Structural design of low-rise buildings

Part 1. Code of practice for stability, site investigation, foundations and ground floor slabs for housing

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Contents
Page Inside front cover 2 3 3 3 4 4 18 18 27

Committees responsible Foreword 1 Scope References 2 Definitions 3 Symbols 4 Stability and connections between elements 5 Site investigation 6 Foundations 7 Ground floor slabs 8

Thbles 1 Maximum heights of buildings on normal level sites 10 2 Maximum heights of buildings on steeply sloping sites 10 Concrete mixes suitable for unreinforced concrete in strip footings 3 and trench fill foundations subject to sulfates in the ground or groundwater 19 Wall load categories for 4.5 m floors and 9 m roofs 4 20 Wall load categories for 6 m floors and 12 m roofs 5 21 6 Wall load categories for internal wall foundations 22 7 Identification of ground material and minimum foundation widths for wall load categories 23 Figures 1 Plan form and construction of the ground floor box to give stability 4 2 Diagram illustrating the action of wind forces 5 3 Walls with a difference in level on opposite sides 6 4 Buiknng shape 7 5 Maximum height of building 7 6 Measurement of storey height of walls in metres 8 9 7 Basic wind speed 8 Diagram of a house showing location and type of connections 11 necessary between elements 12 9 Timber floor bearing on to wall 13 10 Timber floor spanning parallel with a wall 14 11 Timber floor supported on standard joist hanger 14 12 Concrete suspended floor bearing on to wall 15 13 • Concreto suspended floor abutting wall 14 Precast concrete beam and block type floor abutting or spanning on to wall 15 15 Tying of pitched roofs to gable walls 16 16 Pitched or flat roof bearing on to a wallplate 17 17 Types of foundation 24 18 Foundation adjoining a trench 24 19 Thickness of foundations 24 20 Stepped foundations 25 21 Position of walls on foundations 26 22 Foundations to walls with projections 26 23 In situ concrete ground-supported slab 27 Inside back cover List of references 1

I

Foreword

This Part of BS 8103 has been prepared under the direction of Technical Committee B/204, Structural design of low-rise buildings. BS 8103 will be published in four Parts: Part 1. Code of practice for stability, site investigation, groundjloor slabs for housing Part 2. Code of practice for masonry walls for housing Part 3. Code of practice for timber floors and roofs for housing (in preparation) Part 4. Code of practicefor suspended concrete floorsfor housinq to allow detailed consultation with other BSI Technical Committees responsible for the structural use of materials. However, it is the intention to combine these Parts into a single document in due course. This standard is a revision of BS 8103 : Part 1 : 1986 which is withdrawn. It modifies the scope and limitations so that they are similar to Section 1 of the Approved Document A1I2. In particular, maximum clear spans for roofs and floors have been raised from 9 m and 4.5 m to 12 m and 6 m respectively. A large proportion of the national building programme is concerned with new housing and alterations in both the public and private sectors where traditional methods of construction are used for the majority of houses and it is to these that this Part of BS 8103 is applicable. However, when such dwellings are certified by organizations such as the National House Building Council, reference should in addition be made to the appropriate documents published by these bodies. It is assumed that this standard will be used by those with expertise in building construction but not necessarily in structural engineering design. Houses constructed within the limitations stated in the relevant clauses will not require additional specialist advice. For any conditions outside the limitations of this standard appropriate specialist advice has to be obtained. Where foundations other than those given in item h) of clause 1 have been designed by suitably qualified persons, the remainder of the building may be constructed in accordance with the relevant clauses of this standard. When using this standard, it is important to ensure that the overall stability of the house is achieved, and that the work of any specialist engaged is properly coordinated. The situations included in this standard which require the consultation of suitably qualified persons are identified in the clauses to which they relate. All drawings in this document only show structural details. Other details, e.g. damp proof courses (d.p.cs), are not included. Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations. foundations and

Reference should be made to other appropriate British Standards and statutory regulations and their supporting technical documents (e. 3. the latest edition of the cited publication applies.3).g. 2 References 2. site investigation and foundations and ground floor slabs used in the construction. The recommendations also apply to certain single storey. and houses of timber. nce between the finished external ground level and the underside of the concrete in strip footings or trench fill construction.2 cavity Space between two leaves of a cavity wall. Where foundations other than those given in item h) have been designed by suitably qualified persons. but reference should be made to the latest editions.8loadbearing wall Wall that carries vertical and/or lateral loads in addition to its self weight. . thermal and sound insulation. e) storey height: maximum 2. or revisions of. provisions from other publications. For undated references. Low-rise housing comprises detached. steel or concrete framed construction are not covered by this standard. b) floor: maximum clear span 6. 3. 2.7 m.1 buttress Section of wall or pier bonded or securely tied to an adjacent wall providing support against lateral forces acting on the wall. domestic garages and annexes to residential buildings with a floor area not exceeding 36 m2. sand and clay.g. 3. only the edition cited applies.0 m. . 3. the following definitions apply. 3 Definitions For the purposes of this Part of BS 8103. 3. semi-detached and terraced houses and flats (with not more than four self-contained dwelling units per floor accessible from one staircase).0 m. d) no part of wall or roof higher than 15 m above lowest adjacent ground level.6 ground-supported slab Concrete slab constructed directly on and supported by the ground to receive material forming or supporting the wearing surface. BS 5628 : Part 3 : 1985 and the appropriate Approved Documents to the Building Regulations) for these and other matters. any subsequent amendments to.1 Normative references This Part of BS 8103 incorporates.7 hoggin Inert natural mixture usually consisting of gravel. f) maximum clear length of a loadbearing wall between vertical lateral supports of 9. 3.0 m.1).3 cavity wall Two parallel single-leaf walls spaced at least 50 mm apart and effectively tied together with wall ties. non-residential buildings. The structural design recommendations described in this standard are not specifically intended to cover other considerations such as fire resistance. the cited publication apply to this Part of BS 8103 only when incorporated in it by updating or revision. Editions of these publications current at the time of issue of this standard are listed on the inside back cover. h) only strip footings or trench fill foundations in normal ground conditions (see 7. the remainder of the building may be constructed in accordance with the relevant clauses of this standard.. by dated or undated reference.Code of practice 1 Scope This Part of BS 8103 gives recommendations for the structural design of low-rise housing and covers the stability of the structure.2 Informative references This Part of BS 8103 refers to other publications that provide information or guidance. of not more than three storeys above ground intended for domestic occupation and of traditional masonry construction with timber roofs and floors of timber or concrete. These normative references are made at the appropriate places in the text and the cited publications are listed on the inside back cover. This standard does not include the design of basements. but providing the basement is of one level only and is designed to provide a firm platform at ground level the provisions of this standard may apply to the superstructure. 3. Proprietary housing systems. c) design wind speed: not exceeding 44 mls (see 5.0 m. g) maximum length of any opening in loadbearing walls: 3.4 foundation That part of a structure in direct contact with and transmitting loads to the ground. For dated references.5 foundation depth Dsst . . 3. Foundations comprising strip footings or trench fill founded in normal ground are the only type described. resistance to damp penetration and durability. together with any amendments. For the purposes of this standard additional habitable accommodation in the roof space constitutes a storey of the house. In using this standard the following limitations apply: a) roof: maximum clear span 12. e.

3. Psf projection of strip footing beyond face of supported wall. hI height of main building measured to the highest part of the wall or roof. width of wall to a wing extending for more than one storey. P2 projection of single storey wing or annexe.10 nogging Solid piece of timber between timber members to provide support for an attachment point. thickness of strip footing.4 should be used as necessary to ensure that the elements of the box interact fully so as to transfer and share loads placed on one element with other elements. 5 Stability and connections elements between 4 Symbols For the purposes of this Part of BS 8103. its thickness being less than its width. width of wall to main building. Internal lightweight partitions should also be connected so that they contribute to the overall stability but they should be discounted in the design of the masonry.3. 3.11 pier Integral thickened section located in a wall. s step height in foundations. PI projection of wing extending for more than one storey. a 5. Plan form and construction ground floor box to give stability of the W3 I) In preparation . that forms a strip foundation to carry a masonry wall. thickness of leaf 1 of cavity wall. The connections between structural elements described in 5.12 separating wall Wall between two buildings that is common to both. Floor span highest part of the wall or roof.15 trench fill Deep bed of concrete filling a trench that forms a strip foundations to carry a masonry wall. tz tsf ~f WI W2 Figure 1. 31) and 4 gives recommendations on the sizing of individual elements of a house: foundations. d depth of fill material. tl h2 height of wing or annexe measured to the overall thickness of wall.1 Stability considerations This Part of BS 8103 together with BS 8103 : Parts 2. In these forms of construction bracing in the planes of the roof is a necessary contribution to the overall stability. thickness of leaf 2 of cavity wall. 3.9 masonry Assemblage of structural units that are bonded or solidly put together with mortar. width of wall to single storey wing or annexe. 3. 3. walls. Internal masonry walls should be connected so as to interact with external walls and brace the structure. In order to provide overall stability of the structure in relation to any likely loading condition it is essential for these elements to be properly joined together. the following symbols apply: retained height of ground.14 strip footing Bed of concrete laid in the bottom of a trench. length of wall to wing or annexe. thickness of trench fill. floors and roof in relation to the forces acting on them due to dead and imposed loading.13 storey height The underside to underside distance between floors or between a floor and roof or in the case of a ground storey the distance between the top of the ground floor and the underside of the floor above. 3. When considering the plan form of the building it is essential that the external walls interact to form the sides of a rigid box completed by the floors and roof as shown in figure 1 for the ground floor.

as shown in figure 4. piers and chimneys.2. if adequately connected./ ./ . 5./ '" / Wind force Figure 2. In the situati. The front and rear walls in combination with the floor offer substantial lateral support provided that the wind forces from the top of the gable can be transferred to them. The recommendations given in figure 3b do not apply where there is an adjacent roadway on the upper level. Such situations are outside the scope of this standard. A house should not be expected to be totally resistant to the excessive forces that may arise due to extreme causes such as earth tremors. adequate stability against wind forces is achieved if the building dimensions. particularly the recommendations for connections between elements.'" . Figure 3 does not apply to free-standing walls.- . The width should be taken as WI if PI is equal to or less than w3.. used other than by private cars. 5. or as w3 if PI is greater than w3.1 Ground levels either side of walls Where a wall is subjected to a lateral load from retained material due to a difference in levels on opposite sides. '" '" '" '" '" . laterally restrains the top of the gable and transfers the loads to the front and rear walls. A braced roof. and where the roadway for such vehicles is closer than a distance equivalent to 1./ '" ..2 Building shape For residential buildings of not more than three storeys.2 Dimensional limits to ensure stability 5. Provided that the design procedures recommended in this standard are correctly followed.2. b) The width of the annexe (W2) should not be less than half the height of the annexe (h2) if its length (p2) is greater than twice its width (W2) . Likewise the front and rear walls depend upon the lateral support provided by the floors and roof connected to the gable walls. the difference in level above fully compacted backfill should not exceed the dimensions shown in figure 3.ns shown in figure 2 with the force derived from wind action at right angles to the gable the gable in isolation is extremely vuln~rable..25 times the retained height.It is particularly important to ensure that wind loads are transferred to buttress walls. do not exceed the following values. explosion or impact by vehicles.. Diagram illustrating the action of wind forces . then the effects of the excessive forces should be minimized if they occur. a) The height of the main building (hd should not be greater than twice the width of the building.

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by framing anchors.3 Height of building The maximum height above the lowest finished ground level adjoining the building should not exceed 15 m as shown in figure 5. and other connections should be made at the positions shown in figure 8 with the exception of the cases listed in items a) to O.7 m measured as shown in figure 6. . A simplified method of ensuring conformity to this limitation is as follows.g. Maximum height of building 5. level sites and sloping sites. 5. e. The height of substructure walls measured between the top of the foundation and the top of the ground floor slabs should also not exceed 2. the relevant detail indicated in figure 8 should be chosen from figures 9 to 16. e Figure 5.2.eral restraint for walls.4 Connections between structural elements 5.4. a) Determine the basic wind speed at the site of the building from figure 7. (Thbles 1 and 2 are respectively applicable to normal. where provided. b) Determine the maximum permissible height of the building from either table 1 or 2 depending on the basic wind speed and ground roughness category.2.1 General The details of floor or roof to wall connections given in 5. Building shape 5. should be inserted throughout the length of the wall at that level. The scope of this standard is limited to buildings subjected to design wind speeds (as defined in CP 3 : Chapter V : Part 2) not exceeding 44 m/s.Figure 4.2 provide for the tying together of elements recommended by this standard to ensure . cverall house stability and la.) 5.3 Wind loading The magnitude of wind pressure to which a house is exposed to is dependent on its height.4 Storey height The maximum height of any storey should not exceed 2. All rafters/roof joists should be fixed to the wall plate. geographical location and degree of exposure.4.7 m. Depending on the roof or floor construction and the location of the connection. Connections.

t:::=========lJ Figure 6.Underside of floor Top of ground fIF-1[. Measurement of storey height of walls in metres .

1~'O .60 80 100 48 NarE. Channel Islands 47 m/s Figure 7. Based on information provided by the Meteorological Office. Kiloilletres o o 20 ~o 60 statute miles ~~ ~o 8(. Basic wind speed .s are drawn at 2 mls Intervals 10 HM HR 2 56~N HO i.MAP OF UNITED KINGDOM SHOWING BASIC WIND SPEED IN rrVs Maximum gust speed likely to be exceeded on the average only once in 50 years at 10m above the ground in open level country Ur. Jl JQ JM 12 HT JR II JV NE OA JW 10 06 OG OM OF Ol 8A 00 OR ow TB I.

.Table 1. city centres 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 15 15 15 15 15 11 9 15 15 15 15 15 15 13 10 9 7 6 4. outskirts of large cities Surface with large and frequent obstructions.5 3 8 7 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 13 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 NCYI'E. 'Iable 2.5 7 NCYrE. which can be referred to for further guidance on applicability of the data to particular sites.36 as given in CP 3 : Chapter V : Part 2. outskirts of large cities Surface with large and frequent obstructions. small towns.5 5 4 3 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 12 10 8. Maximum heights of buildings on normal level sites Basic wind speed mls Maximum building height m Ground roughness category Open countryside with no obstructions Open countryside with scattered windbreaks Country with many windbreaks. Maximum heights of buildings on steeply sloping sites Basic wind speed mls Maximum building height m Ground roughness category Open countryside with no obstructions Open countryside with scattered windbreaks Country with many windbreaks.5 6 5 4 3 . Outside the scope of this standard . which can be I referred to for further guidance on applicability of data to particular sites. small towns. city centres 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 8 6 4 3 11 9 7. These data apply to nonnallevel or slightly sloping sites S\ = 1. These data apply to very exposed hill slopes or crests and are based on 81 = 1. 15 15 14 12 10 8 6.0 as given in CP 3 : Chapter V : Part 2.

e. d) Lateral restraint at groundfloor.g. 11 . Where metal restraint straps would have been necessary within the length of the opening to conform to this standard (see figure 8). f) Lateral restraint at party wall junctions. Diagram of a house showing location and type of connections necessary between elements Where the connections take the form of metal restraint straps these should be fixed at centres not exceeding 2 m unless otherwise indicated on figures 9 to 16. direct bearing or joist hangers. to transmit forces from the front and rear walls. Where more than one type of restraint system is given at an element intersection. the length of wall without lateral restraint should not exceed 3 m. Where a v-all is less than 3 m long between buttressing walls.Foundation NCYI'E. b) Openings adjacent to walls. or in the case of a cavity wall. c) Vertical restraint straps. Floors spanning parallel to such walls should be strapped. a) Shcrt !. Figure 8.g. Internalloadbearing walls should be laterally restrained at each level by the relevant detail shown in figure 8 for external walls at that level. however. only one of the options should be used. Straps for wall plates and roof to resist uplift forces due to wind are not required when the dead weight of the roof exceeds the uplift. Straps are not necessary when the height to the midpoint of the triangular section of the gable from the underside of the floor immediately below is not greater than 16t where t is the overall thickness of a solid wall. as appropriate. e) Lateral restraint at the ceiling level of the gable.engths of well. in a stair well. Straps are not necessary where floors bear on to either solid 200 mm thick or tied cavity party walls from both sides at approximately the same level. In low-exposure situations houses with a roof pitch greater than 15° and clad in slates or concrete or clay tiles having a laid mass per unit area greater than 50 kg/m2 vertical restraint straps are not required. these should be distributed on both sides of the opening in addition to those already provided. Where an opening occurs in a floor directly adjacent to a loadbearing wall. e. This applies irrespective of the means of support.ndicates that a connection may be required. Connections may be omitted in the following circumstances. The number in the circle refers to the figure I showing the detail. Where ground-supported floor slabs are used or where the top of a suspended ground floor is not more than 1 m above the finished internal or external ground level. the sum of the thicknesses of the two leaves plus 10 mm.

Additionally there should be a packing piece between the wall and the nearest joist or rafter.of 5 mm. Timber floor bearing on to wall . (Alternative positions are shown in figure 11 of BS 5628 : Part 1 : 1992.2 m spacing or closer and bearing at least 90 mm l~tO w~IL Oth~rwise strap as shown. Horizontal straps providing lateral restraint should have a nominal cross-sectional area of 150 rnrn2 or greater. one of which should be within 150 mm of the bottom end of the strap. the straps should be atta~~ed to bi~~ers or solid noggings fixed firmly to t~e JOIStS. a mini~um anchorage length of 100 mm beyond either a 90° b~n?. on top of joist with strap. They should be face-fixed to masonry with a minimum of four fixings.2.4.1 of BS 5628: Part 3 : 1985. sufficient straight length of strap should be provided to extend over three joists or rafters. The first connection should not be less than 112 mm from the end face of the timber member. a minimum thickness . As an alternative to face-fixings. Vertical straps resisting uplift only should have a nominal cross-sectional area of 75 mm2 a minimum thickness of 2.2 Metal restraint straps 5.) Figure 9. Where timber members spanning parallel to a wall are to be restrained. or a vertical twist (figure 16 refers). For timber members spanning parallel to the wall. Strap to turn down a minimum of 100 mm and be tight against the face of the walling inner leaf N~.4. They should be fixed to timber members with steel 50 mm long x No.5.7.5 mm.1 Straps providing lateral restraint or restraint against uplift of roofs should normally be of low carbon steel protected by galvanizing or other suitably strong ana durable materials in accordance with 22. the strap may be 'turned into' the masonry by incorporating an additional 100 mm anchorage length beyond a 90° bend at the bottom of the strap. and a rrurumum straight length of 1000 mm. a minimum turn down length of 100 mm and a minimum straight length of 600 mm. turned up or one side of JOIst with strap turned sideways. No strap is nece~ry provided joists are at 1. 10 wood screws or by 75 mm x 4 mm (8 SWG)round nails at not less than 110 mm centres with a minimum of four fixings.

II IX f:- / V of joists to allow the floorboard to lay flat ..-===== ~".--=o.F= I == . Al ternative strap locatio n using full depth nogging s The strap should be carried over at least three joists and be secured with four fixings of which at least one should be in the third joist. Timber floor spanning parallel with a wall . tho ''''"9' Gap between the wall and the first joist to be filled with a timber packing at strap positions . or in a noggmg beyond the third joint Figure 10.___ l '\ I -====~~=-_-_-=--=-=== ==--=--=-_ Solid ~gging to be fixed between joists under the straps to take . rebated into to.. Str ap to b.1 -- Nogging should extend at least half the depth of the joist and be at least 38 mm thick -- JI -.~ Strap to turn down 100 mm and be tight against the face of the wallinq inner leaf i'.

Strap skew-nailed to joist Underside of joist notched to provide a flat soffit for ceiling Figure 11. Figure 12. 90 mm minimum bearing of the concrete floor on to the wall. Timber floor supported on standard joist hanger Concrete ftoor- i suspended No straps are necessary. Concrete suspended floor bearing on to wall .

Strap to turn down a minimum of 100 mm and be tight against the face of the walling inner leaf Alternative strap points in concrete securing floor S tr ap position Concrete suspended floor Where floor is parallel with and abuts the wall. Where floor beams span directly on to the wall. Figure 14. Strap position Strap securing point to concrete floor using turn down of the strap which is to be tight against precast beam face Precast beam Strap position Void solidly grouted a) Typical edge detail b) Alternative edge detail NCYfE1. straps are necessary and should be built into the concrete floor. Where floor spans parallel with the wall. Dimensions in millimetres. concrete floor 450 min. Precast concrete beam and block type floor abutting or spanning on to wall . Concrete suspended floor abutting wall Strap to turn down a minimum of 100 mm and be tight against the inner face of cavity---------------------. I Precast 450 min. straps are necessary and are to be built into the concrete floor Dimensions in millimetres. no straps are necessary provided that there is a mini mu n 90 mm bearing of the concrete beams on to the wall. Figure 13. NOTE 2.

Tying of pitched roofs to gable walls . connections at gable verge line Figure 15.strap to turn down a minimum of 100 mm and tight ag2inst the face of the walling inner leaf Strap fixed to solid noggings with a minimum of four fixings of which at least one is to be in the third joist or in a nogging beyond the third joist Packing at s position a) Pitched roof: strapping at ceiling where roof spans parallel with a wall (similar detail for flat roof spanning parallel with wall) Noggings to be provided and set horizontal unless the strap has a twist to line it up with the roof slope Strap fixed to solid nogging with a minimum of fou r fixings of which at least one is to be in the third r after or in a nogging beyond the third rafter Packing piece between inner leaf and first rafter Str~p bedded un~er ~ cut block b) Pitched roof.

~ ~ ~ a) Restraining roof against uplift by use of framing anchor and wallplate straps. clip or nail Strap to have a straight length of at least 1 m and be either screwed to face of masonry. to wallplate with framing anchor. Vertical restraint straps as detailed in a) or b) should be provided trussed rafter should be fixed to the wall plate (see 5. Pitched or flat roof bearing on to a wallplate . NarE. b) Rafter strap.Each joist anchored. Strap to be at least 1 m long and either screwed to face of masonry.4. or have a tail built into a masonry bed joint. If screws are used a minimum of four screws is necessary at least one of which is to be located within 150 mm of the bottom end of the strap.1c). but each Figure 16. Each rafter anchored to wallplate with framing anchor. or have a ta~ bu~t into a masonry bed joint. If screws are used a minimum of four screws is necessary at least one of which is to be located within 150 mm of the bottom end of the strap. at centres not exceeding 2 m.

h) wells. or close to. k) areas liable to flooding or where the water-table level is above the expected level of the foundations. introduction or recent removal of trees or heavy vegetation-I. i. electricity or British Telecommunications cables. in which case a suitably qualified person should be employed to carry out the site investigation and foundation design. The investigation should also be concerned with determining those features necessary to plan the siting of dwellings as well as determining soil properties and identifying potential hazards which will affect the eventual design of the foundation. a suitably qualified person should be consulted. More detailed information on site investigations found in BS 5930. The existence of any of the hazards listed in 6. c) areas such as old refuse tips containing material that is subject to internal combustion. geological reports. etc. and from BS 5837.3 Hazardous ground conditions requiring special consideration The following hazardous ground conditions should be given special consideration: a) slopes subject to slip or creep which can occur on clay sites with slopes greater than 1 in 10.e..2 Methods of site investigation Site investigation should normally fall into the following two parts. d) underground watercourses or buried water courses and ponds. This should include a survey of ground levels and services as well as visual inspection and should be primarily concerned with identifying the nature of the ground and any hazardous features. are sufficient. e) existing services such as sewers. Site investigation can be a complex exercise and some site conditions may be outside the scope of this standard. b) areas liable to long-term consolidation of the ground. They should be located having regard to the proposed layout of the site but not under or close to proposed foundation positions. the presence. or which includes toxic wastes. 7 Foundations 7. The ground is best examined by means of boreholes or trial pits which should be sufficient in number to show any likely variation over the site.6 Site investigation 6. as shown in figure 17. a) Desk study. For sites where hazardous conditions exist as described in 6. in sufficient concentrations. 1) areas where past experience has shown the presence of high sulfate concentrations or other naturally occurring potentially deleterious substances mainly in clay soils.1 General In order to decide the type of foundation and method of construction suited to a particular site. or in circumstances that would cause damage. rafts or piled foundations. If at this depth the ground is unsuitable for the proposed foundation a suitably qualified person should be consulted. Chapter 4.3 and which may require reinforced strip footings. The Electricity. i) old foundations or other concealed constructions. or due to mining or quarrying. mine shafts. British Thlecommunications and also the British Pipeline Agency should be approached to provide information relating to existing mains or sewers on or near the site. 2)Further guidance on precautions to take when building near trees can be obtained from National House Building Council Standard.3 located under. j) on clay soils. 18 . gas and water mains. Gas and Water Authorities. Reference should also be made to British Coal and other mining authorities. particularly when this may be made-up or reclaimed ground or where layers of peat are encountered. for which the use of strip footings or trench fill foundations using unreinforced concrete. both natural such as swallow holes. The suitability of the ground should be determined by the simple field tests described in table 7. b) Physical exploration of the site. aerial photographs and records held by the Local Authority and the Public Utilities. may be 6. A study of available documents relating to the site such as maps.1 Types of foundation This standard covers the design and construction of foundations only in normal ground. The depth of trial pits should be at least 2 m. g) areas liable to subsidence caused by mining or mineral extraction below the site. 6. site investigation should be undertaken at an early stage. also bomb craters and soft spots where trees have been taken up. f) pits.2: 1992 Building near trees [1]. NarE. chemical change or bacteriological decay. the site of the building may cause the ground to behave in an abnormal fashion.

A foundation 150 mm wider than the wall thickness is considered to be a practical minimum dimension.7. GEN 3 or ST3 or ST4 appropriate (see 7. Concrete mixes suitable for unreinforced concrete in strip footings and trench rill foundations subject to sulfates in the ground or groundwater Ground condition by sulfates classification Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 Concrete mix Recommended workability (nominal slump in mm) NafE NarE NafE NarE same. 5 and 6. The design may have to be amended to suit unforeseen hazardous conditions found during construction. foundation widths in excess of the design minimum should be used to allow for setting out and construction tolerances. if the concrete is to be batched at the site.2 Foundation materials Concrete used in foundations in non-aggressive soils should be either a GEN 3 designated mix conforming to BS 5328 : Part 2. 4. or an ST 4 standard mix for trench fill foundations.3. Where sulfates are present in the ground or groundwater in sufficient quantities to be damaging. 7. Refer to specialist advice I Sulfates classification is in accordance with BS 8110 : Part I and BRE Digest 363 : 1991.2) 75 or 125 as appropriate (see 7. Concrete mixes for use in strip footings should have a nominal slump of 75 mm while those used in trench fill foundations should have a nominal slump of 125 mm.1 General Where no hazards have been identified during a preliminary exploration. FND 3 and FND 4 are designated mixes and should conform to BS 5328 : Part 2 .2 for normal ground and the design guidance is the 19 . GEN 3.Finished external ground level a) S trip footing Dimension is in millimetres.3. foundation loads are subdivided into nine load categories A to J representing line loads at the base of the wall. foundation design can proceed in accordance with 7. ST3 and ST4 are standard mixes and should be in accordance with BS 5328 : Part 2. b) Trench fill Figure 17.2 Minimum width of foundations For the purposes of this standard. 1.2 to 7.3. Table 3 provides simplified guidance on concrete mixes which are in contact with sulfate bearing soils. suitable concrete mixes as given in BS 8110 : Part 1 and BRE Digest 363 : 1991[2]' appropriate to the sulfates concentration. --- Table 3. Where necessary.2) FND 2 75 FND 3 75 FND4 75 Not applicable.3 Foundation design for sites without hazardous conditions 7. Types of foundation 7. The minimum widths of foundations should be obtained from table 7 using the appropriate soil classification and load category. 2. or. FND 2. should be used. Load categories for the different forms of wall construction should be determined from tables 4. 3.3. 7. an ST 3 standard mix conforming to BS 5328 : Part 2 for strip footings. Concrete mixes for class 1 sulfate conditions are those given in 7.

G .Thble 4. NCYrE. Wall load categories Number of Upper floor storeys Type for 4. S denotes 'ground supported'.5 m floors and 9 m roofs Front/rear walls on Ground floor and roof Separating walls Load arrangen •ent on walls Floors and roof Floor only Ground floor and roof Gable walls Load arrangement on walls Floors and roof Floor only Ground floor and roof Ground floor construction Type (see note) Load arrangement walls Floors and roof Floor only 1 i 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 N/A N/A N/A N/A Timber Timber Timber Timber Precast Precast Precast Timber Timber Timber Timber Precast Precast Precast GSslab Timber Precast In situ GS slab Timber Precast In situ GS slab Precast In situ GS slab Timber Precast In situ GS slab Precast A B A A B B A B B B B A B B A B C E F C E F C C B C C B B D F C B B C D C D E E D E C D E C D F H C D F H I~ B A c D C C C D B D D B G J E H 1) C D D C D E C E E D H C F H D E F E E F I~ C D E D D C C D E D D C C D E J E F 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 D D E F E F D E G J 1) D D E F E F F D D E F J 1) G J D G J G F D F I In situ G G C D E J 1) 1) H 1) 1) D E E IF G G l)Loading outside the scope of this standard.

Wall load categories for 6 m floors and 12 m roofs Number of Upper storeys floor Type Ground floor construction Type (see note) Front/rear walls Load arrangement on walls Floors and roof Separating walls Load arrangement on walls Floor only Gable walls Load arrangement on wall Floor only Ground floor and roof I Floor I only A A B Ground Floors floor and and roof roof Ground Floors floor and and roof roof 1 1 1 1 I N/A N/A GS slab Timber A B A B ID IE B B A B E I B B A B B D G D G J e D IF rx e D 1 A I Prc~:ast In SItu GS slab D E IN/A D B B J E F IE D E H 1) Ie IE IF I 2 2 2 2 2 I Timber Timber Timber Timber Precast Precast Precast Timber Timber e C E F D E H 1) D D F G E G H E F G e C E F C C E G Timber Precast In situ GS slab e D F B D E J I 1) G 1) 1) D F G C E F 2 2 3 3 Precast 1 D F I In situ GS slab I~ G 1) 1) D H 1) C F G D E F H F H J C E G 11) D E F H F H J C D E G E G H Timber Precast In situ GS slab C D E G G H 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) IF E F D E F H 3 3 3 3 3 I Timber Precast Precast Precast Timber J 1) J G J 1) e E G J 1) 1) E J 1) D F H I Precast In situ l)Loadingoutside the scope of this standard. .Table 5. NOTE.GS denotes 'ground supported'.

NOTE. . Wall load categories Number of storeys Roof load Tvpe for internal wall foundations Total floor span 1) m 6 4. 2)Loading outside the scope of this standard. GS denotes 'ground supported'. The greatest total span combination at any supported floor level should be taken when using this table.Thble 6.5 Load category 9 12 Upper floor Ground floor Type (see note) 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber NONE NONE NONE NONE Timber Timber Timber Timber Precast Precast Precast NONE NONE NONE NONE Timber Timber Timber Timber Precast Precast Precast Timber Timber Timber Timber Precast Precast Precast NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber Timber 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 f-3 3 3 3 3 3 3 NONE NONE NONE NONE Timber Timber Timber Timber Precast Precast Precast NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE GS slab Timber Precast In situ GS slab Timber Precast In situ GS slab Precast In-situ GS Slab Timber Precast In situ GS slab Timber Precast In-situ GS Slab Precast In situ GS slab Timber Precast In situ GS slab Precast In situ GS slab Timber Precast In situ GS'slab Timber Precast In situ GS slab Precast In situ A A B A A C D C A B A B D F B A B E H A B C C D B C E G C G J A B C D G 2) E B D C D F J 2) E A A B C A A B C A A A C D A A C D B D D G A B A C F J A C F C D B B D G C F H B J C G 2) E B B D C D B D C F H D C D G 2) E C E J 2) E F E A B G J B B A B B C F C D A B C E G B B E A B J B C F C D B C E G C F H E B J D H 2) C D F E IlThe total span is the sum of the spans on each side of the wall in question at each level.

. Easily moulded in 450 the fingers and readily excavated Exudes between fingers when squeezed in fist 600 300 400 500 600 650 800 900 100U Gravel Sand } Compact Clay } Sandy clay Stiff 300 400 500 600 650 800 900 1000 Clay } Sandy clay Finn 350 450 600 750 850 950 Sand Silty sand Clayey sand Loose 600 Silt Clay Sandy clay Silty clay Silt Clay Sandy clay Silty clay Peat Made ground Soft 650 Very soft 850 Refer to specialist advice - l)In no case should the foundation width be less than the width of the wall nor should the wall oversail the foundation. . Requires pick or pneumatically operated spade for excavation 300 Can be moulded with substantial pressure with the fingers and excavated with a spade Dry lumps may 400 have slight cohesion but easily breaks up in fingers. Identification categories Rock or soil Type Condition of ground material and minimum foundation widths for wall load Simple field test Minimum foundation width!'. 50 mm peg can be easily driven. Readily excavated with spade. in rum. for load category (kN per metre run) A (20) B (30) - C (40) D (50) E (60) F (70) G (SO) H (90) J (100) Rock Hard Requires at least a Equal to width of wall pneumatic or other mechanically operated pick for excavation Requires pick for 250 excavation. Wooden peg 50 mm square hard to drive more than 150mm Cannot be 250 moulded in the fingers.Table 7.

Figure 19. (See also BS 5837.J. foundations may be stepped. "" . 7. The minimum length of the overlap and the maximum step height should be as shown in figure 20. Each length of foundation between steps should be horizontal and the height of steps should not exceed the thickness of the foundation.5 times the height. .3. Where a row of trees is concerned. a depth not less than 1. The foundation should be widened so that the distance from the edge of the concrete to the face of masonry remains constant as shown in figure 22. (see figure 21c) it is sufficient to ensure that the centre of the wall is within the middle third of the foundation width as recommended in 7. Foundation adjoining a trench The susceptibility of soils to moisture movement.0 m..___} NCYrE.3.5. or where the bearing stratum slopes or where local proximity to a service trench requires a greater depth.foundations 7. In all other cases the site should be considered as hazardous and special precautions should be taken (see 6.~.7.line of the wall. occur to foundations on clay soils in proximity to trees or where trees have been removed.1. walls should be positioned such that the centre of the wall is on the centre line of the foundation (see a) or b) in figure 21). the underside of foundations should be maintained at a uniform level. this distance should be increased to 1. the action of frost or changes in water table varies widely and the advice of the approving authority should always be sought.3. In upland areas and other areas known to be subject to long periods of frost an increase in depth may be advisable. "" "" Figure 18. t. d) Where foundation adjoins a service trench. Where the external face of a wall is at or near the edge of the foundation.3. the layout shown in figure 18 should be followed.3. Except as indicated in 7.) c) In sands. b) In clays subject to seasonal moisture movement.f to be a minimum or Psf of I50 mm whichever is the greater. I I "" " -.3.3 Minimum depth offoundations The minimum depth of foundations should be determined as the greatest of the following.1).8 Foundations on clay soils close to trees Damage car.4 Minimum thickness of foundations The minimum thickness of foundations should be the greater of 150 mm or the projection from the face of the substructure wall to the adjoining edge of the foundation as shown in figure 19. The face of the step in the soil should be as near vertical as possible. . chalk and other frost-susceptible soils..6 Position of walls on foundations In general.2.7 Foundations to walls with projections Foundation widths should be increased where piers or chimneys project b=yond the gcn~n. 7. Thickness of . 7.5 Stepped foundations On sloping sites.3. a) A depth to the selected bearing stratum. 7. . Foundations should not generally be affected if they are located a distance further from a tree equivalent to its mature height.. for example where the foundation position is determined by a boundary to an adjacent property.3. which may normally be taken as a minimum of 450 mm.6> ~~~(_"". a depth below the zone of frost action.

._ ~ . _ t. 0. • a '" Overlap length to be tsf or 2s or 300 mm whichever is the greatest a) Strip footing step than height ttf 5 to be equal to or less 1'\"'.. ~.Step height 5 to be equal to or less than tsf V..~· •J " ~ .v ~• -: ". t r- ~i__j J Figure 20. I " I Overlap length to be 2s or 1 m whichever is the greater b) Trench fill Dimensions in millimetres unless otherwise stated. .. x IV E C> C> Lf) •• :...r"'. ~rl~r. ' ". - "_O' -: .. • •• . I··. ..' .'."// '~l.·..~ : I .. C> C> '-" .10 .... )' .~<> .Q.·f' ) . c... . b' ' . • 'pcJ_ I. ~ . Stepped foundations ..'. ' . I ~D [J '/ .

1/2 a) '/2 b) c) Figure 21. Position of walls on foundations Figure 22. Foundations to walls with projections .B'~' I I I .

Any material containing sulfates easily soluble in ground water should not be regarded as inert. . blinded with fine material. The recommended workability for this use is a 75 mm nominal slump. ' "1. P.. -. Fill material should be compacted in lavers not greater than 225 mm thick and should not contain any pieces that will not pass through a 75 mm diameter ring.. : . . For sites where hazardous conditions exist as described in 5.~ •.: "I 'J. Ground-supported 100 min.. - "'. a suspended ground floor construction should be used. A ~.:flo' . . a suitably qualified person should be consulted. ." : ._. I ~ .'. thick slab The concrete mix for the ground-supported slab should be a GEN 4 designated mix or an ST4 standard mix in accordance with BS 5328 : Part 2. The recommended workability for this use is a 75 mm nominal slump. For ground-supported floor slabs containing any embedded metal (e. . ~' (ompacted fill Dimensions in millimetres. _. Figure 23. . see figure 2:3. .. the concrete mix should be an RC35 designated mix in accordance with BS 5328 : Part 2.' t: . :'. " " . reinforcement used nominally or as a crack control option).d~ ' . The minimum thickness of a concrete ground-supported slab should be 100 mm.. Loadbearing internal partitions or walls should have separate foundations independent of the floor slabs.> " .• '. may require the provision of suspended slabs or the use of concrete materials that are resistant to sulfate attack.3 which. . The slab should be constructed on a minimum of 100 mm of inert well-graded fill material.. NarE.. for example. g. In situ concrete ground-supported slab . . such as hoggin or other suitable fill. ' .A -'" ..4 •• 'rJp:.8 Ground floor slabs In situ concrete ground-supported slabs may be used in the majority of sites except where the depth of fill exceeds 600 mm or other circumstances dictate the use of suspended construction. If depth of fill d exceeds 600 mm.

AMD 8980 STANDARDS Amendment No.~ Figure 8. Corrections Figure 8. site investigation. Code of practice for stability. Diagram of a house showing location and type of connections between elements necessary AMD 89801Novernber 1995 . foundations and ground floor slabs for housing 2~. Foundation " NOTE. The ::~leri~t~'e circle refers to the figure showing the detail. Where more than one type of restraint system is given at an element intersection. Diagram of a house showing location and type of connections necessary between elements Delete the figure and substitute the following. 1 published and effective from 15 November 1995 to BS 8103 : Part 1 : 1995 Structural design of low-rise buildings Part 1. q . only one of the opuons should be used. Indicates that a connection may be required.

3' and substitute '6. Ground floor slabs In paragraph 5. line 2 delete '5.Clause 8. - AMD - - 89801November - - - -- -- 1995 -- - - -- --- - --- -- - - - --- - --- -- ----- ----- - - - .3'.

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