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In a similar manner it can that if the Bending moments (BM) of the forces to the left of AA are clockwise then the bending moment of the forces to the right of AA must be anticlockwise. Bending Moment at AA is defined as the algebraic sum of the moments about the section of all forces acting on either side of the section. Bending Moment is the algebraic sum of the moment of the forces to the left or to the right of the section taken about the section. Bending moments are considered positive when the moment on the left portion is clockwise and on the right anticlockwise. This is referred to as a sagging bending moment as it tends to make the beam concave upwards at AA. A negative bending moment is termed hogging. An influence line for a given function, such as a reaction, axial force, shear force, or bending moment, is a graph that shows the variation of that function at any given point on a structure due to the application of a unit load at any point on the structure. An influence line for a function differs from a shear, axial or bending moment diagram. Influence lines can be generated by independently applying a unit load at several points on a structure and determining the value of the function due to this load, i.e. shear, axial, and moment at the desired location. The calculated values for each function are then plotted where the load was applied and then connected together to generate the influence line for the function. For example, the influence line for the support reaction at A of the structure shown in Figure 1, is found by applying a unit load at several points (See Figure 2) on the structure and determining what the resulting reaction will be at A. This can be done by solving the support reaction YA as a function of the position of a downward acting unit load. One such equation can be found by summing moments at Support B.
Beam structure showing application of unit load MB = 0 (Assume counter-clockwise positive moment) -YA(L)+1(L-x) = 0 YA = (L-x)/L = 1 .Influence line for the support reaction at A 2 . the reaction at A would be equal to 0. if the unit load was applied at B. and if the unit load was applied at C. Similarly. Figure 3 . The graph illustrates that if the unit load was applied at A. the reaction at A would be equal to unity.(x/L) The graph of this equation is the influence line for the support reaction at A (See Figure 3). the reaction at A would be equal to -e/L.Figure 1 .Beam structure for influence line example Figure 2 .
W x A B C = W (L – x) =Wx L L a (L – a) L Figure 1: Simply supported beam with load towards left of C W x A B C = W (L – x) = Wx L L a (L – a) L Figure 2: Simply supported beam with load towards right of C Consider a simply supported beam of span ‘L’ as shown in Figures 1 and 2. is shown in Figure 1. The sign convention followed. 3 . It is required to draw influence line for bending moment at ‘C’ at a distance ‘a’ from the left support. in general.0 PRINCIPLES The influence line for bending moment at a section is the graph (curve) representing the variation of bending moment at a section for various positions of the load on the span of the beam.2.
at a distance ‘x’ from left support ‘A’ 0 < x <a The shear force at C = M=+ -W (L – a) = + [Equation 1] (Considering right side of section C) When the load ‘W’ is towards right of section ‘D’ at a distance ‘x’ from left support ‘A’ a < x <0 The bending moment at D (considering left side of section C) M=+ M=+ •a [Equation 2] 4 .When the load ‘W’ is towards left of section ‘C’.
Indicator 5 . 4.3.0 OBJECTIVE To determine the bending moment influence line when the beam is subjected to a load moving from left to the right.A set of weight with several load hangers 4.A pair of simple supports 2.0 APPARATUS 1 . Special beam with a cut section 3 .
The load hanger was moved to 100 mm from the left support and step 7 until step 11 was repeated. 10. 7. The indicator is switched on and it must switched on 10 minutes earlier before taking reading for stability of reading. Remove the load from the hanger.5. 6. 11.0 PROCEDURE The load cell is connected to the digital indicator. 9. 2 load hangers were used and 8 units of 6 load were placed on the 2 hangers while in third case. The indicator reading was set in zero (if not zero) by pressing the tare button. The distance is increased each time by 50 mm. 5. The supports were screwed tightly to the base. The step 7 until step 11 was repeated until the load reached end B for 2 more cases. 2. The distance between the hangers is 20 mm. 4. . In the second case. The units of load were placed on the load hanger. The load hanger was hanged to the beam. The indicator reading that represent the bending moment at the cut section was recorded. The two simple supports were fixed to the aluminium base at a distance equal to the span of the beam to be tested. 3 load hangers were used and 12 units of load were placed on the 3 hanger. The load hanger was placed 50 mm from the left support. 8. The beam was placed to the supports. 3.
0 RESULTS CASE 1 L1 W1 X RA X RB Figure 6. (W1) Distance of load cell from the centre of the beam cross section = = = = 1000 mm 665 mm 4N 175mm 7 . (L) Distance of the shear section from left support.6.1: Loading position for case 1 Beam Span. (La) Weight.
5 245 122.5 402.5 332.5 402.5 THEORY ( Nmm ) 67 134 210 268 335 402 469 536 603 670 532 399 266 133 8 .Table 6.5 455 525 595 700 542.1: Result data for Case 1 DISTANCE FROM LEFT SUPPORT (mm) 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 800 850 900 950 CALCULATION FOR CASE 1 BEFORE CROSS-SECTION BENDING MOMENTS AT X-X EXPERIMENTAL = ( F * 175)( N ) 70 140 210 262.
x) L x = 50 mm.4(850) × 665 1000 = 399 Nmm L 1 CASE 2 W1 W2 X 9 RA X RB .4(800) × 665 1000 = 532 Nmm x = 850 mm.M x-x = W1 .W1 (La .Wx × La L x = 800 mm. M x-x = 4 .100) 1000 = 134 Nmm AFTER CROSS-SECTION M x-x = W1 .4(50) × 665 . M x-x = 4 . M x-x = 4 .4 (665 .Wx × La .4(100) × 665 .50) 1000 = 67 Nmm x = 100 mm.4(665 . M x-x = 4 .
7 8.2 3.5 1260 1015 735 455 160.2 -9.2 2.8 294.8 696.8 3.2 4.2: Loading position for case 2 Beam Span (L) Distance of the shear section from left support (La) Weight 1 (W1) Weight 2 (W2) Distance of load cell from the centre of the beam cross section A distance between two hangers (a) BENDING MOMENT AT X-X EXPERIMENTAL=(F*175)(N) = 1000 mm = = = 665 mm 4N 4N = 175mm = 20 mm DISTANCE FROM LEFT SUPPORT(MM) THEORY(N) DIFFERENCES EXPERIMENTALTHEORY 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 800 850 900 175 297.5 560 700 857.8 1098.8 Table 6.8 1232.8 562.8 830.8 14.5 980 1102.a Figure 6.8 744.5 437.8 478.8 -23.7 15.8 964.7 27.8 428.2: Result data for case 2 CALCULATION FOR CASE 2 BEFORE CROSS-SECTION 10 .2 26.7 -2.8 1010.
W1X + W2(X + a) × La L For X = 800 mm. M x-x = (6+ 6) .6(100) + 6(100 + 20) × 665. M x-x = (4 + 4) .W1 (La .6 (665 .X) .(50+ 20)] 1000 = 160.8 Nmm CASE 3 L1 W1 X a W2 b W3 11 RA X RB .(X + a)] L For X =50 M x-x = (4 + 4) .50) .6[665 .M x-x = (W1 + W2) .6[665 .8 Nmm For X = 100 mm.100) .W2[ La .(100 + 20)] 1000 = 294.6(800) + 6(800 + 20) × 665 1000 = 1010.6(50) + 6(50+ 20) × 665.6 (665 .W1X +W2(X + a) × La .8 Nmm AFTER CROSS-SECTION M x-x = (W1 + W2) .
4 1487.1 33.9 8.4 884.4 1085.6 -22.4 683.1 61.5 1295 1522.6 53.4 -18.4 1688.Figure 6.4 638.1 8.5 1470 1015 630 281.5 892.5 1102.4 482.4 1037.6 -0.4 12 .4 1286.5 1750 1942.3: Loading position for case 3 Beam Span (L) Distance of the shear section from left support(La) Weight 1 (W1) Weight 2 (W2) Weight 3 (W3) Distance of load cell from the centre of the beam cross section a and b distance between two hangers (a & b) DISTANCE FROM LEFT SUPPORT (MM) BENDING MOMENT AT X-X EXPERIMENTAL=(F*175)(N) THEORY(N) = = = = = = = 1000 mm 665 mm 4N 4N 4N 175mm 20 mm DIFFERENCES EXPERIMENTALTHEORY 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 800 850 900 262.5 490 682.4 -8.1 17.4 1889.9 7.6 35.4 1436.
4 Nmm AFTER CROSS-SECTION M x-x = (W1 + W2 + W3) .100) .(X + a)] – W3 [La . M x-x = (4+ 4+ 4) .X) .W1 (La .(X + a + b)] For X = 100 mm.W1X + W2(X + a)+W3(X + a + b) × La L For X = 800 mm.(100 + 20)] – 4[665 .W2 [La . 13 .(100 + 20 + 20)] = 482.4 (665 .3: Result data for case 3 CALCULATION FOR CASE 3 BEFORE CROSS-SECTION M x-x = (W1 + W2 + W3) .W1X + W2(X + a) + W3(X + a + b) × La L .4[665 .4 (100) + 4(100 + 20) + 4(100 + 20 + 20) × 665 1000 .Table 6.
0 DISCUSSION / ANALYSIS Case 1 Case 2 14 .4 Nmm 7.4(800) + 4(800 + 20)+4(800 + 20 + 20) × 665 1000 = 1436.M x-x = (4 + 4 + 4) .
Case 3 In this experiment. we used load 4N in every 3 case. From the result that we get. We also must make sure distances of the shear section from left support are same each experiment. Before put the load on the load hanger we must always set the indicator reading was in zero by pressing the tare button. there are some errors that make our result not accurate and contribute the error between the experiment and theory is the digital indicator is not too 15 . It is because to get the correct value.
although the value of experiment quite near with the value of theory a there are still have error. The digital indicator is too sensitive with the wind and the surrounding movement. This experiment and calculation is important before we built a bridge and other structure.edu/~fanous/ce332/influence/homepage. the values for the experimental and theoretical before cross section x-x are decrease and then after cross section x-x are increase. It is because to make sure that the structure is safe to built and used. http://www.0 CONCLUSIONS In conclusion. the screen show that the reading not in static. The beam is sensitive when we do the experiment. our eye level is not perpendicular to the ruler. the values of experimental result and theory result are nearly same. 9. From this experiment. The objective of this experiment has been achieved. Lab Manual Book Structural Analysis 3. http://www. the maximum bending moment that we get from experiment is 700Nmm while from the theoretical bending moment is 670Nmm 8.codecogs. 2.php 4.accurate. The digital indicator is too sensitive when we taking the reading.html 16 .public. The human error is one of the factors that can affect the experiment result.iastate. the beam is not in the original position yet. based on this experiment. the beam is moving when we try to put the load and when we want to change the holder of hanger to right side.0 REFERENCES / APPENDICES 1. These experiments is very important before design the beam or any structure. The value is depend on the location of the load. For the case 1.com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_ moment. The value for the experimental and theoretical value case 1 is nearly same. This is because when we measure the distance between the loads.
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