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CHAPTER I

LEXICOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS


1.1. The Object of Lexicology. Problem of terminology 1.1.1. Lexicology, a branch of linguistics, is the study of words. The term lexicology is composed of two Greek morphemes: lexis meaning - "word, phrase" here lesicos meaning "dealing with words" and logos which denotes "a department of knowledge". So the literal meaning of the term lexicology is the science of the word. Lexicology - An area of language study concerned with the nature, meaning, history, and use of words and word elements and often also with the critical description of lexicography. Although formerly a branch of philology, lexicology is increasingly , treated as a branch of linguistics, associated with such terms as lexeme, lexis, vocabulary, lexicon, lexical system, lexical opposition, lexical group, etc. (The Oxford companion to the English language, T. Mc. Arthur, 1972) Lexeme (from Greek lexis /speech) - Also lexical item, lexical unit. In linguistics, a unit in the lexicon or vocabulary of a language. It's form is governed by sound and writing or print, its content by meaning and use. In English as in other languages, lexemes may be single words (bank), parts of words (-auto, -logy), groups of words (black bird) and the idiom "kick the bucket) or shortened forms (U.K. for the United Kingdom). Lexis (from Greek lexis /speech) A term in especially British linguistics for the vocabulary of a language or sub-language, consisting especially of its stock of lexemes. The term has become popular because it is unambiguous, unlike its synonym lexicon, and is Greek in origin in contrast with Latin-derived vocabulary. Vocabulary is a traditional term with a range of linked senses: 1)The words of a language. The general vocabulary of a language is sometimes called it's wordstock And generally referred to by linguists as its lexicon or lexis; We regard vocabulary as a lexico-semantic system because all its elements are in some way connected with all the others, have no value independedly of the relationship of contrast or equivalence between them and are grouped into sets according to various features of equivalence. 2)The words available to or used by an individual; 3)The words appropriate to a subject or occupation;

4)A word list developed for a particular purpose: Ex. Use the vocabulary at the back of the book; 5)A list or set of code words, gestures, symbols, styles, or colours. 6)The vocabulary or lexicon of a language is a system rather than a list. Its elements interrelate and change subtly or massively from generation to generation. Lexical opposition - is defined as semantically relevant relationship of partial difference between two partially similar words. The features that the two contrasted words possess in common form the basis of a lexical opposition, e. g. pool, pond, lake, sea. Without a basis of similarity no comparison and no opposition are possible. Lexical group - a subset of the vocabulary, all the elements of which possess a particular feature forming the basis of the opposition. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims and methods of scientific research, its basic task being the study and systematic description of the vocabulary of some particular language in respect to its origin, development and current use. So Lexicology investigates words, word-groups, word- equivalents and morphemes which make up words. The course of English Lexicology we arc going to study will be divided into two parts: 1. The English Word as a Structure and The English Vocabulary as a System. The main problems which are in the focus of Lexicology are: the Structure of the Word, Types of Word-Formation, Semasiology, Phraseology, the Opposition of Stylistically Marked and Stylistically Neutral Words, Regional Varieties of the language, Native and loan Words, Lexicography. Lexicology is the part of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of a language and the properties or characteristics of words as the main units of the language. Here the term vocabulary is used to denote the system formed by all the words that the language possesses. The term word denotes the basic unit of a given language which is a result of the association of a particular meaning with a particular group of sounds capable of a particular grammatical employment.

1.1.2. Types of Lexicology


General Lexicology is a general study of words and vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language. Phenomena studied by general lexicology are often referred to as language universals as they are common to all languages. Special Lexicology studies the characteristic peculiarities in the vocabulary of e given language. We are going to study Lexicology of the English language which is special lexicology. Obviously special lexicology is based on the principles of general lexicology. Historical Lexicology studies the evolution of the vocabulary and its separate (single) elements. Descriptive Lexicology deals with the vocabulary of a given language at a givep period of its development.

1.1.3. General Linguistic background


1.Language is an objective social phenomenon connected with thinking and with social life of human society. Language is the basic, chief and most important means of communication effected through linguistic signs existing in the form of sound-clusters. 2.The word is the principle and basic unit of the language system, the largest on the

morphologic and the smallest on the syntactic plane of linguistic analysis. 3.The word or any linguistic sign is a two-facet unit possessing both form and content, or to be more exact, sound-form and meaning.. Neither can exist without the other. 4.When used in actual speech words occur in different forms generally referred to as word-forms. Thus a word exists in the language not only in a system of all its meanings, but also as a system and unity of all its word-forms. The system showing a word in all its word-forms is called its paradigm. The lexical meaning of a word is the same throughout the paradigm, i.e. all the word- forms of one and the same word are lexically identical. The grammatical meaning varies from one word-form to another. Ex. take, takes, took, taken, taking, etc. 5.The relationship between language and speech is that between the general and the particular. Language exists in speech, through speech and knows no other forms of existence. 6.There are two approaches to the study of language material in linguistic science: synchronic and diachronic. The synchronic - is concerned with the vocabulary of the language as it exists at a given time. The diachronic - approach deals with the changes and the development of vocabulary in the course of time.

1.2. Links with Other Branches of Linguistics


Word is in the center of study of many branches of linguistic, but they set different approaches. Grammar - like Grammar Lexicology studies morphological structure of the word, every word has some grammar function Phonology - on the acoustic level words consist of phonemes and phonemes participate in signification. Though phonemes are not lexicologically irrelevant they serve to distinguish between meanings. Stylistics (Linguo-Stvlistics) - although from a different angle, studies many problems treated by Lexicology. These are the problems of meaning, synonymy, functional styles, etc. History of the Language - can be of great use and importance in the diachronic study of various phenomena i.e. synonyms, etc.

1.3. Basic Units of the Language. Word as a basic unit of the language
Basic units of the language are: morpheme, word, phrase, sentence, text. The borderline between various linguistic units is not always sharp and clear and it is important to indicate the most important features and characteristics of the notion expressed by the term when we try to define it. Structurally words are inseparable lexical units taking shape in a definite system of grammatical forms and syntactic characteristics, which distinguishes them both from morphemes and word-groups. When we characterize the word we should distinguish it from other linguistic units showing it's main characteristic features. Every definition is a very difficult task. The definition of a word is most difficult because every word has very many different aspects. It is a certain arrangement of phonemes and has its sound form. It has its morphological structure being also an arrangement of morphemes. It can occur in different word-forms and signal different meanings. The term word denotes the basic unit of a given language resulting from the association

of a particular meaning with a particular group of sounds capable of a particular grammatical employment. A word is simultaneously a semantic, grammatical and phonological unit. The word is the principle and basic unit of the language system, the largest on the morphologic and the smallest on the syntactic plane of linguistic analysis. The word is a structural and semantic entity within the language system. So the word is a two-facet unit possessing both form and content. A word is the central element of many linguistic disciplines e.g. phonology, syntax, morphology, but it's also studied by non-linguistic sciences which still deal with language and speech, such as philosophy and psychology. In every domain of science the definition of the word as a basic unit of the language will have its specific features. There are numerous definitions of the word which characterize and define it from different point of view. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), English philosopher gave materialistic approach -- Words are not mere sounds but names of matter. Within linguistics the word has been defined syntactically, semantically, phonologically and by combining various approaches. Syntactically the word is defined as '4he minimum sentence" (H. Sweet and as "a minimum free form" by L. Bloomfield)

Syntactic and semantic defines the word as "one of the smallest, completely satisfying bits of isolated meaning" (definition is given by Edward Sapir) > Semantic definition defines the word as a "meaningful unit" (definition is given by Stephen Ullman) Features of the word as a basic unit of the languase : indivisibility /uninterruptabilityl(\i can not be cut without changing the meaning, it's an inseparable lexical unit), positional mobility (within a sentence a word is capable of functioning alone).

1.4. The Theoretical and Practical Value of Lexicology


The theoretical value of lexicology becomes obvious if we realize that it is the study one the three main aspects of the language which is its vocabulary (the other two are grammar and sound system). Practical value of Lexicology is obvious when it meets the needs of many different branches of applied linguistics and foreign language teaching. A language learner will find Lexicology of great practical importance, because through it he will get much information concerning the English wordstock and the laws ruling the formation and usage of English words and word-groups. Topics for discussion 1.The object of Lexicology. 2.The connection of Lexicology with other branches of linguistics. 3.The word as a basic unit of the language. General problems of the theory of the word. 4.The theoretical and practical value of Lexicology. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1.In what way is Lexicology connected with other branches of linguistics? 2.What are the main branches of Lexicology as a science? What are the main problems of Lexicology? 3.What is lexical opposition? 4.The origin of the word Lexicology is a) Latin b) Greek c) German 5.Synchronic approach is the basis of a)Descriptive Lexicology c) Historical Lexicology b)Contrastive Lexicology d) Comparative Lexicology 6.Why is connection of Lexicology with Phonetic very important? 7.What are the main problems of Lexicology? 8.Why is the definition of a word one of the most difficult in linguistics? 9.In what way can one analyze a word a) socially? b) linguistically?
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10.What are the structural aspects of the word? 11.What is understood by formal unity of a word? 12.Explain why the word "blackboard" can be considered a unity and why the combination of words "a black board" does not possess such a unity?

13.Name three main characteristics of the word. 14.What is understood by semantic unity of a word? 15.Give a brief account of the main characteristics of a word. 16.What are the main differences between studying words syntagmatically and paradigmatically? Reference books:
1.Arnold, I. V. The English Word 11. V. Arnold - M., 1986. - Ch. I. - P. 9 - 28. 2.Ginzburg, R. S. A Course in Modern English Lexicology / R S. Ginzburg - M., 1979.-Chi.-P. 5-12.

CHAPTER II

MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH WORDS


2.1. Morphemes. Types of Morphemes. Allomorpphs
It has been universally recognized that very many words have a composite nature and are made up of morphemes. Morphemes are defined as the smallest indivisible two-facet language units. Morphemes arc easily singled out in words, but they are not independent and are found in actual speech only as integral parts of the word. The root morpheme is the lexical nucleus of the word; it has a very general and abstract lexical meaning common to a set of semantically related words constituting one word-cluster, e.g. (to) teach, teacher, teaching. Besides the lexical meaning root-morphemes possess all other types of meaning proper to morphemes except the part-of-speech meaning which is not found in roots. Affixational morphemes include inflectional affixes or inflections and derivational affixes. Inflections carry only grammatical meaning and are thus relevant only for the formation of word-forms, whereas derivational affixes are relevant for building various types of words. Derivational affixes are lexically always dependent on the root which they modify. They possess the same types of meaning as found in roots, but unlike root-morphemes most of them have the part of speech meaning. Part of speech meaning makes derivational affixes structurally important part of the word as they condition the lexico-grammatical class the word belongs to. Derivational affixes are classified into affixes building different parts of speech: nouns, verbs, Adjectives or adverbs. Roots and derivational affixes are generally easy distinguished and the difference between them is clearly felt as, e.g. in the words: helpless, handy, blackness, etc. The root morphemes help-, hand-, black- are understood as the lexical centers of the words, and -less, -y, -ness are felt as morphemes dependent on these roots. FREE and BOUND morphemes FREE morphemes coincide with word-forms of independently functioning word. It is obvious that free morphemes can be found only among roots, so the morpheme boy- in the word boy is a free morpheme.

BOUND morphemes are those which do not coincide with separate word-forms. Consequently all derivational morphemes, such as -ness, able, etc. are bound. Root morphemes can be both free and bound. It is important to note that morphemes can have different phonemic shapes. In the word cluster please, pleasing, pleasure, pleasant the root morpheme is represented by phonemic shapes /pli:z/, /plez/, /plezh/. In such cases we say that the phonemic shapes of the word stand in complementary distribution or in alternation with each other. All the representations of the given morpheme that manifest alternation are called allomorphs of that morpheme or morpheme variants.

2.2. Structural Types of Words and their Comparative Value


The morphological analysis of word-structure on the morphemic level aims at splitting the word into its constituent morphemes which are the basic units at this level of analysis, and also at determining their number and types. According to the number of morphemes words can be classified into monomorphic and polymorphic. Monomorphic or root-words consist of only one root-morpheme, e.g. small, dog, make, etc. All polimorphic words fall into two subgroups: derived words and compound words according to the number of root morphemes they have. Derived words are composed of one root-morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes, e.g. acceptable, outdo, disagreeable, etc. Compound words contain at least two root morphemes.

Comparing the role each of these structural types of words plays in the language we can easily see that they are not of equal importance. Here we have to consider (1)the importance of each type in the existing word-stock (2)their frequency in actual speech Of these two facts frequency is more important. Derived words constitute the largest class of words in the existing word stock; derived nouns comprise about 67% of the total number, adjectives about 86 %. Whereas compound nouns make about 15% and adjectives only about 4%. Root words come to 18% in nouns, in adjectives to 12%. But if we consider frequency value of these words in actual speech we'll see that root- words occupy a predominant place. About 60% of the total number of nouns and 62% of the adjectives in current use are root-words. It should also be mentioned that root-words are characterized by a high degree of collocability.

2.3. Principles of Morphemic Analysis


In most cases the morphemic structure of words is transparent (, ) enough and individual morphemes clearly stand out within the word. The segmentation of words is generally carried out according to the method of Immediate and Ultimate Constituents. This method is based on the binary' principle, that is every stage of the procedure involves two components - the word immediately breaks into. At each stage these two components are referred to as the Immediate Constituents (ICs) Each Immediate Constituent at the next stage of analysis is in turn broken into smaller meaningful elements. The analysis is completed when we arrive at constituents incapable of further division - morphemes which are referred to as Ultimate Constituents. The analysis of word-structure at the morphemic level; must naturally preceed to the stage of Ultimate Constituents. Ex. noun 'friendliness' is first segmented into the 1 /frendli/ and /ness/. The 1 /'nes/ is at the same time an UC of the word, as it can not be broken into any smaller elements possessing both sound-form and meaning. Any further division of -ness would give individual speech sounds which denote nothing but themselves. The /frendli/ is next broken into the ICs /frend-/ and /-li/ which are both Ultimate Constituents of the word. Morphemic analysis under the method of Ucs may be carried out of on the basis of two principles: the so-called root principle and affix principle. According to the affix principle the splitting of the word into its constituent morphemes is based on the identification of the suffix within a set of words, e.g. the identification of the suffix -er leads to the segmentation of the words singer, teacher, driver, speaker into the derivational morpheme -er and the roots sing, teach, drive, speak.

According to root principle, the segmentation of the word is based on the identification of the root-morpheme in a word-clusster. Ex. identification of the root-morpheme agree- in the words agreeable, agreement, disagree. However, the morphemic structure of words in a number of cases defies /di'fai/ ( ) such analysis as it is not always transparent and simple. Sometimes not only segmentation of words into morphemes, but the recognition of certain sound-clusters as morphemes becomes doubtful which naturally effects the classification of words.

There are many borderline cases in which both the segmentation of the word into morphemes and the status of some morphemes present difficulty. Ex. words like pocket may seem at first sight unsegmentable as there is no such morpheme as pock- in present-day English. However, a comparison of a set of words arranged on the affix principle such as locket, hogget, etc. allows us to single out -et as a meaningful part, a suffix with a diminutive meaning. At the same time the recognition of -et as a suffix leaves in the word the sound-cluster /-/ that does not occur in any other words of Modern English and has no denotational meaning. Yet /-/ clearly carries a differential and distributional meaning as it distinguishes 'pocket' from the other words and is definitely understood as the lexical center of the word. Thus it should be recognizcd as a pseudo-morpheme of a special kind, the so-called - unique root.

2.4. Derivational Analysis


The morphemic analysis of words only defines the constituent morphemes but does not reveal the hierarchy of the morphemes comprising the word. It reveals a definite, sometimes very complex interrelation between morphemes. Morphemes are arranged according to certain rules. The pattern of morpheme arrangement underlies the classification of words into different types and enables one to understand how new words appear in the language. These relations within the word and the interrelations between different types and classes of words are known as derivative or word-formation relations. The analysis of derivative relations aims at establishing a correlation between different types of words and the structural patterns words are built on. The basic unit at the derivational level is stem. The stem is defined as that part of the word which remains unchangeable throughout its paradigm e.g. (to) ask, asks, asked, asking is ask. It is the stem of the word that takes the inflections which shape the word grammatically as one or another part of speech. The stem as the unchangeable part of the word throughout its paradigm differs in principle from the root-morpheme - the common part within a word- cluster and the lexical center of the word. It is not the root-morpheme , but the stem which apart from the lexical meaning carries a definite part-of-speech meaning and takes not only inflections but various derivational affixes, e.g. the centre of the lexical meaning of the word development is the meaning that is carried by the root-morpheme develop-. The suffix -ment is added not to the root, but to the verbal stem develop- which adds the concept of substantivity to the idea of action expressed by it. The most characteristic feature of word-structure in Modern English is the phonetic identity of the stem with the word-form which habitually represents the word as a whole and with the root-morpheme of one morpheme words e.g. the stem of the verb (to) talk remains unchanged throughout its paradigm (talk, talks, talked, talking) and coincides both with one of its word-forms (talk) and the root-morpheme talk-.

2.5. Stems. Types of Stems


The structure of stems must be described in terms of ICs analysis. The Ics method at this level proceeds from the principle of double opposition in contrast to the principles of morphemic analysis. Each 1 of the stem should appear in a set of words with the meaning it has in the stem under discussion e.g. The stem of the adverb untruly should be segmented into the 1 -ly and the 1 untrue and not un + truly, because the prefix un- is regularly added to the adjective stems and not to adverb stems. The suffix -ly is freely used with adjective stems to build adverb stems, e.g. justly, slowly, luckily, etc. So the stem untruly- is built on the adjective

stem untrue- with the help of the suffix -ly. The stem untrue- may in turn be segmented into the prefix un- and the stem true-. There are three structural types of stems: simple, derived and compound. Simple stems are semantically non-motivated. They do not constitute a pattern on analogy with which new stems may be constructed. Simple stems are generally monomorphic and phonetically identical with the root-morpheme. The derivational structure of stems does not always coincide with the result of morphemic analysis. Derived stems are built on stems of various structure through which they are motivated. Derived stems are understood on the basis of the derivative relations between their Ics and the correlated stems. Eg. The derived stem girlish- is understood through the comparison with the simple stem girl it is built on and on the basis of derivative relations between it and the suffix -ish. The derived stems are mostly polymorphic in which case the segmentation results only in one 1 that is itself a stem. The other 1 being necessarily a derivational affix, e.g. girlishness. The Ics here are the suffix -ness and the stem girlish-. Derived stems are not necessarily polymorphic. E.g. the stem of the verb (to) parrot is one-morpheme stem, but it should be considered as derived as it is felt by the native speaker as more complex and semantically dependent on the simple stem of the noun parrot. The verbial stem parrot- is understood through the derivative relations with this simple noun-stem which makes it motivated. Compound stems are made up of two ICs, both of which are themselves sterus, e.g. matchbox, driving-suit, etc. The comparison of the two levels of analysis proves that their results coincide only in elementary cases and even then they are given a different interpretation. Ex. the stem penholder is at both levels compound, but a morphemic analysis finds it to consist of two rootmorphemes and a suffix, whereas in terms of the derivational analysis it is built by joining two stems, one of which (pen-) is simple, the other (holder-) derived.

Summary
1.There are two levels of approach to the study of word-structure: the level of morphemic analysis and the level of derivational or word-formation analysis. 2.The basic unit of the morphemic level is the morpheme, defined as the smallest indivisible two-facet language unit. There are different types of morphemes - root and affixational morphemes; free and bound morphemes. 3.At the morphemic level words arc classified according to the number and type of morphemes they consist of. There are three structural types of words: root-words, derived words and compound words. Root-words prove to be the most important structural types. 4.The derivational or word-formation level of analysis of word- structure is concerned with the description of typical descriptive relations between morphemes within the word and derivative correlation between different types of words. 5.The basic unit at the derivative level of analysis is the stem, defined as the part of the word that remains unchanged throughout its paradigm. Stems are classed into simple, derived and compound in terms of the structure of their Immediate Constituents. 6.The derivational types of words are classified according to the stmcturc of their stems into simple, derived and compound words.

Topics for discussion 1.Morphemes as one of the basic linguistic units of the language. 1.1.Classification of morphemes. Free and bound forms. 1.2.Allomorphs. 2.Structural Types of Words and their Comparative Value 3.Aims and principles of morphemic and word-formation analysis. Analysis of words into Immediate Constituents. 4.Stem. Types of stems. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1. What is the difference between a word and a morpheme?

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2.What is the aim of analysis into immediate constituents? 3.What is the difference between derivational and functional affixes? 4.What is a bound morpheme? 5.How do we classify derivational affixes? 6.What do we mean by derivation? 7.What is the difference between frequency and productivity of affixes? 8.What are the peculiarities of English prefixation? Reference hooks:
1.Arnold, 1. V. The English Word /1. V. Arnold. - M 1986 - P. 77 - 106. 2.Ginzburg, R. S. A Course in Modern English Lexicology / R S. Ginzburg. - M., 1979.-P. 86-106, 114126. 3.Grinberg, L. E. Exercises in Modern English Lexicology / L. E. Grinberg, M. D. Kuznets.-M., 1966. 4.. . . / . . . - . : . 1977. 5.. . . / . ., 1981. 6., . . / . . . - ., 1976.

CHAPTER III

WORD WORD-

FORMATTOKI

TYPES

OF

3.1. Definition. Basic peculiarities


3.1.1. Definition. Basic peculiarities. Word formation is the process of creating new words from the material available in the language after certain structural and semantic formulas and patterns. Ex. the noun driver is formed after the pattern v + er - verb-stem - the noun-forming sffix -er. The meaning of the noun 'driver' is related to the meanings of the stem drive - and the suffix -er : 'a driver is one who drives' Likewise compounds resulting from two or more stems joined together to form a new word are also built on quite definite structural and semantic patterns and formulas Ex. adjectives of the snow-white type built according to the formula n+adj. The meaning of the whole compound is also related to the meanings of the component parts.

It should be noted that the understanding of word-formation excludes semantic wordbuilding. By semantic word-building some linguists understand any change in the wordmeaning. The majority of linguists, however, understand this process only as a change in the meaning of a word that may result in the appearance of homonyms, as is in the case with magazine - 'a publication' and magazine 'the chamber for cartridges in a gun or a rifle'. The application of the term word-formation to the process of semantic change and to the appearance of homonyms due to the development of polysemy seems to be debatable because as a rule it does not lead to the introduction of a new word into the vocabulary'- The appearance of homonyms is not a means of creating new words, it is the final result of a long process of sensedevelopment. As a subject of study, word-formation is a branch of Lexicology which studies the patterns on which a language builds new words. Word-formation deals only with words which are analyzable both structurally and semantically. The study of simple word has no place in it. Like any other linguistic phenomenon word-formation may be studied from two angles synehronically and diachronically. Synchronically the linguists investigate the present-day system of the types of word-formation while diachronically he is concerned with the history of word-building. Some of the ways of forming words in present-day English can be resorted to for the creation of new words whenever occasion demands - these are called productive ways of forming words, other ways of forming words can not now produce new words, and these are commonly termed non-productive or unproductive.

3.2. Types of word-formation


According to basic structural types of stems and words we distinguish two types of word formation; word derivation and word-composition (or compounding) Words created by wordderivation have only one primary stem and one derivational affix in terms of word-formation analysts, e.g. clean-ness (from clean). Some derived words have no affixes, because derivation is achieved through conversion e.g. to paper (from paper). Words created by word- composition have at least two primary stems, e.g. ice-cold, looking-glass. Besides, there are words built by a simultaneous application of composition and derivation (suffixation or conversion) derivational compounds, e.g. long- legged, open-minded, etc. If viewed structurally, words appear to be divisible into morphemes. Morphemes do not occur as free forms but only as constituents of words. Yet they possess meanings of their own. All morphemes are subdivided into two large classes: roots and affixes. Affixes fall into prefixes which precede the root (re-read) and suffixes which follow the root (teach-er). Words which consist of a root and affix (or several affixes) arc called derived words or derivatives and are produced by the process of word-building known as affixation (or derivation). Derived words are extremely numerous in the English vocabulary. Successfully competing with this structural type is the so-called root word which has only a root morpheme in its structure. This type is widely represented by a great number of words belonging to the original English stock or to earlier borrowings (house, room, book). Conversion has been greatly enlarged in ME. The somewhat odd-looking words like flu, pram, lab, M.P. are called shortenings or contractions and are produced by the way of word-building called shortening (contraction). The shortening of words stands apart from the above mentioned division of wordformation. It can not be regarded as part of either word-derivation or word-composition because 13

neither the root-morpheme nor the derivational affix can be singled out from the shortened word. eg. lab, exam, etc. Consequently shortening of words should be treated separately as a specific type of word-formation. Further distinction may be made between ways of forming words. The basic ways of forming words in word-derivation are affixation and conversion. The lexicalization of grammatical forms, sound and stress-interchange and some others are usually referred to as minor ways of forming words. In describing the technique of word-formation it is important to point out the means by which word-formation is affected. For instance, affixation is characterized by the use of suffixes and prefixes, some cases of compounding by the use of connecting elements, etc.

3.3. Principle ways of word-formation. Affixation.


Affixation is generally defined as the formation of words by adding derivational affixes to stems. The process of affixation consists in coining a new word by adding an affix or several affixes to some root morpheme. On the morphemic level every word formed by means of affixation has only one root- morpheme, which is its semantic center and one or more derivational affixes. For example, the word realism has one root morpheme and one derivational affix. The role of the affix in this procedure is very important. There are different classifications of suffixes in linguistic literature, as suffixes may be divided into several groups according to different principles. The first principle of classification is the part of speech formed principle. According to the part of speech classification suffixes naturally fall into several groups such as: 1)noun-suffixes, i.e. those forming or occurring in nouns, e.g. -er, dom, ness, ation, etc. 2)adjective-suffixes, i.e. those forming or occurring in adjectives, e.g. able, less, full, ic, ous 3)verb-suffixes, e.g. en, fy, ize 4)adverb-suffixes, e.g. ly, ward - quickly, eastward The second principle of classification is based on the criterion of sense expressed by the suffix. 1)the agent of a verbial action e.g. er, ant (baker, dancer, defendant) 2)collectivity e.g. age, dom, ery (officialdom, peasantry) 3)diminutiveness birdie, girlie, cloudlet, wolfling Suffixes may also be classified into various groups according to the lexico-gramatical character of the stem the suffix is usually added to. Recent research has revealed that derivational affixes, suffixes in particular, are characterized by quite a definite stylistic reference falling into two basic classes: 1)neutral stylistic reference (agreeable) 2)having a stylistic reference (asteroid) From etymological point of view affixes are classified into two large groups: native and borrowed. Some native suffixes noun-forming : -er (e. g. worker, miner, teacher, painter, etc.); -ness (e. g. coldness, loneliness, loveliness, etc.); -ing (e. g. feeling, meaning, singing, reading, etc.); - dom (e. g. freedom, wisdom, kingdom, etc.); -hood (childhood, manhood, motherhood, etc.); -ship (e. g.

friendship, companionship, mastership, etc.) adjective-forming : -ful (e. g. careful, joyful, wonderful, sinful, skilful, etc.); -less (e. g. careless, sleepless, cloudless, senseless, etc.); - (e. g. cozy, tidy, merry, snowy, showy, etc.), -ish (e. g. English, Spanish, reddish, childish, etc.); - ly (e. g. lonely, lovely, ugly, likely, lordly, etc.); -en (e. g. wooden, wollen, silken, golden, etc.); - some (e. g. handsome, quarrelsome, tiresome, etc.) verb-forming : -en (e. g. widen, redden, darken, sadden, etc.) adverb-forming : -ly (e. g. warmly, hardly, simply, carefully, coldly, etc.) Borrowed affixes, especially of Roman origin are numerous in the English vocabulary. An affix of a foreign origin can be regarded as borrowed only after it has begun an independent and active life in the recipient language, that is, is taking part in the word making processes of that language, e. g. thinnish, baldish, etc. Affixes can also be classified into productive and non-productive types. By productive affixes we mean the ones, which take part in deriving new words in this particular period of language development. The best way to identify productive suffixes is to look for them among neologisms and so-called nonce- words, i.e. words coined and used only for the particular occasions. Some productive affixes noun-forming suffixes: -ize/-ise, ate

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prefixes : Some

non-productive u affixes n noun-forming suffixes : -th. -hood adjective-forming suffixes : -ly, -some, -en,-ous verb-forming suffix : en

The morpheme, and therefore affix, which is a type of morpheme, is generally defined as the smallest indivisible component of the word possessing a meaning of its own. Meanings of affixes are specific and considerably differ from those of root morphemes.

Summary and conclusions


1.Word-formation is the process of creating words from the material available in the language after certain structural and semantic formulas and patterns. 2.As a subject of study, word-formation is that branch of Lexicology which studies the patterns on which the English language builds words. Like any language phenomenon, wordformation can be studied synchronically and diachronically. 3.There are two principle types of word-formation in ME: word-derivation and wordcomposition. Within these types further distinction is made between various ways and means of word-formation. 4.Distinction is made between productive and non-productive ways of word- formation.

3.4. Conversion
When in a book-review a book is referred to as a splendid read, is read to be regarded as a verb or a noun? What part of speech is room in the sentence: / was to room with another girl called Jessie. If a character in a novel is spoken about as one who had to be satisfied with the role of a has-been, what is this odd-looking has-been, a verb or a noun? One must admit that it has quite a verbal appearance, but why, then, is it preceded by the article? Why is the word //'used in the plural form in the popular proverb: If ifs and and were pots and pans? (an = if, dial., arch.) This type of questions naturally arise when one deals with words produced by conversion, one of the most productive ways of modern English word-building. Conversion is sometimes referred to as an affixless way of word-building or even affixless derivation. Saying that, however, is saying very little because there are other types of word-building in which new words are also formed

without affixes (most compounds, contracted words, sound-imitation words, etc}. Conversion consists in making a new word from some existing word by changing the category of a part of speech, the morphemic shape of the original word remaining unchanged. The new word has a meaning which differs from that of the original one though it can more or less be easily associated with it. It has also a new paradigm peculiar to its new category as a part of speech. The question of conversion has, for a long time, been a controversial one in several aspects. The very essence of this process has been treated by a number of scholars (e. g. H. Sweet), not as a word-building act, but as a mere functional change. From this point of view the word hand in Hand me thai book is not a verb, but a noun used in a verbal syntactical function, that is, hand (me) and hands (in She has small hands) are not two different words but one. Hence, the case cannot be treated as one of word-formation for no new word appears. According to this functional approach, conversion may be regarded as a specific feature of the English categories of parts of speech, which arc supposed to be able to break through the rigid borderlines dividing one category from another thus enriching the process of communication not by the creation of new words but through the sheer flexibility of the syntactic structures. Nowadays this theory finds increasingly fewer supporters, and conversion is universally accepted as one of the major ways of enriching English vocabulary with new words. One of the major arguments for this approach to conversion is the semantic change that regularly accompanies each instance of conversion. Normally, a word changes its syntactic function without any shift in lexical meaning. E. g. both in yellow leaves and in The leaves were turning yellow the adjective denotes colour. Yet, in The leaves yellowed the converted unit no longer denotes colour, but the process of changing colour, so that there is an essential change in meaning. The change of meaning is even more obvious in such pairs as hand > to hand, face > to face, to go > ago, to make > a make, etc. The other argument is the regularity and completeness with which converted units develop a paradigm of their new category of part of speech. As soon as it has crossed the category borderline, the new word automatically acquires all the properties of the new category, so that if it has entered the verb category, it is now regularly used in all the forms of tense and it also develops the forms of the participle and the gerund. Such regularity can hardly be regarded as indicating a mere functional change which might be expected to bear more occasional characteristics. The completeness of the paradigms in new conversion formations seems to be a decisive argument proving that here we are dealing with new words and not with mere functional variants. The data of the more reputable modern English dictionaries confirm this point of view: they all present converted pairs as homonyms, i. e. as two words, thus supporting the thesis that conversion is a word-building process. Conversion is not only a highly productive but also a particularly English way of wordbuilding. Its immense productivity is considerably encouraged by certain features of the English language in its modern stage of development. The analytical structure of Modern English greatly facilitates processes of making words of one category of parts of speech from words of another. So does the simplicity of paradigms of English parts of speech. A great number of onesyllable words is another factor in favour of conversion, for such words are naturally more mobile and flexible than polysyllables. Conversion is a convenient and "easy" way of enriching the vocabulary with new words.

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It is certainly an advantage to have two (or more) words where there was one, all of them fixed on the same structural and semantic base. The high productivity of conversion finds its reflection in speech where numerous occasional cases of conversion can be found, which are not registered by dictionaries and which occur momentarily, through the immediate need of the situation. "If anybody oranges me again tonight, I'll knock his face off, says the annoyed hero of a story by O'Henry when a shopassistant offers him oranges (for the tenth time in one night) instead of peaches for which he is looking ("Little Speck in Garnered Fruit"). One is not likely to find the verb to orange in any dictionary, but in this situation it answers the need for brevity, expressiveness and humour. The very first example, which opens the section on conversion in this chapter (the book is a splendid read), though taken from a book-review, is a nonce-word, which may be used by reviewers now and then or in informal verbal communication, but has not yet found its way into the universally acknowledged English vocabulary. Such examples show that conversion is a vital and developing process that penetrates contemporary speech as well. Subconsciously every English speaker realises the immense potentiality of making a word into another part of speech when the need arises. One should guard against thinking that every case of noun and verb (verb and adjective, adjective and noun, etc.) with the same morphemic shape results from conversion. There are numerous pairs of words (e. g. love, n. to love, v.; work, n. to work, v.; drink, n. to drink, v., etc.) which did, not occur due to conversion but coincided as a result of certain historical processes (dropping of endings, simplification of stems) when before that they had different forms (e. g. . E. lufu, n. lufian, v.). On the other hand, it is quite true that the first cases of conversion (which were registered in the 14th c.) imitated such pairs of words as love n. to love, v. for they were numerous in the vocabulary and were subconsciously accepted by native speakers as one of the typical language patterns. The two categories of parts of speech especially affected by conversion are nouns and verbs. Verbs made from nouns are the most numerous amongst the words produced by conversion: e. g. to hand, to back, to face, to eye. to mouth, to nose, to dog, to wolf, to monkey, to can, to coal, to stage, to screen, to room, to floor, to blackmail, to blacklist, to honeymoon, and very many others. Nouns are frequently made from verbs: do (e. g. This is the queerest do I've ever come across. t>o event, incident), go (e. g. He has still plenty of go at his age. Co energy), make, run, find, catch, cut, walk, worry, show, move, etc. Verbs can also be made from adjectives: to pale, to yellow, to cool, to grey, to rough (e. g. We decided to rough it in the tents as the weather was warm), etc. Other parts of speech are not entirely unsusceptible to conversion as the following examples show: to down, to out (as in a newspaper heading Diplomatist Outed from Budapest), the ups and downs, the ins and outs, like, n, (as in the like of me and the like of you). It was mentioned at the beginning of this section that a word made by conversion has a different meaning from that of the word from which it was made though the two meanings can be associated. There are certain regularities in these associations which can be roughly classified. For instance, in the group of verbs made from nouns some of the regular semantic associations are as indicated in the following list: I.The noun is the name of a tool or implement, the verb denotes an action performed by the tool: to hammer, to nail, to pin, to brush, to comb, to pencil. II.The noun is the name of an animal, the verb denotes an action or aspect of behaviour

considered typical of this animal: to dog, to wolf, to monkey, to ape, to fox, to rat. Yet, to fish does not mean "to behave like a fish" but "to try to catch fish". The same meaning of hunting activities is conveyed by the verb to whale and one of the meanings of to rat: the other is "to turn in former, squeal" (si.). III.The name of a part of the human body an action performed by it: to hand, to leg (si.), to eye, to elbow, to shoulder, to nose, to mouth. However, to face does not imply doing something by or even with one's face but turning it in a certain direction. To back means either "to move backwards" or, in the figurative sense, "to support somebody or something". IV.The name of a profession or occupation an activity typical of it: to nurse, to cook, to maid, to groom. V.The name of a place the process of occupying the place or of putting smth/smb in it (to room, to house, to place, to table, to cage). VI.The name of a container the act of putting smth. within the container (to can, to bottle, to pocket). VII.The name of a meal the process of taking it (to lunch, to supper). The suggested groups do not include all the great variety of verbs made from nouns by conversion. They just represent the most obvious cases and illustrate, convincingly enough, the great variety of semantic interrelations within so-called converted pairs and the complex nature of the logical associations which specify them. In actual fact, these associations are not only complex but sometimes perplexing. It would seem that if you know that the verb formed from the name of an animal denotes behaviour typical of the animal, it would be easy for you to guess the meaning of such a verb provided that you know the meaning of the noun. Yet, it is not always easy. The meaning of to fox is rather obvious being derived from the associated reputation of that animal for cunning: to fox means "to act cunningly or craftily". But what about to wolf How is one to know which of the characteristics of the animal was picked by the speaker's subconscious when this verb was produced? Yet, to wolf means "to eat greedily, voraciously": Charlie went on wolfing the chocolate (R. Dahl). In the same way, from numerous characteristics of the dog, only one was chosen for the verb to dog. To dog is to follow or track like a dog, especially with hostile intent. The two verbs to ape and to monkey, which might be expected to mean more or less the same, have shared between themselves certain typical features of the same animal: to ape to imitate, mimic (e. g. lie had always aped the gentleman in his clothes and manners. J. Fowles); Topics for discussion 1.Affixation. Peculiarities of affixation as a way of word-building in modern English. 1.1.Derivational and functional affixes. Semi-affixes. 1.2.Classification of derivational affixes. Productive and non productive affixes. 1.3.The etymology of affixes. 1.4.Classification of suffixes. 1.5.Prefixes. 2.Word-composition. 2.1.General characteristics of the process of compounding.

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2.2.The criteria of compounds. 2.3.Classification of compounds. 2.4.The historical development of English compounds. 3.Conversion. 3.1.The historical development of conversion in English. Conversion in Modern English. 3.2.Conversion in Modern English. 3.3.Traditional and occasional conversion. 3.4.Typical semantic relationships in conversion. III. Minor ways of word-building. 4.1.Shortening. Shortened words. Shortening of spoken words. 4.2.Graphical abbreviations. Acronyms. 4.3.Blending. 3.3.Back-formation. 3.4.Distinctive stress. 3.5.Sound interchange. Consider vour answers to the following questions: 1.What are the main ways of enriching the English vocabulary? 2.What are the principal productive ways of word-building in English? 3.What is a compound word? 4.What structural types of compound words exist in English? 5.What is the difference between a compound word and a combination of words? 6.What word is called a compound derivative? 7.Which type of composition is productive in Modern English? 8.How old is conversion as a way of word building? 9.How do you account for a high productivity of conversion in Modem English? 10.What serves as a word-building means in case of conversion? 11.What are the two processes of making shortenings? 12.What minor processes of word-building do you know? Describe them and illustrate your answer with examples. Do the following exercises Exercise I. State the origin and explain the meaning of the suffixes in the following words: childhood, friendship, hardship, freedom, toward, backward, manhood, boredom, rider, granny, teacher, aunty, hatred, limitation, cheerfulness Exercise 2. From the suffixes given below, pick out the productive ones, build words with these suffixes:-ion, -ing, -tion, -y, -en, -ish, -ous, -fill, -some, - less, -ance, -ive, -ward, - ment, -let, -ly, -ize, -able Exercise 3. a) Write out the words with adjective-forming suffixes. b) Comment on the origin and productivity of the suffixes 1. Luckily, however, for the poor wretch, he had fallen into more merciful hands (Henry Fielding). 2. Young Dobbin had no place after that. The jokes were frightful, and merciless against him (W. Thackeray). 3. And soon he devised means of enjoying them as play-things; for the lamb's tail was long and pullable (E. Scton-Thompson). 4. The apartment was carpetless and the dust of a

decade lay deep on the old books and shelves. 5. A rosy-cheeked scholar-girl was just lifting a creamy mixture to her lips before the fountain. 6. Bosinney was long in answering, but kept his eyes with uncomfortable steadiness on James (J. Galsworthy). 7. He was a sturdy youth, courageous and defiant (Th. Dreiser). Exercise 4. Pick out the productive and non-productive prefixes: un-, be-, pre-, al-, non-, mis-, post-, a-, anti -, out-, ex-, for-, re-, up-, counter-, etra-, super-, dis-, trans-, inter-, ante-, ultra-, under, intro-. Exercise 5. Explain the etymology and productivity of the affixes given below. Say what parts of speech are formed with their help. -ness, -ous, -ly, -y, -dom, -ish, -tion, -ed, -en, -ess, -or, -er, -hood, -less, - ate, -ing, -al, -ful, un-, re-, dis-, over-, abExercise 6. Deduce the meanings of the following derivatives from the meanings of their constituents. Explain your deduction. What are the meanings of the affixes in the words under examination? reddish, adj.; overwrite, v.; irregular, adj.; illegal, adj.; retype, v.; old- womanish, adj.; disrespectable, adj.; inexpensive, adj.; unladylike, adj.; disorganize, v.; renew, v.; eatable., adj.; overdress, v.; disinfection, .; snobbish, adj.; handful, .; tallish, adj.; sandy, adj.; breakable, adj.; underfed, adj. Exercise 7 Analyze the structure of the following words: get-at-able, undertaker, looking-glass, sea-coast, fountain-pen, stay-at- home, red-hot, will-to-live, heart-broken, bird's-eye, penny-a-liner, Anglo- Saxon, utter-fingers, sunfish, nolonger-young, mother-in-law, non-stop flight, up-to-date, gaslight, officer-in-charge, workday, handiwork. Exercise 8. Pick out the derivatives and compounds from the following words: lawyer, copyright, copy-book, comer-boy, sister-in-law, daily, daylight, deanery, leatherette, rank-and-file. Exercise 9. a) Pick out the compound nouns: b) Compare the meaning of the compound with that of its components. 1. Away they went, and the little cow-ponies that car led the men were easily left behind (E. Seton - Thompson). 2. The old aunts at Timothy's had been dead so many years, there was no clearing-house for news (J. Galsworthy). 3. He went up to the globe, and gave it a spin, it emitted a faint creak and moved about an inch, bringing into his purview a daddylong legs which had died on it in latitude 44 (id. ). 4. Talebearers, as I said before, are just as bad as the tale makers (R. Sheridan). 5. Mrs. Harden, be it observed, was the housekeeper, a woman after Mr. Brocklehurst's own heart made up of equal parts whalebone and iron (Charlotte Bronte). 6. He felt a shock himself, and a blush of embarrassment shone faintly on his sunburned cheeks, though to him it burned as hotly as when his cheeks had been exposed to the open furnace door in the fire room (Jack London). 7. What might be his uncle's attitude toward boys who worked as bell-boys, particularly at his - Clyde's years (Th. Dreiser).

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Elxercise 10. (a) Comment on the meaning and form of the following compounds, (b) Compare the meaning of the compound with that of its components. 1.butterball, buttermilk, butterwoman, butter-fingers; 2.ashman, dustman, motorman, milkman, fisherman, shipman, postman, clergyman, boatman, seaman, oilman, woodman, cartman, ploughman, nobleman, madman; 3.craftsman, salesman, batsman, oarsman, kinsman, herdsman, statesman, sportsman; 4.butterwoman, milkwoman, horsewoman, tartwoman, applewoman, kinswoman. Exercise 11. a) Translate the compound words into Russian b) Compare the meaning of the compound word with that of its components. Lady-bird, nobleman, grandfather, bluebell, butterfingers, bluestocking, lady-killer, bird's-eye, mother-of-pearl, mother-of-thousands, mother's mark, mother country, mothership, masterpiece, sundew, sunflower, sunfish, horse- marine, horse-radish, dough-boy, white-livered, red coat, black sheep, red tape. Exercise 12. Compare the following verbs with the corresponding nouns. Comment on their form and meaning: ape - to ape; ass - to ass; dog - to dog; duck - to duck; fish - to fish; eye - to eye; finger to finger; head - to head; shoulder - to shoulder; top - to top; dress - to dress; pocket - to pocket; line - to line; monkey - to monkey; rat - to rat; back - to back; blood - to blood; face to face; star - to star; cork - to cork. Exercise 13. Compare the meaning of the words in bold type with that of the corresponding nouns. 1. to head an army; 2 to toe a mark; 3. to eye a foe; 4. to chair a candidate; 5. to table a resolution; 6. to scalp an enemy; 7. to fish for compliments; 8. to foot a stocking; 9. to mind a command; 10. to book a passenger; 11. to hand a plate; 12. to man a ship; 13. to dress a wound; 14. to cork a bottle. Exercise 14. Explain the semantic correlation within the following pairs of words: shelter - to shelter; park - to park; groom - to groom; elbow - to elbow; breakfast - to breakfast; pin - to pin; trap - to trap; fish - to fish; head - to head; nurse - to nurse, water - to water . Exercise 15. a) Find and explain cases of conversion in the following sentences. 1. The clerk was eyeing him expectantly. 2. Under the cover of that protective din he was able to toy with a steaming dish which his waiter had brought. 3. An aggressive man battled his way to Stout's side. 4. My seat was in the middle of a row. I could not leave without inconveniencing a great many people, so I remained. 5. Mow on earth do you remember to milk the cows and give pigs their dinner? 6. Ten minutes later I was speeding along in the direction of Cape Town. 7. Restaurants in all large cities have their ups and downs. 8. "A man could be very happy in a house like this if he didn't have to poison his days with work," said Jimmy. Exercise 16. Find an example of graphical abbreviation: a)1. VIr. Brown's office 2.V-Day celebration 3.MP's speech

4.UNESCO b)1. T.V. - show 2.U.N.O. session 3.the USA policy 4.Dr. Smith's family Exercise 17. Comment on the formation of the words given below: 1.

2. 3.

to pettifog, to spring-clean, to strap-hang, to typewrite, to sight-read, to mote; brig, bus, exam, Fred, mend, Mrs., photo, prep, taxi, USA; flush, food-bye, slash, smog.

Exercise 18. Define the particular type of word-building process by which the following words were made and say as much as you can about them. To babysit; to phone; to buzz; a photo; homelike; theatrical; old- fashioned; a frig: SALT (strategic armament limitation talks); to murmur; a pub; eatable; make; merry-go-round; B.B.C.; a go; to thunder; M.P., a find; a torchlight; unreasonable; Anglo-American; to dilly-dally; earthquake; D-region (the lowest region of the ionosphere extending from 60 to 80 km.); fatalism; cope-book. Reference books:
1 Arnold 1. V. The English Word / I V. Arnold - M., 1986,- P. 108-163 2.Ginzburg, R S. A Course in Modern English Lexicology / R S. Ginzburg. - M , 1979 - P. 108- 114, 127158. 3., . . // , . . / . - . .-. 1.11.-. 31 - 51. 4.. . . / . . - , 1956. 5., . . / . . - ., 1976

CHAPTER IV

SEMANTIC STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH WORDS. POLYSEMY


5Word meaning The function of the word as a unit of communication is made possible by its possessing a meaning. Therefore, among the word's various characteristics, meaning is certainly the most important. Generally speaking, meaning can be more or less described as a component of the word through which a concept is communicated, in this way endowing the word with the ability of denoting real objects, qualities, actions and abstract notions. The branch of linguistics which specialises in the study of meaning is called semantics. As

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with many terms, the term "semantics" is ambiguous for it can stand, as well, for the expressive aspect of language in general and for the meaning of one particular word in all its varied aspects and nuances (i.e. the semantics of a word - the meaning(s) of a word). The modern approach to semantics is based on the assumption that the inner form of the word (i. e. its meaning) presents a structure which is called the semantic structure of the word. 6Polysemy. Semantic Structure of the Word The semantic structure of the word does not present an indestructible unity, nor does it necessarily stand for one concept. It is generally known that most words convey several concepts and thus possess the corresponding number of meanings. A word having several meanings is called polysemantic, and the ability of words to have more than one meaning is described by the term polysemy. Most English words are polysemantic. The wealth of expressive resources of a language largely depends on the degree to which polysemy has developed in the language. If each word is found to be capable of conveying at least two concepts instead of one, the expressive potential of the whole vocabulary increases twofold. So a well-developed polysemy is not a drawback but a great advantage in a language. The number of sound combinations that human speech organs can produce is limited. Therefore at a certain stage of language development the production of new words by morphological means becomes limited. So polysemy becomes increasingly important in providing the means for enriching the vocabulary. So it should be clear that the process of enriching the vocabulary does not consist merely in adding new words to it, but, also, in the constant development of polysemy. The system of meanings of any polysemantic word develops gradually, mostly over the centuries. The complicated processes of polysemy development involve both the appearance of new meanings and the loss of old ones. Yet, the general tendency with English vocabulary at the modern stage of its history is to increase the total number of its meanings and in this way to provide for a quantitative and qualitative growth of the language's expressive resources. When analysing the semantic structure of a polysemantic word, it is necessary to distinguish between two levels of analysis. On the first level, the semantic structure of a word is treated as a system of meanings. For example, the semantic structure of the noun fire could be roughly presented by this scheme (only the most frequent meanings are given):
Fire, n. I Flame II An instance of destructive burning; eg .a forest fire III IV V Burning material in a The shooting of guns, Strong feeling, stove, fireplace, etc.; e etc.; e. g. to open (cease) passion, enthusiasm; e. g. There is a fire in the fire. g. a speech iackingfire next room. A camp fire.

This scheme suggests that meaning I holds a kind of dominance over the other meanings conveying the concept in the most general way whereas meanings IIV are associated with special circumstances, aspects and instances of the same phenomenon. Meaning I (generally referred to as the main meaning) presents the centre of the semantic structure of the word holding it together. It is mainly through meaning I that meanings

Bar (I) Any kind of bamer 10 prevent people from passing Bar (II) The profession of barrister, law e g go to the Bar readfor the Bar Bar (III) (In a public house or hotel) a counter or room where drinks arc served; e g They went lo the bar for a drink.

IIV (they are called secondary meanings) can be associated with one another, some of them exclusively through meaning I, as, for.instance, meanings IV and V. Another pattern can be presented by the structure of the word 'bar' %

Meanings II and III have no logical links with one another whereas each separately is easily associated with meaning I: meaning II through the traditional barrier dividing a courtroom into two parts; meaning 111 through the counter serving as a kind of barrier between the customers of a pub and the barman. Such a centre can be found not in every polysemantic word. Some semantic structures are arranged on a different principle. In the following list of meanings of the adjective dull one can hardly hope to find a generalised meaning covering and holding together the rest of the semantic structure. Dull, adj. 2.Uninteresting, monotonous, boring; e. g. a dull book, a dullfdm 3.Slow in understanding, stupid; e. g. a dull student 4.Not clear or bright; e. g. dull weather, a dull day, a dull colour. 5.Not loud or distinct; e. g. a dull sound. 6.Not sharp; e. g. a dull knife. 7.Not active; e. g. Trade is dull. 8.Seeing badly; e. g. dull eyes (arch.). 9.Hearing badly; e. g. dull ears (arch.), We distinctly feel that there is something that all these seemingly miscellaneous meanings have in common, and that is the implication of deficiency, be it of colour (in. Ill), wits (m. II), interest (m. I), sharpness (m. V), etc. The implication of insufficient quality, of something lacking, can be clearly distinguished in each separate meaning. In fact, each meaning definition in the given scheme can be subjected to a transformational operation to prove the point. Dull, adj. 1. Uninteresting > deficient in interest or excitement. 2.... Stupid > deficient in intellect. 3.Not bright > deficient in light or colour. 4.Not loud > deficient in sound. 5. Not sharp > deficient in sharpness. 6. Not active > deficient in activity. 7. Seeing badly > deficient in eyesight. 8. Hearing badly > deficient in hearing. The transformed scheme of the semantic structure of dull clearly shows that the centre holding together the complex semantic structure of this word is not one of the meanings but a certain component that can be easily singled out within each separate meaning. This brings us to the second level of analysis of the semantic structure of a word. The transformational operation with the meaning definitions of dull reveals something very significant: the semantic structure of the word is "divisible", as it were, not only at the level of different meanings but, also, at a deeper level. Each separate meaning seems to be subject to structural analysis in which it may be

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represented as sets of semantic components. In terms of componential analysis, one of the modern methods of semantic research, the meaning of a word is defined as a set of elements of meaning which are not part of the vocabulary of the language itself, but rather theoretical elements, postulated in order to describe the semantic relations between the lexical elements of a given language. The scheme of the semantic structure of dull shows that the semantic structure of a word is not a mere system of meanings, for each separate meaning is subject to further subdivision and possesses an inner structure of its own. Therefore, the semantic structure of a word should be investigated at both these levels: a) of different meanings, b) of semantic components within each separate meaning. For a monosemantic word (i. e. a word with one meaning) the first level is naturally excluded.

4.3. Types of Semantic Components


The leading semantic component in the semantic structure of a word is usually termed denotative component (also, the term referential component may be used). The denotative component expresses the conceptual content of a word. The following list presents denotative components of some English adjectives and verbs:

It is obvious that the definitions given in the right column only partially and incompletely describe the meanings of their corresponding words. To give a more or less full picture of the meaning of a word, it is necessary to include in the scheme of analysis additional semantic components which are termed connotations or connotative components.

Let us complete the semantic structures of the words given above introducing connotative components into the schemes of their semantic structures.
Denotative components lonely, adj. notorious, adj alone, without company widely known Connotative component
melancholy, sad for criminal acts or bad traits of character

Connotation

Emotive connotation Evaluative connotation, negative

celebrated, adj.

widely known

for special achievement in science, art, etc. steadily, lastingly in anger, rage, etc.

Evaluative connotation, positive 1.Connotation of duration 2.Emotive connotation

to glare, v.

to look

to glance, v. to shiver v.

to look to tremble

briefly, passingly lastingly (usu) with the cold

Connotation of duration 1 .Connotation of duration 2. Connotation of cause I Connotation of duration

to shudder v.

to tremble

briefly

with horror, disgust, etc 2. Connotation of causc 3. Emotive connotation

The above examples show how by singling out denotative and connotative components one can get a sufficiently clear picture of what the word really means. The schemes presenting the semantic structures of glare, shiver, shudder also show that a meaning can have two or more connotative components. The given examples do not exhaust all the types of connotations but present only a few: emotive, evaluative connotations, and also connotations of duration and of cause.

4.4. Meaning and Context


In the beginning of the paragraph entitled "Polysemy" we discussed the advantages and disadvantages of this linguistic phenomenon. One of the most important "drawbacks" of polysemantic words is that there is sometimes a chance of misunderstanding when a word is used in a certain meaning but accepted by a listener or reader in another. It is only natural that such cases provide stuff of which jokes are made, such as the ones that follow: Customer. I would like a book, please. Bookseller. Something light? Customer. That doesn't matter. I have my car with me. In this conversation the customer is honestly misled by the polysemy of the adjective light taking it in the literal sense whereas the bookseller uses the word in its figurative meaning "not serious; entertaining". In the following joke one of the speakers pretends to misunderstand his interlocutor

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basing his angry retort on the polysemy of the noun kick: The critic started to leave in the middle of the second act of the play. Generally speaking, it is common knowledge that context is a powerful preventative against any misunderstanding of meanings. For instance, the adjective dull, if used out of context, would mean different things to different people or nothing at all. It is only in combination with other words that it reveals its actual meaning: a dull pupil, a dull play, a dull razor-blade, dull weather, etc. Sometimes, however, such a minimum contcxt fails to reveal the meaning of the word, and it may be correctly interpreted only through what Professor N. Amosova termed a second-degree context [1], as in the following example: The man was large, but his wife was even fatter. The word fatter here serves as a kind of indicator pointing that large describes a stout man and not a big one. Current research in semantics is largely based on the assumption that one of the more promising methods of investigating the semantic structure of a word is by studying the word's linear relationships with other words in typical contexts, i. e. its combinability or collocability. Scholars have established that the semantics of words characterised by common occurrences (i. e. words which regularly appear in common contexts) arc correlated and, therefore, one of the words within such a pair can be studied through the other. There is an interesting hypothesis that the semantics of words regularly used in common contexts (e. g. bright colours, to build a house, to create a work of art, etc.) are so intimately correlated that each of them casts, as it were, a kind of permanent reflection on the meaning of its neighbour. If the verb to compose is frequently used with the object music, isn't it natural to expect that certain musical associations linger in the meaning of the verb to compose? Note, also, how closely the negative evaluative connotation of the adjective notorious is linked with the negative connotation of the nouns with which it is regularly associated: a notorious criminal, thief gangster, gambler, gossip, liar, miser, etc. All this leads us to the conclusion that context is a good and reliable key to the meaning of the word. The first is that of sheer misunderstanding, when the speaker means one thing and the listener takes the word in its other meaning. The second danger has nothing to do with the process of communication but with research work in the field of semantics. A common error with the inexperienced research worker is to see a different meaning in every new set of combinations. Here is a puzzling question to illustrate what we mean. Cfi: an angry man, an angry letter. Is the adjective angry used in the same meaning in both these contexts or in two different meanings? Some people will say "two" and argue that, on the one hand, the combinability is different (man name of person; letter nafne of object) and, on the other hand, a letter cannot experience anger. True, it cannot; but it can very well convey the anger of the person who wrote it. As to the combinability, the main point is that a word can realise the same meaning in different sets of combinability. For instance, in the pairs merry children, merry laughter, merry faces, merry songs the adjective merry conveys the same concept of high spirits whether they arc directly experienced by the children (in the first phrase) or indirectly expressed through the merry faces, the laughter and the songs of the other word groups. The task of distinguishing between the different meanings of a word and the different variations of combinability (different usages of the word) is actually a question of singling out the different denotations within the semantic structure of the word. Topics for discussion 1 .The lexical meaning of the word and its semantic structure.

2.Polysemy. Semantic structure of the word. 3.The structure of lexical meaning. Denotational and connotational components of lexical meaning, their stylistic reference, evaluation, emotive charge. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1.What are the main approaches to the study of word-meaning? 2.What is understood by semantics? 3.What is the structure of word-meaning? 4.Define polysemy as a linguistic phenomenon. Illustrate your answer with your own examples. 5.How can you account for a highly developed polysemy in English? 6.What are the two levels of analysis in investigating the semantic structure of a word? Exercise 1. Discuss the various meanings of the words given in bold type. 1. She was still in her pretty ball dress, her fair hair hanging on her neck, and the circles round her eyes dark with watching (W. Thackeray). 2. Mr. Boffin lighted his pipe and looked with beaming eyes into the opening word before him (Charles Dickens). 3. Accordingly, mysterious shapes and made of tables in the middle of the rooms, and cowered over with great winding sheets (Charles Dickens). Exercise 2. Identify the denotative and connotative elements of the meanings in the following pairs of words. To conceal - to disguise; to choose - to select; to draw - to paint; money - cash; photograph - picture: old - queer. Exercise 3. Read the entries for the English word 'court' and the Russian ' in a dictionary. Explain the differences in the semantic structure of both words. Exercise 4. Read the text given below. Answer the questions and complete the tasks which follow it. After a while I got up and started along the bank. 1 knew there was no bridge across the river until Latisana. I thought I might be opposite san Vito. I began to think out what 1 should do. Ahead there was a ditch running into the river. I went towards it. So far I had seen no one and I sat down by some bushes along the bank of the ditch and took off my shoes and emptied them of water. I took off my coat, took my wallet with my papers and my money all wet in it out of the inside pocket and then wrung the coat out. 1 took off my trousers and wrung them too, then my shirt and underclothing. I slapped and rubbed myself and then dressed again. I had lost my cap. Before I put on my coat I cut the cloth starts off my sleeves and put them in the inside pocket with my money. My money was wet but was all right. 1 counted it. There were three thousand and some lire. My clothes felt wet and clammy and 1 slapped my arms to keep the circulation going. I had woolen underwear and I did not think I would catch cold if I kept moving. They had taken my pistol at the road and I put the holster under my coat. I had no cape and it was cold in the rain. I started up the bank of the canal. It was daylight and the country was wet, low and dismay-looking. The fields were bare and wet, a long way away I could see a campanile rising out of the plain. I came up on to a road. Ahead I saw some troops coming down the road. 1 limped along the side of the road and they passed me and paid no attention to me. They were a machine- gun detachment going up toward the river. I went on down the road.

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E. Hemingway 1.Write out from the above passage polysemantic words. Explain their meanings. 2.Discuss the semantic structure of the adjective cold and the known cold. Comment on their use in the text. 3.Look up the verbs to put, to start and to pay in a dictionary and comment on their semantic structure. In what meaning are these verbs used in the text? Reference books:
1.Arnold. 1. V. The English Word /1. V. Arnold. - M., 1986. - P. 37-73. 2.Ginzburg. R S. A Course in Modern English Lcxicology / R. S. Ginzburg - M , 1979. -P. 13-38

CHAPTER V

HOMONYMY
5.1. Definition of Homonyms
Homonyms are words which are identical in sound and spelling, or, at least, in one of these aspects, but different in their meaning. E. g. bank, n. a shore; bank, n. an institution for receiving, lending, exchanging, and safeguarding money; ball, n. a sphere; any spherical body; ball, n. a large dancing party English vocabulary is rich in such pairs and even groups of words. Their identical forms are mostly accidental: the majority of homonyms coincided due to phonetic changes which they suffered during their development. If synonyms and antonyms can be regarded as the treasury of the language's expressive resources, homonyms are of no interest in this respect, and one cannot expect them to be of particular value for communication. Metaphorically speaking, groups of synonyms and pairs of antonyms are created by the vocabulary system with a particular purpose whereas homonyms are accidcntal creations, and therefore purposeless. In the process of communication they are more of an encumbrance, leading sometimes to confusion and misunderstanding. This makes them one of the most important sources of popular humour. The pun is a joke based on the play upon words of similar form but different meaning (i. e. on homonyms) as in the following: "A tailor guarantees to give each of his customers a perfect fit." (The joke is based on the homonyms: I .fit, n. perfectly fitting clothes; II.fit, n. a nervous spasm.) Homonyms which are the same in sound and spelling (as the examples given above) are traditionally termed homonyms proper. The second type of homonyms is called homophones. Homophones are the same in sound but different in spelling. Here are some examples of homophones: night, n. knight, .; piece, n. peace, .; scent, n. cent, n. sent, v. (Past Indef., Past Part, of to send); rite, n. to write, v. right, adj.; sea, n. to see, v. [si:] (the name of a letter).

The third type of homonyms is called homographs. These are words which are the same in spelling but different in sound. to bow [bau], v. - to incline the head or body in salutation bow [bou], . - a flexible strip of wood for propelling arrows to lead [li:d], v - to conduct on the way, to go before to show the way lead [led], n. - a heavy, rather soft metal The subdivision of homonyms into homonyms proper, homophones and homographs is certainly not precise enough and does not reflect certain important features of these words, and, most important of all, their status as parts of speech. Homonyms may belong both to the same and to different categories of parts of speech. Obviously, a classification of homonyms should reflect this distinctive feature. Also, the paradigm of each word should be considered, because it has been observed that the paradigms of some homonyms coincide completely, and of others only partially. Professor A. 1. Smirnitsky classified homonyms into two large classes: I. Full homonyms, II. Partial homonyms. I.Full lexical homonyms are words which represent the same category of parts of speech and have the same paradigm. E. g. match, n. a game, a contest; match, n. a short piece of wood used for producing fire. II.Partial homonyms are subdivided into three subgroups: 1)Simple lexico-grammatical partial homonyms are words which belong to the same category of parts of speech. Their paradigms have one identical form, but it is never the same form, as will be seen from the following example, e. g. (to) found, v., found, v. (Past Indefi, Past Part, of to ( find) 2)Complex lexico-grammatical partial homonyms are words of different categories of parts of speech which have one identical form in their paradigms. E. g. rose, n. rose, v. (Past Indef. of to rise) maid, n. made, v. (Past indef., Past Part, of to make) III.Partial lexical homonyms are words of the same category of parts of speech which are identical only in their corresponding forms. E. g. to lie (lay, lain), v. to lie (lied, lied), v.

5.2. Sources of Homonyms


One sourcc of homonyms has already been mentioned: phonetic changes which words undergo in the course of their historical development. As a result of such changes, two or more words which were formerly pronounced differently may develop identical sound forms and thus become homonyms. Night and knight, for instance, were not homonyms in Old English as the initial in the second word was pronounced, and not dropped as it is in its modern sound form: O.E. kniht (cf. O.E. niht). A more complicated change of form brought together another pair of homonyms: to knead (O.E. cnedan) and to need (O.E. neodian) In Old English the verb to write had the form writan, and the adjective right had the forms reht, riht. The noun sea descends from the Old English form sae, and the verb to see from . E. seon. The noun work and the verb to work also had different forrrts in Old English: wyrkean and weork respectively.

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Borrowing is another source of homonyms. A borrowed word may. in the final stage of its phonetic adaptation, duplicate in form either a native word or another borrowing. So, in the group of homonyms rite, 11. to write, v. right, adj. the second and third words are of native origin whereas rite is a Latin borrowing (< Lat. ritus). In the pair piece, n. peace, ., the first originates from O.F. pais, and the second from O.F. (< Gaulish) pettia. Bank, n. ("shore") is a native word, and bank, n. ("a financial institution") is an Italian borrowing. Fair, adj. (as in a fair deal, it's not fair) is native, and fair, n. ("a gathering of buyers and sellers") is a French borrowing. Match, n. ("a game; a contest of skill, strength") is native, and match, n. ("a slender short piece of wood used for producing fire") is a French borrowing. Word-building also contributes significantly to the growth of homonymy, and the most important type in this respect is undoubtedly conversion. Such pairs of words as comb, n. to comb, v., pale. adj. to pale, v., to make, v. make, n. are numerous in the vocabulary. Homonyms of this type, which are the same in sound and spelling but refer to different categories of parts of speech, are called lexico-grammatical homonyms. Shortening is a further type of word-building which increases the number of homonyms. E.g. fan, n. in the sense of "an enthusiastic admirer of some kind of sport or of an actor, singer, etc." is a shortening produced from fanatic. Its homonym is a Latin borrowing/an, n. which denotes an implement for waving lightly to produce a cool current of air. The noun rep, n. denoting a kind of fabric (cf. with the R. ) has three homonyms made by shortening: rep, n. (< repertory), rep, n. (< representative), rep, n. (< reputation)', all the three are informal words. Words made by sound-imitation can also form pairs of homonyms with other words: e. g. bang, n. ("a loud, sudden, explosive noise") bang, n. ("a fringe of hair combed over the forehead"). Also: mew, n. ("the sound a cat makes") mew, n. ("a sea gull") mew, n. ("a pen in which poultry is fattened") mews ("small terraced houses in Central London"). These sources of homonyms have one important feature in common. In all the mentioned cases the homonyms developed from two or more different words, and their similarity is purely accidental. (In this respect, conversion certainly presents an exception for in pairs of homonyms formed by conversion one word of the pair is produced from the other: a find < to find.) The next source of homonyms differs essentially from all other cases. Two or more homonyms can originate from different meanings of the same word when, for some reason, the semantic structure of the word breaks into several parts. This type of formation of homonyms is called split polysemy. The semantic structure of a polysemantic word presents a system within which all its constituent meanings are held together by logical associations. In most cases, the function of the arrangement and the unity is determined by one of the meanings (e. g. the meaning "flame" in the noun fire). If this meaning disappears from the word's semantic structure the semantic structure loses its unity. It falls into two or more parts which then become accepted as independent lexical units. Let us consider the history of three homonyms: board, n. a long and thin piece of timber board, n. daily meals, esp. as provided for pay, e. g. room and board board, n. an official group of persons who direct or supervise some activity, e. g. a board of directors. It is clear that the meanings of these three words are in no way associated with one another. Yet, most larger dictionaries still enter a meaning of board that once held together all these other meanings "table". It developed from the meaning "a piece of timber" by transference based on contiguity (association of an object and the material from which it is made). The meanings "meals" and "an official group of persons" developed from the meaning "table", also

by transference based on contiguity: meals are easily associated with a table on which they are served; an official group of people in authority are also likely to discuss their business round a table. Nowadays, however, the item of furniture, on which meals are served and round which boards of directors meet, is no longer denoted by the word board but by the French Norman borrowing table, and board in this meaning, though still registered by some dictionaries, can very well be marked as archaic as it is no longer used in common speech. That is why, with the intrusion of the borrowed table, the word board actually lost its corresponding meaning. But it was just that meaning which served as a link to hold together the rest of the constituent parts of the word's semantic structure. With its diminished role as an element of communication, its role in the semantic structure was also weakened. The speakers almost forgot that board had ever been associated with any item of furniture, nor could they associate the concepts of meals or of a responsible committee with a long thin piece of timber (which is the oldest meaning of board). Consequently, the semantic structure of board was split into three units. The following scheme illustrates the process: A somewhat different case of split polysemy may be illustrated by the three following homonyms: spring, n. the act of springing, a leap spring, n. a place where a stream of water comes up out of the earth (R. , ) spring, . a season of the year. Historically all three nouns originate from the same verb with the meaning of "to jump, to leap" (. E. sprin-gan), so that the meaning of the first homonym is the oldest. The meanings of the second and third homonyms were originally based on metaphor. At the head of a stream the water sometimes leaps up but of the earth, so that metaphorically such a place could well be described as a leap. On the other hand, the season of the year following winter could be poetically defined as a leap from the darkness and cold into sunlight and life. Such metaphors arc typical enough of Old English and Middle English semantic transferences but not so characteristic of modern mental and linguistic processes. It should be stressed, however, that split polysemy as a source of homonyms is not accepted by some scholars. It is really difficult sometimes to decide whether a certain word has or has not been subjected to the split of the semantic structure and whether we are dealing with different meanings of the same word or with homonyms, for the criteria are subjective and imprecise. Topics for discussion I.Definition of homonyms II.Classification of homonyms III.Sources of homonymy IV.Etymological and semantic criteria of polysemy and homonymy. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1.Which words do we call homonyms? 2.Why can't homonyms be regarded as expressive means of the language? 3.What is the traditional classification for homonyms? 4.In what respect does split polysemy stand apart from other sources of homonyms? 5.Prove that the language units 'board', ('a long and, thin piece of timber" land 'board' ('daily meals') are two different words (homonyms) and not two different meanings of 33

one and the same word. Write down some similar examples. 6.What is the essential difference between homonymy and polysemy? 7.What have they in common? Illustrate your answer with examples.

Do the following exercises Exercise 1. Discuss the various meanings of the words given in bold type: 1. She was still in her pretty ball dress, her fair hair hanging on her neck, and the circles round her eyes dark with watching (W. Thackeray). 2. Mr. Boffin lighted his pipe and looked with beaming eyes into the opening world before him. (Ch. Dickens). 3. Accordingly, mysterious shapes were made of tables in the middle of rooms, and covered over with great sheets (Ch. Dickens). Exercise 2. a) Translate the following perfect homonyms inn Russian, b) Use them in sentences of your own. re-call, recall; re-cede, recede, re-claim, reclaim, re-collect, recollect; recount, recount, recover, recover, re-create, recreate, re-fill, refill; re- form, reform; re-fund, refund; re-lease, release, re-mark, remark. Exercise 3. a)Find perfect homonyms in the following sentences and translate them into Russian; b)Stale their origin and meaning; c)State whether they are complete or partial, lexical or lexico - grammatical homonyms. 1.Colin managed to slighter on the bank (J. Lindsay). He was worried by the perfect storm of wildcat money which was floating about and which was constantly coming to his bank (Th. Dreiser). 2.They will sack you as soon as things slackcn. (J. Lindsay). We're going to take a sack of coal (J. Lindsay). I shall be obliged to get my breakfast and morning-draught of sack from the old Jacobite ladies (Walter Scott). 3.They took up a lot of small fry (J. Lindsay). It's a shame to fry an egg as fresh as that one was (id). 4.You had to walk about fifty yards along the street in front (J. Lindsay). They were all playing in the back yard. 5.He went over again to the sink (J. Lindsay). He saw the sun sink beyond the horizon (Walter Scott). 6.Mabel began to find out what a mean old rogue he is (J. Lindsay). What I mean is that he strikes me as a man who has gone to the bottom of things (Jack London). 7.All agreed that to drink of the waters of the well was ominous to the descendant of that house (Walter Scott). All is well that ends well. 8."The only time 1 went down a mine was the model one at Blackpool," said Alice, "and that was a waste of threepence" (J. Lindsay). It is no business of mine (id.). 9.The repeated stamps of the heels of his heavy boots intimated that the wretched inmate was abandoning himself to uncontrolled agony (Walter Scott). Having typed it out, he flung it under the table, for there had been nothing left from the five dollars with which to buy stamps (J. Lindsay). 10.He would send his trunk up to Shelley Hot Springs on Joe's ticket (Jack London). The Lord Keeper still retained the place which he had occupied on the decayed trunk (Walter Scott).

Reference books:
1. Arnold. I. V. The English Word /1. V. Arnold. - M 1986 - P. 37-73. 2.Ginzburg, R S. A Course in Modern English Lexicology I R. S. Ginzburg. - M., 1979.-P. 13-38. 3., . . // , . / . . - . . . -. 1.111. . 46 -88. 4.Grinberg, L Exercises in modern English lexicology / L. E. Grinberg, M. D. Kuznels. - M., 1966.

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CHAPTER VI

SEMANTIC CHANGE
The process of development of a new meaning (or a change of meaning) is traditionally termed transference. Some scholars mistakenly use the term "transference of meaning" which is a serious mistake. It is very important to note that in any case of semantic change it is not the meaning but the word that is being transferred from one referent onto another (e. g. from a horse-drawn vehicle onto a railway car). The result of such a transference is the appearance of a new meaning. Two types of transference are distinguishable depending on the two types of logical associations underlying the semantic process.

6.1. Transference Based on Resemblance (Similarity)


This type of transference is also referred to as linguistic metaphor. A new meaning appears as a result of associating two objects (phenomena, qualities, etc.) due to their outward similarity . Box and stall, as should be clear from the explanations above, are examples of this type of transference. Other examples can be given in which transference is also based on the association of two physical objects. The noun eye, for instance, has for one of its meanings "hole in the end of a needle" (cf. with the R. ), which also developed through transference based on resemblance. A similar case is represented by the neck of a bottle. The noun drop (mostly in the plural form) has, in addition to its main meaning "a small particle of water or other liquid", the meanings: "ear-rings shaped as drops of water" (e. g. diamond drops) and "candy of the same shape" (e. g. mint drops). It is quite obvious that both these meanings are also based on resemblance. In the compound word snowdrop the meaning of the second constituent underwent the same shift of meaning (also, in bluebell). In general, metaphorical change of meaning is often observed in idiomatic compounds. The main meaning of the noun branch is "limb or subdivision of a tree or bush". On the basis of this meaning it developed several more. One of them is "a special field of science or art" (as in a branch of linguistics) This meaning brings us into the sphere of the abstract, and shows that in transference based on resemblance an association may be built not only between two physical objects, but also between a concrete object and an abstract concept. The noun bar from the original meaning barrier developed a figurative meaning realised in such contexts as social bars, colour bar, racial bar. Here, again, as in the abstract meaning of branch, a concrete object is associated with an abstract concept.

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6.2. Transference Based on Contiguity


Another term for this type of transference is linguistic metonymy. The association is based upon subtle psychological links between different objects and phenomena, sometimes traced and identified with much difficulty. The two objects may be associated together because they often appear in common situations, and so the image of one is easily accompanied by the image of the other; or they may be associated on the principle of cause and effect, of common function, of some material and an object which is made of it, etc. The foot of a bed is the place where the feet rest when one lies in the bed, but the foot of a mountain got its name by another association: the foot of a mountain is its lowest part, so that the association here is founded on common position. By the arms of an arm-chair we mean the place where the arms lie when one is setting in the chair, so that the type of association here is the same as in the foot of a bed. The leg of a bed (table, chair, etc.), though, is the part which serves as a support, the original meaning being "the leg of a man or animal". The association that lies behind this development of meaning is the common function: a piece of furniture is supported by its legs just as living beings are supported by theirs. The meaning of the noun hand realised in the context hand of a clock (watch) originates from the main meaning of this noun "part of human body". It also developed due to the association of the common function: the hand of a clock points to the figures on the face of the clock, and one of the functions of human hand is also that of pointing to things. Meanings produced through transference based on contiguity sometimes originate from geographical or proper names. China in the sense of "dishes made of porcelain" originated from the name of the country which was believed to be the birthplace of porcelain.

63.Broadening (or Generalisation) of Meaning

Sometimes, the process of transference may result in a considerable change in range of meaning. For instance, the verb to arrive (French borrowing) began its life in English in the narrow meaning "to come to shore, to land". In Modern English it has greatly widened its combinability and developed the general meaning "to come" (e. g. to arrive in a village, town, city, country, at a hotel, hostel, college, theatre, place, etc.). The meaning developed through transference based on contiguity (the concept of coming somewhere is the same for both meanings), but the range of the second meaning is much broader. Another example of the broadening of meaning is pipe. Its earliest recorded meaning was "a musical wind instrument". Nowadays it can denote any hollow oblong cylindrical body (e. g. water pipes). This meaning developed through transference based on the similarity of shape (pipe as a musical instrument is also a hollow oblong cylindrical object) which finally led to a considerable broadening of the range of meaning.

64.Narrowing (or Specialisation) of Meaning


Narrowing of Meaning happens when a word with a general meaning is by degrees applied to something much more specific. The word litter, for example, meant originally (before 1300) 'a bed,' then gradually narrowed down to 'bedding,' then to 'animals on a bedding of straw,' and finally to things scattered about, odds and ends. . . . Other examples of specialization are deer, which originally had the general meaning 'animal,' girl, which meant originally 'a young person,' and meat, whose original meaning was 'food.'" Topics for discussion

I. Semantic change. 11.Linguistic and extra-linguistic causes of semantic change. Nature of semantic change. 12.Types of semantic change: a)Generalization of meaning; b)Specialization of meaning; c)Elevation of meaning; d)Degradation of meaning. . Different types of semantic transfer. Metaphor. Metonymy. Shifts of meaning through hyperbole, litotes, irony and euphemisms. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1. What causes the development of new meanings? Why do words change their meaning? 2.What is the basis of development or change of meaning? What is meant by the term transference? 3.What types of transference do you know? 4.What is meant by the widening and the narrowing of meaning? 5.Give examples of the so-called 'degradation' and 'elevation' of meaning. Do the following exercises Exercise I. Trace the process of narrowing or widening of meaning in the words given in bold type: 1.There was enough food there to keep a starving family for a week (Daphne du Maurier). 2.He starved us when he had the sole superintendence of the provision department, before the committee was appointed (Charlotte Bronte). 3.There was a bunch of violets on the hearse, and the undertaker mentioned the incident to avoid mistake (O. Henry). 4.I know the name of every owner of every British moor, yes - and their tenants, too. 5.I know how many grouse are killed, how many partridge, how many head of deer (Daphne du Maurier). Exercise 2. What results of the change of the meaning of the word can be found in the examples below: I) extension of meaning; 2) narrowing of meaning; 3) degradation of meaning; 4) elevation of meaning. a)She has always been a good wife to him. b)Have you looked through the journals which were got yesterday? c)We must write to the minister about it. d)I don't like her. Her manners are vulgar. e)The office was in the busiest part of London, in the City. f)The hunter walked along walked along the path, the hound running after him. Exercise 3. Explain the logical association in the following groups of meanings for the same words. Define the type of transference which has taken place. 1. The wing of a bird - the wing of a building; the eye of a man - the eye of a needle; the hand of a child - the hand of a clock; the heart of a man the heart of the matter; the bridge 37

across the river - the bridge of the nose; the tongue of a person - the tongue of a bell; the tooth of boy - the tooth of a comb; the coat of a girl - the coat of a dog. 2. green grass - green years; black shoes - black despair; nickel (metal) - a nickel (coin); Ford ( a proper name) - ford ( a car); Kashmir (town in India) - cashmere. Exercise 4. Analyze the process of development of new meanings in the Ualicized words in the examples given below. 1. I put the letter well into the mouth of the box and let it go and it fell turning over and over and over like an autumn leaf. 2. Seated behind a desk, he wore a light patterned suit, switch from his usual tweeds. 3. Oh, Steven, 1 read a Dickens the other day. It was awfully funny. 4. They sat on the rug before the fireplace, savouring its warmth, watching the rising tongues of the flame. 5. He inspired universal confidence and had an iron nerve. 6. While the others waited the elderly executive filled his pipe and lit it. Reference books:
1.Arnold, I. V. The English Word //. V. Arnold. - M., 1986. - P. 37-73. 2.Ginzburg, R. S A Course in Modern English Lexicology / R. S. Ginzburg. M., 1979.-P. 13-38. 3.Grinberg, L. E. Exercises in Modern English Lexicology / L. E. Grinberg. - M., 1966

CHAPTER VII

SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS


7.1. Definition
Synonymy is one of the most controversial problems in modern linguistics. Synonymy is associated with some theoretical problems which at present are still an object of dispute. The very existence of words traditionally called synonyms is disputed by some linguists. The nature and essence of these words is debated and treated in different ways by representatives of different linguistic schools. Synonyms are one of the most expressive means of the language. The principle function of synonyms is to represent the same phenomenon in different aspects, shades and variations. Synonyms can be defined in terms of linguistics as two or more words of the same language, belonging to the same part of speech and possessing one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings, interchangeable, at least, in some context without any considerable alteration in denotational meaning, but different in morphemic composition, phonemic shape, shades of meaning, connotations, style and idiomatic use. Synonymy is associated with some theoretical problems which at present are still an object of controversy. Probably, the most controversial among these is the problem of criteria of synonymy. To put it in simpler words, we are still not certain which words should correctly be considered as synonyms, nor are we agreed as to the characteristic features which qualify two or more words as synonyms. Traditional linguistics solved this problem with the conceptual criterion and defined synonyms as words of the same category of parts of speech conveying the same concept but differing either in shades of meaning or in stylistic characteristics. Some aspects of this

definition have been criticised. It has been pointed out that linguistic phenomena should be defined in linguistic terms and that the use of the term concept makes this an extralinguistic definition. The term "shades of meaning" has been condemned for its vagueness and lack of precision. In modern research on synonyms the criterion of interchangeability is sometimes applied. According to this, synonyms are defined as words which are interchangeable at least in some contexts without any considerable alteration in denotational meaning. This criterion of interchangeability has been much criticised. Every or almost every attempt to apply it to this or that group of synonyms seems to lead one to the inevitable conclusion that either there are very few synonyms or, else, that they are not interchangeable. Synonymy - the coincidence in the essential meanings of linguistic elements which (at the same time) usually preserve their differences in connotations and stylistic characteristics. Synonyms two or more words belonging to the same part of speech and possessing one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings, interchangeable in some contexts. Their distinctive features can be connotations, stylistic features, distributional or depending on valency. The difference between some synonyms can be marked for register subject-field, mode, and style (tenor) or their combinations.

7.2. Typology of synonyms:


cognitive synonyms - synonyms which differ in respect of the varieties of discourse in which they appear; the distinction between such items lies not so much in their inner lexical meaning, but in the sphere of their actual application or usage, as besides the referential basis (referential meaning - q.v.) the actual meanings of the words as found in utterances reflect relations which hold between lexical items within the communicative space, i.e. the functional differentiation of discourse. contextual/context-dependent synonyms - similar in meaning only under some specific distributional conditions, when the difference between the meanings of two words is contextually neutralized; e.g. buy and get; dialectal synonyms - pertaining to different variant of language from dialectal stratification point of view; functional synonyms - the term is not lexicological proper as it refers to different syntactic units capable of performing one and the same syntactic function (e.g. Subordinate Object Clause and Complex Object constructions are functional synonyms; ideographic synonyms - differ in shades of meaning, i.e. between which a semantic different is statable; stylistic synonyms are distinguished stylistically, i.e. in all kinds of emotional, expressive and evaluative overtones without explicitly displaying semantic difference; referential synonyms - a vague term, concerns preferential expressions, when one denotatum can be defined differently from different points of view and in different aspects: e.g. names Walter Scott and the author of 'Ivanhoe' are coreferential because they refer to one and the same denotatum - Sir Walter Scott; terminological synonyms - two existing terms for one denotatum: e.g. borrowing and loan-word; concept and notion (the difference between them is not discriminated by some linguists); total synonyms (absolute)- can replace each other in any given context, without the slightest alteration in denotative or emotional meaning and connotations (e.g. noun and substantive, functional affix, flection and inflection); is a rare occasion. Absolute

39

synonyms are rare in the vocabulary and, on the diachronic level, the phenomenon of absolute synonymy is anomalous and consequently temporary: the vocabulary system invariably tends to abolish it either by rejecting one of the absolute synonyms or by developing differentiation characteristics in one or both (or all) of them. There seems to be no rigid demarcation line between synonyms differing in their shades of meaning and in stylistic characteristics. There are numerous synonyms which are distinguished by both shades of meaning and stylistic colouring. Therefore, even the subdivision of synonyms into ideographic and stylistic is open to question. A more modern and a more effective approach to the classification of synonyms may be based on the definition describing synonyms as words differing in connotations. It seems convenient to classify connotations by which synonyms differ rather than synonyms themselves. It opens up possibilities for tracing much subtler distinctive features within their semantic structures. Synonyms are frequently said to be the vocabulary's colours, tints and hues (so the term shade is not so inadequate, after all, for those who can understand a metaphor). Attempts at ascribing to synonyms the quality of interchangeability are equal to stating that subtle tints in a painting can be exchanged without destroying the picture's effect.All this does not mean that no synonyms are interchangeable. One can find whole groups of words with half-erased connotations which can readily be substituted one for another. The same girl can be described as pretty, good- looking, handsome or beautiful. Yet, even these words are far from being totally interchangeable. Each of them creates its own picture of human beauty. I.The Dominant Synonym The dominant synonym expresses the notion common to all synonyms of the group in the most general way, without contributing any additional information as to the manner, intensity, duration or any attending feature of the referent. So, any dominant synonym is a ty pical basicvocabulary word (see Ch. 2). Its meaning, which is broad and generalised, more or less "covers" the meanings of the rest of the synonyms, so that it may be substituted for any of them. It seems that here, at last, the idea of interchangeability of synonyms comes into its own. And yet, each such substitution would mean an irreparable loss of the additional information supplied by connotative components of each synonym. So, using to look instead of to glare, to stare, to peep, to peer we preserve the general sense of the utterance but lose a great deal in precision, expressiveness and colour. Summing up what has been said, the following characteristic features of the dominant synonym can be underlined: II.High frequency of usage. III.Broad combinability, i. e. ability to be used in combinations with various classes of words. IV.Broad general meaning. V.Lack of connotations. (This goes for stylistic con notations as well, so that neutrality as to style is also a typical feature of the dominant synonym.)

74.Euphemisms
There are words in every language which people instinctively avoid because they are considered indecent, indelicate, rude, too direct or impolite. As the "offensive" referents, for which these words stand, must still be alluded to, they are often described in a round-about way,

by using substitutes called euphemisms. This device is dictated by social conventions which are sometimes apt to be over-sensitive, see "indecency" where there is none and seek refinement in absurd avoidances and pretentiousness I.Antonyms We use the term antonyms to indicate words of the of speech which have contrasting meanings, such as hot happiness sorrow, to accept to reject, up dov If synonyms form whole, often numerous, groi believed to appear in pairs. Yet, this is not quite true

Jf ^.
.vV hi

Willi

,,

41

adjcctive cold may be said to have warm for its second antonym, and sorrow rqay be very well contrasted with gaielv On the other hand, a polysemantic word may have an antonym (or several antonyms) for each of its meanings. Topics for discussion II.Synonyms. 11.Definition. Semantic equivalence and synonymy. 12.Criteria of Synonymy. Interchangeability and substitution. 13.Sources of Synonymy in English. 14.Types of Synonyms. 15.Euphemisms. 16.The role of synonymy in the development of the vocabulary. 17.Synonymic dominant. General term. II.Semantic contrasts and antonyms. Root antonyms and derivational antonyms. III.Lexical variants. Paronyms. IV.Thematic groups and semantic fields. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1.Why are synonyms one of the most important expressive means in the language? 2.What are the basic criteria of synonymy. 3.What synonyms are called contextual? 4.How do you understand the terms "hyponym" and "hyperonym"? 5.Which word in a synonymic group is considered to be the dominant synonym? 6.What are the characteristic features? Can the dominant synonym be substituted for certain other members of a group of synonyms? Is the criteria of interchangeability applicable in this case? 7.What connotations differentiate the verbs to peep and to peer; the adjectives pretty, handsome and beautiful? 8.Which words are called euphemisms? What function do they perform in speech? 9.What is the effect of overusing euphemisms in speech? Show that euphemisms may be regarded as a subtype of synonyms. Which type of connotation is characteristic of them? 10.Which words do we usually classify as antonyms? To which part of speech do most antonyms belong? Explain why antonyms may be regarded as an important group of the language's expressive means. Illustrate your answer with your own examples. 11. What words are called paronyms'? Gibe your own examples? Do the following exercises Exercise 1. Prove that the row of words given below are synonyms. Use the semantic criterion to justify your opinion. 1. to shout - to yell - to roar. 2. angry - furious - enraged. 3. alone - solitary - lonely. 4. to shudder - to shiver - to tremble. 5. fear - terror - horror. 6. to cry - to weep = to sob. 7. to walk to trot - to stroll. 8. to stare - to gaze - to glare. 9. to desire - to wish - to want. 10. to like - to admire - to worship. Exercise 2. In what respects do the following synonyms differ? 42

1.policeman, bobby, cop (copper). 2.master, owner, head, proprietor, possessor. 3.to get the pink slip, to land on the street, to get the key of the street, to get kicked out, to be dismissed, to be discharged. 4.worker, labourer, toiler, hand. 5.emulation, competition, contention. 6.shark, cheat, swindler, blackleg, knave, trickster. 7.fabricate, construct, frame, invent, forge, manufacture, feign. 8.robber, plunderer, despoiler, highwayman, bandit. 9.servant, servitor, domestic, menial, drudge, help. 10.mansion, house, habitation, residence, abode. Exercise 3 Single out the denotative and connotative components of meanings of the synonyms in the examples below: 1. At the little lady's command they all three smiled, b) George, on hearing the story grinned. 2. a) Noticing that they were no longer alone, he turned and again began examining the luster, b) June had gone. James had said he would be lonely. 3. The child was shivering with cold, b) The man shuddered with disgust. 4. a) I am surprised by you. b) He was astonished at the woman's determination. 5. a) It is impolite to stare at people like that, b) the little boys stood glaring at each other ready to start a fight, c) The lovers stood gazing into each other's eyes. 6. a) I am surprised at you. b) He was astonished at the woman's determination. 7. a) He was an aged man, but not yet old. b) He was an elderly man at the time of his marriage. Exercise 4. Find metaphors and words used in metonymy and replace them by synonyms 1. He was a barrister of Philadelphia, but became far more renowned by his gun than by his law cases (William Cobbett). 2. We have a very' bad road to go, and he, being under strict petticoat government, was compelled to get home that night (id.). 3 Troops of people in red petticoats and velvet head-dresses, or with three-cornered hats and pipes in their mouths flock to the Residenz to share in the pleasure of the fair and festivities there (W. Thackeray). Exercise 5. Find synonyms for the words "folly" and "ripping": 1 "Ah!" said Val, "she's a jolly palfrey. But you ought to bang her tail. She'd look much smarter" and he took a long sniff of the stable air "Horses arc ripping, aren't they?' (J. Galsworthy). 2 Cousin Jolyon's got an awfully jolly place I went down there with uncle Soames - ripping stables (id). 3 All the same it was a jolly good show and Cynthia Dark simply ripping (id.). 4 "This is a ripping place," said Val from under the oak tree, where they had paused to allow the dog Balthasar to come up (id). At the front door he gave Holly's slim brown hand a long and surreptitious squeeze. "Look out for me to-morrow," he whispered; "Three o'clock. I'll wait for you on the road; it'll save time. We'll have a ripping ride" (id.). Exercise 6. Classify the following synonyms in two columns according to: a) degree (intensity) of the referent; b) brief or lengthy duration of the referent. 1.Gratify, please, exalt, content, satisfy, delight. 2.Cry, weep, sob. 3.Worship, gaze, glare, stare. 4.Tremble, shiver, shudder, shake. 5.Worship, love, like, adore, admire. 6.Talk, say, tell, speak.

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7.Astound, surprise, amaze, astonish. 8.Cold, cool, chilly. 9.Vast, immense, large. 10.Want, long, desire, wish. Exercise 7. State whether the word given in bold type is a synonymic dominant or the general term 1.victory, triumph, conquest; 2.complain, grumble, mutter; 3.sound, clatter, patter, creak, bang, clang, cluck; 4.fragrance, scent, perfume, odour, smell; 5.olive, pink, brown, colour, apple-green, pea-green, rose, flesh-coloured; 6.scarlet, crimson, cherry , purple, red; 7.footwear, shoes, rubbers, galoshes, felt-boots, overshoes, slippers; 8.dog, fox-terrier, hound, borzoi, colly; 9.mathematics, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry; 10.courage, bravery, gallantry, valour, fortitude; Exercise 8. a) In the following groups of synonyms, find the synonymic

dominant; b) Give reasons for your choice. 1. exact, precise, accurate. 2. savage, uncivilized, barbarous. 3. hide, conceal, disguise. 4. agree, approve, consent. 5. recall, recollect. 6. cry, weep, scream, shriek. 7. lazy, indolent, idle, vain. 8. clever, able, intelligent, keen, sharp. 9. ignorant, illiterate, uneducated, misinformed 1 agile, nimble, alert, quick, brisk, active. 0. 11.to glimmer - to glisten - to blaze - to shine - to sparkle - to flash - to gleam.

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12.to glare - to gaze - to peep - to look - to stare - to glance. Exercise 9. In the following sentences, point out the general term. Model: animal - dog, cat, horse, cow, sheep, pig, donkey. Animal is the general term; dog, cat, horse, etc. are specific nouns. 1.The business part of the room had the usual furniture, an open cupboard with pigeonholes, a folding wash stand, some hard chairs, a standing desk of large dimensions covered with drawings and designs (J. Galsworthy). 2. Bridals? To be sure, they should be celebrated with all the manner of good cheer, and meeting of friends, and musical instruments, harp, sackbut, and psaltery, or good fiddle and pipe (W. Sc.). 3. Twice a week they had to put through hotel linen - the sheets, the pillow slips, spreads, table-cloths, and napkins (Jack London). 4. The breakfast service on the table was equally costly and equally plain. The urn was of thick and solid silver, as were also the tea-pot, coffee-pot, cream-ewer, and sugar-bowl; the cups were old, dim dragon china (A. Trollope). Reference books:
\ Arnold, I. V. The English Word/7 V.Arnold.- M., 1986.-P 182-238. 2.Ginzburg, R. S. A Course in Modern English Lexicology / R. S Ginzburg. - M.. 1979. -P. 39-62.

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CHAPTER VIII

ENGLISH VOCABULARY AS A SYSTEM. STYLISTICALLY MARKED AND NEUTRAL WORDS


It has been claimed by different authors that, in contrast to grammar, the vocabulary of a language, is not systematic but chaotic. But vocabulary is not that "chaotic" and some order can be brought to this chaos. We call vocabulary systematic because it may be considered as a structured set of interdependent and interrelated elements. Each of the tens of thousands of lexical units constituting the vocabulary possesses a certain number of characteristic features variously combined. We deal with lexical distinctive features and lexical oppositions. Lexical distinctive feature is a feature capable of distinguishing a word in morphological form or meaning from an otherwise similar words or variant. A lexical opposition is defined as the relationship of partial difference between two partially similar words. The features which the two contrasted words posses in common form a basis of a lexical opposition. The presence of the same basis or combination of features in several words permits their grouping into a subset of the lexical system. We shall use term lexical group to denote a subset of the vocabulary, all the elements of which possess a given distinctive feature.

8.1. Morphological Grouping


On the morphological level words are divided into four groups according to their morphological structure, namely the number and type of morphemes which compose them. They are: 1.Root or morpheme words. Their stem contains one free morpheme, e.g. dog 2.Derivatives contain no less than two morphemes of which at least one is bound:

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dogged , doggedly 3.Compound words consist of not less than two free morphemes, the presence of bound morphemes is possible but not necessary: dog-chcap "very cheap' 4.Compound derivatives consist of not less than two free morphemes and one bound morpheme referring to the whole combination: dog-legged. Another type of traditional lexicological grouping is known as word- families. The number of groups is equal to root morphemes for all the words are grouped according to the root morpheme: dog, dogged, doggedly, doggedness, doglike, etc. There are other way to classify and group words morphologically but we are more concerned with lexical grouping.

8.2. Thematic and Ideographic groups


A further subdivision within the lexico-grammatical groups is achieved in the well-known thematic subgroups, such as terms of kinship (), names for parts of human body, colour terms, etc. These groups are called semantic fields. The notion of semantic fields suggests that there may be other possible approaches to lexicography and vocabulary description rather than the traditionall one using alphabetical order. The thesaurus is such an alternative. Thesauri are based on the notion of grouping lexemes thematically - a notion which can be traced back to 16th- century schemes for the classification of all human knowledge. Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626) and John Wilkins (1614-72), in particular, wrote essays which outlined a way of dividing everything into a small number of major areas, each being progressively subclassified until all concepts are dealt with in their appropriate place. Roget's Thesaurus pioneered the thesaurus as we know it today. It was first published in 1852 and divides the lexicon into six main areas: abstract relations, space, the material world, the intellect, volition and moral powers. Each area is then progressively progressively subclassified, giving a total of 1000 semantic categories. In his introduction, Roger explains his aim and method: The present Work is intended to suply, with respect to the English language, a collection of words it contains and of the idiomatic combinations peculiar to it, arranged, not in the alphabetical order as they are in a Dictionary, but according to the ideas which they express. The principle by which I have been guided in framing my verbial classification is the same as that which is employed in the various departments of Natural History. Semantic or lexical field - a named area of meaning in which lexems interrelate and define each other in specific ways. We can mention such fields as "fruits", "parts of body", "vehicles", "buildings", "colour". We shall have no difficulty assigning banana, nostril, lorry, town hall to their repective fields. To what extent is it possible to assign all the lexemes in English to a semantic field? Some lexemes seem to belong to fields which are very difficult to define, or which are vague ex. to what field should "noise" or "difficult" belong? Some seem to belong to more than one field - does "orange" belong" to "fruit" or "colour"? And some lexems seem to fall midway between two fields - does tomato belong to "fruit" or "vegetable"? There is also the question of how best to define a semantic field: shall we say that tractor belongs to the field of "agricultural vehicles", or just "vehicles"? Is "flavour" part of the semantic field of "taste", or are both .members members of some broader semantic field, such as "sensation". These are typical of the problems which keep semanticists in work, as they try to relate the neatness of their analytical

46

categories to the fiizziness of the real world. At the same time, the existence of these difficulties must not hide the fact that a very large number of lexemes can be grouped together into fields and subfields in a fairy clear-cut way. Fields of "madness", "wine", "darkness" insane, unsound mind, not in full possession of one's faculties, unbalanced, crazy, batty, loony, potty, cuckoo, etc.

8.3. Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary


The word stock of any language is a system. The elements of which are interconnected, interrelated and yet interdependent. Some linguists, who clearly see the systematic character of language as a whole deny/ however the possibility of systematically classifying the vocabulary. They say that the word stock of any language is so large and so heterogeneous that it is impossible to formalize it and therefore present it in any system. The words of the language are thought of as chaotic body whether viewed from their origin and development or from their present state. But to deny the systematic character of the word stock of a language goes to denying the systematic character of language as a whole, because words are elements of the general system of a language. The word stock of a language may be represented as a definite system in which different aspects of words may be singled out as interdependent. For the purpose of linguistic stylistics a special type of classification, stylistic classification is the most important. According to the use in different types of speech, the word stock of the English vocabulary falls into three main layers: I) literary layer 2) the neutral layer 3) the colloquial layer. The literary and colloquial layers contain a number of subgroups with the layer. The common property, which unites the different groups of words within the layer, may be called its aspect. The aspect of the literary layer is its bookish character, which makes the layer more or less stable? It has no local or dialectal character. The aspect of the colloquial layer of words is its lively spoken character. It is this that makes it unstable, fleeting. The aspect of the neutral layer is its universal character. It means it is unrestricted in its use. It can be employed in all spheres of human activity. This makes the layer the most stable of all. I. The literary layer falls into the following groups: 1)Common literary words 2)Special literary vocabulary: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Terms and learned words Poetic words Archaic words Barbarisms and foreign words Literary coinages including noncewords 2.The neutral layer, universal, unrestricted in its use, the most stable. 3.The colloquial layer falls into the following groups: 1)common colloquial vocabulary 2)special colloquial vocabulary (unstable, limited to a definite language community or confined to a special locality) a)slang b)jargonisms c)professional words d)dialectal Words

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e)vulgar Words f)colloquial coinages The common literary', neutral and common colloquial words are grouped under the term standard English vocabulary. Other groups in the literary layer are regarded as special literary vocabulary and those in the colloquial layer are regarded as special colloquial (non literary) vocabulary. This division of the English Vocabulary can not be considered as an accurate scientific classification. Accurate objective criteria for this division are not formulated yet. The terms are not always properly defined. Consequently, the boundaries between different groups are not clearly marked. Thus, the lower range of literary words approaches the neutral layer and has an obvious tendency to pass into that layer. The upper range of the colloquial layer can easily pass into the neutral layer. The lines of demarcation between the common colloquial and neutral vocabulary, on the one hand, and between the common literary and neutral vocabulary, on the other, are blurred. The same can be said about the stylistic groups within the special literary and special colloquial vocabulary, particularly the latter, e.g.: Professionalisms - jargons; Slang vulgarisms. Some units are on the borderline between the common and special vocabulary.

8.4. Neutral, Common literary and common colloquial vocabulary

Neutral words form the bulk of the English vocabulary. They are used in both literary and colloquial types of speech, i.e. they are universal. Neutral words are the main source of synonymy and polysemy. It is the neutral stock of words that is so prolific in the production of new meanings and words. Most neutral words are monosyllabic as in the process of the development from old English to Modern English most of the parts of speech lost their suffixes. This led to conversion as the most productive means of word-building. Neutral word^ have no stylistic coloring unlike literary and colloquial words which are stylistically colored, colloquial words being more emotionally colored than literary ones. Common literary vocabulary is part of the Standard English vocabulary. It borders on neutral and special literary vocabulary. It is chiefly used in writing and in polished oral speech. We may only say that the exact definition of what common literary vocabulary is does not exist because no objective criteria have been worked out that might distinguish it from other groups of the vocabulary. So to sum it all up we can say that Basic or Common Vocabulary (or CORE ) - the center of the vocabulary. These words are stylistically neutral and in this respect, opposed to formal and informal words. Their stylistic neutrality makes it possible to use them in all kinds of situations, both formal and informal. Basic vocabulary' words can be recognized not only by their stylistic neutrality but, also, by entire lack of connotations. Their meanings are broad, general and directly convey the notion, without supplying any additional information. For instance, the verb to walk means to move from place to place on foot whereas in the meanings of its synonyms to stride, to stroll, to trot, to stagger and others, some information is encoded as they each describe a different manner of walking, a different gait, tempo, purposefulness or lack of purpose and even length of paces. Thus to walk, with its direct broad meaning, is a typical basic vocabulary word, and its synonyms with their additional information encoded in their meanings, belong to the periphery of the vocabulary. British linguistics introduced the term48 "CORE" vocabulary. The topic of core vocabulary

has not been systimatically discussed by descriptive linguists. It has been observed that, as with other levels of language organization, there are complementary distinctions between marked and unmarked features since otherwise degrees of expressivity in lexis cannot be adequately measured by either addressor or addressee. It is necessary to note that any core word derived from a description of British English will be one whose anglicity is evident. Features of a core word: (1)neutral (2)fully "anglicised" (3)frequent and short (4)collocability/the more core a lexical item is, the more partnership it will contract with other items/ It is important to note that emotionally coloured words are contrasted to the emotionally neutral ones. The words of the second group express notions but do not say anything about the state of the speaker or his mood, there is no emotional colouring. The difference between these two sets of words is not always very clear cut, there are numerous boundary cases. The following synonyms illustrate the relations that exist between the neutral, literary and colloquial words in the English language. Colloquial kid chap go ahead go on Neutral child fellow begin continue Literary infant associate commence proceed

It goes without saying that these synonyms are not only stylistic but ideographic as well. There is a definite, though slight semantic difference between them. But this is almost always the case with synonyms. The main distinction here remains stylistic. Colloquial words are always more emotionally colored than literary ones. The neutral words have no degree of emotiveness or distinctions in the sphere of usage. Common literary words in themselves are not expressive means, but they may become expressive means if they are used in opposition to a different stratum of words. Common colloquial vocabulary is part of Standard English vocabulary. It borders on the neutral and special colloquial vocabulary. There is no uniformity in stylistic coloring within this group. Some units are close to the non-standard colloquial groups, such as jargonisms or proffessionalisms, some approach the neutral layer, e.g. teenager, which is widely used, but retains a colloquial character.

8.5. Terms
Term is a word or word-group which is specifically employed by a particular branch of science, technology, trade or the arts to convey a notion peculiar to this particular activity. Terms are generally associated with a definite branch of science. The main stylistic function of terms is to create the true-to- life atmosphere of the narration, but terms can also be used with a parodying function, thus creating humorous effect. Hundreds of thousands of words belong to special scientific, professional or trade terminological systems and are not used or even understood by people outside the particular speciality.

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Terms are generally associated with a definite branch of science. They always come in clusters, either in a text or in special dictionaries. Taken all together, these clusters of terms form system of names of any particular branch of science. Thus we may speak of terms of linguistics, law, music, sports, medical terms, etc. Terms are characterized by tendency to be monosemantic. There is an interesting process going on in the development of any language. With the increase of general education and the expansion of technique to satisfv the ever-growing needs and desires of mankind, many words that were once terms have gradually lost their qualities as terms and have passed into the common literary or neutral vocabulary'. This process may be called de- terminization. Example: radio, ety mology, etc. Topics for discussion I.Morphological grouping. II.Lexico-grammatical groups. III.Thematic and ideographic Groups. The Theory of semantic field IV.The structure of the vocabulary. Basic vocabulary. V.The opposition of emotionally coloured and emotionally neutral vocabulary. VI.The opposition of stylistically marked and stylistically neutral words. 61.Functional styles. 62.Learned words and official vocabulary . 63.Professional terminology. 64.Colloquial words and expressions. 65.Slang. 66.Dialectal words. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1.What determines the choice of stylistically marked words in each particular situation? 2.What is understood by the basic vocabulary? 3.In what situations are informal words used? 4.What are the main kinds of informal words? 5.What is the difference between colloquialisms and slang? What are their common features? Illustrate your answer with examples. 6.What are the main features of dialect words? 7.Are learned words used only in books? 8.What are the controversial problems connected with professional terminology? Reference books:
1979. 1Arnold, 1. . The English Word//. V. Arnold - M 1986. 2Ginzburg, R S. A Course in Modern English Lexicology / R. S. Ginzburg et. al M .

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CHAPTER IX

SET EXPRESSIONS
Phraseological units, or idioms, as they are called by most western scholars, represent what can probably be described as the most picturesque, colourful and expressive part of the language's vocabulary. If synonyms can be figuratively referred to as the tints and colours of the vocabulary, then phraseology is a kind of picture gallery in which are collected vivid and amusing sketches of the nation's customs, traditions and prejudices, recollections of its past history, scraps of folk songs and fairy-tales. Quotations from great poets are preserved here alongside the dubious pearls of philistine wisdom and crude slang witticisms, for phraseology is not only the most colourful but probably the most democratic area of vocabulary and draws its resources mostly from the very depths of popular speech.

9.1. Free word-groups versus set expressions. Phraseological units, idioms, wordequivalents
Words are put together to form lexical units, make up phrases or word- groups. The main factors active in bringing words together are lexical and grammatical valency of the components of word-groups. Lexical valency is the ability of a word to appear in various collocations. Word-groups as viewed functionally and semantically inseparable units and are usually described as word-equivalents and are traditionally regarded as the subject matter of the branch of lexicology that studies phraseology. Attempts have been made to approach the problem of phraseology in different ways. There is certain divergence of opinion as to the essential features of phraseological units as distinguished from other word groups and the nature of phraseological units. The habitual terms "set-phrases", "idioms", "word- equivalents" are treated differently by different linguists. The term set-phrase implies that the basic criterion of differentiation is stability of the lexical components and grammatical structure of word-groups. The term idioms generally implies that the essential feature of the linguistic units under consideration is idiomaticity or lack of motivation. This term is used by English and American linguists and is often treated as a synonym to the term "phraseological unit" universally used in our country. The term "word- equivalent" stresses not only semantic but also functional inseparability of certain word-groups, their ability to function in speech as single words. Thus difference in terminology reflects certain differences in the main criteria used to distinguish between free word-groups and a specific type of linguistic units generally known as phraseology. The question, "How to distinguish phraseological units from free word- groups" is probably the most controversial problem in the field of phraseology. The complexity of the problem may be largely accounted by the fact that the borderline between free word-groups and phraseological units is not clearly defined. The so-called free word-groups are relatively free as collocability of member-words is determined by their Icxical and grammatical valency. This makes some of them very close t set-phrases. Phraseological units are comparatively stable and semantically inseparable. Between the extremes of complete motivation and variability of member-words and lack of motivation combined with complete stability of the lexical components and grammatical structure there are numerous borderline cases. The problem is further complicated by the existence of semi-fixed or semi-free word groups, also called non phraseological word-groups. They share with phraseological units their structural stability but

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lack their semantic unity and figurativeness (to go to school, to go by bus, etc.). There are two major criteria for distinguishing between phraseological units and free word-groups: semantic and structural.

9.2. Criteria of stability and lack of motivation


Phraseological units are defined as non-motivated word-groups that cannot be freely made up on speech but are reproduced as ready-made units. This definition proceeds from the assumption that the essential features of phraseological units are stability of the lexical components and lack of motivation. This approach is closely bound up with the research work carried out in Russian phraseology by Academician V. Vinogradov. In the field of English phraseology this approach was supported by Prof. A.V. Kunin. It is assumed that unlike components of free word-groups which may vary according to the needs of communication, member words of phraseological units are always reproduced as single unchangeable collocations. The constituent 'red' in the free word group 'red flower', may be substituted by any other adjective denoting colour (blue, white, etc.) without changing the denotational meaning of the word group (flower of a certain colour). In the phraseological unit 'red tape' (bureaucratic methods) such substitution is not possible. The change of the adjective would involve a complete change in the meaning of the whole group. A blue tape would mean 'a tape of a certain colour'. It follows that the phraseological unit red tape is semantically non-motivated. Its meaning can not be deduced from the meaning of its components and it exists as a ready-made linguistic unit which does not allow of any variability of its lexical components. So the two features of phraseological units - lack of motivation and stability.

9.3. Classification

9.31.Taking into account mainly the degree of idiomaticity phraseological units may be
classified into three big groups: phraseological fusions, phraseological unities and phraseological collocations. The classification was first suggested by Academician V.V. Vinogradov. Phraseological fusions are completely non-motivated word-groups, such as 'red tape' bureaucratic methods', kick the bucket - 'die'. The meaning of the components has no connection with the meaning of the whole group. Idiomaticity is combined with complete stability of the lexical components and the grammatical structure of the fusion. Phraseological unities are partially non-motivated as their meaning can usually be perceived through the metaphoric meaning of the whole phraseological unit. Ex. 'to show one's teeth', 'to wash one's dirty linen in public'. Phraseological collocations arc motivated but they are made up of words possessing specific lexical valency which accounts for a certain degree of stability in such word-groups. In phraseological collocations variability of member-words is strictly limited. Ex. We can say 'take a liking'(fancy) but not 'take hatred'. These are habitual collocations tend to become kind of cliches where the meaning of member words is dominated by the meaning of the whole group. They are felt as possessing a certain degree semantic inseparability.

9.32.Set expressions can be nominal phrases, verbal phrases, e.g. to take the bull by the
horns; adjectival phrases i.e. as good as gold, adverbial phrases: from head to heels; prepositional phrases, well, I never. This classification takes into consideration not only the type of component parts but also the functioning of the whole.

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9.4. Criterion of function


Another angle from which the problem of phraseology is viewed is the so- called functional approach. This approach assumes that phraseological units may be defined as specific word-groups functioning as word=equivalents. The fundamental features of phraseological units thus understood are their semantic and grammatical inseparability which are viewed as distinguishing features of isolated words. The lexical meaning of the word-group can be adequately described as the combined lexical meaning of its constituents. In the case of the phraseological unit, however, we observe that the denotational meaning belongs to the word-group as a single semantically inseparable unit. Individual member words do not seem to possess any lexical meaning outside the meaning of the group. In free word-groups each of the components preserves as a rule its own stylistic reference. Phraseological units are characterized by a single stylistic reference irrespective of the number and nature of their component words. Semantic inseparability of phraseological units is viewed as one of the aspects of idiomatically which enables us to regard them as semantically equivalent to a single word. Topics for discussion I.Set expressions, Semi-fixed combinations and free phrases. II.Similarity and difference between a set expression and a word. III.Phraseology as a branch of Lexicology. IV.Different approaches to the study of phraseological units in different linguistic schools. V.The criteria of distinguishing phraseological units from free word combinations. VI.The origin of phraseological units in the English language. VII.The problem of classification of phraseological units: 71.The classification of phraseological units given by V. V. Vinigradov. 72.A. 1. Smimitsky's classification of phraseological units. 73.Contextual approach to the classification of phraseological units suggested by N.N. Amosova. 74.A. V. Koonin's conception of English phraseology. VIII. Stylistic value of phraseological units and set-expressions. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1.What is the difference between free word combinations and set expressions? How can you show that the "freedom" of free word-groups is relative and arbitrary? What are the two major criteria for distinguishing between phraseological units and free word-groups? 2.Explain the semantic principle of classification for phraseological units. 3.What is the basis of the structural principle of classification for phraseological units. 4.Explain why the word blackboard can be considered a unity and why the combination of words a black board doesn't possess such a unity? 5.What are the most problematic aspects in the study of phraseological units? 6.How do proverbs differ from phraseological units? 7.Can we call phraseology a separate level of the language? 8.What do we mean when we say that an idiom has a 'double" meaning? 9.Do you share the opinion that in idioms the original associations are partly or wholly lost? Are we entirely free from the picture build up by the current meanings of the individual words in idioms? Illustrate your answers by examples. 10.Why is it so important to use idioms with care? Do the following exercises

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Exercise I. Translate the following passages into Russian, paying special attention to the phraseological units: 1.My rascals are no milk-and-water rascals, I promise you (W. Thackeray). 2.I guess I'll pop outside and have a word with Miss Bunting (R. Greenwood). 3.I mastered the rising hysteria, lifted my head, and took a firm stand on the stool (Charlotte Bronte). 4."Take care, Cynthia. Look how you are cutting that gooseberry tart," said Mrs. Gibson, with sharp annoyance... (E. C. Gaskell). 5.... "Hang it, the regiment's just back from the West Indies; I must have a little fling, and then, when I'm married, I'll reform ... (W. Thackeray). 6."She says she is in the family way again," Phil whispered when she returned. "Please, do be kind to her" (J. Lindsay). 7.There were so many ins and outs to this financial life (Th. Dreiser). 8.She had taken care he should have this "momentous talk with her on a garden-seat commanded by the windows of the house (H. G. Wells ). 9.I have fallen behind the time, and am too old to catch it again (C. Dickens). 10.The flatter with her is that I played the fool with her, that's all (J. Devanny). 11.... it suddenly occurred to him that, if he had not gone down to Robin Hill, the boy might not have so decided .... A strange, and awkward thought! Had Fleur cooked her own goose by trying to make too sure? (J. Galsworthy) 12.Yes, you missed its possibilities every time. Because you were playing the fool for some reason (J. Devanny). 13He seemed to lose heart in the business after that (Jerome Jerome). 14Tess' heart ached. There was no concealing from herself the tact that she loved Angel Clare, perhaps all the more passionately from knowing that the others had also lost their hearts to him (Th. Hardy). 15.... they were frequently having words about her (A. S. Hutchinson). 16. And by playing the fool myself, I was able to learn nearly all I wanted to know (J.B. Priestly). Exercise 2. a) Substitute verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, etc. for those used in the phraseological units given in bold type without changing the meaning of the whole expression; b) Translate these units info Russian. 1. To add wings to. 2. To assume airs. 3. To rack one's brains. 4. To carry the day 5. To cast somebody into the shade. 6. To catch hold of. 7. To nip of the bud. 8. To strike home. 9. To touch somebody to the quick. 10. To tear to pieces. Exercise 3. Substitute phraseological units with the noun "heart" for the italicized words. What is the difference between the two sentences? 1.He is not a man who shows his feelings openly. 2.She may seem cold but she has true, kind feelings. 3.I learned that piece of poetry by memory 4.When I think about my examination tomorrow I feel in despair 5.When I heard that strange cry in the darkness I was terribly afraid. 6.It was the job I liked very much. 7.I didn't win the prize but 1 am not discouraged.

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Exercise 4. In the sentences below identify the phraseological units and classify them on the semantic principle. 1. The operation started badly and everyone was in a temper throughout. 2. I know a man who would love meeting you. The perfect nut for you to crack your teeth on. 3. Don't let them (pupils) lead you by the nose. 4. Ruth made no bones about the time she was accustomed to have her dinner. 5. My common sense tells me that I'm making a mountain out of a molehill. Exercise 5. In the sentences below identify the phraseological units and classify them on the structural principle. 1. There was a man I cared about, and this afternoon he told me out of a clear sky that he was poor as a church mouse. 2. Finally he asked me out of the blue if I could drive a car. 3. But Nelson did not believe in letting the grass grow under his feet and applied for the headmastership of a Mission School that was being started in New Guinea. 4. He took his ideas from "Daily Telegraph" and the books in prep-school library, and his guiding rule in life was to play safe. 5. Then I got a shock that stiffened me from head to toe. 6. The operation started badly and everyone was in a temper throughout. 7. But I thought he was afraid 1 might take him at his word. 8. My common sense tells me that I'm making a mountain out of a molehill. Reference books:
1.Arnold. I. V. The English Word 11. V. Arnold - M., 1986. - P. 165 - 179. 2.Ginzburg, R. S A Course in Modern English Lexicology / R. S. Ginzburg- M., 1979.- P. 64-88. 3.Longman Dictionary of Current English Idioms. - Longman Group Limited. 1979.

841 p
4., . : . / . . . : . 1986. - 336 . 5.. . . - / . . . - : ., 1986 -336 .

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CHAPTER X

DEVELOPMENT OF THE VOCABULARY


The word stock of a language is in constant change. We change the meaning of words, and sometimes words drop out of the language altogether. New words spring up and replace the old ones. Some words stay in the language a very long time and acquire new meanings. Others live but a short time. In every period in the development of a language, there are newly born words (neologisms), and those coming out of use. Words, which are coming out of use, are referred to as archaic words. We shall distinguish three stages in the aging process of words: The beginning of the aging process when the word becomes rarely used. Such words are called obsolescent. 1.Obsolescent words, are the words, which are in the stage of gradually passing out of general use. Here belong: a)morphological forms (morphological archaisms), i.e., archaic forms of otherwise nonarchaic words, morphological forms of the earlier stages in the development of the language, such as; the pronoun "thou' and its forms, etc. b)many French borrowings : garniture (furniture), etc.

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2.Obsolete words have already gone completely out of use, but they are still recognized by the English speaking community: nay (no), methinks (it seems to me). 3.Archaic proper - words which are no longer recognizable in Modern English. They were in use in OE and have either dropped out of the language entirely, or have changed in their appearance so much, that they have become unrecognizable. The borderlines between these groups are not distinct, particularly between obsolescent and obsolete words. By-gone periods in the life of any society are marked by historic events, and by institutions, customs, material objects, etc. which are no longer in use. For example: yeoman ( a small farmer). Words of this type never disappear from the language. They are historical terms and remain as terms referring to definite things and phenomena which have long past into history. Historical words, i.e. words denoting such concepts and phenomena that have gone out of use in modern times (i.e. knight, etc.) are not archaisms. They have no synonyms. Archaic words have been replaced by modern synonyms. Archaic words are used: I. In the belles-lettres style as expressive means. a)in poetry to create an elevated atmosphere; b)in historical novels they perform the function of creating the atmosphere of the past. Archaisms, namely obsolescent words, are also used in the style of official documents. But the use of them here is terminological in character, they help maintain the exactness of expression that is so necessary in this style. Obsolescent words are to be found in business letters, in all kinds of legal and diplomatic documents and the like, e.g. hereby, hereto, therewith, etc. The main stylistic function of archaisms, besides poetic function, is to re-create the atmosphere of antiquity. Not seldom though archaisms are used by the writer to cause humorous effect. Topics for discussion I.The problem of obsolete words in English. II.Lexical and grammatical archaisms. Historisms. Their classification and functional role. III.The problem of new words in English. 1. New meanings and new vocabulary units; 2. Neologisms, different ways of building new words; 3. Occasional words, their types and functions. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1.What are the principle characteristics of archaic words? 2.What words arc called 'historisms'? _______________

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CHAPTER XI

ETYMOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY


11.1. Etymological survey of the English word-stock. History of borrowings in the English language
According to the origin the word stock of the English language can be divided into two main sets: the elements of one are native and the elements of the other are borrowed. A native word is a word which belongs to the original English stock as known from the earliest available manuscripts of the Old English period. A loan, borrowed word borrowing is a word taken over from another language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language. The most characteristic feature of English is its mixed character. Modern scholars estimate the percentage of borrowed words in the English vocabulary at 65-70 per cent which is an exceptionally high figure. This is explained by the country's eventful history and by its international contacts. Many linguists consider foreign influence, especially that of French, to be the most important factor in the history of English. Explanations for this should be looked for in the history of the language which is closely connected with the history of the nation speaking the language. On a vocabulary count, considering the high percentage of borrowed words, we would have to classify English as a language of international origin. But we also have to consider frequency of occurrence of words and it's clear that the native Anglo-Saxon element comprises a large number of high-frequency words like the articles, prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliaries and also the words denoting everyday objects and ideas, ex.: house, child, water, go, come, eat, good, bad, etc. Furthermore, the grammatical structure is essentially Germanic. In the first century . most of the territory now known to us as Europe was occupied by the Roman Empire. Among the inhabitants of the continent are Germanic tribes. Their tribal languages contain only Indo-European and Germanic elements. After a number of wars between the Germanic tribes and the Romans these opposing peoples came into peaceful contact. Trade was carried on, and the Germanic people gain knowledge of new and useful things. The first among them were new things to eat. Thanks to the Romans the Germanic tribes learned how make butter and cheese and as there were no words for these products in their tribal languages they were to use Latin words to name them. Also thanks to the Romans the Germanic tribes got an idea of some fruits and vegetables and the Latin names of these fruits and vegetables entered their vocabularies: cherry, pepper, plum, beet, etc. Here are some more examples of Latin borrowings of this period: cup, plant, kitchen, mill, port, wine. These Latin words were destined to become the earliest group of borrowings in the future English language. (Native element - Indo-European) In the fifth century AD several of the Germanic tribes (the most numerous among them were the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes) migrated across the sea to the British Isles. There they were confronted by the Celts, the original inhabitants of the Isles. The Celts desperately 57

defended their land against the invaders, but in the end they retreated to the North and SouthWest (modern Scotland, Wales and Cornwall). Through their numerous contacts with the Celts the conquerors got to know and assimilated a number of Celtic words. Especially numerous among the Celtic borrowings were place name, names of rivers, hills, etc. The Germanic tribes occupied the land but the names of many parts and features of their territory remained Celtic. Ex. Names of the rivers Avon, Exe, etc. Some Latin words entered the Anglo-Saxon languages through Celtic, among them such widely-used words as street and wall. The seventh century A. D. was significant for the Christianization of England. Latin was the official language of the Christian church, and consequently the spread of Christianity was accompanied by a new period of Latin borrowings. There no longer came from spoken Latin as they did eight ccnturies earlier, but church Latin. These new borrowings were different in , meaning from the earlier ones. They mostly indicated persons, objects and ideas associated with church and religious rituals, e.g. priest, bishop, monk, nun, candle, etc. Additionally, in a class of their own were Latin educational terms. The first schools in England were church schools, and the first teachers were priests and monks. From the end of the 8h c. to the middle of the I l'h . England underwent several Scandinavian invasions which inevitably left their trace on English vocabulary. Examples of early Scandinavian borrowings are: call, v., take, cast, die, law, husband, window, ill, low, weak, etc. Some of the words of this group are easily recognizable as Scandinavian borrowings by the initial 'sk' combination. E.g. sky, skill, skin, ski, skirt. Some English words changed their meanings under the influence of Scandinavian words of the same root. In 1066 the English were defeated by the Normans under William the Conqueror in the famous Battle of Hastings. This started the eventful epoch of the Norman Conquest. England became a bi-lingua! country', and the impact on the English vocabulary made over this twohundred-years period is immense. French words from the Norman dialect penetrated every aspect of social life. Ex. Administrative words: state, government, parliament, council, power Legal terms: court, judge, crime, prison Military terms: army, war, soldier, officer, battle, enemy Educational terms: pupil, lesson, library, science, pen, pencil Terms of everyday life: table, plate, saucer, dinner, supper, river, autumn, uncle, etc. The Renaissance Period in England was marked a significant developments in science, art and culture and also by a revival of interest in the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome and their languages. This period is characterized by a considerable number of Latin and Greek borrowings. In contrast to the earliest Latin borrowings the Renaissance ones were rarely concrete names, they were mostly abstract words: major, moderate, intelligent, permanent, to elect, to create. There were numerous scientific and artistic terms: datum, status, phenomenon, philosophy, method, music. The same is true of Greek Renaissance borrowings : atom, cycle, ethics, etc.). The Renaissance was a period of extensive cultural contacts between the major European states. It was natural that new words entered the English language from other European languages. The most significant were French borrowings. This time they came from the Parisian dialect of French and are known as Parisian borrowings. Ex.: regime, routine, police, machine,

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ballet, matinee, scene, technique, etc. These French borrowings sound and look very different from Norman borrowings. Italian also contributed a considerable number of words to English, e.g. piano, violin, opera, alarm, colonel. In XIX-XX centuries a considerable number of German, Spanish, Russian words as well as words from Indian languages, such as Urdu, were borrowed by the English language. In the 2(fh century English has become Global language. It is spoken and learned by people all over the world. Many words have been borrowed by the English language from all major languages and cultures. Many of these words have been borrowed with the function to describe notions of the 'external' (foreign) culture.

11.2. Classification according to the source of borrowing


The term 'Source of borrowing' is applied to the language from which the loan word was taken into English. The source, the scope and the semantic sphere of the loan words depend on historical facts. According to the source language we can distinguish the following groups of borrowing in the English language: I.Celtic (5th - "1 . A.D.) II.Latin borrowings ' group: I century B.C. 2nd group: 7th eentury A.D. 3* group: the Renaissance period III.Scandinavian (8,h - 11th c. A.D.) IV.French borrowings 1.Norman borrowings: 1 l'h-13lh c. A.D. 2.Parisian borrowings (Renaissance) V.Greek borrowings (Renaissance) VI.Italian borrowings (Renaissance and later) VII.Spanish borrowings (Renaissance and later) VIII.German IX.Urdu and other Indian dialects X.Russian and other groups. There are certain structural features which enable us to identify some words as borrowings and even to determine the source of the language. The initial 'sk' usually indicates Scandinavian origin. We can also recognize words of Latin and French origin by certain suffixes? Prefixes or endings.

11.3. Cause of borrowing


Each time two nations come into close contact certain borrowings arc a natural consequence. The nature of the contact may be different. It may be wars, invasions or conquest when foreign words are imposed upon the conquered nation. There are also periods of peace when the process of borrowing is due to trade and international relations. These circumstances are certainly more favorable for stimulating the borrowing process, for during invasions and occupations the natural psychological reaction of the oppressed nation is to reject and condemn the language of the oppressor. Sometimes words are borrowed to fill a gap in vocabulary. When the Saxons borrowed

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Latin words for "butter", 'plum', 'beet', they did it because their own vocabularies lacked words for these new objects. For the same reason the words potato and tomato were borrowed by English from Spanish when these vegetables were first brought to England from Spain. But there is also a great number of words which are borrowed for other reasons. There may be a word which expresses some particular concept, so that there is no gap in the vocabulary and there does not seem to be any need for borrowing. Yet another word is borrowed which means almost the same, but not exactly. It is borrowed because it represents the same concept in some new aspect, supplies a new shade of meaning or a different emotional coloring. This type of borrowing enlarges groups of synonyms and greatly enriches the expressive resources of the vocabulary. That is how the French desire was added In the native wish, the Latin admire and the French adore to native like and love.

11.4. Assimilation. Types of assimilation


Most of the borrowings adjust themselves to their new environment and ! adapted to the norms of the recipient language. They undergo certain rhanges which gradually erase their foreign features, and finally they are iissimilated. Sometimes the process of assimilation develops to the point when die foreign origin of a word is unrecognizable. Others, though assimilated, still have traces of their foreign background. Distance and development, for example identified by their French suffixes, skin and sky by their Skandinavian initial s k . Police and regime by French stress on the last syllable. Borrowed words are adjusted in the three main areas of the new language system: the phonetic, the grammatical and the semantic. The term assimilation of a loan word is used to denote a partial or total conformation to the phonetic, graphical, morphological standards of the receiving language and its semantic system. Borrowed words are adjusted in Ihree main areas of the new language system: the phonetic, the grammatical and the semantic. Therefore we can distinguish phonetic, grammatical, graphical, semantic assimilation. The lasting nature of phonetic adaptation is best shown by comparing Norman French borrowings to later ones. The Norman borrowings have for a long time been fully adapted to the phonetic system of the English language: such words as table, plate, courage bear no phonetic traces of their French origin. Some of the later French borrowings, even the ones borrowed in the 15,h century, still sound surprisingly French: regime, matinee, cafe', ballet. In these cases phonetic adaptation is not completed. Grammatical adaptation consists in a complete change of a former paradigm of the borrowed word. Grammatical paradigm is a system of grammatical forms peculiar to the word as a part of speech. If it is a noun, it is certain to adopt, a new system of declension (); if it is a verb, it will be conjugated () to the rules of the recipient language. This is also a lasting process. Such English Renaissance borrowings as 1datum' (pi. data), 'phenomenon' (pi. phenomena), 'criterion' (pi. criteriajhaven't been grammatically assimilated yet, but earlier Latin borrowings such as 'cup', 'plum', 'street' 'wall' were fully adapted to the grammatical system of the language long ago. By semantic adaptation is meant adjustment to the system of meanings of the vocabulary. Borrowing is generally caused either by the necessity to fill a gap in the vocabulary or by a chance to add a synonym conveying an old concept in a new way. But sometimes a word may be borrowed 'blindly', so to speak, for no obvious reason. Quite a number of such 'accidental' borrowings

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arc very soon rejected by the vocabulary and forgotten. Hut there are others v which manage to go through the process of semantic adaptation.

The degree of assimilation depends upon the length of period during which the word has been used in the receiving language, upon its importance for communication and its frequency. Oral borrowings due to personal contacts are assimilated more completely and more rapidly than literary borrowings, borrowings which come through written speech. According to degree of assimilation we distinguish completely assimilated loan words, partially assimilated loan words and unassimilated loan words or barbarisms. The group of partially assimilated loan words may be subdivided depending on the aspect that remains unaltered, i.e. according to whether the word retains features of spelling, pronunciation, morphology or meaning that are not English.
I.Completely assimilated words can be found in all the layers of older borrowings. They may belong to the first layer of Latin borrowings, e.g. cheese, street, wall, wine. Among Scandinavian borrowings we find such frequent nouns as husband, fellow, gate, root, such verbs as to call, to die, to take, to want and adjectives like happy, ill, low, odd and wrong. Completely assimilated French words are extremely numerous and frequent. II.The second group containing partly assimilated loan words can be subdivided into subgroups. 1)Loan words non assimilated semantically because they denote objects and notions peculiar to the country from which they come, e.g. sari, sombrero, etc. 2)Loan words not assimilated grammatically, for ex., nouns borrowed from Latin or Greek which keep their original plural forms, e.g. phenomenon - phenomena, etc. 3)Loan words not completely assimilated phonetically. The French words borrowed after 1650 are a good example. Some of them keep the accent on the final syllable: machine, police, etc. 4)Loan words not completely assimilated graphically. This group is fairly large. III.The third group of borrowings comprises the so-called barbarisms, i.e. words from other languages used by English people in conversations or in writing but not assimilated in any way, and for which there are corresponding English equivalents. V. Classification according to the way borrowing: 1) proper borrowing, 2) transliteration loan, 3) semantic loans, 4) hybrids Alongside loan words proper, we distinguish translation loans, semantic loans and hybrids. Proper borrowing are taken into the vocabulary of another ImiKuage more or less in the same phonetic shape in which ihey have been hmctioning in their own language. translation loans we indicate borrowings of a special kind I'hey arc hIs and expressions formed from the material already existing in the English language but according to the patterns taken from another language by Minipheme-for morpheme translation. Only compound words, words consisting n|'two stems, can undergo the process of translation, e. g. 'collective farm'. Semantic loan is the development in an English word a new meaning due in the influence of a related word in another language. The English word pioneer meant explorer and one who is

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the first in new fields of activity. Under the influence of the Russian word it has come to mean "a member of the Young Pioneers' Organization'. Hybrids - part of the word is borrowed and part of it is translated. 'Decembrist' VI.Classification of borrowing according to the cultural function in the language 1) Words borrowed with object and notions and used in reference to the culture of the recipient language. 2) Words which denote objects or notions peculiar to a foreign culture and used in the English language only in reference to this particular foreign culture. VII.International words It is often the case that a word is borrowed by several languages, not just by one. Such words usually convey concepts which are significant in the field of communication. Many of them are of Latin and Greek origin. Most names of sciences are international, e. g. philosophy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, linguistics, lexicology. There are also numerous terms of art in this group: music, drama, tragedy, comedy, artist, etc. It's natural that political terms frequently occur in the international group of borrowings: politics, policy, revolution, progress, democracy, etc. Topics for discussion I.The origin of English words. Words of native origin. II.Common Indo-European and Germanic word-stock. Characteristic features of native words. III.Causes, ways and types of borrowings in English. IV.History of loan words in English. Sources of loans. 41.Early borrowings in the English language. Celtic element. 42.Latin borrowings; 43.Norman-French borrowings; 44.Borrowings from Spanish and Italian. V.Structural types of loans. Proper borrowings. Caiques: lexical and semantic. VI.Assimilation of Borrowings. Types of assimilation. VII.Classification of loans according to the degree of assimilation VIII.Classification of loans according to their reference to culture. IX.Russian loans. X.International words. XI.Etymological hybrids, etymological doublets. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1.What historical events in the life of the country are connected with the influx of borrowed words? 2.How do you account for the fact that English vocabulary contains such an immense number of words of foreign origin? 3.What is the earliest group of English borrow ings? 4.What languages contributed greatly into the vocabulary of the English language? 5.What Celtic borrowings are there in English? Date them. 6.Which words were introduced into English vocabulary during the period of Christianization?

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7.How did classical borrowings enrich the English language? 8.What are the characteristic features of Scandinavian borrowings? 9.What are the characteristic features of words borrowed into English during the Renaissance? 11.What suffixes and prefixes can help you to recognize words of Latin and French origin? 12.How does English adopt borrowed words? 13.What is the difference between 'source of borrowing' and 'origin of borrowing"? 14.What do we call loan words denoting objects and notions peculiar to the country from which they come? 15.What is barbarism? 16.What is the basics of etymological doublets? Exercise I. Study the map of Great Britain and find the names of places, rivers and hills of Celtic origin. Exercise 2. State the origin of the following etymological doublets. Compare their meanings and explain why they are called "etymological doublets ". 1.canal - channel, cart - chart. 2.shirt - skirt, shriek - screech, shrew -screw. 3. shadow - shade, off- of, dike - ditch. Reference books:
1 .Arnoid.l V. The English Word //. V Arnold. - M.. 1986 -P. 219- 221 2.Ginzburg. R. S. A Course in Modern English Lexicology / R. S. Ginzbur - M., 1979.-P. 180193. 3. / . - , 1978.

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CHAPTER XII

REGIONAL VARIETIES OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE


Read and answer the questions below LANGUAGE VARIATION The English language today. World standard English In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the First (from 1558 to 1603), the number of English speakers in the world is thought to be between five and seven million. At the beginning of the reign of the second Queen Elizabeth, in 1952, the figure had increased almost fifty times: 250 million spoke English as a mother tongue, and a further 100 million or so had learned it as a foreign language. The most recent estimates tell us that mother-tongue speakers are now over 300 million. But this total is far exceeded by a number of people who use English as a foreign language which is at least a further 400 million. So today, English is used at least by 750 million people, and barely half of

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those speak it as a mother tongue. English at the end of the 20 lh century is more widely scattered (), more widely spoken and written, than any other language has ever been. It has become the language of the planet, the first truly global language. Standard English is a basis of description in varieties. Standard English has been described as a 'prestige variety' of the language; a variety with agreed norms and conventions that can be used as a model for education and for public use (e.g. media). The term may also refer to a variety that has been codified; that is represented in dictionaries and grammars. This suggests that the forms of Standard English should show little if any variation. But in fact, a standard language has been described as having 'maximal variation in function' but minimal variation in form. If we read the newspapers or listen to the newscasters around the English speaking world, we will quickly develop the impression that there is a World Standard F.nglislv which acts as a strongly unifying force among the vast range of variation which exists. There is a great deal of evidence to support this impression. The degree of acceptance of a single standard of English throughout the world is a truly remarkable phenomenon. The uniformity is especially close in neutral and formal styles of written English on subject matter not of obviously localized interest. Uniformity is greatest in spelling. Although printing houses in all English- speaking countries retain a tiny element of individual decision, there is basically a single spelling and punctuation system throughout : with two subsystems. The one is the subsystem with British orientation, the other is American. In grammar and vocabulary, standard English presents a less unified character. A great deal of lexical distinctiveness can be observed in the specialized terms of local politics, business, culture, and natural history, and in the 'domestic' columns of national newspapers. There is also a certain amount of grammatical distinctiveness, especially between US and UK. English. So a totally uniform, regionally neutral, and prestigious variety does not yet exist worldwide. Each country where English is a first language is aware of its linguistic identity, and is anxious to preserve it from the influence of others. New Zealanders do not want to be Australians; Canadians do not want to be Americans; and Americanism is perceived as a danger signal by usage guardians everywhere except in the USA. All other countries can be grouped into those which follow American English, those which follow British English, and those (e.g. Canada) where there is a mixture of influences. One of the most noticeable features of this divided usage is spelling. In certain domains, such as computing and medicine, US spelling is becoming increasingly widespread, but we are a long way from uniformity. The notion of a 'standard pronunciation' is useful in the international setting of English as a second or foreign language, but here too there is more than one teaching model - chiefly, British Received Pronunciation and US General American. The question of prestige is not easy to determine, at an international level, because of the different national histories which coexist. One way of representing the unity and diversity of English-speaking world is the circle of world English by T. McArthur. At the center is placed the notion of World Standard English, conceived as a common core. Around it are placcd various regional or national standards, either established or becoming established ('standardizing'). On the outside are examples of the wide range of popular Englishes that exist: Caribbean Standard English; Canadian Standard English; American standard English, British and Irish Standard English; Australian and New Zealand Standard English, South Africa Standard English, etc. Types of variation

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The language is highly variable and continually changing. There is a long history of academic interest in language variation and change, which has broadened out recently with increasing attention paid to the 'new Englishes' spoken in many parts of the world. Like other languages, English varies in several different ways. For instance, language differs in written texts and oral speech. Language also varies in relation to different speakers or writers, where they come from and what social groups they belong to; and it varies for the same individual in different contexts, for instance depending on whether the speaker perceives a context as formal or informal, and depending on the purpose of that context. There are numerous varieties of English. The major five types of variation are: 1) region; 2) social group ; 3) field of discourse; 4) medium; 5) attitude Any use of the language necessarily involves variation within these five types. The first two types of variation relate primarily to the language user. People use a regional variety because they live in a region or have once lived in that region. Similarly, people use a social variety becausc of their association with some social group. These varieties are relatively permanent for the language user. At the same time, we should be aware that many people can communicate in more than one regional or social variety and can therefore switch varieties according to the situation. And of course people move to other regions or change their social affiliations, and may then adopt a new regional or social variety. Other types of variation relate to language use. We shall focus mainly on regional and social varieties of English, which relate primarily to the language user. Language varieties are not simply linguistic phenomena. Regional variation Varieties according to the region have a well-established label both in popular and technical use - that is DIALECT. Linguists concerned with different regional and social varieties of English often distinguish between ACCENTS and DIALECTS. A regional accent refers to features of pronunciation, which convey information about a person's geographical origin. So accents are varieties that differ only in terms of pronunciation. A regional dialect refers to features of grammar and vocabulary, which convey information about a person's geographical origin. So dialects are varieties that differ in terms of grammar and vocabulary. Speakers who have a distinctive regional dialect will have a distinctive regional accent; but the reverse does not necessary follow. It is possible to have a regional accent but speak Standard English, which conveys no information about geographical origin. Regional dialects are also typically associated with a range of regional accents - some are much 'broader' and more distinctive than the others. Within a country, there may be a prestige or neutral accent, which conveys no information about geographical background. The most famous example occurs in Britain, with the accent that has long been called Received Pronunciation or RP. Geographical dispersion is in fact the classic basis for linguistic variation. In the course of time, with poor communication and relative remoteness, such dispersion resulted in dialects becoming so distinct that we regard them as different languages. This long ago happened in case of Germanic dialects that are now Dutch, English, German, Swedish, but it has not happened with the English dialects, which resulted from the regional separation of communities within the British Isles and elsewhere in the world. There are more accents and dialects in long-settled Britain than in areas more recently settled by English speakers, such as North America or, still more recently, Australia and New Zealand.

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National standards of English should be seen as distinct from the standard English, which is embracing what is common to all. There are two national standards that are predominant both in the number of distinctive usages and in the degree to which these distinctions are institutionalized: American English and British English. Grammatical differences arc few and the most conspicuous are known to many users of both national standards. Lexical differences are far more numerous, but many of these are familiar to users of both standards. Recent innovations tend to spread rapidly from one standard to the other. Mass communication neutralizes differences; the pop music culture, in particular, uses a mid-Atlantic' dialect that levels differences even in pronunciation. Scots, with ancient national and educational institutions, is perhaps nearest to the selfconfident independence of BrE and AmE. though the differences in grammar and vocabulary are rather few. Irish English may also be considered a national standard, since it is regarded as independent of BrE by educational and broadcasting services. The proximity to Britain and influence of AmE mean however, that there is little room for development of a separate grammar and vocabulary. Canadian English is in a similar position. Close economic, social and intellectual links with the US influence the language, but in many respects Canadian English follows British rather than American practice. Standard British English and HP The term ACCENT refers to varieties of pronunciation. The term DIALECT, on the other hand, refers to varieties distinguished from each other by differences of grammar and vocabulary. With British English the separation of accent from dialect is not only logically possible, but required by the relationship, that exist between them. The accent taught to foreign learners of British English is RP (Received Pronunciation). The dialect used as a model is known as "Standard English", British Standard English is the dialect of educated people throughout the British Isles. It is the dialect normally used in writing, for teaching in schools and universities, and heard on radio and television. Unlike RP, Standard English is not restricted to the speech of a particular social group. But it would be odd to hear an RP speaker consistently using a non-standard dialect of English. Another way in which Standard English differs from RP is that it most users of Standard English have regional accents and so Standard English exhibits some regional variation. Standard British English includes: Standard English English, Standard Scottish English, Standard Irish English. In Scotland, and Ireland there are regional features, which even in formal writing, are considered 'standard'. In Standard Scottish English, for example, we find ' They hadn't a good time', rather than the Standard English English, 'They didn't have a good time'. Variation between these standard varieties is in fact quite limited. RP is not the accent of any region. It is spoken by a very small percentage of the British population, those at the top of the social scale. Everyone else has a regional accent. The lower the person is on the social scale, the more obvious their regional accent will tend to be. There is a great degree of variation within Standard English and RP. British Standard English is the dialect used by educated people throughout the British Isles. Nevertheless, most people who would generally be regarded as speakers of Standard English have at least some regional dialect forms in their speech. In general the higher people are on the social scale, the fewer of these regional forms they will have in their speech. AMERICAN ENGLISH American English, variety of the English language spoken in the United States. Although all Americans do not speak the same way, their speech has enough in common that American

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English can be recognized as a variety of English distinct from British English, Australian English, and other national varieties. American English has grown up with the country. It began to diverge from British English during its colonial beginnings and acquired regional differences and ethnic flavor during the settlement of the continent. Today it influences other languages and other varieties of English because it is the medium by which the attractions of American culture its literature, motion pictures, and television programsare transmitted to the world. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH All speakers of English share a common linguistic system and a basic set of words. But American English differs from British English, Australian English, and other national varieties in many of its pronunciations, words, spellings, and grammatical constructions. Words or phrases of American origin, and those used in America but not so much elsewhere, are called Americanisms. Pronunciation In broad terms, Canadian and American speakers tend to sound like one " another. They also tend to sound different from a large group of English speakers who sound more British, such as those in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. For example, most Canadians and Americans pronounce an r sound after the vowel in words like barn, car, and farther, while speakers from the British English group do not. The English spoken in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa sounds more like British English than American English does because these varieties have had less time to diverge from British English. The process of separate development began later in these countries than in North America. Although Canadians and Americans share many speech habits, Canadian speakers of English sometimes tend more toward British English because of the closer historical association of Britain with Canada. One prominent difference between American English and Canadian English is the vowel sound in words like out and house. In some cases there are differences between American English and British English in the rhythm of words. Words The most frequently used words are shared by speakers of different varieties of English. These words include the most common nouns, the most common verbs, and most function words (such as pronouns, articles, and prepositions). The different varieties of English do, however, use different words for many words that are slightly less commonfor example, British crisps for American potato chips, Australian billabong for American pond, and Canadian chesterfield for American sofa. It is even more common for the same word to exist with different meanings in different varieties of English. Corn is a general term in Britain, for which Americans use grain, while corn in American English is a specific kind of grain. The word pond in British English usually refers to an artificial body of water, whereas ponds also occur naturally in North America. British English chemist is the same as American English drugstore, and in Canada people go to the druggist. Many of the words most easily recognized as American in origin are associated with aspects of American popular culture, such as gangster or cowboy. Spelling American English spelling differs from British English spelling largely because of one man, American lexicographer Noah Webster. In addition to his well-known An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828), Webster published The American Spelling Book (1783, with many subsequent editions),67 which became one of the most widely used

schoolbooks in American history. Webster's books sought to standardize spelling in the United States by promoting the use of an American language that intentionally differed from British English. The development of a specifically American variety of English mirrored the new country's separate political development. Webster's most successful changes were spellings with or instead of our (honor, labor for the British honour, labour); with er instead of re (center, theater for the British centre, theatre); with an s instead of (defense, license for the British defence, licence): with a final ck instead of que (check, mask for the British cheque, masque); and without a final (traffic, public, now also used in British English, for the older traffick, publick). Later spelling reform created a few other differences, such as program for British programme. Grammar The grammar of educated speakers of English differs little among national varieties. In the speech of people with less access to education, grammatical variations in regional and social varieties of American English are very common as normal, systematic occurrences (not as errors). One major difference between British and American English is that the two attach different verb forms to nouns that are grammatically singular but plural in sense Topics for discussion I.The English language today. English as a global language. II.Regional varieties of the English language. Standard variant and dialects. III.National standards of English. Standard British English and RP. IV.Accent and dialect. V.The English-speaking world. American, Canadian, Australian, New- Zealand variants of the English language. VI.The historical background of the development of the American variant of the English language. VII.Lexical peculiarities of American English. Consider your answers to the following questions: 1.Why do we call English a 'Global language'? 2.What can you say about World Standard English? 3.What types of language variation do you know? 4.What is regional variation? 5.What is a regional accent? 6.What regional varieties of English do you know? 7.In what way is Standard English different from RP? 8.What are the peculiarities of the vocabulary of English spoken in the USA? 9.Can we say that the vocabulary of the language spoken in the USA supports the hypothesis that there is an "American language"? 10.What arc the peculiar features of American English? Reference books
1Arnold I. V. The English Word /1. V. Arnold.- M., 1986 - P. 262 -271. 2Ginzburg. R. S A Course in Modern English Lexicology / R. S. Ginzburg et al. - M 1979.-P. 200-209 3. . . . / . . -U., 1971 ___________________________S 68

CHAPTER XIII

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGLISH LEXICOGRAPHY


Read and answer the questions below LEXICOGRAPHY Dictionary is listing of the words of a language, usually in alphabetical order but sometimes also by topic, with their meanings or their equivalents. A dictionary' may also contain pronunciations, syllabications, etymologies (word histories), and examples of usage. The term dictionary is also applied to any systematic list of special terms such as abbreviations, slang, or etymology, or to a list in which the special terms of a particular subject are defined. Some dictionaries focus on particular subjects, such as science, biography, geography, mathematics, history. Some dictionaries are called encyclopedic, because they not only define words but also offer additional descriptive and explanatory information and identify many biographical and geographical names. A famous encyclopedic dictionary is the French 19th-century dictionaryencyclopedia the Grand dictionnaire universe! (17 volumes, 1865-1890), compiled by Pierre Athanase Larousse. The greatest such American work is the Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (revised edition, 12 volumes, 1911), edited by American linguist William Dwight Whitney. STANDARD EUROPEAN DICTIONARIES The earliest polyglot (multilingual) dictionary of modern languages, the work of Italian monk Ambrogio Calepino, appeared in 1502. Originally compiled as a Latin-Greek lexicon, it grew to include Italian, French, and Spanish; the 1590 Basel edition included 11 languages. Among the first major dictionaries to be written entirely in modern languages, rather than in Latin, were the Italian Vocabulario degli Accademici della Crusca (1612) and the Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise (1694). Later came the Diccionario de la lengua espanola, published from 1726 to 1736 by the Royal Academy of Madrid. Both the French and Spanish academies continue to publish dictionaries today. In Spain, the Diccionario de la lengua espanola, its 21st edition published in 1995 by Espasa-Calpe, remains the standard Spanish dictionary. In France work is underway on the 9th edition of the Dictionnaire de I'Academie Francaise. The first part, covering the entries from A to Enz, was published in 1994; regular supplements appear in the government publication Le journal officiel. The previous (8th) edition appeared from 1931 to 1935. Other widely respected dictionaries in French include Le grand Larousse de la langue francaise (7 volumes, 1971-1978) and the 9volume Le grand Robert de la langue francaise (latest edition, 1994). The standard modem Italian dictionary is the Grande dizionario della lingua italiana (1961-), of which 19 volumes (up to Squ) were completed by the year 2000. The standard wordbook for German is the Deutsches Worterbuch (16 volumes, 1854-1960; revised edition begun 1965), undertaken by philologists (language scholars) Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm (see Grimm Brothers). Beyond these scholarly works, compiled on historical principles, are the numerous bilingual dictionaries, which vary in reliability. They are designed for the person learning a language and thus generally present only word equivalents, not derivations or pronunciation.

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DICTIONARIES IN BRITAIN Dominican monk Galfridus Grammaticus, also known as Geoffrey the Grammarian, compiled the Promptorium Parvulorum Sive Clericorum (Storehouse for Children or Clerics) in 1440 in Norfolk, England. Printed in 1449 by Wynkyn de Wordc, it has a good claim to be the first English dictionary. It contains Latin equivalents for 10,000 English words and remained a leading wordbook for several generations. Another English-Latin dictionary, the Bibliotheca of Sir Thomas Elyot, followed in 1538. Robert Cawdrey, in A Table Alphabetical! ... of Hard Usuall Wordes (1604), produced the first dictionary giving definitions of English words in English. The word dictionary was first used by Henry Cockeram in The English Dictionarie (1623). In 1656 Thomas Blount issued his Glossographia, also entirely in English, with "...hard words together with Divinity Terms, Law, Physick, Mathematicks and other Arts and Sciences explicated." These early works characteristically confined themselves to "hard words" and phrases not generally understood, because the daily vocabulary of the language was not expected to require definitions. New English Dictionary (1702), by John Kersey, departed from the hard-word tradition, including ordinary English words as well as unfamiliar terms. Another early comprehensive inventory' of English was the Universal Etymological English Dictionary (1721) by Nathan Bailey, reissued in 1730 as the Dictionarium Brittanicum: A More Compleat Universal Etymological Dictionary Than Any Extant. This work used quotations from literary works to confirm and supplement definitions. A Dictionary of the English Language (1755), by essayist and literary critic Samuel Johnson, further extended the use of quotations. Johnson's two-volume dictionary remained the model of English lexicography for more than a century. A culmination of lexicographic work in the English language came with A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED), popularly known as The Oxford English Dictionary (OED). Work on this most comprehensive of dictionaries began with the support of the English Philological Society in 1857. Scottish lexicographer Sir James Augustus Henry Murray became editor in 1879. Ten volumes appeared between 1884 and 1928, and a 12-volume edition with a single-volume supplement in 1933. A 4-volume supplement came out between 1972 and 1986, and the 20-volume second edition was published in 1989. Various other dictionaries are related to the OED in content or method. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, a 2-volume abridgement with some revisions in pronunciation, was issued in 1933 and later revised twice. Its success led to publication of the New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary in 1993. A 1-volume work, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, joined this family in 1998, while the Concise Oxford Dictionary of English dates to 1911, with a recent edition in 1999. The Oxford dictionaries have made good use of technological advances and exist in several forms. The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, a 2-volume photographically reduced version of the 13-volume set, became available in 1971. In 1987 The Oxford English Dictionary on CD-ROM was published (see CD-ROM). The second edition of the CD-ROM version was issued in 1992. With the release of the OED on the Internet in 2000, subscribers gained access not only to the 1989 version but also to the work of editors revising it, an effort expected to reach completion in 2010. DICTIONARIES IN THE UNITED STATES The first important contribution to lexicography in the United States was The American Spelling Book (1783), issued by educator and lexicographer Noah Webster as the first part of his

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Grammatical Institute of the English Language (1783-1785). Although not a true dictionary, The American Spelling Book, because of its American origin and emphasis and its simplification of English, became a household reference wordbook throughout the United States. Its success led Webster to compile A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language (1806). He then embarked upon his major contribution to lexicography, An American Dictionary of the English Language, begun in 1807 and published in 1828. This ambitious work included 12,000 more words and 40,000 more definitions than any previous dictionary of the English language. Despite its emphasis on typically American usage, distinguished from British usage, this work was never popular. Webster's great competitor, with whom he shared the lead in creating dictionaries for the United States, was Joseph Emerson Worcester. Worcester's Comprehensive Pronouncing and Explanatory Dictionary of the English Language (1830) was superior to Webster's preceding work, and it paved the way for modern collegiate dictionaries. Worcester published A Universal and Critical Dictionary of the English Language in 1846, and in 1860 a Dictionary of the English Language that included illustrations and synonyms. Webster brought out a revised edition of his dictionary in 1841. After his death, the G. C. Merriam Company acquired the rights to the dictionary, and the first Merriam-Webster dictionary, edited by Chauncey A. Goodrich, was published in 1847. In 1864 another edition, edited by Noah Porter, continued the line of publications. Webster's International Dictionary appeared in 1890; Webster's New International Dictionary appeared in 1909. The second edition of Webster's New International Dictionary', published in 1934, remains impressive today, with 600,000 entries. Publication of Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language in 1961 caused public uproar. In this work the lexicographers attempted to reflect contemporary usage and to describe language as their evidence showed it, rather than as a system of rules. Webster's Third, as it became known, included many slang words and technical terms, and its pronunciation schemes indicate regional speech patterns. Many critics denounced it for what they considered its failure to uphold traditional standards, and many defended it energetically as a comprehensive and accurate depiction of its material. Another line of dictionaries began in 1894 with A Standard Dictionary of the English Language, edited by Isaac Kauffman Funk. Funk introduced a new approach to definitions, beginning with the most common current meaning of a word and ending with the older meanings, followed by the etymology. Previously, all dictionaries had traced the uses of a word in historical order, as the OED does; in such dictionaries etymologies are placed at the beginning of the definition. Funk & Wagnalls continued the Standard line with a revised edition called The New Standard Dictionary of the English Language in 1913 and later editions and versions over following decades. A number of well-known dictionaries came into existence between 1947 and 1969. The wide success of the American College Dictionary (1947), edited by Clarence L. Barnhart, proved that new opportunities existed in the dictionary market. Barnhart went on to edit the two-volume World Book Dictionary (1963) through several editions. Other new entrants in the field were Webster's New World Dictionary (4th college edition, 1999); Random House dictionaries (2nd unabridged edition, 1987; 2nd college edition, 1997); and the American Heritage Dictionary (4th edition, 2000). DICTIONARIES OF SPECIAL INTEREST Specialized and scholarly dictionaries have made major advances in the last century.

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Noteworthy dictionaries of slang and popular usage include the Dictionary of Sldng and Unconventional English (1937; 8th edition, 1985), which is strong on British terms; the Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang (Volume 1 [A-G], 1994; Volume 2 [H-O], 1997); and the comprehensive Dictionary of American Regional English (Volume 1 [A-C], 1985; Volume 2 [D-HJ, 1991; Volume 3 [1-0], 1996). Researchers continue to advance lexicographic works of enormous learning in Middle English, Latin, Assyrian, and other historical languages. Other sorts of dictionaries aim at practical everyday benefit. A number of publishers of textbooks issue dictionaries for students, with separate titles for various levels, from first readers to high school. A pioneer in dictionaries for children was educational psychologist Edward L. Thorndike, whose research into language acquisition and usage led to the series of ThorndikeBarnhart dictionaries for children and for students now published by Scott Foresman and Company. A rapidly developing area of work in lexicography is the creation of dictionaries for children or adults who are learning a second language. Such dictionaries concentrate oil the most commonly used and most important words and meanings, and they define words in the simplest way. Learners' dictionaries often limit the vocabulary used in writing definitions to a small number of simple words, so that a person who has learned a few thousand words of a language can read any definition. Learners' dictionaries, like student dictionaries, include many examples of words as they appear in phrases and sentences, showing how the words are used and helping readers understand the definitions. Much more concise, in most cases, are the bilingual dictionaries intended for travelers, or for advanced students of a second language. These works typically include as many words and phrases as possible, often using symbols in place of words and otherwise compressing information. Well-known publishers of bilingual dictionaries include Harrap in the United Kingdom and Langenscheidt in Germany. ELECTRONIC DICTIONARIES Computers have been important tools in lexicography for decades; the need to store, sort, and retrieve huge amounts of linguistic information drew publishers to electronic methods. Today publishers and universities maintain corpora (collections of language, published or recorded from speech) amounting to tens of millions of words that can be searched in moments. A lexicographer can see not only individual occurrences of a word, but also occurrences sorted by nearby words, by grammatical form, or by context. Computational linguists use such data to analyze language patterns along with word meanings, with the overall goal of enabling computers to understand and generate language as skillfully as human users do. Computers are also the newest way to use dictionaries. Various publishers have issued dictionaries in electronic form, taking advantage of this technology to increase the speed of lookup and cross-reference, to extend methods of searching for information, and to include recordings of pronunciations, so that users can hear words or phrases spoken aloud. Dictionaries, old and new, have made their way onto the Internet, and this form of publication is likely to become more and more usual. The Internet was essential to the creation of the Encarta World English Dictionary (1999), which is the most recently created dictionary of English. Based in London, the work of writing this dictionary was conducted by e-mail and involved more than 300 lexicographers around the world. This staff72 the Internet itself as a language resource, used

reviewing words and usages from all the countries in which English is frequently written, spoken, or studied. The partners in creating the Encarta World English Dictionary Bloomsbury Publishing and Microsoft Corporationwere thus able to create an entirely new dictionary in three years. Further advantages of technological progress became clear when Encarta brought recorded pronunciations to the Internet in 2000, releasing a freely available online version. Later that year Encarta issued a second CD version updated with 10,000 additional words and phrases. Speak on the following discussion topics: I.History of British lexicography. II.History of American lexicography. III.Types of dictionaries. General classification. 31.Encyclopedic dictionaries. 32.Linguistic dictionaries. 33.Specialized dictionaries. IV.Some of the main problems of lexicography. 41.Selection of words. 42.Arrangement of meaning. 43.Supplementary notes. 44.Structure of the dictionary. V. Modern electronic dictionaries. Answer the questions 1.How can you characterize the first English dictionaries? 2.What is a glossary? 3.Speak on the history of British lexicography . 4.Speak about American lexicography. 5.What modern electronic dictionaries do you know? What advantages do they have? 3

CHAPTER XIV

CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF LEXICOLOGY


I. Choose the correct answer 1.Lexicology investigates the word-stock of the language as a a) system b) structure c) group 2.The lexical nucleus of the word is a) the root morpheme b) the affixational morpheme c) derivational affixes d) inflections 3.Lexicology is a branch of linguistics, which a)studies and systematically describes the vocabulary of the language. b)studies stylistic devices and expressive means of the language. c)studies syntax of the language. d)studies historic development of words.

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4.The root morpheme a)carries only grammatical meaning b)is relevant for building various types of words. c)has a very general and abstract lexical meaning common to a set of semantically related words. d)is defined as that part of the word which remains unchangeable throughout its paradigm. 5.Suffix is a)the smallest indivisible two-facet language units b)a derivational morpheme following the stem c)a derivational morpheme standing before the root d)an affix placed within the word

6.Morphemes a)are easily singled out in words, but they are not independent and are found in actual speech only as integral parts of the word. b)are independent and can function alone. c)can be divided into smaller meaningful units. 7.According to the number of moiphemes words can be classified into a)monosemantic and polysemantic. b)monomorphic and polymorphic.

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root morpheme and affixesd) derivational affixes and inflections 8. Find an example of a personal metaphor: c)The moon is riding in the sky a) Shea) like a snake in the grass is c)He bought a head of cabbage b) The moon is like a silver coin b) 9. Find an example of dead metaphor: a) cold reason c)cruel life b) thec) flower of hisheat d)the hand of the watch d) 10.Assimilation is the process of a) adaptation, b) desemantization, b) determinazation, d) semantic shift 11.Conversion is a)the type of word building, in which new words are produced by combining two or more stems. b)the process of coining a new word in a different part of speech and with a different distribution characteristic but without adding any derivative element. c)is a type of word-building, significant subtraction, in which part of the original word is taken away. 12.What is the most rare type of synonyms? a) contextual b) total c) stylistic d) ideographic 13.What do we call words denoting objects and notions peculiar to the country from which they came? a) homonyms b) synonyms c) foreign words d) barbarisms 14.Phraseological fusions are a)word groups with a predicative structure. b)represented by proverbs and sayings. c)word-groups with a completely changed meaning which is de- motivated. d)word groups with a partially changed meaning. 15.Composition is a)the type of word building, in which new

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words are produced by combining two or more stems. b)the process of coining a new word in a different part of speech and with a different distribution characteristic but without adding any derivative element. c) a type of word-building, significant subtraction, in which part of the original word is taken away. 16.What is synonymic dominant? a)The most general and neutral of the synonyms. b)The most colloquial of the synonyms c)The synonym with a wider meaning. d)The synonyms with emotional coloring.

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e) 17.Metonymy is a transfer of meaning based on a) resemblance. b) association. c) similarity of function. 18.State the type of synonyms : love - admire - adore - worship a) stylistic b) total c) contextual d) ideographic 19.State the type of synonyms : foolish - unwise a) euphemistic b) archaic c) poetical d) dialectal e) contextual 20.Point out the general term a) dog b) fox-terrier c) poodle d) spaniel e) sausage dog 21.Find the dominant synonym in the following groups of synonyms: a) anger b) indignation c) fire d) rage e) fury 22.Find the dominant synonym in the following groups of synonyms: a) apartment b) flat c) rooms d) lodgings e) chambers 23.Point out the general term a) dog b) cat c) horse d) donkey e) animal 24.Point out productive English native suffixes a)dom, er, ing, ling, ness, full b)ess, let, ry, tion, ism c)ist, ite, able, ize, al 25.Point out productive English native prefixes a) after, out, over, under, up, un b)dis, ex, extra, sub c)super, ultra, vice, re, pre 26.How is called the process when terms pass into the common literary or neutral vocabulary? a)determinization c) coinage of new words b)creation of a new meaning d) semantic shift 27.What is metaphor? a)Metaphor is a stylistic device based on the interaction between two logical meanings of the word. b)It is a clash of two opposite meanings.

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c)It is a device reflecting relations between a part and the whole. 28.Metaphor is a transfer of meaning based on a) resemblance. b) association. c) similarity of function. 29.Archaisms belong to a) colloquial style b) literary style c) neutral style d) slang 30.Point out a case of backformation a) to spring-clean b) photo c) smog d) murmur 31.Terms are characterized by a tendency to be a) monosemantic. b) emotional, ) neutral. d) polysemantic. 32.Jargonisms are functioning a)in limited spheres of society. c) in any context. b)to create a humorous effect. d) to insult the addressee. 33.A word or phrase used to replace an unpleasant word or expression by conventionally more acccptable is a) synonym b) euphemism c) homonym d) similar 34.Barbarisms are used mainly to a)supply the narrated events with the proper local coloring b)to insult the addressee c)to make speech more emotive. d)to cause a humorous effect. 35.Cases of full homonymy are generally observed in a)words belonging to the same part of speech. b)words-forms of different parts of speech. c)in both word-forms belonging to the same and different parts of speech. 36.Homophones are the words a)of the same sound but of different spelling and meaning. b)different in sound and in meaning but identical in spelling. c)identical in pronunciation and spelling.

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d)similar in meaning and connotations. 37.Lcxical homonyms differ in a)lexical meaning. c) lexical and grammatical meaning b)grammatical meaning. d) phonemic shape. 38.Semasiology is the branch of the study of language concerned with a)the meaning of words. c) stylistic devices of the language. b)expressive means. d) dictionaries. 39.The notional content of a word is expressed by the a)denotative component of meaning. b)connotative component of meaning. c)pragmatic component. d)grammatical meaning. 40.The process of coining a new word in a different part of speech and with a different distribution characteristic but without adding any derivative element is called a)conversion c) backformation b)abbreviation d) word composition 41.The relationship of partial difference between two partially similar words is called a) a lexical opposition b) semantic group c) contrast 42.Basic or common vocabulary is the center of the vocabulary. These words are a)stylistically neutral. c) stylistically colored. b)borrowed from different languages. d) adjectives. 43.Point out a word belonging to basic (core vocabulary) a) begin b) start c) commence 44.The first English monolingual dictionary explaining words by English equivalents, appeared in a) 1455 b) 1604 c)

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1833 d) 1855 45.How can you describe the first English dictionaries? a)dictionaries of difficult words c) dictionaries for learners b)encyclopedias d) special dictionaries 46.Who was the author of the first English-English dictionary? a) Noah. Webster b) Samuel Johnson c) Robert. Cawdrcy 47.The purpose of New Oxford English Dictionary was a)to preserve the purity of the language. b)to explain difficult words. c)to explain foreign words. d)to trace the development of English words. 48.The father of American lexicography is a)Noah Webster c) Robert Cawdrey b)James d) Richard Trench. 49.Find an example of homographs: a)bow () - bow () b)right () - write () c)ring () - ring ( ) d)to found () - found (p. i. from to find) 50.Find an example of absolute (total) synonym: a)eye doctor - occulist; b) large - vast; b)to get - to receive d) kid - infant 11. Answer the following questions: 1. How can you account for the fact that English vocabulary contains such an immense number of words of foreign origin? 2.What arc the groups of English borrowings? Date them?

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3.What stages of assimilation do borrowings go through? 4.What do we understand by etymological doublets? 5.What are the characteristic features of translation loans? 6.What are the main ways of enriching the English vocabulary? 7.What features of Modern English have produced the high productivity of conversion? 8.What is understood by composition? What do we call words made by this type of wordbuilding? 9.What are the criteria for distinguishing between a compound and a wordcombination? 10.What minor processes of word-building do you know? Describe them and illustrate your answer with examples. 11.What is understood by semantics? 12.Define polysemy as a linguistic phenomenon. Illustrate your answer with your own examples. 13.What types of semantic components can be distinguished within the meaning of a word? 14.What causes the development of new meanings? Give examples. 15.What is meant by the widening and the narrowing of the meaning? 16.What is basis of development or change of meaning? Explain what we mean by the term 'transference'. What types of transference can you name? 17.Which words do we call homonyms? What is the traditional classification of homonyms? Illustrate your answer with examples. 18.What is the essential difference between homonymy and polysemy? What do they have in common? Illustrate your answer with examples. 19.How are synonyms traditionally defined? What is the modern approach to classifying

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synonyms? Illustrate your answer with examples. 20.Which word in a synonymic group is considered to be the dominant synonym? What arc its characteristic features? 21.Which words are called euphemisms? What are their main types? What function do they perform in speech? 22.What are the two major criteria for distinguishing between phraseological units and free word-groups? 23.Explain the semantic principle of classification for phraseological units. 24.What is the basis of the structural principle of classification for phraseological units? 25.What regional varieties of English do you know? EXAMENATION QUESTIONS 1. Object of Lexicology. The connection of Lexicology with other branches of linguistics. Theoretical and practical value of Lexicology. 2.Basic units of the language. 3.The notion of lexical system. The theory of oppositions. 3.Word as a basic unit of language. Definition. Characteristics. 4.Morpheme as4a basic unit of the language. Types of morphemes. Free and bound forms. Allomorphs. 5.Principles of morphemic analysis. Analysis into Immediate Constituents. 8.Derivational and functional affixes. 8 Classification of suffixes. 9.Stem. Types of stems. 10.Morphological classification of words. 11.Word composition. Compound words. The criteria of compounds. The "Stone-Wall" problem. 12.Classification of Compounds. 13.Minor ways of word-building. Shortening. Blending. Acronyms. Back- formation.

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14.Conversion. Conversion in different parts of speech. Productivity of conversion. 15.Word meaning. Types of meaning. Grammatical meaning. 16.Structure of Lexical Meaning. Denotational and connotational components of lexical meaning, their stylistic reference, evaluation, emotive charge. 17.Lexical meaning and the notion. 18.Polysemy. Semantic structure of polysemantic words. 19.Semantic change. Linguistic and extra-linguistic causes of semantic change. Nature of semantic change. Types of semantic change. 20.Different types of semantic transfer. Metaphor. Metonymy. Shifts of meaning through hyperbole, litotes, irony and euphemisms. 21.Set expressions. Classification. 22.Phraseological units and idioms proper. 23. . 24.Homonyms. Classification. Sources. Polysemy and homonymy. 25.Synonyms. Sources of synonymy. 26.Synonyms. Types of synonyms. 27.lexical variants and paronyms. 28.Antonyms and conversives. 29.The English vocabulary as an adaptive system. Neologisms. 30.English vocabulary as a system. 31.Types of non-semantic grouping. Morphological grouping. Lexico- grammatical groups. 32.Thematic and ideographic groups. The theories of semantic fields. 33.The opposition of emotionally coloured and emotionally neutral vocabulary. Core (Basic) vocabulary. 34.Terminological systems. 35.Learned words and official vocabulary. 36.Colloquial words and expressions. 37.Slang. 38.The origin of the English words. Words of native origin. Common Indo- European and

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Germanic word-stock. Characteristic features of native words. 39.History of loan words in English. Sources of loans. 40.Early borrowings in the English language. Celtic element. Latin borrowings. NormanFrench. Borrowings. Borrowings from Spanish and Italian. 41.Structural types of loans. Proper borrowings. Translation loans. 42.Russian loans in the English language. 43.Assimilation. Types of assimilation. Classification of borrowings according to the degree of assimilation. 44.Etymological doublets. International words. 45.Regional varieties of the English language. Standard variant and dialects. Accent and Dialect. 46.American English. 47.Canadian, Australian, Indian English. 48.History of British Lexicography. 49.History of American Lexicography. 50.Types of dictionaries. GLOSSAR Y Accent - regional accent refers to features of pronunciation, which convey information abdut a person's geographical origin. So accents are varieties that differ only in terms of pronunciation. Abbreviation - a shortened form of a written word or phrase used in a text in place of a whole, for economy of space and effort. Abbreviation is achieved by omission of letters from one or more parts of the whole, as for instance abbr for abbreviation. Assimilation - partial or total conformation of a loan word to the phonetical, graphical, and morphological standards of the receiving language and its semantic system. Back-formation - derivation of new words by subtracting a real or supposed affix from existing words through misinterpretation of their structure. Cognitive linguistics - studies the language as

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an integral part, tool and product of human cognitive activity. A language is approached as a mental model of the world. Composition - the type of word building, in which new words are produced by combining two or more stems. Compound words - are words consisting of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms. In a compound word the immediate constituents obtain integrity and structural cohesion that make them function in a sentence as a separate lexical unit. Conversion - the process of coining a new word in a different part of speech and with a different distribution characteristic but without adding any derivative element, so that the basic form of the original and the basic form of the derived words are homonymous. (Also zero derivation, root formation or functional change) Denotative component - the leading semantic component in the semantic structure of a word (also, the term referential component may be used). The denotative component expresses the conceptual content of a word. Euphemism - is the substitution of words of mild or vague connotations for expressions rough, unpleasant or for some other reasons unmentionable. Emotive speech - any speech or utterance conveying or expressing emotion. Etymological doublets - are two or more words of the same language which were derived by different routes from the same word. They differ to a certain degree in form, meaning and current usage. Etymology - branch of linguistics which deals with the origin and development of words tracing them back to their earliest determinable source. Functional style - is a system of expressive means pcculiai to a specific sphere of communication. Homonyms - two or more words identical in sound and spelling hut different in meaning,

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distribution and origin. The most widely no cptcd classification is that recognizing homonyms proper, homophone, .uul homographs. Homonyms proper are words identical in pronunciation and spelling. Homophones are words of the same sound but different in spelling uul meaning. Homographs are words different in sound and in meaning but identical in spelling. International words - words borrowed by several languages, not just by one. Such words usually convey concepts which are significant in the field of communication. Many of them are of Latin or Greek origin. Lexical group - subset of the vocabulary, all the elements of which possess a particular feature forming the basis of the opposition. Every element of a subset of the vocabulary is also an element of the vocabulary as a whole. Lexical distinctive feature - is a feature capable of distinguishing a word in morphological form or meaning from an otherwise similar words or variant. Lexical opposition - is defined as the relationship of partial difference between two partially similar words. The features which the two contrasted words posses in common form a basis of a lexical opposition. Lexico-grammatical class - class of lexical elements possessing the same lexico-grammatical meaning and a common system of forms in which the grammatical categories inherent in these units are expressed. Lexicography - the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries, important branch of applied linguistics. Lexicology - is the part of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of a language and the properties of words as the main units of a language. Loan words - is a word taken over from

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another language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language. Metaphor - transfer of meaning based on association of similarity. Morpheme - is the smallest meaningful unit of form. It is an association of a given meaning with a given sound pattern. Unlike word it is not autonomous Native word - is a word which belongs to the original English stock, as known from the earliest available manuscripts of the Old English period. Neologisms - new words and expressions created for new things irrespective of their scale of importance. Obsolete words - words which dropped out of the language altogether. The disappearance of words may be caused by purely linguistic factors, when a new name is introduced for the notion that continues to exist. Paradigm - system of grammatical forms characteristic of a word. Phraseological fusions - are word-groups with a completely changed meaning, but in contrast to the unities, they are demotivated, that is, their meaning cannot be deduced from the meanings of the constituent harts; the metaphor, on which the shift of meaning was based, has lost its clarity and is obscure. Polysemy - ability of words to have more than one meaning. A word having several meanings is called polysemantic. Pragmatics - studies the relationship between the language and the meaning produced. Pragmatics is concerned with the study of the meaning as communicated by a speaker or writer and interpreted by a listener or reader in the context. Pragmatics is a study of contextual meaning. Shortening - is a type of word-building, significant subtraction, in which part of the original word is taken away.

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Synonyms - two or more words of the same language, belonging to the same part of speech and possessing one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings, interchangeable at least in some context, without any considerable alteration in denotational meaning, but different in morphemic composition, phonemic shape, shades of meaning, connotations, style, valency and idiomatic use. Term - any word or word-group used to name a notion characteristic of some special field of knowledge, industry or culture. Terminology of a language consists of many systems of terms. Translation-loans - borrowings of a special kind. They are not taken into the vocabulary of another language more or less in the same phonemic shape in which they have been functioning in their own language, but undergo the process of translation. Word - the basic unit of a given language resulting in from the association of a particular meaning with a particular group of sounds capable of a particular grammatical employment. Word-form - one of the different aspects a word may take as a result of inflexion. BIBLIOGRA PHY 1., H. . . / . . ., 1956. 21 2., . . / . . . - , 1963. 4. . . / />. , . . , . . - ., 1985. 5.. . . . / . . . - ., 1974. - 368 . 6., . . / . . . . : . ., 1977.
***

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7.. . . / . .. -., 1986. 8., . . / . . . - ., 1987. 9., . . . / . . . - ., 1977. 10., . . / . . - ., 1956. 11., . . / . . . - , 1998. 12., . . / . . - 1969. 13., . . . / . . . - ., 1981. 14., . / . . . - ., 1972. 15., . . / . . .-., 1984. 16., . . / . . . - ., 1976. 17.. . . / . . - .: , 2007. - 224 . 18., . . / . . . - , 1997. 19., . . / . . . - ., 1983. 20., . . / . . .., 1974. 21., . / . . . ., 1956.

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22., . . / . . , 1985. 23. . . / . . ., 1973. 24.Arnold, J. V. The English Word / / Arnold.-U., 1973,1986. 25.Bryson,Bill Mother Tongue. The English Language / Bill Bryson. - Penguin books, 1991. 26.Crystal, David. English as a Global Language / David Crystal. - Cambridge University Press, 1997. 27.Ginzburg, R. S. A Course in Modern English Lexicology / R. S. Ginzburg M., 1979. 28.Grinberg, L. E. Exercises in Modern English Lexicology / L. E Grinberg. M. D. Kuznets. - M., 1966. 29.McArthur, Tom The Oxford Companion to the English Language / Tom McArthur. Oxford, 1992. 30.Trudgill, Hughes English Accents and Dialects Third Edition / Hughes Trudgill, Peter Trudgill. - Bristol, 1993. 31.Wood F. T. The Macmillan Dictionary of English Idioms / F. T. Wood, R . J . Hill- L., 1983. CONTEN TS FOREWORD..............................................................3 CHAPTER I. Lexicology as a Branch of Linguistics 4 CHAPTER 11. Morphological Structure of English Words..........................................................................9 CHAPTER 111. Word - Formation. Types of WordFormation..................................................................15

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CHAPTER IV. Semantic Structure of English Words. Polysemy...................................................................28 CHAPTER V. Homonymy.......................................36 CHAPTER VI. Semanic Change..............................42 CHAPTER VII. Synonyms and Antonyms..............46 CHAPTER VIII. English Vocabulary as a System. Stylistically marked and Neutral Words....................................................54 CHAPTER IX. Set Expressions...............................61 CHAPTER X. Development of the Vocabulary......67 CHAPTER XI. Etymological Survey of the English Vocabulary................................................................69 CHAPTER XII. Regional Varieties of the English Language...................................................................77 CHAPTER XIII. Fundamental of English Lexicography........................................................... 84 CHAPTER XIV. Check your Knowledge of Lexicology. Test...................................................... 90 EXAMENATION QUESTIONS............................ GLOSSARY.............................................................."8 BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................. 101

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FOREWORD
The book is intended for English language students taking the course of English Lexicology and fully meets the requirements of the programme in the subject. The main purpose of the seminars is to teach the students to observe, analyze and interpret language phenomena. Lexicology is a branch of linguistics which studies and systematically describes the vocabulary of the language in respect to its origin, development and current use. The term lexicology is composed of two Greek morphemes: lexis meaning - "word, phrase" here lesicos meaning "dealing with words" and logos which denotes "a department of knowledge". So the literal meaning of the term lexicology is the science of the word. Lexicology is concerned with the nature, meaning, history, and use of words, word elements, phraseological units and with the critical description of lexicography. Although formerly a branch of philology, lexicology is increasingly, treated as a branch of linguistics, associated with such terms as lexeme, lexis, vocabulary, lexicon, lexical system, lexical opposition, lexical group, etc. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims and methods of scientific research, its basic task being the study and systematic description of the vocabulary of some particular language in respect to its origin, development and current use. So Lexicology investigates words, word-groups, word- equivalents and morphemes which make up words. The course of English Lexicology is divided into two parts: 1. The English Word as a Structure and the English Vocabulary as a system. Modern English Lexicology investigates the word-stock of Modern English as a system. Structural and semantic analysis is applied to words, their component parts morphemes - and various types of word-groups. Lexicology is also concerned with relations existing between various lexical layers of the English vocabulary . The aim of the book is to assist the students of English in their study of the fundamentals of Modern English Lexicology. The chapters comprise the material covering all the main problems of Modern English Lexicology. The book contains material for reading, exercises on the main problems of English lexicology, questions to check the students' knowledge, exam questions. These are for use both in class and for home work. The material is divided as follows: Lexicology as a Branch of Linguistics; Morphological structure of English Words; Word-building; Affixation; Word- building; Semantic structure of English Words; Polysemy and Homonymy; Semantic Change; Synonyms and Antonyms, English Vocabulary as a System; Stylistically Marked and Neutral Words; Phraseology; Varieties of English and others.