This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

July 2007

Process Industry Practices Structural

PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide

Reprinted by N.Kampanya

PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time.

© Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin, Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written authorization of PIP.

PRINTING HISTORY March 2005 Issued July 2007 Technical Correction

Not printed with State funds

Reprinted by N.Kampanya

TECHNICAL CORRECTION

July 2007

Process Industry Practices Structural

**PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide
**

Table of Contents 1. Introduction .................................. 2

1.1 Purpose ............................................. 2 1.2 Scope................................................. 2

**APPENDIX: Tables, Figures, and Examples.................................... 12
**

Table 1 - Thermal Expansion Data.......... 13 Figure A - Approximate Exchanger Weights .................................................. 15 Figure B - Approximate Tube Bundle Weights............................................ 16 Figure C - Soil Pressure for Biaxially Loaded Footings.............................. 17 Example 1 - Heat Exchanger Foundation............................................... 18 Example 2 - Horizontal Vessel Foundation............................................... 37

2. References.................................... 2

2.1 Process Industry Practices ................ 2 2.2 Industry Guides and Standards ......... 2

**3. Definitions .................................... 2 4. Design Procedure ........................ 3
**

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Design Considerations ...................... 3 Vertical Loads .................................... 3 Horizontal Loads................................ 4 Load Combinations............................ 6 Anchor Bolts ...................................... 6 Slide Plates........................................ 7 Pier Design ........................................ 8 Column Design .................................. 9 Footing Design .................................. 9

Reprinted by N.Kampanya

Process Industry Practices

Page 1 of 40

PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide

TECHNICAL CORRECTION

July 2007

1.

Introduction

1.1 Purpose This Practice establishes guidelines and recommended procedures for use by engineers analyzing and designing heat exchanger and horizontal vessel foundations and should be used where applicable unless otherwise specified. 1.2 Scope This Practice addresses isolated foundations supported directly on soil. Pile supported footings are not considered in this Practice.

2.

References

Applicable requirements of the following Practices and industry codes and standards shall be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of contract award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles will be used herein where appropriate. 2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP) – – 2.2 PIP STC01015 - Structural Design Criteria PIP STE05121 - Anchor Bolt Design Guide

Industry Guides and Standards • American Concrete Institute (ACI) – ACI 318/318R-05 - Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) – ASCE/SEI 7-05 - Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures • ASTM International (ASTM) – ASTM F1554 - Standard Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105-ksi Yield Strength

3.

Definitions

engineer: The engineer who performs the structural design owner: The party ultimately responsible for contract award. The owner will have authority over the site, facility, structure or project through ownership, lease, or other legal agreement. stability ratio: The ratio of dead load resisting moment to overturning moment about the edge of rotation thermal force: The force due to growth between piers caused by a change in temperature of the horizontal vessel or exchanger

Reprinted by N.Kampanya

Page 2 of 40

Process Industry Practices

2. Erection dead load (Df) .Empty weight of the exchanger or vessel including all attachments. ladders. Whether test or cleaning will actually be done in the field should be determined.1 Design Considerations 4.1. Structure dead load (Ds) . piping.Fabricated weight of the exchanger or vessel. d.1 Dead Loads 4. Unless otherwise specified.(horizontal vessels only) Empty dead load of the vessel plus the weight of test medium contained in the system. internals.1. The eccentric load defined in paragraph 4. fireproofing.2.2 Eccentric load .1. The eccentric load defined in paragraph 4. Test dead load (Dt) . a. e. and any special requirements dictated by the owner.1. The eccentric load defined in paragraph 4. 4.Empty dead load of the exchanger or vessel plus the maximum weight of contents (including packing/catalyst) during normal operation. trays.1.2 should also be added to the operating dead load weight.1 The engineer should review project design criteria to determine wind and earthquake loadings. etc.2 4.2. Design Procedure 4. Empty dead load (De) . platforms. The engineer should verify that design is based on applicable codes in existence when foundation drawings are issued.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 40 .0 should be used for test medium.2. Cleaning load should be used for test dead load if cleaning fluid is heavier than test medium. agitators.Weight of the foundation and soil above the part of the foundation that resists uplift b.1.2 Vertical Loads 4.Unless more exact information about piping supported on the exchanger or horizontal vessel is available. It is generally desirable to design for test dead load because unforeseen circumstances may occur.1 The following nominal loads should be considered as dead loads if applying load factors used in strength design.2.1. generally taken from certified exchanger or vessel drawings c. 4. the following guidelines should be used: Reprinted by N. corrosion allowances for anchor bolts. a minimum specific gravity of 1.2 should also be added to the test dead load weight. anchor bolt types.2. bundle.2 should also be added to the empty dead load weight. Operating dead load (Do) . The test medium should be as specified in the contract documents or as specified by the owner. insulation.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide 4.

Reprinted by N. or test) for horizontal vessels d. For stacked exchangers.3 Horizontal Loads 4. where “D” is the basic diameter (basic diameter = vessel I.2 The engineer is responsible for determining wind loads used for the foundation design. 4.2 Live Loads (L) 4.3.1. Wind loads from vendors or other engineering disciplines should not be accepted without verification. the weight of only the largest exchanger should be used to estimate the eccentric load.1 Wind loads should be calculated in accordance with PIP STC01015.2 Load combinations that include live load in Table 5 and Table 6 in PIP STC01015 do not normally control any portion of the foundation design. Comment: These eccentric loads are only guidelines and should be checked against actual conditions when they become available. vertical dead loads should normally be distributed with 60% to the channel end support and 40% to the shell end support. 4. This additional load should be applied at a perpendicular horizontal distance of D/2 plus 18 inches from the longitudinal centerline of the vessel. and platforms during the wind analysis is important.1. 4. However. + 2 times the wall thickness + 2 times the insulation thickness.2. operating. the actual exchanger shape and support configuration should be reviewed when determining weight distribution because in many cases load distribution may vary. A load of an additional 10% of the applicable weight (empty.D.3 Load distribution (exchangers) . manways.1 Live loads should be calculated in accordance with PIP STC01015.2.Kampanya Page 4 of 40 Process Industry Practices .2.3.1.2.3.3 Transverse wind . A load of an additional 20% of the applicable weight (empty or operating) for exchangers with diameters less than 24 inches b. insulation.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 a. A load of an additional 10% of the applicable weight (empty or operating) for exchangers with diameters equal to or greater than 24 inches c. Including the wind loading on projections such as piping. The saddle-to-pier connection should be considered fixed for transverse loads.1 Wind Loads (W) 4.For most common shell and tube heat exchangers. 4.) This additional eccentric load (vertical load and moment caused by eccentricity) should be distributed to each pedestal in proportion to the distribution of operating load to each pedestal.The wind pressure on the projected area of the side of the exchanger or vessel should be applied as a horizontal shear at the center of the exchanger or vessel.3.1.2. 4.2. 4.

No allowance should be made for shielding from wind by nearby equipment or structures except under unusual conditions.3. the sliding end should be designed for 30% of the longitudinal earthquake load if using low-friction slide plates.3.1 Earthquake loads should be calculated in accordance with PIP STC01015. Transverse and vertical earthquake loads should be distributed in proportion to the vertical load applied to both piers.3.3 For low-friction slide plates (μ ≤ 0.3.2.2). and for 50% of the longitudinal earthquake load if using higher friction slide plates.2 The thermal force used for design should be the smaller value resulting from the following two calculations: a. For higher friction slide plates (μ > 0. The force required to overcome static friction between the exchanger or vessel support and the slide plate: Ff = μ (Po) (Equation 1) Reprinted by N.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 40 .2. The saddleto-pier connection will be considered pinned for longitudinal loads unless more than one row of anchor bolts exists.2 The engineer is responsible for determining earthquake loads used for the foundation design.5 Shielding .2.1. If this proves to be uneconomical.3. 4.The wind pressure on the end of the exchanger or vessel should be applied as a horizontal shear at the center of the exchanger or vessel. 70% of the earthquake loads should be applied at the fixed pier.3. The piers are normally designed for the fixed end.3. and then the pier for the sliding end is made identical.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide 4.3.3. applied as a horizontal shear at the centroid of the exposed area. Earthquake loads from vendors or other engineering disciplines should not be accepted without verification.3 Bundle Pull Load (Bp) (Exchangers) 4. 4.1 Calculate thermal growth using maximum design temperature.1 Bundle pull load should be calculated in accordance with PIP STC01015.4.4.3.4 Thermal Force 4. 4.1. 4. all the longitudinal earthquake loads should be applied at the fixed pier. The weight of the exchanger head (channel) typically is within the range of 8% to 15% of the empty weight of the exchanger. 4.3. 4.3.2 Earthquake Loads (E) 4.2).3. 4. to avoid potential errors in construction and to reduce engineering time. Thermal coefficients can be found in Table 1. 4.2 Consideration should be given to reducing the empty weight of the exchanger owing to the removal of the exchanger head (channel) to pull the bundle. The flat surface wind pressure on the exposed area of both piers or both columns should also be included.4 Longitudinal wind .3.

“Slide Plates” Po = nominal operating compression dead load on slide plate b. Ff = static friction force μ = coefficient of friction.5.4 Load Combinations 4. Reprinted by N.4.2 4. The force required to deflect the pier or column an amount equal to half of the thermal growth between exchanger or vessel saddles: T= 3Δ E I 2 H3 (Equation 2) where.5. Piping thermal loads should be included in combinations when deemed advisable and should be considered as dead loads when applying load factors.3.5 Anchor Bolts 4.3 of this Practice.4.4.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 where. 4. refer to the values given in Section 4. T = force from thermal expansion required to deflect pier or column Δ = total growth between exchanger/vessel saddles = ε L ε = thermal expansion coefficient in accordance with Table 1 L = length of exchanger/vessel between saddles E = modulus of elasticity of concrete pier I = pier moment of inertia H = pier height The thermal force should be applied at the top of the piers. Foundations for fin exchangers (double pipe exchangers) should not be designed to resist thermal or bundle pull forces.3 Heat exchangers and horizontal vessel foundations should be designed using load combinations in accordance with PIP STC01015.1 4. 4.6.2 See PIP STE05121 for anchor bolt design procedures. Friction force at the bottom of the saddle should be overcome before lateral load is assumed to produce shear in the anchor bolts.Kampanya Page 6 of 40 Process Industry Practices . 4.5 Load Distribution The horizontal loads should be divided equally between piers unless otherwise required by Section 4.1 4.

3 Typical coefficients of friction are as follows. Lower element = based on allowable contact pressure in accordance with the manufacturer’s literature and lower element width Reprinted by N. Manufacturer’s literature should be consulted for temperature restrictions. The elements should be fabricated with a carbon steel backer plate attached to the elements to facilitate welding of the upper elements to the saddles and the lower elements to the steel bearing plate.6. a. Element widths (where Δ = total thermal growth between exchanger or vessel saddles): a. Small.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide 4.6.20 4. Lower element = upper element width .60 0. b.6.6 For earthquake loads. Steel slide plate c. steel slide plates instead of lowfriction slide plate assemblies may be more cost efficient.6. Upper element = saddle width + 1-inch minimum to allow for downhand welding on the element-to-saddle weld (larger upper element width may be required for exchangers or vessels with large Δ values). 4.6.1 For exchangers with bundle pull.05 to 0.1 A steel slide plate or low-friction slide plate assembly should typically be provided at the sliding end of every exchanger or vessel regardless of the flexibility inherent in the structural support.5. No slide plate (steel support on concrete) b. and other requirements that may affect the size and types of materials used for the slide plate elements.4 0.6. Low-friction manufactured slide plate assemblies should be used to reduce high-frictional resistance.2. manufacturer’s literature should be consulted because coefficients of friction vary with slide plate material. Each slide plate component consists of an upper element and a lower element. lightly loaded exchangers or vessels may not require slide plates. especially for heavy exchangers or for exchangers with significant thermal growth.1 inch (minimum of 1 inch narrower than upper element) Element lengths (use 18-inch maximum clear distance between lower elements): a. pressure limitations. a low-friction slide plate assembly consists of multiple individual slide plate components spaced out along the length of the saddle. and the sliding surface is at the interface of the upper and lower elements. 4. assuming no frictional resistance.2 Typically. horizontal shear forces should be applied to the anchor bolts.2 Suggested criteria for sizing low-friction slide plate elements are as follows.40 0. Low-friction slide plate assemblies 4. and pressure. 4.3 4.2 (Δ) . Slide Plates 4. For low-friction slide plate assemblies.2. temperature.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 7 of 40 .

1 Pier dimensions should be sized on the basis of standard available forms for the project. pier dimensions should be sized in 2-inch increments to allow use of standard manufactured forms. Minimum width of bearing plate should be 1 inch larger than the width of the lower elements.3 Reinforcement 4.7. dowels with minimum projections required for tension splices should be used in accordance with ACI 318.7. the pier should be designed as a column. Minimum length = saddle length + 1 inch Bearing stress on concrete should be checked in accordance with ACI 318.3. For cases that exceed this limit. Minimum width = saddle width + 2 (Δ) + 1 inch b. 4. Consideration must be given to anchor bolt development and foundation depth requirements.7. Upper element = lower element length + 1 inch Plates should be aligned with saddle stiffeners where practical.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 b. Size and reinforcement for each pier should normally be the same.Kampanya Page 8 of 40 Process Industry Practices .7. Bearing stress on concrete should be checked in accordance with ACI 318.5 Suggested criteria for sizing steel slide plates are as follows: a. Avf: Avf = [Vu/(μφ) – Pupier]/fy (Equation 3) Vu = strength design factored shear force at bottom of pier 4.3.2 The vertical reinforcement in the piers may need to be increased to account for shear friction. #8 rebar can extend up to 8 ft above the mat without dowel splices. or steel slide plate dimensions plus 4 inches and should be sized to provide adequate anchor bolt edge distance in accordance with PIP STE05121. Anchorage Considerations It is normally desirable to make the pier high enough to contain the anchor bolts and to keep them out of the footing. 4. Minimum length of bearing plate should be 1 inch larger than the saddle length. For example. A continuous steel bearing plate should be provided under the lower elements so that lower elements can be welded to the bearing plate. When form information is not available. Minimum pier width should be no less than 10 inches or 10% of the pier height. 4. Minimum pier dimensions should equal the maximum of the saddle. Dowel splices are not required if the vertical pier reinforcing projection is less than the larger of 6 ft or the rebar size in feet above the top of footing. bearing plate. 4.6.2 Reprinted by N.7.7 Pier Design 4. The following formula should be used to calculate the area of reinforcement required for shear friction. If the pier is a compression-controlled member.1 Piers should normally be designed as tension-controlled members (cantilever beams) with two layers of reinforcement.

1 Sizing Plan view footing dimensions should be sized on the basis of standard available forms for the project. The stability ratio should be in accordance PIP STC01015. φ = strength reduction factor = 0.3 Minimum reinforcement for piers is #5 at 12 inches on each face with #4 ties at 12 inches. Column dimensions should be sized on the basis of standard available forms for the project.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide μ = coefficient of friction. All ties should encircle the vertical reinforcement. If it can be assured that the concrete at the construction joint at the interface between the pedestal and the mat will be intentionally roughened.7.1 Sizing Columns (if needed) should be round. Minimum dowel projections should be as required for a tension splice in accordance with ACI 318.9 Footing Design 4. a combined footing may be used. column dimensions should be sized in 2-inch increments to allow use of standard manufactured forms. Size for both footings should normally be the same.2 Reinforcement Size and reinforcement for both columns should normally be the same. intermediate ties are not required.9. If form information is not available.9.0 may be used for μ.3.9.3. Stability check is not required for thermal forces. For short exchangers or vessels.8.2 4. If form information is not available.6. The footing thickness should be a minimum of 12 inches.8 Column Design 4. Reprinted by N. A minimum of two #4 ties (or three ties if moderate or high seismic risk) should be placed within 6 inches of the top of concrete of each pier (not including grout) to protect anchor bolts. as is normally the case. footing dimensions should be sized in 2-inch increments to allow use of standard manufactured forms. then 1. or rectangular depending on the job criteria or the construction contractor’s preference. 4. 4. unless special tie reinforcement for boundary elements is required. 4. square. 4.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 9 of 40 .7.4 For tension-controlled piers.8. Dowels should be used to transfer the column loads to the footings. normally use 0. 4.3 The footing thickness should be adequate for shear and embedment of pier or column reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318.75 Pupier = strength design factored axial force at bottom of pier fy = yield strength of vertical reinforcement 4.

Commercial software is also available for such calculations.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 4.4 Soil Bearing Soil-bearing pressure should be computed for footing design and checked against the allowable pressure using the following formula: Total footing area in compression (e ≤ b/6): SB = P⎡ e ⎤ ⎢1 ± (6 b )⎥ A⎣ ⎦ (Equation 4) Total footing area not in compression (e > b/6): SBmax = 2P 3a (b / 2 − e) (Equation 5) (Equation 6) SB = 0 at 3 (b /2 . pier. 4. Figure C is a design aid that provides graphical results based on accurate numerical solutions. If shear is excessive.9.5 If eccentricity exists in both directions. The minimum amount of bottom reinforcement is #5 at 12 inches c/c. as follows: f’t = 5φ(f’c)1/2 where. and soil) A = area of footing 4.9.9.7 Top Reinforcement Except where seismic effects create tensile stresses.4 do not apply. The critical section for moment and diagonal tension shear should be taken at the pier or column face.e) where.6 The strength design factored moment and shear should be figured on a unit width strip assuming a simple cantilever. footing.Kampanya Page 10 of 40 Process Industry Practices . psi (Equation 7) Reprinted by N. Reinforcement and Stresses 4.9. top reinforcement in the footing is not necessary if the factored tensile stress at the upper face of the footing does not exceed the flexural strength of structural plain concrete.9. The resulting reinforcing steel should be placed continuously across the entire footing. f’t = flexural strength of structural plain concrete. psi f’c = compressive strength of concrete. Numerical solutions can be found in many soil mechanics textbooks. e = eccentricity of vertical service load caused by horizontal service load a = size of footing perpendicular to direction of horizontal load b = size of footing parallel to direction of horizontal load P = total vertical service load (exchanger or vessel. the strength design factored shear should be rechecked using the critical section for shear specified in ACI 318. the equations in paragraph 4.

55 The effective thickness of the footing for tensile stress calculations should be 2 inches less than the actual thickness for footings cast against soil (ACI 31805. using a load factor of 1. inch-pounds per inch. If the factored tensile stress exceeds the flexural strength of structural plain concrete. If top reinforcement is required. treqd = required footing thickness with no top reinforcing steel. minimum reinforcement is #4 at 12 inches c/c. The following formulas are for calculating the required footing thicknesses with no top reinforcing steel: For footings cast against soil: treqd = teff + 2 inches For footings cast against a seal slab: treqd = teff With teff calculated as follows: teff = (6Mu/f’t)1/2 where. top steel should be used if increasing the footing thickness is unfeasible. top reinforcement should be used if an increase in the footing thickness is not feasible. inches teff = effective footing thickness.4).Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 11 of 40 .7. (Equation 9) (Equation 8b) (Equation 8a) Reprinted by N. the actual thickness of the footing may be used for the effective thickness.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide φ = strength reduction factor for structural plain concrete = 0.4 f’t = flexural strength of structural plain concrete. For footings cast against a seal slab. psi (from Equation 7) If tensile stress in the upper face of the footing exceeds ACI plain concrete design requirements. Section R22. inches Mu = strength design factored moment caused by the weight of soil and concrete acting on a 1-inch strip in the footing at the face of the pier.

Kampanya Page 12 of 40 Process Industry Practices . and Examples Reprinted by N.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 APPENDIX: Tables. Figures.

95 0.94 7.71 6.08 8.05 6.79 10.59 2.70 5.04 2.30 2.34 6.01 5.71 5.23 0.17 0.15 8.49 1.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 13 of 40 .31 7.93 7.80 4.91 2.05 9.45 8.90 4.10 4.81 0.37 1.49 6.69 2.24 4.83 7.91 3.38 1.47 8.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide Table 1 .88 5.03 2.59 4.16 5.87 10.49 3.06 8.39 3.22 1.76 0.34 0.70 6.28 0.93 2.88 3.35 8.90 5.93 8.46 1.00 0.32 0.76 4.61 2.85 8.79 4.62 0.20 3.69 5.58 0.31 4.64 6.93 3.22 5.11 4.63 5. (°F) 70 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 625 650 675 700 725 750 775 800 825 850 875 900 925 950 975 0.75 0.44 5.15 8.18 6.68 6.18 3.06 4.73 4.01 1.14 5.00 0.58 0.62 5.50 6.23 0.18 5.14 3.75 9.96 2.35 3.16 3.47 4.04 4.08 3.80 11.65 9.43 6.28 0.70 2.18 7.61 4.90 1.86 5.60 4.26 2.00 0.82 6.72 2.13 1.58 3.48 3.94 5.23 6.26 3.00 0.27 6.76 2.07 7.85 8.91 3.31 5.13 3.30 2.61 0.50 7.56 9.41 4.37 5.46 5.74 1.10 2.25 3.72 2.77 10.46 10.36 0.69 0.00 0.46 5.62 3.26 2.71 1.46 9.52 0.99 1.80 9.50 3.47 2.30 2.00 0.90 2.28 3.87 5.52 0.80 9.69 4.09 0.07 4.30 6.96 6.89 3.55 6.56 7.47 7.27 4.00 0.21 1.61 0.64 1.99 3.25 7.81 1.74 4.16 5.16 6.92 5.32 2.43 6.17 0.21 1.80 4.50 2.18 70 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 625 650 675 700 725 750 775 800 825 850 875 900 925 950 975 Reprinted by N.34 6.23 1.68 2.53 0.40 0.61 1.18 7.84 2.26 9.53 7.42 5.02 4.21 2.38 5.75 6.99 1.80 0.16 8.03 2.56 1.44 2.45 2.63 1.42 0.15 5. (°F) Carbon Steel Carbon .76 8.03 1.35 9.46 1.43 7.31 7.86 1.14 12 Cr 17 Cr 27 Cr 12 Cr 20 Ni Monel 67 Ni 30 Cu 3-1/2 Nickel Ni-Fe-Cr Temp.31 4.77 7.20 0.34 4.82 8.52 1.44 9.35 3.72 6.94 1.10 6.12 10.59 6.00 0.11 5.38 5.17 7.04 4.22 0.10 1.40 1.88 7.48 2.81 4.66 8.21 1.98 5.97 7.42 1.90 6.90 3.93 6.05 2.50 4.42 0.55 7.69 3.81 8.05 6.58 6.35 8.95 9.18 1.62 5.86 4.18 2.80 4.24 6.60 5.99 1.35 4.58 3.94 7.86 6.48 8.04 7.52 3.75 2.71 1.13 9.61 4.11 2.58 7.33 1.76 0.62 5 Cr Mo through 9 Cr Mo Shell Material Austenitic Stainless Steels 18 Cr 8 Ni 0.33 4.50 2.52 4.84 1.01 6.25 7.Moly Low-Chrome (through 3 Cr Mo) 0.94 6.10 4.12 9.53 3.82 2.68 7.69 2.87 7.Thermal Expansion Data Total linear expansion between 70°F and indicated temperature (inches/100 ft) Temp.93 3.

56 10.88 17.95 8.50 12. (°F) 1000 1025 1050 1075 1100 1125 1150 1175 1200 1225 1250 1275 1300 1325 1350 1375 1400 1425 1450 1475 1500 8.77 12.69 13.62 7.85 11.76 8.53 16.42 11.80 16.Moly Low-Chrome (through 3 Cr Mo) 8.34 5 Cr Mo through 9 Cr Mo Shell Material Austenitic Stainless Steels 18 Cr 8 Ni 11.69 14.78 12.49 10.41 10.20 9.05 9.10 11.30 17.02 8.56 15.30 11.05 7.79 11.16 16.54 14.46 9.31 10.44 12.44 15.30 15.84 13.06 13.78 11.06 8.65 9.39 14.17 9.33 10.90 16.09 14.18 8.04 14.55 11.11 11.10 13.18 13.86 14.00 10.89 9.42 9.16 12.75 11.76 10.58 16.Kampanya Page 14 of 40 Process Industry Practices .52 13.22 14.77 13.02 13.30 8.05 12.43 13.74 15.80 12.47 12 Cr 17 Cr 27 Cr 12 Cr 20 Ni Monel 67 Ni 30 Cu 3-1/2 Nickel Ni-Fe-Cr Temp.22 15.75 10.53 10.11 12.09 11.83 11.94 12.88 10.47 12.71 14.94 15.26 10.55 8.15 11.80 11.11 10.50 13.10 15.06 11.25 1000 1025 1050 1075 1100 1125 1150 1175 1200 1225 1250 1275 1300 1325 1350 1375 1400 1425 1450 1475 1500 Reprinted by N.99 15.25 10.88 15.29 10.78 13.36 13.01 10.57 10.86 14.69 18.39 14.50 12.58 14.53 8.11 12.40 7.98 9.24 16.38 11.74 12.82 12.15 13.66 11.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 Table 1 (continued) Total linear expansion between 70°F and indicated temperature (inches/100 ft) Temp.22 12.66 16.43 11.04 10.08 18.20 14.80 9.52 9.28 9.42 10.55 10. (°F) Carbon Steel Carbon .38 12.92 17.81 13.45 11.48 11.31 8.76 14.

The tubes are 3/4 inch on a 90° layout.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide Figure A .Kampanya Process Industry Practices 15 0 Page 15 of 40 . For the weights of heat exchangers with other tube lengths. multiply by the following factors: Length in inches: Heat exchanger factor: 240 1.10 192 1. The curves are for a 192-inch type ET exchanger with two passes in the tubes. The tube material is 14-gage steel.80 Reprinted by N.85 96 0. all in tons.90 120 0.95 144 0.Approximate Exchanger Weights 20 19 45 0P ou 30 nd 0 Cl as 18 17 16 15 14 Approximate Weight (tons) 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 15 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 s Weight of water to fill shell and tubes 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 Exchanger Diameter (inches) These curves give the approximate weight of standard heat exchangers.00 168 0.

90 0.20 1.Approximate Tube Bundle Weights 10 9 8 Approximate Weight (tons) 6 60 0 5 4 3 2 1 0 15 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 Exchanger Diameter (inches) These curves give the approximate weight of standard tube bundles. The tubes are two pass on a square pitch. and 192 inches long.80 0. The baffle spacings range from 8 inches on the 15-inch exchanger to 16 inches on the 48-inch exchanger.Kampanya Page 16 of 40 15 0 Po un dC las s 7 Process Industry Practices . The tubes are 3/4 inch.00 0. all in tons. multiply by the following factors: Length in inches: 240 192 168 144 120 Heat exchanger factor: 1. 14 gage.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 Figure B . For the weight of bundle with other lengths.70 Reprinted by N.

04 0.18 0.175 0.28 0.20 0.18 0.10 0.22 0.40 0.12 0.15 0.16 0.0 0.40 0.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide Figure C .Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 17 of 40 .325 0.08 0.30 0.14 0.02 0.20 0.225 0.375 e2/b = 0.14 0.05 3 2 1 0 e2/b = 0.30 0.32 0.16 SBmax = K (P/ab) Location of SBmax e2 e1 Load P 5 4 0.10 0.35 0.12 0.04 0.36 0.00 0.38 0.34 0.28 0.32 0.26 0.275 0.34 0.06 0.25 0.36 0.24 Ratio e1/a 0.20 0.30 0.08 0.00 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 K coefficient Reprinted by N.10 0.40 a b 0.22 0.02 3 2 1 0 0.06 0.38 0.24 0.26 0.Soil Pressure for Biaxially Loaded Footings 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 0.

Kampanya Page 18 of 40 c Process Industry Practices .1 1/4 inch diameter ASTM F1554. Grade 36 anchor bolts per pier P = 4 inches (fixed end w/1 nut) P = 5 1/4 inches (sliding end w/2 nuts) PIER PIER PLAN Dimensions typical both piers Steel slide plate 3 ft -1 inch by 11 inches by 3/8 inch Top of grout elevation (fixed end) Top of steel slide plate (sliding end) c 1 ft -6 inches 6 ft -6 inches # 4 ties @ 11 inches Grade 5 .Heat Exchanger Foundation 11 ft -0 inches 8 ft -0 inches 1ft -4 inches 1ft -4 inches 1ft -4 inches 5 ft -6 inches 3 ft -6 inches PIERS C A (Sliding end) A (Fixed end) 2 .A" Reprinted by N.#8 each face # 4 @ 10 inches each way # 6 @ 10 inches each way SECTION "A .PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 Example 1 .

9 kips 37. empty and operating dead loads).6 channel end)(3.5 ft) = (3.5 ft Max.000 psi Soil unit weight: γ = 100 pcf Allowable net soil bearing: SBnet = 5. design temperature = 550°F Exchanger material: carbon steel Bolts: 2 . or 3. Increase exchanger weight by 10% of the larger exchanger to account for these attached items (refer to this Practice.5 ksf (at 4-ft depth) Wind load: ASCE/SEI 7-05 Earthquake load: ASCE/SEI 7-05 DETERMINE LOADS Empty and Operating Loads Exchanger weight supplied by outside manufacturers does not include the weight of attached pipes and insulation.3 kips 55.25 ft) = 4.25 ft) = 6.5 ft) = 3.1)(0. 40% at shell end Design Criteria: 5 ft -6 inches Shell end Channel end 2 ft -9 inches 8 ft -0 inches 42 inches Diameter Slide plate 4 ft -0 inches 11ft -0 inches ELEVATION Concrete: f'c = 4.2.0 kips 60% at Channel/Sliding End 40.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 19 of 40 .4 shell end)(3.24 ft-k Empty MTe (shell end) = (32 kips)(0.8 inch c/c Saddle: 3 ft .1-1/4-inch diameter ASTM F1554. 40% at Shell/Fixed End Empty dead load (De) = 32 kips + (32 kips)(1.1)(0.2 kips Operating dead load (Do) = 44 kips + (44 kips)(1.1) = 92.16 ft-k Reprinted by N. continued) DESIGN DATA Exchanger Data: 23 ft -6 inches Empty weight = 32 kips each Operating weight = 44 kips each Bundle weight = 19 kips each Channel weight = 3.4 kips 26. Grade 36 (galvanized) per pier Bolt spacing = 2 ft .5 ft)/2 + (1.000 psi Reinforcing: fy = 60.1) = 67.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide (Example 1.25 ft Empty MTe (channel end) = (32 kips)(0. vertical loads.0 inch by 9 inches Load distribution: 60% at channel end. Section 4.5 kips each Basic diameter = 42 inches.4 kips Transverse Moment from Pipe Eccentricity Eccentricity = (basic diameter)/2 + (1.

8). use the bundle weight.154 W 0.7.0 (bundle weight) = 1.22 kips 8.47 kips Pier 0.0 (19 k) = 19.72 ft-k Wind Loads Wind load calculations are beyond the scope of this Practice. Compute sliding force (assume that a steel slide plate is used): Coefficient of friction.25 ft) = 5.42 kips 8.79 kips 6. Therefore.1. (this Practice. Thermal Force 1.4 shell end)(3.28 kips (per exchanger) Longitudinal wind: Hw = 0. • Use VBp = 19.40 Operating load.10 kips Pier 0.58 ft-k Operating MTo (shell end) = (44 kips)(0.039 ksf Earthquake Loads Earthquake load calculations are beyond the scope of this Practice. Transverse wind: Hw = 1.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 Operating MTo (channel end) = (44 kips)(0. Table 5.6 channel end)(3.1)(0.1)(0.80 kips Operating (Per Exchanger) 7.0 kips (applied at centerline of top exchanger. Empty (Per Exchanger) Transverse Longitudinal 3. Exchanger earthquake loads are applied at the center of each exchanger.175 W Bundle Pull VBp = 1.25 kips (per exchanger) Transverse or longitudinal wind on each pier: Hw = 0. Section 4. in accordance with PIP STC01015.250 W For calculations based on allowable stress design (service loads).108 W 0.45 kips 12.Kampanya Page 20 of 40 Process Industry Practices .0 kips The minimum is the lesser of 2 kips or exchanger weight (PIP STC01015. Note that the following are strength design loads: Empty (Per Exchanger) Transverse Longitudinal 5.3) Reprinted by N.16 kips Operating (Per Exchanger) 5.) Note that a reduction in the empty load of the exchanger owing to the removal of the exchanger head (channel) to pull the bundle is not included in this foundation calculation because the reduction in the empty load is not considered to have a significant effect on the design. Section 4. Exchanger wind load is applied at the center of each exchanger.6.25 ft) = 8. the strength design loads shown in the preceding table should be converted to service loads by multiplying by 0. μ = 0.

75 ft + 8. use steel slide plate. Table 6. Equation 1) (ACI 318-05.452 inches) + (1 inch) = 10.336 inches4 Modulus of elasticity. Δ = (ε)(L) = (0.605 ksi)(14.8 inches) + 2 (5 inches) = 3 ft .1 kips) = 78. Equation 2) • Because Ff < T and because a lower friction factor will not help the distribution of earthquake and bundle pull loads.336 inches4) / 2 (78 inches)3 = 73.0411 inch/ft (this Practice.10 kips)(2.452 inch)(3. Table 1) Thermal growth between saddles.1 inch) + (4 inches) OK Pier Size Reprinted by N.8 kips (this Practice.40)(55. Section 8. Compute force required to deflect pier: Assume pier is 42 inches long by 16 inches wide by 78 inches high.0 (12.4 kips) + 1.000 psi = 3.1 inch by 11 inches by 3/8 inches.2 (55.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide Ff = μ (Po) = (0.2 kips 2.000 f' c = 57.90 inches.0411 inch/ft)(11 ft) = 0. DESIGN ELEMENTS Size Steel Slide Plate Width = (saddle width) + 2(Δ) + 1 inch = (9 inches) + 2 (0. say 11 inches Length = (saddle length) + 1 inch = (36 inches) + (1 inch) = 3 ft .1 kips (downward load caused by overturning) Pu = 1.4 kips at channel end) = 22.25 ft) / (11 ft between piers) = 12.452 inches T = 3 Δ E I / 2 H3 = 3 (0. Pier length (c/c bolts) + (2)(5-inch minimum anchor bolt edge distance) = (2 ft .000 4.6 inches ← controls (steel slide plate length) + (4 inches) = (3 ft .2 (Po) + 1.1 inch Check bearing stress (operating and longitudinal earthquake): PEo = (12.0 (PEo) = 1.17) • Use a steel slide plate that is 3 ft .5. Load Combination 3) Pn = φ 0. Moment of inertia.85 f'c A1 = (0. Section 10.605 ksi (this Practice.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 21 of 40 . Ec = 57.65)(0.85)(4 ksi)(11 inches)(37 inches) = 899 kips > Pu (ACI 318-05. I = b(h)3 / 12 = (42 inches)(16 inches)3 / 12 = 14.6 kips (PIP STC01015.1) Thermal expansion coefficient for carbon steel at 550°F: ε = 0.

3.25)(4. PIP STC01015.Kampanya Page 22 of 40 Process Industry Practices . but use 16 inches for forming in 2-inch increments • Use a pier size of 1 ft .5 kips Horizontal load at sliding end. Table 6.94 kips + 1.5 ft = 6. Load Combination 9 or 10) Vertical load at top of pier due to bundle pull on top exchanger. Grade 36 anchor bolts per pier. Load Combination 3) (this Practice.8ft-k Empty and bundle pull at fixed end: Bundle pull force.4 kips)(2.10)(78 inches) = 7. At base of pier (assume footing to be 1.6(19. Anchor bolt design is beyond the scope of this Practice. VuSL = μ (PuSL) = 0.6 inches. ASTM F1554.7)(12.0 kips) = 30.5 ft thick): Pier height = 8.5 ft Pier weight = (0. Table 6.0 ft .10 kips)(2 exchangers) + (0.9)(40.94 kips + 1.33 ft)(3.5 ft) + (1. Operating and longitudinal earthquake at fixed end: Apply 70% of exchanger earthquake loads at fixed end Horizontal load at fixed end. PuBp = (30. Table 6.4 inches by 3 ft .(22.0 [(0.08 kips Shear and moment at bottom of pier.08 kips MuFX = (16.3 kips) .15 kcf)(1. • Use two 1-1/4-inch diameter.5 ft) = 4.1. Paragraph 4. VuFX = 1.54 kips Use load combinations and strength design load factors from PIP STC01015.40 (13.) Anchor Bolt Design Pier Design Reprinted by N. Load Combination 10).14 kips)(6.5 ft) / (11 ft between piers) = 22.14 kips = 18.5 inches Pier width 10 inches 10% of pier height = (0.9D for load factor.5 kips) = 5. Refer to PIP STE05121 for procedures.40 kips < 1/2 bundle pull force (VuBp) (PIP STC01015.75 ft + 5.5 ft)(6.4 kips (PIP STC01015.3.8 kips Net vertical load on sliding pier pushing top bundle in (use 0. PuSL = (0. Table 6.5 ft/2) = 113.14 kips = 18.8 inches (based on assumed pier height) (2)(5-inch minimum anchor bolt edge distance) = 2 (5 inches) = 10 inches (steel slide plate width) + (4 inches) = (11 inches) + (4 inches) = 15 inches ← controls. VuFX = 16.2.8 kips) = 13. VuBp = 1.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 = 3 ft .54 kips)] = 16.94 kips)(6.

VuFX = 31.8 kips) = 25.7.0 kips MuFX = (25.75) 4.08 kips Minimum tie requirements from Section 4.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide Horizontal load at fixed end.000 psi) / (50)(42 inches) = 11. Design for moment: F = b d2 / 12.20 in2)(2)(60.592 Ku = Mu / F = (202. VuFX = 25.0 inches φ Vc = φ 2 f' c bw d (ACI 318-05.08 kips)(6.(5.5ft) = 202. VuFX = VuThermal = 31.75 f' c bw s / fy but not less than 50 bw s / fy f' c bw = (0.00674)(42 inches)(13. because Vu > 0.40 kips) = 25.000 = 0.000 = 51.0 ft-k ← controls Check diagonal tension shear: d = (16-inch pier) – (2-inch clear) – (0. it should not control unless f 'c > 4.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 23 of 40 .0 inches) / 1.2 → ρ = 0.75 = 12. Reprinted by N.000 psi) / (0.5 φ Vc.0 inches but not more than Av fy / 50 bw = (0.08 kips Shear and moment at bottom of pier.68 inches2 The following equation is provided for illustration only.440 psi.8 kips > Vu = 31.08 kips 0.5: Av = 0.5. however.08 kips ← controls MuFX = (31.0 inches)2 / 12.75)(2) 4.0 ft-k) / (0.2 kips) = 31.5)(51.0 inches) = 3.5 ft) = 162.5 φ Vc = (0. Section 11.9 kips < Vu = 31.592) = 341.0-inch bar) / 2 = 13. spacing requirement should be checked for #4 ties to meet minimum shear reinforcement requirements of ACI 318-05.5 ft-k Operating and thermal at fixed end: Thermal force.4 inches ← controls • Use #4 ties at 11-inch spacing.(VuSL) = (30.000 psi (42 inches)(13.20 in )(2)(60.0 kips Shear and moment at bottom of pier.08 kips Horizontal load at fixed end.000 psi (42 inches) 2 sreq’d = Av fy / 0. Equation 11-3) OK = (0. VuFX = (VuBp) .000 = (42 inches)(13.5-inch ties) – (say 1.4 kips) .3.4(22. VuThermal = 1.00674 As = ρ b d = (0.3 of this Practice is #4 ties at 12-inch spacing.0 kips)(6.

02)(1.33 ft)] (4 ft . Weights: Pier = (0.5 ft thick.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 As min = 3 f ' c bw d / fy = 3 4.75) .1) Do not use a splice because the pier height is 6 ft .84 kips Total = (4.7)(Asrequired/Asprovided) (ACI 318-05.4 for (Po + pier weight) at bottom of pier: Avf = [Vu/(μφ) .15. Section 4.0 inches) / (60.50 ft)(1.1.0)(1.0) = 28.5 ft)(1.5 inches Class B splice = 1.90 kips Soil = (0.16] / 60 = 0.6 inches < 8 ft -0 inch for #8 bar.(3.000 psi) / 4.Pupier] / fy = [(31.54 kips Footing = (0.75-inch rebar) + (3 inches clear) = 17.1) (this Practice. Determine minimum footing thickness to develop standard hook for #8 pier reinforcing: ldh = (0.9 ksf gross Try an 8-ft by 5.0)(1.000 psi) = 1. Section 10.07 .1.0)(60.3.5 ksf net) + (4. Table 5 Reprinted by N.1) (ACI 318-05.000 psi) = 1.4)(37.77 inches2 ← controls (ACI 318-05.0)(1.90 k) + (9.5.54 k) + (9.77 in2/3.7 inches Minimum thickness = (12.08 k)/(0.5 ft) = 9.1 inches • • Footing Size (ACI 318-05.5) (this Practice.18 inches2 • Use five #8 bars each face (As provided = 3.28 kips Soil-bearing and stability ratio checks: Use load combinations for allowable stress design (service loads) from PIP STC01015.15 kcf)(8 ft)(5. Section 12.02Ψeλfy / f ' c )(db)(0. Avf at fixed end with LF = 1.7 inches) + (2 layers)(0.15 kcf)(3.7.5 inches) = 37.0 inch) = 28.82 inches2 Find total As requirement including shear friction.5) db = (28.10 kcf) [(8 ft)(5.000 psi ( 2.5 ft) . Section 12.(1.Kampanya Page 24 of 40 Process Industry Practices .10 kcf soil) = 5.3 (ld) = 1.3 (28. Determine #8 splice length: ld / db = 3 f y (Ψt)(Ψe)(Ψs)(λ ) = 3(60.2.5) = [(0. Section 12.58. Equation 3) As (total on each face) = As (moment) + Avf/2 = 3.0 ft deep)(0.50 ft)(1.6)(0.5)(1.3) ld = (28. 1.95 inches2).7)(3.5 40 f'c (c + K tr / db ) 40 4.5-ft footing.0)(1.84 k) = 24.0 k + 4.000 psi (42 inches)(13.0 inches) / (60.33 ft)(8 ft .95 in2) = 12. SBallow = (5.000 psi)(1. Equation 10-3) As min = 200 bw d / fy = 200 (42 inches)(13.18/2 = 3.73 inches2 (ACI 318-05.5 ft) = 9.54 k)] / 60 ksi = [69.68 + 0.000 psi ](1 inch)(0.2 inches • • Use 18-inch footing thickness.5 ft) = 4.

15 k) = 0.24 kips (PIP STC01015. Table 5. e1 = ML / Pmax = (177.5 ft)] = 5.3 at sliding end)(8. Table 5.75 ft + 8.68 k) = 2.5 ft) = 0.108 ft e1 / a = (2. Pmax = Ps + Po + 0. Pmax = Ps + Po = (24.58 ft-k) / (79.5 ft) = 44.20)[(79. ML = (0. Load Combination 1) Moments at bottom of footing.4 k) = 79.175)(4.9 (Ps + Po) . 0.2 kips Maximum axial load at bottom of footing. 0. Table 5.28 k) + (55.28 k) + (55.5 ft/2 + 1.7 VLEo = 8. VThermal = 22.68 kips (PIP STC01015.68 k)/(8 ft)(5.9 ksf Check operating and longitudinal earthquake and eccentric (channel/sliding end): Longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers.47 kips Axial loads at bottom of footing.504 ft e2 = MTo / Pmax = (8.20 OK e2 / b = (0.0.25 ft) / (11. ML = (22. e1 = ML / Pmax = (44.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide Check operating and thermal and eccentric (channel/sliding end): Thermal force at top of pier.68 k) = 0.7 PEo = (8.6 ft-kips MTo (from pipe eccentricity) = 8.0 ft) = ±8.47 k) = 88.47 k)(2 exchangers)(8.7 PEo = (0.47 kips applied at the center of each exchanger Vertical load at top of piers from longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers (owing to overturning moment).4 k) + (8.4 k) .43 ft-k) / (88.279 Read Figure C.43 ft-kips MTo (from pipe eccentricity) = 8.7 PEo = (24.0 ft) + (0.9)(24.58 ft-k) / (88.23 ft) / (8 ft) = 0.(8.020 SBmax = K (Pmax/ab) = (3.79 ksf < SBallow = 5.54 k pier wt)(6.2 k)(8 ft) = 177.15 k) = 0.108 ft) / (5.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 25 of 40 .097 ft Reprinted by N.28 k + 55.58 ft-kips Check soil bearing using maximum axial load. this Practice: K = 3.47 kips)(2. Load Combination 3) Pmin = 0. Load Combination 5a) Moments at bottom of footing.6 ft-k) / (79.15 kips (PIP STC01015.58 ft-kips Soil-bearing check using maximum axial load.23 ft e2 = MTo / Pmax = (8.47 k) = 63.

0 Check operating and longitudinal earthquake and eccentric (shell/fixed end): Longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers. this Practice: K = 2.5 ft) = 98.64 ft-kips MTo (from pipe eccentricity) = 5.47 k) = 69.5 ft) = 0. Table 5.50 e2 / b = (0.75 k) = 1.504 ft) / (8 ft) = 0.7PEo)(a/2)] = [(44. 0.9(Ps + Po)(a/2) = (0. Load Combination 5a) Moments at bottom of footing.063 Read Figure C.41 ft) / (8 ft) = 0.54 k pier wt)(6.7 at fixed end)(8.9 (Ps + Po) .47 k) = 46.75 ft + 8.66 > 1.0 ft) = ±8.0 ft) + (0.0 k) .15)[(69.9(Ps + Po)(a/2) = (0.8 ft-k) / (78.0 k)(8 ft)/2 = 220.41 ksf < SBallow = 5.(8.41 ft e2 = MTo / Pmax = (5.31 ft-k) = 3.7 VLEo = 8.175)(4.5 ft) = 0.31 ft-k RML (resisting moment) = 0.28 k + 37.28 k + 37.28 k) + (37. Table 5.9)(24.015 SBmax = K (Pmax/ab) = (2.8 ft-k Stability ratio = RML / OTML = (286. Pmax = Ps + Po + 0.9)(24.9 ksf Stability ratio check using minimum axial load.72 ft-kips Soil-bearing check using maximum axial load.50)[(88.47 kips applied at the center of each exchanger Vertical load at top of piers from longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers (owing to overturning moment).75 k) = 0.082 ft e1 / a = (1.43 ft-k) + (8.28 k + 55.15 OK e2 / b = (0.6 ft-k Reprinted by N.5 ft-k RML (resisting moment) = 0.4 k)(8 ft)/2 = 286.47 k)(8 ft)/2] = 132. ML = (0.Kampanya Page 26 of 40 Process Industry Practices .PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 e1 / a = (0.5 ft)] = 3.75 kips (PIP STC01015.7 PEo = (8. e1 = ML / Pmax = (98.0 k) + (8.7 PEo = (24.7PEo)(a/2)] = [(98.00 ksf < SBallow = 5.47 kips Axial loads at bottom of footing.64 ft-k) + (8.7 PEo = (0.5 ft/2 + 1.47 k)(8 ft)/2] = 78.9 ksf Stability ratio check using minimum axial load.082 ft) / (5.176 Read Figure C.75 k)/(8 ft)(5.018 OK SBmax = K (Pmax/ab) = (1.0.25 ft) / (11.68 kips (PIP STC01015. this Practice: K = 1.097 ft) / (5. 0. OTML (overturning moment) = [ML + (0.15 k)/(8 ft)(5.47 kips)(2.72 ft-k) / (69.47 k)(2 exchangers)(8. OTML (overturning moment) = [ML + (0.5 ft)] = 3. Load Combination 3) Pmin = 0.64 ft-k) / (69.9)(24.

54 k pier wt)(6.16 kips)(2.16 k) = 39.0 ft) + (0.0.(6.7PEe)(a/2)] = [(33.9(Ps + Pe)(a/2) = (0.96 kips (PIP STC01015. Table 5.7 PEe = (6.16 kips applied at the center of each exchanger OK Vertical load at top of piers from longitudinal empty earthquake load on exchangers (owing to overturning moment).75 ft + 8. 0. Pmin = 0.9 k) .16 kips applied at the center of each exchanger Vertical load at top of piers from longitudinal empty earthquake load on exchangers (owing to overturning moment).16 k) = 51.0 ft) + (0.54 k pier wt)(6.25 ft) / (11.(6.3 at sliding end)(6.34 ft-k) + (6. 0.7 PEe = (0.5 ft-k Stability ratio = RML / OTML = (232.0 Check empty and longitudinal earthquake and eccentric (channel/sliding end) loads: Longitudinal empty earthquake load on exchangers. 0.0.3 k) .16 k)(8 ft)/2] Reprinted by N.77 ft-kips Stability ratio check using minimum axial load.175)(4.0 Check empty and longitudinal earthquake and eccentric (shell/fixed end): Longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers. Table 5.3 k)(8 ft)/2 = 232.28 k + 40.9)(24.98 ft-k RML (resisting moment) = 0.5 ft) = 72.66 > 1.16 k)(2 exchangers)(8.9)(24.01 > 1.5 ft/2 + 1. ML = (0. Load Combination 5b) Longitudinal moment at bottom of footing.9 (Ps + Pe) .5 ft-k) = 1.90 kips (PIP STC01015.28 k + 26.16 kips)(2. OTML (overturning moment) = [ML + (0. 0.7 PEe = (6.16 k)(8 ft)/2] = 57.28 k + 40. ML = (0.0 ft) = ±6.16 kips Minimum axial load at bottom of footing.7 at fixed end)(6.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide Stability ratio = RML / OTML = (220. Load Combination 5b) Longitudinal moment at bottom of footing.34 ft-kips Stability ratio check using minimum axial load.5 ft) = 33.16 kips Minimum axial load at bottom of footing.16 k)(2 exchangers)(8.7 PEe = (0. OTML (overturning moment) = [ML + (0.0 ft) = ±6.7PEe)(a/2)] = [(72.25 ft) / (11.175)(4.7 VLEe = 6.6 ft-k) / (132.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 27 of 40 .9 (Ps + Pe) . Pmin = 0.98 ft-k) = 4.75 ft + 8.9)(24.5 ft/2 + 1.5 ft-k) / (57.77 ft-k) + (6.7 VLEe = 6.

2 ft-k Stability ratio = RML / OTML = (184.5 ft + 2.9)(24.0 ft)] (0.75 ft + 8. e = MT / Pmax = (95.5 ft /2 .28 ksf < SBallow = 5. Load Combination 5a) Transverse moment at bottom of footing. Table 5.0 k) = 55.75 ft + 8.89 > 1.0 ft) + (5.47 ft-kips Soil-bearing check using maximum axial load.15 kips (PIP STC01015.47 ft-k) / (79.28 k + 37.28 k + 55.28 kips (PIP STC01015.7 VTEo = 5.72 ft-k pipe eccentricity) = 64.5 ft / 2) = 197.2 ft-k Stability ratio = RMT / OTMT = 197.28 k) + (55. Pmax = Ps + Po = (24. Equation 5) Reprinted by N.0 k) = 61.2 ft-k / 95.22 kips) [(2.7 VTEo = 5.108)(4.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 = 97.58 ft-k pipe eccentricity) = 95. RMT = (Pmin) (b/2) = (71.2 ft-k) / (97.9 ksf gross Stability ratio check using minimum axial load.9)(24. Table 5.5 ft/2 + 1.47 ft-k = 2.54 k pier wt)(6. 0.22 kips) [(2.22 kips applied at the center of each exchanger Axial loads at bottom of footing.0 Check operating and transverse earthquake and eccentric (channel/sliding end): Transverse operating earthquake load on exchangers.4 k) = 71.9 (Ps + Po) = (0.71 kips)(5. Pmax = Ps + Po = (24.07 > 1.20 ft)] = 4.43 ft-kips OK OK (this Practice.5 ft) + (5.4 shell end) + (0. MT = (5.28 k + 26. Table 5. Load Combination 3) Pmin = 0.5 ft) + (8.9 k)(8 ft)/2 = 184. Load Combination 5a) Transverse moment at bottom of footing. 0.4 k) = 79.68 k) / [3 (8 ft) (5.e)] = 2 (79.0 ft) + (5.28 k) + (37.20 ft > b/6 = (5.9)(24.41 ft-k RML (resisting moment) = 0.1.71 kips (PIP STC01015.54 k pier wt)(6.Kampanya Page 28 of 40 Process Industry Practices . MT = (5.0 Check operating and transverse earthquake and eccentric (shell/fixed end): Transverse operating earthquake load on exchangers.68 kips (PIP STC01015.68 k) = 1. Table 5.6 channel end) + (0.5 ft)/6 = 0. Load Combination 3) Pmin = 0.92 SBmax = 2 Pmax / [3 a (b/2 .0 ft)] (0.9 (Ps + Po) = (0.9(Ps + Pe)(a/2) = (0.22 kips applied at the center of each exchanger Axial loads at bottom of footing.5 ft + 2.75 ft + 8.75 ft + 8.41 ft-k) = 1.5 ft/2 + 1.108)(4.

5 ft)/6 = 0.8 ft-k Stability ratio = RMT / OTMT = 159.0 ft) + (5.5 ft /2 .9 (Ps + Pe) = (0.5 ft) + (6.5 ft/2 + 1. 0.108)(4.79 kips applied at the center of each exchanger Minimum axial load at bottom of footing.5 ft / 2) = 151.35 > 1.79 kips) [(2.15 kips)(5. RMT = (Pmin) (b/2) = (55. Table 5.3 k) = 58.54 k pier wt)(6.28 k) / [3 (8 ft) (5. RMT = (Pmin) (b/2) = (46. Load Combination 5b) Transverse moment at bottom of footing.5 ft/2 + 1.92 SBmax = 2 Pmax / [3 a (b/2 .28 k + 26.28 k) = 1. Table 5.9 (Ps + Pe) = (0.7 ft-k Stability ratio = RMT / OTMT = 151.79 kips applied at the center of each exchanger Minimum axial load at bottom of footing.7 VTEe = 3.7 ft-k / 64. RMT = (Pmin) (b/2) = (58. MT = (3.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide Soil-bearing check using maximum axial load.0 ft) + (5.5 ft / 2) = 126.9 ksf gross Stability ratio check using minimum axial load.75 ft + 8. 0.97 ft-k = 2.0 ft)] (0.8 ft-k / 69.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 29 of 40 .0 Check empty and transverse earthquake and eccentric (channel/sliding end): Transverse empty earthquake load on exchangers. e = MT / Pmax = (64.6 channel end) + (0. MT = (3.05 ft)] = 3.7 VTEe = 3.9 k) = 46.28 k + 40.00 ksf < SBallow = 5.97 ft-kips Stability ratio check using minimum axial load.5 ft + 2.0 OK OK OK OK (this Practice.7 ft-k / 47.43 ft-k) / (61. Pmin = 0.12 kips (PIP STC01015.5 ft / 2) = 159.9)(24.75 ft + 8.28 > 1.7 ft-k Stability ratio = RMT / OTMT = 126. Pmin = 0.06 kips (PIP STC01015.4 shell end) + (0.54 k pier wt)(6.16 ft-k pipe eccentricity) = 47.1.05 ft > b/6 = (5.79 kips) [(2.108)(4.75 ft + 8.e)] = 2 (61.43 ft-k = 2.0 ft)] (0. Load Combination 5b) Transverse moment at bottom of footing.5 ft) + (4.42 ft-kips Stability ratio check using minimum axial load.5 ft + 2.9)(24.42 ft-k = 2.75 ft + 8.06 kips)(5.24 ft-k pipe eccentricity) = 69.12 kips)(5.0 Check empty and transverse earthquake and eccentric (shell/fixed end): Transverse empty earthquake load on exchangers. Equation 5) Reprinted by N.67 > 1.

25 kips Vertical load on fixed end at top of pier.015 SBmax = K (Pmax/ab) = (1.25 kips) = 12. VSL = VFX = 19. the actual horizontal load will be the same on both pedestals. this Practice: K = 1.5 kips)(8. PBp = (19. Table 5.82 kips Note that the horizontal load on the sliding end computed on the basis of friction is greater than half of the total bundle pull (19.75 ft + 5.0 kips/2 piers = 9.5 ft) / (11 ft) = 14.80 OK e2 / b = (0.5 ft) / (11 ft) = 14. VSL = μ (PSL) = (0.PBp = (26.3 kips) + (14.25 kips Vertical load on sliding end at top of pier. pulling top bundle out): Vertical load from bundle pull on top exchanger.08 ft) / (5.65 kips Horizontal load at fixed end. Table 5.Kampanya Page 30 of 40 Process Industry Practices .0 kips)(2. ML = (VSL)(8. because the two pedestals and footings are equal in size and thus even in stiffness.5 kips Maximum axial load at bottom of footing.5 ft)] = 3. PBp = (19.0 ft) = (9.55 k) = 78. pulling top bundle out): Vertical load from bundle pull on top exchanger.9 ksf Check empty and bundle pull and eccentric (shell/fixed end. e1 = ML / Pmax = (76.23 ksf < SBallow = 5.55 kips) = 21.0 ft-kips MTe (from pipe eccentricity) = 6.83 kips) = 0.96 ft) / (8 ft) = 0.83 kips) = 0.0 kips)(2. Pmin = Ps + PFX = (24.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 Check empty and bundle pull and eccentric (channel/sliding end.93 kips (PIP STC01015.0 kips/2 piers = 9.28 k) + (12.28 k) + (54.0 ft) = 76.24 ft-kips Soil-bearing check using maximum axial load. Pmax = Ps + PSL = (24.83 kips (PIP STC01015.5 ft) = 0.(14.4)(54. Load Combination 8) Moments at bottom of footing.9 kips) .80) [(78. Reprinted by N. PSL = Pe + PBp = (40.24 ft-kips) / (78.0 kips). Load Combination 8) Moments at bottom of footing.08 ft e1 / a = (0.120 Read Figure C.25 kips) = 54. PFX = Pe . Therefore.5 kips Minimum axial load at bottom of footing. VFX = VSL = 19.55 kips Horizontal load at sliding end.75 ft + 5.83 k) / (8 ft)(5.65 k) = 36.0 ft-kips) / (78.96 ft e2 = MTe / Pmax = (6.

Pu = 1. it can be ignored in calculations of factored soil bearing for design of footing reinforcing. this Practice. VuThermal = 1.64 ksf)(5.eu1) = (2)(111.31 ft) = 4.5-ft by 1.33 ft eu2 = MuTo / Pu = (12.85 ksf Factored soil bearing at distance “d” from face of pier (for checking shear).5 • Use 8-ft by 5. Load Combination 1.0 ft / 2) = 148 ft-k Stability ratio = RML / OTML = 148 ft-k / 76. Bearing length (longitudinal direction) = 3 (a/2 .5 kips)(8.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 31 of 40 .31 ft) = 2.(2.6 k) = 2.33 ft + 1.23 ft > a/6 = (8 ft)/6 = 1.23 ft)] = 7.2 k) = 31.01 ft-k) / (111.31 ft .5 (0. SBumax = 2 (Pu) / (3b)(a/2 .93 kips)(8.31 ft Factored soil bearing at face of pier (for checking moment).31 ft .4 (Ps + Po) = 1.6 ft-k) / (111.(3 inch clear) .4 k) = 111.01 ft-kips Maximum factored soil bearing.5 ft)[(8 ft)/2 . SBuface of pier = (7.3.1.(2. Table 6.28 k + 55. MuL = (VuThermal)(8 ft) = (31.eu1) = 3 [(8 ft)/2 .0 ft) = 76.16 ft) / (5. Use load combinations and strength design load factors from PIP STC01015.16 ft-kips Stability ratio check using minimum axial load.75-inch rebar) = 13.108 ft Because transverse eccentricity is very small.0 ft-k = 1.50-ft footing.0 ft) = (9. d = (18-inch footing) .6 k) / (3)(5. Thermal force at top of pier.08 kips Axial load at bottom of footing.94 > 1.6 k) = 0.16 ft SBud from face of pier = (7.52 ksf OK Footing Design Reprinted by N. RML = Pmin (a/2) = (36.08 k)(8 ft) = 248.4 (VThermal) = 1.23 ft)] = 5. Table 6.3.64 ksf Calculate bearing length according to Equation 6. Operating and thermal and eccentric (channel/sliding end): Load factors are from PIP STC01015.6 ft-kips MuTo (from pipe eccentricity) = 1.6 kips Moments at bottom of footing.4 (MTo) = 12.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide ML = (VFX)(8.4 (24.0 ft-kips MTe (from pipe eccentricity) = 4.4 (22.64 ksf)(5.33 ft) / (5.87 inch = 1. eu1 = MuL / Pu = (248.

0 (12.25 ft) / (11.64 k) = 1.75 ft + 8.10 k)(2 exchangers)(8.Kampanya Page 32 of 40 Process Industry Practices .31 ft 8. PEo = (12. Table 6.080 ft Because transverse eccentricity is very small.2 (5.0 (PEo) = 1.64 ksf 4.54 k pier wt)(6.250)(4.10 kips)(2.85 ksf 5. Pu = 1.72 ft-kips) = 6.86 ft-kips Maximum factored soil bearing.28 k + 37.7 at fixed end)(12. it can be ignored in calculations of factored soil bearing for design of footing reinforcing. Longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers.10 k) = 85.33 ft eu2 = MuTo / Pu = (6.00 ft Operating and longitudinal earthquake and eccentric (shell/fixed end): Load factors are from PIP STC01015.0 ft) + (0.2 (24.64 k) = 0.65 ft > a/6 = (8 ft)/6 = 1.10 kips applied at the center of each exchanger Vertical load at top of piers from longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers (owing to overturning moment).5 ft) = 140.64 kips Moments at bottom of footing.2 (MTo) = 1. Reprinted by N. VLEo = 12.2 (Ps + Po) + 1.86 ft-k) / (85.33 ft 1.0 ft) = ±12. MuL = (0.91 ft-kips MuTo (from pipe eccentricity) = 1. Load Combination 3. eu1 = MuL / Pu = (140.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 3.5 ft/2 + 1.0 k) + 1.16 ft 7.10 kips Maximum axial load at bottom of footing.52 ksf 2.91 ft-k) / (85.

5 ft) / (11 ft) = 14.05 ft .16 ft SBud from face of pier = (4.64 k) / (3)(5.1.06 ksf 3.0 kips/2 piers) = 15.24 ft-kips) = 7.75-inch rebar) = 13.0 ft) = 121.0 ft) = (15.33 ft + 1.06 ksf 2.(1.33 ft 1.eu1) = (2)(85.42 ksf 3.42 ksf Calculate bearing length according to Equation 6.5 ft)[(8 ft)/2 .65 ft)] = 7.00 ft Empty and bundle pull and eccentric (channel/sliding end.21 ft ≤ a/6 = (8 ft)/6 = 1.75 ft + 5. SBuface of pier = (4.05 ft) = 3.42 ksf)(7.05 ft .25 kips Horizontal load at sliding end.2 kips Maximum axial load at bottom of footing. VuSL = VuFX = 1.28 k + 40.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 33 of 40 .3.(3 inch clear) . d = (18-inch footing) .2 kips)(8.2 (24. this Practice.3 kips) = 1.2 (6. PBp = (19.3 kips Moments at bottom of footing.87 inch = 1. MuL = (VuSL)(8.2 (MTe) = 1.05 ft 8.3 k) + 1.33 ksf 7.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide SBumax = 2 (Pu) / (3b)(a/2 .42 ksf)(7.16 ft) / (7.33 ft) / (7.6 (14. Bearing length (longitudinal direction) = 3 (a/2 – eu1) = 3 [(8 ft)/2 . pulling top bundle out): Load factors are from PIP STC01015. Table 6.49 ft-kips Maximum and minimum factored soil bearing.6 ft-kips MuTe (from pipe eccentricity) = 1.5 (0.6 (PBp) = 1.3.33 ksf Factored soil bearing at distance “d” from face of pier (for checking shear).25 k) = 100.6 ft-kips) / (100.05 ft Factored soil bearing at face of pier (for checking moment).05 ft) = 2. Pu = 1.65 ft)] = 4.2 (Ps + Pe) + 1.(1. eu1 = MuL / Pu = (121.6 (19.0 kips)(2. Load Combination 9 Vertical load from bundle pull on top exchanger.33 ft Reprinted by N.16 ft 4.

21 ksf Factored soil bearing at face of pier (for checking moment).3.64 ksf . SBu = (Pu/A)[1 ± (6)(eu1/a)] SBumax = [(100.35 ksf .52 ksf)(3. Vu = (4. operating and thermal and eccentric (channel/sliding end) will govern the design.(3-inch clear) .0.5-ft soil)] = 0. Mu = (2.3 k) / (8 ft)(5.16 ft)/(8 ft) = 3.87 inch = 1.4) [(0.35 ksf SBumin = [(100.85 ksf)(3.21 ft)/(8 ft)] = 4. it can be ignored in calculations of factored soil bearing for design of footing reinforcing.2.33 ft .67 ksf)(3.75-inch rebar) = 13.10 kcf)(2.21 ksf 8.74 kips (per ft width) Factored moment at face of pier.64 ksf .1.39 kips = 11.23 ksf 3.16 ft) + (7.33 ft 1.35 kips + 3.33 ft .21 ft)/(8 ft)] = 0.5 ft)] [1 .21 ksf) + (4.35 ksf 3.00 ft By comparison.67 ksf Factored shear at a distance “d” from face of pier.52 ksf .PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 eu2 = MuTe / Pu = (7.49 ft-kips) / (100. wu = (1.5 ft)] [1 + (6)(1. Factored soil and concrete weight.Kampanya Page 34 of 40 Process Industry Practices .63 ksf 0.3 k) / (8 ft)(5.3 kips) = 0.35 ksf .4.0.63 ksf Factored soil bearing at distance “d” from face of pier (for checking shear). SBuface of pier = (0.85 ksf .1.16 ft SBud from face of pier = (2.16 ft)/2 = 8.33 ft)2(1/3) Reprinted by N.21 ksf)(8 ft .(6)(1.16 ft 4.075 ft Because transverse eccentricity is very small.15 kcf)(1.1.63 ksf) + (4.0.33 ft)2(1/2) + (7. d = (18-inch footing) .67 ksf)(3.33 ft)/(8 ft) = 2.23 ksf 2.21 ksf)(1.0.5 (0.5-ft footing) + (0.

Pu = 1.4 kips)] = 83.0030)(12 inches)(13.63 αs = 40 Vc = (2 + 4/β) f' c bod = (2 + 4/2.33 ft + 1.5 kips > Vu = 61.91 ksf)(3.000 psi (14. Vc = 530 kips.3 ft) + 2] 4.16 ft) = 14.33 ft + d) = 83.39 inches2/ft (ACI 318-05.16 ft)/(14.000 = 0.000 = 530 kips Vc = (αsd/bo + 2) f' c bod = [(40)(1. Section 7. governs.33 ft) = 2.12 (at distance “d/2” from face of pier): By inspection.91 ksf Vu = Pu . Section 11.000 = (12 inches)(13.4 (Ps + Po) = 1.7 kips Design for moment: F = b d2 / 12.3 ft)(12 inches/ft)(13.000 psi (14.33 ft)(6.5 ft + 1.87 inches)/1.3 ft)(12 inches/ft)(13.000 = 790 kips (ACI 318-05.4 [(0. Vn = φVc = 0. Equation 11-33) bo = 2(3.75(530 kips) = 397.7 kips β = (3.9 kips SBu = Pu / (ab) = (83. Equation 11-3) = (0.79 kips (per ft width) > Vu Check for two-way action (punching shear) according to ACI 318-05. Equation 11-35) ACI 318-05.2) OK Reprinted by N.3 ft OK Vc = 4 f' c bod = 4 4. operating weight at channel end will govern.9 kips .33 ft + 1.(1.16 ft) = 61.09 ft-k + 17.87 inches)2 / 12.000 psi (14. Equation 11-33.87 inches) / 1.192) = 155.5 ft) + (55.9 kips) / (8 ft)(5.(SBu)(3.2 → ρ = 0.79 ft-k (per ft width) Check diagonal tension shear (at a distance “d” from face of pier): φVc = φ 2 f' c bw d (ACI 318-05.000 psi (12 inches)(13.75)(2) 4.5 ft + 1.50 ft)(1.5 ft)/(1.70 ft-k = 29.000 = 602 kips (ACI 318-05.12.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide = 12.87 inches)/1.5 ft) = 1.3 ft)(12 inches/ft)(13.87 inches) = 0. Equation 11-34) (ACI 318-05.0030 As = ρ b d = (0.0018)(gross concrete area) = (0.5 ft + d )(1.192 Ku = Mu / F = (29.16 ft) + 2(1.79 ft-k) / (0.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 35 of 40 .50 inches2/ft ← controls As min (for temperature reinforcing) = (0.000 = 15.15 kcf)(3.87 inches)/1.16 ft)(1.63) 4.0018)(12 inches)(18 inches) = 0.

5. Section 10.000 = (12 inches)(15.1.0 → ρ = 0. Top steel: Because the bottom of the foundation is not in full bearing for some loading combinations and because the footing is designed for earthquake loads.10 kcf)(2.(2-inch clear) . Reprinted by N.25 inches)2 / 12. wu = (1. does not apply because Section 10.67 ksf)(3.1. • Use #6 at 10 inch each way (As = 0.24 inch2/ft).5.233) = 16.27 ft) = 1.Kampanya Page 36 of 40 Process Industry Practices .233 Ku = Mu / F = (3.4 load factor and assuming no soil bearing under the portion of the footing extending from the edge of the pier. does not apply because Section 10.5-ft footing) + (0.5. therefore.1.1.15 kcf)(1.4) [(0. Conservatively calculate moment for top steel considering the weight of soil and concrete with a 1.5.5.72 ft-k) / (0. dtop = (18-inch footing) .4 excludes foundations of uniform thickness from the minimum reinforcing requirements of Section 10.33 ft .72 ft-k (per ft width) Design for moment: F = b (dtop)2 / 12.5(0.0013)(12 inches)(15.38 kips (per ft width) Factored moment at face of pier.25 inches) = 0.4 excludes foundations of uniform thickness from the minimum reinforcing requirements of Section 10. Section 10.24 inches2/ft ← controls Note that ACI 318-05.67 ksf Factored shear at a distance “dtop” from face of pier.25 inch = 1. the top of the foundation mat needs to be reinforced.53 inch2/ft).0013 As = ρ b dtop = (0.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 Note that ACI 318-05.5-ft soil)] = 0.33 ft)2(1/2) = 3. • Use #4 at 10 inches each way (As = 0. Factored soil and concrete weight.1.67 ksf)(3.50-inch rebar) = 15.27 ft Vu = (0. Mu = (0.5.1. ductility is required.000 = 0.

A" Reprinted by N.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide Example 2 .Kampanya Process Industry Practices c Bearing plate 11 ft -9 inches by 9 inches by 3/8 inch Low-friction manufactured slide assembly: (7 components with 1 upper element and 1 lower element per component) Upper elements = 11 inches by 3 1/2 inches Lower elements = 8 inches by 2 1/2 inches PIER Page 37 of 40 .Horizontal Vessel Foundation 22 ft -0 inches 7 ft -0 inches 1ft -2 inches 12 ft -6 inches 12 ft -2 inches 5 ft -6 inches C 5 ft -6 inches PIERS A (sliding end) A (fixed end) 2 . Grade 36 anchor bolts per pier P = 4 inches (fixed end w/1 nut) P = 5 1/4 inches (sliding end w/2 nuts) PIER c PLAN Dimensions typical both piers Top of grout elevation (fixed end) Top of low-friction manufactured slide assembly (sliding end) 6 ft -9 inches 2 ft -8 inches dowel proj.1 1/4 inch diameter ASTM F1554. Grade # 4 ties @ 12 inches 13 # 5 bars each face with matching dowels 1 ft -3 inches # 6 @ 12 inches each way Section "A .

1)(0.5 per pier)(7. MTo = (335 kips)(0. Vessel wind is applied at the center of the vessel. continued) DESIGN DATA Vessel Data: 37 ft -0 inches Empty weight = 98 kips Operating weight = 335 kips Test weight = 394 kips Basic diameter = 12 ft Maximum design temperature = 500°F Vessel material: carbon steel Bolts: two 1-1/4-inch diameter. Grade 36 (galvanized) per pier Bolt spacing: 11 ft-0 inch Saddle: 11 ft-8 inches by 10 inches Design Criteria: 8 ft -0 inches 6 ft -6 inches 4 ft -0 inches 22 ft -0 inches Concrete: f 'c = 4.1)(0.8 ksf (at 4-ft depth) Wind loads: ASCE/SEI 7-05.5 ft) = 125. or test) to account for piping supported on the horizontal vessel (refer to this Practice.000 psi Reinforcing: fy = 60.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 (Example 2.6 ft-k Test transverse moment per pier.4 kips Transverse Moment from Pipe Eccentricity Eccentricity = (basic diameter)/2 + (1. Reprinted by N. De = (1.Kampanya Page 38 of 40 Process Industry Practices .5 ft) = (12 ft)/2 + (1.1)(0.5 ft) = 36.5 per pier)(7. operating.5 ft Empty transverse moment per pier. Section 4.8 kips Total operating load.8 ft-k Wind Loads: Wind load calculations are beyond the scope of this Practice.5 kips Total test load. MTt = (394 kips)(0. Operating. “Vertical Loads”): Total empty load. Earthquake loads: ASCE/SEI 7-05 Use a 20% increase in soil allowable pressure for test load combinations.000 psi Soil unit weight: γ = 100 pcf Allowable net soil-bearing: SBnet = 3. ASTM F1554. and Test Loads Include an additional 10% of the applicable weight (empty.10)(335 kips) = 368.5 ft) = 7.10)(394 kips) = 433.2. DETERMINE LOADS Empty.5 per pier)(7. Dt = (1. MTe = (98 kips)(0. Do = (1.8 ft-k Operating transverse moment per pier.10)(98 kips) = 107.5 ft) = 147.

3 kips) = 18.055)(184.TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide Transverse wind: Hw = 13.4 kips (this Practice. seven slide plate components are required for each assembly.44 kips Longitudinal wind: Hw = 2. Ec = 57.7 kips Operating load on sliding end: Po = (368.5 inches) = 17.316 psi bearing: μ = 0.43 kips 2.5 inches Maximum bearing pressure on elements = (216.(2)(0. Compute force required to deflect pier: Assume pier is 12 ft -2 inches long by 14 inches wide by 81 inches high: Moment of inertia.000 f' c = 57.4 kips) / (2 piers) = 216.605 ksi (ACI 318-05. • DESIGN ELEMENTS Size Low-Friction Manufactured Slide Plate Elements Upper element width = (saddle width) + 1 inch = (10 inches) + 1 inch = 11 inches Lower element width = upper element width .1) Thermal expansion coefficient for carbon steel at 500°F: ε = 0. Δ = (ε)(L) = (0.000 psi = 3. Compute sliding force (assume that a low-friction manufactured slide plate assembly is used): μ = 0.5 inches.3 k) / [(7)(8 inches)(2.796 inches) .5 inches)] = 1. Equation 2) Because Ff < T.3 kips According to manufacturer’s recommendations.1 inch ≈ 8 inches Maximum load on sliding end (from test weight): Pt = (433. Po = (368.385 inches4) / 2 (81 inches)3 = 270.14 kips Reprinted by N. use a low-friction manufactured slide plate assembly.796 inches T = 3 Δ E I / 2 H3 = 3 (0. Table 1) Thermal growth between saddles.796 inches)(3.316 psi From manufacturer’s literature for 1.0362 inches/ft)(22 ft) = 0.Kampanya Process Industry Practices Page 39 of 40 .385 inches4 (Equation 1.7 k) / [(7)(8 inches)(2.548 psi Operating bearing pressure on elements = (184.3 kips Ff = μ (Po) = (0. and to reduce high-friction forces. Total length of lower elements provided = 7(2.076 ksf Thermal Force: 1.5 kips) / (2 piers) = 184.5 inches)] = 1.5.000 (this Practice.85 kips Transverse or longitudinal wind on each pier: Hw = 0.10 (maximum based on manufacturer’s literature) Operating load.0362 inches/ft Modulus of elasticity.605 ksi)(33. Section 8.5 inches and the upper element = 11 inches by 3. I = b (h)3 /12 = (146 inches)(14 inches)3 /12 = 33.1 inch = (11 inches) .10)(184.2 (Δ) . with the lower element = 8 inches by 2.055 Revised operating frictional force = Ff = (0. this Practice) 4.3k) = 10.5 kips) / (2 piers) = 184.

4 kips / 2 piers) = 303.17) Use a bearing plate 11 ft .0 inches) + 2 (5 inches) = 11 ft . Example 1 should be followed for these portions of this example.9 inches by 9 inches by 3/8 inches. • OK (ACI 318-05. and footing design are very similar to Example 1.Kampanya Page 40 of 40 Process Industry Practices .9 inches) + (4 inches) = 12 ft .85)(4 ksi)(9 inches)(141 inches) = 2.PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide TECHNICAL CORRECTION July 2007 Size Steel Bearing Plate Steel bearing plate dimensions: Width = (lower slide plate element width) + (1 inch) = (8 inches) + (1 inch) = 9 inches Length = (saddle length) + (1 inch) = (11 ft .2 inches for forming in 2-inch increments Pier width: 10 inches 10% of pier height = (0.2 inches by 12 ft .10 inches (bearing plate length) + (4 inches) = (11 ft .9 inches Check bearing stress (test load case): Pu = 1.10)(81 inches) = 8.85 f'c A1 = (0. Section 10.804 kips. Pier length: (c/c bolts) + (2)(5-inch minimum anchor bolt edge distance) = (11 ft .4 kips Pn = φ 0. pier design. Anchor Bolt Design. Pier Design. and Footing Design Reprinted by N.1 inches (based on assumed pier height) (2)(5-inch minimum anchor bolt edge distance) = 2 (5 inches) = 10 inches (bearing plate width) + (4 inches) = (10 inches) + (4 inches) = 14 inches ← controls • Pier Size Use a pier size of 1 ft . but use 12 ft .2 inches.4 Pt = 1.4 (433.8 inches) + (1 inch) = 11 ft . Anchor bolt design.1 inch ← controls.65)(0.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd