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Estimation of Two-Dimension Tool WearBased on Finite Element Method

Estimation of Two-Dimension Tool WearBased on Finite Element Method

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Sections

  • Chapter 1 Introduction
  • 1.1 State Of Art: Finite Element Simulation Of Cutting Process
  • 1.1.1 Numerical Aspects
  • 1.1.1.1 Approach
  • 1.1.1.2 Mesh Adaptivity
  • 1.1.2 Mechanical Aspects
  • 1.1.2.1 Contact And Friction
  • 1.1.2.2 Material Constitutive Model
  • 1.1.2.3 Chip Separation
  • 1.2 Technical Background About Tool Wear
  • 1.2.1 Wear Types In Metal Cutting
  • 1.2.2 Wear Mechanism
  • 1.2.3 Tool Wear Model
  • 1.3 Research Of Tool Wear With Finite Element Methods
  • 1.3.1 Comparison Between FEM Method And Empirical Method
  • 1.3.2 State Of Art: Numerical Implementation Of Tool Wear Estimation
  • 1.3.2.2 Tool Wear Estimation With FEM
  • 1.3.2.3 Summary Of Literature
  • Chapter 2 Objective And Approach
  • 2.1 Objectives
  • 2.2 Approach
  • Chapter 3 Chip Formation Simulation Technology
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.1.1 Explicit Algorithm In Chip Formation Simulation
  • 3.1.1.1 Dynamic Analysis Procedure
  • 3.1.1.2 Thermal Analysis Procedure
  • 3.1.2 Stability Limit
  • 3.2 Continuous Chip Formation Simulation
  • 3.2.1 Limitation Of The Existing Chip Formation Models
  • 3.2.2 Advantages Of The New-developed Chip Formation Model
  • 3.2.3.1 Boundary Region Types
  • 3.2.3.2 Geometry Features
  • 3.2.3.3 Curvature Refinement
  • 3.2.4 Analysis Steps
  • 3.2.4.1 Initial Chip Formation
  • 3.2.4.3 Continuous Steady-state Chip Formation
  • 3.2.5 Results & Discussion
  • 3.2.5.1 Stress Analysis
  • 3.2.5.2 Plastic Strain Analysis
  • 3.2.5.3 Strain Rate
  • 3.2.5.4 Temperature Analysis
  • 3.2.5.5 Verification With Experimental Data
  • 3.3 Chip Formation Simulation For Milling Operation
  • 3.3.1 Chip Separation
  • 3.3.1.1 Shear Failure Criterion
  • 3.3.1.2 A Numerical Method To Determine Strain At Failure
  • 3.3.2 Chip Formation Modeling
  • 3.3.3 Result & Discussion
  • 3.3.3.1 Stress Analysis
  • 3.3.3.2 Cutting Temperature
  • 3.3.3.3 Cutting Force Analysis
  • 3.4 Summaries & Conclusion
  • Chapter 4 Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 General Considerations
  • 4.2.1 Geometry And Mesh
  • 4.2.2 Heat Flux
  • 4.3 In Turning Operation
  • 4.3.1 Modeling
  • 4.3.2 Results & Discussion
  • 4.4 In Milling Operation
  • 4.4.1 On Workpiece
  • 4.4.1.1 Modelling
  • 4.4.1.2 Results & Discussion
  • 4.4.2 On Tool
  • 4.4.2.1 Modeling
  • 4.4.2.2 Results & Discussion
  • 4.4.2.3 Application Of Preheated Cutting Tool
  • 4.5 Summaries & Conclusion
  • Chapter 5 Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Tool Wear Calculation Program Design
  • 5.3 Modeling Procedure
  • 5.3.1 Chip Formation And Heat Transfer Analysis
  • 5.3.1.1 Normal Pressure
  • 5.3.1.2 Sliding Velocity
  • 5.3.1.3 Tool Temperature
  • 5.3.2 Wear Rate Calculation
  • 5.3.3 Nodal Move Direction
  • 5.3.3.1 Dividing Node
  • 5.3.3.2 On Rake Face
  • 5.3.3.3 On Flank Face
  • 5.3.4 Cutting Time Increment Calculation
  • 5.3.4.1 Flank Wear Calculation Subroutine
  • 5.3.4.2 Cutting Time Increment Searching Procedure
  • 5.3.5 Nodal Displacement
  • 5.3.6 Tool Geometry Updating
  • 5.3.6.1 Step 1: Initial Tool Wear Profile
  • 5.3.6.2 Step 2: Adjustment
  • 5.4 Results & Discussion
  • 5.4.1 Tool Wear
  • 5.5 Summaries & Conclusion
  • Chapter 6 Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Tool Wear Calculation Program Design
  • 6.3 Modeling Procedure
  • 6.3.1 Chip Formation Analysis
  • 6.3.2 Heat Transfer Analysis
  • 6.3.3 Nodal Average Wear Rate Calculation
  • 6.3.3.1 Discussion About The Calculation Method Of Nodal Average Wear Rate
  • 6.3.3.2 Classification Of Workpiece Node
  • 6.3.4 Nodal Move Direction
  • 6.3.4.1 Dividing Node
  • 6.3.4.2 On Rake Face
  • 6.3.4.3 On Flank Face
  • 6.3.5 Cutting Time Increment Calculation
  • 6.3.5.1 Flank Wear Calculation Subroutine
  • 6.3.5.2 Cutting Time Increment Searching Procedure
  • 6.3.6 Tool Geometry Updating
  • 6.4 Results & Discussion
  • 6.5 Summaries & Conclusion
  • Chapter 7 Summary And Prospect
  • 7.1 Summaries
  • 7.2 Prospect
  • References

Lijing Xie

Forschungsberichte aus dem
wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik
Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
Estimation Of Two-dimension Tool Wear
Based On Finite Element Method
Forschungsberichte aus dem
wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik
Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
Hrsg.: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Fleischer
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hartmut Weule
Lijing Xie
Estimation Of Two-dimension Tool Wear
Based On Finite Element Method
ISSN 0724-4967
Band 120
© wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik
Universität Karlsruhe (TH)

alle Rechte vorbehalten

Druck: Schnelldruck Ernst Grässer, Karlsruhe
Tel: 0721/61 50 50

ISSN 0724-4967



Vorwort des Herausgebers
Der rasche Fortschritt der Produktionstechnik und der weltweite Wettbewerb um
technisch-wirtschaftliche Spitzenpositionen machen einen intensiven Austausch von
Wissen und Erfahrung zwischen Universitäten und der Industrie erforderlich. In die-
sem Sinne soll im Rahmen dieser Schriftenreihe in zwangloser Folge über aktuelle
Forschungsergebnisse des Instituts für Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebstechnik der
Universität Karlsruhe berichtet werden.
Die Forschungsaktivitäten des Instituts umfassen neben der Untersuchung und Opti-
mierung von Bearbeitungsverfahren, Maschinenkomponenten und Fer-
tigungseinrichtungen insbesondere Aufgabenstellungen, die durch Nutzung
informationsverarbeitender Systeme eine Verbesserung der Leistungsfähigkeit
fertigungstechnischer Einrichtungen und deren informationstechnisch-
organisatorische Einbindung in automatisierte Produktionssysteme ermöglichen.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Fleischer Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hartmut Weule

Estimation Of Two-dimension Tool Wear Based on Finite
Element Method




Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
Doktors der Ingenieurwissenschaften
von der Fakultät für Maschinenbau
der Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
genehmigte

Dissertation

von
M. Sc. Lijing Xie
aus China

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 05. 02. 2004
Hauptreferent: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Schmidt
Korreferent: o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dieter Spath
Acknowledgement



The present research work was carried out at Institut für Produktionstechnik (WBK) in
University of Karlsruhe (TH) since Nov. 2000. The last three years has been a
precious experience for me, with excellent learning, intense research work and
interesting activities. I feel very fortunate to have an opportunity to concentrate on the
interesting research field of manufacturing industry and get to know so intelligent,
friendly, and active persons. In this period, I get uncountable unselfish help from
them.

I would like to express my thanks to Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hartmut Weule and o. Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Jürgen Fleischer for their kindly concern in my living and work.

Especially, I want to express my deepest appreciation and thanks to my supervisors,
o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Schmidt and o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dieter Spath, for their support,
their careful reviews of my papers and dissertation, and their highly appreciated
instruction.

Thanks to Prof. Siqin Pang and Prof. Xibin Wang for their constantly encouragement
and help.

This thesis is finished under the cooperation with scientists in Institut für Werkstoffe I,
special thanks are given to Dipl.-Ing. Frank Biesinger for kindly offering the
developed material subroutine.

Thanks to all the members in group FT, I was touched by their friendship. Especially,
Mr. Dr.-Ing. Jörg Söhner, Mr. Dipl.-Ing. Carsten Schmidt and Mr. M. Sc. Anurag Jain
for the helpful suggestion and discussion in the research and help in personal living.

Thanks to all the members in the institute for the unforgettable happy time in the past
three years, especially Dr.-Ing. Ivan Tzitzelkov for solving many problems in my
simulation work, Mr. Michael Heinz for the warm-hearted assist and patient
instruction in my experiment work, Mr. Klaus Simon for offering instruction about
measuring basic knowledge and helping me to look for the best measuring method,
Mr. Thomas Hildenbrand for preparing experimental condition and troubleshooting in
the turning experiment. Thanks to Mrs. Margarethe Schüßler for teaching me
Deutsch language voluntarily.

At last, I want to thanks my husband, Dan, and my family and Dan’s for their love and
support. They give me the strength over all the problems in my research.







Karlsruhe, in December 2003 Lijing Xie
Table of Contents I
Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction.............................................................................. 1
1.1 State Of Art: Finite Element Simulation Of Cutting Process.................................. 3
1.1.1 Numerical Aspects................................................................................................. 5
1.1.1.1 Approach ......................................................................................................... 5
1.1.1.2 Mesh Adaptivity .............................................................................................. 6
1.1.2 Mechanical Aspects .............................................................................................. 8
1.1.2.1 Contact And Friction ...................................................................................... 8
1.1.2.2 Material Constitutive Model ........................................................................ 11
1.1.2.3 Chip Separation............................................................................................ 13
1.2 Technical Background About Tool Wear................................................................. 16
1.2.1 Wear Types In Metal Cutting ............................................................................. 17
1.2.2 Wear Mechanism................................................................................................. 18
1.2.3 Tool Wear Model ................................................................................................. 19
1.3 Research Of Tool Wear With Finite Element Methods......................................... 22
1.3.1 Comparison Between FEM Method And Empirical Method ......................... 22
1.3.2 State Of Art: Numerical Implementation Of Tool Wear Estimation.............. 24
1.3.2.1 Tool Wear Estimation With The Combination Of Analytical Method And
FDM............................................................................................................................. 24
1.3.2.2 Tool Wear Estimation With FEM................................................................ 27
1.3.2.3 Summary Of Literature................................................................................ 29

Chapter 2 Objective And Approach........................................................ 31
2.1 Objectives..................................................................................................................... 31
2.2 Approach...................................................................................................................... 32

Chapter 3 Chip Formation Simulation Technology................................. 34
3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 34
3.1.1 Explicit Algorithm In Chip Formation Simulation............................................. 34
3.1.1.1 Dynamic Analysis Procedure ..................................................................... 34
3.1.1.2 Thermal Analysis Procedure ...................................................................... 35
3.1.2 Stability Limit ........................................................................................................ 36
3.2 Continuous Chip Formation Simulation................................................................... 37
Table of Contents II
3.2.1 Limitation Of The Existing Chip Formation Models........................................ 37
3.2.2 Advantages Of The New-developed Chip Formation Model ........................ 39
3.2.3 Adaptive Meshing Technique In ABAQUS/Explicit ........................................ 40
3.2.3.1 Boundary Region Types.............................................................................. 40
3.2.3.2 Geometry Features...................................................................................... 41
3.2.3.3 Curvature Refinement ................................................................................. 41
3.2.4 Analysis Steps...................................................................................................... 42
3.2.4.1 Initial Chip Formation................................................................................... 43
3.2.4.2 Chip Growth .................................................................................................. 45
3.2.4.3 Continuous Steady-state Chip Formation ................................................ 45
3.2.5 Results & Discussion .......................................................................................... 48
3.2.5.1 Stress Analysis ............................................................................................. 48
3.2.5.2 Plastic Strain Analysis ................................................................................. 49
3.2.5.3 Strain Rate..................................................................................................... 50
3.2.5.4 Temperature Analysis.................................................................................. 51
3.2.5.5 Verification With Experimental Data.......................................................... 53
3.3 Chip Formation Simulation For Milling Operation.................................................. 54
3.3.1 Chip Separation ................................................................................................... 55
3.3.1.1 Shear Failure Criterion ................................................................................ 55
3.3.1.2 A Numerical Method To Determine Strain At Failure............................. 56
3.3.2 Chip Formation Modeling ................................................................................... 58
3.3.3 Result & Discussion ............................................................................................ 59
3.3.3.1 Stress Analysis ............................................................................................. 59
3.3.3.2 Cutting Temperature.................................................................................... 61
3.3.3.3 Cutting Force Analysis................................................................................. 62
3.4 Summaries & Conclusion .......................................................................................... 63

Chapter 4 Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting ................................ 64
4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 64
4.2 General Considerations ............................................................................................. 64
4.2.1 Geometry And Mesh ........................................................................................... 64
4.2.2 Heat Flux............................................................................................................... 65
4.3 In Turning Operation................................................................................................... 66
4.3.1 Modelling............................................................................................................... 66
Table of Contents III
4.3.2 Results & Discussion .......................................................................................... 68
4.4 In Milling Operation..................................................................................................... 70
4.4.1 On Workpiece....................................................................................................... 70
4.4.1.1 Modelling ....................................................................................................... 70
4.4.1.2 Results & Discussion................................................................................... 72
4.4.2 On Tool.................................................................................................................. 73
4.4.2.1 Modelling ....................................................................................................... 73
4.4.2.2 Results & Discussion................................................................................... 75
4.4.2.3 Application Of Preheated Cutting Tool ..................................................... 77
4.5 Summaries & Conclusion .......................................................................................... 81

Chapter 5 Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation...................... 82
5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 82
5.2 Tool Wear Calculation Program Design.................................................................. 82
5.3 Modelling Procedure................................................................................................... 83
5.3.1 Chip Formation And Heat Transfer Analysis................................................... 84
5.3.1.1 Normal Pressure........................................................................................... 84
5.3.1.2 Sliding Velocity ............................................................................................. 84
5.3.1.3 Tool Temperature......................................................................................... 86
5.3.2 Wear Rate Calculation........................................................................................ 86
5.3.3 Nodal Move Direction.......................................................................................... 86
5.3.3.1 Dividing Node................................................................................................ 87
5.3.3.2 On Rake Face............................................................................................... 87
5.3.3.3 On Flank Face .............................................................................................. 88
5.3.4 Cutting Time Increment Calculation ................................................................. 89
5.3.4.1 Flank Wear Calculation Subroutine........................................................... 90
5.3.4.2 Cutting Time Increment Searching Procedure ........................................ 90
5.3.5 Nodal Displacement ............................................................................................ 91
5.3.6 Tool Geometry Updating .................................................................................... 92
5.3.6.1 Step 1: Initial Tool Wear Profile ................................................................. 92
5.3.6.2 Step 2: Adjustment....................................................................................... 93
5.4 Results & Discussion.................................................................................................. 94
5.4.1 Tool Wear ............................................................................................................. 94
5.5 Summaries & Conclusion .......................................................................................... 97
Table of Contents IV

Chapter 6 Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation........................ 98
6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 98
6.2 Tool Wear Calculation Program Design.................................................................. 99
6.3 Modelling Procedure................................................................................................. 101
6.3.1 Chip Formation Analysis................................................................................... 101
6.3.2 Heat Transfer Analysis ..................................................................................... 103
6.3.3 Nodal Average Wear Rate Calculation .......................................................... 103
6.3.3.1 Discussion About The Calculation Method Of Nodal Average Wear
Rate ........................................................................................................................... 103
6.3.3.2 Classification Of Workpiece Node........................................................... 105
6.3.4 Nodal Move Direction........................................................................................ 107
6.3.4.1 Dividing Node.............................................................................................. 107
6.3.4.2 On Rake Face............................................................................................. 108
6.3.4.3 On Flank Face ............................................................................................ 108
6.3.5 Cutting Time Increment Calculation ............................................................... 108
6.3.5.1 Flank Wear Calculation Subroutine......................................................... 108
6.3.5.2 Cutting Time Increment Searching Procedure ...................................... 109
6.3.6 Tool Geometry Updating .................................................................................. 111
6.4 Results & Discussion................................................................................................ 111
6.5 Summaries & Conclusion ........................................................................................ 113

Chapter 7 Summary And Prospect....................................................... 114
7.1 Summaries................................................................................................................. 114
7.2 Prospect ..................................................................................................................... 116

References........................................................................................... 118

Nomenclature I
Abbreviation


AI Artificial Intelligence
ALE Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian
CBN Cubic Boron Nitride
FDM Finite Difference Method
FE, FEM Finite Element Method
HSC High Speed Cutting
KT Depth of crater wear
VB Width of flank wear (mean)
VC Maximum wear of nose radius
VN Notch wear
Introduction 1

Chapter 1 Introduction



Machining operations comprise a substantial portion of the world’s manufacturing
infrastructure. They create about 15% of the value of all mechanical components
manufactured worldwide [Merc-98]. Because of its great economic and technical
importance, a large quantity of research has been carried out in order to optimize
cutting process in terms of improving quality, increasing productivity and lowering
cost.
Tool wear influences cutting power, machining quality, tool life and machining cost.
When tool wear reaches a certain value, increasing cutting force, vibration and
cutting temperature cause surface integrity deteriorated and dimension error greater
than tolerance. The life of the cutting tool comes to an end. Then the cutting tool
must be replaced or ground and the cutting process is interrupted. The cost and time
for tool replacement and adjusting machine tool increase cost and decrease
productivity. Hence tool wear relates to the economic of machining and prediction of
tool wear is of great significance for the optimization of cutting process.
At present, the prediction of tool wear is performed by calculating tool life according
to experiment and empirical tool life equations such as Taylor’s equation or its
extension versions. Although Taylor’s equation gives the simple relationship between
tool life and a certain cutting parameters, e.g. cutting speed, and is very easy to use,
it gives only the information about tool life. For the researcher and tool manufacturer
tool wear progress and tool wear profile are also concerned. Tool life equation gives
no information about the wear mechanism. But capability of predicting the
contributions of various wear mechanism is very helpful for the design of cutting tool
material and geometry. In addition, such tool life equations are valid under very
limited cutting conditions. For example, when tool geometry is changed, new
equation must be established by making experiment.
Some researchers concentrate on the study of wear mechanism and investigate the
mathematical relationship between wear due to various wear mechanisms and some
cutting process variables such as relative sliding velocity of workpiece material along
tool face, cutting temperature of tool face and normal pressure on tool face. Some
tool wear equation related to one or several wear mechanisms are developed, such
as Usui’s tool wear equation.
Introduction 2
In the recent decades, with the emergency of more and more powerful computer and
the development of numerical technique, numerical methods such as finite element
method (FEM), finite difference method (FDM) and artificial Intelligence (AI) are
widely used in machining industry. Among them, FEM has become a powerful tool in
the simulation of cutting process. Various variables in the cutting process such as
cutting force, cutting temperature, strain, strain rate, stress, etc can be predicted by
performing chip formation and heat transfer analysis in metal cutting, including those
very difficult to detect by experimental method. Therefore a new tool wear prediction
method may be developed by integrating FEM simulation of cutting process with tool
wear model.
Introduction 3

1.1 State Of Art: Finite Element Simulation Of Cutting Process

Chip formation is the essential phenomenon in the cutting process. It is the basic of
the research on physical phenomena-cutting force, cutting temperature, tool wear,
chatter, burr, built-up-edge, chip curling and chip breakage.
According to a comprehensive survey conducted by the CIRP Working Group on
Modelling of Machining Operations during 1996-1997 [Lutt-98], among the 55 major
research groups active in modelling, 43% were active in empirical modelling, 32% in
analytical modelling and 18% in numerical modelling in which finite element
modelling techniques are used as the dominant tool. In recent years, application of
finite element in metal cutting develops rapidly because of its advantages and the
development of powerful computer [Atha-98][Sand-98].
Compared to empirical and analytical methods, finite element methods used in the
analysis of chip formation has advantages in several aspects [Zhan-94]:
• Material properties can be handled as functions of strain, strain rate and
temperature;
• The interaction between chip and tool can be modelled as sticking and sliding;
• Non-linear geometric boundaries such as the free surface of the chip can be
represented and used;
• In addition to the global variables such as cutting force, feed force and chip
geometry, the local stress, temperature distributions, etc can also be obtained.
Finite element method has been used to simulate machining by Klamecki [Klam-73],
Okushima [Okus-71], and Tay et al [Tay-74] since the early 1970s. With the
development of faster processor with larger memory, model limitations and
computational difficulty have been overcome to some extent. In addition, more
commercial FE codes are used in chip formation simulation, including: NIKE2
TM

[Stre-85], ABAQUS/Standard
TM
[Shi-02], MARC
TM
[Behr-98a], DEFORM 2D
TM
[Özel-
00b] [Cere-99], FORGE 2D
TM
[Ng-99] [Mona-99], ALGOR
TM
, FLUENT
TM
,
ABAQUS/Explicit
TM
[Baca-00] and LS DYNA
TM
[McCl-02].
Great progress has been made in this research field: Lagrangian approach is used to
simulate the cutting process including incipient chip formation state [Shet-00];
segmental chip formation is modelled to simulate high speed cutting [Bäke-00] [Bäke-
02] [West-01], hard-turning [Guo-02] [Usui-84] or large negative rake angle [Ohbu-
Introduction 4
03], 3D simulation is performed to analyse oblique cutting [Leop-98] [Klam-73] [Lin-
00] [Cere-00] [Guo-02], etc.
















Fig. 1.1 Modelling research trends [Ng-02a]

A diversity of cutting tool and workpiece materials is used in the simulation of cutting
process. For example, the modelled cutting tool materials include uncoated carbide
[Lin-01b], coated carbide [Mona-99], CBN [Özel-02], cermet, ceramic cutting tool and
diamond [Ohbu-03]. The modelled workpiece materials include carbon steel [Behr-
98b] [Gu-02], composite [Arol-02], high alloy steel [Ng-02a], cast iron, ductile iron
[Chuz-03a] [Chuz-03b], etc.
The effect of tool geometry on the chip formation process is studied, mainly including
varing rake angle [Shih-96] and tool geometry. The studied tool geometries include
sharp, chamfered [Shat-01b] [Mova-02] and round edge [Ozel-02] [Kim-99], chip
breaker [Dill-00], and worn cutting tool [Li-02] [Shih-93].
The mainly simulated cutting types include tuning [Behr-99], milling [Özel-00a],
drilling, microscopic cutting of single abrasive grain in grinding [Ohbu-03]. Orthogonal
cutting is the most frequently simulated cutting type [Stre-93].
Introduction 5
In addition, the influences of sequential cutting [Liu-00] and microstructure of
workpiece material [Chuz-03a] [Chuz.03b] on chip formation are studied.
Except the normally discussed variables cutting force, cutting temperature and
stress, residual stress [Yang-02] [Shih-93], tool wear [Söhn-01b] [Yen-02], tool
performance [Ahma-89], burr formation [Guo-00], chip breakage [Maru-02], chip flow
angle [Stre-02], etc are investigated as well.

1.1.1 Numerical Aspects

The implementation of cutting process simulation is based on numerical theory and
technique. Their development is helpful to improve the capability of the simulation.

1.1.1.1 Approach

Several approaches are supplied for numerical modelling: Lagrangian, Eulerian and
Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE).

Eulerian Approach

In Eulerian approach, the mesh is fixed spatially and the material flows through the
mesh. Eulerian approach is suitable to analyse the steady state of cutting process,
not including the transition from initial to steady state cutting process, varying cutting
thickness in milling operation or serrated chip in high-speed-cutting because it is
unable to simulate free surface conditions. Cutting process analysis with Eulerian
approach requires less calculation time because the workpiece model consists of
fewer elements. That is the reason why before 1995 the applications of Eulerian
approach in chip formation analysis overrun those of Lagrangian approach. But
experimental work is often necessary in order to determine the chip geometry and
shear angle, which is an unavoidable part of geometry modelling.

Lagrangian Approach

In Lagrangian approach, the mesh follows the material. Because the deformation of
the free surface of the chip can be automatically treated by elastic-plastic material
deformation, Lagrangian approach can be used to simulate from initial to steady state
of cutting process. But in order to extend the cutting time until steady state, a long
Introduction 6
workpiece is needed in geometry modelling, which increases the calculation time. In
order to perform chip separation, chip separation criteria and realization method are
necessary.

Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Approach (ALE)

ALE approach combines the features of pure Lagrangian and Eulerian approach, in
which the mesh is allowed to move independently of the material. It is an effective
tool for improving mesh quality in the analysis of large deformation problem. Many
commercial FE codes introduce ALE approach by adjusting mesh based on different
mesh adaptivity.
The adaptive meshing technique in ABAQUS/Explicit belongs to ALE approach. It
can be used to analyse not only Lagrangian problem but also Eulerian problem. By
giving suitable mesh control parameters, the whole process from initial to steady
state can be simulated without the need of chip separation criterion or any chip
geometry data from experiment. Furthermore, it is not necessary to extend the size of
workpiece model. Hence the calculation time is not increased.

1.1.1.2 Mesh Adaptivity

Three types of mesh adaptivity are designed to create a new spatial discretisation
and improve mesh quality: h-adaptivity, p-adaptivity and r-adaptivity [Kalh-01].
• H-adaptivity changes the size of the mesh. The new mesh has different
number of elements and the connectivity of the nodes is changed.
• In p-adaptivity the degree of the interpolating polynomial is changed.
• R-adaptivity is based on relocation of the nodes, without altering the topology
(elements and connectivity) of the mesh.
For example, adaptive meshing technique in ABAQUS/Explicit is accomplished by
using R-adaptivity. During meshing nodes are moved to more favourable positions to
improve mesh distortion. In addition, solution-dependent meshing is supplied to
concentrate mesh towards the developing boundary concave, e.g., chip separation
area in the vicinity of the cutting edge, and produce local mesh refinement in this
area.
But it is found that only the application of r-adaptivity is not sufficient to maintain the
mesh quality. Therefore some FE codes, e.g. Deform-2D and AdvantEdge employ
Introduction 7
the combination of r- and h-adaptivity. Mesh is refined where great difference in the
gradients of a certain solution is detected between elements. For example, Marusich
et al propose to refine mesh according to plastic work rate in each element [Maru-95];
Owen et al use an error estimator based on the rate of fracture indicator to produce a
fine mesh in high plastic deformation area and the regions where material failure is
going to take place [Owen-99].
Chip separation is produced during meshing and mesh refining. In addition, the
contact at tool-chip interface can be improved as well.

Introduction 8
1.1.2 Mechanical Aspects

The development of metal cutting theory helps people get more and more correct
understanding in mechanical aspects of cutting process including contact and friction,
material property, chip separation, etc. The modelling of these aspects influences the
accuracy of cutting process simulation.

1.1.2.1 Contact And Friction

Friction behaviour on the tool face determines the cutting power, machining quality
and tool wear. It plays an important role in metal cutting.

Development Of Friction Model In Metal Cutting

The nature of friction between two dry sliding surfaces was described by Amontoms
in 1699 [Amon-99]. He put forward that the coefficient of friction µ is independent of
apparent area of contact A and applied normal load . In 1785, Coulomb [Coul-85]
approved and developed these laws by proposing that the coefficient of friction is
substantially independent of the sliding velocity. Accordingly a constant coefficient of
friction is expected on the tool face in metal cutting process.
n
F

const
F
F
n
f
= = µ (1.1)

where is the friction force.
f
F
However in metal cutting process, it is generally observed that the mean coefficient of
friction on the tool face varies considerably with the change in cutting speed, rake
angle and so on. This results from the extreme conditions of metal cutting area where
the normal pressure at tool-chip interface is very high.
According to Eq. 1.2 proposed by Finne and Shaw [Finn-56], the ratio of the real area
of contact A
r
to the apparent area of contact A approaches or reaches 1 under cutting
conditions, which is different from the application conditions of Coulomb’s
assumption.

Introduction 9
BN r
e
A
A

− =1 (1.2)

where N is normal force.
Based on the assumption of shearing action within the workpiece material, Zorev
proposed the distribution of shear and normal stress on the rake face as shown in
Fig.1.2 [Zore-63]. The chip-tool interface is divided into sticking and sliding regions. In
sticking region, adjacent to the cutting edge,
A
A
r
approaches unity under very high
normal stress, and shear stress is believed equal to shear strength of the workpiece
material. In sliding region,
A
A
r
is less than unity, and the coefficient of friction is
believed constant.













Fig. 1.2 Stress distribution on tool-chip interface

Plenty of evidence from worn tools, from quick-stop sections and from chips showed
the coexistence of sticking and sliding at tool/chip interface under many cutting
conditions [Tren-77].
Some advanced testing technologies, e.g. photoelastic measurements [Rice-60] or
split tool dynamometers [Kato-72] [Chil-98], are used in experiments to discover the
form of stress distribution on the rake face. But these techniques are limited when the
stresses very close to the cutting edge are determined.
Introduction 10

Applied Friction Models In Cutting Process Simulation

In the finite element analyses of metal cutting, various approaches are used in the
modelling of friction. Constant coefficient of friction based on Coulomb’s friction law is
used in most cases. Normally the coefficient of friction µ is calculated by using
Eq.1.3 according to the cutting force , thrust force , and rake angle
c
F
t
F α .

α
α
µ
tan
tan
t C
C t
F F
F F

+
= (1.3)

Ng and his co-operators performed orthogonal cutting tests under different cutting
conditions to establish a linear relation between the coefficient of frictionµ , cutting
speed , rake angle
c
v α , and feed , given by Eq. 1.4, by using Regression analysis
[Ng-02b].
f

c
v f 0002 . 0 888 . 3 00446 . 0 034 . 1 − − − = α µ (1.4)

Liu et al [Liu-00] determined the coefficient of friction by performing simulation using
different values and carrying out the sensitivity study on the coefficient of friction.
When Zorev’s sliding-sticking friction model is employed in the simulation, the
division of the two regions is determined by two methods: one is to prescribe the
length of each region [Shih-95] [Wu-96] [Shat-00], the other is to determine the
sliding and sticking region automatically by program according to a criterion [Zhan-
94] [Guo-00], given by Eq. 1.5.

) , min(
s
τ µσ τ = (1.5)

where
s
τ is the shear flow stress of the chip material;
τ is friction stress;
σ is normal stress.
Introduction 11
Iwata et al [Iwat-84] proposed the relationship given by Eq. 1.6 after put forward a
method to test friction between newly created surfaces and tool material.

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
V
V
H
p H µ
τ
07 . 0
tanh
07 . 0
Mpa (1.6)

where
V
H is the Vickers hardness of the workpiece material;
p is contact pressure in MPa.
A frictional shear factor is introduced into the relationship in order to make the
calculated results agree with those of experiment.
Yang and Liu [Yang-02] proposed a stress-based polynomial model of friction, given
by Eq. 1.7.


=
=
=
4
0
n
n
n
n
a σ τ (1.7)

0
a , , , and are determined by fitting experimental stress curve on rake
face.
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a

1.1.2.2 Material Constitutive Model

The accuracy of the finite element analysis is severely dependent on the accuracy of
the material mechanical properties.

Influence Factors Of Material Property

Experiments shows that material properties, e.g. stress-strain relationship, are
affected by the strain rate and temperature during material forming process with
plastic deformation. For the same value of strain, the stress is higher at higher strain
rate due to the viscous effect during plastic deformation and lower at higher
temperature due to material softening, as shown in Fig. 1.3. This overstress effect by
strain rate is more pronounced as the temperature increases [Shih-91]. In metal
cutting process, temperature, strain and strain rate are very high. Thermal-
Introduction 12
viscoplastic material constitutive model is necessary for the finite element analysis of
metal cutting.







(a) overstress effect (b) material softening





S
t
r
e
s
s

[
N
/
m
m
2
]





S
t
r
e
s
s

[
N
/
m
m
2
]

Strain [%] Strain [%]
Temperature [K]
Fig. 1.3 Material property curve

Many researchers are making efforts to establish such material constitutive models
for different workpiece materials through experimental [Kopp-01], analytical or
simulation methods [Shat-01a] [Özel-00b] [Batz-02]. Based on their supports, a
material model database has been developed by Söhner et al [Söhn-01a].

Material Constitutive Model For Mild Carbon Steel

The main workpiece materials used in the following research are mild carbon steel
CK45 and AISI1045.

• For CK45

The material constitutive model developed by O. Vöringer is used, which is described
by Eq. 1.8 and Eq. 1.9.

( )
m
n
v
T
T
T
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
∗ ∗
0
0
1 , σ ε σ & (1.8)

with
) (
0
0
0
pl
kIn
G
ε
ε
&
&

= T (1.9)
Introduction 13

where the constants for CK45 are: m=1.78, n=0.53, , ,
and . k is Boltzmann constant and T is temperature in Kelvin [Schu-
00].
ev G 58 . 0
0
= ∆
1 5
0
10 29 . 7

× = s ε&
MPa 1352
0
=

σ
In the simulation of cutting process, a user material subroutine based on this material
constitutive model is employed.

• For AISI1045

To describe the material property of AISI1045, the Johnson-cook constitutive
equation is used.

( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|


|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
− −
2
700 00005 . 0
1000
ln 1
T
room melt
melt n
ae
T T
T T
C B
ε
ε σ
&
(1.10)

where B=996.1, C=0.097, n=0.168, a=0.275, T
melt
=1480°C [Kopp-01], σ is the
effective stress in MPa, and T is temperature in °C.

1.1.2.3 Chip Separation

In the cutting process, with the cutting tool advancing into the workpiece, the
workpiece material is separated into two parts. The unwanted part forms the chip. By
chip separation, a new workpiece surface is formed on the created part.
The realization of chip separation is one of the main problems in the simulation of
chip formation process. Normally it includes two aspects of consideration: chip
separation criterion and model realization.

Chip Separation Criterion

The chip separation criteria used by researchers can be categorized as two types:
geometrical and physical.
Geometrical criteria define geometric parameters, e.g. a distance value. When the
distance between the nearest workpiece node on the moving path of the cutting edge
Introduction 14
and the cutting edge is equal to or smaller than this given distance value, chip
separation takes place [Shih-95].
Physical criteria is related to some physical meaning of chip separation. They are
based on physical parameters such as stress [Iwat-84], strain energy density [Lin-99]
or effective plastic strain [Shir-93]. When such physical parameter reaches a critical
value, material failure takes place. The most reliable critical value is obtained by
performing experiments, although sometimes it is defined at random. A critical value
considering multi-influencing factors, for example, temperature- and strain rate-
dependent strain at failure will provide a better simulation result.
According to the investigation on both types of criteria made by Huang and Black
[Huan-96], neither had a substantial effect on chip geometry, distribution of shear
stress, effective stress or effective plastic strain in the chip and in the machined
surface. However, the magnitude designated for these criteria did have a major effect
on mesh distortion together with the value of maximum shear stress, and the
effective stress in the machined surface [Ng-02a].

Model Realization

There are several methods to model chip separation in finite element mesh. They are
related with the applied software.
• Element removal [Cere-96]
When chip separation criterion, normally physical criterion, is reached, material
failure happens and the element carries no stress any more as if they do not exist.
Such element can be removed and does not display.






Fig. 1.4 Element removal [Behr-98b]




Introduction 15
• Node debond [Shi-02] [Shet-00] [Shet-03]
The chip and the workpiece are two separated parts. They are perfectly bonded
together through some pair of nodes along the prospective parting line. The chip
separation can be geometrical, physical or their combination. When chip separation
criterion is reached, debond of the node pair takes place and the two nodes move in
different direction.






Fig. 1.5 Node debond

• Node splitting [Shih-95]
Chip separation is realized by element separation in front of cutting edge. The two
neighbouring elements have common node before separation. When the separation
criterion is met, for example, a node is very close to the cutting edge. Element
separation takes place and a new node is created at the same position; two nodes
overlap together and connect to two different elements. Through the further
movement of the cutting tool, the two elements move in different direction and lose
contact.






Fig. 1.6 Node splitting [Behr-98b]

• Mesh adaptivity [Arra-02]
Chip separation is performed by mesh refinement in the separation zone by
increasing the number of elements or relocation of the nodes.
Introduction 16
1.2 Technical Background About Tool Wear

Prediction of tool wear is complex because of the complexity of machining system.
Tool wear in cutting process is produced by the contact and relative sliding between
the cutting tool and the workpiece and between the cutting tool and the chip under
the extreme conditions of cutting area; temperature at the cutting edge can exceed
1800°F and pressure is greater than 2,000psi [John-01]. Any element changing
contact conditions in cutting area affects tool wear. These elements come from the
whole machining system comprising workpiece, tool, interface and machine tool:

Tool wear
economy, workpiece quality, process security
material
texture
structure
material
properties
interface
friction
cooling
lubricant
cutting param.
contact
tool
cutting material
coating
geometry
machine
design
dynamics
Tool wear
economy, workpiece quality, process security
material
texture
structure
material
properties
interface
friction
cooling
lubricant
cutting param.
contact
tool
cutting material
coating
geometry
machine
design
dynamics

Fig. 1.7 Influencing elements of tool wear [Söhn-01b]

• Workpiece: It includes the workpiece material and its physical properties
(mechanical and thermal properties, microstructure, hardness, etc), which
determine cutting force and energy for the applied cutting conditions.
• Tool: Tool material, tool coatings and tool geometric design (edge preparation,
rake angle, etc) need to be appropriately chosen for different operations
(roughing, semi-roughing, or finishing). The optimal performance of a cutting
tool requires a right combination of the above tool parameters and cutting
conditions (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, etc)
• Interface: It involves the interface conditions. In 80% of the industrial cutting
applications, coolants are used to decrease cutting temperatures and likely
Introduction 17
reduce tool wear. Increasingly new technologies, such as the minimum liquid
lubrication, have been developed to reduce the cost of coolant that makes up
to 16% of the total machining costs [Walt-98].
• Dynamic: The dynamic characteristic of the machine tool, affected by the
machine tool structure and all the components taking part in the cutting
process, plays an important role for a successful cutting. Instable cutting
processes with large vibrations (chatters) result in a fluctuating overload on the
cutting tool and often lead to the premature failure of the cutting edge by tool
chipping and excessive tool wear.

1.2.1 Wear Types In Metal Cutting

Under high temperature, high pressure, high sliding velocity and mechanical or
thermal shock in cutting area, cutting tool has normally complex wear appearance,
which consists of some basic wear types such as crater wear, flank wear, thermal
crack, brittle crack, fatigue crack, insert breakage, plastic deformation and build-up
edge. The dominating basic wear types vary with the change of cutting conditions.
Crater wear and flank wear shown in Fig. 1.8 are the most common wear types.


Fig. 1.8 Wear types [Lim-01]

• Crater wear: In continuous cutting, e.g. turning operation, crater wear normally
forms on rake face. It conforms to the shape of the chip underside and
reaches the maximum depth at a distance away from the cutting edge where
highest temperature occurs. At high cutting speed, crater wear is often the
factor that determines the life of the cutting tool: the tool edge is weakened by
the severe cratering and eventually fractures. Crater wear is improved by
Introduction 18
selecting suitable cutting parameters and using coated tool or ultra-hard
material tool.
• Flank wear: Flank wear is caused by the friction between the newly machined
workpiece surface and the tool flank face. It is responsible for a poor surface
finish, a decrease in the dimension accuracy of the tool and an increase in
cutting force, temperature and vibration. Hence the width of the flank wear
land VB is usually taken as a measure of the amount of wear and a threshold
value of the width is defined as tool reshape criterion.

1.2.2 Wear Mechanism

In order to find out suitable way to slow down the wear process, many research
works are carried out to analyze the wear mechanism in metal cutting. It is found that
tool wear is not formed by a unique tool wear mechanism but a combination of
several tool wear mechanisms.
Tool wear mechanisms in metal cutting include abrasive wear, adhesive wear,
delamination wear, solution wear, diffusion wear, oxidation wear, electrochemical
wear, etc. Among them, abrasive wear, adhesive wear, diffusion wear and oxidation
wear are very important.
• Abrasive wear: Tool material is removed away by the mechanical action of
hard particles in the contact interface passing over the tool face. These hard
particles may be hard constituents in the work material, fragments of the hard
tool material removed in some way or highly strain-hardened fragments of an
unstable built-up edge [Boot-89].
• Adhesive wear: Adhesive wear is caused by the formation and fracture of
welded asperity junctions between the cutting tool and the workpiece.
• Diffusion wear: Diffusion wear takes place when atoms move from the tool
material to the workpiece material because of the concentration difference.
The rate of diffusion increases exponentially with the increase of temperature.
• Oxidation wear: A slight oxidation of tool face is helpful to reduce the tool
wear. It reduces adhesion, diffusion and current by isolating the tool and the
workpiece. But at high temperature soft oxide layers, e.g. Co
3
O
4
, CoO, WO
3
,
TiO
2
, etc are formed rapidly, then taken away by the chip and the workpiece.
This results in a rapid tool material loss, i.e., oxidation wear.
Introduction 19
Under different cutting conditions dominating wear mechanisms are different. For a
certain combination of cutting tool and workpiece, the dominating wear mechanisms
vary with cutting temperature, as shown in Fig.1.9. According to the temperature
distribution on the tool face, it is assumed that crater wear is mainly caused by
abrasive wear, diffusion wear and oxidation wear, but flank wear mainly dominated
by abrasive wear due to hard second phase in the workpiece material.










Diffusion
Abrasion
W
e
a
r

Cutting temperature
(cutting speed, feed, etc)
Oxidizing
Adhesion
Abrasive wear
Adhesive wear
Diffusion wear
Chip
Oxidizing wear
Tool
vv c c
Workpiece
Fig. 1.9 Wear mechanism [Köni-84]

1.2.3 Tool Wear Model

Many mathematical models are developed to describe tool wear in quantity. They can
be categorized into two types: tool life models and tool wear rate models.
• Tool life models: This type of wear models gives the relationship between tool
life and cutting parameters or variables. For example, Taylor’s tool life
equation [Tayl-07], reveals the exponential relationship between tool life and
cutting speed, and Hastings tool life equation describes the great effect of
cutting temperature on tool life [Hast-79], see Table 1.1. The constants n, C
T
,
A and B are defined by doing a lot of experiments with cutting speed changing
and fitting the experimental data with the equation. It is very convenient to
predict tool life by using this equation. In various sizes of cutting database,
Taylor’s tool life equation and its extension versions under different cutting
conditions appear most frequently.
Tool life equations are suitable to very limited range of cutting conditions. As
the new machining technologies, e.g. high-speed-cutting or dry cutting, are
getting spread in manufacturing industry, the existing tool life equations need
Introduction 20
to be updated with new constants and a lot of experimental work has to be
done. In addition, except that tool life can be predicted by these equations, it is
difficult to get further information about the tool wear progress, tool wear
profile or tool wear mechanisms that are sometimes important for tool
designers.
• Tool wear rate models: These models are derived from one or several wear
mechanisms. They provide the information about wear growth rate due to
some wear mechanisms. In these modes, the wear growth rate, i.e. the rate of
volume loss at the tool face (rake or flank) per unit contact area per unit time
(mm/min), are related to several cutting process variables that have to be
decided by experiment or using some methods [Kwon-00].
Table 1.1 Tool wear models










Usui’s model, which was derived from
equation of adhesive wear
[Usui et al., 1978]:
dW/dt = A
.
σ
t
V
S
exp(-B/T)
- (A, B = constants)
- dW/dt = rate of volume loss per unit
contact area per unit time (mm/min)
- σ
t
, T = normal stress and temperature
- A, B = wear characteristic constants
Hastings tool life equation (Hastings et al, Hastings tool life equation (Hastings et al,
1979): 1979):
T T
B B . .
L = A L = A
( (A, B A, B = = constants) constants)
Takeyama & Murata’s model, considering
abrasive wear and diffusive wear (1963):
dW/dt = G(V
c
, f) + D
.
exp(-E/RT)
(G, D = constants)
Taylor’s tool life equation:
V
c
.
L
n
= C
T
(n, C
T
= constants)
“Differential” Tool Wear Rate Models Empirical Tool Life Models
Usui’s model, which was derived from
equation of adhesive wear
[Usui et al., 1978]:
dW/dt = A
.
σ
t
V
S
exp(-B/T)
- (A, B = constants)
- dW/dt = rate of volume loss per unit
contact area per unit time (mm/min)
- σ
t
, T = normal stress and temperature
- A, B = wear characteristic constants
Hastings tool life equation (Hastings et al, Hastings tool life equation (Hastings et al,
1979): 1979):
T T
B B . .
L = A L = A
( (A, B A, B = = constants) constants)
Takeyama & Murata’s model, considering
abrasive wear and diffusive wear (1963):
dW/dt = G(V
c
, f) + D
.
exp(-E/RT)
(G, D = constants)
Taylor’s tool life equation:
V
c
.
L
n
= C
T
(n, C
T
= constants)
“Differential” Tool Wear Rate Models Empirical Tool Life Models
V
c
= Cutting speed
L = Tool life
E = Process activation
energy
R = Universal gas constant
T = Cutting temperature
f = Feed
V
S
= Sliding velocity
V
c
= Cutting speed
L = Tool life
E = Process activation
energy
R = Universal gas constant
T = Cutting temperature
f = Feed
V
S
= Sliding velocity
C,
λ
v
c
T
θ
C, λ
T
n
c
C T v = ⋅
A T
B
= ⋅ θ
( ) ( ) θ R E D f v G dt dW
c
− ⋅ + = exp ,
( ) θ λ σ − = exp
s t
v C dt dW
θ
v
s
Usui’s model, which was derived from
equation of adhesive wear
[Usui et al., 1978]:
dW/dt = A
.
σ
t
V
S
exp(-B/T)
- (A, B = constants)
- dW/dt = rate of volume loss per unit
contact area per unit time (mm/min)
- σ
t
, T = normal stress and temperature
- A, B = wear characteristic constants
Hastings tool life equation (Hastings et al, Hastings tool life equation (Hastings et al,
1979): 1979):
T T
B B . .
L = A L = A
( (A, B A, B = = constants) constants)
Takeyama & Murata’s model, considering
abrasive wear and diffusive wear (1963):
dW/dt = G(V
c
, f) + D
.
exp(-E/RT)
(G, D = constants)
Taylor’s tool life equation:
V
c
.
L
n
= C
T
(n, C
T
= constants)
“Differential” Tool Wear Rate Models Empirical Tool Life Models
Usui’s model, which was derived from
equation of adhesive wear
[Usui et al., 1978]:
dW/dt = A
.
σ
t
V
S
exp(-B/T)
- (A, B = constants)
- dW/dt = rate of volume loss per unit
contact area per unit time (mm/min)
- σ
t
, T = normal stress and temperature
- A, B = wear characteristic constants
Hastings tool life equation (Hastings et al, Hastings tool life equation (Hastings et al,
1979): 1979):
T T
B B . .
L = A L = A
( (A, B A, B = = constants) constants)
Takeyama & Murata’s model, considering
abrasive wear and diffusive wear (1963):
dW/dt = G(V
c
, f) + D
.
exp(-E/RT)
(G, D = constants)
Taylor’s tool life equation:
V
c
.
L
n
= C
T
(n, C
T
= constants)
“Differential” Tool Wear Rate Models Empirical Tool Life Models
V
c
= Cutting speed
L = Tool life
E = Process activation
energy
R = Universal gas constant
T = Cutting temperature
f = Feed
V
S
= Sliding velocity
V
c
= Cutting speed
L = Tool life
E = Process activation
energy
R = Universal gas constant
T = Cutting temperature
f = Feed
V
S
= Sliding velocity
C,
λ
v
c
T
θ
C, λ
T
n
c
C T v = ⋅
A T
B
= ⋅ θ
( ) ( ) θ R E D f v G dt dW
c
− ⋅ + = exp ,
( ) θ λ σ − = exp
s t
v C dt dW
θ
v
s


In Table 1.1, the right column shows two tool wear rate models, which are
obtained from literatures.
Takeyama & Murata’s model is developed by considering the combination
action of abrasive wear and diffusive wear. Therefore the equation sums two
parts up. One part shows that abrasive wear is influenced by the cutting speed
and feed. Another part including universal gas constant and tool temperature
describes diffusive wear.
Usui’s model is derived from Shaw’s equation of adhesive wear [Usui-78c].
Except the constants A and B, Usui’s equation includes three variables: sliding
velocity between the chip and the cutting tool, tool temperature and normal
Introduction 21
pressure on tool face. These variables can be predicted by FEM simulation of
cutting process or combining analytical method and FDM. Therefore Usui’s
equation is very practical for the implementation of tool wear estimation by
using FEM or by using the combination of FDM and analytical method.
When tungsten carbide tools are used to machine carbon steels, crater wear
on rake face was assumed mainly caused by adhesive wear. According to
cutting experiment, Usui determined the constants for such cutting conditions
and validated this model by the prediction of crater wear.
The latter study showed that this equation is able to describe flank wear as
well, which mainly results from abrasive wear [Kita-88]. All the points for flank
wear and crater wear defined by experiment distribute along two characteristic
lines with different gradients, which intersect at the critical temperature of
around 1,150K. The experimental points for crater wear usually lie on the line
in the higher temperature range, whereas those for flank wear are usually
distributed around the line in the lower temperature range.
The constants in tool wear rate models are depending on the combination of
workpiece and cutting tool material. Table 1.2 shows the charateristic
constants in Usui’s equation for the combination of carbon steel and carbide
tool that obtained from literature [Kita-89]. They are introduced in the later tool
wear estimation models.

Table 1.2 : Characteristic constants for carbon steels [Kita-89]
C [m
2
/MN] λ [K]
K
f
1150 ≥ θ K
f
1150 < θ K
f
1150 ≥ θ K
f
1150 < θ
2
10 198 . 1

×
9
10 8 . 7

×
4
10 195 . 2 ×
3
10 302 . 5 ×



Introduction 22
1.3 Research Of Tool Wear With Finite Element Methods

1.3.1 Comparison Between FEM Method And Empirical Method

Based on tool wear rate models, the estimation of tool wear profile progress with the
cutting process can be implemented by predicting cutting process variables using
finite element method. Its advantages and disadvantages are shown by the
comparison with the empirical method in Table 1.3.

Table 1.3 Comparison of FEM method and empirical method
Compared aspects Empirical method FEM method
Environment
requirement
Special machine, tool,
workpiece, personnel for
cutting tests
Powerful computer, tool
wear rate model and FEM
code
The procedure of
calculating tool wear
Cutting tests and regressive
analysis
Obtaining tool wear rate
model by experiment or
from literature, running the
program with tool wear rate
models under new cutting
conditions
Application under
new cutting
conditions
New experiments have to
be carried out to update the
constants of tool life models
If only tool wear rate model
is updated according to new
cutting conditions, the
program can be used again
Time The development of new
tool life models is time
consuming;
Whereas the prediction of
tool wear with the tool life
model is very efficient

The time for developing the
entire program is relative
long.
The time for calculating the
tool wear with the program
depends on the
performance of computer
Wear mechanism Wear mechanism is not Yes, even the contributions
Introduction 23
considered of the main mechanisms
can be calculated
Workpiece material Uneven material distribution
result from impurity, heat
treatment, work hardening
Homogeneous material
model, thermal visco-plastic
material
Tool material Uneven material properties
result from impurity, heat
treatment, etc
Homogeneous material
model, ideal elastic material
Medium Sensitive to the cooling
method, coolant type,
cooling effect, etc
The types of heat emission
through tool face and
workpiece surface under
various cooling conditions
and their FEM
implementation have to be
considered
Vibration of machine-
tool-workpiece
system
The constants are sensitive
to the vibration of the
system
Not considered at present
Predicted wear
parameters
Very limited information can
be obtained, for example
only tool life is predicted
with Taylor’s tool life
equation
Comprehensive information
about tool wear including
crater wear profile, flank
wear profile, VB, KT, VC
(for 3D), VN (for 3D), etc
can be predicted
Cutting type Tool life models under
various cutting type can be
developed
At present, only tool wear
prediction in turning and
milling operations are
studied.
For different cutting types,
the tool wear program may
need adjusting according to
the characteristic of relative
Introduction 24
motion of cutting tool and
workpiece
Requirement on the
user
No special requirement At present, except basic
knowledge about metal
cutting theory, user needs
the basic knowledge about
FEM chip formation, heat
transfer analysis
Application at
present
Used in the real production For research and education
Quality of the
prediction
Quantitative Qualitative


1.3.2 State Of Art: Numerical Implementation Of Tool Wear Estimation

Tool wear estimation with Finite Element Method is developed from tool wear
estimation with the combination of analytical method and Finite Difference Method
(FDM).

1.3.2.1 Tool Wear Estimation With The Combination Of Analytical Method And
FDM

Usui’s Research-Prediction Of Crater Wear

The earliest reported research work on tool wear estimation with the combination of
analytical energy method and FDM was performed by E. Usui et al in 1978. He first
derived a characteristic equation of crater wear theoretically by combining
M.C.Shaw’s adhesive wear, temperature-dependent material asperity hardness and
temperature-dependent Holm’s probability, given by

) exp( θ λ σ − =
s t
v C
dt
dw
(1.11)

Then he verified the equation experimentally.
Introduction 25
a.) Implementation Procedure

The chip formation, sliding velocity of the chip and cutting force are predicted through
energy method proposed in previous papers [Usui-78a] [Usui-78b] [Usui-78c].
By using the predicted cutting force and tool-chip contact length together with an
assumption of an exponential normal stress distribution and a triangle or trapezoidal
frictional stress distribution on the tool face, the frictional stress is calculated.
The temperature distribution within the chip and the tool at steady state is obtained
with FDM by considering the heat source on the shear plane and on rake face.
The characteristic constants of the equation for the combination of carbon steel and
P20 are determined with the aid of the predicted temperature, stress on tool face and
the measured wear by curve fitting.
Then computer calculation of crater wear is carried out by using the characteristic
equation, and the predicted distribution of the stress and the temperature.

b.) Result

The predicted crater wear was reported in good agreement with the measured in
experiment in depth and contour except some discrepancy in the location of the
deepest portion.

c.) Limitations

• When using the energy method to predict the chip formation and cutting force,
orthogonal cutting data about shear stress on shear plane, friction angle and
shear angle are needed, the prediction of crater wear cannot be carried out
without making experiment in advance.
• The energy method is developed based on single shear plane for the cutting
tool with sharp cutting edge. The effect of cutting edge preparation, such as
round cutting edge, or rounded cutting edge due to wear on the tool wear
cannot be considered.

Introduction 26
Kitagawa’s Research-Prediction Of Flank Wear

By analysing the flank wear characteristics of tungsten carbide tools in turning plain
carbon steels at steady-state cutting without a built-up edge experimentally, Kitagawa
finds that flank wear can be described by the same characteristic equation, Eq. 1.11,
for crater wear. Tool wear consists of two characteristic lines with different gradient,
which intersect at the critical temperature of around 1,150K. The experimental points
for crater wear usually lie on the line in the higher temperature range, whereas those
for flank wear are usually distributed around the line in the lower temperature range.

a.) Implementation Procedure

In the prediction, the sliding velocity of workpiece material on the flank wear land is
assumed equal to the cutting speed.
The values of cutting force, thrust force and chip contact length obtained from
orthogonal experiment must be given beforehand. By prescribing a triangle
distribution of frictional stress along the tool-chip contact length with maximum value
at the cutting edge and neglecting the contribution of stress on flank face to the
cutting force and thrust force, the frictional stress is calculated.
On the flank wear, the frictional stress at the cutting edge is set equal to the
maximum value on rake face, and frictional stress on the other sites is arbitrary set.
Normal stress on flank wear is set equal to frictional stress.
Then the temperature on flank wear land is predicted by considering the heat
generated on the flank wear, rake face and in the shear plane using FDM.
The wear rate on the flank wear is calculated according to the predicted
temperature, arbitrary set normal stress and sliding velocity. Normal stress on flank
wear is adjusted continuously until a uniformly distributed wear rate is achieved
everywhere on the flank wear land.

b.) Result

It was reported that the predicted tool life, temperature and mean stresses on the
flank wear land are in reasonable agreement with experiment even with changing
cutting speed, feed and workpiece material.

Introduction 27
c.) Limitations

• The prediction method is developed under the assumption of no crater wear
formed on the rake face. This limits its application to low cutting speed range.
• The assumption of uniform wear rate on flank wear excludes the formation of
rounded edge due to wear that is often observed in experiments.
• The prediction method is not applicable to the cutting tool with any edge
preparation because of the assumption of stress distribution on rake face
• The prediction is based on cutting force, thrust force and chip contact length
obtained from orthogonal experiment. These values vary with the development
of flank wear. Whether the predicted crater wear is sensitive to the frequency
of measuring these values during the development of flank wear is very
important for its application perspective.

1.3.2.2 Tool Wear Estimation With FEM

Yen And Söhner’s Research (FEM)

Although in a paper in 1999, J. Monaghan and T. MacGinley claimed that they
performed tool wear analysis based on a wear function related to normal stress and
sliding velocity by predicting stress distribution within coated and uncoated carbide
tool with and without chip breaker using commercial FEM code-FORGE2 [Mona-99],
no implementation procedure, clear predicted tool wear profile and wear value are
described or provided. It is suspected that only the tendency and possibility of tool
wear distribution were analysed qualitatively.
Hence the earliest reported research of tool wear estimation in quantity with FEM
was done by Y. C. Yen and J. Söhner et al since 2001.
According to the paper in 2002 [Yen-02] and the dissertation of Söhner [Söhn-03],
the numerical implementation of the integration of tool wear rate models with FEM
calculations to predict the evolution of the tool wear was performed by using
commercial FE code DEFORM-2D.

a.) Implementation Procedure

Usui’s wear model is used to calculate the wear rate of the uncoated carbide tool in
cutting carbon steel.
Introduction 28
The complete procedure includes four phases. In the first phase, a coupled thermal-
viscoplastic Lagrangian cutting simulation combined with an introduced special
simulation module, ‘Konti-cut’, which can prolong the cutting simulation to a sufficient
long cutting time, is used to perform chip formation analysis until mechanical steady
state is reached. In the second phase, pure heat transfer analysis for the tool is
performed to attain thermal steady state in the tool. Both the chip formation and heat
transfer analyses are performed with commercial FE code DEFORM-2D. With the
values of nodal temperature, normal stress and sliding velocity under steady-state
cutting condition provided by the first two phases, the nodal wear rate is calculated in
the third phase. Then new tool geometry accounting for tool wear is calculated based
on the user input for a cutting time increment. In the last phase, the tool geometry
model is updated by moving nodes.

b.) Result

Simulation study was made with worn tool initially including a pre-defined wear land
of 0.06mm on the flank face. The wear rates of flank wear and crater wear are of the
same order, the location of the maximum wear rate and the low wear rate close to
tool radius are consistent with the experimental result.
When a sharp tool is used, the predicted wear rate on the flank face is one order of
magnitude smaller than that on the rake face, while crater wear and flank wear occur
simultaneously at a similar wear rate in the experiment. This problem was improved
by using a new tool wear model especially developed for the simulated cutting
condition [Fran-02].

c.) Limitations

• The tool geometry was updated manually, instead of being performed
automatically according to a certain algorithm.
• The selection of a suitable cutting time increment is very difficult to perform for
a user without doing experiment in advance.
Introduction 29

1.3.2.3 Summary Of Literature

According to the above literature analysis, some conclusions can be obtained:
• The advantages of tool wear estimation with FEM over tool wear estimation
with the combination of analytical method and FDM are considered in several
aspects, as shown in Table 1.4.
• Because of the short history of the research on tool wear estimation with FEM,
only 2D tool wear of uncoated carbide tool cutting carbon steel workpiece
AISI1045 was studied. The cutting type is limited turning operation and
orthogonal cutting.
• Only the commercial FE code DEFORM-2D is used in tool wear estimation.
However, the simulation of cutting process is assumed more suitable to be
performed with explicit method because of the large deformation, impact and
complex contact problem. The study should be carried out with some FE code
using explicit method and providing good development platform as well, for
example, ABAQUS.
• At present, numerical implementation of tool wear estimation is only developed
for the cutting process with steady state. The end of tool life in intermittent
cutting, for example, milling operation, is mainly caused by progressive tool
wear. Tool wear estimation in intermittent cutting, is different from turning
operation because of the lack of steady state. Therefore the estimation of tool
wear should be studied by developing new simulation procedure.
Introduction 30
Table 1.4 Comparisons between tool wear estimation with FEM and tool wear
estimation with the combination of analytical method and FDM
Compared
aspects
With the combination of
analytical method and FDM
With FEM
Realization Analytical method, e.g. energy
method;
Assumption and simplification of
the cutting condition;
Tool wear rate model
FEM chip formation analysis;
FEM heat transfer analysis;
Tool wear rate model
Predicted
wear value
Only crater wear or only flank
wear
Crater wear and flank wear
simultaneously
Tool For crater wear estimation, tool
without flank wear,
For flank wear estimation, tool
without crater wear.
Edge preparations are not
considered
Crater wear, flank wear and
edge preparation can be
included in tool geometry
model
Experimental
data
Yes, cutting force, tool-chip
contact length, etc
No
Applicable
conditions
Conventional cutting speed Conventional cutting and
HSC
Prospective Limited A necessary supplement to
the empirical method




Objective And Approach 31
Chapter 2 Objective And Approach

2.1 Objectives

The objective of this research is to develop methodology to predict tool wear and tool
life in cutting process using finite element simulations. The study is not limited to
turning operation, the prediction of tool wear in milling operation is considered as
well.
Because of the complexity of tool wear mechanisms and forms in real cutting
process, the study at present will be concentrated on two-dimension tool wear
estimation of uncoated carbide tool in dry cutting mild carbon steel.
This tool wear estimation method is performed by predicting tool temperature, sliding
velocity of chip and normal stress on tool face with FEM simulation of cutting
process. Therefore to achieve the objective, FEM simulation of turning and milling
process are studied at first, including chip formation analysis and pure heat transfer
analysis. Several modeling tools are used in order to accomplish the entire research
project.

Objective: 2D, uncoated carbide tool, turning and milling operation Objective: 2D, uncoated carbide tool, turning and milling operation
Continuous chip
formation analysis
model
General chip
formation analysis
model
Thermal steady
state analysis
Cyclical thermal
balance state
Analysis model
Tool wear
estimation program
Tool wear
estimation program
TURNING
OPERATION
MILLING
OPERATION
ABAQUS/Explicit
Fortran
ABAQUS/Standard
Fortran
Objective-oriented
programming
language: Python
MODELING TOOL












Fig. 2.1 Objective and modeling tool

Turning operation is a steady-state process when continuous chip is formed. The
implementation of tool wear estimation is relatively easier and studied first. Based on
Objective And Approach 32
the obtained experience in turning operation, the methodology of tool wear estimation
in milling operation is discussed by analyzing the feature of milling operation. Two
different tool wear estimation models are developed, one is for turning operation,
another for milling operation.

2.2 Approach

Although the tool wear estimation models for turning and milling operations are
different, the calculation procedure are similar and mainly composed of chip
formation analysis, heat transfer analysis, wear calculation and tool geometry
updating, as shown in Fig. 2.2.

The j
th
calculation cycle The j
th
calculation cycle
















Tool temperature θ
Normal pressure σ
t
,
Sliding velocity v
c
Wear calculation
( ) θ λ σ − = exp
s t
v C w&
Updated tool node file
W
i
d
t
h
o
f

f
l
a
n
k

w
e
a
r

V
B

[
m
m
]
∆t
2
∆t
3
∆t
4
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
Cutting time t [min]
Tool reshape criterion (eg. 0.2mm)
∆t
1
W
i
d
t
h
o
f

f
l
a
n
k

w
e
a
r

V
B

[
m
m
]
∆t
2
∆t
3
∆t
4
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
Cutting time t [min]
Tool reshape criterion (eg. 0.2mm)
∆t
1
Chip formation analysis
Heat flux
Temperature
Heat tranfer analysis
Nodal
displacement
Tool geometry updating
t
j-1
Time increment ∆t
(specified by user or
searched by program)
∆t
Nodal displacement
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( j i j j i j i
D t w w
r
&
r
⋅ ∆ ⋅ =
Tool temperature θ
Normal pressure σ
t
,
Sliding velocity v
c
Wear calculation
( ) θ λ σ − = exp
s t
v C w&
Tool temperature θ
Normal pressure σ
t
,
Sliding velocity v
c
Tool temperature θ
Normal pressure σ
t
,
Sliding velocity v
c
Tool temperature θ Tool temperature θ
Normal pressure σ
t
,
Sliding velocity v
c
Normal pressure σ
t
,
Sliding velocity v
c
Wear calculation
( ) θ λ σ − = exp
s t
v C w&
Wear calculation
( ) θ λ σ − = exp
s t
v C w&
Updated tool node file Updated tool node file
W
i
d
t
h
o
f

f
l
a
n
k

w
e
a
r

V
B

[
m
m
]
∆t
2
∆t
3
∆t
4
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
Cutting time t [min]
Tool reshape criterion (eg. 0.2mm)
∆t
1
W
i
d
t
h
o
f

f
l
a
n
k

w
e
a
r

V
B

[
m
m
]
∆t
2
∆t
3
∆t
4
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
Cutting time t [min]
Tool reshape criterion (eg. 0.2mm)
∆t
1
Chip formation analysis
Heat flux
Temperature
Heat tranfer analysis
Heat flux
Temperature
Heat tranfer analysis
Nodal
displacement
Tool geometry updating
Nodal
displacement
Tool geometry updating Tool geometry updating
t
j-1
Time increment ∆t
(specified by user or
searched by program)
∆t
Nodal displacement
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( j i j j i j i
D t w w
r
&
r
⋅ ∆ ⋅ =
Time increment ∆t
(specified by user or
searched by program)
∆t ∆t
Nodal displacement
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( j i j j i j i
D t w w
r
&
r
⋅ ∆ ⋅ =
Fig. 2.2 Approach and procedure of tool wear estimation

The study process for turning operation includes:

Stage 1: chip formation analysis
A new chip formation modeling method for continuous steady state chip formation is
developed. It can simulate the entire chip formation process from initial chip
Objective And Approach 33
formation, chip growth to steady state by making use of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian
technique in ABAQUS/Explicit.
Stage 2: heat transfer analysis
In order to save the calculation time, the temperature distribution in the cutting tool at
thermal steady state is studied by performing pure heat transfer analysis. The
concerned modeling problem is discussed.
Stage 3: tool wear estimation modeling
Through the previous stages, normal stress, sliding velocity and tool temperature at
steady state can be obtained. Then the tool wear estimation modeling is studied. It
includes the calculation of wear rate at steady state, the searching method of a
suitable cutting time increment, the calculation of nodal displacement due to wear
and tool geometry updating.

The study process for milling operation includes:

Stage 1: chip formation analysis
The chip formation modeling method in milling operation is studied. It simulates the
chip formation process in the first milling cycle.
Stage 2: heat transfer analysis
In order to analyze the variation of tool temperature in the further milling cycles, the
cooling of the workpiece is studied, then pure heat transfer analysis of the tool is
performed for several milling cycles.
Stage 3: tool wear estimation modeling
Through the previous two stages, normal stress, sliding velocity, and tool
temperature can be obtained. Then the tool wear estimation modeling is studied. It
includes the calculation of average wear rate in one selected milling cycle, the
searching method of a suitable cutting time increment, the calculation of nodal
displacement due to wear and tool geometry updating.

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 34
Chapter 3 Chip Formation Simulation Technology



3.1 Introduction

Optimisation of the cutting process requires comprehensive knowledge about the
relation between cutting process and the combination of cutting parameters, cutting
tool and workpiece. In this chapter, chip formation process is simulated using
commercial FEM code, ABAQUS/Explicit.

3.1.1 Explicit Algorithm In Chip Formation Simulation

The chip formation simulation is performed using explicit method. In the simulation
the entire cutting process is discretized into many small time increments. In every
small time increment, dynamic and thermal analysis procedures are based on the
implementation of an explicit integration rule.

3.1.1.1 Dynamic Analysis Procedure

Dynamic analysis procedure is performed with the following algorithm.
• Nodal calculation
Accelerations are calculated by satisfying the dynamic equilibrium at the beginning of
the increment:

) (
) ( ) (
1
) ( i i i
I P M u − =

& & (3.1)

where is the acceleration at the beginning of the increment i,
) (i
u& &
M is the diagonal or lump mass matrix,
) (i
P is externally applied load,
and is internal load.
) (i
I
Then the accelerations are integrated through time using the central differential rule.

) (
) ( ) 1 (
)
2
1
( )
2
1
(
2
) (
i
i i
i i
u
t t
u u & & & &
∆ + ∆
+ =
+
− +
(3.2)
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 35

The velocities are integrated through time.

)
2
1
(
) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (
+
+ +
∆ + =
i
i i i
u t u u & (3.3)

• Element calculations
Element strain increment, ε d , is computed from the strain rate, ε& , which is decided
according to the velocity of nodes.
Then stress, σ , is computed from the material constitutive equation.

) , , ( θ ε ε σ & f = (3.4)

3.1.1.2 Thermal Analysis Procedure

In the chip formation analysis, the stress analysis is dependent on the temperature
distribution and the temperature distribution depends on the stress solution. Fully
coupled thermal-stress analysis is employed.
In the analysis, heat transfer equations are integrated using the explicit forward
difference time integration rule.

N
i i
N
i
N
i
t
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (
θ θ θ
&
+ +
∆ + = (3.5)

where is the temperature at node N.
N
θ
The values of are computed at the beginning of the increment by
N
i) (
θ
&

) ( ) (
) ( ) (
1
) (
J
i
J
i
NJ N
i
F P C − =

θ
&
, (3.6)

where
NJ
C is the lumped capacitance matrix;
J
P is the applied nodal source vector;
J
F is the internal flux vector.
The explicit integration rules are realized in both dynamic and thermal analysis
procedures by using lumped mass matrix and capacitance matrix. The heat transfer
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 36
and mechanical solutions are obtained simultaneously by an explicit coupling.
Therefore no iterations or tangent stiffness matrices are required.

3.1.2 Stability Limit

The central difference and forward difference integrate constant accelerations,
velocities and temperature increments per unit time. In order to produce accurate
result, the time increment must be quite small so that the integrated variables are
nearly constant during an increment. The time increment must be smaller than a
stability limit otherwise the solution becomes numerically unstable. For coupled
thermal-stress analysis, the stability limit can be calculated by

)
2
,
2
min(
max max
λ w
t ≤ ∆ (3.7)

where is the highest frequency in the system of equations of the mechanical
solution response and
max
w
max
λ is the largest eigenvalue in the system of equations of the
thermal solution response.
The ABAQUS/Explicit solver supplies the default time incrementation scheme, which
is fully automatic and requires no user intervention.

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 37
3.2 Continuous Chip Formation Simulation

Continuous chip is very common when most ductile materials, such as wrought iron,
mild steel, copper, and aluminium, are machined. Cutting under these conditions is
steady-state process with steady chip shape, cutting force and temperature. Many
chip formation models were developed for these cutting conditions with different FE
codes. They are based on different approaches: Lagrangian or Eulerian.

3.2.1 Limitation Of The Existing Chip Formation Models

This continuous chip formation process cannot obtain very satisfactory simulation
result because of the limitations of the existing models using ABAQUS FE code:
• Most models take chip formation as a Lagrangian problem. Under the
consideration of reducing calculation time, the length of the workpiece is often
very small, only enough to produce a steady chip shape. If analysis of the
further cutting process is required, a longer workpiece has to be used in the
simulation, which increases calculation time direct proportionally.
• In most chip formation models, chip separation is realized by element removal
or node debond. A small crack is always created before tool edge, as shown in
Fig. 3.1. But evidences from cutting experiments show that for the quasi-
continuous chip formation that takes place in machining ductile materials
under favourable cutting conditions, crack occurs along the shear direction
[Didj-97]. Only for discontinuous chip formation and chip formation with build-
up edge, crack is found ahead of the cutting edge.









(a) Node debond [McCl-02] (b) Element removal [Ng-02a]
Fig. 3.1 Cracks formed before tool edge in the simulations
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 38

• The chip separation path is often predetermined instead of formed
automatically by the deformation of workpiece material under the cutting
action. When round edge cutting tools are used, the position of the
predetermined chip separation path has influence on the volume of material to
be cut away. Whether the cutting force components, residual stress, etc
change with the position of the separation path or not needs analysing as well.
• A chip separation criterion is necessary. In ABAQUS, chip separation criterion
is given by defining material failure criterion. The failure parameters are
material dependent and different parameters are required for Johnson-cook
and other material models. Although many material constitutive models are
provided for the commonly used material by literatures, the failure parameters
are seldom given as well. Failure parameters relate to the successful
implementation of chip formation simulation. They should be determined
experimentally instead of being given at random. This limits the usage of
many material constitutive models.
• When the steady-state chip formation process is modelled as a Eulerian
problem with ABAQUS/Explicit, as reported by Arrazola et al [Arra-02], the
conflict between the cutting time to reach steady state and the length of the
workpiece model limited by calculation time is solved. Steady-state analysis is
performed by prolonging the cutting time without increasing the length of the
workpiece. In addition no shear failure criterion is required. But an initial chip
geometry must be given according to experiment or experience in machining.
When the given initial chip geometry is not suitable, chip geometry cannot
adapt itself when the chip tends to swell up or to shrink too much from the
given initial geometry, as shown in Fig. 3.2.


(a) When the given initial chip is thinner than in experiment, the chip swells up
from the initial geometry
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 39


(b) When the given initial chip is thicker than in experiment, the chip shrinks from
the initial geometry
Fig. 3.2 Problems in the chip formation analysis with an unsuitable initial chip
geometry [Arra-02]

3.2.2 Advantages Of The New-developed Chip Formation Model

Due to the limitations mentioned above, a new continuous chip formation model is
developed with ABAQUS/Eplicit. This model has the following advantages:
• Workpiece geometry in the model only stands for a control area. Workpiece
material is unlimited and flowing through this control area continuously. User
can prolong the cutting time without changing the size of the control area.
• Chip separation is realized with adaptive meshing technique supplied by
ABAQUS/Explicit; no shear failure criterion or material failure parameters are
required. Most of the material constitutive models can be used in this model.
• Chip separation is performed by the deformation of the workpiece material,
instead of forming crack along a predetermined path.
• Good contact is maintained in the cutting tool edge area. No obvious crack is
formed.
• This model is especially suitable to simulate the cutting process with round
edge tool or chamfered tool.
• No initial chip geometry is required. Chip formation simulation includes the
entire process from initial chip formation, chip growth, to steady state.

3.2.3 Adaptive Meshing Technique In ABAQUS/Explicit

This model is developed based on adaptive meshing technique in ABAQUS/Explicit.
It combines the features of pure Lagrangian and Eurerian analysis and can be used
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 40
to both Langrangian, e.g. initial chip formation, and Eulerian problems, e.g. steady-
state chip formation.

3.2.3.1 Boundary Region Types

Adaptive meshing is performed in adaptive meshing domains, which can be either
Lagrangian or Eulerian.






E: Eulerian boundary region
S: Sliding boundary region
L: Lagrangian boundary region
Material flow direction

S
L
L
E
E
S
Boundary region edge
Workpiece
Tool
Chip
Fig. 3.3 Boundary regions in chip formation model

The boundary regions of the adaptive meshing domain can be either Lagrangian,
sliding or Eulerian. In Lagrangian boundary region, the mesh is constrained to move
with the material in the direction normal to the surface of the boundary region and in
the directions perpendicular to the boundary region edge. In sliding boundary region,
the material is constrained to move with the material in the directions normal to the
boundary region, but it is completely unconstrained in the directions tangential to the
boundary region. Eulerian boundary regions can be defined only on the exterior of a
geometry model and the material flows across the boundary, as in a fluid flow
problem. Mesh on the Eulerian boundary regions are fixed in space using spatial
mesh constrains, and material flow velocity across the boundary is defined by
boundary conditions. When the adaptive meshing domain is Eulerian type, only
sliding and Eulerian boundary regions can be defined, for example the workpiece in
Fig. 3.3.

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 41
3.2.3.2 Geometry Features

On boundary regions where the angle θ between the normals on adjacent element
faces is greater than an initial geometric feature angle θ
I
given by the user, geometry
features are detected initially. Adaptive meshing cannot be performed well across
such geometry features because the nodes cannot move across the geometry
features unless they flatten. Therefore it is sometimes necessary to deactivate the
geometry features by defining a greater initial geometry angle.







θ
n n
n
n
θ ≤ θ
I

θ > θ
I

(a) (b)
Fig. 3.4 Geometry Features (a) Geometry feature is detected, no mesh flow is
permitted past the corner (b) No geometry feature is detected, mesh flow is permitted


3.2.3.3 Curvature Refinement

During adaptive meshing, mesh-smoothing algorithms based on minimizing element
distortion tend to reduce the mesh refinement in area of concave curvature,
especially as the curvature evolves. Having sufficient mesh refinement near highly
curved boundaries is very important to model the detail of the chip shape near the
chip separation area. To prevent the natural reduction in mesh refinement of areas
near evolving concave curvature, solution-dependent meshing is used to focus mesh
gradation toward these areas automatically by defining the curvature refinement
weight α
c
a high value, for example, 1 =
c
α .

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 42

(a) α
c
=0 (b) α
c
=1
Fig. 3.5 Effect of curvature refinement

3.2.4 Analysis Steps

The entire continuous chip formation process is performed with a complete modeling
procedure from initial chip formation to the realization of steady state, which consists
of three analysis steps, including initial chip formation, chip growth, and steady-state
chip formation as described in detail in the following parts. The first two analysis
steps supply steady chip geometry for the steady-state chip formation analysis step.
During all the chip formation steps, coupled thermo-stress analyses are performed.
The simulated cutting condition is given in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1: Cutting condition
Cutting type Orthogonal cutting, turning operation, dry cutting
Work material Mild carbon steel AISI1045
Tool material Uncoated carbide WC-Co
Tool geometry
° − = 7
o
γ , ° = 7
o
α , mm r 0245 . 0 =
ε
Cutting parameters
min / 300m v
c
= , , mm a
p
2 = r mm f / 145 . 0 =

In the finite element model, the workpiece has a size of 0.6×3.2mm, which is meshed
with 4-node bilinear coupled temperature-displacement plain strain elements
CPE4RT. In order to save calculation time, only the part of the cutting tool near the
cutting edge is included in the chip formation modelling. Moreover in the first two
steps, the cutting tool is defined as a rigid body, whereas in the last analysis step the
cutting tool is modelled as a deformable body in order to obtain better analysis result
and more comprehensive analysis data.
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 43

3.2.4.1 Initial Chip Formation

This analysis step aims to form initial chip geometry. This chip formation process is
modelled as a Lagrangian problem.








(a) Initial geometry and mesh (b) Initial chip geometry formed at t=0.18ms
c
v
E
D
C
B
A
Fig. 3.6 Initial chip formation analysis

The initial workpiece geometry is designed to have a concave at the top-right corner
under the consideration of seeding more nodes along the concave surface (see Fig.
3.6(a)). The boundary of the workpiece consists of only Lagrangian boundary
regions. During the initial chip formation process, the Lagrangian boundary region on
the top surface of the workpiece traces the chip material continuously and forms the
shape of the chip.
At the cutting edge, chip material separates with workpiece material. Only very fine
mesh can show exactly the shape of this area. In order to maintain the mesh
refinement in this area while the chip formation process continues, the initial
geometry feature angle should be given a suitable value. According to this value, the
four corner points A, B, C and D in Fig. 3.6(a) can be detected as geometry features
but corner point E and the workpiece nodes on the surface ED should not be taken
as geometry features. The value is defined by calculating the angle between the
normals on adjacent element faces in chip separation area, as shown in Fig. 3.7,
finding out the maximum angle value, then taking an angle value between this
maximum angle value and 90 deg (because the angles at point A, B, C and D are
about 90 deg). Adaptive meshing can be performed on any boundary regions except
point A, B, C and D.
i
θ

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 44

Workpie
Tool
θ
i








Fig. 3.7 Determination of initial geometry feature angle

In addition solution-dependent meshing is used to focus mesh toward the chip
separation areas automatically by setting the curvature refinement weight α
c
to unity.
At the beginning the cutting tool is at the right side of the workpiece. The workpiece is
fixed and the cutting tool is moving in the negative x-direction
1
. With the cutting tool
advancing into the workpiece, elements along the concave surface extend and
compose the outside surface of the chip. After 0.18ms an initial chip is formed. Fig.
3.6(b) shows the mesh after the initial chip is formed.

3.2.4.2 Chip Growth

After the initial chip is formed, chip growth analysis step is performed. This analysis
step aims at forming steady chip geometry. In this step the chip formation process is
treated as a Eulerian problem.
A user program is developed with Python language. It reads the variables about
nodal coordinate, nodal temperature, etc of the workpiece and the cutting tool from
the selected time point of the initial chip formation analysis step, when a desirable
initial chip shape is produced. Then it writes them into the model files of the chip
growth analysis step, including node input file, initial temperature input file, etc.
Therefore the initial state of the workpiece and the cutting tool in this step remains
the state at the selected time point of the former analysis step. For example, in this
simulation the initial state information is read from the former analysis step at 0.18ms.

1
In all figures of this paper, x-direction is pointed to the right side and y-direction to the top of the page.

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 45
In this step, the relative movement between the cutting tool and the workpiece is
performed by the movement of workpiece material. The cutting tool is fixed in space.
The workpiece mesh in Fig. 3.8 represents only a control area. The left and right
boundary of the control area are defined as Eulerian boundary regions, whose mesh
is fixed in x-direction by using mesh constrain definition, but material flows into the
control area continuously from the left boundary at the cutting speed and flows out of
from the right boundary, as indicated with the small arrows in Fig. 3.8(a). The top and
bottom boundary are sliding boundary regions. The movement of the mesh on the
bottom boundary is constrained in y-direction, indicated with small triangle in Fig.
3.8(a). But the movement of the mesh on the top boundary is not constrained; the
mesh will adjust itself to fit in with the developing chip geometry.
Initial geometry feature angle is defined in the same way as explained above. The
curvature refinement weight α
c
is set to unity.
Fig. 3.8(b) shows that the chip is growing with the material flowing into the control
area.


(a) Initial geometry and mesh (b) Chip growth at t= 0.09ms
Fig. 3.8 Chip growth analysis

3.2.4.3 Continuous Steady-state Chip Formation

In the second analysis step, with the chip growing to a certain extent, the mesh of the
chip extends too much in the direction of chip growth so that adaptive meshing
cannot solve mesh distortion problem any more. The steady-state chip formation
analysis step is designed for simulating the further cutting process. In this step, the
cutting process is treated as a Eulerian problem as well. According to the definition of
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 46
the workpiece mesh, two methods can be used in the continuous steady-state chip
formation step: mesh modification and model regenerating.

Method 1: Mesh Modification

During the growth of the chip in the second analysis step, the chip geometry near the
chip root becomes steady since a certain time point. The state of the workpiece and
the cutting tool at this time point is written into the model files of steady-state cutting
analysis step. For example, the mesh in Fig. 3.9(a) is read from chip growth analysis
step at t=0.09ms, see Fig. 3.8(b).
In order to allow the chip to flow out of the mesh and grow unlimitedly instead of grow
visually with the mesh, the mesh at the top boundary of the chip is defined as a
Eulerian boundary region. The coordinates of the nodes on this boundary are
adjusted to locate these nodes along a vertical line in order to facilitate the definition
of mesh movement constrain in x-direction, as shown in Fig. 3.9(a). The mesh of the
boundary is not constrained in y-direction; its position and size can adjust with the
chip automatically in y-direction.
The definition of boundary regions and conditions for the other part of the workpiece
control area are similar to those in the second analysis step. Initial geometry feature
angle and curvature refinement weight α
c
are defined in the same way as explained
above.
Because the cutting tool is a deformable body, its movement is fixed by defining
constraint in x-direction at the right boundary and in y-direction at the top boundary.
Fig. 3.9(b) shows the formed mesh at 1ms.









(a) Initial geometry and mesh (b) Mesh at t=1ms
Fig. 3.9 Mesh modification
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 47

Method 2: Model Regenerating

This method is especially important when the cutting tool has some special geometry,
e.g. crater wear, and good contact between the workpiece and the cutting tool in
these areas is desired.
ABAQUS/Explicit supplies only r-adaptivity. When the mesh concentrates in the
cutting edge area according to solution-dependent meshing rule, the mesh in other
area becomes coarse. But sometimes fine mesh along the whole tool-workpiece and
tool-chip interface is required. Model regenerating supplies an approach to improve
the contact problem.
The information necessary for model regenerating includes chip thickness and tool-
chip contact length. They can be obtained from the former two analysis steps, initial
chip formation and chip growth analysis step, in which a steady chip shape is formed.
The regenerated workpiece model in Fig. 3.10(a) has a chip connected to the
workpiece. The chip is 0.3mm thick, and 0.5mm long. The length of the chip should
be determined carefully. It is larger than the tool-chip contact length. But when the
chip is too long, it will complicate the definition of mesh constraint.
The mesh at the top boundary of the chip is defined as a Eulerian boundary region.
The mesh movement is constrained in y-direction. The mesh position and size in x-
direction will be adjusted with the chip automatically.









(a) Initial geometry and mesh (b) Mesh at t=1ms
Fig. 3.10 Model regenerating

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 48
Very fine mesh is given along the entire tool-chip interface. This ensures good
contact between the cutting tool, the workpiece and the chip throughout the entire
steady-state analysis process, as shown in Fig. 3.11.


Contact
problem
Contact
problem

(a) Contact problem is created by using mesh modification


(b) Contact is improved by using model regenerating
Fig.3.11 Contact status along tool-chip interface

3.2.5 Results & Discussion

3.2.5.1 Stress Analysis

Fig. 3.12 shows the stress distribution in the three analysis steps. Maximum stress is
located in the primary shear zone; the workpiece material undergoes serious shear
plastic deformation in primary shear zone and becomes chip.
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 49
Further the underside of the chip undergoes high stress because of the contact and
friction with the tool face when sliding away.
The newly formed machined surface has contact and friction with the round edge and
sometimes a small part of the flank face. This results in a high stress in the workpiece
material beneath the cutting tool edge.


(a) Initial chip formation analysis, t=0.18m (b) Chip growth analysis, t=0.3ms


(c) Steady state analysis, t=1ms
Fig. 3.12 Stress distribution (MPa)

In steady state analysis step, the cutting tool is modelled as a deformable body; very
high stress is observed in the small part of the cutting tool directly under the tool-chip
contact area.

3.2.5.2 Plastic Strain Analysis

Fig. 3.13 shows that the workpiece material undergoes serious plastic deformation in
primary shear zone. The material in the chip underside deforms plastically again
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 50
under the pressure and friction of the cutting tool face. This results in higher plastic
strain formed in the chip underside than in the other part of the chip.


(a) Chip growth analysis step, t=0.09ms


(b) Mesh modification, t=1ms (c) Model regenerating, t=1ms
Fig. 3.13 Equivalent plastic strain distribution

In Fig. 3.13(a), the top of the chip has no plastic strain because only the geometry of
this part is imported from the initial chip formation analysis step, not including the
created plastic strain. In the steady-state analysis, the two model methods create
similar plastic strain field, and only the maximum values are different which is caused
by the different contact condition due to element size in the workpiece model and the
difference between deformable cutting tool and rigid body cutting tool.

3.2.5.3 Strain Rate

Fig. 3.14 shows the distribution of strain rate, which is defined as solution SDV9 by
material subroutine. Under the example cutting condition, the maximum strain rates
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 51
distribute along the primary shear zone, especially in the areas close to the cutting
tool edge and the free surface of the workpiece, and reach up to 10
5
, which is
assumed as typical maximum strain rate in conventional machining [Arnd-73].


(a) Chip growth step, t=0.09ms

(b) Mesh modification, t=1ms (c) Modal regenerating, t=1ms
Fig. 3.14 Strain rate distribution

3.2.5.4 Temperature Analysis

In Fig. 3.15(b), within the cutting process of 1ms cutting temperatures at most of the
tool face nodes in the tool/chip interface, i.e. the highlighted nodes in Fig. 3.15(a), is
reaching steady values, while at the tool face nodes inside the cutting insert, the
highlighted nodes in Fig. 3.15(c), the temperature is still climbing, as shown in Fig.
3.15(d). This means that thermal steady state is not realized in the whole cutting tool.

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 52

(a) Position of monitored tool face nodes (b) Temperature progress

Node 429
Node 497
Node 588
Node 492
Node 507
(b) Position of nodes inside the tool (d) Temperature history
Fig. 3.15 Temperature history of tool nodes at steady-state chip formation analysis
step

Fig. 3.16 shows the temperature distribution at 1ms. The highest temperature is at
the rake/chip interface and most part of the tool is still at room temperature.

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 53

Fig. 3.16 Temperature distribution at t=1ms of steady-state chip formation analysis
step

3.2.5.5 Verification With Experimental Data

By adding the reaction force component in the same direction at all constrained
nodes of the cutting tool and then taking the negative value, the cutting force
components F
c
and F
t
in the continuous steady-state chip formation step are
obtained. Fig. 3.17 shows that the cutting force components change within a very
narrow range from 0.7ms, and it is deemed that the mechanical steady state is
realized.


Fig. 3.17 Cutting force progress (under cutting condition: v
c
=300m/min, a
p
=2mm,
f=0.145mm/r)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0,0000 0,0004 0,0008 0,0012
Time [s]
C
u
t
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

t
h
r
u
s
t

f
o
r
c
e

[
N
]
Fc
Ft
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 54

In Fig. 3.18, the cutting force values obtained from the simulation with
ABAQUS/Explicit code are compared with the experiment data [Feve-01] and the
result from other software including Third Wave, Deform2D and Oxcut-F [Söhn-03].
The results from ABAQUS include ABQ-f030I, ABQ-f030S, ABQ-f048I and ABQ-
f048S. I means the result is obtained from initial chip formation step, while S from
continuous steady state chip formation step. Two different frictional coefficient values
are used. One is 0.30, another is calculated according to Eq. 1.3, and the value is
0.48.
Fig. 3.18 shows that the cutting force components obtained from initial chip formation
step and continuous steady state chip formation step have no great difference. The
cutting force components created in the chip formation analysis with the frictional
coefficient of 0.48 gives the better result than other FEM code, the prediction error of
cutting force F
c
is about 2%, and the error of thrust force F
c
is about 5%.

2%
5%
2%
5%
2% 2%
5% 5%











Fig. 3.18 Comparison of cutting force (under cutting condition: v
c
=300m/min,
a
p
=2mm, f=0.145mm/r)

3.3 Chip Formation Simulation For Milling Operation

In milling operation, cutting action is discontinuous and the chip produced is
discontinuous. The modelling method developed for the continuous chip formation is
not suitable to simulate chip formation process in milling operation. Therefore a
different modelling method is introduced in the following part.
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 55

3.3.1 Chip Separation

In every milling cycle, the produced chip will separate with the newly produced
workpiece surface without any connection when the cutting tool disengages from the
workpiece. Hence the adaptive meshing technique in ABAQUS/Explicit cannot be
used as a chip separation tool any more. In this method, chip separation is realized
by defining shear failure criterion.

3.3.1.1 Shear Failure Criterion

The shear failure model is based on the value of the equivalent plastic strain at
element integration points; when the equivalent plastic strain reaches the strain at
failure
pl
f
ε , then the damage parameter exceeds 1, material failure takes place. If
at all the integration point material failure takes place, the element is removed from
the mesh. The damage parameter, , is defined as
w
w


|
|
.
|

\
|

=
pl
f
pl
w
ε
ε
, (3.8)

where
pl
ε ∆ is an increment of the equivalent plastic strain. The summation is
performed over all increments in the analysis.
There are two methods to define the strain at failure. For Johnson-cook plasticity
model, the stain at failure is given according to Eq. 3.9.

( θ
ε
ε
ε
ˆ
1 1 exp
5
0
4 3 2 1
d In d
q
p
d d d
pl
pl
f
+
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
&
&
) (3.9)

where strain at failure,
pl
f
ε , is dependent on a nondimensional plastic strain rate,
0
ε ε &
&
pl
; a dimensional pressure-stress ratio, q p (where p is the pressure stress and
is the Mises stress); and a nondimensional temperature, (defined as 0, q θ
ˆ
( ) ( )
transition melt transition
θ θ θ θ − − , or 1 depending on the temperature range). Stain at
failure is defined by giving the failure parameters .
5 1
d d −
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 56
For Mises plasticity model, strain at failure or the dependencies of strain at failure on
strain rate, pressure/stress ratio and temperature are given directly in tabular form in
the data line.

3.3.1.2 A Numerical Method To Determine Strain At Failure

Normally, equivalent plastic strain at failure,
pl
f
ε , is obtained by using experimental
methods. For example, Bacaria et al determined failure parameters d by
performing tensile and torsion tests [Baca-00]. Ng et al integrated orthogonal tests
with some analytical equations in metal cutting theory to define the dependency of
the equivalent plastic strain at failure
5 1
d −
pl
f
ε on the plastic strain rate
pl
ε
&
; the
hydrostatic stress p and temperature [Ng-02b].
By employing the continuous chip formation analysing methods, it is possible to
determine stain at failure without making any experiment.
Observing the movement of material points on the chip underside and the machined
workpiece surface in steady-state chip formation process, we can find a separation
area of the workpiece material. For example, in Fig. 3.19, the separation area is
between Node 13 and Node 16. The material above the separation area moves
upwards into the chip and the material below the separation area moves downwards
to join in the machined surface.

Node 13
Node 16
Node 15
Node 14
Node 13
Node 16
Node 15
Node 14

Fig. 3.19 Velocity of material points at workpiece nodes on the chip underside and
the machined surface (the arrows shows the velocity vectors)

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 57
According to the sliding velocities of the workpiece material points along tool-chip
interface, a more exact position of the separation area can be defined in Fig. 3.20.
The directions of sliding velocities of the material points in the area between Node 15
and Node 16 change. It can be assumed that material failure is taking place in this
area. The equivalent plastic strain between Node 15 and Node 16 gives a value
range from 2.25 to 2.7 to strain at failure.

Node16
Node15
Node16
Node15
Node16
Node15

(a) Monitored points
Node16
Node15
Node16
Node15
Node16
Node15

Node16
Node15
Node16
Node15
Node16
Node15

(b) Sliding velocity of monitored points (c) Equivalent plastic strain of monitored
points
Fig. 3.20 Determination of strain at failure

By varying cutting parameters or tool geometry, the dependency of strain at failure on
temperature, strain rate, pressure, etc can be studied.
In the following part of this chapter, strain at failure for mild carbon steel is set to 2.5.

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 58
3.3.2 Chip Formation Modeling

This chip formation modeling method is explained by taking a milling case as an
example in which an uncoated carbide tool is used to machine mild steel CK45. The
cutting condition is given in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 Cutting condition
Cutting type Orthogonal cutting, milling operation, dry cutting
Work material Mild carbon steel CK45
Tool material Uncoated carbide WC-Co
Tool geometry
° = 7
o
γ , ° = 7
o
α
Cutting parameters
min / 600m v
c
= , , a , mm a
e
2 = mm
p
1 = r mm f
z
/ 2 . 0 =

The diameter of the milling tool is 125mm. In order to reduce the calculation time,
only a small part of the workpiece and the cutting insert is included in the model. Fig.
3.21 shows the initial geometry, mesh and assembly of the workpiece and the cutting
insert.











0.4
0.2
Rotation center
W
o
r
k
p
i
e
c
e
Insert
6
2
.
5
2
0.4
0.2
Rotation center
W
o
r
k
p
i
e
c
e
Insert
6
2
.
5
2
0.4
0.2
Rotation center
W
o
r
k
p
i
e
c
e
Insert
6
2
.
5
2
0.4
0.2
Rotation center
W
o
r
k
p
i
e
c
e
Insert
6
2
.
5
2
Fig. 3.21 Initial geometry, mesh and assembly of the tool and the workpiece in chip
formation analysis

The workpiece is simplified as a small segment of a ring; whose outside radius is
62.7mm and inside radius 62.3mm. The centre of the ring is positioned at the rotation
centre of the cutting insert. The workpiece is 2mm high. The extension of its upper
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 59
surface passes through the center of the ring and the lower surface is parallel to the
upper surface. The workpiece is discretized with a mesh composed of CPE4RT
elements, and local fine mesh is given along the moving path of the cutting edge
because of very high gradients of solutions in this area, such as temperature, stress,
etc.
The cutting insert in the model includes only the part near the cutting edge, which is
discretized with CPE4RT elements. The cutting insert is modelled as a deformable
body in order to obtain all the necessary cutting process variables for the latter study
on tool wear.
The chip formation process is treated as a Lagrangian problem. Every boundary
segment of workpiece is defined as a Lagrangian boundary region.
There are different ways to assign shear failure criterion to form different shape of
chips. Ng et al designed two different kinds of shear failure criteria, one criterion is
assigned to a line of element along the moving path of the cutting edge to separate
the chip from the workpiece; another criterion is assigned to part of the chip material
to generate cracks in order to simulate serrated chips [Ng-02b]. Bacaria defined only
one material shear failure model for the whole workpiece material [Baca-00]. In the
model the shear failure criterion is integrated with a material model designed
specially for the workpiece material CK45 and assigned to the whole workpiece.
One milling cycle takes 39.27ms. In each milling cycle, cutting phase takes 0.2ms
and cooling phase takes 39.07ms. The chip formation analysis is performed for
0.5ms, covering the whole cutting phase and 0.3ms of the later cooling phase.

3.3.3 Result & Discussion

3.3.3.1 Stress Analysis

At the beginning, the cutting insert is at the bottom of the workpiece, and there is no
contact with the workpiece. With the tool rotating in clock-wise direction, the cutting
insert engages in the fixed workpiece. A small chip is formed, and the contact
between the chip and the cutting insert concentrates in a small area near the cutting
edge, which results in a high stress in this area, as shown in Fig. 3.22(a).
Fig. 3.22(b) shows that the primary deformation zone has the maximum stress in the
workpiece.
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 60
In Fig. 3.22(c), the cutting insert is disengaging the workpiece. The workpiece
material to be cut away deforms seriously under the pressure of the cutting insert and
protrudes from the original top surface, which provides a possibility for burr formation.
But after crack generates, it propagates along the direction of maximum stress
deeper and deeper into the workpiece material, instead of along the moving path of
the cutting edge.
During the entire cutting phase, the cutting edge is bearing higher stress than other
part of the insert because of positive rake angle and very sharp tool edge.


(a) t= 0.025ms (b) t= 0.100ms

(c) t=0.175ms (d) t=0.200ms
Fig. 3.22 Stress field (Mpa) in the chip formation analysis

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 61

3.3.3.2 Cutting Temperature

The predicted temperatures generated during chip formation process are shown in
Fig. 3.23. The heat is generated mainly in two zones, the shear zone and the chip
underside sliding along the tool face. The obvious temperature increment take place
in shear zone, then the chip underside is heated again to a higher temperature by the
friction with the tool face, as shown in Fig. 3.23(b), 3.23(c) and 3.23(d). In addition,
when chip breakage takes place in Fig. 3.23(a), local high temperature is formed.










(a) t= 0.025ms (b) t= 0.100ms


(c) t=0.175ms (d) t=0.200ms
Fig. 3.23 Temperature distribution (in Kelvin) in the chip formation analysis
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 62

3.3.3.3 Cutting Force Analysis

In order to make the cutting insert rotate as a deformable body, its bottom is pinned
on and rotates with the rotation center point. Therefore cutting force is exerted on the
rotation center point. Fig. 3.24 shows the cutting force progress during the cutting
process. Because the cutting insert has exited from the workpiece and no contact
with the workpiece any more after 0.2ms, cutting force components in x-direction and
y-direction are reducing to zero. The ‘noise’ of the cutting force signal is caused by
the removal of the elements; they reach the shear failure criterion and then stresses
in these elements are set to zero, which result in the fluctuation of cutting force. This
is different from ‘noise’ observed in continuous chip formation analysis, which always
appear when the element of workpiece is coarser than tool element, and contact
problem results in ‘noise’ of cutting force signal.

C
u
t
t
i
n
g

f
o
r
c
e


[
N
]
C
u
t
t
i
n
g

f
o
r
c
e


[
N
]

Fig. 3.24 Cutting force progress during the cutting process
Chip Formation Simulation Technology 63
3.4 Summaries & Conclusion

Two different chip formation modeling methods are designed to simulate the chip
formation process in milling operation and turning operation.
Chip formation model for turning operation is designed to simulate the whole cutting
process including initial chip formation, chip growth and steady state. No experiment
is required to get material failure parameters or steady chip geometry. Chip
separation is formed automatically by using ALE technique supplied by
ABAQUS/Explicit. In order to get good contact between the chip and the tool face
even when a serious crater wear is formed on rake face, model regeneration method
is suggested to update and refine the mesh of the workpiece, especially at the tool-
chip interface.
With this complete model, the normal tool geometry such as blunted, chamfered and
worn cutting tool can be used in the chip formation model.
The calculation time to reach steady state is relative short comparing with the chip
formation model in which the chip formation is taken as a pure Lagrangian problem.
Especially when it is used in tool wear estimation, the total calculation time to reach
tool reshape criterion is reduced sharply because except the initial chip formation and
chip growth are run only one time and then with the tool wear increasing, only steady
state analysis step is necessary.
Chip formation in milling operation is modeled by introducing the shear failure
criterion because of the intermittent cutting process. The shear failure criterion is
used to the entire workpiece. This model is expected to have a wider application
because it can model various chip type, such as serrated chip, when the suitable
material constitutive and material failure model are provided.


Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 64
Chapter 4 Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting

4.1 Introduction

When the cutting process is simulated using chip formation analysis, the cutting time
is normally limited to a short time, because coupled thermal mechanical analysis is
too expensive. For example, in the former chapter, at the end of the chip formation
analysis in turning operation, temperatures at nodes inside the cutting tool are still
climbing while those at tool-chip interface nodes approach steady state. It is
concerned how the temperature distributes in the cutting tool finally. For milling
operation, the chip formation analysis is only carried out in the first milling cycle. It is
important for the correct calculation of tool wear how the tool temperature changes in
the further milling cycles.
Therefore pure heat transfer analysis is performed after chip formation analysis for
the further cutting process in order to get such knowledge at a low calculation cost.

4.2 General Considerations

4.2.1 Geometry And Mesh

In the heat transfer analysis, only a single object is considered, for example only the
cutting tool or the workpiece. Otherwise, the simulation will become complex because
of the interaction between the cutting tool and the workpiece.
ABAQUS uses some Eulerian elements, diffusive elements, which have only
temperature degrees of freedom, to model convective heat transfer. Diffusive
elements are provided in one, two or three dimension. Interpolation can be first-order
and second-order [ABA-01b]. Two-dimensional first-order four node diffusive
element, DC2D4, is chosen to discretize the geometry of the studied object in the
heat transfer analysis because quantities of DC2D4 are integrated at nodes and this
simplifies the design of heat flux subroutine by importing heat flux at nodes of chip
formation model directly into integration points of heat transfer model as basic data
for the calculation of the current heat flux. In addition, the error caused by the
conversion from nodal value to integration point value is avoided during the
importation of temperature data. These advantages are based on the conservation of
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 65
the node label, element label and element connectivity of the chip formation analysis
model.

4.2.2 Heat Flux

In the cutting phase the cutting tool is heated by the heat flux acted on the tool-chip
and tool-workpiece interface. The total heat flux is composed of frictional heat flux
and conductive heat flux . Frictional heat flux is created due to the sliding friction
between the workpiece material and the tool face. The amount of frictional heat flux
into the cutting tool is calculated by Eq. 4.1.
f
q
c
q

( )
s
r
f q ν ητ ⋅ − = 1 (4.1)

where
τ is the frictional stress;
s
ν is the sliding velocity;
η specifies the fraction of mechanical energy converted into thermal energy;
f gives the fraction of the generated heat flowing into the workpiece.
Therefore frictional heat flux is influenced by chip form, sliding condition and contact
with the tool face.
Conductive heat flux is caused by the temperature difference of tool-chip and tool-
workpiece at the interface. It is governed by Eq. 4.2.

(
B A
c
k q θ θ − = ) (4.2)

where
c
q is the conductive heat flux crossing the interface from point A on the workpiece to
point B on the cutting tool;
k is the gap conductance;
θ is the nodal temperature on the surface.
Therefore conductive heat flux is temperature dependent.
Both heat flux components are varying from node to node and the basic nodal heat
flux data can be obtained from the chip formation analysis.
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 66

4.3 In Turning Operation

4.3.1 Modeling

In order to study on the temperature distribution of the cutting tool at steady state,
heat transfer analysis is performed after the chip formation analysis finishes.
Because in the orthogonal cutting experiment [Schm-02], the part of the cutting edge
engaged in the cutting is located in the center part circled in Fig. 4.1, the geometry
model of the cutting tool used in the two-dimensional heat transfer analysis is the
section created by intersecting the center area with a surface perpendicular to the
edge. It includes the part, which is surrounded by the rake face, flank face, bottom
face, and the surface of the central hole. The part of the tool used in the former chip
formation analysis steps is only the highlighted part, and the element label, node
label and element connectivity of this part in chip formation analysis steps remain
unchanged.









Heat convection
Heat radiation
Frictional heat
Conductive heat
Hole surface
Bottom face
Flank face
Rake face
Hole surface
Flank face
Rake face
Bottom face
area
R
Heat convection Heat convection
Heat radiation Heat radiation
Frictional heat
Conductive heat
Hole surface
Bottom face
Flank face
Rake face
Hole surface
Bottom face
Flank face
Rake face
Hole surface Hole surface
Bottom face Bottom face
Flank face Flank face
Rake face Rake face
Hole surface
Flank face
Rake face
Bottom face
area
Hole surface
Flank face
Rake face
Bottom face
Hole surface
Flank face
Rake face
Bottom face
area area area
RRR
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
Cutting
oom temperature
Cutting Cutting Cutting Cutting
oom temperature oom temperature oom temperature
Fig. 4.1 Geometry and mesh of the cutting tool used in heat transfer analysis, the
circled part is the part of the edge engaged in the cutting

Temperature data at the end of the steady-state chip formation analysis step is
imported and used as the initial temperature definition of the nodes in the highlighted
part. At other nodes the initial temperature is set to room temperature.
At the nodes on tool/chip interface heat flux is defined. In steady-state chip formation
analysis step, it is found that the total heat flux (heat passing through the tool-chip
and tool-workpiece interface per second) is changing as the cutting process
continues, as shown in Fig. 4.2. One component of the total heat flux, the total
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 67
frictional heat flux, reaches steady state in a short time once the chip gets into
contact with the tool face and restores to the steady sliding velocity, while another
component, the total conductive heat flux, is always decreasing within the entire
analysis period. At the end of analysis, as the temperature of cutting tool and
workpiece become steady, the decreasing rate is becoming lower and lower and
approaching a steady value.











-600000
-400000
-200000
0
200000
400000
600000
800000
0,0000 0,0003 0,0006 0,0009 0,0012
Time [s]
H
e
a
t

f
l
u
x

[
m
J
/
s
]
Total conductive heat f lux
Total f rictional heat f lux
Total Heat f lux
Fig. 4.2 Heat flux at tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface in steady-state chip
formation analysis step

Observation of nodal temperature of workpiece nodes at tool-chip interface shows
that the variation of nodal temperature at the end of the analysis is very small, as
shown in Fig. 4.3. Therefore thermal steady state is assumed in workpiece material
at the interface. Then the nodal conductive heat flux can be converted from Eq. 4.1
into Eq. 4.3

( ) ( )
B t B t B t A
c
s s s
k k q θ θ θ θ − + − =
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
(4.3)

where
s
t
(
is the time point at the end of steady-state chip formation analysis. Because of the
above assumption about steady nodal temperature of workpiece node at interface,
) ,
s
t A
θ is equal to and replaces
A
θ . The first part ( )
) , ( ) , (
s s
t B t A
k θ θ − is nodal conductive
heat flux, which can be obtained from the end of steady-state chip formation analysis.
The second part is the variation of nodal conductive heat flux and it is dependent on
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 68
the difference in temperature between current nodal temperature and the
temperature at the end of steady-state chip formation analysis.


N134
N128
N129
N133
N127









Fig. 4.3 Nodal temperature at selected workpiece nodes

Therefore nodal total heat flux can be expressed by Eq. 4.4.

( )
B t B
c
t
r
t
t
s s s
k q q q θ θ − + + =
) , (
(4.4)

where
t
q is the total nodal heat flux;
s
t
c
q stands for ( )
) , ( ) , (
s s
t B t A
k θ θ − ;
s
t
r
q is the nodal frictional heat flux;
s
t
c
q and do not change after importation. Based on Eq. 4.4, a temperature-
dependent heat flux subroutine is developed for the heat transfer analysis.
s
t
r
q
In addition, the tool makes heat transfer with the environment through rake face and
flank face by heat convection and radiation.
The nodes on bottom face and hole surface always keep room temperature because
of their contact with the tool holder and the screw.

4.3.2 Results & Discussion

When maximum temperature change of 10K between two times of incrementation of
heat transfer analysis is defined as steady state criterion, steady state is reached in
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 69
the whole tool in 2.2s.s Fig. 4.4 shows the progress of temperature at four selected
nodes in the tool.

Node 48
Node 340
Node 436
Node 13
(a) Position of the selected nodes (b) Temperature history
Fig. 4.4 Temperature history of nodes in the tool



(a) t=0s (b) t=2.2s
Fig. 4.5 Temperature field (Kelvin) change of the tool in heat transfer analysis

Fig. 4.5 shows that at the beginning of heat transfer analysis the high temperature
region concentrates in a small area near the cutting edge, and after 2.2s this region
extends to nearly one-third of the tool.
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 70

4.4 In Milling Operation

Heat transfer analysis is performed for both the workpiece and the cutting tool. In the
cooling phase of the first milling cycle, whether the workpiece can restore to room
temperature affects the chip formation, temperature distribution and heat transfer with
the cutting tool in the second milling cycle. Study on the development of temperature
distribution in the cutting tool in multi milling cycles is important for the
implementation of tool wear estimation.

4.4.1 On Workpiece

4.4.1.1 Modelling

Generally, the actual workpiece is very huge comparing with the small part of
workpiece used in the chip formation analysis. Therefore the workpiece geometry is
extended in the heat transfer analysis. It is composed of two parts, as shown in Fig.
4.6. Part 1 is the remaining workpiece geometry after the chip is cut away in the chip
formation analysis. Part 2 is some additional workpiece material; it is attached to the
bottom of part 1.









= +
part 1 part 2 workpiece
Fig. 4.6 Geometry and mesh of the workpiece in heat transfer analysis

The initial temperature of part 2 is set to room temperature. Nodal temperature at the
end of previous chip formation analysis step is imported and defined as initial
temperature of part 1. Fig. 4.7(a) shows the temperature distribution at the beginning
of heat transfer analysis.
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 71


i
Heat emitted to
environment due
to convec t ion
and r ad ia t ion
Heat conduction
n the material
(a) t=0ms (b) t=38.77ms
Fig. 4.7 Temperature field (in Celsuis) change of the workpiece in heat transfer
analysis

During the cooling phase, in addition to the heat conduction from cutting area to the
whole workpiece bulk, the workpiece cools down due to heat convection and
radiation through boundary.
Heat flux due to convection is calculated by

( )
0
θ θ − − = h q
v
; (4.5)

where
v
q is the heat flux due to convection;
h is a reference film coefficient, unit C m s J ° . .
2
;
θ is the temperature at a point on the surface;
0
θ is the sink temperature, i.e. room temperature.
Heat flux due to radiation to the environment is governed by

( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

− − − =
4
0
4
z z r
q θ θ θ θ εσ , (4.6)

where
r
q is the heat flux due to radiation on a surface;
ε is the emissivity of the surface;
σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant;
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 72
θ is the temperature at a point on the surface;
0
θ is the ambient temperature;
z
θ is the value of absolute zero on the temperature scale being used.

4.4.1.2 Results & Discussion

The heat transfer analysis covers the rest period of the first milling cycle after the chip
formation analysis ends. Fig. 4.7(b) shows that after 38.77ms of cooling, the entire
workpiece restores nearly to room temperature. The heat in the workpiece is emitted
to the environment.
Observation on the temperature progress at several selected nodes shows that after
the first milling cycle the temperature increment is smaller than 10K, as shown in Fig.
4.8. It is assumed that temperature increment of the workpiece in the real cutting
experiment is smaller than the predicted because the huge workpiece used in reality
supplies a higher heat capacity and a bigger boundary surface to emit the heat.


Node 839
Node 2140
Node 464
Node 550
Node 638
Node 501
(a) Monitored nodes (b) Temperature progress at monitored nodes
Fig. 4.8 Temperature history of workpiece nodes in heat transfer analysis step

It is assumed that in the second milling cycle this small temperature variation in the
workpiece has no big influence on material deformation, heat generation,
temperature distribution in the workpiece and tool-chip and tool-workpiece contact. It
is expected that if the influence of the temperature variation of the cutting tool is not
considered, chip formation analysis result in the second milling cycle can be
assumed similar to that in the first milling cycle. Solutions obtained from the chip
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 73
formation analysis in the first milling cycle can be used to the second milling cycle.
According to the same reasoning, they are useable in the third, fourth, and further
milling cycles. Therefore solutions obtained from the chip formation analysis of the
first milling cycle are used in the heat transfer analysis of the cutting tool in multi
milling cycles and tool wear estimation.

4.4.2 On Tool

4.4.2.1 Modeling

In the cooling phase of milling operation, if the heat in the tool is not emitted
completely to the environment by heat convection and heat radiation, the
temperature of the tool will get an increment in the later milling cycle due to the
remaining heat. This part will try to analyse the temperature variation of the tool with
the accumulation of heat. The heat transfer analysis is performed in 8 milling cycles.
The tool geometry and mesh in chip formation analysis are inherited and used in the
heat transfer analysis. Although the real cutting tool moves continuously with the
rotation of the shaft, in the simulation it is fixed spatial because the degree of
freedom in the heat transfer analysis is limited only to temperature.
Heat transfer analysis starts from the time when the chip formation analysis ends.
The temperature distribution at the end of the chip formation analysis is imported into
the heat transfer analysis as initial conditions.
In every milling cycle, the tool is heated in the cutting phase by the heat flux at the
tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface. The two components of the total heat flux,
frictional and conductive heat flux are time-dependent varying. Frictional heat flux
changes because of varying shear stress and sliding velocity caused by the change
of chip thickness in milling operation. Conductive heat flux changes with the varying
of difference in temperature between the tool and the workpiece at contact interface.
Although the nodal total heat flux in the cutting phase is changing continuously from
time to time, it is possible to obtain the basic values of nodal frictional heat flux and
nodal conductive heat flux from the chip formation analysis of the first milling cycle
only at some discrete time points 0, t
1
, …, t
j
, …, t
n
. These data are written in the heat
flux and temperature files. The heat flux value at other time point is obtained by
performing interpolation.
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 74
In addition, conductive heat flux is temperature dependent. When the nodal
temperature of the cutting tool in the later milling cycles is higher than that in the first
milling cycle due to the accumulation of heat, the nodal conductive heat flux value will
change due to the varying of the difference in temperature between the cutting tool
and the chip or the workpiece.
Based on these analyses, a heat flux subroutine DFLUX is designed to create time-
and temperature-dependent nodal heat flux data.
Every time when the subroutine DFLUX is called, the time, element number, face
number and integration point are entered as input variables. The subroutine first finds
out the corresponding nodal label because only nodal label is used in the heat flux
and temperature files. Then the basic nodal total heat flux and temperature values at
all time points are read from the heat flux and temperature files. By finding out the
remainder of the current time divided by the period of one milling cycle and
comparing this remainder with the time points, the interval and the two time points at
the end of the interval is determined. If the cutting tool is in the cooling phase, the
current nodal total heat flux is set to zero. Otherwise when the tool is located
between the time point j-1 and j, the nodal total heat flux is calculated by

( ) ( ( k q q q
b
j i
b
j i i
t
j i
t
j i
c
i
× + × − − + × =
− − ) 1 , ( ) , ( ) 1 , ( ) , (
5 . 0 5 . 0 θ θ θ )) (4.7)

where
c
q is the current nodal total heat flux;
t
q is the basic nodal total heat flux (the sum of the nodal frictional heat flux and the
nodal conductional heat flux);
θ is the current nodal temperature;
b
θ is the basic nodal temperature;
i is the nodal label;
j is the time point number;
k is the gap conductance.
In addition, in order to improve the convergence rate during the solution of non-linear
equations in an increment, the rate of change of the current nodal total heat flux with
respect to the temperature,
i
c
i
d dq θ is given the value –k.
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 75
The gap conductance in the heat transfer analysis is 10000 when the tool face node
is in contact with the chip and the workpiece. It is similar to the value used in the chip
formation analysis. When the tool face node has no contact with the chip and the
workpiece, the gap conductance is set to zero. The contact status of the tool face
node at a time point is derived from the value of normal pressure at the
corresponding time point in chip formation analysis of the first milling cycle.
Considering the movement of the tool, a high reference film coefficient is defined in
the model.

4.4.2.2 Results & Discussion

Fig. 4.9 shows the temperature distribution of the cutting tool when it cuts out of the
workpiece 0.3ms in the first, forth and eighth milling cycle. The high temperature
region is widening as the milling process continues.







(a) At the end of chip formation analysis







(b) After 4 milling cycles
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 76







(c) After 8 milling cycles
Fig. 4.9 Temperature field (in Kelvin) progress of the tool in heat transfer analysis

Fig. 4.10 and Fig. 4.11 show the variation of nodal temperature in the cutting tool in
more than 8 milling cycles, including both chip formation analysis step and heat
transfer analysis step.











Node57
Node42
Node39
Node35
Node4
(a) Position of the selected nodes (b) The temperature history of the nodes
Fig. 4.10 Progress of nodal temperature on the tool face

In Fig. 4.10 the nodal temperature at the tool face nodes on the too-chip and tool-
workpiece contact interface increases in cutting phase and decreases in cooling
phase. The peak value of temperature in every milling cycle appears when the cutting
tool is cutting out of the workpiece. The valley value appears when the cutting tool is
going to enter into the workpiece. Both the peak and valley value are increasing with
the cutting process continuing, but the increments are decreasing and the increment
of the peak value is smaller than 1K after every milling cycle while the increment of
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 77
the valley value is much great. In the last milling cycle, the peak value can be
assumed to become steady because the increment is smaller than 0.5K, whereas the
increment of the valley value is still greater than 5K.
Inside the cutting tool a different progress tendency of nodal temperature is
observed. At the nodes close to the cutting area, nodal temperature increases in
cutting phase and decreases in cooling phase. At the nodes far from the cutting area,
nodal temperature is always increasing during the entire milling cycles, for examples
N210 and N3 in Fig. 4.11.


N210
N127
N135
N13
N3








(a) Position of the selected nodes (b) The temperature history of the nodes
Fig. 4.11 Progress of nodal temperature inside the tool

Both the nodal temperature of nodes inside the tool and on the tool face shows that
cyclical thermal balance state is not attained in the first 9 milling cycle and heat gain
is greater than heat loss in every milling cycle. Higher temperature is expected in the
further milling cycles. It is very difficult to analyse the cyclical thermal balance by only
manually adding more milling cycles in heat transfer model file because the number
of milling cycles to reach cyclical thermal balance state is unknown.

4.4.2.3 Application Of Preheated Cutting Tool

According to the analysis above, tool temperature increases due to accumulation of
remaining heat. Heat loss increases with the tool temperature. When heat loss
becomes equal to heat gain, cyclical thermal balance state is attained. In order to
reduce the number of milling cycles to reach cyclical thermal balance state and
speed up the calculation process, the whole cutting tool is preheated beforehand by
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 78
defining a high initial temperature, then it is used in the milling process. Because at
present only tool temperature is concerned, milling process is analysed by performing
only heat transfer analysis. Only 8 milling cycles are included in the heat transfer
analysis.

Analysis 1: Preheated to 600K

In this analysis, the cutting tool is preheated to 600K. Nodal temperature at the same
tool nodes as in the former heat transfer analysis is observed. In Fig. 4.12, nodal
temperature on the tool face and inside the tool is increasing after every milling cycle,
but the increment is smaller than that in the former analysis.










(a) (b)
Fig. 4.12 Preheated to 600K (a) The temperature history of the nodes inside the tool
(b) The temperature history of the nodes on the tool face

At the nodes on tool-chip interface, for example N4 and N42, valley value of nodal
temperature appears at the time when the tool comes into contact with the workpiece
instead of before the contact takes place. This is explained by the heat conduction
between the tool with higher temperature and the workpiece with room temperature.
At the farthest nodes away from the cutting area, for example, node 3 and node 210,
temperature decreases first and then increases again. The explanation is that at the
beginning of the analysis the entire workpiece has a same temperature value, no
heat conduction takes place in the vicinity of these nodes, these nodes are located at
the boundary, heat convection to the environment makes the temperature decrease.
After a time of cutting, the workpiece material in the vicinity is heated by the heat
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 79
generated in the cutting process and these nodes are heated because of heat
conduction.

Analysis 2: Preheated to 700K

According to analysis 1, when the tool preheated to 600K is used in milling operation,
tool temperature increases still and no cyclical thermal balance state is attained.
Higher tool temperature is expected in cyclical thermal balance state. Therefore, in
this analysis, the cutting tool is preheated to 700K.
Nodal temperature at the same tool nodes is observed. In Fig. 4.13, nodal
temperature on the tool face and inside the tool is decreasing after every milling cycle
and the decreasing rate is comparable to the increasing rate in analysis 1. At node 3
and node 210, temperature decreases in the entire 8 milling cycles.
The analysis shows that cyclical thermal balance state is not attained in the 8 milling
cycles because the workpiece is heated too high and heat loss is greater than heat
gain in every milling cycle.










(a) (b)
Fig. 4.13 Preheated to 700K (a) The temperature history of the nodes inside the tool
(b) The temperature history of the nodes on the tool face

Analysis 3: Preheated to 650K

According to analysis 1 and analysis 2, when the cutting tool is heated to a
temperature between 700k and 600K, cyclical thermal balance state is expected to
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 80
realize in the first 8 milling cycle. Therefore, in this analysis, the cutting tool is
preheated to 650K.









(a) (b)
(a) (b)
Fig. 4.14 Preheated to 650K (a) The temperature history of the nodes inside the tool
(b) The temperature history of the nodes on the tool face

Nodal temperature is monitored at the same tool nodes. In Fig. 4.14, nodal
temperature on the tool face and inside the tool is approaching cyclical thermal
balance state. When the cutting tool move to the same position in the 7
th
and the 8
th

milling cycle, the maximum difference in temperature at the same node is smaller
than 0.1K. Therefore, it can be assumed that cyclical thermal balance state is
realized in the 8
th
milling cycle.
Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 81

4.5 Summaries & Conclusion

ABAQUS/Standard is effective in heat transfer analysis. By introducing the heat flux
and temperature distribution from the chip formation analysis output file and using
user-developed heat flux subroutines, thermal steady state in the turning operation
and cyclical thermal balance state are analysed.
In turning operation, the heat transfer analysis is performed for the cutting tool until
the thermal steady state is reached.
In milling operation, the heat transfer analysis is performed for the cutting tool for
several milling cycle. By using preheated cutting tool in the heat transfer analysis, the
cyclical thermal balance state is analysed.

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 82
Chapter 5 Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation



5.1 Introduction

The following two chapters will describe the modelling of progressive tool wear in
turning and milling operation by developing user program with programming
language Python and integrating it with commercial FEM code ABAQUS/Explicit and
ABAQUS/Standard. In this chapter, the study will focus on the modelling of tool wear
in turning operation. Base on the obtained experience, the more complex modelling
problem, tool wear in milling operation, will be studied in the next chapter. All the tool
wear simulation models will be developed for two-dimension. Solution to the
problems met in 2D modelling will be helpful for the implementation of 3D modelling
in the future.
Tuning operation is characterized by continuous cutting process; the entrance and
exit of cutting tool takes place infrequently and takes only a short time. In continuous
cutting process, if the effects of tool wear and uneven distributions of workpiece
material are neglected, cutting thickness, chip shape, and various cutting process
variables will have no great change and steady state can be assumed. Tool wear
calculation can be simplified by assuming that tool wear is created completely by the
steady state cutting process and neglecting the effect of entrance and exit phase.
By integrating tool wear mathematical model with the finite element steady-state
cutting analysis, tool wear estimation is implemented. It is performed with a tool wear
estimation program. The program controls the submission of chip formation and heat
transfer analysis jobs, monitors their analysis process, accesses the created result
and output database files once the analysis jobs are finished, performs tool wear
calculation and modifies the related model files according to the calculated tool wear.

5.2 Tool Wear Calculation Program Design

Fig. 5.1 shows the flow chart of the tool wear calculation program. The program is
designed to perform tool wear calculation automatically cycle by cycle until a tool
reshape criterion is reached. In every calculation cycle, chip formation and heat
transfer analysis jobs are submitted to analyse the steady-state cutting process and
obtain the cutting process variable values necessary for the calculation of wear rate
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 83
at steady state. Nodal wear rate is calculated by using the tool wear mathematical
model. Based on the calculated nodal wear rate, a suitable cutting time increment is
searched by program according to a user-specified VB increment value. Then the
nodal displacement due to wear in the cutting time increment is calculated at every
tool face node, and the tool geometry is updated according to the calculated nodal
displacement. If the produced flank wear VB is smaller than the user-defined tool
reshape criterion VB
max
, a second tool wear calculation cycle starts with the updated
tool geometry.

















Yes
No
VB>=VB
max
?
N
e
x
t

c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

c
y
c
l
e

Nodal wear rate
calculation
Cutting time increment
calculation
Nodal displacement
calculateion
Heat transfer analysis
Chip formation analysis
End
Tool geometry updating
Start

Fig.5.1 Flow chart of tool wear calculation program

5.3 Modeling Procedure

During the explanation of the entire modelling procedure, the tool wear under the
same cutting condition as in the chip formation simulation of turning operation is
estimated.

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 84
5.3.1 Chip Formation And Heat Transfer Analysis

Chip formation analysis provides the mechanical variables at steady state and the
thermal variables at steady state are predicted by heat transfer analysis.

5.3.1.1 Normal Pressure

Fig. 5.2 shows the variation of normal pressure at the tool face nodes along the tool-
chip interface at the end of chip formation analysis.
At the tool tip area, the normal pressure has the maximum value. Then the
distribution exhibits a plateau of high stress near the tool. Beyond the feed distance,
the normal pressure drop off sharply, as observed by Childs and Mahdi [Chil-89]
when turning mild steel. At the distance of about 0.35, the chip loses contact with the
tool face, therefore the normal pressure drops to zero.


Fig.5.2 Normal pressure of the tool face nodes at tool-chip interface at steady state

5.3.1.2 Sliding Velocity

In Fig. 5.3(a) workpiece nodes in the tool tip area have negative relative sliding
velocities. This means that they are flowing into machined surface. The nodes that
are more than 0.02mm away from the tool tip are moving out of cutting area with the
chip. There is no contact between the chip and the tool face in the area beyond the
distance of 0.35mm. Therefore the sliding velocity becomes zero, as designed by
ABAQUS [ABA-01a].

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 85

(a) Sliding velocity at the workpiece nodes at steady state

1 1 + + i i i i
( )
( )
s
i
s
i
i i
i j s
i
s
j
v v
y y
y y
v v −


+ =
+
+
1
1
( )
( )
s
i
s
i
i i
i j s
i
s
j
v v
x x
x x
v v −


+ =
+
+
1
1
Workpiece
Tool
If :




Else:

− ≥ − x x y y
Tool face node j (x
j
, y
j
)
Workpiece node i+1 (x
i+1
, y
i+1
)
Workpiece node i (x
i
, y
i
)










(b) Calculation of sliding velocity at the position of tool face nodes
Fig. 5.3 Calculation of sliding velocity at the position of tool face nodes

Only sliding velocities at the position of workpiece nodes can be obtained directly
from the simulation. But when calculating nodal wear rate, it is necessary to know the
sliding velocity value of workpiece material at the position of tool face nodes. Not all
the tool face nodes and workpiece nodes are in contact. First all the tool face nodes
and workpiece nodes in contact are found out depending on whether the absolute
values of their normal pressure are greater than a critical value, for example, 1e-
6Mpa. Then they are arranged in counter-clockwise order. Every tool face nodes in
contact has two neighbouring workpiece nodes before and after it. The calculation is
performed based on their position relationship, as shown in Fig. 5.3(b).
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 86

5.3.1.3 Tool Temperature

Temperature of the tool face nodes at thermal steady state is obtained from heat
transfer analysis, as shown in Fig. 5.4. High temperature forms at the tool tip and a
distance from the tool tip on rake face.


Fig. 5.4 Temperature of tool face node at steady state

5.3.2 Wear Rate Calculation

After the cutting process variables, sliding velocity of the workpiece material, tool
temperature and normal pressure at every tool face node are obtained, wear rate at
the position of every tool face node is calculated by using wear mathematical model.
Because at low cutting speed, the flank wear and crater wear are assumed to be
created mainly by abrasive wear and adhesive wear, Usui’s model, described in
Chapter 1, is employed in the calculation. The constants in Usui’s equation for the
combination of carbide cutting tool and mild steel are shown in Table 1.2.

5.3.3 Nodal Move Direction

Tool wear expression in geometry can be realized with two approaches: element
deletion and nodal movement. The latter one is adopted in this paper. The nodal
move direction is calculated at every tool face node.

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 87
5.3.3.1 Dividing Node

Before calculating the nodal move direction, a dividing node, the circled node in Fig.
5.5 is searched by the program. It divides the entire tool face into flank face and rake
face. It has the minimum y-coordinate.
Before searching, all the tool face nodes are found out and arranged in counter
clock-wise order in a list. The first tool face node in the list is given to the dividing
node. Then the current dividing node is compared with all the tool face nodes. Any
node, whose y coordinate is smaller than the current dividing node by 2e-4mm, will
become the new dividing node. After one searching cycle, the real dividing node is
found out. It is saved as the tool edge position for the latter calculation of flank wear
land width.
On flank face and rake face nodal move direction is calculated with different
methods.

5.3.3.2 On Rake Face

In the rake face part nodal move direction is assumed to be perpendicular to the
relative sliding velocity of the workpiece material and pointed into the tool body.
Every tool face node is attached with two tool face segments. On every tool face
segment the sliding velocity is along the tangential direction. Points on the face
segment should move along the negative normal direction. Tool face node belongs to
two face segments. It moves along the negative direction of the average unit normal
vector of the two face segments or the negative direction of their resultant vector, as
shown in Fig. 5.5.
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 88























i
j
n
r
1 + j
n
r
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + −

− + −

=
+ +
+
+ +
+
2 1
2
1
2
1
1
2 1
2
1
2
1
1
,
i i i i
i i
i i i i
i i
j
y y x x
x x
y y x x
y y
n
r
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + −

− + −

=
+ + + +
+ +
+ + + +
+ +
+ 2 1
2
1 2
2
1 2
2 1
2 1
2
1 2
2
1 2
1 2
1
,
i i i i
i i
i i i i
i i
j
y y x x
x x
y y x x
y y
n
r
1 +
+ =
j j
r
i
n n n
r r r
r
i
r
i i
n n D
r r
r
− =
i
r
( ) 1 , 0 =
k
r
n
2

On flank face, nodal move direction D
On rake face, nodal move direction is calculated by
D
Node k
Flank face part
R
a
k
e

f
a
c
e

p
a
r
t


Dividing node
Face segment j+1
Face segment j
Node i+1 (x
i+1
,y
i+1
)
Node i+1 (x
+1
,y
i+1
)
Node i (x
i
,y
i
)

Fig. 5.5 Nodal move directions (thick arrows) of tool face nodes

5.3.3.3 On Flank Face

In the flank face part the relative sliding velocity can be assumed to be in the cutting
speed direction when the elastic recovery of workpiece material is neglected.
Therefore all the nodes in this part have the same nodal move direction. It is in y-
direction and pointed upwards.
Every nodal move direction is normalized to unit vector
) , ( j i
D
r
, where subscript i is
nodal label, j is the calculation cycle number.

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 89
5.3.4 Cutting Time Increment Calculation

In metal cutting experiment cutting time increment means the duration of cutting time
between two successive measurements of tool wear. In the simulation the calculation
of tool wear and the tool geometry updating are based on a certain cutting time
increment. Within the cutting time increment an unchanged nodal wear rate value is
used to calculate the tool wear. Therefore, if a big cutting time increment is specified,
a big error will be created during the calculation of tool wear. But if the cutting time
increment is too small, only small tool wear increment is produced in every
calculation cycle. In order to reach tool reshape criterion, many calculation cycles
have to be performed. The chip formation analysis is carried out in every calculation
cycle; it is very time-consuming. Therefore a suitable cutting time increment should
be given. But when there is no knowledge about the tool wear in the simulated
cutting conditions, for example, when novel workpiece material is machined, it is
difficult to define a suitable value. But it is easier for the user to specify a tool wear
increment. Since the nodal wear rate is already known, the cutting time increment, in
which the specified tool wear increment is produced, can be searched by program.
Therefore a searching module is designed to carry out the searching work. While the
suitable cutting time increment is being searched, a flank wear calculation subroutine,
, is called frequently. ) , ( wearrate t Flankwear ∆

∆ ∆
0
t ∆
1
t t
2
t ∆
VB [mm]
0.05
VB
2

VB
0

) , ( wearrate t Flankwear ∆
Aimed VB
value range
Example of a wear curve
VB
1

0.10
VB
a b
c d
a
1
b
1
c
1
VB
Edge
position
Time [s]
(a) Flank wear calculation (b) Cutting time increment searching process
Fig. 5.6 Flank wear calculation and cutting time increment searching process

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 90
5.3.4.1 Flank Wear Calculation Subroutine

The flank wear calculation subroutine calculates flank wear
land width VB. VB is the distance from the cutting edge position (which has been
saved) to the last moved tool face node. For example, in Fig. 5.6(a), node a is the
last tool face node with non-zero wear rate. In cutting time increment , it should
move to point a
) , ( wearrate t Flankwear ∆
t ∆
1
, then node b and c will have smaller y-values than point a
1
, and a
bulge will be formed on the flank face. But in practice the wear process is continuous.
Once node b or c comes into contact with workpiece material due to wear of the
cutting edge, they are also worn away and no bulge is formed. Therefore node b and
c should move to point b
1
and c
1
in order to have the same y-value with point a
1
. VB
is calculated from the cutting edge position to node c, because it is the last moved
tool face node.

5.3.4.2 Cutting Time Increment Searching Procedure

The cutting time increment searching procedure can be described by Fig. 5.7.
At the beginning the aimed VB median value VB
m
is calculated according to the user-
specified VB increment value. For example, in Fig. 5.6(b), the tool gets a flank wear
land width of 0.05mm from the previous tool wear calculation cycle. is
specified by the user. Therefore in this tool wear calculation cycle, VB
mm VB 05 . 0 = ∆
m
is 0.1mm. In
order to save the searching time, the aimed VB value should be given a permitted
error range, e.g. the dotted range in Fig. 5.6(b). In addition, a positive initial cutting
time increment value is given arbitrarily. Then the searching process starts.
During the searching process, the searching lower limit ∆t
0
t ∆
1
and the searching upper
limit ∆t
2
are changing until the calculated tool wear VB value under the cutting time
increment falls into the aimed VB value range. t ∆







Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 91























∆t=(∆t
1
+∆t
2
)/2
error<-δ?
∆t
2
=∆t

∆t
1
=∆t

Current cutting
time increment ∆t
is output
|error|<=δ?
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
∆t=2∆t

∆t
2
>∆t
1
?
End
Start
Yes
VB
m
, initial value
∆t
0
, permitted error
δ


Call subroutine Flankwear(∆t,wearrate) to
calculated the current flank wear VB, calculate
the current error, error=VB- VB
m

Cutting time increment ∆t,
the searching lower limit ∆t
1
and the searching upper
limit ∆t
2
are set to ∆t
0
Fig. 5.7 Flow chart of cutting time increment searching procedure

5.3.5 Nodal Displacement

Nodal displacement due to wear is calculated at every tool face node by

) , ( ) , ( ) , ( j i j j i j i
D t w w
r
&
r
⋅ ∆ ⋅ = (5.1)

where
w
r
is the nodal displacement vector;
i is nodal label;
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 92
j is tool wear calculation cycle number.
In addition, some nodes on flank face must be moved in order to avoid forming bulge
on flank face, as mentioned above.

5.3.6 Tool Geometry Updating

In order to visualize the tool wear profile and prepare tool geometry model for the
next tool wear calculation cycle, tool geometry updating is performed. It is
accomplished with two steps. In these two steps nodes on the tool bottom surface,
marked with small triangles in Fig. 5.8, are fixed spatial.

5.3.6.1 Step 1: Initial Tool Wear Profile

In the first step the tool face nodes, including the nodes on rake face and flank face,
the circled nodes in Fig. 5.8, are moved according to the calculated nodal
displacement. The entire movement is accomplished several times. Every time the
tool face node is moved a very small distance. Then the mesh inside the tool is
remeshed with one of the smoothing methods: volume smoothing, Laplacian
smoothing and equipotential smoothing, or their combination. In the following part,
volume smoothing is employed because of the robustness. Remeshing improves
mesh distortion and enables additional nodal movement of the tool face nodes in the
next times. After the first step, an initial tool wear profile appears on the cutting tool,
as shown in Fig. 5.9(b).
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 93


Tool bottom
Rake face
Flank face
Tool bottom
Tool bottom
Rake face
Flank face
Tool bottom
Rake face
Flank face
Tool bottom

Fig. 5.8 Boundary conditions in step 1 of tool geometry updating model

5.3.6.2 Step 2: Adjustment

Because of the contact problem on the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface caused
by the coarsened workpiece mesh in chip formation analysis, the predicted
distributions of cutting process variables along the tool face often contain ‘vibration’.
These results in zigzags of the initial tool wear profile, e.g, zone A in Fig. 5.9(b).
In addition, the mesh inside the cutting tool has been remeshed many times in step 1.
But the tool face nodes are moved according to the calculated nodal displacement
without any additional adjustment of nodal position. Sometime very fine mesh is
formed in the cutting edge area, for example, zone B in Fig. 5.9(b); they make tool
geometry updating in the next calculation cycle difficult because negative element
areas may be created by the nodal displacement due to additional produced tool
wear.
Fig. 5.9(c) shows that in the second step, zigzags of the crater wear profile are
smoothened and the mesh near the cutting edge is coarsened. The final tool wear
profile and tool geometry is produced by step 2. The tool geometry model file is
updated according to the produced result in step 2.
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 94









Zone B
Z
o
n
e

A

(a) (b) (c)
Fig. 5.9 Changes of the mesh during tool updating steps (a) The tool geometry and
mesh at the beginning of step 1 (b) At the end of step 1, nodes on the tool face are
moved according to the calculated nodal displacement, crater wear and flank wear
are formed (c) At the end of step 2, zigzags of the crater wear are smoothened.

5.4 Results & Discussion

5.4.1 Tool Wear

With this tool wear estimation program, tool wear progress under the same turning
cutting conditions as described in Table 3.1 is calculated. Tool reshape criterion is set
to 0.15mm, and tool wear increment is specified by user, permitted
error δ in the cutting time increment searching process is set to 0.02mm. The tool
wear estimation process is accomplished with three tool wear calculation cycles.
After the first calculation cycle, the new tool in Fig. 5.10(b) is updated to the worn tool
in Fig. 5.10(c). After the second calculation cycle, increased crater wear and flank
wear can be found on the updated tool in Fig. 5.10(d).
mm VB 05 . 0 = ∆

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 95

t=0s
t=5s
t=46s
t=187s
(a) (b) t=0s (c) t=5s

(d) t=46s (e) t=187s
Fig. 5.10 Tool wear profile progress










0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0,2
0 50 100 150 200
t [s]
F
l
a
n
k

w
e
a
r

w
i
d
t
h

V
B

[
m
m
]
Measured
Est imat ed
0
0,02
0,04
0,06
0,08
0,1
0 50 100 150 200
t [s]
C
r
a
t
e
r

w
e
a
r

d
e
p
t
h

[
m
m
]
Measured
Est imat ed
(a) Flank wear (b) Crater wear
Fig. 5.11 Comparison between estimated and experimental progress curves for tool
wear (under cutting condition: v
c
=300m/min, a
p
=2mm, f=0.145mm/r)

The solid line in Fig. 5.11 shows the wear progress curves of flank wear and crater
wear obtained from experiment [Schm-02] under the same cutting condition. The dot
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 96
lines are predicted tool wear curves. It is found that the estimated flank wear and
crater wear are smaller than experimental ones. In experiment, after 20s of cutting,
the flank wear has exceeded 0.15mm and crater wear 0.06mm, while after 187s, the
estimated flank wear just arrives at 0.14mm and crater wear 0.08mm.
The discrepancy may be caused by:
• the simplified and low coefficient of friction. In the chip formation analysis,
Coulomb’s friction model is adopted and a constant coefficient of friction 0.3 is
used in the whole tool wear estimation process. According to the verification of
chip formation analysis in continuous chip formation, the predicted cutting
force and thrust force are smaller than the experimental data by about 15%
and 35% when the coefficient of friction is set to 0.3. This maybe means that
the predicted variables for the calculation of tool wear have error as well.
Therefore chip formation modeling is very important for the accuracy of tool
wear estimation. In order to improve the prediction, it is expected that in the
later tool wear estimation, the coefficient of friction should be calculated
according to the cutting force and tool geometry or with a more reliable
method.
• inconsistentness of material combination. Because the characteristic equation
of tool wear and the tool wear data come from different literatures and
researchers, it is unavoidable that difference exist in these tool and workpiece
material’s chemical composition and structure. It was tested by Kitagawa et al
that the content and size of abrasive particle dispersed in workpiece material
and chemical composition of tool material could be correlated with change in
the constants of the wear characteristic equation both in higher and lower
temperature ranges [Kita-88].
• contact problem between flank wear and the workpiece. From Fig. 5.11, after
a certain tool wear is formed, both wear rate on flank face and on rake face
are decreasing, the wear rate on flank face decreases more than that on rake
face. It is observed that the temperature on flank wear drops off to a low value.
This may be caused by the poor contact between flank wear and the
workpiece. In order to improve the contact, maybe on the flank wear face,
some nodes should be adjusted to form a small negative flank angle.
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 97

5.5 Summaries & Conclusion

In this chapter 2-D tool wear estimation in orthogonal cutting of turning operation is
implemented by integrating ABAQUS/Explicit and ABAQUS/Standard with Python
user-program. The main findings of this study are as follows:
(1) Python user program launches chip formation and heat transfer analysis job
automatically every time the new value about cutting process variables at
steady state are needed. Then displacement of every tool face node due to
wear is calculated by calculating nodal wear rate at steady state, searching a
suitable cutting time increment by program and nodal displacement
calculation. Finally tool geometry is updated according to the calculated nodal
displacements and one calculation cycle is finished.
(2) The Python user program runs automatically until a tool reshape criterion is
reached. The number of calculation cycles carried on before Python user
program stop is defined by dividing tool reshape criterion by the specified
wear increment. Because of the huge calculation time and cost of chip
formation analysis, a bigger wear increment is preferred in order to reduce the
calculation cycle number, which certainly will bring bigger errors in estimated
result. A trade-off value should be found.
(3) In order to improve the estimate result and realize tool wear estimation in
quantity, more efforts should be made in several aspects: more reasonable
frictional modelling, further mesh control, regenerate workpiece model when
chip shape has a great change due to tool geometry change caused by
serious tool wear and some modification of the flank wear shape in order to
improve the contact between flank wear and workpiece material.

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 98

Chapter 6 Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation



6.1 Introduction

Cutting action in milling operation is different from turning operation. With the cutting
tool rotating, workpiece moves in feed direction. In every rotation/milling cycle, the
cutting insert cuts away a layer of workpiece material and then cools down in the
environment. Therefore every milling cycle comprises cutting phase and cooling
phase. In the cutting phase, cutting thickness varies with tool engage angle. For
example, in the down milling operation in Fig. 6.1, cutting thickness has the maximum
value when the cutting insert advances into the workpiece. Then the cutting thickness
decreases continuously. At the exit the cutting thickness becomes zero. According to
metal cutting theory, nearly all the cutting process variables or solutions, stress,
strain, temperature, etc are related with the cutting thickness. Therefore they change
with the tool engage angle and so does nodal wear rate.

t
k
tt
kk+1 +1
t
k
zz
vvff
Cutting phase
Cooling phase
f
w
Tool
Workpiece
Node i











Fig. 6.1 Feature of milling operation

Although milling operation has no steady state, the cutting process possesses
periodicity. If the effect of tool wear, uneven distribution of the workpiece material, etc
are neglected, mechanical variables in one milling cycle can be assumed to be
repeated in other milling cycles because of the same cutting path of the cutting insert
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 99
and the same change of undeformed chip thickness. Mechanical cutting process
variables, normal pressure on tool face and relative sliding velocity of workpiece
material on the tool face, obtained from the first milling cycle can stand for those from
all other milling cycles. As tool temperature is concerned, the tool temperature
obtained in one milling cycle can stand for that in other milling cycle only when the
cyclical thermal balance state (heat loss is equal to heat gain per cycle) is attained.
Before the cyclical thermal balance state is reached, heat loss is smaller than heat
gain per milling cycle and the tool temperature increased after each milling cycle. The
tool temperature obtained in one of these milling cycles is always lower than that in
the milling cycle of the cyclical thermal balance state. In the milling operation with a
long continuous milling path, the cyclical thermal balance state dominates the entire
cutting process. The tool wear is mainly decided by the cyclical thermal balance
state. If the tool wear is calculated according to the tool temperature in a milling cycle
before the thermal balance state is reached, a lower estimated value of the tool wear
is expected.
Periodicity of cutting action and the existence of the cyclical thermal balance state
enable the implementation of tool wear estimation in milling operation. Once cyclical
thermal balance state is attained, tool wear and nodal average wear rate per cycle do
not change from cycle to cycle. Therefore the implementation of tool wear estimation
in milling operation can be simplified by calculating nodal average wear rate per cycle
in one milling cycle of cyclical thermal balance state and then using it in other milling
cycles.

6.2 Tool Wear Calculation Program Design

Fig. 6.2 shows the flow chart of the tool wear calculation program.









Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 100

















Yes
No
VB>=VB
max
?
Nodal average wear
rate per cycle
Cutting time increment
calculation
Nodal displacement
calculation
Heat transfer analysis
Chip formation analysis
End
Tool geometry updating
Start
N
e
x
t

c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

c
y
c
l
e

Fig. 6.2 Flow chart of the tool wear calculation program

The tool wear calculation program is designed to perform tool wear calculation
automatically cycle by cycle until a tool reshape criterion is reached. In every
calculation cycle, chip formation and heat transfer analysis are performed to predict
the cutting process variables, which are necessary for the wear rate calculation.
According to the above discussion on milling features, mechanical variables can be
obtained from the first milling cycle and the heat transfer analysis helps to decide
from which milling cycle tool temperature is read for the calculation of nodal wear
rate. The nodal wear rate is time-dependent and calculated at some selected time
points of one milling cycle, then the nodal average wear rate is calculated according
to these nodal wear rate at the selected time points. Based on the calculated nodal
average wear rate, a suitable cutting time increment value is searched according to a
user-specified VB increment value. Then nodal displacement due to wear produced
in the cutting time increment is calculated and the tool geometry updating aims at
forming the tool wear profile on the tool face. If the produced flank wear VB is smaller
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 101
than the user-defined tool reshape criterion VB
max
, a second calculation cycle will
start with the updated tool geometry.

6.3 Modeling Procedure

During the explanation of the entire modelling procedure, the tool wear under the
same cutting condition as described in Table 3.2 is estimated.

6.3.1 Chip Formation Analysis

Chip formation analysis aims at obtaining the mechanical variables for the calculation
of nodal wear rate. Because tool wear takes place only in cutting phase and there is
no tool wear created in cooling phase, chip formation analysis covering the entire
cutting phase is necessary and enough for the calculation of wear rate.
During the cutting phase, mechanical variables are varying from time to time. But with
explicit method, finite element analysis of chip formation process is performed by
advancing the time with small time increments. Hence the time for outputting the
variables is discontinuous. Furthermore, high frequency of variables outputting will
result in a large output database file and increase the amount of calculation in the
tool wear estimation. Therefore the frequency of mechanical variables output should
be decided by making a compromise between calculation accuracy and calculation
cost.
The mechanical variables, sliding velocity of workpiece material and normal pressure
on tool face, are required during the calculation of wear rate. Sliding velocity is
available at the workpiece node. For example, Fig. 6.3(b) shows the sliding velocity
at the time when the cutting tool engaging into the workpiece 0.1ms. At the tool tip
sliding velocity is very small, even some nodes flow towards the machined surface
before material failure takes place. Other nodes are flowing out with the chip at
increasing sliding velocity.
According to the sliding velocity at the position of workpiece nodes, sliding velocity at
the position of tool face nodes are calculated at the time point when the calculation of
nodal wear rate is required.
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 102

(a) The cutting at 0.100ms (b) At t=0.100ms
Fig. 6.3 Relative sliding velocity of workpiece material on the tool face at the time of
0.100ms

Normal pressure at the position of tool face node can be obtained directly. For
example, Fig. 6.4 shows the normal pressure at the time of 0.1ms. From tool tip to
the separation point of the chip and tool normal pressure is decreasing. No plateau is
observed in the entire tool-chip contact area as in turning operation.


Fig. 6.4 Normal pressure on the tool face at the time of 0.100ms


Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 103
6.3.2 Heat Transfer Analysis

According to the heat transfer analysis, the tool temperature at the tool face nodes
increase after every milling cycle until cyclical thermal balance state is reached. Fig.
6.5 shows the nodal temperature on the tool-chip interface at the time when the tool
is engaging into the workpiece 0.1ms in three selected milling cycles. The selected
milling cycle are the first, the ninth and cyclical thermal balance cycle, which is
obtained from the last milling cycle of heat transfer analysis of the tool preheated to
650K. It is found that from the first to the ninth milling cycle, nodal temperature at tool
face has a jump, while from the ninth to cyclical thermal balance cycle; the
temperature has a relative small increment.
The tool temperature in the cyclical thermal balance state is read for the calculation
of tool wear.


Fig. 6.5 Tool temperature at the tool face nodes after the cutting insert advancing into
the workpiece 0.1ms

6.3.3 Nodal Average Wear Rate Calculation

Usui’s model is employed in the calculation of nodal wear rate at a certain time. The
wear characteristic constants in Usui’s equation for the combination of carbide cutting
tool and mild steel are shown in Table 1.2.

6.3.3.1 Discussion About The Calculation Method Of Nodal Average Wear Rate

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 104
Nodal wear rate varies with the cutting time. In the cutting phase, tool wear takes
place under the contact of the tool with the workpiece. In cooling phase, nodal wear
rate is equal to zero and no wear produced. Nodal average wear rate is calculated
by

( )
Ζ
=

Ζ +
0
0
) , (
) , (
t
t
j i
j i
dt t w
w
&
& , (6.1)

where
w& is the nodal average wear rate;
( ) t w& is nodal wear rate;
Ζ is the time span of one milling cycle;
i is the nodal label;
j is the milling cycle number.
At present it is very difficult to get the function of nodal wear rate . But nodal
wear rate values at some discrete time points can be obtained by sampling cutting
process variables during chip formation and heat transfer analysis and then
calculating the individual nodal wear rate values, as shown in Fig. 6.6. Based on
these nodal wear rate values, an approximate nodal average wear rate can be
calculated by the following equation.
( ) t w
j i ) , (
&

( ) ( )
Ζ
⋅ − ⋅ +
=
∑ + +
n
k k k j i k j i
j i
t t w w
w
1
1 ) 1 , , ( ) , , (
) , (
2
1
& &
& (6.2)

where
n means that the entire milling cycle is divided into n-1 small portions by n evenly
spaced time points;
k is the time point number; nodal wear rate is calculated at every time point.
In the real calculation, sampling of cutting process variables and the calculation of
nodal wear rate are not performed in the entire milling cycle because no wear takes
place in cooling phase. For example, the whole milling cycle may take about
39.27ms, but the cutting phase only takes place in the first 0.2ms of every milling
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 105
cycle. According to Chapter 4, the chip formation analysis includes the whole cutting
phase and 0.3ms of cooling phase in the first milling cycle. During the calculation of
nodal average wear rate, the mechanical variables sliding velocity and normal
pressure are read only at sampling time points 0.025, 0.05, … and 0.5ms in the chip
formation analysis. Tool temperature values are read at the corresponding time
points 0.025, 0.05, … 0.5ms of the selected milling cycle of heat transfer analysis.
Average nodal wear rate calculation is performed only at these time points. The part
of cooling phase from 0.5ms to 39.27ms is not considered.












Cutting phase
Cooling phase
Cooling phase
t
k
) , , ( k j i
w&
t
k+1
) 1 , , ( + k j i
w&
( ) t w
j i ) , (
&
N
o
d
a
l

w
e
a
r

r
a
t
e

o
f

n
o
d
e

i
Cutting time t [s]
Cutting phase
Cooling phase
Cooling phase
t
k
) , , ( k j i
w&
t
k+1
) 1 , , ( + k j i
w&
( ) t w
j i ) , (
&
N
o
d
a
l

w
e
a
r

r
a
t
e

o
f

n
o
d
e

i
Cutting time t [s]
Cutting phase Cutting phase
Cooling phase
Cooling phase
Cooling phase
Cooling phase
t
k
) , , ( k j i
w&
t
k+1
) 1 , , ( + k j i
w&
( ) t w
j i ) , (
&
N
o
d
a
l

w
e
a
r

r
a
t
e

o
f

n
o
d
e

i
Cutting time t [s]
N
o
d
a
l

w
e
a
r

r
a
t
e

o
f

n
o
d
e

i
Cutting time t [s] Cutting time t [s]
Fig. 6.6 Calculation of nodal average wear rate

Then in Eq. 6.2, the meaning of n becomes the number of time points dividing the
period of chip formation analysis.

6.3.3.2 Classification Of Workpiece Node

The sliding velocity of workpiece material at the position of tool face nodes are
calculated using the same method explained in Chapter 5.
Chip formation modelling in turning operation is different from milling operation. In
turning operation, workpiece nodes, which have possibility of getting contact with the
tool face, are fixed on several nodes on the chip underside. Only these nodes are
considered during the calculation.
Since in milling operation shear failure criterion is defined in the whole workpiece,
some nodes not on the moving path of the cutting edge may be exposed due to
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 106
element removal and get contact with the tool face. Therefore a large number of
workpiece nodes have to be considered.
In order to calculate the sliding velocity correctly and efficiently, workpiece nodes
considered are classified into three types. The first type, called inner node, includes
the nodes still inside the workpiece, for example, Node 411 in Fig. 6.7. Node 343
belongs to the second type, surface node, including the nodes exposed on the
surface. Node 893 is included in the third type, free node, which consists of the
nodes lose connection with the workpiece body because all the attached elements
are removal. Because inner nodes have no contact with the tool face, they only
increase the calculation time. When free nodes get contact with the tool face, they
will introduce calculation error. Hence only surface nodes join in the calculation of
relative sliding velocity.



Node 411
Node 893
Node 343
Fig. 6.7 Classification of workpiece node

Node type is judged by considering the number of the attached elements and the
deleted elements of a node. Every node is attached to several elements. The number
of the attached elements is denoted as N
attached
. The attached element is deleted or
removed as it reaches the shear failure criterion. The number of the deleted elements
is denoted as N
delete
. The type of a node is decided by:


, (6.3)
S
¦
´
¦
¦
att
N
N

att
N
=
ached

>
ached
deleted
=

de
N
de
N
0
¹
Inner node
urface node
0
0
de
N
de
N
,
leted
,
leted

leted

leted
Free node

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 107
6.3.4 Nodal Move Direction

In milling operation, position of every tool face segment and its normal direction are
varying with the rotation of the cutting tool. The calculation of nodal move directions
and tool geometry updating should be performed at the same rotation position of the
cutting tool, for example at the beginning of one milling cycle.

6.3.4.1 Dividing Node

Similar to the calculation of nodal move direction in turning operation, at the
beginning a dividing node that divides the entire tool face into rake face and flank
face is searched.
Instead of comparing the y-coordinate of every tool face node, the dividing node is
defined according to the distance between tool face nodes and the rotation centre. At
the beginning of the search, the first tool face node (the tool face nodes are arranged
in counter-clockwise order in advance) is given to the dividing node. Then every tool
face node is compared with the current dividing node one by one in counter-
clockwise order. Any tool face node whose distance to the rotation center is greater
than that of the current dividing node by 2e-4mm will update the record of dividing
node.
Nodal move direction is calculated with different methods on the rake face and flank
face, as shown in Fig. 6.8.










v
s

v
s

v
s

v
s

v
s

v
s

n
F
l
a
n
k

f
a
c
e

p
a
r
t

Rake face part
Dividing
node
v
s

Fig. 6.8 Calculation of nodal move direction

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 108
6.3.4.2 On Rake Face

The calculation method of nodal move direction on rake face used in turning
operation, explained in Chapter 5, is applied here as well.

6.3.4.3 On Flank Face

In the flank face part, relative sliding velocity of the workpiece material at each flank
face node is assumed along the tangential direction of the moving path of the flank
face node, when the elastic recovery of workpiece material is neglected. Nodal move
direction at the flank face node is perpendicular to the relative sliding velocity, i.e.
pointed from the flank face node to the rotation centre.
Every nodal move direction is normalized to unit vector
) , ( j i
D
r
, where subscript i is
nodal label, j is the calculation cycle number.

6.3.5 Cutting Time Increment Calculation

Cutting time increment is searched by the program according to a user-specified
flank wear increment value ∆ and a permitted error VB δ . Because of the particularity
of milling operation, the searching procedure and the flank wear calculation
subroutine have some difference compared with those in turning operation.


Edge position
a
b
c
a
1
b
1

c
1








V
B

d
Fig. 6.9 Flank wear calculation

6.3.5.1 Flank Wear Calculation Subroutine

Flank wear land width VB is calculated by a flank wear calculation subroutine
. ) , ( wearrate t Flankwear ∆
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 109
VB is the distance from the edge position to the last moved tool face node. The last
moved tool face node is searched by considering the movement of the cutting insert.
In milling operation the cutting insert rotates around a rotation centre. Any tool
material point which becomes the farthest point to the rotation centre will get contact
with the workpiece and then be worn away. For example, in Fig. 6.9 node a is the last
tool face node with non-zero nodal wear rate. According to the calculation, it should
move to point a
1
in the cutting time increment t ∆
.
Then node b becomes the farthest
point to the rotation center. It will be worn away. Because in this calculation cycle the
comprehensive information about the average wear rate of node b in the entire
cutting time increment cannot be obtained, its displacement is decided according to
node a. Node b will be move to point b
1
and it will have the same distance to the
rotation centre as node a. In the same way, node c will be moved to point c
1
. VB is
calculated from edge position to node c, because it is the last moved tool face node.

6.3.5.2 Cutting Time Increment Searching Procedure

Because milling operation is intermittent cutting, the existence of cutting phase and
cooling phase in milling cycles complexes the cutting time increment searching
procedure. In order to simplify the problem, the cutting time increment is increased in
step of whole milling cycles. The relationship between the milling cycle number N
cycle

and the cutting time increment ∆ is given by t

(6.4) Z N t
cycle
× = ∆

where
N
cycle
is positive integer;
Z is the time span of one milling cycle.
The cutting time increment searching procedure is described as follows:
(1) At the beginning, the aimed VB median value VB
m
is calculated according to
the user-specified VB increment value and the tool wear obtained in the
previous calculation cycle. According to the permitted error δ , the aimed VB
value range ( δ −
m
VB , δ +
m
VB ) is determined.
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 110
Then an initial cycle number N
cycle0
is given a positive integer value arbitrary,
the cycle number N
cycle
and the cycle number lower limit N
cycle1
are set to
N
cycle0
.
(2) Calculate the cutting time increment ∆ corresponding to N t
wearrate
cycle
with Eq. 6.4,
and call the subroutine to calculate the flank wear land
width, let
) , ( t Flankwear ∆
m
VB wearrate t Flankwear error − ∆ = ) , ( .
If ≤ error δ , then the searching procedure will end, and the present value
will be output as the result.
t ∆
(3) Otherwise, if error < -δ , then the cycle number lower limit N
cycle1
=N
cycle
, and
, repeat step 2 until erro
cycle cycle
N N ⋅ = 2 ≥ r -δ is satisfied.
Else, if error > δ , then the cycle number lower limit . 1
1
=
cycle
N
(4) The cycle number upper limit
cycle cycle
N N =
2
(5) N
cycle
takes the integer part of ( ) 2
2 1 cycle cycel
N N + . If the value of N
cycle
is equal
to N
cycle1
or N
cycle2
, then calculate the cutting time increment . The present
value will be output as result and the searching procedure will end.
t ∆
t ∆
(6) Calculate the cutting time increment corresponding to N t ∆
cycle
, and call the
subroutine to calculate the flank wear land width, let ) , ( wearrate t Flankwear ∆
m
VB wearrate t Flankwear error − ∆ = ) , ( .
If ≤ error δ , then the searching procedure will end, and the present value
will be output as the result. Otherwise, if error < -
t ∆
δ , then the cycle number
lower limit , else, the cycle number upper limit ,
repeat step 5 until
cycle cycle
N N =
1 cycle cycle
N N =
2
≤ error δ is satisfied.

6.3.6 Nodal Displacement Calculation

Nodal displacement is calculated at every tool face node by

) , ( ) , ( ) , ( j i j j i j i
D t w w
r
&
r
⋅ ∆ ⋅ = (6.5)

where
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 111
w
r
is the nodal displacement vector;
i is nodal label;
j is tool wear calculation cycle number.
In addition, some nodes on flank face, e.g. node b and c in Fig. 6.9, are moved as
well as explained above.

6.3.6 Tool Geometry Updating

Tool geometry updating is performed with the same procedure as explained in
turning operation.

6.4 Results & Discussion

With this tool wear program, tool wear under the same cutting condition as described
in Table 3.2 is estimated. ∆ is specified by the user, permitted error is
set to 0.01mm. After the cutting time of about 603s, the new tool in Fig. 6.10(a) is
updated to the worn tool in Fig. 6.10(b), which has a flank wear width of 0.06mm and
crater wear on the rake face.
mm VB 05 . 0 =









VB=0.06mm
Crater wear
Flank wear

VB=0.06mm

VB=0.06mm VB=0.06mm
Crater wear
Flank wear
Crater wear
Flank wear
(a) t=0s (b) t=603s
Fig. 6.10 Tool wear profile

A discrepancy between the estimated tool wear from the program and the expected
tool wear from experiment is unavoidable mainly because of the following reasons:
(1) Complex tool wear in milling operation. In this study, only the abrasive and
adhesive wear are considered, whereas the main tool wear in high-speed-
milling results from chipping, thermal crack, etc. They reduce the strength of
the tool edge and accelerate tool wear.
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 112
(2) Chip formation analysis modeling. It is verified by the test that the chip
thickness and tool/chip contact are sensitive to the element size and given
value of shear failure criterion, when shear failure criterion is used as the chip
separation method. A multi variable dependent shear failure criterion may
provide a better chip formation simulation result and improve the predicted
tool wear profile and tool wear value.
Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 113

6.5 Summaries & Conclusion

In this chapter, a tool wear estimation model is implemented for the milling operation.
The main findings of this study are as follows:
• Milling operation is an intermittent cutting process. By sampling the cutting
process variables in the chip formation analysis and heat transfer analysis at
the corresponding time points and calculating the nodal average wear rate per
cycle, tool wear estimation modelling can be implemented.
• Because of the temperature difference in the cyclical thermal balance state
and in the milling cycle before cycle thermal balance state is reached, tool
temperature in the cyclical thermal balance state should be used in tool wear
estimation. Otherwise, a very slow tool wear process is expected because in
Usui’s tool wear equation, wear rate and tool temperature has an exponent
relationship.
• With the developed tool wear program, tool wear under a cutting condition with
high cutting speed is calculated, both crater wear and flank wear are formed
on the tool face.









Summary And Prospect 114
Chapter 7 Summary And Prospect

7.1 Summaries

In this study the methodologies to numerical implementation of tool wear estimation
in turning and milling operation are discussed. Based on the researches of tool wear
mechanism, which show that wear rate of cutting tool is dependent on some cutting
process variables such as tool temperature, sliding velocity of workpiece material and
normal pressure on tool face, the preliminary qualitative tool wear estimation models
are developed.
Tool wear estimation in turning operation is based on the study of finite element
simulation of steady-state cutting process.
A new chip formation modeling method is developed to simulate the entire process
from initial chip formation, chip growth to steady state. Chip separation is formed
automatically by solution-dependent mesh adaptivity instead of material failure
criterion. It is not necessary to get material failure parameters or chip geometry from
experiment. Instead it provides an alternative method to decide material failure
parameters. In addition, no separation path is preset in advance. No obvious crack is
formed in front of the cutting edge. This chip formation model is verified by
experimental data. When the coefficient of friction calculated according to cutting
force in experiment is used, the error of two cutting force components is smaller than
5% compared to the experimental data.
Pure heat transfer analysis of only the cutting tool is carried out to save the
calculation time to reach thermal steady state. Temperature dependent heat flux at
tool-chip interface and heat convective and radiation of tool face are considered
during modeling. After only several minutes of calculation the cutting tool gets a
steady temperature distribution.
Then the problems about calculating nodal wear rate at steady state according to
Usui’s tool wear equation, cutting time increment searching, nodal displacement
calculation and geometry updating are discussed. A tool wear estimation program is
developed. It can calculate the tool wear until the tool reshape criterion is reached.
The estimated tool wear is verified by experimental data. It is assumed that the error
is created by the low coefficient of friction in chip formation analysis.
Because milling operation is intermittent cutting process, the chip formation, heat
transfer and tool wear estimation modeling are different from turning operation.
Summary And Prospect 115
The chip formation simulation is realized by introducing shear failure criterion. The
strain at failure in shear failure criterion is defined according to the former chip
formation modeling method. Shear failure criterion is applied to the entire workpiece.
Pure heat transfer analysis of only the workpiece shows that the workpiece cool
down to room temperature in the cooling phase of one milling cycle if the cutting
speed is not tool high. Accordingly, the chip formation process in every milling cycle
is assumed similar because of the negligible temperature increment in the workpiece.
Pure heat transfer analysis of only the cutting tool is carried out for 8 milling cycles.
Temperature is observed after every milling cycle. No cyclical thermal balance state
is realized. In order to speed up the realization process of cyclical thermal balance
state, different preheated cutting tool is used in the cutting process. It is found that
the temperature in cyclical thermal balance state is higher than the first several
milling cycle.
Tool wear estimation in milling operation is performed by calculation nodal average
wear rate in one milling cycle and use it to other milling cycles. Because in milling
cycle the cutting tool is rotating instead of the workpiece as in turning operation, all
the problems about cutting time increment searching, nodal displacement calculation
and geometry updating are different from turning operation and they are discussed.
Then a tool wear estimation program for milling operation is developed. Using this
program, tool wear in one milling case is calculated. Both crater wear and flank wear
are formed.
During the study multi aspects of cutting process simulation modelling in turning and
milling operations including chip formation analysis, heat transfer analysis, and tool
wear estimation are studied. In order to fulfil the purpose of tool wear study, multi-
programming tools including commercial FE code ABAQUS/Explicit,
ABAQUS/Standard, Fortran, Python are employed and integrated. This lays a ground
for the study on more complex problem and the extension of functionality of FEM in
the future.
Tool wear estimation with the help of finite element method can predict not only tool
life, but also wear profile of both crater wear and flank wear, and relate tool wear with
some wear mechanisms. This tool wear estimation method will relate the geometry
appearance to physical basic of tool wear and bridge the gap between macro and
micro studies of tool wear. This is very meaningful for the scientific research and
education. For tool designer, it is very helpful to optimise tool geometry and structure
Summary And Prospect 116
knowing wear profile and wear mechanism; for material engineer, it is useful to
improve tool material according to the determined main wear mechanism. In this tool
wear estimation method, tool wear is related to wear mechanism, once tool wear
mathematical model for a combination of tool-workpiece material is determined, it is
possible to estimate tool wear by program without doing any experiment. In addition,
this estimation method is helpful to reduce the size of various cutting database by
replacing tool life equation with tool wear mathematical model, which is applicable to
wider cutting range.

7.2 Prospect

The tool wear estimation models should be improved in several aspects:
After a certain tool wear is formed, the chip formation analysis of steady state
sometimes produces relatively low tool temperature on flank wear. This may be
caused by the contact problem between the flank wear and the workpiece. In order to
produce good contact in this area a negative flank angle designed on the flank wear
may be a good solution.
In tool geometry updating, the formed wear profile is not smooth even after the
second updating step and some nodes have to be adjusted manually. A special
smoothing algorithm should be designed to solve this problem.
Friction has big influence on the chip formation analysis and tool wear. When using
the coefficient of friction calculated according to the cutting force from experiment,
the result of tool wear estimation is maybe improved.
A further improvement of tool wear estimation may be realized by introducing multi
wear mechanism. The tool wear is calculated according to their combination. It will be
possible to study on the contribution of every wear mechanism under different cutting
conditions.
Because in the tool wear estimation modeling, flank wear is produced by moving
nodes individually according to the nodal wear rate instead of according to an
average value. It provides a method to produce the complex tool wear in 3D, such as
wear notch.
In order to spread the application of this method in industry practices, except
improving the precision of tool wear estimation, it is necessary to develop tool wear
mathematical model for most common used materials, develop tool wear estimation
Summary And Prospect 117
model for coated carbide tool, CBN cutting tool, ceramics cutting tool, etc, and
research on 3D tool wear estimation model in the future.
References 118
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128

Resume


Name: Lijing Xie
Nationality: China
Date and place of birth: June. 17, 1971 in China
Family Status: Married with Dan Zheng since May. 18, 1998


Education:

1978-1983 Tangshan Nanxindao Elementary School, Hebei, China
1983-1986 The Eighth Junior High School, Tangshan, China
1986-1989: The First Senior High School, Tangshan, China
1989-1993 B.S., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tangshan
Institute of Technology, Hebei, China
1993-1996 M.S., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing
Institute of Technology, Beijing, China


Employment History:

1996-2000 Lecturer at Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
Since Nov. 2000 Scientist at Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebstechnik
(WBK), Uni-Karlsruhe (TH), Germany



Forschungsberichte aus dem wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik Universität Karlsruhe (TH) Hrsg.: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Fleischer Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hartmut Weule

Lijing Xie Estimation Of Two-dimension Tool Wear Based On Finite Element Method

ISSN 0724-4967 Band 120

© wbk Institut für Produktionstechnik Universität Karlsruhe (TH) alle Rechte vorbehalten Druck: Schnelldruck Ernst Grässer. Karlsruhe Tel: 0721/61 50 50 ISSN 0724-4967 .

die durch Nutzung informationsverarbeitender Systeme eine Verbesserung der Leistungsfähigkeit fertigungstechnischer Einrichtungen und deren informationstechnischorganisatorische Einbindung in automatisierte Produktionssysteme ermöglichen.Vorwort des Herausgebers Der rasche Fortschritt der Produktionstechnik und der weltweite Wettbewerb um technisch-wirtschaftliche Spitzenpositionen machen einen intensiven Austausch von Wissen und Erfahrung zwischen Universitäten und der Industrie erforderlich. Jürgen Fleischer Prof. Dr. In diesem Sinne soll im Rahmen dieser Schriftenreihe in zwangloser Folge über aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse des Instituts für Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebstechnik der Universität Karlsruhe berichtet werden.-Ing. Die Forschungsaktivitäten des Instituts umfassen neben der Untersuchung und Optimierung von Bearbeitungsverfahren. Dr. Maschinenkomponenten und Fertigungseinrichtungen insbesondere Aufgabenstellungen.-Ing. Hartmut Weule . Prof.

.

Dieter Spath . Dr. Sc. 02. Prof. Lijing Xie aus China Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 05.-Ing. Dr.Estimation Of Two-dimension Tool Wear Based on Finite Element Method Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Ingenieurwissenschaften von der Fakultät für Maschinenbau der Universität Karlsruhe (TH) genehmigte Dissertation von M. 2004 Hauptreferent: Korreferent: Prof. Jürgen Schmidt o.-Ing.

.

Anurag Jain for the helpful suggestion and discussion in the research and help in personal living. Dr. Dr. Dieter Spath. Mr. Michael Heinz for the warm-hearted assist and patient instruction in my experiment work. Klaus Simon for offering instruction about . Prof. This thesis is finished under the cooperation with scientists in Institut für Werkstoffe I. Dipl. I feel very fortunate to have an opportunity to concentrate on the interesting research field of manufacturing industry and get to know so intelligent. and their highly appreciated instruction. and active persons.-Ing. Dr. Mr. Especially. Mr. Dr. 2000. Prof. In this period.-Ing. Jürgen Fleischer for their kindly concern in my living and work. Carsten Schmidt and Mr. special thanks are given to Dipl. o. The last three years has been a precious experience for me. I want to express my deepest appreciation and thanks to my supervisors. Siqin Pang and Prof. Sc.Acknowledgement The present research work was carried out at Institut für Produktionstechnik (WBK) in University of Karlsruhe (TH) since Nov. Thanks to all the members in the institute for the unforgettable happy time in the past three years. intense research work and interesting activities.-Ing. M. their careful reviews of my papers and dissertation. I would like to express my thanks to Prof. Jörg Söhner. Jürgen Schmidt and o. Hartmut Weule and o.-Ing.-Ing. I get uncountable unselfish help from them. Frank Biesinger for kindly offering the developed material subroutine.-Ing.-Ing. Especially. Mr. Prof. especially Dr. Xibin Wang for their constantly encouragement and help. with excellent learning.-Ing. I was touched by their friendship. for their support. friendly. Thanks to all the members in group FT. Thanks to Prof. Dr. Ivan Tzitzelkov for solving many problems in my simulation work.

Thanks to Mrs. and my family and Dan’s for their love and support. They give me the strength over all the problems in my research. Mr. Margarethe Schüßler for teaching me Deutsch language voluntarily. Dan. Karlsruhe. At last. in December 2003 Lijing Xie .measuring basic knowledge and helping me to look for the best measuring method. Thomas Hildenbrand for preparing experimental condition and troubleshooting in the turning experiment. I want to thanks my husband.

..............................................1 Introduction .............................................2 Mesh Adaptivity ......................3 Research Of Tool Wear With Finite Element Methods .................3.................2..1..............................................3.........2............................... 22 1...............1..........1............ 36 3...................................................2................1....................................... 24 1........................................ 1 1...... 16 1................................................2.............3......................... 19 1..............................................................................................2......3 Summary Of Literature ............ 34 3.....................1 Tool Wear Estimation With The Combination Of Analytical Method And FDM ....................................1................................................. 34 3........... 34 3......................... 29 Chapter 2 Objective And Approach.......... 34 3....... 18 1........................................................................3 Chip Separation..... 5 1....................... 24 1......... 6 1......................... 5 1..........1.......... 31 2........................................................1.......................... 13 1........................2 Material Constitutive Model ..............................1....1 Explicit Algorithm In Chip Formation Simulation..........................................1...................1 Objectives...............................................................1 Wear Types In Metal Cutting ................1 Comparison Between FEM Method And Empirical Method ..............2 Thermal Analysis Procedure ..........................2.....1................................................... 27 1.................................2...... 17 1........................2 State Of Art: Numerical Implementation Of Tool Wear Estimation..........................3. 31 2............1 Contact And Friction ..2 Tool Wear Estimation With FEM...................................................................................1 Numerical Aspects............2 Wear Mechanism..................................................................... 22 1........1..................1.............................................................................................................1 Approach .... 32 Chapter 3 Chip Formation Simulation Technology.Table of Contents I Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction. 11 1......... 8 1....................1.........2 Approach ...............................2........................................ 8 1......................2 Technical Background About Tool Wear..................3 Tool Wear Model ............2............2 Mechanical Aspects .. 35 3........................................................... 37 ..................1 State Of Art: Finite Element Simulation Of Cutting Process ..............................................................................................................................................................................................1 Dynamic Analysis Procedure .....................2 Stability Limit .................1..................3.......................2 Continuous Chip Formation Simulation...1................. 3 1.........................

............ 64 4.............................................1 Boundary Region Types.............................................2 Heat Flux..................1 Geometry And Mesh ......................................................2..............3 Strain Rate..........1 Limitation Of The Existing Chip Formation Models..................................2..............................1........................3 Curvature Refinement .........................................................................................................2....... 64 4............ 48 3............................ 66 ................ 43 3......1 Shear Failure Criterion ..2.3.................................3 Result & Discussion ................................. 41 3.....................2 A Numerical Method To Determine Strain At Failure ........................................................3..........................2............... 39 3....................................................................2....................... 55 3.3 Adaptive Meshing Technique In ABAQUS/Explicit ................... 40 3.....................3......2 Cutting Temperature................3.1 Introduction ...... 41 3.......... 64 4..................................3...........2 Chip Growth ...............................................3.........................3................................................................ 40 3..........1 Modelling..........................2.....................4..................... 56 3............................5.......2....................................3.............................................................3 Chip Formation Simulation For Milling Operation.....................2.4.........................................Table of Contents II 3.............................................. 37 3.2 General Considerations ........................... 65 4. 50 3..............................4 Analysis Steps.....2 Chip Formation Modeling ........................... 49 3.........................1 Chip Separation ......................5. 45 3................ 59 3......................................................2................1 Initial Chip Formation.......................3....4 Temperature Analysis...................................... 51 3............3...........2 Plastic Strain Analysis .......................................................1............................2.....3... 64 4.............................................................4 Summaries & Conclusion ....3...3................2.............. 48 3.. 59 3.................................. 61 3.........................2.....1 Stress Analysis ....5....2....2............................................. 62 3.............................2..................................3 In Turning Operation.....5 Verification With Experimental Data........................5.......................... 66 4................... 45 3.........2.....2 Advantages Of The New-developed Chip Formation Model ........................................................................3............4...................................... 55 3...................2........................................ 58 3..........................5 Results & Discussion .. 63 Chapter 4 Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting ........................................................................................................................1 Stress Analysis ...............................2 Geometry Features .........3 Continuous Steady-state Chip Formation ....................................... 54 3..................5......................3...............................................................................................................3 Cutting Force Analysis.... 42 3............................. 53 3.......

.................................................3 On Flank Face ..3..... 72 4................................4....4...................... 81 Chapter 5 Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation....................4 Cutting Time Increment Calculation ..............................1 Tool Wear .3.............3.........................................................................................4................... 88 5...............................1................................................................... 75 4..3...............................2 On Rake Face....................... 86 5...........................................................................3......................................3 Tool Temperature..... 87 5...........................................................................................3.......3......................................................................4........................................3...............4.....................................1 Chip Formation And Heat Transfer Analysis.........................5 Summaries & Conclusion ...................3................................................................................6......................................4................................................... 86 5.2 Wear Rate Calculation.5 Summaries & Conclusion .....................................4............. 90 5...... 84 5..........1...........................1 Modelling ......................................................3. 82 5.........2............................... 94 5......3.................................2 Results & Discussion ......................... 93 5..1............ 89 5.......................................5 Nodal Displacement .............................3 Modelling Procedure.............................4 In Milling Operation........................................ 73 4.......................4....2 Step 2: Adjustment.............................1 Modelling .......4...........................................................3 Application Of Preheated Cutting Tool ............ 77 4............1 Dividing Node.....1 Step 1: Initial Tool Wear Profile ..................1 Normal Pressure................................3..................................... 92 5................................. 92 5................................2......3..................................................................1 On Workpiece........ 68 4............................. 70 4.......2 Tool Wear Calculation Program Design.......3.............................2 Cutting Time Increment Searching Procedure ........... 90 5....................................................................6 Tool Geometry Updating .................. 70 4.........................1......................................................................3.......... 82 5....................... 91 5...................................3.....................................................................3................ 84 5....1 Introduction .......... 83 5.....................4................................................2 Results & Discussion ...........................................3......... 87 5.3 Nodal Move Direction...................Table of Contents III 4........................................4 Results & Discussion.... 97 ..... 84 5..................................... 94 5............. 86 5............................................................. 82 5.....................2 Results & Discussion ......... 73 4......................................3...................................3.....2 On Tool. 70 4..............................................................1 Flank Wear Calculation Subroutine..............................2 Sliding Velocity .......................................................6...2......................1.........................................

...........................................................3............1 Flank Wear Calculation Subroutine................................................ 103 6................ 107 6....... 116 References ...................................3.....................................2 Classification Of Workpiece Node ............6 Tool Geometry Updating .........5......3..2 Cutting Time Increment Searching Procedure .....................................1 Introduction ...............3.......3......2 Prospect .................. 108 6................................................................. 111 6.......................3.................... 109 6........................1 Chip Formation Analysis...... 105 6...................................................2 Tool Wear Calculation Program Design... 113 Chapter 7 Summary And Prospect..................................................................Table of Contents IV Chapter 6 Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation... 114 7....................... 111 6.........5...................5 Cutting Time Increment Calculation .............................................................................................3 Modelling Procedure...4...............................................................................................................4............................................ 108 6..........................1 Summaries ................................................3................. 108 6....2 On Rake Face........................... 107 6................................3............3.......................................... 103 6.......5 Summaries & Conclusion ........ 99 6....3............................................................................................................................ 98 6....... 103 6............................1 Dividing Node.....3.......................................1 Discussion About The Calculation Method Of Nodal Average Wear Rate ......................................... 101 6..........................................4 Results & Discussion.....3 On Flank Face ...................................................................................................................2 Heat Transfer Analysis ..........................................3.. 108 6.......... 101 6.....3......................... 114 7......................... 118 .................... 98 6..................................................................................4....4 Nodal Move Direction........................3..............................3 Nodal Average Wear Rate Calculation .......................................3.......................................................................................

Nomenclature I Abbreviation AI ALE CBN FDM FE. FEM HSC KT VB VC VN Artificial Intelligence Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Cubic Boron Nitride Finite Difference Method Finite Element Method High Speed Cutting Depth of crater wear Width of flank wear (mean) Maximum wear of nose radius Notch wear .

In addition. e. cutting speed. Tool wear influences cutting power. when tool geometry is changed. increasing productivity and lowering cost.Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Machining operations comprise a substantial portion of the world’s manufacturing infrastructure. increasing cutting force. Then the cutting tool must be replaced or ground and the cutting process is interrupted. Some researchers concentrate on the study of wear mechanism and investigate the mathematical relationship between wear due to various wear mechanisms and some cutting process variables such as relative sliding velocity of workpiece material along tool face. But capability of predicting the contributions of various wear mechanism is very helpful for the design of cutting tool material and geometry. tool life and machining cost. such as Usui’s tool wear equation. . The cost and time for tool replacement and adjusting machine tool increase cost and decrease productivity. vibration and cutting temperature cause surface integrity deteriorated and dimension error greater than tolerance. and is very easy to use. The life of the cutting tool comes to an end. Tool life equation gives no information about the wear mechanism. For example. cutting temperature of tool face and normal pressure on tool face. Hence tool wear relates to the economic of machining and prediction of tool wear is of great significance for the optimization of cutting process. such tool life equations are valid under very limited cutting conditions. new equation must be established by making experiment. machining quality. the prediction of tool wear is performed by calculating tool life according to experiment and empirical tool life equations such as Taylor’s equation or its extension versions. a large quantity of research has been carried out in order to optimize cutting process in terms of improving quality. Although Taylor’s equation gives the simple relationship between tool life and a certain cutting parameters. They create about 15% of the value of all mechanical components manufactured worldwide [Merc-98]. it gives only the information about tool life. Because of its great economic and technical importance. For the researcher and tool manufacturer tool wear progress and tool wear profile are also concerned.g. At present. When tool wear reaches a certain value. Some tool wear equation related to one or several wear mechanisms are developed.

FEM has become a powerful tool in the simulation of cutting process. numerical methods such as finite element method (FEM). Among them. Various variables in the cutting process such as cutting force. with the emergency of more and more powerful computer and the development of numerical technique. cutting temperature. stress. etc can be predicted by performing chip formation and heat transfer analysis in metal cutting. including those very difficult to detect by experimental method. finite difference method (FDM) and artificial Intelligence (AI) are widely used in machining industry. . strain rate.Introduction 2 In the recent decades. strain. Therefore a new tool wear prediction method may be developed by integrating FEM simulation of cutting process with tool wear model.

DEFORM 2DTM [Özel00b] [Cere-99]. MARCTM [Behr-98a]. burr. ABAQUS/StandardTM [Shi-02]. FLUENTTM . and Tay et al [Tay-74] since the early 1970s. Compared to empirical and analytical methods. Great progress has been made in this research field: Lagrangian approach is used to simulate the cutting process including incipient chip formation state [Shet-00]. It is the basic of the research on physical phenomena-cutting force. According to a comprehensive survey conducted by the CIRP Working Group on Modelling of Machining Operations during 1996-1997 [Lutt-98]. ALGORTM. feed force and chip geometry. FORGE 2DTM [Ng-99] [Mona-99]. The interaction between chip and tool can be modelled as sticking and sliding. among the 55 major research groups active in modelling. segmental chip formation is modelled to simulate high speed cutting [Bäke-00] [Bäke02] [West-01]. more commercial FE codes are used in chip formation simulation. chatter. application of finite element in metal cutting develops rapidly because of its advantages and the development of powerful computer [Atha-98][Sand-98]. tool wear. ABAQUS/ExplicitTM [Baca-00] and LS DYNATM [McCl-02]. finite element methods used in the analysis of chip formation has advantages in several aspects [Zhan-94]: • • • • Material properties can be handled as functions of strain. strain rate and temperature. In recent years. cutting temperature. model limitations and computational difficulty have been overcome to some extent. With the development of faster processor with larger memory. Non-linear geometric boundaries such as the free surface of the chip can be represented and used. etc can also be obtained.1 State Of Art: Finite Element Simulation Of Cutting Process Chip formation is the essential phenomenon in the cutting process. including: NIKE2TM [Stre-85]. In addition to the global variables such as cutting force. In addition. built-up-edge. the local stress. hard-turning [Guo-02] [Usui-84] or large negative rake angle [Ohbu- . chip curling and chip breakage. 32% in analytical modelling and 18% in numerical modelling in which finite element modelling techniques are used as the dominant tool.Introduction 3 1. Okushima [Okus-71]. Finite element method has been used to simulate machining by Klamecki [Klam-73]. temperature distributions. 43% were active in empirical modelling.

etc. ceramic cutting tool and diamond [Ohbu-03]. coated carbide [Mona-99].Introduction 4 03]. CBN [Özel-02]. microscopic cutting of single abrasive grain in grinding [Ohbu-03]. drilling. chip breaker [Dill-00]. ductile iron [Chuz-03a] [Chuz-03b]. composite [Arol-02]. 3D simulation is performed to analyse oblique cutting [Leop-98] [Klam-73] [Lin00] [Cere-00] [Guo-02]. Orthogonal cutting is the most frequently simulated cutting type [Stre-93]. The mainly simulated cutting types include tuning [Behr-99]. cermet. The modelled workpiece materials include carbon steel [Behr98b] [Gu-02]. and worn cutting tool [Li-02] [Shih-93]. milling [Özel-00a]. chamfered [Shat-01b] [Mova-02] and round edge [Ozel-02] [Kim-99].1 Modelling research trends [Ng-02a] A diversity of cutting tool and workpiece materials is used in the simulation of cutting process. cast iron. 1. The effect of tool geometry on the chip formation process is studied. Fig. For example. The studied tool geometries include sharp. the modelled cutting tool materials include uncoated carbide [Lin-01b]. etc. high alloy steel [Ng-02a]. . mainly including varing rake angle [Shih-96] and tool geometry.

But experimental work is often necessary in order to determine the chip geometry and shear angle. a long . cutting temperature and stress. Lagrangian Approach In Lagrangian approach. tool performance [Ahma-89]. the mesh follows the material. burr formation [Guo-00]. chip flow angle [Stre-02]. Eulerian Approach In Eulerian approach. Cutting process analysis with Eulerian approach requires less calculation time because the workpiece model consists of fewer elements. 1. varying cutting thickness in milling operation or serrated chip in high-speed-cutting because it is unable to simulate free surface conditions.1. not including the transition from initial to steady state cutting process. Eulerian approach is suitable to analyse the steady state of cutting process.1. the influences of sequential cutting [Liu-00] and microstructure of workpiece material [Chuz-03a] [Chuz. 1. That is the reason why before 1995 the applications of Eulerian approach in chip formation analysis overrun those of Lagrangian approach. Except the normally discussed variables cutting force. chip breakage [Maru-02].Introduction 5 In addition. which is an unavoidable part of geometry modelling. the mesh is fixed spatially and the material flows through the mesh. tool wear [Söhn-01b] [Yen-02]. Because the deformation of the free surface of the chip can be automatically treated by elastic-plastic material deformation.1 Numerical Aspects The implementation of cutting process simulation is based on numerical theory and technique.1 Approach Several approaches are supplied for numerical modelling: Lagrangian. residual stress [Yang-02] [Shih-93].03b] on chip formation are studied. Lagrangian approach can be used to simulate from initial to steady state of cutting process. Eulerian and Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE).1. etc are investigated as well. Their development is helpful to improve the capability of the simulation. But in order to extend the cutting time until steady state.

Introduction

6

workpiece is needed in geometry modelling, which increases the calculation time. In order to perform chip separation, chip separation criteria and realization method are necessary. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Approach (ALE) ALE approach combines the features of pure Lagrangian and Eulerian approach, in which the mesh is allowed to move independently of the material. It is an effective tool for improving mesh quality in the analysis of large deformation problem. Many commercial FE codes introduce ALE approach by adjusting mesh based on different mesh adaptivity. The adaptive meshing technique in ABAQUS/Explicit belongs to ALE approach. It can be used to analyse not only Lagrangian problem but also Eulerian problem. By giving suitable mesh control parameters, the whole process from initial to steady state can be simulated without the need of chip separation criterion or any chip geometry data from experiment. Furthermore, it is not necessary to extend the size of workpiece model. Hence the calculation time is not increased. 1.1.1.2 Mesh Adaptivity Three types of mesh adaptivity are designed to create a new spatial discretisation and improve mesh quality: h-adaptivity, p-adaptivity and r-adaptivity [Kalh-01]. • • • H-adaptivity changes the size of the mesh. The new mesh has different number of elements and the connectivity of the nodes is changed. In p-adaptivity the degree of the interpolating polynomial is changed. R-adaptivity is based on relocation of the nodes, without altering the topology (elements and connectivity) of the mesh. For example, adaptive meshing technique in ABAQUS/Explicit is accomplished by using R-adaptivity. During meshing nodes are moved to more favourable positions to improve mesh distortion. In addition, solution-dependent meshing is supplied to concentrate mesh towards the developing boundary concave, e.g., chip separation area in the vicinity of the cutting edge, and produce local mesh refinement in this area. But it is found that only the application of r-adaptivity is not sufficient to maintain the mesh quality. Therefore some FE codes, e.g. Deform-2D and AdvantEdge employ

Introduction

7

the combination of r- and h-adaptivity. Mesh is refined where great difference in the gradients of a certain solution is detected between elements. For example, Marusich et al propose to refine mesh according to plastic work rate in each element [Maru-95]; Owen et al use an error estimator based on the rate of fracture indicator to produce a fine mesh in high plastic deformation area and the regions where material failure is going to take place [Owen-99]. Chip separation is produced during meshing and mesh refining. In addition, the contact at tool-chip interface can be improved as well.

Introduction 1.1.2 Mechanical Aspects

8

The development of metal cutting theory helps people get more and more correct understanding in mechanical aspects of cutting process including contact and friction, material property, chip separation, etc. The modelling of these aspects influences the accuracy of cutting process simulation. 1.1.2.1 Contact And Friction Friction behaviour on the tool face determines the cutting power, machining quality and tool wear. It plays an important role in metal cutting. Development Of Friction Model In Metal Cutting The nature of friction between two dry sliding surfaces was described by Amontoms in 1699 [Amon-99]. He put forward that the coefficient of friction µ is independent of apparent area of contact A and applied normal load Fn . In 1785, Coulomb [Coul-85] approved and developed these laws by proposing that the coefficient of friction is substantially independent of the sliding velocity. Accordingly a constant coefficient of friction is expected on the tool face in metal cutting process. Ff Fn

µ=

= const

(1.1)

where F f is the friction force. However in metal cutting process, it is generally observed that the mean coefficient of friction on the tool face varies considerably with the change in cutting speed, rake angle and so on. This results from the extreme conditions of metal cutting area where the normal pressure at tool-chip interface is very high. According to Eq. 1.2 proposed by Finne and Shaw [Finn-56], the ratio of the real area of contact Ar to the apparent area of contact A approaches or reaches 1 under cutting conditions, which is different from the application conditions of Coulomb’s assumption.

are used in experiments to discover the form of stress distribution on the rake face. believed constant.2) where N is normal force. The chip-tool interface is divided into sticking and sliding regions. But these techniques are limited when the stresses very close to the cutting edge are determined. adjacent to the cutting edge. and the coefficient of friction is A Fig. Ar is less than unity. In sliding region. e. Based on the assumption of shearing action within the workpiece material.2 [Zore-63]. Ar approaches unity under very high A normal stress. . In sticking region. photoelastic measurements [Rice-60] or split tool dynamometers [Kato-72] [Chil-98].g. and shear stress is believed equal to shear strength of the workpiece material.1. from quick-stop sections and from chips showed the coexistence of sticking and sliding at tool/chip interface under many cutting conditions [Tren-77]. 1.2 Stress distribution on tool-chip interface Plenty of evidence from worn tools. Some advanced testing technologies. Zorev proposed the distribution of shear and normal stress on the rake face as shown in Fig.Introduction Ar = 1 − e − BN A 9 (1.

τ s ) where (1.034 − 0. Constant coefficient of friction based on Coulomb’s friction law is used in most cases. τ is friction stress. . the other is to determine the sliding and sticking region automatically by program according to a criterion [Zhan94] [Guo-00]. 1.3) Ng and his co-operators performed orthogonal cutting tests under different cutting conditions to establish a linear relation between the coefficient of friction µ . various approaches are used in the modelling of friction.4.1.0002vc (1. given by Eq. the division of the two regions is determined by two methods: one is to prescribe the length of each region [Shih-95] [Wu-96] [Shat-00]. τ = min( µσ . cutting speed vc . When Zorev’s sliding-sticking friction model is employed in the simulation. by using Regression analysis [Ng-02b]. given by Eq.5) τ s is the shear flow stress of the chip material. and rake angle α .5.3 according to the cutting force Fc . 1. and feed f . µ = 1.00446α − 3. Normally the coefficient of friction µ is calculated by using Eq.888 f − 0. rake angle α . µ= Ft + FC tan α FC − Ft tan α (1.Introduction 10 Applied Friction Models In Cutting Process Simulation In the finite element analyses of metal cutting. σ is normal stress. thrust force Ft .4) Liu et al [Liu-00] determined the coefficient of friction by performing simulation using different values and carrying out the sensitivity study on the coefficient of friction.

strain and strain rate are very high. a1 . the stress is higher at higher strain rate due to the viscous effect during plastic deformation and lower at higher temperature due to material softening.1. temperature.6) where HV is the Vickers hardness of the workpiece material. 1. A frictional shear factor is introduced into the relationship in order to make the calculated results agree with those of experiment.7.g.6 after put forward a method to test friction between newly created surfaces and tool material. Yang and Liu [Yang-02] proposed a stress-based polynomial model of friction. e.7) a0 .07 µp   HV   Mpa  tanh   H  0. 1.2 Material Constitutive Model The accuracy of the finite element analysis is severely dependent on the accuracy of the material mechanical properties. 1. n=4 n =0 τ = ∑ anσ n (1.07  V   τ = (1. a3 and a4 are determined by fitting experimental stress curve on rake face.3. stress-strain relationship.Introduction 11 Iwata et al [Iwat-84] proposed the relationship given by Eq. 1. are affected by the strain rate and temperature during material forming process with plastic deformation.  0. For the same value of strain. a2 . In metal cutting process. as shown in Fig. Influence Factors Of Material Property Experiments shows that material properties. p is contact pressure in MPa.2. Thermal- . given by Eq. This overstress effect by strain rate is more pronounced as the temperature increases [Shih-91].

Material Constitutive Model For Mild Carbon Steel The main workpiece materials used in the following research are mild carbon steel CK45 and AISI1045. 1. Vöringer is used. Based on their supports. ε ) = σ 1 −    T0   ∗ v ∗ 0     n     (1.3 Material property curve Many researchers are making efforts to establish such material constitutive models for different workpiece materials through experimental [Kopp-01].9) .9. 1. • For CK45 The material constitutive model developed by O. a material model database has been developed by Söhner et al [Söhn-01a]. 1.8 and Eq. which is described by Eq. m  T & σ (T .8) with T0 = ∆G 0 & ε0 kIn ( pl ) & ε (1. analytical or simulation methods [Shat-01a] [Özel-00b] [Batz-02].Introduction 12 viscoplastic material constitutive model is necessary for the finite element analysis of metal cutting. Stress [N/mm2] Stress [N/mm2] Temperature [K] (a) overstress effect Strain [%] (b) material softening Strain [%] Fig.

Tmelt=1480°C [Kopp-01].1.58ev . the Johnson-cook constitutive equation is used. ∗ and σ 0 = 1352MPa . the workpiece material is separated into two parts.Introduction 13 & where the constants for CK45 are: m=1. n=0.2. By chip separation. and T is temperature in °C.g. When the distance between the nearest workpiece node on the moving path of the cutting edge . • For AISI1045 To describe the material property of AISI1045. a user material subroutine based on this material constitutive model is employed. with the cutting tool advancing into the workpiece. ε 0 = 7.78.168. n=0. σ = (Bε n )1 + C ln    &  ε    Tmelt − T    1000    Tmelt − Troom    2    + ae −0. C=0. The realization of chip separation is one of the main problems in the simulation of chip formation process.29 × 10 5 s −1 .275. Geometrical criteria define geometric parameters. Normally it includes two aspects of consideration: chip separation criterion and model realization.00005(T −700 )      (1. a=0. k is Boltzmann constant and T is temperature in Kelvin [Schu- 00]. Chip Separation Criterion The chip separation criteria used by researchers can be categorized as two types: geometrical and physical.53. ∆G0 = 0. The unwanted part forms the chip.097. a new workpiece surface is formed on the created part. 1.3 Chip Separation In the cutting process. a distance value.1.10) where B=996. σ is the effective stress in MPa. e. In the simulation of cutting process.

material failure takes place. although sometimes it is defined at random. When such physical parameter reaches a critical value. Physical criteria is related to some physical meaning of chip separation. for example. They are related with the applied software. the magnitude designated for these criteria did have a major effect on mesh distortion together with the value of maximum shear stress.4 Element removal [Behr-98b] . Fig. chip separation takes place [Shih-95]. They are based on physical parameters such as stress [Iwat-84]. Model Realization There are several methods to model chip separation in finite element mesh.and strain ratedependent strain at failure will provide a better simulation result. According to the investigation on both types of criteria made by Huang and Black [Huan-96]. is reached. neither had a substantial effect on chip geometry. 1. • Element removal [Cere-96] When chip separation criterion. material failure happens and the element carries no stress any more as if they do not exist. and the effective stress in the machined surface [Ng-02a]. strain energy density [Lin-99] or effective plastic strain [Shir-93]. distribution of shear stress.Introduction 14 and the cutting edge is equal to or smaller than this given distance value. normally physical criterion. Such element can be removed and does not display. A critical value considering multi-influencing factors. However. The most reliable critical value is obtained by performing experiments. effective stress or effective plastic strain in the chip and in the machined surface. temperature.

the two elements move in different direction and lose contact. .Introduction • Node debond [Shi-02] [Shet-00] [Shet-03] 15 The chip and the workpiece are two separated parts. They are perfectly bonded together through some pair of nodes along the prospective parting line. a node is very close to the cutting edge. 1. physical or their combination. two nodes overlap together and connect to two different elements. Element separation takes place and a new node is created at the same position. Fig. The chip separation can be geometrical. debond of the node pair takes place and the two nodes move in different direction.5 Node debond • Node splitting [Shih-95] Chip separation is realized by element separation in front of cutting edge. When chip separation criterion is reached. The two neighbouring elements have common node before separation. When the separation criterion is met.6 Node splitting [Behr-98b] • Mesh adaptivity [Arra-02] Chip separation is performed by mesh refinement in the separation zone by increasing the number of elements or relocation of the nodes. Through the further movement of the cutting tool. for example. 1. Fig.

semi-roughing. The optimal performance of a cutting tool requires a right combination of the above tool parameters and cutting conditions (cutting speed. microstructure. workpiece quality. temperature at the cutting edge can exceed 1800°F and pressure is greater than 2. process security material structure texture material properties interface friction cooling lubricant cutting param.2 Technical Background About Tool Wear 16 Prediction of tool wear is complex because of the complexity of machining system.7 Influencing elements of tool wear [Söhn-01b] • Workpiece: It includes the workpiece material and its physical properties (mechanical and thermal properties. hardness. In 80% of the industrial cutting applications. contact tool cutting material coating geometry machine dynamics design Fig.000psi [John-01]. interface and machine tool: Tool wear economy. etc) • Interface: It involves the interface conditions. These elements come from the whole machining system comprising workpiece. or finishing). feed rate. Any element changing contact conditions in cutting area affects tool wear. • Tool: Tool material. rake angle. etc). 1. coolants are used to decrease cutting temperatures and likely . tool. Tool wear in cutting process is produced by the contact and relative sliding between the cutting tool and the workpiece and between the cutting tool and the chip under the extreme conditions of cutting area. which determine cutting force and energy for the applied cutting conditions. depth of cut. etc) need to be appropriately chosen for different operations (roughing. tool coatings and tool geometric design (edge preparation.Introduction 1.

have been developed to reduce the cost of coolant that makes up to 16% of the total machining costs [Walt-98].8 Wear types [Lim-01] • Crater wear: In continuous cutting. 1. insert breakage. cutting tool has normally complex wear appearance. flank wear. thermal crack. Increasingly new technologies. brittle crack. high pressure.g. 1. Crater wear and flank wear shown in Fig. At high cutting speed. 1. Fig. • Dynamic: The dynamic characteristic of the machine tool.8 are the most common wear types. Crater wear is improved by . which consists of some basic wear types such as crater wear. crater wear is often the factor that determines the life of the cutting tool: the tool edge is weakened by the severe cratering and eventually fractures. It conforms to the shape of the chip underside and reaches the maximum depth at a distance away from the cutting edge where highest temperature occurs. e.1 Wear Types In Metal Cutting Under high temperature. fatigue crack. plastic deformation and build-up edge. crater wear normally forms on rake face. Instable cutting processes with large vibrations (chatters) result in a fluctuating overload on the cutting tool and often lead to the premature failure of the cutting edge by tool chipping and excessive tool wear. affected by the machine tool structure and all the components taking part in the cutting process.Introduction 17 reduce tool wear.2. The dominating basic wear types vary with the change of cutting conditions. plays an important role for a successful cutting. such as the minimum liquid lubrication. high sliding velocity and mechanical or thermal shock in cutting area. turning operation.

Tool wear mechanisms in metal cutting include abrasive wear. diffusion wear. a decrease in the dimension accuracy of the tool and an increase in cutting force. electrochemical wear. delamination wear. fragments of the hard tool material removed in some way or highly strain-hardened fragments of an unstable built-up edge [Boot-89]. temperature and vibration. Among them.. • Flank wear: Flank wear is caused by the friction between the newly machined workpiece surface and the tool flank face.2. i. This results in a rapid tool material loss. e. • Abrasive wear: Tool material is removed away by the mechanical action of hard particles in the contact interface passing over the tool face. adhesive wear. etc are formed rapidly. oxidation wear. These hard particles may be hard constituents in the work material. • • Adhesive wear: Adhesive wear is caused by the formation and fracture of welded asperity junctions between the cutting tool and the workpiece. It reduces adhesion.g. • Oxidation wear: A slight oxidation of tool face is helpful to reduce the tool wear. adhesive wear. The rate of diffusion increases exponentially with the increase of temperature. solution wear. Diffusion wear: Diffusion wear takes place when atoms move from the tool material to the workpiece material because of the concentration difference.Introduction 18 selecting suitable cutting parameters and using coated tool or ultra-hard material tool. . oxidation wear. But at high temperature soft oxide layers. many research works are carried out to analyze the wear mechanism in metal cutting. It is responsible for a poor surface finish. CoO. TiO2. It is found that tool wear is not formed by a unique tool wear mechanism but a combination of several tool wear mechanisms. then taken away by the chip and the workpiece. Hence the width of the flank wear land VB is usually taken as a measure of the amount of wear and a threshold value of the width is defined as tool reshape criterion. diffusion wear and oxidation wear are very important. abrasive wear. Co3O4. WO3. diffusion and current by isolating the tool and the workpiece.e. 1.2 Wear Mechanism In order to find out suitable way to slow down the wear process. etc.

They can be categorized into two types: tool life models and tool wear rate models.3 Tool Wear Model Many mathematical models are developed to describe tool wear in quantity. and Hastings tool life equation describes the great effect of cutting temperature on tool life [Hast-79]. diffusion wear and oxidation wear.1. For example. A and B are defined by doing a lot of experiments with cutting speed changing and fitting the experimental data with the equation.1. In various sizes of cutting database. the existing tool life equations need . it is assumed that crater wear is mainly caused by abrasive wear. Chip Oxidizing wear Tool Wear Diffusion wear Adhesive wear Abrasive wear Diffusion Abrasion Adhesion Cutting temperature (cutting speed.9 Wear mechanism [Köni-84] 1. as shown in Fig. It is very convenient to predict tool life by using this equation. reveals the exponential relationship between tool life and cutting speed. Taylor’s tool life equation [Tayl-07]. For a certain combination of cutting tool and workpiece. but flank wear mainly dominated by abrasive wear due to hard second phase in the workpiece material. 1.Introduction 19 Under different cutting conditions dominating wear mechanisms are different. high-speed-cutting or dry cutting. • Tool life models: This type of wear models gives the relationship between tool life and cutting parameters or variables. the dominating wear mechanisms vary with cutting temperature. are getting spread in manufacturing industry. see Table 1.2. e. feed. The constants n. According to the temperature distribution on the tool face.9. Tool life equations are suitable to very limited range of cutting conditions. etc) Oxidizing vc Workpiece Fig. As the new machining technologies. Taylor’s tool life equation and its extension versions under different cutting conditions appear most frequently.g. CT.

tool wear profile or tool wear mechanisms that are sometimes important for tool designers. They provide the information about wear growth rate due to some wear mechanisms. ) ++ Dexp (− E Rθ ) (G. In these modes. Usui’s equation includes three variables: sliding velocity between the chip and the cutting tool. B = wear characteristic constants A. CT = constants) Hastings tool life equation (Hastings et al.e.T = A “Differential” Tool Wear Rate Models Takeyama & Murata’s model. In addition. • Tool wear rate models: These models are derived from one or several wear mechanisms. Therefore the equation sums two parts up. D = constants) Usui’s model. the rate of volume loss at the tool face (rake or flank) per unit contact area per unit time (mm/min).(A.T n = CT v c Ln T (n. sσexpS −λ θ ) dt = = t t V ( exp(-B/T) . Except the constants A and B.. are related to several cutting process variables that have to be decided by experiment or using some methods [Kwon-00]. B = constants) C.1 Tool wear models Empirical Tool Life Models Taylor’s tool life equation: Vc ⋅. λ (A.dW/dt = rate of volume loss per unit contact area per unit time (mm/min) . which was derived from equation of adhesive wear [Usui et al.c f. Table 1. Another part including universal gas constant and tool temperature describes diffusive wear. Takeyama & Murata’s model is developed by considering the combination action of abrasive wear and diffusive wear. i. T = normal stress and temperature θ . which are obtained from literatures. the right column shows two tool wear rate models. the wear growth rate. λ . exp(-E/RT) dW dt == G(V. except that tool life can be predicted by these equations.σt. tool temperature and normal . it is difficult to get further information about the tool wear progress. 1978]: dWdW/dtCσAv. Usui’s model is derived from Shaw’s equation of adhesive wear [Usui-78c].Introduction 20 to be updated with new constants and a lot of experimental work has to be done. B = constants) vcc = Cutting speed V L T = Tool life E = Process activation energy T θ = Cutting temperature f = Feed V vsS = Sliding velocity R = Universal gas constant In Table 1.1. 1979): B L = A θTB ⋅.C. One part shows that abrasive wear is influenced by the cutting speed and feed. considering abrasive wear and diffusive wear (1963): dW/dt G (v c f) D ⋅ .

The constants in tool wear rate models are depending on the combination of workpiece and cutting tool material. These variables can be predicted by FEM simulation of cutting process or combining analytical method and FDM.8 ×10 −9 θ f ≥ 1150 K 2. According to cutting experiment. All the points for flank wear and crater wear defined by experiment distribute along two characteristic lines with different gradients.2 : Characteristic constants for carbon steels [Kita-89] C [m2/MN] θ f ≥ 1150 K λ [K] θ f < 1150 K 7.2 shows the charateristic constants in Usui’s equation for the combination of carbon steel and carbide tool that obtained from literature [Kita-89]. crater wear on rake face was assumed mainly caused by adhesive wear. Table 1. Usui determined the constants for such cutting conditions and validated this model by the prediction of crater wear.198 ×10 −2 .302 ×10 3 1.195 × 10 4 θ f < 1150 K 5. whereas those for flank wear are usually distributed around the line in the lower temperature range. which mainly results from abrasive wear [Kita-88]. Table 1. The latter study showed that this equation is able to describe flank wear as well. Therefore Usui’s equation is very practical for the implementation of tool wear estimation by using FEM or by using the combination of FDM and analytical method. The experimental points for crater wear usually lie on the line in the higher temperature range. When tungsten carbide tools are used to machine carbon steels.150K. which intersect at the critical temperature of around 1. They are introduced in the later tool wear estimation models.Introduction 21 pressure on tool face.

Introduction
1.3 Research Of Tool Wear With Finite Element Methods 1.3.1 Comparison Between FEM Method And Empirical Method

22

Based on tool wear rate models, the estimation of tool wear profile progress with the cutting process can be implemented by predicting cutting process variables using finite element method. Its advantages and disadvantages are shown by the comparison with the empirical method in Table 1.3.

Table 1.3 Comparison of FEM method and empirical method Compared aspects Environment requirement Empirical method Special workpiece, cutting tests The procedure machine, personnel FEM method tool, Powerful code computer, tool

for wear rate model and FEM

of Cutting tests and regressive Obtaining tool wear rate analysis model by experiment or from literature, running the program with tool wear rate models under new cutting conditions

calculating tool wear

Application new conditions

under New experiments have to If only tool wear rate model cutting be carried out to update the is updated according to new constants of tool life models cutting conditions, the program can be used again

Time

The development of new The time for developing the tool life models is time entire program is relative consuming; long. Whereas the prediction of The time for calculating the tool wear with the tool life tool wear with the program model is very efficient depends on the performance of computer

Wear mechanism

Wear mechanism is not Yes, even the contributions

Introduction
considered

23
of the main mechanisms can be calculated

Workpiece material

Uneven material distribution Homogeneous material result from impurity, heat model, thermal visco-plastic treatment, work hardening material material

Tool material

Uneven material properties Homogeneous treatment, etc

result from impurity, heat model, ideal elastic material

Medium

Sensitive method,

to

the

cooling The types of heat emission type, through workpiece and considered tool face and under FEM surface their

coolant

cooling effect, etc

various cooling conditions implementation have to be

Vibration of machine- The constants are sensitive Not considered at present tool-workpiece system Predicted parameters to the vibration of the system wear Very limited information can Comprehensive information be obtained, for example about tool wear including only tool life is predicted crater wear profile, flank with Taylor’s tool life wear profile, VB, KT, VC (for 3D), VN (for 3D), etc can be predicted Cutting type Tool life models under At present, only tool wear milling studied. For different cutting types, the tool wear program may need adjusting according to the characteristic of relative operations are equation

various cutting type can be prediction in turning and developed

Introduction

24
motion of cutting tool and workpiece

Requirement on the No special requirement user

At present, except basic knowledge about metal cutting theory, user needs the basic knowledge about FEM chip formation, heat transfer analysis

Application present Quality prediction of

at Used in the real production

For research and education

the Quantitative

Qualitative

1.3.2 State Of Art: Numerical Implementation Of Tool Wear Estimation Tool wear estimation with Finite Element Method is developed from tool wear estimation with the combination of analytical method and Finite Difference Method (FDM). 1.3.2.1 Tool Wear Estimation With The Combination Of Analytical Method And FDM Usui’s Research-Prediction Of Crater Wear The earliest reported research work on tool wear estimation with the combination of analytical energy method and FDM was performed by E. Usui et al in 1978. He first derived a characteristic equation of crater wear theoretically by combining M.C.Shaw’s adhesive wear, temperature-dependent material asperity hardness and temperature-dependent Holm’s probability, given by

dw = Cσ t v s exp(− λ θ ) dt
Then he verified the equation experimentally.

(1.11)

Then computer calculation of crater wear is carried out by using the characteristic equation. By using the predicted cutting force and tool-chip contact length together with an assumption of an exponential normal stress distribution and a triangle or trapezoidal frictional stress distribution on the tool face. • The energy method is developed based on single shear plane for the cutting tool with sharp cutting edge. the frictional stress is calculated.) Implementation Procedure 25 The chip formation. the prediction of crater wear cannot be carried out without making experiment in advance. . sliding velocity of the chip and cutting force are predicted through energy method proposed in previous papers [Usui-78a] [Usui-78b] [Usui-78c]. friction angle and shear angle are needed. stress on tool face and the measured wear by curve fitting. The characteristic constants of the equation for the combination of carbon steel and P20 are determined with the aid of the predicted temperature. orthogonal cutting data about shear stress on shear plane.Introduction a. c. The temperature distribution within the chip and the tool at steady state is obtained with FDM by considering the heat source on the shear plane and on rake face. The effect of cutting edge preparation. such as round cutting edge.) Result The predicted crater wear was reported in good agreement with the measured in experiment in depth and contour except some discrepancy in the location of the deepest portion. or rounded cutting edge due to wear on the tool wear cannot be considered.) Limitations • When using the energy method to predict the chip formation and cutting force. and the predicted distribution of the stress and the temperature. b.

feed and workpiece material. Kitagawa finds that flank wear can be described by the same characteristic equation. By prescribing a triangle distribution of frictional stress along the tool-chip contact length with maximum value at the cutting edge and neglecting the contribution of stress on flank face to the cutting force and thrust force. 1. rake face and in the shear plane using FDM. the frictional stress at the cutting edge is set equal to the maximum value on rake face. The experimental points for crater wear usually lie on the line in the higher temperature range.150K. for crater wear.) Implementation Procedure In the prediction. The wear rate on the flank wear is calculated according to the predicted temperature.11. Normal stress on flank wear is adjusted continuously until a uniformly distributed wear rate is achieved everywhere on the flank wear land. the sliding velocity of workpiece material on the flank wear land is assumed equal to the cutting speed. . arbitrary set normal stress and sliding velocity. b. the frictional stress is calculated. On the flank wear. Normal stress on flank wear is set equal to frictional stress. whereas those for flank wear are usually distributed around the line in the lower temperature range. a. Tool wear consists of two characteristic lines with different gradient. The values of cutting force. temperature and mean stresses on the flank wear land are in reasonable agreement with experiment even with changing cutting speed. thrust force and chip contact length obtained from orthogonal experiment must be given beforehand. Eq.) Result It was reported that the predicted tool life. which intersect at the critical temperature of around 1. and frictional stress on the other sites is arbitrary set.Introduction Kitagawa’s Research-Prediction Of Flank Wear 26 By analysing the flank wear characteristics of tungsten carbide tools in turning plain carbon steels at steady-state cutting without a built-up edge experimentally. Then the temperature on flank wear land is predicted by considering the heat generated on the flank wear.

the numerical implementation of the integration of tool wear rate models with FEM calculations to predict the evolution of the tool wear was performed by using commercial FE code DEFORM-2D.2. These values vary with the development of flank wear.3. Whether the predicted crater wear is sensitive to the frequency of measuring these values during the development of flank wear is very important for its application perspective.Introduction c. no implementation procedure.2 Tool Wear Estimation With FEM Yen And Söhner’s Research (FEM) Although in a paper in 1999. The prediction method is not applicable to the cutting tool with any edge preparation because of the assumption of stress distribution on rake face The prediction is based on cutting force. The assumption of uniform wear rate on flank wear excludes the formation of rounded edge due to wear that is often observed in experiments. It is suspected that only the tendency and possibility of tool wear distribution were analysed qualitatively. This limits its application to low cutting speed range.) Limitations 27 • • • • The prediction method is developed under the assumption of no crater wear formed on the rake face. Hence the earliest reported research of tool wear estimation in quantity with FEM was done by Y. J. thrust force and chip contact length obtained from orthogonal experiment. MacGinley claimed that they performed tool wear analysis based on a wear function related to normal stress and sliding velocity by predicting stress distribution within coated and uncoated carbide tool with and without chip breaker using commercial FEM code-FORGE2 [Mona-99].) Implementation Procedure Usui’s wear model is used to calculate the wear rate of the uncoated carbide tool in cutting carbon steel. 1. Monaghan and T. C. a. Söhner et al since 2001. According to the paper in 2002 [Yen-02] and the dissertation of Söhner [Söhn-03]. clear predicted tool wear profile and wear value are described or provided. . Yen and J.

In the last phase.) Result Simulation study was made with worn tool initially including a pre-defined wear land of 0.) Limitations • • The tool geometry was updated manually. while crater wear and flank wear occur simultaneously at a similar wear rate in the experiment.06mm on the flank face. the nodal wear rate is calculated in the third phase. is used to perform chip formation analysis until mechanical steady state is reached. a coupled thermalviscoplastic Lagrangian cutting simulation combined with an introduced special simulation module. The wear rates of flank wear and crater wear are of the same order. the tool geometry model is updated by moving nodes. When a sharp tool is used. Both the chip formation and heat transfer analyses are performed with commercial FE code DEFORM-2D. ‘Konti-cut’. In the first phase. Then new tool geometry accounting for tool wear is calculated based on the user input for a cutting time increment. the location of the maximum wear rate and the low wear rate close to tool radius are consistent with the experimental result. normal stress and sliding velocity under steady-state cutting condition provided by the first two phases. . c. With the values of nodal temperature. b. pure heat transfer analysis for the tool is performed to attain thermal steady state in the tool. which can prolong the cutting simulation to a sufficient long cutting time. In the second phase. the predicted wear rate on the flank face is one order of magnitude smaller than that on the rake face. The selection of a suitable cutting time increment is very difficult to perform for a user without doing experiment in advance. instead of being performed automatically according to a certain algorithm. This problem was improved by using a new tool wear model especially developed for the simulated cutting condition [Fran-02].Introduction 28 The complete procedure includes four phases.

However. only 2D tool wear of uncoated carbide tool cutting carbon steel workpiece AISI1045 was studied. The study should be carried out with some FE code using explicit method and providing good development platform as well. some conclusions can be obtained: • The advantages of tool wear estimation with FEM over tool wear estimation with the combination of analytical method and FDM are considered in several aspects. The end of tool life in intermittent cutting. is mainly caused by progressive tool wear.3 Summary Of Literature According to the above literature analysis. milling operation.2. ABAQUS. • Because of the short history of the research on tool wear estimation with FEM. Tool wear estimation in intermittent cutting. The cutting type is limited turning operation and orthogonal cutting. as shown in Table 1. for example. Therefore the estimation of tool wear should be studied by developing new simulation procedure. .3. is different from turning operation because of the lack of steady state. impact and complex contact problem.4.Introduction 29 1. • Only the commercial FE code DEFORM-2D is used in tool wear estimation. numerical implementation of tool wear estimation is only developed for the cutting process with steady state. for example. • At present. the simulation of cutting process is assumed more suitable to be performed with explicit method because of the large deformation.

tool Crater wear.g. Edge preparations are not considered edge preparation can be model For flank wear estimation. Assumption and simplification of Tool wear rate model With FEM For crater wear estimation. energy FEM chip formation analysis. cutting force. the cutting condition. Tool wear rate model Predicted wear value Tool Only crater wear or only flank Crater wear and flank wear wear simultaneously FEM heat transfer analysis.Introduction 30 Table 1. method. without crater wear. tool included in tool geometry Experimental data Applicable conditions Prospective Yes. e. tool-chip No contact length. etc Conventional cutting speed Conventional HSC Limited A necessary supplement to the empirical method cutting and .4 Comparisons between tool wear estimation with FEM and tool wear estimation with the combination of analytical method and FDM Compared aspects Realization With the combination of analytical method and FDM Analytical method. flank wear and without flank wear.

1 Objectives The objective of this research is to develop methodology to predict tool wear and tool life in cutting process using finite element simulations.Objective And Approach 31 Chapter 2 Objective And Approach 2. the study at present will be concentrated on two-dimension tool wear estimation of uncoated carbide tool in dry cutting mild carbon steel. Because of the complexity of tool wear mechanisms and forms in real cutting process. sliding velocity of chip and normal stress on tool face with FEM simulation of cutting process.1 Objective and modeling tool Turning operation is a steady-state process when continuous chip is formed. This tool wear estimation method is performed by predicting tool temperature. the prediction of tool wear in milling operation is considered as well. including chip formation analysis and pure heat transfer analysis. Based on . Therefore to achieve the objective. FEM simulation of turning and milling process are studied at first. Several modeling tools are used in order to accomplish the entire research project. turning and milling operation Fig. TURNING OPERATION MODELING TOOL MILLING OPERATION Continuous chip formation analysis model ABAQUS/Explicit Fortran General chip formation analysis model Thermal steady state analysis ABAQUS/Standard Fortran Cyclical thermal balance state Analysis model Tool wear estimation program Objective-oriented programming language: Python Tool wear estimation program Objective: 2D. 2. The implementation of tool wear estimation is relatively easier and studied first. uncoated carbide tool. The study is not limited to turning operation.

the methodology of tool wear estimation in milling operation is discussed by analyzing the feature of milling operation. 0.2 Approach and procedure of tool wear estimation The study process for turning operation includes: Stage 1: chip formation analysis A new chip formation modeling method for continuous steady state chip formation is developed.2mm) tj-1 Heat flux Temperature Heat tranfer analysis Nodal displacement ∆t 1 ∆t 2 t0 t1 t2 ∆t 3 t3 ∆t 4 Cutting time t [min] t4 Wear calculation & w = Cσ t vs exp (− λ θ ) Nodal displacement r r & w(i . wear calculation and tool geometry updating. as shown in Fig. 2.Objective And Approach 32 the obtained experience in turning operation. the calculation procedure are similar and mainly composed of chip formation analysis. It can simulate the entire chip formation process from initial chip . heat transfer analysis. another for milling operation. Sliding velocity vc Width of flank wear VB [mm] Tool geometry updating Tool reshape criterion (eg. j ) ⋅ ∆t j ⋅ D(i . 2. Two different tool wear estimation models are developed. j ) = w(i .2. j ) Tool temperature θ Time increment ∆ t (specified by user or searched by program) ∆t Fig. Updated tool node file Chip formation analysis The jth calculation cycle Normal pressure σ t . 2.2 Approach Although the tool wear estimation models for turning and milling operations are different. one is for turning operation.

and tool temperature can be obtained. the searching method of a suitable cutting time increment. the calculation of nodal displacement due to wear and tool geometry updating. sliding velocity and tool temperature at steady state can be obtained. the cooling of the workpiece is studied. normal stress. The concerned modeling problem is discussed. the searching method of a suitable cutting time increment.Objective And Approach 33 formation. The study process for milling operation includes: Stage 1: chip formation analysis The chip formation modeling method in milling operation is studied. It includes the calculation of average wear rate in one selected milling cycle. Stage 2: heat transfer analysis In order to analyze the variation of tool temperature in the further milling cycles. Stage 3: tool wear estimation modeling Through the previous two stages. Stage 2: heat transfer analysis In order to save the calculation time. It includes the calculation of wear rate at steady state. Stage 3: tool wear estimation modeling Through the previous stages. sliding velocity. . the calculation of nodal displacement due to wear and tool geometry updating. chip growth to steady state by making use of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian technique in ABAQUS/Explicit. Then the tool wear estimation modeling is studied. the temperature distribution in the cutting tool at thermal steady state is studied by performing pure heat transfer analysis. It simulates the chip formation process in the first milling cycle. Then the tool wear estimation modeling is studied. then pure heat transfer analysis of the tool is performed for several milling cycles. normal stress.

1 Dynamic Analysis Procedure Dynamic analysis procedure is performed with the following algorithm.1) && where u(i ) is the acceleration at the beginning of the increment i.2) . dynamic and thermal analysis procedures are based on the implementation of an explicit integration rule. 3. • Nodal calculation Accelerations are calculated by satisfying the dynamic equilibrium at the beginning of the increment: && u(i ) = M −1 ( P( i ) − I ( i ) ) (3. In every small time increment. cutting tool and workpiece.1. Then the accelerations are integrated through time using the central differential rule.1 Introduction Optimisation of the cutting process requires comprehensive knowledge about the relation between cutting process and the combination of cutting parameters.1.1 Explicit Algorithm In Chip Formation Simulation The chip formation simulation is performed using explicit method. 3. (∆t( i +1) + ∆t( i ) ) 2 & u 1 (i + ) 2 & =u 1 (i − ) 2 + && u( i ) (3.1. P(i ) is externally applied load. chip formation process is simulated using commercial FEM code. and I (i ) is internal load. In this chapter. In the simulation the entire cutting process is discretized into many small time increments.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 34 Chapter 3 Chip Formation Simulation Technology 3. ABAQUS/Explicit. M is the diagonal or lump mass matrix.

which is decided according to the velocity of nodes. & σ = f (ε . Fully coupled thermal-stress analysis is employed.1. is computed from the material constitutive equation.1. ε . heat transfer equations are integrated using the explicit forward difference time integration rule. θ ) 3. The heat transfer .5) θ&(N) = (C NJ ) −1 ( P(iJ) − F(iJ) ) .6) C NJ is the lumped capacitance matrix. i where (3. θ (N+1) = θ (N) + ∆t (i +1)θ&(N) i i i where θ N is the temperature at node N. Then stress. & The values of θ (N) are computed at the beginning of the increment by i (3.4) In the chip formation analysis. & u(i +1) = u( i ) + ∆t(i +1)u (3. In the analysis. dε . is computed from the strain rate. the stress analysis is dependent on the temperature distribution and the temperature distribution depends on the stress solution. ε . P J is the applied nodal source vector.3) 1 (i + ) 2 • Element calculations & Element strain increment. σ .2 Thermal Analysis Procedure (3. F J is the internal flux vector. The explicit integration rules are realized in both dynamic and thermal analysis procedures by using lumped mass matrix and capacitance matrix.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 35 The velocities are integrated through time.

2 Stability Limit The central difference and forward difference integrate constant accelerations. the time increment must be quite small so that the integrated variables are nearly constant during an increment.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 36 and mechanical solutions are obtained simultaneously by an explicit coupling.7) where wmax is the highest frequency in the system of equations of the mechanical solution response and λ max is the largest eigenvalue in the system of equations of the thermal solution response. 3. . which is fully automatic and requires no user intervention. The ABAQUS/Explicit solver supplies the default time incrementation scheme. In order to produce accurate result. velocities and temperature increments per unit time. Therefore no iterations or tangent stiffness matrices are required.1. The time increment must be smaller than a stability limit otherwise the solution becomes numerically unstable. For coupled thermal-stress analysis. the stability limit can be calculated by ∆t ≤ min( 2 2 . ) wmax λ max (3.

chip separation is realized by element removal or node debond. Cutting under these conditions is steady-state process with steady chip shape. which increases calculation time direct proportionally.2 Continuous Chip Formation Simulation 37 Continuous chip is very common when most ductile materials. and aluminium.1 Cracks formed before tool edge in the simulations . If analysis of the further cutting process is required. mild steel. the length of the workpiece is often very small. Under the consideration of reducing calculation time. only enough to produce a steady chip shape.1. They are based on different approaches: Lagrangian or Eulerian. 3.2. Only for discontinuous chip formation and chip formation with buildup edge. A small crack is always created before tool edge. 3. cutting force and temperature. (a) Node debond [McCl-02] (b) Element removal [Ng-02a] Fig. crack is found ahead of the cutting edge. a longer workpiece has to be used in the simulation. copper. such as wrought iron. • In most chip formation models.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 3. But evidences from cutting experiments show that for the quasicontinuous chip formation that takes place in machining ductile materials under favourable cutting conditions. as shown in Fig. 3.1 Limitation Of The Existing Chip Formation Models This continuous chip formation process cannot obtain very satisfactory simulation result because of the limitations of the existing models using ABAQUS FE code: • Most models take chip formation as a Lagrangian problem. are machined. Many chip formation models were developed for these cutting conditions with different FE codes. crack occurs along the shear direction [Didj-97].

as reported by Arrazola et al [Arra-02]. chip geometry cannot adapt itself when the chip tends to swell up or to shrink too much from the given initial geometry. the chip swells up from the initial geometry . chip separation criterion is given by defining material failure criterion. the failure parameters are seldom given as well.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 38 • The chip separation path is often predetermined instead of formed automatically by the deformation of workpiece material under the cutting action. (a) When the given initial chip is thinner than in experiment. • When the steady-state chip formation process is modelled as a Eulerian problem with ABAQUS/Explicit. Although many material constitutive models are provided for the commonly used material by literatures. 3. In ABAQUS. etc change with the position of the separation path or not needs analysing as well.2. They should be determined experimentally instead of being given at random. When the given initial chip geometry is not suitable. But an initial chip geometry must be given according to experiment or experience in machining. the position of the predetermined chip separation path has influence on the volume of material to be cut away. as shown in Fig. In addition no shear failure criterion is required. This limits the usage of many material constitutive models. residual stress. Whether the cutting force components. • A chip separation criterion is necessary. When round edge cutting tools are used. The failure parameters are material dependent and different parameters are required for Johnson-cook and other material models. the conflict between the cutting time to reach steady state and the length of the workpiece model limited by calculation time is solved. Steady-state analysis is performed by prolonging the cutting time without increasing the length of the workpiece. Failure parameters relate to the successful implementation of chip formation simulation.

2. no shear failure criterion or material failure parameters are required.2 Problems in the chip formation analysis with an unsuitable initial chip geometry [Arra-02] 3. Workpiece material is unlimited and flowing through this control area continuously.2 Advantages Of The New-developed Chip Formation Model Due to the limitations mentioned above. • Chip separation is realized with adaptive meshing technique supplied by ABAQUS/Explicit. 3.2. This model has the following advantages: • Workpiece geometry in the model only stands for a control area. Good contact is maintained in the cutting tool edge area. Most of the material constitutive models can be used in this model. This model is especially suitable to simulate the cutting process with round edge tool or chamfered tool. chip growth. User can prolong the cutting time without changing the size of the control area. It combines the features of pure Lagrangian and Eurerian analysis and can be used . the chip shrinks from the initial geometry Fig. No obvious crack is formed. • • • • Chip separation is performed by the deformation of the workpiece material.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 39 (b) When the given initial chip is thicker than in experiment. to steady state. No initial chip geometry is required. 3.3 Adaptive Meshing Technique In ABAQUS/Explicit This model is developed based on adaptive meshing technique in ABAQUS/Explicit. a new continuous chip formation model is developed with ABAQUS/Eplicit. instead of forming crack along a predetermined path. Chip formation simulation includes the entire process from initial chip formation.

g. sliding or Eulerian.g. Chip Tool E Boundary region edge L L E: Eulerian boundary region S E S S: Sliding boundary region L: Lagrangian boundary region Material flow direction Workpiece Fig. and material flow velocity across the boundary is defined by boundary conditions.3 Boundary regions in chip formation model The boundary regions of the adaptive meshing domain can be either Lagrangian. initial chip formation. and Eulerian problems.1 Boundary Region Types Adaptive meshing is performed in adaptive meshing domains.3. In sliding boundary region. 3. e. . Mesh on the Eulerian boundary regions are fixed in space using spatial mesh constrains. as in a fluid flow problem. the mesh is constrained to move with the material in the direction normal to the surface of the boundary region and in the directions perpendicular to the boundary region edge. 3. which can be either Lagrangian or Eulerian. When the adaptive meshing domain is Eulerian type.3. In Lagrangian boundary region. 3. Eulerian boundary regions can be defined only on the exterior of a geometry model and the material flows across the boundary. but it is completely unconstrained in the directions tangential to the boundary region.2. the material is constrained to move with the material in the directions normal to the boundary region. for example the workpiece in Fig. steadystate chip formation.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 40 to both Langrangian. e. only sliding and Eulerian boundary regions can be defined.

3.3. Having sufficient mesh refinement near highly curved boundaries is very important to model the detail of the chip shape near the chip separation area. especially as the curvature evolves.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 3. α c = 1 . solution-dependent meshing is used to focus mesh gradation toward these areas automatically by defining the curvature refinement weight αc a high value.2. n θ > θI n n θ n θ ≤ θI (a) (b) Fig. To prevent the natural reduction in mesh refinement of areas near evolving concave curvature. mesh flow is permitted 3. geometry features are detected initially. Adaptive meshing cannot be performed well across such geometry features because the nodes cannot move across the geometry features unless they flatten. . no mesh flow is permitted past the corner (b) No geometry feature is detected.3 Curvature Refinement During adaptive meshing.2 Geometry Features 41 On boundary regions where the angle θ between the normals on adjacent element faces is greater than an initial geometric feature angle θI given by the user.4 Geometry Features (a) Geometry feature is detected. for example.3. Therefore it is sometimes necessary to deactivate the geometry features by defining a greater initial geometry angle. mesh-smoothing algorithms based on minimizing element distortion tend to reduce the mesh refinement in area of concave curvature.2.

In order to save calculation time. f = 0. including initial chip formation.1. Table 3. rε = 0. whereas in the last analysis step the cutting tool is modelled as a deformable body in order to obtain better analysis result and more comprehensive analysis data. 3.5 Effect of curvature refinement 3. α o = 7° . which is meshed with 4-node bilinear coupled temperature-displacement plain strain elements CPE4RT.0245mm vc = 300m / min . which consists of three analysis steps.2. only the part of the cutting tool near the cutting edge is included in the chip formation modelling.1: Cutting condition Cutting type Work material Tool material Tool geometry Cutting parameters Orthogonal cutting. The first two analysis steps supply steady chip geometry for the steady-state chip formation analysis step. . The simulated cutting condition is given in Table 3.145mm / r In the finite element model. the cutting tool is defined as a rigid body. a p = 2mm . and steady-state chip formation as described in detail in the following parts.4 Analysis Steps The entire continuous chip formation process is performed with a complete modeling procedure from initial chip formation to the realization of steady state. dry cutting Mild carbon steel AISI1045 Uncoated carbide WC-Co γ o = −7° . Moreover in the first two steps. coupled thermo-stress analyses are performed. During all the chip formation steps.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 42 (a) αc=0 (b) αc=1 Fig. chip growth. the workpiece has a size of 0.2mm.6×3. turning operation.

2. vc A E D B (a) Initial geometry and mesh C (b) Initial chip geometry formed at t=0.6(a)). B.4.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 43 3. The value is defined by calculating the angle θ i between the normals on adjacent element faces in chip separation area. At the cutting edge. 3. C and D are about 90 deg). This chip formation process is modelled as a Lagrangian problem. as shown in Fig. Only very fine mesh can show exactly the shape of this area. the Lagrangian boundary region on the top surface of the workpiece traces the chip material continuously and forms the shape of the chip. finding out the maximum angle value. In order to maintain the mesh refinement in this area while the chip formation process continues. B. chip material separates with workpiece material. C and D in Fig. the initial geometry feature angle should be given a suitable value.7. According to this value. .6 Initial chip formation analysis The initial workpiece geometry is designed to have a concave at the top-right corner under the consideration of seeding more nodes along the concave surface (see Fig.1 Initial Chip Formation This analysis step aims to form initial chip geometry. the four corner points A. B. The boundary of the workpiece consists of only Lagrangian boundary regions. 3. then taking an angle value between this maximum angle value and 90 deg (because the angles at point A.18ms Fig. Adaptive meshing can be performed on any boundary regions except point A.6(a) can be detected as geometry features but corner point E and the workpiece nodes on the surface ED should not be taken as geometry features. 3. 3. During the initial chip formation process. C and D.

chip growth analysis step is performed. 3. It reads the variables about nodal coordinate. x-direction is pointed to the right side and y-direction to the top of the page. including node input file. Then it writes them into the model files of the chip growth analysis step.2. In this step the chip formation process is treated as a Eulerian problem.7 Determination of initial geometry feature angle In addition solution-dependent meshing is used to focus mesh toward the chip separation areas automatically by setting the curvature refinement weight αc to unity. A user program is developed with Python language. initial temperature input file.4. 3. elements along the concave surface extend and compose the outside surface of the chip. 3. etc. in this simulation the initial state information is read from the former analysis step at 0. With the cutting tool advancing into the workpiece. For example.18ms an initial chip is formed. when a desirable initial chip shape is produced. The workpiece is fixed and the cutting tool is moving in the negative x-direction1. etc of the workpiece and the cutting tool from the selected time point of the initial chip formation analysis step. 1 In all figures of this paper. This analysis step aims at forming steady chip geometry. Therefore the initial state of the workpiece and the cutting tool in this step remains the state at the selected time point of the former analysis step. At the beginning the cutting tool is at the right side of the workpiece.6(b) shows the mesh after the initial chip is formed. Fig.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 44 Tool θi Workpie Fig. nodal temperature. After 0. .18ms.2 Chip Growth After the initial chip is formed.

the mesh will adjust itself to fit in with the developing chip geometry. the relative movement between the cutting tool and the workpiece is performed by the movement of workpiece material. the cutting process is treated as a Eulerian problem as well. Fig.8(a). But the movement of the mesh on the top boundary is not constrained. The workpiece mesh in Fig. whose mesh is fixed in x-direction by using mesh constrain definition.8 Chip growth analysis 3.3 Continuous Steady-state Chip Formation In the second analysis step. indicated with small triangle in Fig.8(a). The cutting tool is fixed in space. (a) Initial geometry and mesh (b) Chip growth at t= 0. The left and right boundary of the control area are defined as Eulerian boundary regions. 3. The curvature refinement weight αc is set to unity.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 45 In this step. In this step. 3. The movement of the mesh on the bottom boundary is constrained in y-direction. Initial geometry feature angle is defined in the same way as explained above. 3. 3. but material flows into the control area continuously from the left boundary at the cutting speed and flows out of from the right boundary.09ms Fig.2. The steady-state chip formation analysis step is designed for simulating the further cutting process. 3. According to the definition of .8 represents only a control area. the mesh of the chip extends too much in the direction of chip growth so that adaptive meshing cannot solve mesh distortion problem any more. with the chip growing to a certain extent.8(b) shows that the chip is growing with the material flowing into the control area. The top and bottom boundary are sliding boundary regions. as indicated with the small arrows in Fig.4.

see Fig.09ms. its movement is fixed by defining constraint in x-direction at the right boundary and in y-direction at the top boundary. (a) Initial geometry and mesh Fig. Method 1: Mesh Modification During the growth of the chip in the second analysis step.8(b). The state of the workpiece and the cutting tool at this time point is written into the model files of steady-state cutting analysis step. 3. The definition of boundary regions and conditions for the other part of the workpiece control area are similar to those in the second analysis step. 3.9(a).Chip Formation Simulation Technology 46 the workpiece mesh. Because the cutting tool is a deformable body.9(b) shows the formed mesh at 1ms. 3.9 Mesh modification (b) Mesh at t=1ms . the chip geometry near the chip root becomes steady since a certain time point. 3. Fig. The coordinates of the nodes on this boundary are adjusted to locate these nodes along a vertical line in order to facilitate the definition of mesh movement constrain in x-direction. For example. two methods can be used in the continuous steady-state chip formation step: mesh modification and model regenerating. the mesh in Fig. Initial geometry feature angle and curvature refinement weight αc are defined in the same way as explained above.9(a) is read from chip growth analysis step at t=0. as shown in Fig. its position and size can adjust with the chip automatically in y-direction. 3. The mesh of the boundary is not constrained in y-direction. In order to allow the chip to flow out of the mesh and grow unlimitedly instead of grow visually with the mesh. the mesh at the top boundary of the chip is defined as a Eulerian boundary region.

g. (a) Initial geometry and mesh (b) Mesh at t=1ms Fig. 3. The mesh movement is constrained in y-direction. They can be obtained from the former two analysis steps. But sometimes fine mesh along the whole tool-workpiece and tool-chip interface is required. it will complicate the definition of mesh constraint.5mm long. The chip is 0. The length of the chip should be determined carefully. e. ABAQUS/Explicit supplies only r-adaptivity. Model regenerating supplies an approach to improve the contact problem. The regenerated workpiece model in Fig. and good contact between the workpiece and the cutting tool in these areas is desired. The information necessary for model regenerating includes chip thickness and toolchip contact length.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 47 Method 2: Model Regenerating This method is especially important when the cutting tool has some special geometry. But when the chip is too long.10 Model regenerating . The mesh position and size in xdirection will be adjusted with the chip automatically. When the mesh concentrates in the cutting edge area according to solution-dependent meshing rule. crater wear. initial chip formation and chip growth analysis step. and 0. the mesh in other area becomes coarse. The mesh at the top boundary of the chip is defined as a Eulerian boundary region. It is larger than the tool-chip contact length.3mm thick. 3.10(a) has a chip connected to the workpiece. in which a steady chip shape is formed.

5 Results & Discussion 3. 3. as shown in Fig.2.2.11 Contact status along tool-chip interface 3. Maximum stress is located in the primary shear zone. .3.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 48 Very fine mesh is given along the entire tool-chip interface.5.11. This ensures good contact between the cutting tool.12 shows the stress distribution in the three analysis steps. the workpiece and the chip throughout the entire steady-state analysis process. Contact problem (a) Contact problem is created by using mesh modification (b) Contact is improved by using model regenerating Fig. 3. the workpiece material undergoes serious shear plastic deformation in primary shear zone and becomes chip.1 Stress Analysis Fig.

Chip Formation Simulation Technology 49 Further the underside of the chip undergoes high stress because of the contact and friction with the tool face when sliding away. 3. 3.2. t=0. (a) Initial chip formation analysis. The material in the chip underside deforms plastically again .13 shows that the workpiece material undergoes serious plastic deformation in primary shear zone.2 Plastic Strain Analysis Fig. 3. t=1ms Fig.5.12 Stress distribution (MPa) In steady state analysis step. The newly formed machined surface has contact and friction with the round edge and sometimes a small part of the flank face. the cutting tool is modelled as a deformable body.3ms (c) Steady state analysis.18m (b) Chip growth analysis. This results in a high stress in the workpiece material beneath the cutting tool edge. t=0. very high stress is observed in the small part of the cutting tool directly under the tool-chip contact area.

the maximum strain rates . Under the example cutting condition.3 Strain Rate Fig. t=1ms Fig. the two model methods create similar plastic strain field. This results in higher plastic strain formed in the chip underside than in the other part of the chip.09ms (b) Mesh modification. 3. which is defined as solution SDV9 by material subroutine. 3.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 50 under the pressure and friction of the cutting tool face. t=1ms (c) Model regenerating.5. not including the created plastic strain.2.13(a).14 shows the distribution of strain rate. 3. 3. the top of the chip has no plastic strain because only the geometry of this part is imported from the initial chip formation analysis step. In the steady-state analysis. and only the maximum values are different which is caused by the different contact condition due to element size in the workpiece model and the difference between deformable cutting tool and rigid body cutting tool.13 Equivalent plastic strain distribution In Fig. (a) Chip growth analysis step. t=0.

3. the highlighted nodes in Fig. while at the tool face nodes inside the cutting insert.15(a).2.4 Temperature Analysis In Fig.15(b). the temperature is still climbing. and reach up to 105. 3. 3.15(d).e. t=1ms (c) Modal regenerating. (a) Chip growth step. as shown in Fig. This means that thermal steady state is not realized in the whole cutting tool.09ms (b) Mesh modification. within the cutting process of 1ms cutting temperatures at most of the tool face nodes in the tool/chip interface. is reaching steady values.15(c).Chip Formation Simulation Technology 51 distribute along the primary shear zone. which is assumed as typical maximum strain rate in conventional machining [Arnd-73]. . 3. i. the highlighted nodes in Fig.14 Strain rate distribution 3.5. 3. t=0. especially in the areas close to the cutting tool edge and the free surface of the workpiece. t=1ms Fig.

3. 3. The highest temperature is at the rake/chip interface and most part of the tool is still at room temperature. .Chip Formation Simulation Technology 52 (a) Position of monitored tool face nodes (b) Temperature progress Node 429 Node 497 Node 588 Node 507 Node 492 (b) Position of nodes inside the tool step (d) Temperature history Fig.15 Temperature history of tool nodes at steady-state chip formation analysis Fig.16 shows the temperature distribution at 1ms.

700 Cutting and thrust force [N] 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.145mm/r) .0000 Fc Ft 0.17 shows that the cutting force components change within a very narrow range from 0. ap=2mm.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 53 Fig. 3. 3.5 Verification With Experimental Data By adding the reaction force component in the same direction at all constrained nodes of the cutting tool and then taking the negative value.2.0008 0.5.17 Cutting force progress (under cutting condition: vc=300m/min. Fig.0004 0.7ms. 3. and it is deemed that the mechanical steady state is realized. the cutting force components Fc and Ft in the continuous steady-state chip formation step are obtained. f=0.16 Temperature distribution at t=1ms of steady-state chip formation analysis step 3.0012 Time [s] Fig.

while S from continuous steady state chip formation step. Therefore a different modelling method is introduced in the following part. 3. Deform2D and Oxcut-F [Söhn-03].3 Chip Formation Simulation For Milling Operation In milling operation. The modelling method developed for the continuous chip formation is not suitable to simulate chip formation process in milling operation. and the error of thrust force Fc is about 5%.18 Comparison of cutting force (under cutting condition: vc=300m/min. cutting action is discontinuous and the chip produced is discontinuous. I means the result is obtained from initial chip formation step.30. ABQ-f048I and ABQf048S. 1.145mm/r) 3. 2% 5% Fig. ap=2mm. 3. The cutting force components created in the chip formation analysis with the frictional coefficient of 0. and the value is 0. One is 0.18.18 shows that the cutting force components obtained from initial chip formation step and continuous steady state chip formation step have no great difference. Two different frictional coefficient values are used.48. ABQ-f030S. The results from ABAQUS include ABQ-f030I. another is calculated according to Eq. Fig. .3.48 gives the better result than other FEM code.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 54 In Fig. 3. f=0. the prediction error of cutting force Fc is about 2%. the cutting force values obtained from the simulation with ABAQUS/Explicit code are compared with the experiment data [Feve-01] and the result from other software including Third Wave.

ε fpl . or 1 depending on the temperature range). p q (where p is the pressure stress and ˆ q is the Mises stress). There are two methods to define the strain at failure. If at all the integration point material failure takes place. w . the stain at failure is given according to Eq. material failure takes place. when the equivalent plastic strain reaches the strain at failure ε fpl .3. Stain at failure is defined by giving the failure parameters d1 − d 5 . θ (defined as 0.1.1 Shear Failure Criterion The shear failure model is based on the value of the equivalent plastic strain at element integration points. 3.1 Chip Separation In every milling cycle. is defined as  ∆ε pl w = ∑  pl  ε  f where ∆ε  . In this method. a dimensional pressure-stress ratio. The summation is performed over all increments in the analysis. The damage parameter. (θ − θ transition ) (θ melt − θ transition ) .Chip Formation Simulation Technology 55 3. and a nondimensional temperature. 3. the produced chip will separate with the newly produced workpiece surface without any connection when the cutting tool disengages from the workpiece.8) pl is an increment of the equivalent plastic strain. is dependent on a nondimensional plastic strain rate. chip separation is realized by defining shear failure criterion.   (3. & & ε pl ε 0 .9) where strain at failure.3.   ε fpl = d1 + d 2 exp d 3    &  ε pl p    1 + d 4 In ε q     &0  ˆ  1 + d 5θ   ( ) (3. For Johnson-cook plasticity model.9. Hence the adaptive meshing technique in ABAQUS/Explicit cannot be used as a chip separation tool any more. . then the damage parameter w exceeds 1. the element is removed from the mesh.

Ng et al integrated orthogonal tests with some analytical equations in metal cutting theory to define the dependency of & the equivalent plastic strain at failure ε fpl on the plastic strain rate ε pl .1. 3. Bacaria et al determined failure parameters d1 − d 5 by performing tensile and torsion tests [Baca-00]. the separation area is between Node 13 and Node 16. in Fig. the hydrostatic stress p and temperature [Ng-02b]. The material above the separation area moves upwards into the chip and the material below the separation area moves downwards to join in the machined surface. Observing the movement of material points on the chip underside and the machined workpiece surface in steady-state chip formation process.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 56 For Mises plasticity model. pressure/stress ratio and temperature are given directly in tabular form in the data line.19.2 A Numerical Method To Determine Strain At Failure Normally. it is possible to determine stain at failure without making any experiment. For example. equivalent plastic strain at failure. Node 13 Node 14 Node 15 Node 16 Fig. strain at failure or the dependencies of strain at failure on strain rate.19 Velocity of material points at workpiece nodes on the chip underside and the machined surface (the arrows shows the velocity vectors) . For example. is obtained by using experimental methods. By employing the continuous chip formation analysing methods. we can find a separation area of the workpiece material.3. 3. ε fpl . 3.

In the following part of this chapter. . strain at failure for mild carbon steel is set to 2. etc can be studied.7 to strain at failure.20 Determination of strain at failure By varying cutting parameters or tool geometry.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 57 According to the sliding velocities of the workpiece material points along tool-chip interface.25 to 2.20. the dependency of strain at failure on temperature. 3.5. a more exact position of the separation area can be defined in Fig. 3. The equivalent plastic strain between Node 15 and Node 16 gives a value range from 2. It can be assumed that material failure is taking place in this area. pressure. strain rate. Node15 Node16 (a) Monitored points Node15 Node15 Node16 Node16 (b) Sliding velocity of monitored points (c) Equivalent plastic strain of monitored points Fig. The directions of sliding velocities of the material points in the area between Node 15 and Node 16 change.

2mm / r The diameter of the milling tool is 125mm. α o = 7° vc = 600m / min .3mm.2 Cutting condition Cutting type Work material Tool material Tool geometry Cutting parameters Orthogonal cutting. The centre of the ring is positioned at the rotation centre of the cutting insert.4 Rotation center Workpiece 2 5 62.2 Insert Fig. whose outside radius is 62.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 3.2. milling operation.21 Initial geometry. 3. 0. Fig. only a small part of the workpiece and the cutting insert is included in the model.7mm and inside radius 62.21 shows the initial geometry. a p = 1mm . The workpiece is 2mm high. 0. mesh and assembly of the tool and the workpiece in chip formation analysis The workpiece is simplified as a small segment of a ring. dry cutting Mild carbon steel CK45 Uncoated carbide WC-Co γ o = 7° . f z = 0. 3. The cutting condition is given in Table 3.3.2 Chip Formation Modeling 58 This chip formation modeling method is explained by taking a milling case as an example in which an uncoated carbide tool is used to machine mild steel CK45. In order to reduce the calculation time. a e = 2mm . The extension of its upper . mesh and assembly of the workpiece and the cutting insert. Table 3.

. one criterion is assigned to a line of element along the moving path of the cutting edge to separate the chip from the workpiece.3. as shown in Fig.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 59 surface passes through the center of the ring and the lower surface is parallel to the upper surface. 3. Fig. etc. Every boundary segment of workpiece is defined as a Lagrangian boundary region. cutting phase takes 0.3. One milling cycle takes 39. There are different ways to assign shear failure criterion to form different shape of chips.07ms. stress. the cutting insert engages in the fixed workpiece. In the model the shear failure criterion is integrated with a material model designed specially for the workpiece material CK45 and assigned to the whole workpiece.1 Stress Analysis At the beginning.3.2ms and cooling phase takes 39. A small chip is formed. 3.5ms.3ms of the later cooling phase. and there is no contact with the workpiece. which is discretized with CPE4RT elements. The cutting insert is modelled as a deformable body in order to obtain all the necessary cutting process variables for the latter study on tool wear. With the tool rotating in clock-wise direction.22(a).22(b) shows that the primary deformation zone has the maximum stress in the workpiece. Bacaria defined only one material shear failure model for the whole workpiece material [Baca-00]. Ng et al designed two different kinds of shear failure criteria. The workpiece is discretized with a mesh composed of CPE4RT elements. In each milling cycle. another criterion is assigned to part of the chip material to generate cracks in order to simulate serrated chips [Ng-02b]. and the contact between the chip and the cutting insert concentrates in a small area near the cutting edge. covering the whole cutting phase and 0.27ms. the cutting insert is at the bottom of the workpiece. such as temperature. 3. The chip formation analysis is performed for 0. The chip formation process is treated as a Lagrangian problem.3 Result & Discussion 3. The cutting insert in the model includes only the part near the cutting edge. which results in a high stress in this area. and local fine mesh is given along the moving path of the cutting edge because of very high gradients of solutions in this area.

the cutting edge is bearing higher stress than other part of the insert because of positive rake angle and very sharp tool edge.200ms Fig. (a) t= 0.22(c). During the entire cutting phase. But after crack generates. it propagates along the direction of maximum stress deeper and deeper into the workpiece material.175ms (d) t=0. The workpiece material to be cut away deforms seriously under the pressure of the cutting insert and protrudes from the original top surface.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 60 In Fig.025ms (b) t= 0. which provides a possibility for burr formation. instead of along the moving path of the cutting edge.100ms (c) t=0. 3.22 Stress field (Mpa) in the chip formation analysis . 3. the cutting insert is disengaging the workpiece.

23.23(c) and 3. The heat is generated mainly in two zones.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 61 3. when chip breakage takes place in Fig. 3. In addition. then the chip underside is heated again to a higher temperature by the friction with the tool face. 3.23(d).23(b). the shear zone and the chip underside sliding along the tool face.025ms (b) t= 0. (a) t= 0.3.200ms Fig.23(a).3.23 Temperature distribution (in Kelvin) in the chip formation analysis . 3.175ms (d) t=0. The obvious temperature increment take place in shear zone. 3.2 Cutting Temperature The predicted temperatures generated during chip formation process are shown in Fig.100ms (c) t=0. 3. as shown in Fig. local high temperature is formed.

which always appear when the element of workpiece is coarser than tool element. its bottom is pinned on and rotates with the rotation center point.24 shows the cutting force progress during the cutting process. The ‘noise’ of the cutting force signal is caused by the removal of the elements. Therefore cutting force is exerted on the rotation center point. Because the cutting insert has exited from the workpiece and no contact with the workpiece any more after 0.3 Cutting Force Analysis In order to make the cutting insert rotate as a deformable body.2ms. which result in the fluctuation of cutting force.3.24 Cutting force progress during the cutting process Cutting force [N] . they reach the shear failure criterion and then stresses in these elements are set to zero. Fig. Fig. and contact problem results in ‘noise’ of cutting force signal. cutting force components in x-direction and y-direction are reducing to zero. 3. 3.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 62 3. This is different from ‘noise’ observed in continuous chip formation analysis.3.

only steady state analysis step is necessary. In order to get good contact between the chip and the tool face even when a serious crater wear is formed on rake face. chamfered and worn cutting tool can be used in the chip formation model. This model is expected to have a wider application because it can model various chip type. The calculation time to reach steady state is relative short comparing with the chip formation model in which the chip formation is taken as a pure Lagrangian problem. chip growth and steady state. Chip formation model for turning operation is designed to simulate the whole cutting process including initial chip formation.Chip Formation Simulation Technology 3. such as serrated chip.4 Summaries & Conclusion 63 Two different chip formation modeling methods are designed to simulate the chip formation process in milling operation and turning operation. the total calculation time to reach tool reshape criterion is reduced sharply because except the initial chip formation and chip growth are run only one time and then with the tool wear increasing. especially at the toolchip interface. No experiment is required to get material failure parameters or steady chip geometry. the normal tool geometry such as blunted. The shear failure criterion is used to the entire workpiece. Chip separation is formed automatically by using ALE technique supplied by ABAQUS/Explicit. model regeneration method is suggested to update and refine the mesh of the workpiece. Chip formation in milling operation is modeled by introducing the shear failure criterion because of the intermittent cutting process. . With this complete model. when the suitable material constitutive and material failure model are provided. Especially when it is used in tool wear estimation.

diffusive elements. which have only temperature degrees of freedom. ABAQUS uses some Eulerian elements. In addition.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 64 Chapter 4 Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 4. to model convective heat transfer. Two-dimensional first-order four node diffusive element. the error caused by the conversion from nodal value to integration point value is avoided during the importation of temperature data. because coupled thermal mechanical analysis is too expensive. in the former chapter.1 Introduction When the cutting process is simulated using chip formation analysis. 4.2. DC2D4. the simulation will become complex because of the interaction between the cutting tool and the workpiece. It is concerned how the temperature distributes in the cutting tool finally. It is important for the correct calculation of tool wear how the tool temperature changes in the further milling cycles. For example. For milling operation. Therefore pure heat transfer analysis is performed after chip formation analysis for the further cutting process in order to get such knowledge at a low calculation cost. These advantages are based on the conservation of . temperatures at nodes inside the cutting tool are still climbing while those at tool-chip interface nodes approach steady state.1 Geometry And Mesh In the heat transfer analysis. the chip formation analysis is only carried out in the first milling cycle. Otherwise. two or three dimension. is chosen to discretize the geometry of the studied object in the heat transfer analysis because quantities of DC2D4 are integrated at nodes and this simplifies the design of heat flux subroutine by importing heat flux at nodes of chip formation model directly into integration points of heat transfer model as basic data for the calculation of the current heat flux. Interpolation can be first-order and second-order [ABA-01b]. only a single object is considered.2 General Considerations 4. for example only the cutting tool or the workpiece. Diffusive elements are provided in one. the cutting time is normally limited to a short time. at the end of the chip formation analysis in turning operation.

Conductive heat flux is caused by the temperature difference of tool-chip and toolworkpiece at the interface.1.2) q c is the conductive heat flux crossing the interface from point A on the workpiece to point B on the cutting tool. f gives the fraction of the generated heat flowing into the workpiece. sliding condition and contact with the tool face. θ is the nodal temperature on the surface.2.1) τ is the frictional stress. element label and element connectivity of the chip formation analysis model. 4.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 65 the node label. k is the gap conductance.2 Heat Flux In the cutting phase the cutting tool is heated by the heat flux acted on the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface. The amount of frictional heat flux into the cutting tool is calculated by Eq. Both heat flux components are varying from node to node and the basic nodal heat flux data can be obtained from the chip formation analysis. Frictional heat flux is created due to the sliding friction between the workpiece material and the tool face. q c = k (θ A − θ B ) where (4. q r = (1 − f )ητ ⋅ν s where (4. 4. . It is governed by Eq. Therefore conductive heat flux is temperature dependent. η specifies the fraction of mechanical energy converted into thermal energy. 4. ν s is the sliding velocity.2. Therefore frictional heat flux is influenced by chip form. The total heat flux is composed of frictional heat flux q f and conductive heat flux q c .

Because in the orthogonal cutting experiment [Schm-02]. it is found that the total heat flux (heat passing through the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface per second) is changing as the cutting process continues. flank face. At the nodes on tool/chip interface heat flux is defined. node label and element connectivity of this part in chip formation analysis steps remain unchanged. the circled part is the part of the edge engaged in the cutting Temperature data at the end of the steady-state chip formation analysis step is imported and used as the initial temperature definition of the nodes in the highlighted part.1 Modeling In order to study on the temperature distribution of the cutting tool at steady state. the total . It includes the part. Hole surface Heat convection Heat radiation Frictional heat Conductive heat Room temperature A Hole surface Rake face Bottom face Bottom face Rake face Flank face A Cutting area Flank face Fig. as shown in Fig. 4.1. The part of the tool used in the former chip formation analysis steps is only the highlighted part.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 66 4. the part of the cutting edge engaged in the cutting is located in the center part circled in Fig. heat transfer analysis is performed after the chip formation analysis finishes. bottom face. In steady-state chip formation analysis step.1 Geometry and mesh of the cutting tool used in heat transfer analysis. One component of the total heat flux.2. 4. which is surrounded by the rake face.3 In Turning Operation 4. the geometry model of the cutting tool used in the two-dimensional heat transfer analysis is the section created by intersecting the center area with a surface perpendicular to the edge. 4. and the element label.3. and the surface of the central hole. At other nodes the initial temperature is set to room temperature.

Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting

67

frictional heat flux, reaches steady state in a short time once the chip gets into contact with the tool face and restores to the steady sliding velocity, while another component, the total conductive heat flux, is always decreasing within the entire analysis period. At the end of analysis, as the temperature of cutting tool and workpiece become steady, the decreasing rate is becoming lower and lower and approaching a steady value.
800000 600000 400000 200000 0 -200000 -400000 -600000 0,0000 0,0003 0,0006 0,0009 0,0012
Total conductive heat flux Total frictional heat flux Total Heat flux

Heat flux [mJ/s]

Time [s]

Fig. 4.2 Heat flux at tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface in steady-state chip formation analysis step Observation of nodal temperature of workpiece nodes at tool-chip interface shows that the variation of nodal temperature at the end of the analysis is very small, as shown in Fig. 4.3. Therefore thermal steady state is assumed in workpiece material at the interface. Then the nodal conductive heat flux can be converted from Eq. 4.1 into Eq. 4.3
q c = k θ ( A , t s ) − θ ( B ,t s ) + k θ ( B ,t s ) − θ B

(

) (

)

(4.3)

where

t s is the time point at the end of steady-state chip formation analysis. Because of the
above assumption about steady nodal temperature of workpiece node at interface,

θ ( A,t ) is equal to and replaces θ A . The first part k (θ ( A,t ) − θ ( B ,t ) ) is nodal conductive
s s s

heat flux, which can be obtained from the end of steady-state chip formation analysis. The second part is the variation of nodal conductive heat flux and it is dependent on

Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting

68

the difference in temperature between current nodal temperature and the temperature at the end of steady-state chip formation analysis.

N134 N133 N129 N128

N127

Fig. 4.3 Nodal temperature at selected workpiece nodes Therefore nodal total heat flux can be expressed by Eq. 4.4.
q t = qtrs + qtcs + k θ ( B ,t s ) − θ B

(

)

(4.4)

where

q t is the total nodal heat flux; q ct s stands for k θ ( A,t s ) − θ ( B ,t s ) ; q r t s is the nodal frictional heat flux; q ct s and q r t s do not change after importation. Based on Eq. 4.4, a temperaturedependent heat flux subroutine is developed for the heat transfer analysis. In addition, the tool makes heat transfer with the environment through rake face and flank face by heat convection and radiation. The nodes on bottom face and hole surface always keep room temperature because of their contact with the tool holder and the screw. 4.3.2 Results & Discussion When maximum temperature change of 10K between two times of incrementation of heat transfer analysis is defined as steady state criterion, steady state is reached in

(

)

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69

the whole tool in 2.2s.s Fig. 4.4 shows the progress of temperature at four selected nodes in the tool.

Node 48 Node 340

Node 436 Node 13

(a) Position of the selected nodes

(b) Temperature history

Fig. 4.4 Temperature history of nodes in the tool

(a) t=0s

(b) t=2.2s

Fig. 4.5 Temperature field (Kelvin) change of the tool in heat transfer analysis Fig. 4.5 shows that at the beginning of heat transfer analysis the high temperature region concentrates in a small area near the cutting edge, and after 2.2s this region extends to nearly one-third of the tool.

Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 70 4.1 On Workpiece 4. 4.4. It is composed of two parts. temperature distribution and heat transfer with the cutting tool in the second milling cycle. Fig. the actual workpiece is very huge comparing with the small part of workpiece used in the chip formation analysis. Part 2 is some additional workpiece material. 4. it is attached to the bottom of part 1.7(a) shows the temperature distribution at the beginning of heat transfer analysis.6 Geometry and mesh of the workpiece in heat transfer analysis The initial temperature of part 2 is set to room temperature. whether the workpiece can restore to room temperature affects the chip formation.4.1 Modelling Generally. Therefore the workpiece geometry is extended in the heat transfer analysis. Part 1 is the remaining workpiece geometry after the chip is cut away in the chip formation analysis. as shown in Fig. 4.1. .4 In Milling Operation Heat transfer analysis is performed for both the workpiece and the cutting tool. 4.6. Study on the development of temperature distribution in the cutting tool in multi milling cycles is important for the implementation of tool wear estimation. + part 1 part 2 = workpiece Fig. In the cooling phase of the first milling cycle. Nodal temperature at the end of previous chip formation analysis step is imported and defined as initial temperature of part 1.

σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. in addition to the heat conduction from cutting area to the whole workpiece bulk.e.5) q v is the heat flux due to convection. h is a reference film coefficient. Heat flux due to convection is calculated by q v = −h θ − θ 0 . room temperature. θ 0 is the sink temperature.6) q r is the heat flux due to radiation on a surface.m 2 . Heat flux due to radiation to the environment is governed by q r = εσ  θ − θ z   where ( ) − (θ 4 0 4 −θ z  .°C .7 Temperature field (in Celsuis) change of the workpiece in heat transfer During the cooling phase.   ) (4. unit J s. ε is the emissivity of the surface. θ is the temperature at a point on the surface. i.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 71 Heat emitted to environment due to co nvec tio n and r ad ia t io n Heat conduction in the material (a) t=0ms analysis (b) t=38. where ( ) (4. the workpiece cools down due to heat convection and radiation through boundary. .77ms Fig. 4.

8.8 Temperature history of workpiece nodes in heat transfer analysis step It is assumed that in the second milling cycle this small temperature variation in the workpiece has no big influence on material deformation.4.1. θ 0 is the ambient temperature. Observation on the temperature progress at several selected nodes shows that after the first milling cycle the temperature increment is smaller than 10K. θ z is the value of absolute zero on the temperature scale being used. 4.7(b) shows that after 38.2 Results & Discussion The heat transfer analysis covers the rest period of the first milling cycle after the chip formation analysis ends. 4.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 72 θ is the temperature at a point on the surface. Solutions obtained from the chip . 4. heat generation. 4. Fig.77ms of cooling. chip formation analysis result in the second milling cycle can be assumed similar to that in the first milling cycle. temperature distribution in the workpiece and tool-chip and tool-workpiece contact. The heat in the workpiece is emitted to the environment. Node 839 Node 638 Node 501 Node 550 Node 464 Node 2140 (a) Monitored nodes (b) Temperature progress at monitored nodes Fig. as shown in Fig. It is expected that if the influence of the temperature variation of the cutting tool is not considered. the entire workpiece restores nearly to room temperature. It is assumed that temperature increment of the workpiece in the real cutting experiment is smaller than the predicted because the huge workpiece used in reality supplies a higher heat capacity and a bigger boundary surface to emit the heat.

1 Modeling In the cooling phase of milling operation. fourth. This part will try to analyse the temperature variation of the tool with the accumulation of heat. Heat transfer analysis starts from the time when the chip formation analysis ends. frictional and conductive heat flux are time-dependent varying. . The two components of the total heat flux. the temperature of the tool will get an increment in the later milling cycle due to the remaining heat. Although the nodal total heat flux in the cutting phase is changing continuously from time to time. These data are written in the heat flux and temperature files. According to the same reasoning. The heat transfer analysis is performed in 8 milling cycles. in the simulation it is fixed spatial because the degree of freedom in the heat transfer analysis is limited only to temperature. it is possible to obtain the basic values of nodal frictional heat flux and nodal conductive heat flux from the chip formation analysis of the first milling cycle only at some discrete time points 0. Therefore solutions obtained from the chip formation analysis of the first milling cycle are used in the heat transfer analysis of the cutting tool in multi milling cycles and tool wear estimation. The heat flux value at other time point is obtained by performing interpolation. …. Frictional heat flux changes because of varying shear stress and sliding velocity caused by the change of chip thickness in milling operation. The tool geometry and mesh in chip formation analysis are inherited and used in the heat transfer analysis. …. Although the real cutting tool moves continuously with the rotation of the shaft. tj.4. they are useable in the third. the tool is heated in the cutting phase by the heat flux at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface. Conductive heat flux changes with the varying of difference in temperature between the tool and the workpiece at contact interface. tn.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 73 formation analysis in the first milling cycle can be used to the second milling cycle. t1. if the heat in the tool is not emitted completely to the environment by heat convection and heat radiation. 4.4. The temperature distribution at the end of the chip formation analysis is imported into the heat transfer analysis as initial conditions.2.2 On Tool 4. In every milling cycle. and further milling cycles.

j is the time point number. a heat flux subroutine DFLUX is designed to create timeand temperature-dependent nodal heat flux data. the nodal total heat flux is calculated by qic = 0. Based on these analyses. dqic dθ i is given the value –k. If the cutting tool is in the cooling phase. in order to improve the convergence rate during the solution of non-linear equations in an increment.5 × q (ti . When the nodal temperature of the cutting tool in the later milling cycles is higher than that in the first milling cycle due to the accumulation of heat. the current nodal total heat flux is set to zero. conductive heat flux is temperature dependent. k is the gap conductance. face number and integration point are entered as input variables.5 × θ (bi . the nodal conductive heat flux value will change due to the varying of the difference in temperature between the cutting tool and the chip or the workpiece. q t is the basic nodal total heat flux (the sum of the nodal frictional heat flux and the nodal conductional heat flux). . j −1) − θ i − 0. the interval and the two time points at the end of the interval is determined. θ is the current nodal temperature. θ b is the basic nodal temperature. the time.7) where q c is the current nodal total heat flux. Every time when the subroutine DFLUX is called. In addition. The subroutine first finds out the corresponding nodal label because only nodal label is used in the heat flux and temperature files. Then the basic nodal total heat flux and temperature values at all time points are read from the heat flux and temperature files. j ) + θ (bi . By finding out the remainder of the current time divided by the period of one milling cycle and comparing this remainder with the time points. j ) + q (ti . Otherwise when the tool is located between the time point j-1 and j.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 74 In addition. element number. j −1) × k ( ) ( ( )) (4. i is the nodal label. the rate of change of the current nodal total heat flux with respect to the temperature.

4.4. the gap conductance is set to zero.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 75 The gap conductance in the heat transfer analysis is 10000 when the tool face node is in contact with the chip and the workpiece. It is similar to the value used in the chip formation analysis. (a) At the end of chip formation analysis (b) After 4 milling cycles . The high temperature region is widening as the milling process continues. forth and eighth milling cycle. Considering the movement of the tool.3ms in the first.9 shows the temperature distribution of the cutting tool when it cuts out of the workpiece 0. The contact status of the tool face node at a time point is derived from the value of normal pressure at the corresponding time point in chip formation analysis of the first milling cycle. 4.2. When the tool face node has no contact with the chip and the workpiece. a high reference film coefficient is defined in the model.2 Results & Discussion Fig.

4.10 and Fig.9 Temperature field (in Kelvin) progress of the tool in heat transfer analysis Fig.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 76 (c) After 8 milling cycles Fig. 4. 4.11 show the variation of nodal temperature in the cutting tool in more than 8 milling cycles. Both the peak and valley value are increasing with the cutting process continuing. Node4 Node42 Node35 Node39 Node57 (a) Position of the selected nodes (b) The temperature history of the nodes Fig. 4. The valley value appears when the cutting tool is going to enter into the workpiece.10 the nodal temperature at the tool face nodes on the too-chip and toolworkpiece contact interface increases in cutting phase and decreases in cooling phase. The peak value of temperature in every milling cycle appears when the cutting tool is cutting out of the workpiece. but the increments are decreasing and the increment of the peak value is smaller than 1K after every milling cycle while the increment of .10 Progress of nodal temperature on the tool face In Fig. 4. including both chip formation analysis step and heat transfer analysis step.

11 Progress of nodal temperature inside the tool Both the nodal temperature of nodes inside the tool and on the tool face shows that cyclical thermal balance state is not attained in the first 9 milling cycle and heat gain is greater than heat loss in every milling cycle. In the last milling cycle. the whole cutting tool is preheated beforehand by . nodal temperature increases in cutting phase and decreases in cooling phase. It is very difficult to analyse the cyclical thermal balance by only manually adding more milling cycles in heat transfer model file because the number of milling cycles to reach cyclical thermal balance state is unknown. Higher temperature is expected in the further milling cycles.2. N127 N135 N210 N13 N3 (a) Position of the selected nodes (b) The temperature history of the nodes Fig.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 77 the valley value is much great.11. 4. 4. Inside the cutting tool a different progress tendency of nodal temperature is observed. At the nodes close to the cutting area. for examples N210 and N3 in Fig.3 Application Of Preheated Cutting Tool According to the analysis above. 4. nodal temperature is always increasing during the entire milling cycles. At the nodes far from the cutting area.5K. When heat loss becomes equal to heat gain. In order to reduce the number of milling cycles to reach cyclical thermal balance state and speed up the calculation process. the peak value can be assumed to become steady because the increment is smaller than 0. tool temperature increases due to accumulation of remaining heat. Heat loss increases with the tool temperature. whereas the increment of the valley value is still greater than 5K. cyclical thermal balance state is attained.4.

In Fig. (a) (b) Fig. 4. At the farthest nodes away from the cutting area. then it is used in the milling process. milling process is analysed by performing only heat transfer analysis. no heat conduction takes place in the vicinity of these nodes. Because at present only tool temperature is concerned. After a time of cutting. the workpiece material in the vicinity is heated by the heat .Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 78 defining a high initial temperature. 4. node 3 and node 210. temperature decreases first and then increases again. valley value of nodal temperature appears at the time when the tool comes into contact with the workpiece instead of before the contact takes place. Analysis 1: Preheated to 600K In this analysis. these nodes are located at the boundary. the cutting tool is preheated to 600K. heat convection to the environment makes the temperature decrease. Nodal temperature at the same tool nodes as in the former heat transfer analysis is observed. The explanation is that at the beginning of the analysis the entire workpiece has a same temperature value. nodal temperature on the tool face and inside the tool is increasing after every milling cycle. for example N4 and N42.12 Preheated to 600K (a) The temperature history of the nodes inside the tool (b) The temperature history of the nodes on the tool face At the nodes on tool-chip interface. This is explained by the heat conduction between the tool with higher temperature and the workpiece with room temperature. but the increment is smaller than that in the former analysis. for example.12. Only 8 milling cycles are included in the heat transfer analysis.

when the cutting tool is heated to a temperature between 700k and 600K. (a) (b) Fig. when the tool preheated to 600K is used in milling operation.13. 4. In Fig.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 79 generated in the cutting process and these nodes are heated because of heat conduction. 4. cyclical thermal balance state is expected to .13 Preheated to 700K (a) The temperature history of the nodes inside the tool (b) The temperature history of the nodes on the tool face Analysis 3: Preheated to 650K According to analysis 1 and analysis 2. At node 3 and node 210. Therefore. in this analysis. The analysis shows that cyclical thermal balance state is not attained in the 8 milling cycles because the workpiece is heated too high and heat loss is greater than heat gain in every milling cycle. nodal temperature on the tool face and inside the tool is decreasing after every milling cycle and the decreasing rate is comparable to the increasing rate in analysis 1. temperature decreases in the entire 8 milling cycles. tool temperature increases still and no cyclical thermal balance state is attained. Nodal temperature at the same tool nodes is observed. Higher tool temperature is expected in cyclical thermal balance state. the cutting tool is preheated to 700K. Analysis 2: Preheated to 700K According to analysis 1.

When the cutting tool move to the same position in the 7th and the 8th milling cycle. Therefore. it can be assumed that cyclical thermal balance state is realized in the 8th milling cycle.1K. in this analysis. . In Fig.Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 80 realize in the first 8 milling cycle.14 Preheated to 650K (a) The temperature history of the nodes inside the tool (b) The temperature history of the nodes on the tool face Nodal temperature is monitored at the same tool nodes.14. Therefore. 4. nodal temperature on the tool face and inside the tool is approaching cyclical thermal balance state. the maximum difference in temperature at the same node is smaller than 0. (a) (a) (b) (b) Fig. 4. the cutting tool is preheated to 650K.

Heat Transfer Analysis In Metal Cutting 81 4. the cyclical thermal balance state is analysed. In milling operation. the heat transfer analysis is performed for the cutting tool for several milling cycle. . In turning operation. the heat transfer analysis is performed for the cutting tool until the thermal steady state is reached. By using preheated cutting tool in the heat transfer analysis. By introducing the heat flux and temperature distribution from the chip formation analysis output file and using user-developed heat flux subroutines.5 Summaries & Conclusion ABAQUS/Standard is effective in heat transfer analysis. thermal steady state in the turning operation and cyclical thermal balance state are analysed.

performs tool wear calculation and modifies the related model files according to the calculated tool wear. In this chapter.1 shows the flow chart of the tool wear calculation program. Base on the obtained experience.2 Tool Wear Calculation Program Design Fig. tool wear in milling operation. the more complex modelling problem. It is performed with a tool wear estimation program. 5. Tuning operation is characterized by continuous cutting process. The program is designed to perform tool wear calculation automatically cycle by cycle until a tool reshape criterion is reached. Tool wear calculation can be simplified by assuming that tool wear is created completely by the steady state cutting process and neglecting the effect of entrance and exit phase. chip formation and heat transfer analysis jobs are submitted to analyse the steady-state cutting process and obtain the cutting process variable values necessary for the calculation of wear rate . accesses the created result and output database files once the analysis jobs are finished.1 Introduction The following two chapters will describe the modelling of progressive tool wear in turning and milling operation by developing user program with programming language Python and integrating it with commercial FEM code ABAQUS/Explicit and ABAQUS/Standard. In every calculation cycle. the study will focus on the modelling of tool wear in turning operation. In continuous cutting process. will be studied in the next chapter. and various cutting process variables will have no great change and steady state can be assumed. By integrating tool wear mathematical model with the finite element steady-state cutting analysis. if the effects of tool wear and uneven distributions of workpiece material are neglected. All the tool wear simulation models will be developed for two-dimension. Solution to the problems met in 2D modelling will be helpful for the implementation of 3D modelling in the future. cutting thickness. chip shape. 5.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 82 Chapter 5 Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 5. The program controls the submission of chip formation and heat transfer analysis jobs. the entrance and exit of cutting tool takes place infrequently and takes only a short time. monitors their analysis process. tool wear estimation is implemented.

and the tool geometry is updated according to the calculated nodal displacement.5. Based on the calculated nodal wear rate. a suitable cutting time increment is searched by program according to a user-specified VB increment value. a second tool wear calculation cycle starts with the updated tool geometry. Start Chip formation analysis Heat transfer analysis Next calculation cycle Nodal wear rate calculation Nodal displacement calculateion Cutting time increment calculation Tool geometry updating No VB>=VBmax? Yes End Fig.3 Modeling Procedure During the explanation of the entire modelling procedure. Nodal wear rate is calculated by using the tool wear mathematical model. the tool wear under the same cutting condition as in the chip formation simulation of turning operation is estimated. . Then the nodal displacement due to wear in the cutting time increment is calculated at every tool face node.1 Flow chart of tool wear calculation program 5.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 83 at steady state. If the produced flank wear VB is smaller than the user-defined tool reshape criterion VBmax.

5. Fig. therefore the normal pressure drops to zero. At the tool tip area.3.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 5. 5.2 Sliding Velocity In Fig.1 Normal Pressure Fig. Therefore the sliding velocity becomes zero. Then the distribution exhibits a plateau of high stress near the tool.2 Normal pressure of the tool face nodes at tool-chip interface at steady state 5. as observed by Childs and Mahdi [Chil-89] when turning mild steel.3.3(a) workpiece nodes in the tool tip area have negative relative sliding velocities.3.1. This means that they are flowing into machined surface.5.1. At the distance of about 0. 5.1 Chip Formation And Heat Transfer Analysis 84 Chip formation analysis provides the mechanical variables at steady state and the thermal variables at steady state are predicted by heat transfer analysis.35mm. Beyond the feed distance. the normal pressure drop off sharply. The nodes that are more than 0. . the chip loses contact with the tool face. as designed by ABAQUS [ABA-01a].02mm away from the tool tip are moving out of cutting area with the chip.35. There is no contact between the chip and the tool face in the area beyond the distance of 0. the normal pressure has the maximum value.2 shows the variation of normal pressure at the tool face nodes along the toolchip interface at the end of chip formation analysis.

yi+1) Else: v sj = vis + j x i +1 − x i s i +1 − vis Workpiece (b) Calculation of sliding velocity at the position of tool face nodes Fig.3 Calculation of sliding velocity at the position of tool face nodes Only sliding velocities at the position of workpiece nodes can be obtained directly from the simulation. Every tool face nodes in contact has two neighbouring workpiece nodes before and after it. it is necessary to know the sliding velocity value of workpiece material at the position of tool face nodes. The calculation is performed based on their position relationship. 1e6Mpa.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 85 (a) Sliding velocity at the workpiece nodes at steady state Workpiece node i (xi. 5. Not all the tool face nodes and workpiece nodes are in contact.3(b). . yi) If y i − y i +1 ≥ xi − xi +1 v sj = vis + Tool face node j (xj. Then they are arranged in counter-clockwise order. But when calculating nodal wear rate. for example. as shown in Fig. 5. First all the tool face nodes and workpiece nodes in contact are found out depending on whether the absolute values of their normal pressure are greater than a critical value. yj) Tool : (y (x j − yi ) y i +1 − y i − xi ) (v (v s i +1 − vis ) ) Workpiece node i+1 (xi+1.

is employed in the calculation.1. The latter one is adopted in this paper.4 Temperature of tool face node at steady state 5.3 Nodal Move Direction Tool wear expression in geometry can be realized with two approaches: element deletion and nodal movement. 5. wear rate at the position of every tool face node is calculated by using wear mathematical model.3. Fig.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 86 5. High temperature forms at the tool tip and a distance from the tool tip on rake face. 5. described in Chapter 1. tool temperature and normal pressure at every tool face node are obtained. the flank wear and crater wear are assumed to be created mainly by abrasive wear and adhesive wear.3. Usui’s model. sliding velocity of the workpiece material. The nodal move direction is calculated at every tool face node. Because at low cutting speed.3.3 Tool Temperature Temperature of the tool face nodes at thermal steady state is obtained from heat transfer analysis. .2 Wear Rate Calculation After the cutting process variables. as shown in Fig. 5.2.4. The constants in Usui’s equation for the combination of carbide cutting tool and mild steel are shown in Table 1.

After one searching cycle. all the tool face nodes are found out and arranged in counter clock-wise order in a list. Any node. On every tool face segment the sliding velocity is along the tangential direction. 5. Points on the face segment should move along the negative normal direction. 5. . as shown in Fig. the circled node in Fig.1 Dividing Node 87 Before calculating the nodal move direction. whose y coordinate is smaller than the current dividing node by 2e-4mm.3. Every tool face node is attached with two tool face segments. Before searching. It has the minimum y-coordinate.5 is searched by the program. will become the new dividing node.3. Then the current dividing node is compared with all the tool face nodes.3. It divides the entire tool face into flank face and rake face.3. On flank face and rake face nodal move direction is calculated with different methods.2 On Rake Face In the rake face part nodal move direction is assumed to be perpendicular to the relative sliding velocity of the workpiece material and pointed into the tool body. It moves along the negative direction of the average unit normal vector of the two face segments or the negative direction of their resultant vector. a dividing node. It is saved as the tool edge position for the latter calculation of flank wear land width.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 5. The first tool face node in the list is given to the dividing node. 5.5. Tool face node belongs to two face segments. the real dividing node is found out.

1) Fig. . nodal move direction Dk = (0.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 88 Rake face part Node i (xi. nodal move direction Di is calculated by r  yi +1 − yi nj =   ( x − x )2 + ( y − y )2 i +1 i  i +1 i ( ) ((x . 5.yi+1) Dividing node Flank face part r On rake face. r Every nodal move direction is normalized to unit vector D( i . Therefore all the nodes in this part have the same nodal move direction. 12 i +1 − xi ) + ( yi +1 − yi ) 2 xi − xi +1 2 )   12    r yi + 2 − yi +1 n j +1 =   ( x − x )2 + ( y − y )2 i+2 i +1  i + 2 i +1 ( ) ((x . It is in ydirection and pointed upwards.3 On Flank Face In the flank face part the relative sliding velocity can be assumed to be in the cutting speed direction when the elastic recovery of workpiece material is neglected. where subscript i is nodal label. 12 i+2 − xi +1 ) + ( yi + 2 − yi +1 ) 2 xi +1 − xi + 2 2 )   12   r r r nir = n j + n j +1 r r r Di = − nir nir r On flank face.5 Nodal move directions (thick arrows) of tool face nodes 5.yi+1) r nj r n j +1 Node k n2 Face segment j+1 Node i+1 (xi+1. j ) .yi) Face segment j Node i+1 (xi+1.3.3. j is the calculation cycle number.

for example. In order to reach tool reshape criterion. many calculation cycles have to be performed.4 Cutting Time Increment Calculation 89 In metal cutting experiment cutting time increment means the duration of cutting time between two successive measurements of tool wear. But if the cutting time increment is too small.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 5. Therefore a suitable cutting time increment should be given. But when there is no knowledge about the tool wear in the simulated cutting conditions. Therefore a searching module is designed to carry out the searching work. Therefore. wearrate) VB2 VB 0. wearrate) . VB [mm] Flankwear (∆t . But it is easier for the user to specify a tool wear increment. In the simulation the calculation of tool wear and the tool geometry updating are based on a certain cutting time increment.10 VB1 VB0 VB 0.3. 5.6 Flank wear calculation and cutting time increment searching process . it is difficult to define a suitable value. Flankwear (∆t . is called frequently. Since the nodal wear rate is already known. it is very time-consuming. if a big cutting time increment is specified. in which the specified tool wear increment is produced. when novel workpiece material is machined. a flank wear calculation subroutine. Within the cutting time increment an unchanged nodal wear rate value is used to calculate the tool wear.05 Aimed VB value range Example of a wear curve a1 b1 c1 Edge a b c position d ∆t 0 ∆t1 ∆t ∆t 2 Time [s] (a) Flank wear calculation (b) Cutting time increment searching process Fig. can be searched by program. While the suitable cutting time increment is being searched. The chip formation analysis is carried out in every calculation cycle. a big error will be created during the calculation of tool wear. the cutting time increment. only small tool wear increment is produced in every calculation cycle.

But in practice the wear process is continuous.6(b).3. it should move to point a1. the aimed VB value should be given a permitted error range. 5.2 Cutting Time Increment Searching Procedure The cutting time increment searching procedure can be described by Fig. e.g. Then the searching process starts. VB is the distance from the cutting edge position (which has been saved) to the last moved tool face node.1 Flank Wear Calculation Subroutine 90 The flank wear calculation subroutine Flankwear (∆t . In addition. Therefore in this tool wear calculation cycle. 5.4. For example. VB is calculated from the cutting edge position to node c.4. a positive initial cutting time increment value ∆t 0 is given arbitrarily.3.6(a). then node b and c will have smaller y-values than point a1. they are also worn away and no bulge is formed. in Fig. 5. ∆VB = 0.1mm. node a is the last tool face node with non-zero wear rate.05mm is specified by the user. In order to save the searching time. During the searching process. For example. the dotted range in Fig. Once node b or c comes into contact with workpiece material due to wear of the cutting edge. wearrate) calculates flank wear land width VB. because it is the last moved tool face node. the searching lower limit ∆t1 and the searching upper limit ∆t2 are changing until the calculated tool wear VB value under the cutting time increment ∆t falls into the aimed VB value range. Therefore node b and c should move to point b1 and c1 in order to have the same y-value with point a1. the tool gets a flank wear land width of 0.05mm from the previous tool wear calculation cycle. 5.6(b). At the beginning the aimed VB median value VBm is calculated according to the userspecified VB increment value.7. in Fig. . 5. and a bulge will be formed on the flank face.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 5. VBm is 0. In cutting time increment ∆t .

j ) = w(i .5 Nodal Displacement Nodal displacement due to wear is calculated at every tool face node by r r & w( i . 5.3. initial value ∆t0. j ) where r w is the nodal displacement vector. i is nodal label. permitted error δ Cutting time increment ∆t. calculate the current error. error=VB.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 91 Start VBm.wearrate) to calculated the current flank wear VB.1) .7 Flow chart of cutting time increment searching procedure 5. j ) ⋅ ∆t j ⋅ D(i .VBm ∆t=2∆t No |error|<=δ? Yes ∆t2>∆t 1? ∆t2=∆t No No error<-δ? Yes Yes ∆t1=∆t Current cutting time increment ∆t is output End Fig. (5. the searching lower limit ∆t1 and the searching upper limit ∆t2 are set to ∆t 0 ∆t=(∆t1+∆t2)/2 Call subroutine Flankwear(∆t.

3.9(b).8. tool geometry updating is performed. marked with small triangles in Fig. 5. some nodes on flank face must be moved in order to avoid forming bulge on flank face. including the nodes on rake face and flank face.3. It is accomplished with two steps. After the first step. Every time the tool face node is moved a very small distance. are fixed spatial.8. In the following part. an initial tool wear profile appears on the cutting tool. 5. the circled nodes in Fig.6 Tool Geometry Updating In order to visualize the tool wear profile and prepare tool geometry model for the next tool wear calculation cycle. are moved according to the calculated nodal displacement. 5. In these two steps nodes on the tool bottom surface. . volume smoothing is employed because of the robustness. as mentioned above. Remeshing improves mesh distortion and enables additional nodal movement of the tool face nodes in the next times. as shown in Fig. 5. 5. Then the mesh inside the tool is remeshed with one of the smoothing methods: volume smoothing. The entire movement is accomplished several times. 92 In addition.1 Step 1: Initial Tool Wear Profile In the first step the tool face nodes. or their combination.6. Laplacian smoothing and equipotential smoothing.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation j is tool wear calculation cycle number.

zone B in Fig.2 Step 2: Adjustment Because of the contact problem on the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface caused by the coarsened workpiece mesh in chip formation analysis.g. the mesh inside the cutting tool has been remeshed many times in step 1. zone A in Fig.9(b). 5. 5.3. .8 Boundary conditions in step 1 of tool geometry updating model 5. the predicted distributions of cutting process variables along the tool face often contain ‘vibration’. But the tool face nodes are moved according to the calculated nodal displacement without any additional adjustment of nodal position.9(b). 5. Sometime very fine mesh is formed in the cutting edge area.6. These results in zigzags of the initial tool wear profile.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 93 Tool bottom Rake face Tool bottom Flank face Fig. The final tool wear profile and tool geometry is produced by step 2. they make tool geometry updating in the next calculation cycle difficult because negative element areas may be created by the nodal displacement due to additional produced tool wear. zigzags of the crater wear profile are smoothened and the mesh near the cutting edge is coarsened. In addition. e. The tool geometry model file is updated according to the produced result in step 2.9(c) shows that in the second step. Fig. for example. 5.

02mm. zigzags of the crater wear are smoothened. 5.9 Changes of the mesh during tool updating steps (a) The tool geometry and mesh at the beginning of step 1 (b) At the end of step 1.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 94 (a) Zone A Zone B (b) (c) Fig.10(d). the new tool in Fig. and tool wear increment ∆VB = 0. 5.15mm. tool wear progress under the same turning cutting conditions as described in Table 3. . 5. After the first calculation cycle.4.10(b) is updated to the worn tool in Fig. 5.10(c).4 Results & Discussion 5. After the second calculation cycle.05mm is specified by user. 5.1 Tool Wear With this tool wear estimation program. crater wear and flank wear are formed (c) At the end of step 2.1 is calculated. The tool wear estimation process is accomplished with three tool wear calculation cycles. permitted error δ in the cutting time increment searching process is set to 0. Tool reshape criterion is set to 0. increased crater wear and flank wear can be found on the updated tool in Fig. nodes on the tool face are moved according to the calculated nodal displacement.

06 0.15 0.05 M easured Crater wear depth [mm] M easured Est imat ed Est imat ed 0 0 50 100 t [s] 150 0 50 100 t [s] 150 200 (a) Flank wear (b) Crater wear Fig.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 95 t=187s t=46s t=0s t=5s (a) (b) t=0s (c) t=5s (d) t=46s (e) t=187s Fig.11 Comparison between estimated and experimental progress curves for tool wear (under cutting condition: vc=300m/min. The dot .1 0. f=0. 5.11 shows the wear progress curves of flank wear and crater wear obtained from experiment [Schm-02] under the same cutting condition.04 0.1 0.10 Tool wear profile progress 0. ap=2mm.145mm/r) The solid line in Fig. 5.02 0 200 Flank wear width VB [mm] 0.2 0. 5.08 0.

14mm and crater wear 0. the flank wear has exceeded 0. In the chip formation analysis. after 20s of cutting. It was tested by Kitagawa et al that the content and size of abrasive particle dispersed in workpiece material and chemical composition of tool material could be correlated with change in the constants of the wear characteristic equation both in higher and lower temperature ranges [Kita-88]. In order to improve the prediction. It is observed that the temperature on flank wear drops off to a low value.11. Coulomb’s friction model is adopted and a constant coefficient of friction 0. 5.3. It is found that the estimated flank wear and crater wear are smaller than experimental ones. the wear rate on flank face decreases more than that on rake face.3 is used in the whole tool wear estimation process. maybe on the flank wear face. • contact problem between flank wear and the workpiece. after a certain tool wear is formed. • inconsistentness of material combination. while after 187s. From Fig. In order to improve the contact. some nodes should be adjusted to form a small negative flank angle.08mm. both wear rate on flank face and on rake face are decreasing. the coefficient of friction should be calculated according to the cutting force and tool geometry or with a more reliable method. This may be caused by the poor contact between flank wear and the workpiece.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 96 lines are predicted tool wear curves. According to the verification of chip formation analysis in continuous chip formation. it is expected that in the later tool wear estimation. Because the characteristic equation of tool wear and the tool wear data come from different literatures and researchers. the predicted cutting force and thrust force are smaller than the experimental data by about 15% and 35% when the coefficient of friction is set to 0.15mm and crater wear 0. This maybe means that the predicted variables for the calculation of tool wear have error as well. The discrepancy may be caused by: • the simplified and low coefficient of friction.06mm. it is unavoidable that difference exist in these tool and workpiece material’s chemical composition and structure. Therefore chip formation modeling is very important for the accuracy of tool wear estimation. . In experiment. the estimated flank wear just arrives at 0.

(2) The Python user program runs automatically until a tool reshape criterion is reached. A trade-off value should be found. regenerate workpiece model when chip shape has a great change due to tool geometry change caused by serious tool wear and some modification of the flank wear shape in order to improve the contact between flank wear and workpiece material.5 Summaries & Conclusion In this chapter 2-D tool wear estimation in orthogonal cutting of turning operation is implemented by integrating ABAQUS/Explicit and ABAQUS/Standard with Python user-program. which certainly will bring bigger errors in estimated result. Because of the huge calculation time and cost of chip formation analysis. further mesh control. (3) In order to improve the estimate result and realize tool wear estimation in quantity. Finally tool geometry is updated according to the calculated nodal displacements and one calculation cycle is finished. The number of calculation cycles carried on before Python user program stop is defined by dividing tool reshape criterion by the specified wear increment. Then displacement of every tool face node due to wear is calculated by calculating nodal wear rate at steady state. . a bigger wear increment is preferred in order to reduce the calculation cycle number. searching a suitable cutting time increment by program and nodal displacement calculation. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) Python user program launches chip formation and heat transfer analysis job automatically every time the new value about cutting process variables at steady state are needed. more efforts should be made in several aspects: more reasonable frictional modelling.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Turning Operation 97 5.

1 Feature of milling operation Although milling operation has no steady state. temperature.1. the cutting insert cuts away a layer of workpiece material and then cools down in the environment. According to metal cutting theory. For example. In every rotation/milling cycle. Therefore they change with the tool engage angle and so does nodal wear rate. fz Cooling phase w Tool Node i vf Workpiece Cutting phase tk+1 tk Fig.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 98 Chapter 6 Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 6. the cutting process possesses periodicity. uneven distribution of the workpiece material. If the effect of tool wear. 6. mechanical variables in one milling cycle can be assumed to be repeated in other milling cycles because of the same cutting path of the cutting insert . etc are related with the cutting thickness. workpiece moves in feed direction. At the exit the cutting thickness becomes zero. etc are neglected. nearly all the cutting process variables or solutions. cutting thickness has the maximum value when the cutting insert advances into the workpiece. cutting thickness varies with tool engage angle. strain. stress.1 Introduction Cutting action in milling operation is different from turning operation. in the down milling operation in Fig. Therefore every milling cycle comprises cutting phase and cooling phase. Then the cutting thickness decreases continuously. In the cutting phase. 6. With the cutting tool rotating.

the tool temperature obtained in one milling cycle can stand for that in other milling cycle only when the cyclical thermal balance state (heat loss is equal to heat gain per cycle) is attained. normal pressure on tool face and relative sliding velocity of workpiece material on the tool face. Periodicity of cutting action and the existence of the cyclical thermal balance state enable the implementation of tool wear estimation in milling operation. The tool wear is mainly decided by the cyclical thermal balance state.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 99 and the same change of undeformed chip thickness. obtained from the first milling cycle can stand for those from all other milling cycles. a lower estimated value of the tool wear is expected. The tool temperature obtained in one of these milling cycles is always lower than that in the milling cycle of the cyclical thermal balance state. Mechanical cutting process variables. If the tool wear is calculated according to the tool temperature in a milling cycle before the thermal balance state is reached. . 6. Therefore the implementation of tool wear estimation in milling operation can be simplified by calculating nodal average wear rate per cycle in one milling cycle of cyclical thermal balance state and then using it in other milling cycles.2 shows the flow chart of the tool wear calculation program. the cyclical thermal balance state dominates the entire cutting process. 6. tool wear and nodal average wear rate per cycle do not change from cycle to cycle. heat loss is smaller than heat gain per milling cycle and the tool temperature increased after each milling cycle.2 Tool Wear Calculation Program Design Fig. Once cyclical thermal balance state is attained. As tool temperature is concerned. Before the cyclical thermal balance state is reached. In the milling operation with a long continuous milling path.

Then nodal displacement due to wear produced in the cutting time increment is calculated and the tool geometry updating aims at forming the tool wear profile on the tool face. a suitable cutting time increment value is searched according to a user-specified VB increment value. then the nodal average wear rate is calculated according to these nodal wear rate at the selected time points. chip formation and heat transfer analysis are performed to predict the cutting process variables. The nodal wear rate is time-dependent and calculated at some selected time points of one milling cycle. According to the above discussion on milling features. which are necessary for the wear rate calculation. Based on the calculated nodal average wear rate.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 100 Start Chip formation analysis Heat transfer analysis Next calculation cycle Nodal average wear rate per cycle Nodal displacement calculation Cutting time increment calculation Tool geometry updating No VB>=VBmax? Yes End Fig. mechanical variables can be obtained from the first milling cycle and the heat transfer analysis helps to decide from which milling cycle tool temperature is read for the calculation of nodal wear rate. 6. If the produced flank wear VB is smaller .2 Flow chart of the tool wear calculation program The tool wear calculation program is designed to perform tool wear calculation automatically cycle by cycle until a tool reshape criterion is reached. In every calculation cycle.

6.1 Chip Formation Analysis Chip formation analysis aims at obtaining the mechanical variables for the calculation of nodal wear rate. finite element analysis of chip formation process is performed by advancing the time with small time increments. 6. sliding velocity at the position of tool face nodes are calculated at the time point when the calculation of nodal wear rate is required. Other nodes are flowing out with the chip at increasing sliding velocity.3. chip formation analysis covering the entire cutting phase is necessary and enough for the calculation of wear rate. Hence the time for outputting the variables is discontinuous. the tool wear under the same cutting condition as described in Table 3. high frequency of variables outputting will result in a large output database file and increase the amount of calculation in the tool wear estimation. sliding velocity of workpiece material and normal pressure on tool face. Because tool wear takes place only in cutting phase and there is no tool wear created in cooling phase. . Furthermore. During the cutting phase. But with explicit method.1ms. mechanical variables are varying from time to time. even some nodes flow towards the machined surface before material failure takes place. Fig.3(b) shows the sliding velocity at the time when the cutting tool engaging into the workpiece 0. The mechanical variables. a second calculation cycle will start with the updated tool geometry. For example. Therefore the frequency of mechanical variables output should be decided by making a compromise between calculation accuracy and calculation cost. According to the sliding velocity at the position of workpiece nodes. At the tool tip sliding velocity is very small. are required during the calculation of wear rate.2 is estimated. Sliding velocity is available at the workpiece node.3 Modeling Procedure During the explanation of the entire modelling procedure.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 101 than the user-defined tool reshape criterion VBmax. 6.

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 102 (a) The cutting at 0. 6. From tool tip to the separation point of the chip and tool normal pressure is decreasing.4 Normal pressure on the tool face at the time of 0. For example. 6. Fig. Fig.100ms 0.100ms Fig. 6.100ms (b) At t=0.3 Relative sliding velocity of workpiece material on the tool face at the time of Normal pressure at the position of tool face node can be obtained directly. No plateau is observed in the entire tool-chip contact area as in turning operation.100ms .1ms.4 shows the normal pressure at the time of 0.

the temperature has a relative small increment. 6.5 Tool temperature at the tool face nodes after the cutting insert advancing into the workpiece 0.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 6.5 shows the nodal temperature on the tool-chip interface at the time when the tool is engaging into the workpiece 0. 6. which is obtained from the last milling cycle of heat transfer analysis of the tool preheated to 650K.1 Discussion About The Calculation Method Of Nodal Average Wear Rate . Fig. nodal temperature at tool face has a jump.3 Nodal Average Wear Rate Calculation Usui’s model is employed in the calculation of nodal wear rate at a certain time. while from the ninth to cyclical thermal balance cycle.3.3. It is found that from the first to the ninth milling cycle.3. the tool temperature at the tool face nodes increase after every milling cycle until cyclical thermal balance state is reached. 6. The tool temperature in the cyclical thermal balance state is read for the calculation of tool wear.2. The wear characteristic constants in Usui’s equation for the combination of carbide cutting tool and mild steel are shown in Table 1. Fig.1ms 6.3.1ms in three selected milling cycles. the ninth and cyclical thermal balance cycle. The selected milling cycle are the first.2 Heat Transfer Analysis 103 According to the heat transfer analysis.

nodal wear rate is equal to zero and no wear produced.k ) & + w( i . In the cutting phase. j is the milling cycle number. & w(t ) is nodal wear rate.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 104 Nodal wear rate varies with the cutting time. In the real calculation.27ms. & At present it is very difficult to get the function of nodal wear rate w( i . i is the nodal label. j ) (t ) . But nodal wear rate values at some discrete time points can be obtained by sampling cutting process variables during chip formation and heat transfer analysis and then calculating the individual nodal wear rate values.6.1) where & w is the nodal average wear rate. j ) = t0 & ∫ w (t )dt (i . For example. j . the whole milling cycle may take about 39. (6. 6. k is the time point number.k +1) ) ⋅ (t k +1 − t k ) ⋅ Ζ 1 2 (6. an approximate nodal average wear rate can be calculated by the following equation. as shown in Fig. sampling of cutting process variables and the calculation of nodal wear rate are not performed in the entire milling cycle because no wear takes place in cooling phase. & w( i . j ) Ζ . Nodal average wear rate is calculated by t0 + Ζ & w( i . j . In cooling phase. tool wear takes place under the contact of the tool with the workpiece. Based on these nodal wear rate values.2ms of every milling . nodal wear rate is calculated at every time point. j ) = & ∑ (w n 1 (i . but the cutting phase only takes place in the first 0. Ζ is the time span of one milling cycle.2) where n means that the entire milling cycle is divided into n-1 small portions by n evenly spaced time points.

During the calculation of nodal average wear rate.2. Since in milling operation shear failure criterion is defined in the whole workpiece. workpiece nodes. which have possibility of getting contact with the tool face. the mechanical variables sliding velocity and normal pressure are read only at sampling time points 0. 6.k +1) & w(i . 0.k ) & w(i . the meaning of n becomes the number of time points dividing the period of chip formation analysis.5ms in the chip formation analysis. Tool temperature values are read at the corresponding time points 0. j .05. are fixed on several nodes on the chip underside.3. the chip formation analysis includes the whole cutting phase and 0.27ms is not considered. Average nodal wear rate calculation is performed only at these time points.3. … 0.025. According to Chapter 4. 6. 6. j .5ms to 39. j ) (t ) tk tk+1 Cutting time t [s] Cutting phase Cooling phase Cooling phase Fig.025. some nodes not on the moving path of the cutting edge may be exposed due to .6 Calculation of nodal average wear rate Then in Eq.2 Classification Of Workpiece Node The sliding velocity of workpiece material at the position of tool face nodes are calculated using the same method explained in Chapter 5.3ms of cooling phase in the first milling cycle. Nodal wear rate of node i & w(i . 0.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 105 cycle. The part of cooling phase from 0. … and 0. Only these nodes are considered during the calculation. Chip formation modelling in turning operation is different from milling operation.5ms of the selected milling cycle of heat transfer analysis.05. In turning operation.

includes the nodes still inside the workpiece. including the nodes exposed on the surface. 6. they only increase the calculation time. Therefore a large number of workpiece nodes have to be considered. called inner node.7 Classification of workpiece node Node type is judged by considering the number of the attached elements and the deleted elements of a node.7. 6. N deleted ≠ 0 N  attached = N deleted . In order to calculate the sliding velocity correctly and efficiently. free node. Node 893 is included in the third type. which consists of the nodes lose connection with the workpiece body because all the attached elements are removal. Node 411 in Fig.3) . The attached element is deleted or removed as it reaches the shear failure criterion. Node 411 Node 893 Node 343 Fig. surface node. When free nodes get contact with the tool face. Node 343 belongs to the second type. Free node (6. The first type. Every node is attached to several elements. for example. workpiece nodes considered are classified into three types. Because inner nodes have no contact with the tool face. N deleted ≠ 0 Inner node Surface node . The type of a node is decided by:  N deleted = 0   N attached > N deleted . Hence only surface nodes join in the calculation of relative sliding velocity. The number of the deleted elements is denoted as Ndelete. The number of the attached elements is denoted as Nattached. they will introduce calculation error.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 106 element removal and get contact with the tool face.

6. for example at the beginning of one milling cycle.8 Calculation of nodal move direction . the dividing node is defined according to the distance between tool face nodes and the rotation centre. Nodal move direction is calculated with different methods on the rake face and flank face. Instead of comparing the y-coordinate of every tool face node.3. Then every tool face node is compared with the current dividing node one by one in counterclockwise order. Dividing node vs Flank face part Rake face part vs vs n vs vs vs vs Fig.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 6. at the beginning a dividing node that divides the entire tool face into rake face and flank face is searched. At the beginning of the search. the first tool face node (the tool face nodes are arranged in counter-clockwise order in advance) is given to the dividing node.4 Nodal Move Direction 107 In milling operation. position of every tool face segment and its normal direction are varying with the rotation of the cutting tool.3.4. 6. 6.1 Dividing Node Similar to the calculation of nodal move direction in turning operation. as shown in Fig. Any tool face node whose distance to the rotation center is greater than that of the current dividing node by 2e-4mm will update the record of dividing node.8. The calculation of nodal move directions and tool geometry updating should be performed at the same rotation position of the cutting tool.

relative sliding velocity of the workpiece material at each flank face node is assumed along the tangential direction of the moving path of the flank face node. where subscript i is nodal label.5. wearrate) .3.3.3. 6.2 On Rake Face 108 The calculation method of nodal move direction on rake face used in turning operation. explained in Chapter 5. j is the calculation cycle number.5 Cutting Time Increment Calculation Cutting time increment is searched by the program according to a user-specified flank wear increment value ∆VB and a permitted error δ . 6. Nodal move direction at the flank face node is perpendicular to the relative sliding velocity. i. pointed from the flank face node to the rotation centre.4.3 On Flank Face In the flank face part.1 Flank Wear Calculation Subroutine Flank wear land width VB is calculated by a flank wear calculation subroutine Flankwear (∆t . when the elastic recovery of workpiece material is neglected. j ) . the searching procedure and the flank wear calculation subroutine have some difference compared with those in turning operation.4. . Because of the particularity of milling operation.3.e.9 Flank wear calculation 6.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 6. Edge position a a1 b b1 c c1 d VB Fig. 6. is applied here as well. r Every nodal move direction is normalized to unit vector D( i .

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 109 VB is the distance from the edge position to the last moved tool face node. node c will be moved to point c1. According to the calculation. For example. In order to simplify the problem. According to the permitted error δ .5. the cutting time increment is increased in step of whole milling cycles. in Fig. 6. the aimed VB value range ( VBm − δ . It will be worn away. Any tool material point which becomes the farthest point to the rotation centre will get contact with the workpiece and then be worn away. The relationship between the milling cycle number Ncycle and the cutting time increment ∆t is given by ∆t = N cycle × Z (6. because it is the last moved tool face node.9 node a is the last tool face node with non-zero nodal wear rate. In the same way.3. Z is the time span of one milling cycle. Because in this calculation cycle the comprehensive information about the average wear rate of node b in the entire cutting time increment cannot be obtained. Then node b becomes the farthest point to the rotation center.4) where Ncycle is positive integer.2 Cutting Time Increment Searching Procedure Because milling operation is intermittent cutting. The cutting time increment searching procedure is described as follows: (1) At the beginning. the aimed VB median value VBm is calculated according to the user-specified VB increment value and the tool wear obtained in the previous calculation cycle. The last moved tool face node is searched by considering the movement of the cutting insert. Node b will be move to point b1 and it will have the same distance to the rotation centre as node a. the existence of cutting phase and cooling phase in milling cycles complexes the cutting time increment searching procedure. . VB is calculated from edge position to node c. it should move to point a1 in the cutting time increment ∆t . its displacement is decided according to node a. 6. VBm + δ ) is determined. In milling operation the cutting insert rotates around a rotation centre.

Otherwise. j ) ⋅ ∆t j ⋅ D(i . If error ≤ δ . If error ≤ δ .δ is satisfied. wearrate) to calculate the flank wear land width. wearrate) − VBm . the cycle number upper limit N cycle 2 = N cycle . let error = Flankwear (∆t . then the cycle number lower limit N cycle1 = N cycle .6 Nodal Displacement Calculation Nodal displacement is calculated at every tool face node by r r & w( i . then the searching procedure will end. (4) The cycle number upper limit N cycle 2 = N cycle (5) Ncycle takes the integer part of (N cycel1 + N cycle 2 ) 2 . (2) Calculate the cutting time increment ∆t corresponding to Ncycle with Eq. 6. and the present ∆t value will be output as the result.3. then the cycle number lower limit Ncycle1=Ncycle. if error > δ . Else.δ . and the present ∆t value will be output as the result.4. the cycle number Ncycle and the cycle number lower limit Ncycle1 are set to Ncycle0. (3) Otherwise. wearrate) to calculate the flank wear land width. (6) Calculate the cutting time increment ∆t corresponding to Ncycle. if error < . then the cycle number lower limit N cycle1 = 1 . If the value of Ncycle is equal to Ncycle1 or Ncycle2. repeat step 2 until error ≥ . repeat step 5 until error ≤ δ is satisfied. and call the subroutine Flankwear (∆t . j ) where (6. if error < . then calculate the cutting time increment ∆t . then the searching procedure will end. and call the subroutine Flankwear (∆t . let error = Flankwear (∆t . 6.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 110 Then an initial cycle number Ncycle0 is given a positive integer value arbitrary.5) . else. wearrate) − VBm .δ . and N cycle = 2 ⋅ N cycle . j ) = w(i . The present ∆t value will be output as result and the searching procedure will end.

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation r w is the nodal displacement vector. In addition.06mm and crater wear on the rake face.10(b). 6.01mm. e. They reduce the strength of the tool edge and accelerate tool wear. permitted error is set to 0. are moved as well as explained above. 6. thermal crack.3.06mm (a) t=0s Fig.6 Tool Geometry Updating Tool geometry updating is performed with the same procedure as explained in turning operation.10(a) is updated to the worn tool in Fig. After the cutting time of about 603s. only the abrasive and adhesive wear are considered. tool wear under the same cutting condition as described in Table 3. some nodes on flank face. the new tool in Fig. In this study. etc. . Flank wear Crater wear VB=0.05mm is specified by the user.10 Tool wear profile (b) t=603s A discrepancy between the estimated tool wear from the program and the expected tool wear from experiment is unavoidable mainly because of the following reasons: (1) Complex tool wear in milling operation. whereas the main tool wear in high-speedmilling results from chipping. 6.9. 6.4 Results & Discussion With this tool wear program. j is tool wear calculation cycle number.2 is estimated. 6.g. node b and c in Fig. 6. which has a flank wear width of 0. 111 i is nodal label. ∆VB = 0.

Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 112 (2) Chip formation analysis modeling. when shear failure criterion is used as the chip separation method. A multi variable dependent shear failure criterion may provide a better chip formation simulation result and improve the predicted tool wear profile and tool wear value. . It is verified by the test that the chip thickness and tool/chip contact are sensitive to the element size and given value of shear failure criterion.

Otherwise. . tool wear under a cutting condition with high cutting speed is calculated. both crater wear and flank wear are formed on the tool face. • Because of the temperature difference in the cyclical thermal balance state and in the milling cycle before cycle thermal balance state is reached. a tool wear estimation model is implemented for the milling operation. a very slow tool wear process is expected because in Usui’s tool wear equation. tool temperature in the cyclical thermal balance state should be used in tool wear estimation.5 Summaries & Conclusion In this chapter.Estimation Of Tool Wear In Milling Operation 113 6. The main findings of this study are as follows: • Milling operation is an intermittent cutting process. By sampling the cutting process variables in the chip formation analysis and heat transfer analysis at the corresponding time points and calculating the nodal average wear rate per cycle. • With the developed tool wear program. tool wear estimation modelling can be implemented. wear rate and tool temperature has an exponent relationship.

A new chip formation modeling method is developed to simulate the entire process from initial chip formation. It is assumed that the error is created by the low coefficient of friction in chip formation analysis. chip growth to steady state. which show that wear rate of cutting tool is dependent on some cutting process variables such as tool temperature. No obvious crack is formed in front of the cutting edge. cutting time increment searching. nodal displacement calculation and geometry updating are discussed. Instead it provides an alternative method to decide material failure parameters. It can calculate the tool wear until the tool reshape criterion is reached. It is not necessary to get material failure parameters or chip geometry from experiment. Because milling operation is intermittent cutting process. Tool wear estimation in turning operation is based on the study of finite element simulation of steady-state cutting process. heat transfer and tool wear estimation modeling are different from turning operation. This chip formation model is verified by experimental data. In addition. sliding velocity of workpiece material and normal pressure on tool face. Then the problems about calculating nodal wear rate at steady state according to Usui’s tool wear equation. A tool wear estimation program is developed. Chip separation is formed automatically by solution-dependent mesh adaptivity instead of material failure criterion. the error of two cutting force components is smaller than 5% compared to the experimental data.Summary And Prospect 114 Chapter 7 Summary And Prospect 7. Pure heat transfer analysis of only the cutting tool is carried out to save the calculation time to reach thermal steady state. When the coefficient of friction calculated according to cutting force in experiment is used. the preliminary qualitative tool wear estimation models are developed. . no separation path is preset in advance. the chip formation. Temperature dependent heat flux at tool-chip interface and heat convective and radiation of tool face are considered during modeling. The estimated tool wear is verified by experimental data.1 Summaries In this study the methodologies to numerical implementation of tool wear estimation in turning and milling operation are discussed. After only several minutes of calculation the cutting tool gets a steady temperature distribution. Based on the researches of tool wear mechanism.

ABAQUS/Standard. but also wear profile of both crater wear and flank wear. No cyclical thermal balance state is realized. Pure heat transfer analysis of only the workpiece shows that the workpiece cool down to room temperature in the cooling phase of one milling cycle if the cutting speed is not tool high. Because in milling cycle the cutting tool is rotating instead of the workpiece as in turning operation. For tool designer. It is found that the temperature in cyclical thermal balance state is higher than the first several milling cycle.Summary And Prospect 115 The chip formation simulation is realized by introducing shear failure criterion. During the study multi aspects of cutting process simulation modelling in turning and milling operations including chip formation analysis. Tool wear estimation in milling operation is performed by calculation nodal average wear rate in one milling cycle and use it to other milling cycles. This is very meaningful for the scientific research and education. nodal displacement calculation and geometry updating are different from turning operation and they are discussed. This tool wear estimation method will relate the geometry appearance to physical basic of tool wear and bridge the gap between macro and micro studies of tool wear. all the problems about cutting time increment searching. and tool wear estimation are studied. The strain at failure in shear failure criterion is defined according to the former chip formation modeling method. multiprogramming tools including commercial FE code ABAQUS/Explicit. Then a tool wear estimation program for milling operation is developed. Tool wear estimation with the help of finite element method can predict not only tool life. tool wear in one milling case is calculated. Shear failure criterion is applied to the entire workpiece. This lays a ground for the study on more complex problem and the extension of functionality of FEM in the future. the chip formation process in every milling cycle is assumed similar because of the negligible temperature increment in the workpiece. Accordingly. Pure heat transfer analysis of only the cutting tool is carried out for 8 milling cycles. In order to speed up the realization process of cyclical thermal balance state. different preheated cutting tool is used in the cutting process. it is very helpful to optimise tool geometry and structure . heat transfer analysis. Both crater wear and flank wear are formed. Python are employed and integrated. Fortran. and relate tool wear with some wear mechanisms. Temperature is observed after every milling cycle. In order to fulfil the purpose of tool wear study. Using this program.

the chip formation analysis of steady state sometimes produces relatively low tool temperature on flank wear. In addition. such as wear notch.2 Prospect The tool wear estimation models should be improved in several aspects: After a certain tool wear is formed. It provides a method to produce the complex tool wear in 3D. tool wear is related to wear mechanism. which is applicable to wider cutting range. the formed wear profile is not smooth even after the second updating step and some nodes have to be adjusted manually. develop tool wear estimation . A further improvement of tool wear estimation may be realized by introducing multi wear mechanism. it is possible to estimate tool wear by program without doing any experiment. the result of tool wear estimation is maybe improved. Because in the tool wear estimation modeling. it is necessary to develop tool wear mathematical model for most common used materials. Friction has big influence on the chip formation analysis and tool wear. In this tool wear estimation method. It will be possible to study on the contribution of every wear mechanism under different cutting conditions. except improving the precision of tool wear estimation. A special smoothing algorithm should be designed to solve this problem. When using the coefficient of friction calculated according to the cutting force from experiment. this estimation method is helpful to reduce the size of various cutting database by replacing tool life equation with tool wear mathematical model. once tool wear mathematical model for a combination of tool-workpiece material is determined. The tool wear is calculated according to their combination. This may be caused by the contact problem between the flank wear and the workpiece. In tool geometry updating. it is useful to improve tool material according to the determined main wear mechanism. In order to spread the application of this method in industry practices. 7. for material engineer.Summary And Prospect 116 knowing wear profile and wear mechanism. flank wear is produced by moving nodes individually according to the nodal wear rate instead of according to an average value. In order to produce good contact in this area a negative flank angle designed on the flank wear may be a good solution.

ceramics cutting tool. etc. . and research on 3D tool wear estimation model in the future. CBN cutting tool.Summary And Prospect 117 model for coated carbide tool.

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