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Philippine folk dance has a long and diverse history. Philippine folk dance has a long and diverse history. Each region in the Philippines features its own folk dances, originating from the precolonial era to the time of the Spanish occupation from the 1500s until the late 1800s. Most of these Filipino folk dances tell stories about historical happenings, ways of life, cultural influences and religious customs. 1. Pre-Hispanic Times ○ Long before the Spaniards came to the Philippines, the indigenous people who mostly lived in the mountainous regions used folk dances in cultural celebrations, worships and rituals. They used music and dance to connect with the gods, appease their ancestors, pray for bountiful harvests and favorable weather, ask for healing, seek guidance during wars and ward off bad luck and natural calamities. They also danced to socialize and to express their feelings. Most of the mountain tribes from the northern part of the Philippines have carefully preserved their folk dances. The "Dinuyya" of the Ifugaos is a dance originating from the Cordilleras. It is regularly staged during festivals in Lagawe, Mountain Province. The Ibaloi also perform the popular regional dance called the "Bendiyan," which involves hundreds of male and female dancers performing in rituals. 2. Northern Luzon
Luzon is the northern island of the Philippines, mainly composed of the Ilocos region in the north and the Tagalog region in the south. The people in Ilocos are called Ilocanos and the provinces within the region include Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Abra, Ifugao, La Union and Pangasinan. Most of the folk dances here are mixtures of indigenous and Spanish elements and are usually performed during special occasions such as weddings and fiestas. The "Sakuting" dance from Abra interprets a mock fight between Christians and non-Christians using fighting sticks. The "Binasuan" dance of Pangasinan involves dancers displaying impressive balance, graceful movements and unusual dance skills as each dancer uses three glasses each half-filled with water or rice wine and placed on top of the head and on the palm of each hand. They execute fast turns, sitting and rolling on the floor without spilling the contents in each "baso," or "glass."
The Tagalogs form the southern part of the Luzon island, which is also home to the country's capital, Manila. Even during the Spanish times, the major government centers have been located here. So most of the dances in the region reflect Spanish and European influences. Originating from Lubang Island, Mindoro, the "Pandango Sa Ilaw" comes from the Spanish dance "fandango" and is characterized by lively steps while balancing three oil lamps each on the head and on the back of each hand. Performed by men wearing coconut shells attached on their chests, backs, thighs and hips, the "Maglalatik" of Binan, Laguna is a mock war dance demonstrating the fight between the "Moros" and the Christians over a prized coconut meat called "latik." The "Bulaklakan" dance comes from the word "bulaklak," which means "flower." It is performed every May; dancing girls each hold an arched garland of leaves and flowers attached to a wire, bamboo or rattan.
Visayas is the central part of the Philippine archipelago. Visayan dances mostly tell stories of people's lives and frequently draw inspirations from animal movements. The Philippines' national dance is the "Tinikling," from the province of Leyte. This dance originates from the word "Tikling," a native bird with long legs and long neck. The dance imitates the bird's movements as it walks between grass stems or runs over tree branches. Dancers perform between a series of bamboo poles while keeping their feet from being caught between the opening and closing movements of the bamboos. Performed using a moderate waltz style, the "Kuratsa" from Bohol tells the story of a young playful couple's attempts to get each other's attention. The "Itik-itik" tells the story of a young woman in Surigao del Norte who begins to improvise her dance steps by imitating the movements of an "itik" which means "duck." Her unusual steps and fascinating interpretation becomes famous in her hometown. The "Inalimanggo" in Panay and Capiz portrays the mud crab's movements translated into dance form.
Muslim and Moro Dances
Unlike the northern and central parts of the Philippines, which are mainly occupied by Christians, the Mindanao region in the southern part of the Philippines is a Muslim region never conquered by the Spaniards. Islam was introduced in this area during the 12th century. The Muslims in Mindanao are also known as "Moros." These dances are of both pre-Muslim and Muslim origins. Dancers typically wear alluring and colorful costumes decorated with jewels, swords and shields. The "Ipat" dance is used to appease the ancestral spirits. The "Baluang" creates the illusion of an angry monkey as performed by male dancers. The "Singkil" is a royal dance telling the story of a Muslim princess who got caught in the middle of a forest during an earthquake caused by the "diwatas," meaning "fairies."
the father is shown working in the fields while the mother cares for the children. It represents a fierce battle between the Moro tribesmen (wearing red trousers) and the Christian soldiers from Spain (wearing blue). it is now one of the most common dances in Philippine folk dance performances. select anymusic in 2/4 time and repeat performing the said fundamental positions one at a time. Epitomizing virtue and nobility in a Filipina. The dances were performed during festivals and remembrances of past military victories. Idudu: A Snapshot of Ancient Culture From the area of Abra. This is similar to the Binasuan dance from the Pangasinan Province which is done with drinking glasses. balance. this dance is one of several designed to show off the grace. Three glasses of wine (or. Many traditional dances were designed to thank the gods for natural and agricultural events.after 16measures. BASIC FUNDAMENTAL POSITIONS IN FOLK DANCE Hand PositionFeet Position Perform the fundamental positions of the arms and feet without music first. In responding to2/4 time rhythm. Courtship Dances Several dances. especially those influenced by Spanish dance forms. a tobtob (brass gong) or a hibat (a gong played with a soft wooden stick). Many modern folk dance festivals still feature ancient dances performed in costume of the tribal period of the Philippines. never spilling a drop. Other positions and movements of the arms: . Some dances such as the Palok and the Lumagen are performed with traditional percussion instruments such as the gangsa (a small copper gong). A singer usually provides a well-known lullaby during this part of the dance. The addition of bamboo castanets lend a distinctly Philippine feel. As soon as the father is done. such as rain and harvests. water) are held in hands and on top of the dancers' heads as they move. which is a celebration of the family as the fundamental building block of Philippine culture. the Filipino dance genre remains true to its ancient tradition and roots. Later Dances in Philippine History More recent dances done in the Philippines derive from historical events such as the arrival of the Spaniards in the 16th century and the conflicts with the Moors. Then. Folk Dance History in the Philippines It is impossible to know when exactly dancing became a part of life in the Philippines. re-enact the courtship of a man and a woman in all its many aspects from the sublime to the ridiculous. and it emphasizes the necessity of cooperation and mutual support in the Tingulan family structure. Originally from the Binan. For many tribal dances there are no external musicians. While certain words and movements from those cultures have been integrated into the dances.The history of Philippine folk dancing incorporates influences from immigrants and conquerors while at the same time maintaining distinctly Filipino roots. Laguna province. and still are performed at celebrations of births and weddings in modern times. take 2 measures for each position then rest for 4 measures. For example. Both groups wear harnesses with coconut shells attached tightly to their bodies which are struck repeatedly with other shells held in the hands. Cordillera comes the Idudu. Pandanggo sa Ilaw: Grace and Balance Derived from the Spanish word fandango. the dancers wear traditional Spanish-style gowns and flirt coquettishly behind fans. and dexterity of the performers. Philippine folk dancing is a true reflection of daily life in past centuries while enchanting modern audiences at the same time. Depicting a typical day in the life of a family. in modern times. the dancers generate their own accompaniment with stomping and hand clapping. the mother goes into the fields to continue the work while the father goes back to the house to put the baby to sleep. Repeat the samefundamental position but alternate moving the R and the L arm/foot on the 3rd position. the Maria Clara is named after the main female character in Jose Rizal's Noli Me Tangere. Maglalatik: The Dance of War A dance from before the conversion of the Philippines to Christianity is called the Maglalatik.
2) – 1 MClose step step R (ct. and). ah). 3) or slide R (ct. 1). 2) – 1 MStep hop step R (ct. 3) or step R (ct.3) . 2. step R (ct.3)Step hop step R (cts.2). step R (ct. pause (ct. 1). step R (ct. close L (ct. point L (cts.3) – 1 MStep point step R (cts. cut L (ct. 1). point R toe (ct. hop on R (ct. 1. close L to R (cts. 1). cut L (ct.2).close L to R (cts. close L to R (ct. 1. 2). close R to L (cts. 1. 2. 1. close L (ct.2). 1). 1). close L (ct. ah) – 1 MChange step step R (ct.3) – 1 MStep swing step R (cts. 1). 3) – 1 MClose step step R (cts. swing L (ct.3) – 1 MBleaking step place R heel (cts.3) – 1 MSlide step slide R (cts. 2) – 1 MStep point step R (ct. and) – 2 MPolka step R (ct. 3) or place R heel (ct. 3) or step R (ct. 1. 1). 1. 1). step R (ct.2). close R (ct. 2) – 1 MCut step cut or displace R with L (ct. step R(ct. step R (ct. 1). hop R (ct. 1). 2) – 1 MSlide step slide R (ct. and) – 1m In 3/4 Time (Some dance steps done in 2/4 time rhythm can also be done in ¾ time. and). close L to R (ct. 2). 2) – 1 MGallop step step R (ct. close R to L (ct. 1). point L (ct. 2). swing L (cts. 2.FUNDAMENTAL DANCE STEPS IN PHILIPPINE FOLK DANCE In 2/4 TimeSTEP EXECUTION Touch step touch R (ct.2). 2. 1).2). close R (cts. close R (ct. 1). 2) – 1 MStep swing step R (ct.2). Review the step patterns of thefollowing basic dance steps which are done in ¾ time and identify which dance step can be done in 2/4and ¾ time signature. 1.) STEP EXECUTION Touch step touch R (cts. close L (ct. and). 3). 1). 2. 2). swing L (ct. 1) – 1 countHeel and toe polka Polka place R heel (ct. close L (ct. 1). pause (ct. 2. 3) or touch R (ct. close L (ct. 1).
 Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics. and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds. particularly the Middle East. composition and its changes during interactions and chemical reactions. structure and properties. 2). 3 of the second measure. reacts with carbon monoxide to form iron. The succeeding step is done obliquely backward (ct. Chemistry is the science of matter. its properties. one of the chemical elements. and carbon dioxide. close L to R (ct. Arms open from the first position to the fourth position R or L arms high. turn and step R (ct. 2). but also its composition. Theory . Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms. cts. especially its chemical reactions. structure. 1) turn and step L (ct. known as alchemy. Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it connects physics with other natural sciences such as geology and biology. 1. pause(cts. the cross-step is done sideward(ct. The etymology of the word chemistry has been much disputed. 1). 3). iron oxide. which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world. 1).in place. 3) – 1 MThree-step turn step R (ct. Kumintang R (L) handwhen pointing with L (R) foot on cts. 3).2.3) – 2 MNote: These steps can be done in place or while moving. 2. During chemical reactions. a compound. 2. It can also be done starting with the L foot. Sway Balance – The first step is usually done obliquely forward.1 MWaltz step R (ct. Chemistry Chemistry is the science of atomic matter (that made of chemical elements). In a blast furnace. bonds between atoms break and form. 2) and the last two counts are done in front. resulting in different substances with different properties. The genesis of chemistry can be traced to certain practices. step R again (ct. close L to R (ct.
Chemistry . development of alchemy by Jābir ibn Hayyān. 7. were medieval Arab and Persian scholars. They can be analyzed using the tools of chemical analysis.The works of Jābir became more widely known in Europe through Latin translations by a pseudo-Geber in 14th century Spain. investigated their affinities. It was thought that there exists a universal medicine called the Elixir of Life that can cure all diseases. 4. formulate early "element" theories such as the Ogdoad. Greek alchemy [332 BCE – 642 CE]. Pseudo-Geber builds on Arabic chemistry. phase as well as their chemical compositions. Chemistry . the Muslim conquest of Egypt. Lavoisier writes his classic Elements of Chemistry. By 1000 BC ancient civilizations were using technologies that formed the basis of the various branches of chemistry such as.000 years ago. This gave rise to a need for medicines. Jābir modifies Aristotle's theories. e. which was the most scientific of all medieval operations. making glass. atoms. Islamic alchemy [642 CE – 1200]. Chemistry . They introduced precise observation and controlled experimentation into the field and discovered numerous Chemical substances. extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume. contributed to chemistry by a thousand incidental discoveries. whether in isolation or combination. making pigments for cosmetics and painting. The genesis of chemistry can be traced to the widely observed phenomenon of burning that led to metallurgy—the art and science of processing ores to get metals (e.g. composed lapidaries. chemically analyzed innumerable substances. 5. but like the Philosopher's Stone. This gave way to alchemy and the search for the Philosopher's Stone which was believed to bring about such a transformation by mere touch. The nature of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules. and inventors of the modern scientific method.[verification needed] "Chemistry as a science was almost created by the Muslims. where scholars and wise men gather to study. tanning leather. studied and manufactured hundreds of drugs. where the Greeks (so far as we know) were confined to industrial experience and vague hypothesis. 3. spectroscopy and chromatography.g." The most influential Muslim chemists were Jābir ibn Hayyān (Razi al-Biruni and Alhazen . metallurgy in ancient India). molecules. Institute of Biochemistry. University of Cologne A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more other substances. metals. Democritus' atomist philosophy was later adopted by Epicurus (341–270 BCE). Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in almost all chemical studies. . Chemistry . From the 12th century. Dalton publishes his Atomic Theory. fermenting beer and wine. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation. History Ancient Egyptians pioneered the art of synthetic "wet" chemistry up to 4. substances. 6. and gas states. Many scholars in those days thought it reasonable to believe that there exist means for transforming cheaper (base) metals into gold. A tentative outline is as follows: 1. Greek atomism dates back to 440 BC. Alchemy.Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles. Egyptian alchemy [3. the Macedonian king Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and founds Alexandria. advances in processes and apparatus. even though the underlying principles were not well understood—it was thought to be a transformation rather than purification. known as chemical laws. liquid. Laboratory. making pottery and glazes. major advances in the chemical arts shifted from Arab lands to western Europe. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Much of the early development of purification methods is described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia.000 BCE – 400 BCE]. making cheese. the Saracens introduced precise observation. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. crystals and other aggregates of matter. extracting metal from their ores. it was never found. The emergence of chemistry in Europe was primarily due to the recurrent incidence of the plague and blights there during the so called Dark Ages. which the Muslims inherited from Egypt. reactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are a result of interaction either between different chemical substances or between matter and energy. 2. The greed for gold led to the discovery of the process for its purification. 8. and careful records. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure. al-Razi and others. who also wrote some of his own books under the pen name "Geber". and making alloys like bronze. dying cloth. as what might be indicated by the book De Rerum Natura (The Nature of Things) written by the Roman Lucretius in 50 BC. controlled experiment. Such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory using various forms of laboratory glassware. They invented and named the alembic (al-anbiq). having the world's largest library. The contribution of Indian alchemists and metallurgists in the development of chemistry was also quite significant. The number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is most often equal. distinguished alkalis and acids. The interactions. and by its method. rendering fat into soap. European alchemy [1300 – present]. Dmitri Mendeleev presented his Periodic table being the framework of the modern chemistry The earliest pioneers of Chemistry. for in this field. in solid. Boyle writes his classic chemistry text The Sceptical Chymist.
It is because of these and other contributions that Antoine Lavoisier is often celebrated as the "Father of Modern Chemistry". especially through the work of Willard Gibbs. with each field branching off into several specific subfields. formed a hybrid of alchemy and science in what was to be called iatrochemistry. The protoscience of chemistry. nuclear science. Not surprisingly then. Chemistry then becomes a full-fledged science when Antoine Lavoisier develops his law of conservation of mass. it is only the chemists who apply the scientific method. such as minerals found in the Earthâ€™s crust. and the development of the Atomic Theory by John Dalton around 1800. tanning leather. was also unsuccessful in explaining the nature of matter. amino acids are born. the influences of philosophers such as Sir Francis Bacon (1561–1626) and René Descartes (1596–1650). used oxygen to overthrow the phlogiston theory. can indeed be synthesized in a chemistry laboratory also helped the modern chemistry to mature from its infancy. These organic compounds are important because they are often linked to the amino group. The Law of Conservation of Mass resulted in the reformulation of chemistry based on this law and the oxygen theory of combustion. and bioinorganic chemistry. Amino acids are important because they are as the building blocks of proteins. • Physical ChemistryAs its name implies. led to a scientific revolution. biochemistry. physical chemistry has to do with the physical properties of materials. rejected the 4elemental theory and with only a vague understanding of his chemicals and medicines. Physical properties that are studied may include the electrical and magnetic behavior of materials. for example. Other types of chemistry include physical chemistry. over time. • Inorganic ChemistryInorganic chemistry involves the study the properties and reactions of compounds that do not contain carbon and which are not organic. developed the theory of Conservation of mass in 1783. In chemistry. making pottery and glazes. For instance. dying cloth. For some practitioners. Early attempts to explain the nature of matter and its transformations failed. Here’s a brief description of the most common: • Organic ChemistryOrganic Chemistry has to do with the study of compounds that contain carbon (and sometimes hydrogen). and making alloys like bronze. much of the study of chemistry involves organic chemistry. The most studied groups of organic compounds are those that contain nitrogen. Examples include extracting metals from ores. fermenting beer and wine. making glass. leading to an increased public interest in chemistry. There is much overlap between organic and inorganic chemistry. The discovery of the chemical elements has a long history from the days of alchemy and culminating in the discovery of the periodic table of the chemical elements by Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907)and later discoveries of some synthetic elements. There are many branches of inorganic chemistry. Even though carbon is only the fourteenth most common element on the planet. alchemy was an intellectual pursuit. The history of chemistry is intertwined with the history of thermodynamics. Similarly. Paracelsus (1493–1541). they got better at it. Chemistry indeed came of age when Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794). organic compounds. while both alchemy and chemistry are concerned with the nature of matter and its transformations. However. So. He established the consistent use of the chemical balance. including geochemistry. and developed a new system of chemical nomenclature and made contribution to the modern metric system. Different Branches Of Chemistry Chemistry is generally divided into two broad different branches of chemistry: organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry. Inorganic chemistry studies all non-living matter. When the amino group combines with the carboxyl group. who came up with an equation known as Boyle's Law about the characteristics of gaseous state. All these advances in chemistry led to what is usually called the chemical revolution. making cheese. History of chemistry By 1000 BC. This distinction begins to emerge when a clear differentiation was made between chemistry and alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist (1661). as well as their interaction with electromagnetic fields. organometallic chemistry studies the use of compounds that are capable of creating a covalent bond between carbon and metal. and analytical chemistry. extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume.Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier is considered the "Father of Modern Chemistry". The contributions of Lavoisier led to what is now called modern chemistry—the chemistry that is studied in educational institutions all over the world. making pigments for cosmetics and painting. . The later discovery of Friedrich Wöhler that many natural substances. coordination chemistry. which demands careful measurements and quantitative observations of chemical phenomena. it produces the greatest number of different compounds on Earth. which was largely based on the work of Lavoisier. Lavoisier's fundamental contributions to chemistry were a result of a conscious effort to fit all experiments into the framework of a single theory. this began with Robert Boyle (1627–1691). who demanded more rigor in mathematics and in removing bias from scientific observations. ancient civilizations used technologies that would eventually form the basis of the various branches of chemistry. rendering fat into soap. by performing experiments and recording the results the alchemist set the stage for modern chemistry. Lavoisier also worked to translate the archaic and technical language of chemistry into something that could be easily understood by the largely uneducated masses. Alchemy.
. at kabaitan. and cell biology are research fields closely related to biochemistry. Qualitative analysis has to do with identifying all the atoms and molecules in a sample of matter. Analytical chemistry is concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods used to determine the composition of materials.” na balita sa kanyang angking kagandahan. Maraming nangangayupapa sa kanyang kagandahan. Biophysics. Sa takot ni Cristobal ay ibinaon niya ang dalaga sa bakuran nito at saka siya lumayo sa pook na iyon upang di na magbalik kailanman. Biochemists commonly focus on the physical properties and structures of biological molecules. isang mahigpit niyang mangingibig. and chemical kinetics. Dahil ang gusto ni Rosa ay ang maglingkod sa Panginoon at sa pagtulong sa mga nangangailangan ng kanyang tulong. Specifically. Analytical ChemistryUnlike the other main types of chemistry. analytical chemistry deal specifically with specific elements. • BiochemistryBiochemistry is a branch of chemistry concerned with the composition and changes of living matter. Ngunit si Cristobal. but includes also measuring the exact weight of each chemical constituent. electrochemistry. proteins. Qualitative and quantitative analysis are the two most basic methods used in analytical chemistry. as well as the effects of electricity on chemical changes. Electrochemistry is concerned with the study of interconversions of electric and chemical energy of matter. chemical kinetics studies the equilibrium it reached between products and their reactants. Thermochemistry studies the changes of entropy and energy that naturally occur during chemical reactions. Sa halip. These include thermochemistry. and nucleic acids. Ngunit ni isa sa mga ito ay hindi niya mapusuan. molecular biology. Ngunit nananalangin si Rosa sa Panginoon at noon di’y siya’y naging bangkay. Common biological molecules include carbohydrates. kayumian. Quantitative analysis also involves determining the atomical and molecular structure of matter. Chemical kinetics involves the study of chemical reactions. lipids. • Alamat ng rosas Noong araw ay may isang magandang dalagang nagngangalang “Rosa. at ito’y nagtangkang agawin si Rosa at dinala ito sa hardin. ay di makapapayag na di mapasakanya ang dalaga. with attention paid to trace elements. sa bakuran nito ay may isang halamang tumubo na may bulaklak ngunit paghawak sa tangkay nito ay mapapasigaw ka dahil sa talas ng tinik ng halamang hinahawakan.There are several subcategories of physical chemistry. Mula noon ay hindi na nakita ng mga taga roon si Rosa. Biochemistry is sometimes referred to as physiological chemistry and biological chemistry. Dahil niloob ito ng Panginoon na gawing bulaklak si Rosa na ang tangkay ay may mga tinik na tagapangalaga rito upang di-pagnasaang pupulin lamang ng sinuman.
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