmtdyf&jcif;/ ae@pOfvkyfief;rsm;udk ydkrdkaumif;rGefpGm
aqmif&GufEdkifjcif; paom aumif;udsK;rsm;udk ay;avonf? pdwfudk wnfjidrfat;csrf;aponf? ESvHk;rjidrf/ wkef
v_yfacsmufcsm;aeonfh tcsdeftcgrsm;rSmyif TtEk\wdudk wpfrdepf/ ESpfrdepfr# oHk;oyfqifjcifvkdufygu &kwf
w&uf/csufcsif; wnfjidrfat;csrf;r_&onfukd udk,fwkdifawG@jrifod&dSEdkifayonf? wa&;warm tdyf,mrS Edk;vm
bdouJhodk@ vef;qef;&$if=unfaeayvdrhfrnf?
vufawG@toHk;0ifI ta&;}uD;aom tjcm;urRXmef; vkyfenf;wpfckrSm ae@pOfae@wdkif; udk,fa&;udk,f
wmudpP/ trsm;ESifhoufqdkifonfhudpP/ tvkyfcGifESihfywfoufonfh udpPrsm;udk um,uH/ 0pDuHajrmuf aqmif
&GufaepOf aqmif&Gufvkyfudkif aeor#ukd owdcsyfI ae&onfh um,*wmowdyXmef vkyfief;yif jzpfonf?
vrf;av#mufonfjzpfap/ &yfonfjzpfap/ xdkifonfjzpfap/ vJavsmif;onfjzpfap/ tdyfonfjzpfap/ udk,fvuf
t*Fgudk qef@onfjzpfap/ auG;onfjzpfap/ twwfwefqmudk 0wfvJpOfjzpfap/ pum;ajympOf/ qdwfqdwfaepOf/
pm;pOf/ aomufpOf/ wydkwyg;oGm;pOfjzpfap/ rnfonfhtvkyftudkif tðytrludkrqdk vkyfudkifaepOf vkyfudkfif
aeor#udk owduyfI tvHk;pHk od&Sdae&r_yif jzpfonf? ypPKy`eftvkyf ypPKy`efwnfhwnfhwGifom tm&HkðyI
aexdkif&rnf[k qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf? od@k aomf vGefjyD;cJhonfw@kd ukd vnf;aumif;/ vmvwWH@aom ta=umif;t&m

72

pdwfavhusifha&; urRXmef;bm0em

wdk@udkvnf;aumif;/ vHk;0rpOf;pm;&[k rqdkvkd? ypPKy`efudpPESihf tvsOf;oifhI ta=umif;wdkufqdkifygrl ‚wd@k ukd
pOf;pm;}uHpnf&rnfom jzpfygonf?
trsm;tm;jzifh vltaygif;wd@k onf rdrd,ckðyvkyfaeqJ ypPKy`efudpPwGifom tm&Hkxm;I aexdkif=uonf
r[kwfay? twdwfwGifvnf;aumif;/ tem*wfwGifvnf;aumif; epfarsmI ae=uayonf? wpfpkHwpf&mudk
ypPuQwGif vkyfudkifaevifhupm; pdwfrSmrlum; tjcm;wpfae&mwGifusufpm;aeayonf? r&dSao;aom jy\em
rsm;/ pdk;&drfa=umifh=ur_rsm;udk awG;awm}uHpnfIvnf;aumif;/ vGefjyD;udpPrsm;udk pðrH@jyefIvnf;aumif;/ tem
*wftwGuf vdkvm;csufrsm;wGif pdwful;,OfIvnf;aumif; aewwf=uayonf? xd@k a=umifh ‚wdk@onf rsuf
arSmufðyvkyfaeqJ udpP&yfjzifhom aexdkifESpfodrhf=uonf r[kwfay? vuf&dStajctaejzifh wif;wdrfa&mifh&Jjcif;
r&dS&um; aysmf&$ifr_uif;rJh=u.? rdrdaqmif&GufaeqJ tr_udpPwGif pdwfygvufyg aqmif&GufEdkifjcif;r&dS jzpf&
awmhonf?
pm;aomufqdkifrsm;wGif tpm;wpfzufESihf pmzwfaeolukd r=umc% awG@jrifzl;=uayvdrfhrnf? pm;
aomufcdsefyif r&Edkfifavmufatmif tvkyfrsm;&Smonf[k xifjrif,lq&ol jzpfayonf? olonf pmyJzwfae
ovm;/ tpm;tpmyJ pm;aomufaeovm;[k awG;awmp&m jzpfayonf? ESpfrsd K;pvHk; aqmif&Gufaeonf[k
qdk&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; trSefrSm olonf pmzwfaejcif;vnf;r[kwf/ pm;aomufaejcif;vnf;r[kwf/ ESpfrsd K;
pvHk;wGif ol@Y t&omcHpm;r_ r&dSay? olonf udk,fpdwfESpfjzm oufawmifhoufom r&dS&SmbJ pdwfaomu
rsm;aeolwpfOD;om jzpfayonf? rsufarSmufvuf&Sd vkyfief;aqmifwmwGif tm&HkcHpm;jcif;r&dS/ ypPKy`ef
wnfhwnfhwGif rarG@avsmf/ raexdkif/ rsufarSmufavmurS rodrom rdkufrJpGm xGufajy;oGm;&ef óu;pm;/ }uH
aqmifaeol jzpfayonf? (Tae&mwGif rdrd. rdwfaqGwpfOD;OD;ESifh ae@vnfpm/ npm twlwuG pm;oHk;pOf
pum;pjrDrajymqdk& [k rqdkvdkyg?)
oifonf rnfuJhodk@yif óu;yrf;onfjzpfap avmurS xGufajy;vGwfajrmufEdkifrnf r[kwfyg? touf
&Sifaeor#/ ®r@rSmaeae/ vdk%f*lwGif 0ifatmif;atmif;/ avmuudk &ifqdkifaexdkif&rnfom jzpfayonf? b0
tppftrSefonf ypPKy`ef wnfhwnfhomjzpfonf? uG,fvGef ysufðyef;oGm;jyD;jzpfaom twdwfrS atmufarhzG,f
rsm;vnf; b0r[kwf? ray:ayguf/ rjzpfxGef;ao;aom tem*wf. pdwful;,Oftdyfrufrsm;vnf; b0r[kwf?
ypPKy`efwnfhwnfhaexdkifolomv#if b0tppftrSefESihf xdawG@oljzpfI taysmfarG@qHk;/ tcsrf;ajrhqHk;ol wpfOD;
jzpfayonf?
&dk;&dk;at;at;aexdkifI wpfae@v#if tpm;tpmwpf}udrfom oHk;aqmifaom ol. wynfh&[ef;rsm;
onf tb,fha=umifh Tr#=unfvif &$ifvef;=uygukefoenf; [k Ak'<tm; ar;av#muf&mwGif jrwfpGmbk&m;u
“olwdk@onf twdwfukd jyefvSefI aemifwrjzpf/ tem*wfukd ar#mfrSef;I ylyifaomura&muf/ rsufarSmuf
wGifom aexdkif=u.? xdk@a=umifh olw@kd onf =unfvif &$ifvef;=uukef.? rdkufrJolrsm;um; twdwfukd
jyefvSefI aemifwjzpf.? tem*wfukdar#mfrSef;I ylyif=u.? xd@k a=umifh aeyl'%fxdcH&aom usL&dk;pdrf;uJho@kd
olrdkufrsm;onf ajcmufaoG@ñuHvDS=u.? ” [k jyefvnfrdef@=um;awmfrlonf? 1
owduyfI aexdkifjcif;/ owda&S@xm;ðyI aqmif&Gufjcif;qdkonfrSm ‘ig T[m vkyfaeonf’/
‘ig xdk[m vkyfaeonf’ [k awG;awmod&Sdae&ef r[kwfay? vHk;0r[kwfay? ‘ig T[mvkyfaeonf’ [k
awG;vdkuf odvdkufonfESifh w®yifeuf igygvmI vkyfaqmifr_wGifom tm&HkrwnfbJ ‘igjzpf.’ [laom
tawG;Y wnfaeavonf? xdktcg vkyfief;aqmifwmvnf; ysufpD;&awmhonf? enf;vrf;trSefrSm rdrdukd,f
rdrd vHk;0arhaysmufypfI vkyfaqmifaeaom tr_wGifom tm&Hkepfðryfaeapjcif; jzpfonf? y&dowfa&S@wGif
rdef@cGef;ajym=um;aeol wpfOD;onf rdrdudk,frdrd owdðyrdum ‘ig y&dowfukd pum;ajymaeyguvm;’ [k
awG;vdkufrdonfESifh wðydifeuf ol@rde@f cGef;onf ysufjym;oGm;rnf/ ajymaeaom pum;pOfvnf; jywfoGm;ay
rnf? ol@udk,fol arhaysmufypfvkdufI rde@f cGef;ESihfajym=um;aeonfh ta=umif;t&mwGifom ESpfðryfvkduf
aomtcg pum;ajymwdk;wuf aumif;rGefvmayrnf? ta=umif;t&m &Sif;vif;jywfom;vmayrnf? tEkynm/
uAsm/ pmayynm ESifhavmukwW&mqdkif&m vuf&mrGef/ vuf&maumif; tm;vHk;onf ‚wdk@tm; }uHpnf
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? oH,kwf (ywp) pmrsufESm 5?

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pdwfavhusifha&; urRXmef;bm0em

zefwD;olrsm;u rdrdudk,frdrd vHk;0arhaysmufI ig pdwf vHk;0vGwfaecsdef/ }uHpnfzefwD;aeaom tr_udpPwGifom
vHk;0epfðryfaepOfc%Y jzpfxGef;ay:aygufvmcJh=uayonf?
Ak'<jrwfpGm a[m=um;awmfrlonfh owdyÏmefrSm rdrdvkyfaqmifaeonfh tr_udpPrsm;wGif tpOftjrJ
owduyf rSwfom;jcif;jzpfI rsufarSmufwnfhwnfhaejcif;/ ypPKy`eftr_Y tm&Hkwnf&dSapjcif;yif jzpfonf? Zif
vrf;pOf (Zen way) onfvnf; TowdyÏmefw&m;wGif tajccHI vkyfief;wlyifjzpfayonf? T urRXmef;
enf;vrf;t& owdyÏmefxlaxmif&ef rnfonfhtr_udpPr# txl;taxGvkyfaqmif&ef rvdkay? rdrdvkyfudkif
aqmif&Gufor#udk owduyfI od&dSae&efom vdkayonf? T urRXmef;udk usifhoHk;&ef oif.wefzdk;&dSvSaom
tcdsefrS wpfpuUef@r#yif ðzef;oHk;ypf&ef rvdkygay? rdrdae@pOfae@wdkif; vkyfudkifaeus vkyfief;t00 vkyfukdifaepOf
vkyfudkifor# tr_udpPwdk@udk ae@a&mnyg owdrvGwfapbJ ðyvkyfaqmif&Guf&efom vdkayonf? txufwGif
wifjyaqG;aEG;cJhaom urRXmef;vkyfief;&yf ESpfrsd K;rSm um,ESihfywfoufaom um,mEky\em urRXmef; rsm;
jzpfayonf?
xdk@aemuf cHpm;r_a0'emtm;vHk;ESihf ywfoufaom avhusifhr_ urRXmef; a0'emEky\em &dSavonf?
cHpm;r_a0'emwGif okca0'em/ 'kuQa0'em/ okcr[kwf 'kuQr[kwfaom OayuQma0'em [lI oHk;rdsK;&dSav
onf? Oyrm yHkpHwpfckudk xkwfaqmifavhvm =unfh=utHh? oifonf rcsrf;ajrhzG,f 'kuQa0'em wpfpHkwpfckukd
awG@ñuHcHpm;&onf[k qdk=uygpdk@? Ttcdseftcg0,f oif.pdwfonf r=unfrvif/ tH@k qdkif;/ r_efr_dif;/ 0rf;enf;/
pdwfysuf jzpfaeayvdrfhrnf? wpfcgwpf&H ,if; qif;&J'kuQa0'emudk oif tb,hfa=umifh cHpm;ae&oenf;[kyif
&Sif;vif;pGm rodrjrif jzpfaeayvdrfhrnf? Ttcgrsm;wGif cHpm;ae&aom 'kuQa0'emtwGuf pdwfrcsrf;ajrh
rjzpf&ef/ ylyifaomu rsm;&onfhtwGuf aomura&muf&ef a&S;OD;pGm rdrdudk,frdrd avhusifhqHk;ray;&rnf?
xdk@a=umifh pdwfrcsrf;ajrh&jcif;/ aomuylaqG;&jcif;/ 'kuQa0'emudk tb,fha=umifh cHpm;&oenf;[k qifjcifokH;
oyfyg? ,if;a0'em jzpfay:vmyHk/ jzpfay:&aom ta=umif;/ rnfod@k aysmufuG,foGm;yHk/ csKyfjidrf;oGm;yHkwdk@udk
qifjcifoHk;oyf=unfhyg? ody`Hynm&SifwpfOD;onf t&m0wˆKrsm;udk avhvmpl;prf;onfhenf;wl ,if;a0'emudk
rdrdESifh qufpyfywfoufr_r&dSbJ tjyiftyrS &_=unfhokH;oyfonfhtaejzifh qifjcifoHk;oyfyg? Todk@ oHk;oyf&m
wGif ‘ighcHpm;r_/ igha0'em’ [k rdrdESihf ywfoufonfh tpJGtvrf;jzifh r=unfh&_bJ udk,frStyjzpfonfh cHpm;r_
wpfyg;oufouf a0'em wpfyg;oufoufr#om &_=unfhqifjcifyg? TudpPwGifvnf; rrSefuefonfh ‘ig’ t,l
tq tpJGtvrf;udk arhaysmufypfxm;&rnf? tqdkyg cHpm;r_a0'em. obm0/ rnfuJhodk@jzpfay:vmyHk/ aysmuf
uG,foGm;yHkwdk@udk qifjcifawG@jrifaomtcg ,if; ‘a0'em’ Y jiD;aiG@vmvdrfhrnf/ ESpfoufom,mjcif; uif;vm
vdrfhrnf/ ESpfoufom,mjcif; uif;onfESihf pJGvrf;wyfrufaom w%SmrS uif;&Sif; vGwfajrmufvdrhfrnf?
cyfodrf;aom cHpm;r_a0'emtm;vHk; Tenf;ESifESifjzpfa=umif; rSwf,lukef&monf?
,cktcg pdwfESifhywfoufI avhusifh&aom pdwWmEky\em urRXmef; ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;=uaytHh?
T urRXmef;vkyfief;Y pdwf. tajctaeudk rsufajcrjywf tpOfapmifh=uyf odae&.? &m*ESifhwuGjzpfaom
pdwf jzpfonf&dSaomf &m*pdwfjzpfonf [k od&.? &m*uif;aompdwf jzpfonf&dSaomf &m*uif;aompdwf
jzpfonf [k od&.? trsufxGufjcif;/ rkef;wD;jcif;/ remvdk0efwkdjcif; ESifhwuG jzpfaompdwf jzpfonf&Sdaomf
rsufrmefyGm;I rkef;wD;aom 0efwdkaompdwf jzpfonf[k od&.? a'gouif;aom arwWm/ u&k%mpdwfjzpfonf
&dSaomf a'gouif;aom arwWm/ u&k%mpdwf jzpfonf[k od&.? arm[ zHk;v$rf;aompdwf jzpfonf&Sdaomf
arm[ESifhwuG jzpfaompdwf jzpfonf[k od&.? arm[uif;pifI =unfvif&Sif;vif; odem;vnfr_&Sdv#if
arm[uif;pGm odem;vnfr_&dS.[k od&.? Tod@k tp&dSojzifh pdwfudk jynfhpHkpGm od&dSae&ayrnf? r=umc%
usGEfkyfwdk@onf rdrdpdwfudk =unfh&_&ef xdwfvef@ &Sufa=umuf aewwf=ua=umif; 0efcH&ayrnf? rdrdpdwfESihf
&ifrqdkif&J/ a&SmifuGif;Iom oGm;vdk=uayonf? a=u;rHkjyifwGif rdrdrsufESmudk &_=unfhouJhodk@ rdrdpdwfukdvnf;
owWd&dS&dS &dk;om;pGmjzifh aphaph=unfh&_oifhonfom jzpfonf?
Todk@=unfh&_&mwGif pdwfudk tjypfwif a0zef&ef/ pD&ifqkH;jzwf&ef/ trSm;trSef/ taumif;tqdk;cJGjcm;
pdppf&ef oabmxm;rsm; rxm;&dS&ay? pdwfwGiftm&HkpkdufI owdESifh apmifh=unfh&ef/ jzpfay:wdkif; jzpfay:wdkif;/
rvGwf&atmif odatmif&_I *&kðyrSwfom;vdkuf&ef oufoufom jzpfayonf? Tae&mY rdrdpdwfudk =unfh&_
olonf w&m;ol}uD;uJhodk@r[kwfbJ odyH`ynm&SifozG,f ðyrlaqmif&Guf&monf? pdwfudk owdjzifh apmifh=unfh

74

pdwfavhusifha&; urRXmef;bm0em

I ,if;. obm0tppftrSefudk xifvif;pGmjrifvwfaomf pdwf.v_yf&Sm;jcif;Y vnf;aumif;/ ys@H vGifhjcif;Y
vnf;aumif;/ azmufjyefjcif;Y vnf;aumif;/ tajctaetrdsK;rdsK;Yvnf;aumif; jiD;aiG@vmvdfrfhrnf? ESpfouf
om,mjcif; uif;vmvmvdrfhrnf? ESpfouf om,mjcif; uif;onfESifh pJGvrf;wyfrufaom w%SmrS uif;&Sif;
vGwfajrmufvdrfhrnf?
O'g[&k%fwpfckudk xkwfaqmif=unfh=utHh? oifonf trsufa'go jyif;pGmxGufv#uf rkef;wD;pdwf/
&efvdkpdwfu oifhtm; zdpD;v$rf;rdk;aeonf qdkthH? trsufa'go xGufaeolwpfOD;onf rdrd a'goxGufae
a=umif; trSefowdrðyrd/ owdrxm;rdwwfonfrSm xl;qef;I txifESifhtjrif rudkufnDaom ta=umif;wpf
&yfjzpfayonf? rdrd.pdwftajctaeudk owdðyrdonfESihf wðydifeuf/ rdrdudk,frdrd pdwfqdk;aeonf[k owd&
vdkufonfESifhwðydifeuf/ a'gotrsufonf vlodolodjzpfoGm;onfudk &Sufa=umufoGm;onfhES,f ajyjidrf;p
ðyavawmhonf? a'go. obm0/ ,if;onfrnfuJho@kd jzpfay:vmyHk/ csKyfjidrf;oGm;yHkw@kd udk ppfaq;rSwfom;&
ayrnf? TwGifvnf; ‘igpdwfqdk;onf/ ig.a'go’[k r&_rSwfrd&ef owdðy&ayrnf? pdwfqdk;trsufxGufaeonfh
pdwfwpfck. tajctaeudk owdjzifhapmifh=unfhjcif;/ *&kðyIrSwfom;jcif;om jzpfap&rnf? a'gopdwfwpfckukd
udk,frS jyifytaexm;I rvGwf&atmif ppfaq;rSwfom;r_om ðy&ayrnf? cyfodrf;aom pdwfv_yf&Sm;r_/ ysH@vGifh
r_/ azmufjyefr_ ESifh pdwftajctae trdsK;rdsK;tay:wGif Tenf;ESifESif oabmxm;I &_rSwf&ayrnf?
oDv/ orm"d/ ynm wdk;wufpnfyifap&ef avhusifhðyvkyf&aom urRXmef;rSm "rRmEky\em urRXmef;
jzpfayonf? oDv/ orm"d/ ynm ESihf ywfoufaom pmayoif=um;em,ljcif;/ pmzwfjcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif;/ a[m
ajymjcif;/ qifjcifoHk;oyfjcif; rsm;onf "rRmEky\em vkyfief;wGif tusHK;0ifayonf? Tpmtkyfukd zwf&_
avhvmI pmtkyfwGif wifjyaqG;aEG;xm;aom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk eufeufeJeJ awG;awmqifjcifr_onf
vnf; urRXmef;xdkifenf; wpfrdsK;yif jzpfayonf? a&S@ydkif;Y &[ef;awmf acruESifh &[ef;wpfpkwkd@ w&m;"rR
aqG;aEG;=uyHkudk azmfjycJhayjyD? ,if;od@k aqG;aEG; a[majymjcif;onf urRXmef; pD;jzef;enf; wpfrdsK;yifjzpf&um;
tusdK;&v'frSm edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðy&jcif;yif jzpfayonf?
"rRmEky\em vkyfief;tjzpf ig;yg;aom eD0&%w&m; wd@k ukd avhvmqifjcif oHk;oyfEdkifayonf?
eD0&%w&m; ig;yg;[lonfum; 1? umrp>EN
- umr*k%fukd tvdk&Sdjcif;/
2? Asmyg'
- raumif;}uHjcif;/ a'gotrsufxGufjcif;/ rkef;wD;jcif;/
3? xderd'<
- pdwfa&mudk,fyg xdkif;rd_if;jcif;/
4? O'<pP/ ukuUKpP - pdwfrjidrfouf/ ys@H vGihfjcif;/ pdk;&drfylyefjcif;/
5? 0dpdudp>m
- ,HkrSm;awG;awmjcif; - wdk@jzpfonf?
xifvif;pGm odem;vnfr_[lor#udk ydwfyifwm;qD;aoma=umifh trSefpifppfwdk;wufr_ [lor#udk
ydwfyifwm;qD;aoma=umifh T w&m;ig;yg;udk eD0&%rsm;/ taESmuft,Suf twm;tqD;rsm; [k ac:a0:&
onf? ig;yg;aom eD0&%wdk@. zdpD;ESdyfpufjcif;cH&jyD; ,if;wd@k udk rnfodk@ z,f&Sm;okwfoifypf&rnf[k rodem;
rvnfygv#if trSm;ESifh trSef/ tqdk;ESihf taumif;wd@k udk &_jrifykdif;jcm; a0zefEdkifjcif; r&dSawmhay?
t&[wW r*f^m%fudk jzpfapaom aAmZÆif (7) yg;udk avhvm oHk;oyfjcif;jzifhvnf; "rRmEky\em
urRXmef;udk pD;jzef;Edkifayonf?
aAmZÆif (7) yg; rSm 1? owdoarŠmZÆif - txufwGifazmfjyjyD;twdkif; udk,fpdwfESpfjzm v_yf&Sm;r_/ aqmif&Gufr_tm;vHk;udk tcgcyf
odrf; owdcsyfI apmifh=unfh &_rSwfjcif;?
2? "rR0dp&oarŠmZÆif - w&m;awmfESihfywfoufonfh ta=umif;t&m tvHk;pHkukd avhvmpl;prf;jcif;/
okawoeðyjcif;/ TY bmoma&;udk,fusihfoDv/ tbd"rRmqkdif&m avhvmoif=um;jcif;/ zwf&_jcif;/
okawoeðyjcif;/ pum;vufqHkajym=um;jcif;wd@k yg0ifonf? w&m;a[majymyJGodk@ wufa&mufem=um;jcif;
onfyif "rR0dp&oarŠmZÆif Y tusHK;0ifayonf?

75

pdwfavhusifha&; urRXmef;bm0em

3? 0D&d,oarŠmZÆif - tqHk;pGefc&D;odk@aygufa&mufonfhwkdifatmif ZJGv@kH vjzifh aqmif&Gufóu;yrf;jcif;?
4? yDwdoarŠmZÆif - raumif;jrifjcif;/ pdwfrom,mjcif;/ òijiifjcif;/ !d_;i,fjcif; ponfh pdwftajctaersm;ESihf
vHk;0qef@usifI udk,fpdwfESpfjzm ESpfodrhftm;&r_?
5? y\'doarŠmZÆif - um,/ pdwWw@kd Y txl;a=umifh=updkduf&r_ uif;pGm udk,fpdwfESpfjzm oufawmifhoufom
xm;&dSI jidfrf;at;jcif;?
6? orm"doarŠmZÆif - txufwGif aqG;aEG;wifjyjyD; twdkif;jzpfonf?
7? OayuQmoarŠmZÆif - avmu"Hw&m;rsm;udk rwkefrv_yf wnfjidrfat;aq;pGm pdwftaESmifht,Sufr&dS
&ifqdkifEdkifr_/ tnDtr# &_qifjcifr_?
T aAmZÆif 7-yg; qdkif&m t&nftcsif;rsm; jzpfxGef;yGm;rsm;vmap&ef ppfrSefaom vdktifqEN/ jyif;jy
aomtmoDo xm;&dS&ef txl;vdktyfayonf? aAmZÆifw&m; toD;oD; wdk;yGm;&ifhusufvmr_udk taxmuf
tulðyap&ef udk,fpdwfESpfyg;Y rnfo@kd tajctae xm;&dS&rnf (yvdaAm"rsm;) udk usrf;*efrsm;wGif azmfjyxm;
ayonf?
‘owW0g[lonf tb,fenf;’/ ‘ig[kac:qdkonfrSm tb,fenf;’ ponfh cE<m 5-yg; ta=umif;
&yfrsm;udk qef;ppfjcif;/ oddk@r[kwf txufwGif aqG;aEG;wifjyxm;aom opPmav;yg; w&m;rsm;udk qifjcif oHk;
oyfjcif;jzifhvnf; urRXmef; pD;jzef;Edkifayonf? cE<mig;yg;/ opPmav;yg; w&m;rsm;udk avhvmjcif;/ prf;oyfjcif;
onf "rRmEky\emvkyfief; wpfrdsK;yifjzpfI y&rwˆopPm (edAŠmef) udk rsufarSmufðyonftxd tudsK;ðy
ayonf?
txufY azmfjyaqG;aEG;wifjyxm;aom tEky\em vkyfief;rsm;tjyif tjcm;urRXmef;usifhpOf
trsm;tjym; &dSayao;onf? tpOftvmtm;jzifh usihfokH; aqmufwnf=uaom urRXmef; w&m;aygif;
av;q,fr#yif &dSayonf? ,if;w&m;rsm;rS jA[R0d[m&usihfpOfukdom TwGif txl;azmfjyvdkufayonf?
jA[R0d[m&w&m;av;yg; um; -

1? arwWm - rdcifonf wpfOD;wnf;aom&ifaoG;udk cspfjrwfEkd;bdouJho@kd cyfodrf;aom owW0gtaygif;tm;
cJGjcm;r_r&dSbJ tuef@towfrxm;aom cspfjcif;arwWm/ apwemjzifh wpfavmuvHk;udk v$rf;ðcH ysH@vGihf
apjcif;?
2? u&k%m - 'kuQqif;&JESifh ñuHawG@ae&aom/ pdwfESvkH; òijiifylyefv#uf &dSaom owW0g taygif;tm;
oem;=uifem u&k%m jzpfyGm;jcif;?
3? rk'dwm - olwpfyg; aumif;pm;jcif;/ atmifjrifjcif;/ aysmf&$ifjcif;Y ESpfodrhf0rf;om axmremðyjcif;?
4? OayuQm - edrfhwHk/ jrifhwHk/ tajymif;tvJ/ jzpfysuf azmufjyefwwfonfh avmu"Hudk rv_yfr&Suf/ wnfjidrf
at;aq;pGm &ifqdkifEdkifjcif; - wdk@ jzpfayonf?

76

tcef;(8)

Ak'< a'oem ESihf ,ae@ urBm
Ak'<w&m;awmfonf vGefpGm eufeJodrfarG@ jrifhrm;&um; ae@pOftoufarG;0rf;ausmif; vkyfukdifpm;
aomufaexdkif =u&onfh avmuvlom; rdef;r/ a,musfm;rsm;twGufrl Ak'<usifhpOfudk vdkufemusifhokH;Ekdif=u
rnfr[kwf? Ak'<0g'D tppftrSefwpfOD;jzpfvkdygu avmurSz,fcGmI ausmif;uefbk&m; qdwfjidrf&m t&yfrsm;od@k
‘awmxGuf’ =u&ayvdrfhrnf[k tcsdK@yk*~dKvfrsm;u xifrSwfae=uayonf?
Tum; 0rf;enf;zG,f&m txiftrSwf vJGrSm;aejcif;yifjzpfayonf? Ak'<a[m=um;awmfrlxm;onfh
w&m;awmfrsm;udk aumif;pGm em;rvnfaoma=umifh Tod@k vJGrSm;rSwf,lae=ua=umif; xif&Sm;vSonf? Ak'<
0g'udk ausausnufnuf tbufbufrS axmifhpkHem;vnf oabmaygufjcif; r&dSolu rjynfhrpHk/ wpfbuf
apmif;eif; a&;om;xm;aom pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;udk ayghayghqq zwf&_rd/ olajymvlajym =um;zl;rdonfw@dk rS Ak'<
0g'tay: Todk@rqifrjcif/ vJGrSm;aumuf,lcsufrsm; jzpfyGm;cJh&ayonf? Ak'<. w&m;awmfonf bkef;awmf}uD;
ausmif;rsm;wGif oDwif;oHk;aexdkif=uonfh &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm; twGufom r[kwfbJ/ tdrf&mwnfaxmif
aexdkif=uonfh omrefavmuvlom; rdef;r/ a,musfm;rsm; twGufvnf; jzpfayonf? Ak'<0g'Dwdk@ usifhoHk;&m
vrf;pOfjzpfaom r*~if (8)yg; w&m;awmfjrwfonf *k%fxl;0daoo tqifhtwef;/ vHk;0cJGjcm;jcif;r&dSbJ cyfodrf;
aom yk*d~Kvftaygif;wdk@. tudsK;pD;yGm;twGuf jzpfayonf?
urBmay:&dS ajrmufjrm;vSaom vltaygif;onf vl@abmifpGe@f cGm awm&yfvdk%f*l cdkatmif;I bkef;}uD;
&[ef;b0udk cH,lEdkif=uonf r[kwfyg? Ak'<0g'onf rnfr#yif jrifhjrwf/ jzLpifapumrl ,ae@ urBmay:&dS rEk\
vlom;taygif;wdk@/ toufarG; 0rf;ausmif; &SmazGvkyfukdif pm;aomuf=u&if; rusifhoHk;/ rvdkufemEdkifygu
tcsnf;ESD;yif jzpfayrnf? odk@&mwGif Ak'<w&m;awmfrsm;udk a&;om;xm;tyfonfh pum;vHk;rsm; tjzpfom
r[kwfbJ ,if;wdk@. oabmtvdk/ tqDtESpfukd rdrd&& qkyfukdifem;vnfrdygu vl@abmifavmuwGif omref
vlyk*d~Kvftjzpf aexdkif&if; jrwfpGmbk&m;. tqHk;trudk rvJGraoG vdkufemusifhoHk;Ekdifrnfom jzpfayonf?
tcdsK@aom yk*d~Kvfrsm;onf vl@taygif;toif;rsm;udk pGe@f cGmI awm&yfcdkrDS; wpfOD;wnf;aexdkifrS Ak'<
w&m;awmfrsm;udk ydkrdkvG,fulpGm vufcHusihfokH;Edkif=uavonf? tjcm;yk*d~Kvfrsm;twGufrl Todk@wpfukd,f
wnf; aexdkif&v#if udk,fa&mpdwfyg jiD;aiG@xdkif;rd_if; tm;i,fwwfaoma=umifh awmxGufjcif;jzifh ^m%fynm
&ifhusufzG,f/ w&m;wdk;wufzG,f rjrifacs?
pGef@ypf y,fcGmr_ tppftrSefonf avmu}uD;rS rdrdukd,fum,}uD;udk o,f,l xGufajy;oGm;jcif;
r[kwfygay? jrwfpGmbk&m;. t*~om0u jzpfawmfrlaom t&Sifom&dyk=wm rax&fjrwfu Todk@ rdfe@f ¹ruf
awmfrlzl; ay.? “awm&yfcdkrDS;I txl;òc;jcHpGm w&m;usihfaeaomol wpfOD;onf npf!l;aom pdwfrsm;/
udavom tnpfta=u;rsm;jzifh jynfhESufzkH;v$rf; wnf&SdaeEdkifay&m.? tjcm;wpfOD;onf &GmwGif
vnf;aumif;/ òr@wGifvnf;aumif; aexdkifv#ufyif txl;òc;jcHpGm usifhoHk; aexdkifjcif;r&dSbJ udavom tnpf
ta=u; uif;&Sif;I jzLpifaompdwfxm; &dSEkdifay&m.? TeSpfOD;wGif òr@&GmYaexdkifI jzLpifaom oDv&dSolu
awmwGif;atmif; a,m*Dxuf tqvGefpGm ydkrkdjrifhjrwf/ ydkrkd}uD;jrwfoljzpfa=umif;” t&Sif om&dyk=wm rax&f
jrwf}uD;u rdef@¹rufcJhayonf? 1
Ak'<=o0g' vdkufemusifhoHk;&ef awmxGuf&ayvdrhfrnf[k vltrsm; vJGrSm;,lqae=uonf? trSefpifppf
TvJGrSm;r_onf w&m;udk rusifhoHk;vkdaoma=umifh rodrom tumtuG,f ,l=ujcif;yifjzpfayonf? Ak'<
pmayrsm;wGif omrefa,musfm;/ rdef;rwd@k avmutv,f yHkrSeftdrfaxmifom;arG; ðy=upOf Ak'<. qdkqHk;r
pum;udk atmifjrifpGm vdkufemusifhokH;r_a=umifh edAŠmefukd rsufarSmufðy=u&yHk om"u tajrmuftjrm; awG@
=u&onf?
tewWw&m; tcef;wGif awG@cJh=u&aom y&dAdkZf 0p>a*gwWuyif wpfcdsefu jrwfpGmbk&m;tm; tdrf&m
axmifaom vl0wfa=umif a,musfm;/ rdef;rwdk@wGif Ak'<. tqHk;trudk em,lv#uf atmifjrifpGm usifhoHk;jcif;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? rZdÆredum,f 1/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 30/ 31?

77

Ak'<a'oemESifh ,ae@urBm

a=umifh edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðy=u&olrsm; &dSygoavm [k wdkuf&dkufav#mufxm; ar;jref;zl;avonf? jrwfpGm
bk&m;u “tdrf&maxmifaom vl0wfa=umif a,musfm;/ rdef;rwdk@wGif wpfOD;ESpfOD;r[kwf/ wpf&m/ ESpf&m/
ig;&m r[kwf/ tvGefydkrdk ajrmufjrm;vSaom vl0wfa=umif a,musfm;/ rdef;rwdk@onf tdrfaxmif om;arG;
ðy=u&if; Ak'<tqHk;trudk em,lv#uf atmifjrifpGm usihfokH;jcif;a=umifh edAŠmefudk rsufarSmufðyjyD;=uayjyD” [k
wdwdvif;vif; xkwfazmf a[m=um;cJhayonf? 1
tcdsK@aom yk*d~Kvfrsm;twGuf qlnHoHrsm;/ taESmuft,Sufrsm;rS uif;a0;&m/ jidrfouf at;csrf;
onfh ae&mY {upm&Daejcif;onf avsmufywfpGm tqifajyaumif;ajyayrnf? od@k &mwGif vl@avmu twGif;
Yyif aexdkifv#uf vlom;tcsif;csif; ulnD&kdif;yif;I vlr_0efxrf; wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmif&if; Ak'<w&m;rsm;
usifhoHk;aexdkifjcif;rSm &JpGrf;owWd&dSvSaom vkyfaqmifr_jzpfI rkcs csD;usL;zG,fxdkufayonf? tcdsK@olrsm;onf
rdrd. pdwfaeoabmxm; tusifhp&dkufw@kd wdk;wufaumif;rGefvm&ef oDv/ orm"d/ ynmudk a&S;OD; avhusihfr_
tjzpf umvtwef=um awm&yfcdkrSD;I {upm&D aexdkif&ef vdkaumif; vdkayvdrfhrnf? oDv/ orm"d/ ynm
vHkavmufpGm &ifhusufaom tcgY awmrSjyefvnfcJhI tjcm;olrsm;ukd ulnDapmifha&SmufoGm;&ef jzpfayonf?
odk@&mwGif rdrd. csrf;omr_ESifh rdrdudk,f ‘u,fwifr_’ udkom &nfrSef;awG;awmum avmutwlae owW0g
tcsif;csif; tusdK;udk ro,fydk; raxmufxm;bJ &moufyef {upm&D aexdkifoGm;rnfqdkygu a0ae,srsm;tm;
oem;=uifemjcif;/ u&k%mxm;jcif;/ olwpfyg;tm; &dkif;yif;ulnDjcif; ponfw@kd Y tajccHaom Ak'<. tqHk;tr
=o0g'rsm;ESifh rkcs vdkufavsmudkufnDrnf r[kwfay?
omref vl0wfa=umifb0jzifh Ak'<0g'udk vdkufemusihfokH;Edkifygv#if tb,fha=umifh Ak'<jrwfpGmu oHCm
wnf;[laom &[ef;tzJG@tpnf;udk xlaxmifcJhayoenf; [kar;vdku Tae&mY ar;xdkufvSayonf? oHCmh
tzJG@tpnf;onf rdrd. tusifhoDvESihf ^m%fynmzH@G òz;ap&efomru y&[dwvkyfief;rsm;wGifvnf; rdrdb0udk
jr‡KyfESHxm;vdkolrsm;twGuf tcGifhtvrf; zGihfay;xm;jcif; jzpfayonf? omreftdrfaxmifh&Sif 0wfa=umifwpfOD;
tm; y&[dwvkyfief;rsm;ukd wpfoufwm vHk;0tm&HkpkdufI aqmif&Guf&ef rar#mfvifhEdkifay? &[ef;oHCm b0
Yrl tdrfaxmifhwm0efrsm;ESifh tjcm; vl@abmifavmuD oHa,mZOf taESmiftzJG@rsm; uif;&Sif;vGwfuif;&um;
ol. b0wpfoufwm wpfckvHk;udk Ak'<jrwfpGm. =o0g'twdkif; ‘vltrsm;.aumif;udsK;/ vltrsm;.csrf;omr_’
twGuf vHk;0aqmif&GufEdkif&ef tajctaewGif &dSaeonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh ordkif;vrf;pOfwpfav#muf Ak'<
bmom bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;rsm;onf bmoma&;qdkif&mXmecsKyf tjzpfomru ynma&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_
qdkif&m A[dkXmersm; tjzpf ay:aygufcJh=uayonf?
'DCedum,f trSwf (31) od*gF vokwfwGif jrwfpGmbk&m;onf vl0wfa=umifrsm;. tdrfaxmifb0
ESifh vlr_qufqHa&;udk rnfr# tjrwfwEdk; tav;xm;awmfrla=umif; awG@&dSEdkifayonf?
od*Fgv trnf&dS vkvifwpfa,mufonf ol.zcifu uG,fvGefcgeD;ajym=um;cJhaom qHk;r =o0g'udk
usifhoHk; vdkufemaomtm;jzifh ta&S@t&yf/ awmift&yf/ taemuft&yf/ ajrmuft&yf/ atmuft&yf/
txuft&yf wnf;[laom t&yfajcmufrsufESmudk t&dktao tav;ðyv#uf &dScdk;ylaZmfavh &dSonf?
jrwfpGmbk&m;u xdkvkviftm; t&d,mwd@k . omoemY t&yfajcmufyg;wdk@onf Todk@r[kwf/ jcm;
em;ay.? t&d,mwdk@. omoemY &dSckd;tyfaom t&yfajcmufyg;[lonfrSm rdbwd@k onf ta&S@t&yf rnfukef
.? q&mwdk@onf awmift&yfrnfukef.? om;r,m;wd@k onf taemuft&yfrnfukef.? taqGcifyGef;/ aqGrsd K;
om;csif;ESifh tdrfeD;em;csif;wdk@onf ajrmuft&yfrnfukef.? taptyg;/ tvkyform;wdk@onf atmuft&yf
jzpfI or%/ jA[R% wdk@onf txuft&yf rnfukef.? Tt&yf ajcmufrsufESmudkomv#if &dScdk;tyfukef.
[k jrwfpGmbk&m;u &Sif;vif; a[mjyawmfrl.?
TY &dScdk;jcif; (er\d,) [laom pum;vHk;onf vGefpGmta&;}uD;I t"dyg` ,f av;eufayonf? &dSckd;
onfqdk&mY txGwftjrwfxm;zG,f/ &dkaozG,f/ *k%fðyzG,f &dSonfukdom &dSckd;ylaZmfjrJ jzpfayonf? txuf
azmfjyyg rdom;pkESifh q&morm;/ aqGrsd K;o*F[ tp&dSonfh vl@tzJG@tpnf; ajcmufrdsK;udk Ak'<0g't& txGwf
tjrwfxm;zG,f/ &dkaoav;pm;zG,f/ &dScdk;ylaZmfzG,f&mjzpfonf[k ,lqxm;ayonf? ,if;tzJG@tkyfpk ajcmufck
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78

Ak'<a'oemESifh ,ae@urBm

udk rnfuJhodk@ ‘&dSckd;ylaZmf’ =u&ayoenf;? ,if;wd@k tm; rdrdu ðypktyfaom 0wW&m;rsm;udk rvpfrvyf
av;pm;ðypkjcif;jzifh &dSckd; ylaZmf&mayonf[k jrwfpGmbk&m;u a[m=um;awmf rlayonf? T ðypktyfaom
0wW&m;rsm;udk od*Fgavm0g'okwfwGif &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;ayonf?
yxr - rdbrsm;onf om;orD;rsm;twGuf txGwftjrwfjzpfayonf? rdbrsm;udk (jA[Rmwd rmwmydwa&m)

jA[Rm [kac:a=umif; Ak'<u a[m=um;ayonf? jA[Rm [laom pum;vHk;onf tdENd, tawG;tac:
t,ltqY txGwftxdyftusqHk;/ trGefjrwfqkH; oabmt"dy`g,f oufa&mufay&m Ak'<u rdbrsm;udk
tjrifhjrwfqHk;aom t&mtjzpf xnfhoGif;azmfjyxm;jcif;jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh Ak'<tqHk;trudk aumif;pGmvdkuf
em=uaom tdrfaxmifpkrsm;wGif om;orD;rsm;onf rdbrsm;tm; ae@pOfae@wdkif; n/ eHeuf vuftkyfcsDI &dSckd;
ylaZmf=uukef.? t&d,mwdk@. omoemawmft& rdbrsm;tm; om;orD;rsm;u ðytyfaom 0wW&m;rsm;udk cs
tyfxm;ayonf? touft&G,f }uD;jyif;aomrdbrsm;tm; om;orD;rsm;u aumif;pGmapmifha&Smuf ðypktyf
ayonf? rdbrsm;udk,fpm; vkyfaqmifzG,f&m tr_udpP[lor#ukd vkyfaqmif&ayonf? rdrdtrdsK;tEG,f *k%f
oduQmudk xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufI rd&kd;zvm tpOftvmrsm;udk rysufwnfap&.? rdbwdk@ &SmazGpkaqmif;
xm;aom OpPmypPnf;rsm;udk raysmufrysufatmif apmifhxdef;&.? rdbwdk@uG,fvGefaomf xHk;wrf;pOfvmt&
aumif;pGm zkwf=unf;o+*õK[fI ukodkvfaumif;r_rsm; ðy&ayonf?
rdbrsm;uvnf; twHk@tvSnhftm;jzifh om;orD;rsm;tay: ðytyfonfh wm0ef0wW&m;rsm; &dSayonf?
rdbrsm;onf om;orD;rsm;tm; raumif;aom 'kp&dkduftusifhrsm;rS wm;jrpf&ukef.? aumif;aom tudsK;&dS
aom tr_rsm;Y ouf0ifapukef&m.? aumif;aom twwfynmudk oif=um;apI avsmufywfaom tdrf
axmifpkrS om;orD;rsm;ESifh xdrf;jrm;ay;ukef&m.? avsmufywfaomtcsdefY tarGOpPm ypPnf;rsm;udk cJGa0
tyfESif; ay;urf;&m.?

'kwd, - q&mESifh wynfhqufqHa&;? ? wynfhjzpfolonf q&mtm; &dkaoav;pm;I q&m. qdkqkH;rpum;

udk em,lrSwfom;&onf? q&m. tr_udpPrsm;udk vdktyfovdk ðypkaqmif&Gufay;I twwfynmukd
&dkaoav;pm;pGm oif=um;avhusuf&onf?
q&muvnf; ol.0wW&m;tjzpf wynfhtm; qHk;ryJhjyifoifhaom t&mwGifaumif;pGm qHk;rI
aumif;pGm oif=um;oifhonfudk oif=um;ay;&ukefonf? aumif;aom taqGcifyGef;wdk@ xHY tyfESif;ukefv#uf
twwfynm jynfhpHkaomtcgY wynfhtwGuf tvkyftudkif &SmazGay;jcif;/ b0 (pm;0wfaea&;) vHkðcH pdwfcs
&ap&ef óu;pm; aqmif&Gufay;jcif; ðyvkyf&onf?

wwd,?

? vifESifhr,m; qufqHa&;? ? vifr,m;tcspfukd tjrwfwEdk; (bmomw&m;eD;yg;) vGefpGm
av;pm;tyfonf[k owfrSwfxm;aoma=umifh jrifhjrwfaom tdfrfaxmifonfb0 (o'g& jA[Rmp&d,) [k orkwftyf.? TwGifvnf; jA[R [laom pum;vHk;. vGefpGm av;eufaom t"dyg` ,fukd
owdðy&monf? vifESifhr,m; qufqHa&;udk tjrifhrm;qHk; av;pm;r_ ðyxm;jcif; jzpfayonf? vifESihfr,m;
onf wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; opPmapmifhxdef; &dkaoav;pm;I tjrwfwEdk; &dS=u&ayonf? wpfOD;tay:wpfOD; ðytyf
onfh 0wW&m;rsm; &dS&mwGif vifjzpfolonf rdrdr,m;tm; tjrwfwEdk; *k%fðyac:a0:jcif;/ rnfonfhtcgr#
rav;rpm; EdSrfhcs rac:a0:&jcif;/ rdrdr,m;udk tpOfjrwfEkd;I tjcm;rdef;rESifh razmufjyef&jcif;/ avsmufywf
aom ae&may;I tdrfr_udpPt00udk oufompGm aqmif&GufEkdif&ef apmifha&Smufjcif;/ t0wfwefqm vuf0wf
&wemrsm; ay;urf;I &$ifvef;0rf;ajrmufapjcif; paom vifh0wfrsm;udk aus¹yefap&monf? (vifjzpfolu rdrd
r,m;tm; vufaqmifypPnf; ay;tyf&monf [laom tcsufuav;udkyif xkwfazmfa[mjy&ef Ak'<jrwfpGmu
arhavsmhjcif; r&dSonfudk axmufI jrwfpGmbk&m;onf omrefykxkZOfvlom;wdk@. pdwfv_yf&Sm; cHpm;r_rsm;
tay: rnfr#em;vnfr_&dSonf/ rnfr# axmufxm;pmemwwfonfukd odomEdkifayonf?)
r,m;uvnf; twHk@tvSnhftm;jzifh tdrfaxmif. ðyzG,fudpPrsm;udk aumif;pGmtkyfcsKyfpD&ifjcif;/ nOfh
tdyf nOfhaea&muf&dSvmol {nfhonf/ tvnftywfvmol rdwfaqG/ aqGrdsK;om;csif;ESifh taptyg; tvkyf

79

Ak'<a'oemESifh ,ae@urBm

orm;wdk@tm; {nfh0wfausyGefpGm ðypkvkyfausG;jcif;/ rdrdviftm; tpOfcspfjrwfEdk;I tjcm;aom a,musfm;
wpfyg;ESifh razmufjyefjcif;/ rdrdvifom; &SmazGpkaqmif;cJhaom OpPmpnf;pdrfudk xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufjcif;/ tvHk;
pHkaom udpPwdk@Y vdrRmI ysif;&djcif;uif;jcif;jzifh rdrdwm0efrsm;ukd ausyGefap&monf?
pwkwˆ?

? oli,fcsif;rdwfaqG/ aqGrsd K;om;csif;ESihf tdrfeD;em;csif;wd@k qufqHa&;?
? tcsif;csif; azmfa&G
cifrifpGm qufqHI apwem/ arwWm xm;&dS&onf? om,m!Sif;aysmif;pGm/ oifhjrwfpGm pum;
ajymqdk&onf? wpfOD;tudsK;wpfOD; aqmif&Guf&onf? wpfOD;ESihfwpfOD; wef;wl&nfwl xm;I qufqH&onf?
tcsif;csif; cdkuf&efjzpfyGm; tjiif;ryGm;=u&? vdktyfaom tultnDay;I apmifha&Smuf&onf? ab;tEW&m,f
ñuHawG@aomtcgY pGef@ypfxGufcGm roGm;tyfukef?
yOPr?

? t&SifocifESifh taptyg; tvkyform; qufqHa&;?
? t&Sifocif od@k r[kwf tvkyf&Sifonf
ol. taptyg; odk@r[kwf tvkyform;tay:Y xm;&dStyfonfh wm0ef0wW&m; trsm;tjym;
&Sdayonf? tvkyfvkyfEdkifaom t&nftcsif;ESihf cGeftm;tavsmuf tvkyfwm0efudk cJGjcm; csxm;ay;&onf?
oifhavsmf avsmufywfonfh tca=u;aiGukd ay;urf;&onf? emrusef;jzpfaomf aq;0g;uko apmifha&Smuf&
onf? tcgtm;avsmfpGm t0wfwefqm ponf pGe@f =uJjcif;/ txl;qk tjzpf aiGa=u;ay;jcif;rsm; ðyvkyf&onf?
taptyg; odk@r[kwf tvkyform;uvnf; tjyeftvSeftm;jzifh ysif;&djcif;uif;I xºuvHk@v &dS&
onf? rdrdt&Sifocif tvkyf&Siftay: &dk;om;ajzmifhrwf&onf? pum;emcH&onf? aumufuspf pOf;vJjcif;
r&dS&? tcgcyfodrf; tvkyf0wW&m;udk pdwfygvufyg ausyGefpGm xrf;aqmif&onf?

qÏr?

? or%/ jA[R% (&[ef;oHCm) ESihf 0wfa=umif trdsK;aumif;om;wkd@ qufqHa&;?
? &[ef;
oHCmwdk@tm; vdktyfaom 0wˆKypPnf;rsm;udk 0wfa=umif trdsK;aumif;om;onf arwWmESihf
,SOfaom/ &dkaor_ESifh ,SOfaom ay;tyf vSL'gef;r_jzifh apmifha&Smuftyfonf?
&[ef;oHCmrsm;uvnf; jzLpifaom arwWm/ u&k%m tjynfht0jzifh 0wfa=umif trdsK;aumif;om;
tm; w&m;"rRa[mjy qHk;rI tod^m%f&ifhoefapjyD; raumif;r_rS wm;jrpfukef&m.? aumif;r_Y ouf0if
ap&m.?
xdk@a=umifh tdrfaxmifom;arG; vlr_qufqHa&;ESihfwuGjzpfaom vl0wfa=umifb0udk ‘t&d,mwd@k .
omoem’ wGif xnfhoGif;xm;a=umif; jrwfpGmbk&m;. tjrifawmft& Ak'<0g' usifhpOfabmif twGif;
usa&mufa=umif; awG@jrif=u&ayonf?
a&S;tusqHk; ygVdawmfwpfapmifjzpfonfh oH,kwfedum,fwGif ewfwdk@. bk&ifjzpfaom od=um;rif;
onf tusifhoDv oduQmESifhjynfhpHkI jrwfaomw&m;udk aqmufwnfae=uonfh &[ef;oHCmrsm;udkom &dSckd;
ylaZmfonf r[kwf? oDvESifhjynfhpHkI rdrdom;r,m; tdrfaxmifukd w&m;ESifhavsmfnDpGm xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smuf
aom ukodkvfaumif;r_rsm;udk ðyavh&Sdonfh 0wfa=umif Oygoumrsm;udkvnf; &dScdk;a=umif; xkwfazmfajym=um;
onfudk zwf&_&ayonf? 1
wpfpHkwpfa,mufaomolonf Ak'<0g'udk cH,lusifhoHk;vdkygu Ak'<bmomod@k oGwfoGif;onfh xl;xl;
jcm;jcm; tcrf;tem;/ odk@r[kwf ESpfcsif;r*Fvm ponfh ðyvkyfzG,frsm;r&dSacs? (odk@&mwGif oHCmtzJG@tpnf;0if
bduQK &[ef;wpfyg;jzpfvm&efrl ESpfv&Snf=um ynmoif=um;jcif;/ tusifhoDvqdkif&m avhusifhr_rsm; vkyfukdif
&ayrnf?) Ak'<. a[m=um;csufrsm;udk em;vnfoabmaygufI ,if;w&m;rsm;onf r*~ifvrf;rSefjzpfa=umif;
,Hk=unfv#uf xdkvrf;pOfudk vdkufygv#if Ak'<0g'DwpfOD; jzpfvmonfom jzpfayonf? odk@&mwGif Ak'<bmom
xGef;um;&mEdkifiHrsm;Y tpOftvmrysuf qufvufusihfokH;cJhaom &dk;&mxHk;wrf;t& &wemoHk;yg;[k ac:qdk
onfh bk&m;/ w&m;/ oHCmwdk@udk rdrdukd;uG,f&m[lI cH,ljyD;aemuf ig;yg;oDv apmifhxdef;v#if Ak'<bmom0if
jzpfonf[k ,lq=uonf?
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80

Ak'<a'oemESifh ,ae@urBm

vl0wfa=umifjzpfonfh Ak'<bmom0ifwpfOD; tenf;qHk; apmifhxdef;&rnfh ig;yg;oDvrSm 1? olwpfyg; touf rowfjcif;/
2? olwpfyg; OpPm rcdk;,ljcif;/
3? olwpfyg; om;r,m; rjypfrSm;jcif;/
4? rrSefaom pum;ukd rajymqdkjcif;/ ESihf
5? ao&nf ao&uf aomufpm;r_ukd a&Smif=uOfjcif; wdk@jzpfI ,if;oDv cH,l&ef a&S;a[mif; usrf;*efrsm;wGif vmonfh pum;vHk;rsm; twdkif; &Gwfqdk&ygonf?
bmoma&;qkdif&m ae@xl;ae@jrwfrsm;wGif Ak'<bmom0ifrsm;onf Ak'<bmom bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;u csqkday;
onfh oDvrsm;udk wpfpkwpf&Hk;wnf; &GwfqdkcH,l=uonf?
Ak'<0g'DwpfOD;onf jyify 0wfudpPrsm;/ bmoma&;qdkif&m tcrf;tem;rsm; [lI xl;xl;jcm;jcm; aqmif
&Gufp&m r&dSay? Ak'<0g'onf aexdkifusihf}uHaom vrf;pOfomjzpfI t"du ta&;}uD;onfrSm r*~if (8) yg; udk
vdkufem usifhoHk;&efyif jzpfonf? Ak'<bmom EdkfifiHtm;vHk;wd@k wGif bmoma&;ae@rsm;Y ESpfvkd=unfEl;zG,f&m
tcrf;tem;rsm; usif;yðyvkyf=uonfrSm rSefayonf? ,if;EkdifiHrsm;Y &kyfyGm;awmfrsm;ESifhwuG apwDykxkd;rsm;
&dS=uI bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;rsm;wGif aAm"danmifyifrsm; pdkufysd K;xm;=uonfudk awG@=u&ygonf? ‚Xmersm;
wGif Ak'<bmom0ifrsm;onf yef;/ qDrD;/ tar$;wdkifrsm; ylaZmf=uayonf? odk@&mwGif T vkyfaqmifr_rsm;onf
xm0&bk&m;ocif &dSonf[k ,Hk=unfaom bmomrsm;. qkawmif;ywˆemðyjcif;ESifh rwlnDay? Tod@k yef;/
qDrD; qufuyfylaZmfjcif;onf edAŠmefvrf;udk !$efjyawmfrlaom Ak'<jrwfpGmtm; atmufarhowd&jcif;jzifh &kdao
jrwfEdk;r_udk jyojcif;yifjzpfonf? Tod@k &dk;&m &dSckd;ylaZmfonfh vkyf&yfrsm;onf rvkyfrjzpf aqmif&Guf&rnfh
tr_udpPrsm; r[kwfaomfvnf; ^m%fynmt&mESihf w&m;oabmwdk@wGif rsm;pGm&ifhusufjcif; r&dSao;olw@kd
twGuf bmoma&;qdkif&m tmomqENESihf vdktyfr_jynfhpkHap&ef/ ESpfodrhfap&ef wefzkd; &dSwefoavmuf &dSay
onf? ,if;aqmif&Gufr_wdk@onf r*~ifvrf;c&D;wpfav#muf wjznf;jznf; av#mufoGm;&mwGif xdkufoifh
oavmuf taxmuftul ðyayonf?
Ak'<0g'onf jrifhjrwfonfh tusihfoDvESihf eufeJaom tbd"rRm oabmrsm;wGifom pdwf0ifpm;r_&dSI
vltaygif;wdk@. vlr_qufqHa&;/ oufomacsmifcsda&;/ pD;yGm;a&;ajyvnfr_ ponfwdk@udk vspfvsLðyonf[k
xifjrif,lqjcif;onf vGefpGm rSm;,Gif;ayonf? Ak'<onf vltaygif;wkd@. csrf;omaysmf&$ifr_udk rsm;pGmvdkvm;
awmfrlonf? w&m;awmfudk vufudkifxm;I oDvrvGwfbJ pif=u,fpGm aexdkifrSom aysmf&$ifr_&Edkifonf[k
Ak'<u ,Hk=unfayonf? odk@&mwGif ‘tlrawmifhrS oDvapmifhEkdifonf’ qdk&dk;pum;twdkif; pD;yGm;OpPm/ aygif;oif;
qufqHr_ tajctaersm; rajyvnf/ ravsmufywfygu pif=u,fpGmaexdkifEdkif&ef cJ,Of;ayonf[kvnf; Ak'<u
odawmfrlonf?
OpPmypPnf; ºu,f0csrf;oma&;onf Ak'<0g'wGif t"dur[kwf? vrf;qHk;yef;wdkif r[kwfay? ydkI
jrifhjrwfaom &nfrSef;csufodk@ a&mufap&ef taxmuftyHh/ tultnDr#om jzpfayonf? odk@&mwGif vlom;wd@k
tm; csrf;omaysmf&$ifr_ jzpfaprnfh T jrifhrm;aom &nf&G,fcsufyef;wdkifo@kd aygufa&mufEkdif&ef OpPmypPnf;
taxmuftul r&dSIvnf; rjzpfay? xd@k a=umifh w&m;"rRvkyfief; ajzmifhjzL;om,ma&;/ atmifjrifapa&;
twGuf OpPmypPnf; tajctae xdkufoifhoavmuf aumif;rGef&ef vdktyfonf[k Ak'<0g'u todtrSwf ðyay
onf? awmxGufI {upm&D w&m;urRXmef; pD;jzef;aeaom a,m*D&[ef;twGufyif tenf;qHk; &dStyfonfh
0wˆKypPnf;rsm;udk owfrSwfay;xm;onf? 1
Ak'<onf vl@abmifavmuudk aygif;oif;qufqHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&; aemufcHrsm;rS cJGxkwfI oHk;oyfonf
r[kwfay? vl@avmu. vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ EdkifiHa&; udpP&yftm;vHk;udk odrf;usHL;I &_jrifawmfrlayonf?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? 'DCedum,f 1/ (udkvHbdk 1929)/ pmrsufESm 290? oHCmtzJG@0if Ak'<bmom&[ef;rsm;Y yk*~vduydkif 0wˆKypPnf;[lI rxm;&dS
tyfaomfvnf; oHCmtrsm;ydkif oHCdu ypPnf;rsm;udkrlum; oHk;pJGcGifh &dSayonf?

81

Ak'<a'oemESifh ,ae@urBm

Ak'<a[m=um;awmfrlonfh oDv/ orm"d/ ynmESihf pyfqkdifaom w&m;rsm;/ tbd"rRm w&m;rsm;udk
vlodrsm;=uayonf? odk@&mwGif vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ EdkifiHa&;&mESifh ywfoufonfh Ak'<a'oemrsm;udk txl;
ojzifh taemufwdkif;rsm;wGif odol&Sm;yg;vSayonf? T ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh Ak'< a[m=um;
xm;aom a'oem tajrmuftjrm;udk a&S;a[mif; Ak'<pmayrsm;wGif tEHS@tjym; awG@&dSEdkifayonf? Oyrm yHkpH
tenf;i,fudk avhvm=uaytHh?
'DCedum,f/ trSwf 26/ puU0wWd oD[meENmokwfwGif qif;&JrJGawjcif; (OpPm"e r&dSjcif;/ 'gvd'Nd,)
onf cdk;0Sufjcif;/ vdrfvnfvSnfhjzm;jcif;/ vk,ufwkdufckdufjcif;/ rkef;wD;&efòi;xm;jcif;/ &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfjcif;
ponfh raumif;r_ 'kp&dkufrsm;/ &mZ0wfr_rsm;. rlvyifrta=umif;&if; jzpfonf[k &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyxm;
onf? a&S;tcgu bk&ifrsm;onf ,ckacwf tpdk;&rsm;enf;wl &mZ0wfr_rsm;udk tjypf'%fay;jcif;jzifh ESdrfESif;
ypf&ef óu;yrf;cJh=uonf? tqdkyg 'DCedum,f/ ulË'EWokwf wGif Tenf;jzifh 'kp&dkufyaysmuf&ef óu;yrf;jcif;
onf tcsnf;EDS;omjzpfa=umif;/ vHk;0 atmifjrifEdkifrnf r[kwfa=umif; &Sif;vif;jyxm;onf? T tjypf'%f
xm;enf;tpm; &mZ0wfr_ tjrpfjywf z,f&Sif;&ef vkyfom;jynfolwdk@. pD;yGm;a&; tajctae wdk;wufaumif;
rGefvm&ef pDrHaqmif&Guf&rnf?
awmifolv,form;ESifh oD;ESHpkdufysd K;olrsm;tm; pdkufysd K;a&;twGuf vdktyfaom ypPnf;ud&d,m/ tul
tnD tvHk;pHkudk axmufyHh ay;urf;&rnf? ta&mif;t0,f ukefoG,f azmufum;olrsm;tm; &if;ESD;rwnfaiG
xlaxmifay;&rnf? tvkyform;rsm;tm; xdkufoifhaom tca=u;aiG ay;urf;&rnf [k Ak'<jrwfpGmu t=uH
^m%fay;cJhayonf? Todk@ vHkavmufaom 0ifaiG&&dS&ef tcGifhtvrf;rsm; zGihfay;jcif;/ vkyfom;jynfolwdk@onf
pm;0wfaea&;twGuf ylyifaomu uif;a0;ojzifh wif;wdrfa&mifh&JpGm aexdkif=u&ayrnf? xdk@a=umifh wdkif;jynf
e,fajrvnf; at;csrf;om,mI &mZ0wfr_rsm;rS uif;jidfrf;ayvdrhfrnf? 1
T ta=umif;rsm;a=umifh Ak'<jrwfpGmu 0wfa=umif Oygoumrsm;tm; rdrdw@kd pD;yGm;a&;tajctae
wdk;wufaumif;rGefap&ef rnfr# ta&;}uD;a=umif; a[mjyawmfrlonf? Todk@ wdkufwGef;a[majym&mY rdrd.
tajccHrl&if;w&m;rsm;ESifh qef@usifaom 0dor avmb&rRuf irf;irf;wufum OpPmypPnf;rsm;udk rw&m; odkrSD;
pkaqmif;&rnf[k Ak'<u rqdkvdkay? toufarG; 0rf;ausmif;r_/ ðyvkyfykH/ vkyfenf;tm;vHk;udkvnf; Ak'<u cGihfðy
awmfrrlay? ppfrufvufeufypPnf; xkwfvkyfjcif;/ a&mif;csjcif; ponfhvkyfief;rsm;udk (rdp>mtmZD0) rorm
aom toufarG;r_ tjzpf Ak'<u y,fawmfrlonf?
'DCZm%k trnf&dS 'g,umwpfOD;onf wpfae@wGif jrwfpGmbk&m;xHawmfarSmufod@k a&mufvmI
Todk@av#mufxm;av.? “t&Sifbk&m;/ wynfhawmfw@kd onf omreftdrfaxmifonf 0wfa=umif yk*~dKvfw@kd
jzpfygonf? wynfhawmfwkd@twGuf TavmuESihf wrvGefb0Y csrf;omokc &&dSaprnfh w&m;awmfrsm;udk
a[m=um;ay;awmf rlygbk&m;”?
Ak'<jrwfpGmu ,if;'g,umtm; TavmuwGif csrf;omokcjzpfapaom ta=umif;t&m av;rdsK; &dS
ayonf[k ¹ruf=um;awmfrl.?
yxr OÏmeor`'g - rnfonfhtoufarG; 0rf;ausmif;vkyfief; Yrqdk vkyfief;wGif aumif;pGm usGrf;usif
&rnf? ausyGefatmifaqmif&GufEdkifaom t&nftcsif;&dS&rnf? vkyfief;udk pdwfyg
vufyg wufwufºuºu aqmif&Guf&rnf?
'kwd, tm&uQor`'g - Todk@rdrdacsG;ESihf aumif;rGefrSefuefpGm &SmazG&&dSxm;aom OpPmypPnf;rsm;udk
aumif;pGm xdef;odrf; apmifha&Smuf&rnf? (TwGif rdrdOpPmypPnf;rsm;udk olckd;
ol0Sufwdk@ r,lEdkif&ef umuG,f&rnff[k qdkvdk&m xdkacwftcgu aemufcHtajctae ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk
xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;,l=u&rnf?
wwd, uvsm% rdwWwm - rdrdtay:Y opPm&dSaom/ ^m%fynmºu,f0/ oDv oduQmESihf jynfhpHkaom/
&ufa&maom/ tod^m%f qifjcifwkHw&m; ESihf jynfhpHkI raumif;r_ukd
a&Smif=uOf/ aumif;r_wGif ouf0ifaprnfh taqGcifyGef;aumif;rsm; &dS&rnf?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? 'DCedum,f 1/ (udkvHbdk 1929)/ pmrsufESm 101?

82

Ak'<a'oemESifh ,ae@urBm
pwkwˆ orZD0dwwm - rdrd0ifaiGESihf avsmfnDpGm renf;vGef;/ rrsm;vGef; csihfcsdefE_dif;qI oHk;pJG&rnf? OpPm

ypPnf;udk avmb&rRuf}uD;pGmjzifh odkrSD;xm;jcif;vnf; rðy&? pnf;rJhurf;rJh
oHk;ðzef;Ivnf; rypf&[k qdkvdkonf? wpfenf;qdkaomf rdrd&SmazG pkaqmif;&onfh OpPmypPnf;. twdkif;twm
yrm%udk Ed_if;csdefI aexdkifpm;aomufoGm;&rnf?
xdk@aemuf wrvGefb0Y csrf;omokcjzpfaprnfh usihf0wfoduQm 4-yg;udkvnf; jrwfpGmbk&m;u Todk@
a[m=um;awmfrlonf?
1? o'<g - oDv/ orm"d/ ynmw&m;wd@k . *k%ft&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf wefzkd;rsm;wGif pdwfcs ,Hk=unfr_
xm;&dSjcif;?
2? oDv - ouf&dSowW0gtm; owfjzwfjcif;/ tEW&m,fðyvkyfjcif;rS a&Smif=uOfjcif;/ olwpfyg; OpPm
cdk;,ljcif;/ vdrfvnfjcif;wd@k rS a&Smif=uOfjcif;/ olwpfyg; om;r,m; rjypfrSm;jcif;/ r[kwf rrSef
ajymqdkjcif; ESifh ao&nf ao&ufrsm;udk a&Smif=uOfjcif; wdk@ jzpfonf?
3? pm* - rdrdOpPmypPnf;Y vGefpGmrufarm wyfrufjcif;uif;I &ufa&mpGm ay;urf; pGef@=uJjcif;?
4? ynm - 'kuQudk csKyfjidrf;apI edAŠmefukd rsufarSmufðyapEdkifaom 0dy\em ^m%fynm jzpfxGef;
ay:aygufap&ef óu;yrf; tm;xkwfjcif;? 1
wpfcgwpf&H Ak'<jrwfpGmonf aiGukd acsGwmpkaqmif;enf;ESihf oHk;pJGenf;wdk@ESifhywfoufI tao;pdwfyif
a[mjywwfayonf? Oyrm-od*Fgv vkviftm; &SmazG&&dSonfh 0ifaiG. av;yHkwpfykHukd ae@pOftoHk;p&dwf
tjzpfoHk;pJG&rnf? 0ifaiG. wpf0ufr#ukd rdrdpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;wGif &if;EDS;xnfh0ifI usefav;yHkwpfykH udk rar#mf
vifhaom ta&;ay:udpPrsm;twGuf oD;oef@ pkaqmif;xm;&rnf 2 [k =o0g' ay;cJhavonf?
xif&Sm;ausmf=um;aom aZw0efausmif;awmf}uD;udk om0wˆdwGif aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;onfh jrwfpGm
bk&m;tm; vGefpGm =unf!dko'<g}uD;vSaom 'g,umwpfOD;jzpfonfh temxyd¾du olºu,f}uD;tm; omref
tdrfaxmifh&Siftjzpf aexdkifv#uf&dSaom vl0wfa=umifw@kd wGif csrf;omokc av;rdsK;cHpm;&ayonf [k wpf}udrf
u jrwfpGmbk&m; a[m=um;awmfrlayonf?
yxr csrf;omr_ (twˆdokc) - w&m;r#waom enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh &SmazG&&dSonfh vHkavmufaom
OpPmypPnf;a=umifh pD;yGm;a&; vHkðcHpdwfcsojzifh csrf;om&jcif;?
'kwd, csrf;omr_ (abm*okc) - Todk@ &SmazG&&dSaom OpPmypPnf;rsm;udk rdrdtwGufaomf
vnf;aumif;/ om;r,m; aqGrsd K;o*F[ESifh ukodkvfaumif;r_rsm; twGufaomfvnf;aumif;/
&ufa&mpGm ay;urf;pGef@=uJEdkifjcif;a=umifh csrf;om&jcif;?
wwd, csrf;omr_ (te%okc) - aºu;jrDuif;&Sif;jcif;a=umifh csrf;om&jcif;?
pwkwˆ csrf;omr_ (te0Z…okc) - tjypfuif;rJhpGm aexdkifI um,/ 0pD/ raem oHk;yg;aomuHwdk@jzifh
raumif;r_rS a&Smif=uOfjcif;jzifh jzLpifpGmae&aoma=umifh csrf;om&jcif;?
Tav;yg;wGif yxroHk;yg;onf pD;yGm;a&;ESihf ywfoufI&&dSaom aysmf&$ifcsrf;omr_rdsK;jzpfonfukd
owdðy&monf? aemufqHk;Y jrwfpGmbk&m;u olaÏ;}uD;tm; pD;yGm;OpPm vHkavmufjynfhpHkaoma=umifh &&dSonfh
csrf;omr_onf tukodkvfuif;&Sif;pGm jzLpifoef@&Sif;pGm aexdkifr_a=umifh jzpfay:onfh avmukwW&mcsrf;om.
q,fhajcmufyHk wpfyHkr#yif wefzdk;r&dSvSa=umif; a[m=um;ayonf? 3
txufyg xkwfEkwfazmfjycJhaom Oyrmrsm;t& Ak'<onf vlom;wdk@ aysmf&$ifcsrf;omr_twGuf pD;yGm;
a&; cdkifvHkawmifhwif;&ef txl;vdktyfonf[k ,lqawmfrla=umif; odEkdifayonf? odk@&mwGif rnfonfh
wdk;wufr_rqdk oDv/ orm"d tajcrcHbJ &kyf0wˆKypPnf; oufoufom pnfyifygu wu,ftppftrSef
wdk;wufr_[k todtrSwf ðyawmfrrlay? aysmf&$ifcsrf;ajrh/ at;csrf;om,m/ wif;wdrfa&mifh&Jaom vl@ tzJG@
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? t*FkwˆdKvf/ (udkvHbdk 1929)/ pmrsufESm 786?
2? 'DCedum,f 3/ (udkvHbdk)/ pmrsufESm 115?
3? t*FkwˆdKvf/ (udkvHbdk 1929)/ pmrsufESm 232/ 233?

83

Ak'<a'oemESifh ,ae@urBm

tpnf;jzpf&ef &kyf0wˆKpnfyifwdk;wufa&;udk tm;ay;wdkufwGef;aomfvnf; Ak'<0g'onf oDv/ orm"d zG@H òz;a&;
udk tpOfojzifh tav;teuf xm;&dSayonf?
Ak'<jrwfpGmonf t=urf;rzufa&;/ jidrf;csrf;a&;udk a[m=um;awmfrl&Hkomr[kwfbJ ppfajrjyifo@kd ºu
awmfrlI udk,fawmfwdkif =um;0ifjzefajz ay;jyD;v#if ppfyJGukd wm;jrpfydwfyifawmfrlcJhzl;onf? a&m[deDjrpfa&
cJGa0oHk;pJG&mwGif tjiif;yGm;=uI jy\emudk ppfwkdufajz&Sif;&ef jyifqifae=uaom omus ESihf aumvd,
trdsK;om;wdk@ta&;tcif;wGif Ak'<ukd,fawmfwkdif =um;0ifaphpyf &efrD;at;apcJhaom om"u &dSayonf?
wpf}udrfwGifvnf; 0ZD…wdkif;EdkifiHudk tZmwowfbk&ifu oGm;a&mufwdkufckdufrnf&Sd&m jrwfpGmbk&m;u
wm;jrpfqHk;rawmf rlcJhayonf?
rif;usifhw&m; (10) yg;
yxrt*Fg ? 'ge - &ufa&mjcif;/ o'<gw&m;&dSjcif;/ ay;urf;pGe@f =uJjcif;? tkyfpkd;olonf "ea=u;aiG/ OpPmypPnf;Y

pJGvrf;wyfrufjcif;/ vkdcsifawmifhwjcif; r&dS&? vltrsm;aumif;udsK;twGuf pGef@=uJay;urf;&monf?

'kwd,t*Fg ? oDv - jrifhrm;aom tusihfoDv/ pm&dwW/ ouf&SdowW0grsm;udk zsufqD;owfjzwfjcif;/ olwpfyg;

OpPmypPnf;udk vdrfvnfaumufuspfcdk;,ljcif;/ acgif;yHkjzwfjcif;/ olwpfyg; om;r,m;udk jypfrSm;
usL;vGefjcif;/ r[kwfrrSefajymqdkjcif;/ ao&uf aomufpm;rl;,pfjcif;wkd@udk vHk;0a&Smif=uOf&rnf? tenf;qHk;
vl0wfa=umifwkd@. tusifhoduQmjzpfaom ig;yg;oDvudk vHkðcHpGmapmifhxdef;&rnf [k qdkvdkonf?
wwd,t*Fg ? y&dpPm* - vltrsm;aumif;udsK;twGuf t&m&m pGe@f v$wfEfkdifjcif;/ vlxktusdK;aus;Zl;udk a&S;&_I
rdrdwpfudk,f&nf aumif;pm;r_/ rdrd.emrnfaumif;r_/ ausmf=um;r_ ponfwdk@tjyif rdrdtouf
udkyif pGef@v$wfEdkif&ef 0efrav;bJ tqifoifh jzpfae=u&rnf?
pwkwˆt*Fg ? tZ…0 - &dk;om;ajzmifhrwfjcif;/ awmfwnfhrSefuefjcif;/ rdrd0wW&m;aqmif&Guf&mwGif pdk;&drfa=umuf
vef@jcif;/ rsufESmvdkufjcif; uif;&Sif;ap&rnf? apwem&nf&G,fcsuf oef@&Sif;pGmxm;I trsm;
jynfolrsm;tm; vdrfvnfvSnfhjzm;jcif; rðy&?
yOPrt*F
t*Fg ? r'N0 - =uifemoem;jcif;/ El;nHhodrfarG@jcif;/ oifhjrwf aumif;rGefaom pdwfoabmxm; &dS&rnf?
qÏrt*Fg ? wy - òc;jcHpGmaewwfjcif;? &dk;&dk;aexdkif/ &dk;&dk;0wfpm;qif,ifI pnf;pdrf,pfrl;pGm aexdkifr_udk
a&Smif=uOf&rnf? rdrdukd,frdrd cdsK;EdSrfEdkif&rnf?
owWrt*Fg ? tauUm" - trsufxGufjcif;/ rvdkrkef;wD;jcif;/ &efòi;zJ@G jcif;rsm;rS uif;jcif;? rnfol@tay:rS &efvkdr_/
&efòi;xm;r_ r&dSap&?
tÏrt*Fg ? t0d[öo - !SOf;qJEdSyfpufr_ rðyjcif;? TwGif rnfo@l udkr# tEW&m,f rjzpfap&Hkomr[kwf? rnfonfh
ppfruf zufòyifr_ESihfwuG rnfonfht=urf;zufr_rdsK;/ owfjzwfr_rdsK;r# rjzpfyGm;ap&ef
umuG,fwm;jrpf/ a&Smif&Sm;I jidrf;csrf;a&;udk xlaxmifwnfaqmuf&rnf?
e0rt*Fg ? cEDW - pdwfvuf&Snfjcif;/ atmifhtnf;jcif;/ onf;nnf;cH&jcif;/ em;vnfr_&dSjcif;/ tcuftcJrsm;/ 'kuQ
qif;&Jrsm;ESifh rxDrJhjrifðyr_/ apmfum;&efpr_rsm;udk trsufa'gorxGufbJ &ifqdkifEdkif&rnf?
onf;cHEdkif&rnf?
'or t*Fg ? t0da&m" - rqef@usifjcif;/ rydwfyifjcif;/ vltrsm;. qENoabmudk rqef@usif&? vltrsm;twGuf
tusdK;&dSaprnfh vkyfief;aqmifwmrsm;udk rydwfyif/ rwm;qD;&? wdkif;oljynfom;
vltrsm;ESihf oabmnD!GwfpGm tkyfcsKyf&rnf [k qdkvkdonf? 1
txufyg rif;usifhw&m;rsm;ESihftnD tkyfcsKyfaom wdkif;jynfonf pnfyifom,m0ajymrnfudk txl;
azmfjy&ef rvdkay? Todk@ tajctaerdsK;onf pdwful;ESihfom vGrf;&rnfh ‘avxJwGif aqmufonfh wdkuftfdrf’
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? Tae&mY ‘yOPoDv’ rlig;csufyg0ifaom tdENd,jynf. EdkifiHjcm;a&;0g'onf Ak'<0g'D {u&mZfbk&if}uD; taomu u bDpD 3
&mpk ESpfwGif wdkif;jynftkyfcsKyfpDrH&mY vufpJGjyKcJhaom Ak'<rl0g'rsm;ESifh udkufnDaeonfrSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,f jzpfayonf?
‘yOPoDv’ qdkaom pum;vHk;rsm;yifv#if Ak'<0g' toHk;tEH_;jzpfayonf?

84

Ak'<a'oemESifh ,ae@urBm

r[kwfygay? a&S;acwftcgrsm;Y tdEdN,jynfrS taomubk&ifuJhodk@ rif;usifhw&m;rsm;udk tajccHI tkyfcsKyfcJh
aom bk&ifrsm;&dScJh=uayonf?
,ae@ urBm@vlom;rsm;onf tpOftjrJ pdk;&drfxdwfvef@ wkefv_yfae=u.? urBm@tajctaeonf
wif;rmae.? ody`Hynmuvnf; twdkif;rod acsr_ef;Edkifaom ppfrufvufeufrsm;udk xkwfaqmifay;v#uf
&dS.? Taorif;wref vufeufopf/ vufeufqef;rsm;udk 0ifhum0ifhumjzifh tiftm;}uD;EdkifiHrsm;onf wpfOD;
ESifhwpfOD; jcdfrf;ajcmufum/ pdfefac:um EdkifiHwpfEkdifiHu tjcm;EdkifiHwpfEdkifiHxuf urBm}uD;wGif tzsuftqD;rsm;
ydkrdkðyvkyfEdkifonf/ twd'kuQrsm; ydkrdkusa&mufapEdkifonf[k t&SufrJhpGm ºum;0gv#uf &dS=uonf?
,if;wkd@onf Todk@rdkuf&l;&Jvrf;pOftwdkif; ðyrlaqmif&Gufae=u&mwGif a&S@odk@wdk;I ajcwpfvSrf;r#
vSrf;ygu tcsif;csif; acsr_ef;ypf=u&Hkomru vlom;tm;vHk; ysufokOf;oGm;rnfh tajcodk@ a&muf&dS=uay
awmhrnf?
vlom;wdk@onf b,folrðyrdrdr_/ rdrdw@kd ðyvkyfzefwD;xm;aom tajctaeudk jyefvnf pdk;&drfxdwfvef@
ae&um; ,if;tajctaerS vGwfajrmuf&ef xGufayguf&Smae=u.? tajzwpfckckudk &Sm}uHv#uf &dS=u.? olw@kd
onf Ak'<u xkwfazmfjyxm;aom tajzrSwpfyg; tjcm;touf&ª ayguf awG@&dSEkdifrnf r[kwfay? Ak'<.
enf;vrf;rSm t=urf;zufr_ uif;aom jifdrf;csrf;a&;0g'udk vufukdifðyI arwWm/ u&k%m xm;aom onf;cHr_/
em;vnfr_&dSaom/ trSefw&m;pJGudkifI ^m%fynmESihf jynfhpkHaom/ ouf&dSowW0g tm;vHk;tay: !Smwm
axmufxm;aom/ wpfudk,faumif;pdwfxm;/ rkef;wD;trsufyGm;jcif;/ t=urf;zufjcif;wdk@rS vHk;0uif;&Sif;aom
vrf;pOfjzpfayonf?
‘&efudk &efwHk@rljcif;tm;jzifh b,ftcgr# rjidrf;ukef? &efw@kH rrlbJ =uifempdwf xm;jcif;jzifh jidrf;ukef.?
Tum; a&S;tpOftvm "rRwmaywnf;?’ [k jrwfpGmbk&m; rdef@=um;awmfrlonf? 1
‘trsufxGufaomoludk trsufrxGufjcif; (arwWmxm;jcif;) jzifh atmif&m.? raumif;aomolukd
aumif;aomoabmjzifh atmif&m.? ESajrm0efwkdaomolukd ay;urfjcif;jzifh atmif&m.? r[kwfrrSef ajymqdk
aomoludk rSefaompum;jzifh atmif&m.?’ 2
rdrd. tdrfeD;csif;tay: EdkifhxufpD;eif;ðyvkyfI atmifEkdifr_ &vdkpdwfjyif;jyaeonfh wpfpHkwpfa,muf
aomolY aysmf&$ifcsrf;omr_/ jidrf;csrf;r_ r&&dSEkdifay? ‘tEdkif&aomolrSm &efrsm;.? trkef;yGm;.? t&_H;cH&aom
olonf qif;&JòijiifpGm ae&.? atmifjcif;/ &H_;jcif; oabmESpfyg;ukd y,f&Sm;olonf at;jidfrf; csrf;ompGm
ae&.?’[k jrwfpGmbk&m; rdef@¹rufawmfrlonf? 3
jidrf;csrf;jcif;ESifh aysmf&$ifjcif;udk aqmif,lEkdifaom wpfckwnf;aom atmifEdkifr_onf rdrdukd,frdrd
atmifEdkifr_omv#if jzpfonf? ‘ppfajrjyifY &efol odef;oef;udk atmifEdkif&m.? odk@&mwGif rdrdwpfukd,fwnf;
udkom atmifEdkifolonf atmifEdkifolrsm;wGif txl;uJqkH;jzpfonfh AdkvfcsKyfjzpf.?’ 4
TY txufazmfjyyg enf;vrf;oabmw&m;rsm;onf vGefpGmaumif;rGefygayonf? odrfarG@jrifhjrwf
ygayonf? odk@&mwGif vufawG@usihfokH;I rjzpfEkdifyg[k ajymqdkaumif; ajymqdk=uvdrhfrnf? Tod@k ajymv#if
wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; rkef;wD;jcif;udk vufawG@ usihfokH;oifhygoavm/ wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; owfjzwfjcif;udk vufawG@
usifhoHk; oifhygoavm? awmwGif;rS awm&dkif;wd&p>mefrsm;uJho@kd tpOfojzifh pdk;&drfxdwfvef@pGm ae&jcif;onf
oifhjrwfygoavm/ Todk@aexdkif&jcif;onf udk,fpdwfESpfjzm csrf;omr_ukd ydkI ay;ygoavm? &efvdkrkef;wD;jcif;
udk &efvdkrkef;wD;jcif;jzifh rnfonfhtcgu jidrf;at;EdkifcJhayoenf;? raumif;r_udk rnfonfhtcgu raumif;r_
jzifh atmifEkdifcJhzl;ygoenf; [lI ar;cGef;xkwf&ayvdfrhfrnf?
rkef;wD;vdkjcif;udk arwWmxm;jcif;/ =uifemr_jyjcif;jzifh jidrf;cJh&yHkrsm;/ raumif;r_udk aumif;onfh oabm
jzifh atmifEdkifcJhyHkrsm;udk ukd,fawG@/ tawG@tñuH/ Oyrm trsm;tjym; xkwfjyEdkifayonf? wpfOD;p ESpfOD;p
twGuf vufawG@usifhoHk;I jzpfaumif;jzpfEkdifayvdrfhrnf? od@k &mwGif wpfrsd K;om;vHk;qdkif&m/ EkdifiHwumqdkif&m
ta&;tcif;rsm;Y vufawG@jzpfEdkifrnfr[kwf[k ajym=um;ayvdrhfrnf? ‘wdkif;jynf’/ ‘trdsK;om;’ qdkonfrSm
--------------------------------------------------------------------------1? "rRy' 1/ 5?

2? "rRy' 17/ 3?

3? "rRy' 15/ 5?

4? "rRy' 8/ 4?

85

Ak'<a'oemESifh ,ae@urBm

tb,fenf;? vlwpfOD;pD/ wpfOD;pD pkaygif;yg0ifaom }uD;rm;onfh vlpk/ vltkyf}uD;yif r[kwfygavm? wdkif;jynf
odk@r[kwf wdkif;EdkifiHu tr_udpPaqmif&Gufonf r[kwfay? vlwpfOD;pD/ wpfOD;pDuom cyfodrf;aomtr_udpP udk
aqmif&Gufjcif;jzpfonf? yk*d~KvfwpfOD;pD. awG;awm}uHqr_/ ðyrlaqmif&Gufr_onf wpfrdsK;om;vHk; wpfwdkif;jynf
vHk;. awG;awm}uHqr_/ ðyrlaqmif&Gufr_ jzpfvmayonf? vlwpfOD;wpfa,muftwGuf jzpfEdkifv#if wpfrsd K;
om;vHk;/ wpfwdkif;jynfvHk;twGufvnf; jzpfEdkifayonf? rkef;wD;/ &efòi;xm;jcif;udk arwWmpdwf/ =uifempdwf jzifh
vlwpfOD;wpfa,muftaejzifh jidrf;apEdkifv#if trSefpifppf/ wpfrsd K;om;vHk;/ wpfurBmvHk; twdkif;twmYvnf;
jzpfajrmufEdkifrnfom jzpfonf? vlwpfOD;wpfa,muftwGufyifv#if rkef;wD;/ &efòi;xm;jcif;udk =uifempdwfjzifh
&ifqdkifEdkif&ef }uD;rm;aom owWd/ AswdW&Sd&ef vdkI udk,fusihfw&m;. pGrf;&nfowWdwGif ,Hk=unfr_ &dS&ayrnf?
xdk@a=umifh tjynfjynfqdkif&mta&;tcif;rsm;wGif udk,fusihfw&m;.pGrf;tifY ,Hk=unfr_ydkrdkrsm;jym;
&rnfrSm xif&Sm;ayonf? vufawG@ rusifhoHk;Edkif[k oHk;EH_;ajymqdk&mwGif ‘rvG,fulyg’ [kqkdygu vGefpGm
rSefuefayonf? [kwfygonf? trSefyifrvG,fulyg? od@k aomfvnf; Tenf;vrf;udk prf;oyf toHk;ðy=unfhoifh
ayjyD? Todk@pGef@pm;toHk;ðy=unfhv#if tEW&m,frsm;vSonf [k qdkayvdrfhrnf? trSefpifppf Tenf;vrf;jzifh
prf;oyfjcif;onf EsL;uvD;,m;ppfyJGjzifh prf;oyfjcif;xuf tEW&m,fydkrdk rsm;jym;EkdifzG,f r&dSyg?
us,fjyef@aom tifyg,m}uD;wpfckvkH;udk tkyfcsKyfcJh&mwGif jynfwGif;a&;&mwGif vnf;aumif;/ jynfy
a&;&mwGif vnf;aumif;/ t=urf;rzuf/ jidrf;csrf;I arwWma&S;&_onfh w&m;enf;vrf;udk ,Hk,kH=unf=unf
owWd&dS&dSjzifh vdkufemaqmif&Guf&ef tjrif&SdcJhaom ordkif;wGif xif&Sm;ausmf=um;aom bk&if}uD;wpfyg; &dScJhzl;
a=umif; jyefvnfawG;awm owdðyv#if ab;'kuQESihf &ifqkdifae&aom rsufarSmufavmu}uD; twGuf
pdwfoufomzG,f/ &$ifvef;tm;wufzG,f jzpfayonf? Tbk&ifum; “a'0geHyd,wd\ ] ewfwdk@cspfjrwfEdk;ol”
[k trnfwGifaom tdEdN,jynfrS Ak'<0g'D {u&mZfbk&if taomuyif jzpfayonf? (bDpD 3 &mpkESpf)?
a&S;OD;yxrY taomubk&if}uD;onf crnf;awmf AdENKom&/ bdk;awmf pEN*kwfrif;}uD;wdk@. ajc&mudk
vdkufI tdEdN,usGef;qG,fwpfckvHk;udk tjyD;tydkif pdk;rdk;ydkifo&ef qENjyif;jyawmfrlcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh uvd*Fwkdif;
jynfudk atmifjrifpGm 0ifa&mufwdkufckdufI vuf&odrf;ydkufawmfrlavonf? &maygif;/ axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom
vltaygif;wdk@ aoa=uysufpD;=uukef.? xdckduf'%f&m &=uukef.? !SOf;yef;EdSyfpufjcif;cH&I ppfo@kH yef;rsm;
jzpf=u&ukef.?
aemifwGif taomubk&if}uD;onf Ak'<bmom0ifwpfOD; jzpfvmaomtcg Ak'<. w&m;"rRrsm;a=umifh
vHk;0ajymif;vJ oGm;cJhavonf? ausmufay:wGif xkxGif;xm;onfh ol.xif&Sm;aom trdef@jyefwrf;rsm;teuf
rS (,cktcg taomuausmufpm trSwf 13 [k ac:wGifI rl&if;twdkif; ,ae@zwfEfkdif=uao;onfh) jyefwrf;
wpfckwGif uvd*Fwdkif;udk wdkufcdkufodrf;ydkufjcif;ESihf ywfoufI {u&mZf bk&if}uD;u vlod&Sif=um; 0rf;enf;
aemifw&a=umif; xkwfazmfajymjyI ,if;&ufpuf=urf;ñuwfaom vlowfyJG}uD;udk awG;rdwdkif; vGefpGmpdwfxd
cdkufjyD; oHa0* &onf [k ¹ruf=um;xm;onf? rnfonfh rw&m;odrf;ydkuf pdk;tkyfr_rdsK;twGufr# ol. vufokH;
awmf "m;udk pJGudkifawmhrnf r[kwf[k vlod&Sif=um; a=ujimjyD;aemuf cyfodrf;aom owW0gtaygif;tm;
ab;&efuif;&Sif;ap&ef rdrdudk,frdrd xdef;odrf;Edkif=uap&efESihf wnfjidrfat;csrf;pGm aexdkifusifhokH;Ekdif=u&ef qEN
ðyawmfrlavonf?
a'0geHyd,wd\ rif;}uD;. atmifEkdifr_rsm;wGif T ("rR0dZ,) ] w&m;jzifh atmifEdkifjcif;onf
t}uD;qHk; trGefjrwfqHk; atmifEdkifr_[k ,lq=uonf? ppfrufa&;&mwdkufcdkufr_rsm;udk udk,fawmfwdkif pGef@v$wf
onfomr[kwfao;? “usGEfkyf. om;awmfrsm;ESihf ajr;awmfrsm;vnf; wdkif;opfjynfopf wdkufcdkufodrf;ydkuf
jcif;udk óu;yrf;&&dStyfaom atmifEdkifr_ [lI r,lq=uapukefvifh/ w&m;"rRjzifh atmifEkdif&aom atmifEdkifr_
rdsK;udkom awG;awm=uukef/ Tonfom rsufarSmufavmuESihf wrvGefb0twGuf aumif;jrwfayonf” [k
azmfjyxm;cJhayonf?
Tum; atmifjrifr_&v#uf&Sdaom atmifEkdifol wpfOD;onf rdrd. wefcdk;tm%m txGwftxdyf
a&mufcsdfef/ wdkif;jynfEdkifiHrsm;udk qufvufodrf;ydkufEkdif&ef tiftm; tjynfht0&dSqJ tcsdeftcgY ppfruf
zufðydifa&;/ t=urf;ðya&;wkd@udk pGef@v$wfI jidrf;csrf;a&;ESihf t=urf;rzuf0g'odk@ ajymif;vJoGm;aom vl@ordkif;

86

Ak'<a'oemESifh ,ae@urBm

wpfav#mufrS wpfckwnf;aom erlemjzpf&yf jzpfayonf?
Tjzpf&yfrS ,ae@urBm}uD;onf oifcef;pm xkwf,loifhayonf? tifyg&mEdkifiH}uD;. {u&mZfbk&if
}uD;onf ppfrufvufeufpJGudkifjcif;ESihf &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfr_rsm;udk ausmcdkif;jyD;aemuf jidrf;csrf;a&;w&m;/
arwWmw&m;wdk@udk &if0,fydkufvdkufa=umif; vltaygif;wd@k tm; xif&Sm;pGm odapav.? TuJhodk@ tmaomu
bk&if}uD;u w&m;vufudkifðyoGm;onfhtwGuf rnfonfhteD;tem; EdkifiHurS tcGihfaumif;,lI ol@tm; ppf
rufa&;&mt& wdkufcdkufvmonf [lIvnf;aumif;/ ol@wpfoufwmvHk; ol. tifyg&mtwGif;Y awmfvSef
xºuykefuefr_rsm; jzpfyGm;cJhonf [lIvnf;aumif; ordkif;taxmuftxm; vHk;0 rawG@&ay? ol. EdkifiHawmf
twGif;Y at;csrf;om,m pnfyif0ajymv#uf tifyg&mjyifyrS EdkifiHrsm;uyif ol. w&m;ESihfjynfh0aom acgif;
aqmifr_udk vufcHI opPmawmfudk cH,l=uonf[kom ordkif;wGifawG@&onf?
EdkifiHtoD;oD;onf tiftm;csdefcGifv#m r#wapjcif;jzifh vnf;aumif;/ EsL;uvD;,m;vufeufjzifh jcdrf;
ajcmufIvnf;aumif;/ jidrf;csrf;a&;udk wnfjrJaprnf[k ajymqdkjcif;onf rdkufrJr_omjzpfonf? qifjcifwkHw&m;
uif;rJhjcif;om jzpfonf? ppfrufvufeufrsm;. }uD;rm;aom tiftm;onf a=umuf&HG@xdwfvef@r_udkom jzpf
apI jidrf;csrf;r_udk jzpfapEdkfifrnf r[kwfacs? xdwfvef@a=umuf&@GH apjcif;jzifh ppfrSefI wnfwhHaom jidrf;csrf;r_ &&dS
&ef rjzpfEkdifacs? a=umuf&GH@jcif;a=umifh rkef;wD;&efòi;xm;jcif;/ raumif;aompdwf xm;jcif;/ &efpG,fyGm;rsm;jcif;
wdk@om jzpfay:Edkifayonf? Traumif;aom pdwfxm;rsm;udk acwW,m,Dr# zdEdSyfxm;Edkifaomfvnf; ,if;wd@k
onf tcsdefra&G; jyif;xefvm&ef/ aygufuJGxGuf&ef wmplae=uayvdrhfrnf? ppfrSefaom jidrf;csrf;a&;onf xdwf
vef@ pdk;&drfr_uif;I ab;tEW&m,frS vGwfuif;aom arwWmESifh cspf=unfr_wdk@ ysH@ESH@wnf&SdrSom jzpfay:
Edkfifayonf?
Ak'<0g'onf ysufpD;qHk;&H_;jcif;udk jzpfapaom tiftm;òyifqdkifr_rsm;udk pGe@f v$wfonfh vl@tzJ@G tpnf;udk
wnfaxmif&ef &nfrSef;onf? ,if;tzJ@G tpnf;wGif atmifEkdifr_r&dS/ qHk;&H_;r_r&dS/ at;csrf;om,m0ajymr_om
wnf&dSrnf? tjypfr&dSolwdk@tm; EdSyfpuf!SOf;yef;jcif;udk jyif;xefpGm uef@uGuf&_wfcsrnf? ppfrufvufeufenf;/
pD;yGm;a&;enf;rsm;jzifh vloef;aygif;rsm;pGmwd@k tay: tEkdif,lolrsm;xuf rdrdudk,frdrd atmifEkdifolrsm;udk ydkrkd
av;pm; wefzdk;xm;rnf? a'gotrsufudk arwWmjzifh atmifEkdifI/ raumif;r_udk aumif;r_jzifh atmifEdkifrnf?
,if;vl@tzJG@tpnf;wGif rkef;wD;jcif;/ remvkd0efwdkjcif;/ raumif;aompdwfxm;jcif;ESihf 0doravmbwdk@onf
vlom;wdk@. pdwfudk rzsufqD;=uawmhay? t&m&m tr_udpPukd =uifemoem;pdwfjzifhom aqmif&GufI cyfodrf;
aom ouf&dSowW0gwdk@tm; w&m;r#w/ iJh!Smaxmufxm;um arwWmpdwfjzifh ðypkapmifha&Smufrnf?
,if; vl@abmifavmuY vltaygif;wdk@onf tcsif;csif; jidrf;csrf;nD!Gwf=uI wif;wdrfa&mifh&Jr_
&dS&um; tjrifhrm;qHk;/ tjrifhjrwfqHk; &nfrSef;csufjzpfonfh yuwdopPm edAŠmefudkom rsufarSmufðy&ef a&S;&_
aqmif&Guf aexdkif=uayvdrfhrnf? ?
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

87

rl&if;pmtkyfwGif udk;um;xm;aom usrf;rsm;pm&if;

1? vef'efygVdawmfpmaytoif;}uD;rS xkwfa0onfhpmrlrsm;? (ywp)?
2? t*FkwW& edum,?
wnf;jzwfol a'0rdwWax& (udkvHbkd/ 1929) ESihf (ywp) rlrsm;?
3? tbd"rR orkpP,?
a&;ol to*F/ wnf;jzwfol y&'ef (0pPA&wd/ oEdWedauwH/ 1950)?
4? 'DCedum,? wnf;jzwfol emem0goax& (udkvHbkd/ 1929)?
5? 'DCedum, tÏuxm/ okr*Fv0dvmodeD
(qdkifrGefa[0g? 0gwm&feD tarGay; pmpkrsm;)?
6? "rRy'? wnf;jzwfol au "rR&weax& (udkvHbkd/ 1926)?
7? "rRy' tÏuxm? (ywp)?
8? vuFm0wm& okwW? wnf;jzwfol eef*Dstdk (udsKwdk/ 1923)?
9? rZdÆredum,? (ywp)?
10? rZdÆredum, tÏuxm/ yyOPol'eD (ywp)?
11? rm"smrdu um&dum?
a&;ol em*gZle? wnf;jzwfol 'DvmaAmav;ylqif; (Ak'<0if twJG 4)?
12? 0de,r[m0*~? wnf;jzwfol o'<gwd\ax& (tvGwf*gr 1922)?
13? y&rwˆaZmwdum (ywp)?
14? oH,kwWedum, (ywp)?
15? om&wˆy`umodeD (ywp)?
16? okwWedygw (ywp)?
17? O'ge (udkvHbdk/ 1929)?
18? 0db*F (ywp)?
19? 0dok'<dr*~ (ywp)?
ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp

88