# DMV 4343 JAN ~ JUN `07

INFORMATION SHEET

DEPARTMENT COURSE COURSE CODE VTO’S NAME

MANUFACTURING / PRODUCT DESIGN / MOULD / TOOL AND DIE MECHANICS OF MATERIALS DMV 4343 MISS AFZAN BINTI ROZALI

SEMESTER DURATION REF. NO. PAGE

4 4 hrs 7

TOPIC SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS

SUB TOPIC 6.1 Shear Flow 6.2 Shear Stress in Beams with Various Cross Sections

REF NO. PAGE

: :7

Chapter 6

SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS

p1

when measured as a force per unit length. dF = Since q = We get q = 1 dM I dx ∫A y dA’ dF dx dM I ∫A y dA’ We know that dM/dx = V q = 1 V I ∫A y dA’ ∫A y dA’ is the first moment of area Q. In order to design these fasteners it is necessary to know the shear force that must be resisted by the fastener along the member's length.1 If the loads cause the members to bend. welding material.DMV 4343 JAN ~ JUN `07 6. fasteners such as nails. The magnitude of the shear flow along any longitudinal section of a beam can be obtained using a development similar to that for finding the shear stress in the beam.1. is referred to as the shear flow q. Some examples are shown in Figure 6.1 Shear Flow Occasionally in engineering practice members are "built up" from several composite parts in order to achieve a greater resistance to loads. bolts. or glue may be needed to keep the component parts from sliding relative to one another. FIGURE 6. This loading. so finally we get shear flow q as following Q q = V I Shear Flow Chapter 6 SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS p2 .

measured as a force per unit length along the beam = the internal resultant shear force. and y' is the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of A' Chapter 6 SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS p3 .DMV 4343 JAN ~ JUN `07 Where q V / = the shear flow. where A' is the cross-sectional area of the segment that is connected to the beam at the juncture where the shear flow is to be calculated. determined from the method of sections and the equations of equilibrium = the moment of inertia of the entire cross-sectional area computed about the neutral axis Q = ∫A y dA’ = y'A'.

29b). Q1 = A1*y1 = 100(20)(42. q1 Chapter 6 SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS p4 . (Dimensions are in millimeters. 40 mm—represents the maximum allowable spacing of nails at the upper flange (Fig.7 N/mm I which is resisted by the section of the nails. we write F s1 = n (1600N) = 37.4 mm N/mm This value—or as a practical matter.) For an allowable shear force in each nail Fn = 1. Ql is the first moment of area of the upper flange about the neutral axis.8 X 103 mm3 The shear flow at the section along line a-a is thus VQ q1 = 1 = (4000N) (85.6 kN and a vertical shear force in the beam V = 4 kN.1 x 106 mm4.DMV 4343 JAN ~ JUN `07 EXAMPLE 6.1 Four wooden planks are joined with nails to form the T beam as shown.7 = 42. 7. As the load capacity of the nails per unit length (Fns1) is equal to the shear flow q1. determine (a) the necessary spacing sl of the nails for the upper portion. and The moment of inertia of the entire area is I = 9. (a) In this case. Solution The horizontal shear forces transmitted by the three flanges and the web can be found from the shear-flow formula.8 X 103 mm3) 9. (b) the necessary spacing s2 of the nails for the lower part.1 x 106 mm4 = 37.9) = 85.

As the load capacity of the nails per unit length (Fns1) is equal to the shear flow q1.8 mm N/mm For convenience in construction.52 N/mm I which is resisted by the section of the nails. q2 Chapter 6 SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS p5 .52 = 212.1 X 103 mm3 The shear flow at the section along line a-a is thus VQ q2 = 2 = (4000N) (17. This applies to both lower flanges. we obtain Q2 = A2*y2 = 20(15)(57.1 X 103 mm3) 9.DMV 4343 JAN ~ JUN `07 (b) The section is now cut along line b-b and the contact surface is vertical. For the area A2. we write F s2 = 2 (1600N) = 7.1 x 106 mm4 = 7. the nails would probably be spaced at 210 mm intervals.1) = 17.

and the cross-sectional sides each have an area A'. Figure 6.2c will indeed satisfy ΣFx = 0 since the stress distribution on each side of the element forms only a couple moment and therefore a zero force resultant. we will assume this shear stress is constant across the width t of the bottom face. V = dMldx.2c.This distribution is caused by the bending moments M and M + dM.2d that ΣFx = 0 will not be satisfied unless a longitudinal shear stress τ acts over the bottom face of the segment.2.2 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) A free-body diagram of the element that shows only the normal-stress distribution acting on it is shown in Figure 6. To show how this relationship is established. V + dV. and w(x) on the free-body diagram since these loadings are vertical and will therefore not be involved in a horizontal force summation. and the resultant shear force at the section is based on a study of the longitudinal shear stress and the results. acting over the cross section of a beam. FIGURE 6. In the following analysis. It Chapter 6 SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS p6 . Because the resultant moments on each side of the element differ by dM.2 Shear Stress in Beams with Various Cross Sections Development of a relationship between the shear-stress distribution.2b. Now consider the shaded top segment of the element that has been sectioned at y' from the neutral axis.DMV 4343 JAN ~ JUN `07 6. we will consider the horizontal force equilibrium of a portion of the element taken from the beam in Figure 6. We have excluded the effects of V.This segment has a width t at the section. it can be seen in Figure 6. The element in Figure 6.

measured as a force per unit length along the beam = the internal resultant shear force. This stress is assumed to be constant and therefore averaged across the width t of the member = the shear flow. and y' is the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of A' EXAMPLE 6. we know that dM/dx = V τ = 1 V It ∫A y dA’ And we know that ∫A y dA’ is the first moment of area Q.DMV 4343 JAN ~ JUN `07 acts on the area t dx. we get τ= 1 dM ( ) It dx ∫A’ y dA Previously.1.2 Consider again Example 6. ∫A’ ( ∫A’ σ’ dA M + dM ) y dA I ∫A’ σ dA . so finally we get shear stress τ as following Q τ = V It Shear Stress τ = The shear stress in the member at the point located a distance y’ from the neutral axis.τ (t dx) M ∫A’ ( ) y dA I dM ( ) ∫A’ y dA I =0 =0 = τ (t dx) Solving for τ. Applying the equation of horizontal force equilibrium. where A' is the cross-sectional area of the segment that is connected to the beam at the juncture where the shear flow is to be calculated. we have ← ΣFx = 0. determine Chapter 6 SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS p7 . With the same vertical shear force in the beam V = 4 kN. determined from the method of sections and the equations of equilibrium = the moment of inertia of the entire cross-sectional area computed q V / about the neutral axis Q = ∫A y dA’ = y'A'. and using the flexure formula.

we then have VQ (τxy)a = 1 = (4000N) (85. (a) The widths of the glued joints are b1 = 0.1 X 103 mm3) (9.03 m and b2 = 0.03m) 6 4 = 1. Chapter 6 SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS p8 .02 m at a-a and b-b.1 x 106 mm4.8 X 103 mm3) (9.26 MPa Ib1 VQ (τxy)b = 2 = (4000N) (17. respectively.DMV 4343 JAN ~ JUN `07 (a) shearing stresses in joints a-a and b-b if the planks are glued together instead of being joined by nails.1 x 10 mm )(0.1 x 10 mm )(0. The moment of inertia of the entire area is I = 9.02m) 6 4 = 376 kPa Ib2 The required shear strength of the glue is thus 1.26 MPa. Using shear formula.