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, class, meeting expectation Management – organising, administering, art of getting things done TQM is defined as both philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of continuously improving organisation. It is the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve all the process within the organisation and exceed customer needs now and in the future. Total Quality Management is an effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of various groups in an organization continuously, so as to enable marketing, engineering, production and service at the most economic levels which allow for full customer satisfaction. Historical Review of TQM Industrialisation led to mass production in which it led to the concept of one product at a time to the assembly line of production. Though workmanship was affected but mass production led to more job and reduction in cost of the product and increase in quality, reduction of defects etc. 1924 – After WWI, W.A. Sherwat of Bell Telephone statistical chart for the control of various. Concept of sample tests were followed. It was a failure in the initial stages. 1946 – ASQC American Society for Quality Control, now ASQ. Frequent meetings, conferences and publications were made to public. 1950 – W.Edwards Demings his guidance and lecture to Japan engineers transformed quality concepts in the organisation. His cycle ACT-PLAN-DO-CHECK 1954 – Joseph M.Juran Concept of efficient and productive. Juran Trilogy Quality planning – Quality Control – Quality Improvement 1960 – Quality control circles was formed. Zero defects concepts 1970 – Reactive approach to proactive approach. Shift from Japan to USA 1980 – SPC – Statistical Process Control. Concepts of parameter and tolerance. Experiments 1990 – Concepts of certification of ISO, CMM etc 2000 – six sigma concept - Six Sigma stands for Six Standard Deviations (Sigma is the Greek letter used to represent standard deviation in statistics) from mean. Six Sigma methodology provides the techniques and tools to improve the capability and reduce the defects in any process. TQM Basic Concepts 1. Management Involvement – Participate in quality program, develop quality council, direct participation 2. Focus on customer – who is the customer – internal and external, voice of the customer, do it right first time and every time. 3. Involvement and utilisation of entire work force – All levels of management 4. Continuous improvement – Quality never stops, placing orders, bill errors, delivery, minimise wastage and scrap etc. 5. Treating suppliers as partners – no business exists without suppliers. 6. Performance measures – creating accountability in all levels Barriers in TQM Implementation 1. Lack of commitment from top management – avoiding training for self and employees, meetings 2. Lack of employee involvement – particularly at managerial level, supportive attitude, trust 3. Lack of team work – Co-operation and co-ordination within workers. 4. Lack of customer oriented approach – Know the customer need, demand, taste, shortcomings 5. Lack of attention to feedback and complaints – 6. Supplier control – in terms of materials, cost, quality, delivery etc 7. Review quality procedures – up gradation, correct past errors. Learn from experience
Einstein College of Engineering
Five Pillars of TQM are, · Product · Process · System · People · Leadership Benefits of TQM : Customer satisfaction oriented benefits : 1. Improvement in product quality 2. Improvement in product design 3. Improvement in production flow 4. Improvement in employee morale and quality consciousness 5. Improvement in product service 6. Improvement in market place acceptance Economic improvement oriented benefits : 1. Reduction in operating costs 2. Reduction in operating losses 3. Reduction in field service costs 4. Reduction in liability exposure Principles of TQM : Visionary leadership Customer-driven excellence Organizational and personal learning Valuing employees and partners Agility Focus on the future Managing for innovation Management by fact Public responsibility Focus of results and creating values Systems perspective Quality – When a product or service meets or exceeds expectation considering the intended use and the selling price. Quality = performance / expectation Definition by ISO 9000:2000 It if defined as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirement. Degree – good, excellent, bad Inherent – existing, within, natural Requirement – need or expectation Dimensions of quality 1. Performance 2. Features 3. Conformance 4. Reliability 5. Durability 6. Service 7. Response 8. Aesthetics 9. Reputation
Fulfilment of primary requirement Additional things that enhance performance Meeting specific standards set by the industry Consistence performance over a period of time Long life and less maintenance Ease of repair, guarantee, and warranty Dealer customer relationship, human interface exteriors, packages Past performance, ranking, branding
Einstein College of Engineering
Vision Statement: It is a short declaration of what an organization aspires to be tomorrow. It is the ideal state that might never reached but which you continuously strive to achieve. Example : We will be the preferred provider of safe, reliable, and cost-effective products and services that satisfy the electric-related needs of all customer segments. FLORIDA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY Mission Statement : The mission statements answers the following questions : Who we are ? Who are the customers ? What we do ? and How we do it ? It is the usually a one paragraph statement which describes the function of the organization. It provides a clear statement of purpose for employees, customers and suppliers. Example : To meet customers‘ transportation and distribution needs by being the best at moving their goods on time, safely and damage free. CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS Quality Policy: The Quality Policy is a guide for everyone in the organization as to how they should provide products and service to the customers. The common characteristics are Quality is first among equals. Meet the needs of the internal and external customers. Equal or exceed the competition. Continually improve the quality. Include business and production practices. Utilize the entire work force Customer perception of quality Before 1988 – Performance, Prize and service After 1989 – Performance, service and prize ASQ – American Society for Quality 1. Performance – availability (ready for use), reliability (free from failure), maintainability 2. Features – psychological and technical. Added feature along with main usage 3. Service – intangible, made up of many small things 4. Warranty – Vs guarantee. Customer feels comfortable with this 5. Price – value for money, ready to pay at the same time comparative study to be done 6. Reputation – Branding merges with quality. Good exp reaches 6 bad reaches 15 Service Quality Shift in focus from manufacturing industry to service industry and the services involved in manufacturing organization. Customer service is the set of activities an organization uses to win, attract and retain customers. It can be provided before, during and after the sale of the product. Elements of customer service Organization 1. Identify each segment – where the organization needs to concentrate on quality 2. Write down requirement – Proper documentation of quality policy in the form of a handbook 3. Communicate requirements – Inform its importance to all levels in the organisation 4. Organize process – create a systematic process as it is ongoing and never ending process 5. Organize physical spaces – aesthetics, atmosphere, room space, recreation, wifi etc Customer Care – Henry Ford – The boss just handles the cash it is the customer who pays your salary 1. Meet the customers expectation – treat all customers alike, respond quickly 2. Get the customer‘s point of view – think in the point of view of a customer 3. Deliver what is promised – keep up promise at any cost 4. Make the customer feel valued – customer must feel that due respect and importance is given to him 5. Respond to all complaints – minimize complaints and eradicate similar and repeated complaints
Einstein College of Engineering
an economist and sociologist who lived from 1848 to 1923. Originally trained as an engineer he was a one time managing director of a group of coalmines. Strive for continuous process improvement Customer Retention . Lead by example – spend time with all level. d) Prevention costs .External research must be done to feel the pulse of the customer . It uses the Pareto principle . The Pareto effect is named after Vilfredo Pareto. Provide pleasant and knowledgeable enthusiastic employees 4. Minimize the number of contact points – channels and levels 3.Most cases what customer says or feels may vary from actual consumption or purchase . Hire people who like people – train groom them 2.6. the widely accepted thing is ―Quality cost is the extra cost incurred due to poor or bad quality of the product or service‖. Over-respond to customer – make him feel he is cloud nine 7. or trend.The cost associated with defects that are found after product is shipped to the customer. Some people equated quality cost with the cost of attaining quality.The cost associated with defects that are found prior to transfer of the product to the customer. But. Make sure they are adequately trained – written and oral communication. Serve them as internal customers 5. such as how many ancient kings probably ruled between two dates. Or in terms of quality improvement.Customer must refer more customers and increase the revenue . Categories of Quality Cost : Many companies summarize quality costs into four broad categories. web site must prove quality 1. Give them authority to solve problems – give discounts. Einstein College of Engineering .The cost incurred in keeping failure and appraisal costs to a minimum. Provide clean and comfortable reception area – cleanliness. Write document in customer friendly language – simple and point blank Front-line people – The people who have first and direct contact or interaction with the customer 1. Recognize and reward performance . in the information. advt. Like having food . Pareto analysis is a statistical technique in decision making that is used for selection of a limited number of tasks that produce significant overall effect. free gifts etc 4. based on data such as the average years which other known kings reigned. b) External failure costs .Employee retention is proportional customer retention Quality cost: During the 1950‘s the concept of ―Quality Cost‖ emerged. dress code. Listen to front line people 3. dealers and suppliers. c) Appraisal costs . Optimize trade off between time and personal attention 2. Although trend analysis is often used to predict future events. spacious. a) Internal failure costs . Different people assigned different meanings to the term. billing etc 3. the term "trend analysis" has more formally-defined meanings. In some fields of study. body language etc 6. Analysis technique for Quality Cost The term "trend analysis" refers to the concept of collecting information and attempting to spot a pattern. They are.Nordstorm example obsess with the customer Leadership 1. some people equated the term with the extra incurred due to poor quality.the idea that by doing 20% of work you can generate 80% of the advantage of doing the entire job. it could be used to estimate uncertain events in the past. weather etc Communication – All forms of communication written.The cost incurred in determining the degree of conformance to quality requirement. Pareto Analysis This fact gave rise to the Pareto effect or Pareto‘s law: – ‗the vital few and the trivial many‘. a large majority of problems (80%) are produced by a few key causes (20%). Challenge them to develop better methods – small changes in packing. using co product 2. verbal.It is the final result of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty .
Implement the change you decided on in the plan phase. 14. In essence. Do not depend on (quality) inspection – build quality into the product and process Choose quality suppliers Improve constantly – to reduce variation in all aspects Training on the job – for workers and management.e. 8.and percent frequency on y-axis Step 7: Draw line at 80% on y-axis parallel to x-axis.and cumulative percentage on y-axis Step 5: Join the above points to form a curve Step 6: Plot (on the same graph) a bar graph with causes on x. 9. Use of Pareto principle in prioritizing or ranking a range of items which have different levels of significance. 6. the problem-solver estimates the benefit delivered by each action. and later adopted by W. then selects a number of the most effective actions that deliver a total benefit reasonably close to the maximal possible one. Plan .a change or a test. 2. It can be used to guide the entire improvement project It can be used to develop specific projects once target improvement areas have been identified. This point on the x-axis separates the important causes (on the left) and trivial causes (on the right) UNIT-2(PRINCIPLES AND PHILOSOPHIES OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT) Demings 14 Points Summarised 1. Edwards Deming. 7. 3. In this phase. 13. 4. Create constancy of purpose and continual improvement Adopt the new (Japanese) philosophy – by management and workers alike. Then drop the line at the point of intersection with the curve on x-axis. 12. not just meet targets. 11. aimed at improvement. looking for areas that hold opportunities for change. The first step is to choose areas that offer the most return for the effort you put in-the biggest bang for your buck. 5. 10. Its objective is to separate the 'vital few' from the 'useful many.' Steps to identify the important causes using Pareto analysis Step 1: Form a table listing the causes and their frequency as a percentage. Document the procedure and observation Einstein College of Engineering . analyze what you intend to improve. encourage employees Break down internal barriers – department‘s are ―internal customers‖ Eliminate slogans (exhortations) – processes make mistakes not people.Pareto analysis is a formal technique useful where many possible courses of action are competing for your attention. The model provides a framework for the improvement of a process or system. To identify these areas for change consider using a Flow chart or Pareto chart Do . Eliminate numerical targets – management by objectives not numbers Remover barriers to worker satisfaction – including annual appraisals Encourage self improvement and education for all Everyone is responsible for continual improvement in quality and productivity – particularly top management PDCA Cycle – PLAN > DO > CHECK > ACT The PDCA (or PDSA) Cycle was originally conceived by Walter Shewhart in 1930's.Carry out the change or test (preferably on a small scale). Leadership not supervision – to get people to do a better job. the most important cause first) Step 3: Add a cumulative percentage column to the table Step 4: Plot with causes on x. Step 2: Arrange the rows in the decreasing order of importance of the causes (i. Eliminate fear – encourage two-way communication.
you must decide whether it is worth continuing that particular change. you may consider expanding the trial to a different area. This sends you back into the Plan phase and can be the beginning of the Ramp of Improvement.the attainment of unprecedented levels of performance Cause-and-Effect Diagrams . of problems. After you have implemented the change for a short time. Run Charts can be helpful with this measurement. After planning a change. or run the cycle again. was difficult to adhere to. implementing and then monitoring it. Team members focus on the problem under investigation. This quality concern is now the effect. if the change led to a desirable improvement or outcome. or causes. and draw a box around it with an arrow running to it. Step 2: Write the problem statement on the right hand side of the page. If it consumed too much of your time. Act . you must determine how well it is working. Use tools to collect information Check or Study . Cause-and-effect diagrams allow us to do not just that.Adopt the change. you may consider aborting the change and planning a new one. Kaoru Ishikawa at the University of Tokyo Purpose: One important part of process improvement is continuously striving to obtain more information about the process and it's output.the results. Einstein College of Engineering . but also can lead us to the root cause. or even led to no improvement. abandon it. What was learned? What went wrong? This is a crucial step in the PDCA cycle. Constructing the Cause-and-Effect Diagram: Step 1: Select the team members and a leader. Juran Trilogy The Trilogy consists of three sequential and logical groups of activities: – Quality Planning – Quality Control – Quality Improvement All three processes are universal – Applied to a particular process – Performed by top management or by middle management Juran Trilogy: A systematic and comprehensive system for break-through quality improvements Quality Defined: meet customer needs and freedom from deficiencies Trilogy Components – Quality Planning – discover customer needs and deficiencies and design adequate processes – Quality Control -. Team members knowledgeable about the quality. However. Is it really leading to improvement in the way you had hoped? You must decide on several measures with which you can monitor the level of improvement.1943 by Mr. or slightly increasing your complexity.compare actual performance to goals and take action on the differences – Quality Improvement -.
Customer and supplier fully responsible for quality control 2. Both should think in the shoes of the end user. The cost of nonconformance equals the cost of not doing it right first time. the meaning of quality is "conformance to requirements. Start by asking why the problem exists.work should be seen as a series of activities or processes. and is often summarized as the "Fourteen Steps. that the prime responsibility for poor quality lies with management. Nonconforming products are ones that management has failed to specify or control. and not rooting out any defects in processes. delivery and payments 5. Partnering Benefits 1. not with the workers.each individual is expected to perform exactly like the requirement or cause the requirement to be officially changed to what we and the customer Einstein College of Engineering . Management sets the tone for thequality initiative from the top. Both must accept the evaluation in terms of quality and service 7. Proper understanding in quality. Always check to see if all the factors contributing to the problem have been identified. The more information we have about our processes the better we are at improving them." What that means is that a product should conform to the requirements that the company has itselfestablished based on its customers' needs. quantity. high. Contracts must be signed so the disputes can be settled amicably 8. and other gathering and analysis tools.. but that companies should notbegin with "allowances" or substandard targets with mistakes as an inbuilt expectation. The team members generate ideas as to what is causing the effect. check sheets. A quality policy is needed which states that ". Quality improvement equates to profit improvement. good. Cause-and-effect diagrams are one quality tool that is simple yet very powerful in helping us better understand our processes Ten Principles of Customer/Supplier Relationship 1. His seminal approach to quality was set out in Quality is Free. Increase efficiency 3. defined by clear requirements andcarried out to produce identified outcomes. "Zero defects" does not mean that people never make mistakes.. price. who then draw up a quality improvement program with an emphasis on the need for defect prevention. bad. Identify." 1. in Crosby's estimation. Step 4: This step could be combined with step 3. Step 5: Focus on one or two causes for which an improvement action(s) can be developed using other quality tools such as Pareto charts. Customer and supplier must be independent and interdependent 3. Instead. Systems that allow things to go wrong and thatresult in those things having to be done again can cost organizations between 20% and 35% of their revenues.Step 3: Brain-storming. for each main cause. its related sub-causes that might affect our quality concern or problem (our Effect). Increase the opportunity for innovation 5. In his view. Lower cost 4. Trust 3. Improved Quality 2. Supplier must satisfy the customer need 6. The customer must provide clear information to the supplier 4. He also believed. Management commitment it: the need for quality improvement must be recognized and accepted by management. Both should strive for mutual satisfaction and good relationship 10. Shared vision CONTRIBUTIONS OF CROSBY: Crosby's approach to quality was unambiguous. Conclusion: Improvement requires knowledge. and low quality are meaningless concepts in the abstract. Continuous improvement of product and service Key Elements in Partnering 1. Both must have exchange of information to improve quality and service 9. Long-term commitment 2.
The measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance CONTRIBUTIONS OF MASAAKI IMAI: Masaaki Imai is Founder of KAIZEN Institute (KI). It is important to set up a new team of representatives and begin the program again from the beginning. and the provision of visible evidence of the results of a concern for quality improvement. but an indication of where the action necessary to correct a defect will result in greater profitability.really need. and that everyone gets the same message in the same way. although this should not be in financial form. systems. 4. The cost of quality evaluation: the cost of quality is not an absolute performance measurement. This means establishing and recording quality measures for each area of activity in order to show where improvement is possible and where corrective action is necessary. any problems that prevent them from carrying out error-free work. 11. 12. which was established in Switzerland (1985) to help companies introduce KAIZEN® concepts. The definition of quality is conformance to requirements. Quality councils: the quality professionals and team leaders should meet regularly to discuss improvements and upgrades to the quality program. and 90-day goals.KICG) has offices in over 30 countries around the globe. 7. on a simple. Quality measurement: the status of quality should be determined throughout the company. Its members should be people who have sufficient authority to commit the area they represent to action. step in the progress of an organization toward quality. Doing it over again: during the course of a typical program lasting from 12 to 18 months." 2. turnover and change will dissipate much of the educational process. The system of quality is prevention. Zero defects day: it is important that the commitment to zero defects as the performance standard of the company makes an impact. Crosby stresses that this sharing process is a key. Recognition: it is important to recognize those who meet their goals or perform outstanding acts with a prize or award. KI (also now known as KAIZEN Institute Consulting Group. The quality improvement team: representatives from each department or function should be brought together to form a quality improvement team. 6. as well as having Einstein College of Engineering . thus setting the stagefor defect prevention on the job. Error cause removal: employees are asked to describe. The act of recognition itself is what is important. People need to see that problems are regularly being resolved. Problems should be acknowledged and begin to be addressed within 24 hours by the function or unit to which th begin to grow more confident that their problems will be attended to and dealt with. 3. Crosbyadvocated delegation of this task to the people who actually do the job. should make a lasting impression as a "new attitude" day. starting with zero defects day. 13. through training and information. Usually. when supervisors explain the program to their people. where it really counts. and tools. The performance standard is zero defects. 10. one-page form. 60-. 2. Managers should understand each of the Fourteen Steps well enough to be able to explain them to their people. Corrective action: discussion of problems will result in the finding of solutions and also bring to light other elements that are in need of improvement. Mr. Over the last 30+ years. Lean and other related management subjects. Corrective action should then become a habit. Imai has held lectures on KAIZEN. or even the key. 14. Establishing an ad hoc committee for the zero defects program: zero defects is not a motivation program: its purpose is to communicate and instill the notion that everyone should do things right first time. 4. measurable goals that they can strive for. 3. Supervisor training: all managers should undergo formal training on the Fourteen Steps before they are implemented. 8. Zero defects day. 5. Quality awareness: this involves making employees aware of the cost to the company of defects. these comprise 30-. Goal setting: all supervisors ask their people to establish specific. 9. This "starting over again" helps quality to become ingrained in the organization CROSBY‘S four absolutes of quality: 1.
it gives a financial value for increasing costs as product performance goes above the desired target performance. and his master's degree and Ph. Accountability for quality: Because quality is everybody's job. He was Director of Manufacturing Operations at General Electric (1958-1968). as Japanese believe that good process will deliver good results. KAIZEN Institute dispatches both local and global consultants. CONTRIBUTION OF FEIGENBAUM: Armand Vallin Feigenbaum (born 1922) is an American quality control expert and businessman. Taguchi received formal recognition for his work including Deming Prizes and Awards. incremental but constant.slow. Mr. rework. Determining the target performance is an educated guess. from MIT. known for the Quality Loss Function and for methodologies to optimise quality at the design stage – ―robust design‖. who are corporate managers and academics and considered experts in the various technicalities of KAIZEN. Europe and other strategic locations where best practices can be found. . TQM. Western way of pragmatic approach ―why-fix-it-if-it-ain‘t-broke‖ Kaizen extends a more optimistic philosophical view: ―Everything—even if it ain‘t broke—can be made better!‖ "kai― > Means "change" or "the action to correct" "zen― > means "good― Importance is given to the process not the results. His contributions to the quality body of knowledge include: "Total quality control is an effective system for integrating the quality development. to various assignments to work closely with the local KAIZEN consultants. KAIZEN Institute regularly sponsors KAIZEN Tours. such as Just-in-time.consulted with global companies (outside of Japan) and assisting them in their process of introducing change and continual improvement. Equally. quality maintenance. later known as Total Quality Management (TQM).D. often based on customer surveys and feedback. including cost of scrap. downtime. and is now President and CEO of General Systems Company of Pittsfield. Imai‘s role has been oneof integrating various KAIZEN management practices. within Japan. Genichi Taguchi's Quality Loss Function The Quality Loss Function gives a financial value for customers' increasing dissatisfaction as the product performance goes below the desired target performance. The concept of quality costs TAGUCHI’S CONTRIBUTION: Genichi Taguchi is a Japanese quality expert. Feigenbaum received a bachelor's degree from Union College." The concept of a "hidden" plant—the idea that so much extra work is performed in correcting mistakes that there is effectively a hidden plant within any factory. it may become nobody's job—the idea that quality must be actively managed and have visibility at the highest levels of management. and TPM. Genichi Taguchi considers quality loss all the way through to the customer. and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction. Massachusetts. Einstein College of Engineering . Feigenbaum wrote several books and served as President of the American Society for Quality (1961-1963). He devised the concept of Total Quality Control. an engineering firm that designs and installs operational systems. warranty claims and ultimately reduced market share. Kaizen is defined as making ―continuous improvement‖ .into the cultural environment of client companies.
involves creating a working prototype 2. If your business makes cookies from raw ingredients. temperature of butter. The cookies resulting from each of these trials would be assessed for quality. refers to the act of throwing away all unwanted. for example oven temperature affects cookie quality more than the number of eggs. such as total preventive maintenance. just-in-time manufacturing. and unrelated materials in the workplace. People involved in Seiri must not feel sorry about having to throw away things.amount of flour. Parameter design . safety initiatives. The designer can focus on reducing variation on the important or critical factors. Robust Design of Cookies This is easier explained by example. It encourages a proactive approach that prevents problems and waste before they occur. 5S PRINCIPLES: The 5S framework was originally developed by just-in-time expert and international consultant Hiroyuki Hirano. baking tray material etc.involves experimenting to find which factors influence product performance most 3. It provides a practical method for dealing with the real problems that workers face every day. The idea is to ensure that everything left in the workplace is related to work. there are many possible factors that could influence the quality of the cookie . Seiri. 1 or 2 eggs. Einstein College of Engineering . And it fits with a facility's other efforts. The 5S framework is an extension of Hirano's earlier works on just-in-time production systems. It fosters efficiency and productivity while improving work flow. Quality through Robust Design Methodology Taguchi methods emphasised quality through robust design. With Genichi Taguchi‘s Robust Design methodologies you would set up experiments that would test a range of combinations of factors .for example. SEIRI / SORT / CLEANUP: The first step of the "5S" process. It promotes daily activity for continuous improvement. high and low oven temperature. with long and short cooking time. The 5Ss represent a simple "good housekeeping" approach to improving the work environment consistent with the tenets of Lean Manufacturing System. Taguchi breaks the design process into three stages: 1. heat of oven. and lean manufacturing efforts. number of eggs. Unimportant or uncontrollable ―noise‖ factors have negligible impact on the product performance and can be ignored. not quality through inspection. Tolerance design .The quality loss function allows financial decisions to be made at the design stage regarding the cost of achieving the target performance. System design . unnecessary.involves setting tight tolerance limits for the critical factors and looser tolerance limits for less important factors. A statistical analysis of results would tell you which the most important factors are. Taguchi‘s Robust Design methodologies allow the designer through experiments to determine which factors most affect product performance and which factors are unimportant. With this knowledge you would design a process that ensures the oven maintains the optimal temperature and you would be able to consistently produce good cookies. pollution prevention. etc. cooking time. Even the number of necessary items in the workplace must be kept to its absolute minimum.
First-in first-out (FIFO). Use special designed cart to organize tools. as well as returned in that same place quickly. This step consists of putting everything in an assigned place so that it can be accessed or retrieved quickly. or orderliness. In performing Seiton. Remove unneeded items from working areas. this simple guideline is a must: 1. Don't stack items together. follow these guidelines: 1. from operators to managers. 5. jigs. SEISO / SHINE / NEATNESS Seiso. Einstein College of Engineering . If everyone has quick access to an item or materials. Its objective includes. Store items only needed by each individual in his/her own working area. Store similar items together. Use see-through cover or door for visibility. 4. Different items in separate rows. Discard the items never used.always thinking if it is clean enough to make a good impression. 6. Cleaning must be done by everyone in the organization. and save space and time. Place tools and instructional manual close to the point of use. Store items needed by most people in a common storage area. 4. 9. 3. cleanliness ensures a more comfortable and safe working place. Every single item must be allocated its own place for safekeeping. 6. 3. measuring devices. 2. Store items not Item not needed now. A place for everything and everything in its place. It would be a good idea to have every area of the workplace assigned to a person or group of persons for cleaning. SEITON / SET IN ORDER / ARRANGING: Seiton. 8. Use dust collecting covers or devices to prevent possible dirt or reduce the amount of dirt. first is the simplification of tasks and effective use of space. and the worker becomes productive. work flow becomes efficient. Use red tag to get rid of unneeded items. 7. that are needed for each particular machine. but a whole attitude that includes ensuring everything is in perfect condition. supplies. Its objective includes. 2. including work pieces. Separate needed items from unneeded items. and each location must be labeled for easy identification of what it's for. Use rack or shelf if possible. Clearly label each item and its storage areas (lead to visibility). tools. etc. supports efficiency and productivity. and equipment. Follow these guidelines in performing Seiso: 1. the needed items can be easily found.There are two main objectives of Seiri. is all about efficiency. 7. cleanliness will lead to visibility so as to reduce search time and cleanliness ensures a higher quality of work and products. Seiso is not just cleaning. Everyone should see the 'workplace' through the eyes of a visitor .. the third step in "5S". personal items. Remove all excess items from working areas. 9. says that 'everyone is a janitor. stored and retrieved. 8. In performing Seiri.' Seiso consists of cleaning up the workplace and giving it a 'shine'. Use color for quickly identifying items. Organize working / storage area. Use small bins to organize small items. instruments. 5.
It is based upon the human resource management considered as one of the key factors in the improvement of product quality & productivity. spills. Shitsuke. air. personnel voluntarily observe cleanliness and orderliness at all times. QUALITY CIRCLE Quality Circle is a small group of 6 to 12 employees doing similar work who voluntarily meet together on a regular basis to identify improvements in their respective work areas using proven techniques for analysing and solving work related problems coming in the way of achieving and sustaining excellence leading to mutual upliftment of employees as well as the organisation. Investigating the causes of dirtiness and implement a plan to eliminate the sources of dirt. 4. 5. Seiketsu encompasses both personal and environmental cleanliness. The characteristic of 5S tends to overlap significantly rather than cover very different subjects. Visual management is an important ingredient of seiketsu. means 'Discipline. attitude and feelings. or seiketsu. as someone who willingly activises on his job. Ensuring that there is a place for everything and that everything is in its place 6. Wearing safe working apparel and using safe equipment 7. Cover around cords. Operators clean their own equipment and working area and perform basic preventive maintenance. Personnel are trained to detect abnormalities using their five senses and to correct such abnormalities immediately. SEIKETSU / SYSTEMIZE / DISCIPLINE: The fourth step of "5S". fumes. Quality Circle concept has three major attributes: Einstein College of Engineering . his wisdom. without having to be reminded by management. steam. Colorcoding and standardized coloration of surroundings are used for easier visual identification of anomalies in the surroundings.2. Personnel must therefore practice 'seiketsu' starting with their personal tidiness. The emphasis of shitsuke is elimination of bad habits and constant practice of good ones. Rather than worry about what fits into Seiri and what fits into Seiton. It consists of defining the standards by which personnel must measure and maintain 'cleanliness'. experience. It is "a way of capturing the creative and innovative power that lies within the work force". The guidelines include: 1. CONCEPT The concept of Quality Circle is primarily based upon recognition of the value of the worker as a human being. Keep everything clean for a constant state of readiness. or surplus items from the work area 2. intelligence. more or less translates to 'standardized clean-up'. Listening to the "voice" of the process and being alert to things such as unusual noises 5. water. Checking that items are where they should be 4. cables. 3. legs of machines and tables such that dirt can be easily and quickly removed. and other aspects of the workplace environment 3.' It denotes commitment to maintain orderliness and to practice the first 4 S as a way of life. Minimizing all waste and the use of valuable resources such as oil. broken. Removing used. use them to reinforce each other and implement the whole thing. and electricity SHITSUKE / SUSTAIN / ON-GOING IMPROVEMENT: The last step of "5S". lighting. Once true shitsuke is achieved. Making safety a prime requirement by paying attention to noise.
greater upward flow of information. Co-ordinator: He may be a Personnel or Administrative officer who co-ordinates and supervises the work of the facilitators and administers the programme. i. It varies from industry to industry. b. plans and directs the program and meets usually once in a month. But it is useful to have a basic framework as a model. The Quality Circles also are expected to develop internal leadership. Participate Management process. Facilitator. c) Development of Team Spirit Individual Vs Team – "I could not do but we did it" Eliminate inter departmental conflicts. Circle leader: Leaders may be from lowest level workers or Supervisors. The structure of a Quality Circle consists of the following elements. organisation to organisation. Co0rdinator. Higher motivational level. b) Self Development Bring out ‗Hidden Potential‘ of people People get to learn additional skills. A variety of benefits have been attributed to Quality Circles. Einstein College of Engineering . participate actively in group process. reinforce worker morale and motivation. Quality Circle is a form of participation management. A Circle leader organises and conducts Circle activities. Quality Circle is a human resource development technique. A steering committee: This is at the top of the structure. Circle leader and Circle members are well defined.a. iv. Facilitator: He may be a senior supervisory officer. Total involvement of people at all levels. They should attend all meetings as far as possible. offer suggestions and ideas. v. broader improved worker attitudes. From "I don‘t care" to "I do care" Continuous improvement in quality of work life through humanisation of work. Without circle members the porgramme cannot exist. iii. improved productivity. job enrichment. Quality Circle is a problem solving technique. including higher quality. It establishes policy. OBJECTIVE The objectives of Quality Circles are multi-faced. and greater teamwork. It is headed by a senior executive and includes representatives from the top management personnel and human resources development people. and encourage a strong sense of teamwork in an organisation. take training seriously with a receptive attitude. They are the lifeblood of quality circles.The roles of Steering Committee. He co-ordiates the works of several quality circles through the Circle leaders. Circle members : They may be staff workers. d) Improved Organisational Culture Positive working environment. c. a) Change in Attitude. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE A Quality Circle has an appropriate organisational structure for its effective and efficient performance. ii.
It presents a graphic display of process stability or instability over time. Every process has variation. improving a process through statistical analysis. Choose on-going controls to insure the root cause is eliminated. Einstein College of Engineering . 6. Each discipline is supported by a checklist of assessment questions. resistance by middle management. Some variation is simply the result of numerous. also known as Shewhart charts or process-behaviour charts. monitoring the process. This is common cause variation. 4. Congratulate Your Team UNIT-3(STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL AND PROCESS CAPABILITY) Definition of Statistical Process Control (SPC) : A method of monitoring. inadequate training. 3. if necessary.Problem quality circles often suffer from unrealistic expectations for fast results. Define and Verify Root Causes Identify all potential causes which could explain why the problem occurred. Test each potential cause against the problem description and data. resentment by non participants. Implement Permanent Corrective Actions Define and implement the permanent corrective actions needed. time. This could be special cause variation. emphasizing team synergy. Implement and Verify Short-Term Corrective Actions Define and implement those intermediate actions that will protect the customer from the problem until permanent corrective action is implemented. "what. controlling and. The team as whole is better and smarter than the quality sum of the individuals. where. Prevent Recurrence Modify specifications. review work flow. Control Charts differentiate between these two types of variation. Its four basic steps include measuring the process. Describe the Problem Describe the problem in measurable terms. 2. It is structured into eight disciplines. when. and improving the process to its best target value. 5. eliminating variances in the process to make it consistent. in statistical process control are tools used to determine whether or not a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control. Specify the internal or external customer problem by describing it in specific terms. such as "what is wrong with what". Define other actions. Use Team Approach Establish a small group of people with the knowledge. how much 1. 7. Verify Corrective Actions Confirm that the selected corrective actions will resolve the problem for the customer and will not cause undesirable side effects. lack of clear objectives and failure to get solutions implemented 8D Methodology 8D is a problem-solving methodology for product and process improvement. Control Charts: Control charts. Verify with data the effectiveness of these actions. A control chart is a statistical tool used to distinguish between variation in a process resulting from common causes and variation resulting from special causes. Identify alternative corrective actions to eliminate root cause. 8. lock of management commitment and support. update training. Some variation may be the result of causes which are not normally present in the process. Once in production. ever-present differences in the process. based on potential severity of problem. improve practices and procedures to prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems. ideally. authority and skill to solve the problem and implement corrective actions. monitor the long-term effects and implement additional controls as necessary. The group must select a team leader.
temperature. There are two main categories of Control Charts. those that display attribute data. mean of the proportions) A center line is drawn at the value of the mean of the statistic The standard error (e.. yes/no. Use the formula below to calculate the average (mean) for each subgroup and enter it on the line labeled Average in the data collection section Einstein College of Engineering ..g. and radiation dose.One goal of using a Control Chart is to achieve and maintain process stability.g. A control chart consists of: Points representing a statistic (e. or presence/absence of a defect. These ―count‖ data may be expressed as pass/fail. range. mean of the ranges. Attribute Data: This category of Control Chart displays data that result from counting the number of occurrences or items in a single category of similar items or occurrences. proportion) of measurements of a quality characteristic in samples taken from the process at different times [the data] The mean of this statistic using all the samples is calculated (e. STEP 3 . The sample size relates to how large the subgroups are.Determine the data to be collected.. Examples of variables data are elapsed time. a mean. .Calculate and enter the average for each subgroup.Collect and enter the data by subgroup. and those that display variables data. Variables Data: This category of Control Chart displays values resulting from the measurement of a continuous variable. Refer to the Data Collection module for information on how this is done. the mean of the means. A subgroup is made up of variables data that represent a characteristic of a product produced by a process. standard deviation/sqrt(n) for the mean) of the statistic is also calculated using all the samples Upper and lower control limits (sometimes called "natural process limits") that indicate the threshold at which the process output is considered statistically 'unlikely' are drawn typically at 3 standard errors from the center line Types of charts Chart and R chart and s chart p-chart np-chart c-chart u-chart Process observation Quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Fraction nonconforming within one subgroup Number nonconforming within one subgroup Number of nonconformances within one subgroup Nonconformances per unit within one subgroup Process observations relationships Independent Independent Independent Independent Independent Independent Process observations type Variables Variables Attributes† Attributes† Attributes† Attributes† Construction of control chart for variables: Step 1 . Process stability is defined as a state in which a process has displayed a certain degree of consistency in the past and is expected to continue to do so in the future. Decide what questions about the process you plan to answer.g. Step 2 .
the characteristic of controls (constant or variable sample size): The p-chart: it is a control chart for fraction nonconforming The c-chart: it is a control chart for number of defects or nonconformities The u-chart: it is a control chart for number of nonconformities per unit It is so to choose the best adapted control chart to the production.Select scales and plot Step 10 .Calculate UCL and LCL for subgroup averages Step 8 . how many to examine). conform and not conform to specifications. where p : fraction of nonconforming D : number of nonconforming units in the ith sample n : sample size of the ith sample In general. we focus of number of nonconforming units or nonconformities in a population.Calculate average of subgroup ranges Step 7 .Calculate and enter the range for each subgroup. The p-chart: Control chart for fraction nonconforming The focus of the chart is the ratio of the number of nonconforming units in a population over the total number of units in this population. What is called nonconforming means that the unit controlled is not conformed to standard on one or more of examined quality characteristics. Step 6 . 1.Calculate UCL for ranges Step 9 . The goal of control charts for variable is still to control mean and variability of a process but here.Step 4 .Calculate the grand mean of the subgroup’s average. Their use depends on the production (which quality characteristic to control. the control chart for attributes are a useful alternative. we study both cases. The grand mean of the subgroup‘s average (X-Bar) becomes the centerline for the upper plot. Three types of charts exist. For a constant sample size Mathematical notions If the sample size is constant. In the following. m samples of n units are tested but the sample size can be either constant or variable. Step 5 . Attributes concern quality characteristics which are able to be classified in two types.Document the chart Control Charts for attributes When the quality controls have to focus on a quality characteristic hard or expensive to measure on a numerical scale. the formula for the value plotted on the p-chart is: pi ^ Di ni ^ Di n The central line and control limits are computed as shown bellow: pi ^ Central line p m ^ i 1 pi n Limits UCL p 3 p (1 p) n LCL p 3 p (1 p ) n Einstein College of Engineering . Use the following formula to calculate the range (R) for each subgroup. This fraction is called ―p‖.
It consists plotting the number of nonconformities per unit tested. This number is called ―c‖ and is directly plotted on a c-chart. In this case again. For a constant sample size Mathematical notions The central line and control limits are computed as shown bellow: Central line c m i 1 c m Limits UCL c 3 c LCL c 3 c The u-chart: Control chart for number of nonconformities per unit The u.To construct the p-chart. The c-chart: Control chart for number of nonconformities observed The focus of the chart is the number of nonconformities in a population.chart is often used for controls where the sample size is variable. ui xi ni where u : average nonconformities per unit x : number of total nonconformities in a sample n : sample size Mathematical notions Here are formulas for control chart characteristics: _ Central line u m i 1 i m i 1 _ xi ni Limits UCL u 3 _ u ni _ LCL u 3 _ u ni Einstein College of Engineering . m samples of n units are controlled and the sample size can be constant or not. we plot the fraction nonconforming for each sample.
4 DPMO => efficiency 99. there has been less emphasis on the literal definition of 3. A special infrastructure of "Champions.977% Six Sigma = 3.The basic methodology consists of the following five steps: Define process improvement goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy. Six Sigma is a business improvement methodology that focuses an organization on: Understanding and managing customer requirements Aligning key business processes to achieve those require][plkvcments Utilizing rigorous data analysis to minimize variation in those processes Driving rapid and sustainable improvement to business processes At the heart of the methodology is the DMAIC model for process improvement. Process capability compares the output of an in-control process to the specification limits by using capability indices. Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data. Einstein College of Engineering .32% Four Sigma = 6.210 DPMO => efficiency 99.800 DPMO => efficiency 93. Six Sigma has literal. Using this scale. or counting defects in products and processes. as measured by 6 process standard deviation units (the process "width").4 DPMO. and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. "Six Sigma" equates to 3. An increased emphasis on strong and passionate management leadership and support.5 sigma shift into account. we think about Six Sigma at three different levels: As a metric As a methodology As a management system Essentially.4 Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO).Process Capability: Process capability can be defined as the ability of a process to produce more uniform products with little variations." etc. DMAIC is commonly used by Six Sigma project teams and is an acronym for: DMAIC . Six Sigma started as a defect reduction effort in manufacturing and then applied to other business processes for the same purpose. Six Sigma concepts: Six Sigma has evolved over the last two decades and so has its definition.000 DPMO => efficiency 31% Two Sigma = 308.9997% Six Sigma as a Methodology As Six Sigma has evolved. Analyze the data to verify cause-and-effect relationships. rather than assumptions and guesswork. A clear commitment to making decisions on the basis of verifiable data.000 DPMO => efficiency 69. conceptual.379% Five Sigma = 230 DPMO => efficiency 99. Determine what the relationships are. and practical definitions." "Black Belts. The comparison is made by forming the ratio of the spread between the process specifications (the specification "width") to the spread of the process values. Taking the 1. Six Sigma as a Metric The term "Sigma" is often used as a scale for levels of "goodness" or quality. Six Sigma is all three at the same time. Improve or optimize the process based upon data analysis using techniques like Design of Experiments. to lead and implement the Six Sigma approach. At Motorola University. Features that set Six Sigma apart from previous quality improvement initiatives include – A clear focus on achieving measurable and quantifiable financial returns from any project." "Master Black Belts.2% Three Sigma = 66. short-term sigma levels correspond to the following long-term DPMO values (one-sided): One Sigma = 690.
C – Theoretical cycle time. e. Planned – i) start ups ii) Shift change iii) tea / lunch breaks iv) planned maintenance 2.g. Unplanned – i) Equipment breakdown ii) changeovers iii)lack of materials 3. because some requirements conflict with others. Process change 6. P – Planned operation time D. It is a systematic process for capturing customer requirements and translating these into requirements that must be met throughout the 'supply chain'. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability. set up control mechanisms and continuously monitor the process. N = Processed amount Q – nonconformities UNIT-4(TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR QUALITY MANAGEMENT) Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a way of making the 'voice of the customer' heard throughout an organization. Slow downs 5. QFD is particularly valuable when design trade-offs are necessary to achieve the best overall solution. Scraps Calculating Equipment Effectiveness Downtime loss measured by equipment availability A = (T/P) X 100 A – availability. QFD also enables a great deal of information to be summarized in the form of one or more charts. Total Productive Maintenance Total = Overall features for production Productive = production of goods and services that meet expectation Maintenance = Keeping the equipments and plant as good as new and working condition Goals of TPM Maintaining and Improving equipment capacity Maintaining equipment for longer life Using support from all areas of operation Encouraging input from all employees Continuous improvement Improvement needs Machines expected to fail at one point or another – minimise that risk Employees who use and work that machine give the first hand information Six major loss areas in terms of time Downtime loss 1. Idling and minor stoppages 4. and even suppliers to aim at in order to produce the output desired by customers. These charts capture customer and product data Einstein College of Engineering . production people. The result is a new set of target values for designers.Downtime Performance efficiency E = (CXN/T) X 100 E – Performance efficiency. T – operating time (P – D). Control to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects. move on to production. N – Processed amount (qty) Rate of quality products R = (N-Q/N)X 100 R – Rate of quality products.
such as marketing. consensus. procurement. Benefits of QFD The main 'process' benefits of using QFD are: improved communication and sharing of information within a cross-functional team charged with developing a new product. and a few leading companies in other sectors such as electronics.the voice of the customer (from its use as a way of communicating customer needs). or the House of Quality (from the characteristic house shape of a QFD chart). and more frequent design cycles mean that products can be improved more rapidly than the competition reduced overall cost due to reducing design changes. process engineering. However. This is a powerful benefit: customer requirements are less likely to have changed since the beginning of the design project.gleaned from many sources. There is also some reluctance among users of QFD to publish and share information . especially those which occur at a late stage. In this way they provide a solid foundation for further improvement in subsequent design cycles. as well as the design parameters chosen for the new product. the best ways to do it. service. It is also a good format for capturing and recording/documenting decision making. reduced product cost by eliminating redundant features and over-design. QFD is the most highly developed form of integrated product and process development in existence. electronics (63%). was adopted and developed by other Japanese companies. QFD provides a systematic approach to build a team perspective on what needs to be done. Specific design applications in Japan range from home appliances and clothing to retail outlets and apartment layouts. compared with other methodologies such as Benchmarking. the uptake of QFD in the Western world appears to have been fairly slow. This team will typically include people from a variety of functional groups. construction (82%). especially when complex relationships and trade-offs are involved the creation of an informational base which is valuable for repeated cycles of product improvement The main 'bottom line' benefits of using QFD are: greater likelihood of product success in the marketplace. In the USA the first serious exponents of QFD were the 'big three' automotive manufacturers in the 1980's. sales. which are not only time consuming but very costly. and valuable to competitors. However. and are therefore sensitive. it is not a short-term answer to product development problems. and there are relatively few sources of literature and case studies. There has been no survey comparable to the JUSE study regarding the spread of QFD in North America. notably Toyota and its suppliers. due to the precise targeting of key customer requirements reduced overall design cycle time. distribution. This may be because the data captured and the decisions made using QFD usually relate to future product plans.much more so than with other quality-related methodologies. and precision machinery (66%). When to use QFD QFD is a powerful tool that leads to significant improvements in product/process performances. The method on which QFD is implemented may have a large impact on benefits derived and companies should take up QFD only after getting the consent and commitment of the team members. Many of the service companies surveyed (32%) were also using QFD. Applied through the Kaizen philosophy under Total Quality Control. QFD is sometimes referred to by other 'nicknames' . product engineering. proprietary. conceived in the late 1960's. and decision making. The sectors with the highest penetration of QFD were transportation (86%). mainly due to a reduction in time-consuming design changes. and production the identification of 'holes' in the current knowledge of the design team the capture and display of a wide variety of important design information in one place in a compact form support for understanding. In 1986 a study by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) revealed that 54% of 148 member companies surveyed were using QFD. the best order to accomplish the tasks proposed and the staffing and resources required to enhance customer satisfaction. Strengths and weaknesses of QFD Einstein College of Engineering . History The creation of QFD is generally attributed to Mitsubishi's Kobe shipyard in Japan. The original approach.
QFD – House of Quality MEANING: The voice of the customer from the market research and various benchmarking is linked to the technicalities of the design and process of the product both new and existing. Black & Decker. may be unrealistic Customer requirements are a mix of functional requirements and customer attributes Sometimes customer influences may backfire Success with QFD Companies using QFD for product development have on the average. FEATURES: . Reduced costs Competitive benchmarking Concurrent Engineering Weaknesses Targets set based only on the House of Quality.Strengths include: 1.Customer requirement and priority HOW – Technical description and priority Relationship with WHAT and HOW the main area Interrelationships – Roof the cause of concern and importance Step I – List customer requirement ―WHAT‖ – Decide Primary and secondary needs of the customer Step II – List technical descriptions “HOW” Again primary and secondary is decided Primary – Material and Process Subdividing materials and process required Here current materials and process must be considered Step III – Relation ship matrix between WHAT & HOW The crucial stage Relating WHAT & HOW Interlinking both primary and secondary No scope for variation Points and grading is done here Gives results of WHAT and HOW Key elements are discussed The Management decides the combination Einstein College of Engineering .WHAT the Customer wants and HOW to do it . Enhanced customer satisfaction Listening to the voice of the customer Robust design 2. DEFINITION: It is kind of conceptual map that provides a means of interfunctional planning and communication.Plan as per the voice of the customer . Integrated Design Control Systems and Rover.Concept of matrix and its correlation . Honda. experienced: 50% reduction in costs 33% reduction in product development time 200% increase in productivity Companies that have successfully applied QFD include Toyota.It is base tool for quality planning managers WHAT . Shorter time to market Reduced rework during development Creates team consensus and commitment 3. ICI.Focus on Customers need and technicalities .
Impact on technical process to meet the customers request. Step VII – Prioritize Technical Descriptors Degree of technical difficulty Most needed change is decided Target value Physical attributes to be considered House of Quality Benefits Orderly way of obtaining information Shorter product development cycle Considerably reduced start up cost Einstein College of Engineering .Costing and current process must be considered Step IV – Interrelation matrix between HOW’s The materials and manufacturing is analyzed Ratings are done Enables the decisions in the process Current process to be considered Technical knowledge is a must for the analyst Step V – Our product with others Analyzing competitors products customer expectation Difficult to get data Mismatch in requirements is possible Helps in identifying customer trend Step VI – Technical Competitive assessment Analyzing how the similar companies are handling To what they give importance.
an engineer should look at the current controls of the system. After ranking the severity. This number represents the ability of planned tests and inspections at removing defects or detecting failure modes. Hereafter one should identify testing. actions are considered to change the design by eliminating the failure mode. The proper inspection methods need to be chosen. A failure mode is given a probability number(O).again 1-10. Therefore each failure mode should be listed in technical terms and for function. After these 3 basic steps. monitoring and other techniques that can be or have been used on similar systems to detect failures. Examples of failure effects are: degraded performance. Risk Priority Numbers RPN do not play an important part in the choice of an action against failure modes. Hereafter the ultimate effect of each failure mode needs to be considered. Each effect is given a severity number(S) from 1(no danger) to 10(important). Again this should be in technical terms. Actions need to be determined if the occurrence is high (meaning >4 for non safety failure modes and >1 when the severity-number from step 1 is 9 or 10). or protecting the user from the effect. analysis. corrosion or deformation. First. that prevent failure modes from occurring or which detect the failure before it reaches the customer. occurrence and detectability the RPN can be easily calculated by multiplying these 3 numbers: RPN = S x O x D This has to be done for the entire process and/or design. It is widely used in the manufacturing industries in various phases of the product life cycle and is now increasingly finding use in the service industry as well. Also a design verification is needed. This means it is not always the failure modes with the highest severity numbers that should be treated first. From these controls an engineer can learn how likely it is for a failure to be identified or detected. excessive voltage or improper operating conditions. Fewer engineering changes Reduces design process Leads to teamwork Consensus decision Everything is preserved in writing Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a procedure for analysis of potential failure modes within a system for the classification by severity or determination of the failures' effect upon the system. design. it is necessary to test their efficiency. In this way it is convenient to write these effects down in terms of what the user might see or experience. If the severity of an effect has a number 9 or 10. Failure causes are any errors or defects in process. but which occur more often and are less detectable. Examples of failure modes are: Electrical short-circuiting. Effects analysis refers to studying the consequences of those failures. There could be less severe failures. This step is called the detailed development section of the FMEA process. A failure effect is defined as the result of a failure mode on the function of the system as perceived by the user. Step 3: Detection When appropriate actions are determined. receives a detection number(D). Step 1: Severity Determine all failure modes based on the functional requirements and their effects. or item especially ones that affect the customer. Timing of FMEA Einstein College of Engineering . The failure modes that have the highest RPN should be given the highest priority for corrective action. Step 2: Occurrence In this step it is necessary to look at the cause of a failure and how many times it occurs. This can be done by looking at similar products or processes and the failures that have been documented for them. These numbers help an engineer to prioritize. Once this is done it is easy to determine the areas of greatest concern. noise or even injury to a user. They are more threshold values in the evaluation of these actions. All the potential causes for a failure mode should be identified and documented. Examples of causes are: erroneous algorithms. Each combination from the previous 2 steps. A failure cause is looked upon as a design weakness. Risk Priority Numbers (RPN) are calculated. and can be potential or actual. It is important to note that a failure mode in one component can lead to a failure mode in another component. A severity rating of 9 or 10 is generally reserved for those effects which would cause injury to a user or otherwise result in litigation. if possible.
" but multiplication treats them as though they are. This helps avoid the same failures in future projects. and multiplication is not a valid operation on them. As you begin using the Pareto chart to decide where your problems are. Additionally. For instance. a ranking of "2" may not be twice as bad as a ranking of "1. Purpose: The purpose of the Pareto chart is to prioritize problems No company has enough resources to tackle every problem. Einstein College of Engineering . Advantages Improve the quality." or an "8" may not be twice as bad as a "4. Development of methods to design and test systems to ensure that the failures have been eliminated. and minimize or eliminate those effects. doing something. This method helps to find the vital few contributing maximum impact. reliability and safety of a product/process Improve company image and competitiveness Increase user satisfaction Reduce system development timing and cost Collect information to reduce future failures. the multiplication of the severity. Evaluation of the requirements of the customer to ensure that those do not give rise to potential failures. so they must prioritize. occurrence and detection rankings may result in rank reversals. Conclusion: The most important thing in improving quality is to start somewhere. Also called the 20-80 rule.Pareto chart: Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto Shows on a bar graph which factors are more significant. he determined that a small percentage of any given group (20%) account for a high amount of a certain characteristic (80%). Tracking and managing potential risks in the design. FMEA may only identify major failure modes in a system. Purpose: Flow Charts provide a visual illustration of the sequence of operations required to complete a task.Flowchart: A technique that separates data gathered from a variety of sources so that patterns can be seen (some lists replace "stratification" with or "run chart"). where a less serious failure mode receives a higher RPN than a more serious failure mode. Pareto Principle: The Pareto concept was developed by the describing the frequency distribution of any given characteristic of a population. Ensuring that any failure that could occur will not injure the customer or seriously impact a system. It is not able to discover complex failure modes involving multiple failures within a subsystem. The ordinal rankings only say that one ranking is better or worse than another. Identification of certain design characteristics that contribute to failures. The reason for this is that the rankings are ordinal scale numbers. Seven tools of Quality I . but not by how much. capture engineering knowledge Reduce the potential for warranty concerns Early identification and elimination of potential failure modes Emphasis problem prevention Minimize late changes and associated cost Catalyst for teamwork and idea exchange between functions Disadvantages If used as a top-down tool.The FMEA should be updated whenever: At the beginning of a cycle (new product/process) Changes are made to the operating conditions A change is made in the design New regulations are instituted Customer feedback indicates a problem Uses of FMEA Development of system requirements that minimize the likelihood of failures. II . or to report expected failure intervals of particular failure modes up to the upper level subsystem or system. When used as a "bottom-up" tool FMEA can augment or complement FTA and identify many more causes and failure modes resulting in top-level symptoms. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is better suited for "top-down" analysis. you will discover many things about your processes and will come because you will know where to improve.
analyzing. Every process will require input(s) to complete it's task. It provides the user with a graphical representation of the amount of variation found in a set of data. Team members focus on the problem under investigation. Start by asking why the problem exists.1943 by Mr. Step 2: Write the problem statement on the right hand side of the page. There is no right or wrong way to draw a flow chart. The third step is to determine who is going to collect that data and when it should be collected. or a set of processes. The true test of a flow chart is how well those who create and use it can understand it. This quality concern is now the effect. It is always a desire to produce things that are equal to their design values. its related sub-causes that might affect our quality concern or problem (our Effect). systematic.. Input ---------------------Process----------------Output III . Second. Histograms: A histogram is a tool for summarizing. This collected data needs to be accurate and relevant to the quality problem. V.etc.A picture of the steps the process undergoes to complete it's task.Check Sheets Purpose: Check sheets allow the user to collect data from a process in an easy. Cause-and-effect diagrams allow us to do not just that. or causes.. but also can lead us to the root cause. of problems.. Identify. Step 3: Brain-storming. Always check to see if all the factors contributing to the problem have been identified. Constructing the Cause-and-Effect Diagram: Step 1: Select the team members and a leader.. The first is to establish a purpose for collecting this data. for each main cause. The team members generate ideas as to what is causing the effect.Histograms Purpose: To determine the spread or variation of a set of data points in a graphical form. Kaoru Ishikawa at the University of Tokyo Purpose: One important part of process improvement is continuously striving to obtain more information about the process and it's output. check sheets. Flow charts can be used to describe a single process. Data Collection: Before we can talk about check sheets we need to understand what we mean by data collection. and organized manner. The more information we have about our processes the better we are at improving them. Einstein College of Engineering . Team members knowledgeable about the quality. Step 4: This step could be combined with step 3. Measurable data such as length. Cause-and-effect diagrams are one quality tool that is simple yet very powerful in helping us better understand our processes.Cause-and-Effect Diagrams . size. we need to define the type of data that is going to be collected. and countable data such as the number of defects. weight. and draw a box around it with an arrow running to it. and displaying data. IV . and other gathering and analysis tools. Step 5: Focus on one or two causes for which an improvement action(s) can be developed using other quality tools such as Pareto charts. and will provide output(s) when the task is completed. time. Conclusion: Improvement requires knowledge. parts of a process. Flow charts can be drawn in many styles.
It is a quality tool that is simple.Constructing a Histogram: The following are the steps followed in the construction of a histogram: Data collection: To ensure good results. and generally easy to interpret. a minimum of 50 data points. need to be collected Calculate the range of the sample data: The range is the difference between the largest and smallest data points. the center line CL. 2.Control Charts Purpose: Process is in control and to monitor process variation on a continuous basis. easy to communicate to others. Matrix diagram: shows the relationship between two. Seven New Management and Planning Tools In 1976. the change in one item will not effect the other item. Tree diagram: breaks down broad categories into finer and finer levels of detail. The seven MP tools. Scatter Diagrams: A scatter diagram is a nonmathematical or graphical approach for identifying relationships between a performance measure and factors that might be driving it. Conclusion: Histogram is simple tools that allow the user to identify and interpret the variation found in a set of data points. VII . The first deals with how close the process is to the nominal design value. A control chart has basically three line: the upper control limit UCL.smallest point. the roles played by various individuals. This graphical approach is quick. are: 1. Calculate the number of data points (frequency) that are in each class. or simply the seven management tools. Negative relationship 3. No relationship Conclusion: Scatter diagrams allow the user to graphically identify correlations that could exist between a quality characteristic and a factor that might be driving it. VI . helping you move your thinking step by step from generalities to specifics. Not all the tools were new. When a strong relationship is present. the change in one item will automatically cause a change in the other. A team researched and developed the seven new quality control tools. or measurements. Identifying the tolerance level in the variations. and generally easy to interpret. Interpreting the Results: Once all the data points have been plotted onto the scatter diagram. Relations diagram: shows cause-and-effect relationships and helps you analyze the natural links between different aspects of a complex situation. Types of variation Common and Special Cause Variation Control charts: Developed in the mid 1920's by Walter Shewhart of Bell labs. Affinity diagram: organizes a large number of ideas into their natural relationships. Their are three basic types of relationships that can be detected to on a scatter diagram: 1.Scatter Diagrams Purpose: To identify correlations that might exist between a quality characteristic and a factor that might be driving it. Einstein College of Engineering . and the lower control limit LCL. the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) saw the need for tools to promote innovation. A tally sheet is usually used to find the frequency of data points in each interval. A minimum of 25 points is required for a control chart to be accurate. you are ready to determine whether their exists a relation between the two selected items or not. often called the seven management and planning (MP) tools. Calculate the size of the class interval. 4. or samples. The class interval is the width of each class on the X axis. while the range chart indicates the amount of spread or variability around the nominal design value. such as its strength. the average and range control charts. There are two basic types of control charts. but their collection and promotion were. Positive relationship 2. If no relationship can be detected. listed in an order that moves from abstract analysis to detailed planning. communicate information and successfully plan major projects. easy to communicate to others. It is important to remember that histograms do not give solutions to problems. three or four groups of information and can give information about the relationship. Control charts is one SPC tool that enables us to monitor and control process variation. It is calculated by the following formula: Class interval = Range / Number of classes. Range = Largest point . 3.
Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC) A useful way of planning is to break down tasks into a hierarchy. (See also PERT diagram. careful and timeconsuming of decision-making tools. often replaced in this list by the similar prioritization matrix. At each intersection a relationship is either absent or present. C and roof-shaped. Matrix data analysis: a complex mathematical technique for analyzing matrices. the roles played by various individuals or measurements. Affinity Diagram This tool takes large amounts of disorganized data and information and enables one to organize it into groupings based on natural relationships. Prioritization Matrix This tool is used to prioritize items and describe them in terms of weighted criteria. the FMEA also rates relative risk levels for each potential failure point. Y. such as its strength. Process decision program chart (PDPC): systematically identifies what might go wrong in a plan under development. It is used when subtasks must occur in parallel.) Benchmarking is the process of measuring an organization's internal processes then identifying. Interrelationship Diagraph This tool displays all the interrelated cause-and-effect relationships and factors involved in a complex problem and describes desired outcomes. and potential scheduling and resource problems and their solutions. The diagram enables one to determine the critical path (longest sequence of tasks). using a Tree Diagram. 6. It was created in the 1960s by Japanese anthropologist Jiro Kawakita. X. It can map levels of details of tasks that are required to accomplish a goal or task. It then gives information about the relationship. The PDPC is similar to the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in that both identify risks. the best schedule for the entire project. and contingency actions. Activity Network Diagram This tool is used to plan the appropriate sequence or schedule for a set of tasks and related subtasks. T. The process of creating an interrelationship diagraph helps a group analyze the natural links between different aspects of a complex situation. The PDPC extends the tree diagram a couple of levels to identify risks and countermeasures for the bottom level tasks. Different shaped boxes are used to highlight risks and identify possible countermeasures (often shown as 'clouds' to indicate their uncertain nature). understanding. depending on how many groups must be compared. consequences of failure. Arrow diagram: shows the required order of tasks in a project or process. Matrix Diagram This tool shows the relationship between items. a prioritization matrix is an L-shaped matrix that uses pairwise comparisons of a list of options to a set of criteria in order to choose the best option(s). It can be used to break down broad general subjects into finer and finer levels of detail.5. 7. Tree Diagram This tool is used to break down broad categories into finer and finer levels of detail. It uses a combination of tree and matrix diagraming techniques to do a pair-wise evalutaion of items and to narrow down options to the most desired or most effective. and adapting outstanding practices from other organizations considered to be best-in-class. Einstein College of Engineering . Developing the tree diagram helps one move their thinking from generalities to specifics. One of the most rigorous. Six differently shaped matrices are possible: L.
What is to be benchmarked? Every function of an organization has or delivers a ―product‖ or output. The benchmarking process consists of following phases: 1. The Benchmarking process The formal 10-step benchmarking process is shown in outline below. The result is often a business case for making changes in order to make improvements. services and practices against those of competitor organizations or other industry leaders to determine what it is they do that allows them to achieve high levels of performance." Benchmarking is the process of comparing the cost. for insights for optimizing the organizations processes. systematic process of evaluating and comparing the capability of one organization with others normally recognized as industry leaders.‖ (Society for Human Resources Management) Advantages of benchmarking Benchmarking is a powerful management tool because it overcomes "paradigm blindness. direct competitors are certainly prime candidates to benchmark. whether it‘s a physical good. Einstein College of Engineering . time or quality of what one organization does against what another organization does. Analysis." Benchmarking opens organizations to new methods. But they are not the only targets. it‘s the process of investigating and documenting the best industry practices. What is desired is an understanding of internal performance on which to assess strengths and weaknesses."Benchmarking: A continuous. It helps crack through resistance to change by demonstrating other methods. 2. positive or parity. Benchmarking must be conducted against the best companies and business functions regardless of where they exist. Ask: Is this other organization better than we are? Why are they better? By how much? What best practices are being used now or can be anticipated? How can their practices be incorporated or adapted for use in our organization? Answers to these questions will define the dimensions of any performance gap: negative. The essential steps are those of any plan development: what. ideas and tools to improve their effectiveness. a service or a report. How will the data be collected? There‘s no one way to conduct benchmarking investigations. Benchmarking is appropriate for any output of a process or function. Allows employees to visualise the improvement which can be a strong motivator for change Helps to identify weak areas and indicates what needs to be done to improve. a shipment. Planning. ―The systematic process of comparing an organization‘s products. To whom or what will we compare? Business-to-business. who and how. an order. but more importantly. which can help you achieve goals and targets. an invoice. There‘s an infinite variety of ways to obtain required data – and most of the data you‘ll need are readily and publicly available. Recognize that benchmarking is a process not only of deriving quantifiable goals and targets. The gap provides an objective basis on which to act—to close the gap or capitalize on any advantage your organization has. The analysis phase must involve a careful understanding of your current process and practices. as well as those of the organizations being benchmarked.
and the term adopted. Progress toward benchmark findings must be reported to all employees. It was originally described as baka-yoke. Benchmarking becomes institutionalized and is done at all appropriate levels of the organization. Maturity. Complex functions such as Human Resources. It involves careful planning to incorporate new practices in the operation and to ensure benchmark findings are incorporated in all formal planning processes. A poka-yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that helps an equipment operator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka). to specific actions to be taken. More broadly. The concept was formalised. Integration. commitment and ownership. Activity analysis will be required where the objective is to benchmark cost and efficiency. thus ensuring superiority. Communicate findings to all organizational levels to obtain support. Functional benchmarking . Convert benchmark findings. 4. not by specialists. increasingly applied to back-office processes where outsourcing may be a consideration.a company will focus its benchmarking on a single function in order to improve the operation of that particular function. Finance and Accounting and Information and Communication Technology are unlikely to be directly comparable in cost and efficiency terms and may need to be disaggregated into processes to make valid comparison Poka-yoke is a Japanese term that means "fail-safing" or "mistake-proofing".allows the initiator firm to assess their competitive position by comparing products and services with those of target firms. Clearly and convincingly demonstrate findings as correct and based on substantive data. Use the creative talents of the people who actually perform work tasks to determine how the findings can be incorporated into the work processes. Types of Benchmarking Process benchmarking .3. Put in place a periodic measurement and assessment of achievement. the term can refer to any behavior-shaping constraint designed into a product to prevent incorrect operation by the user. essential and self-initiated facet of the management process. by Shigeo Shingo as part of the Toyota Production System. Steps include: Gain operational and management acceptance of benchmark findings. 5. Maturity will be reached when best industry practices are incorporated in all business processes.performing a financial analysis and comparing the results in an effort to assess your overall competitiveness.the process of designing new products or upgrades to current ones.involves observing how others compete. or drawing attention to human errors as they occur. Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing. and an ongoing reporting mechanism. correcting. Product benchmarking . would a knowledgeable businessperson prefer it? Do other organizations benchmark your internal operations? Maturity also is achieved when benchmarking becomes an ongoing. This process can sometimes involve reverse engineering which is taking apart competitors products to find strengths and weaknesses. Tests for superiority: If the now-changed process were to be made available to others. Financial benchmarking . Performance benchmarking .the initiating firm focuses its observation and investigation of business processes with a goal of identifying and observing the best practices from one or more benchmark firms. This type is usually not industry specific meaning it is best to look at other industries. Integration is the process of using benchmark findings to set operational targets for change. Strategic benchmarking . Action. Any plan for change also should contain milestones for updating the benchmark findings. and operational principles based on them. but as this means "fool-proofing" (or "idiotproofing") the name was changed to the milder poka-yoke. Einstein College of Engineering . Develop action plans.
while the latter would be referred to as a control poka-yoke. The contact method identifies product defects by testing the product's shape. ISO 9000: 2008 latest with technical committee Similar certifications ANSI – American National Standard Institute EC – European Community ASQ 9000 – American Society for Quality DOD – Department of Defence FDA – Food and Drug Administration ISI – Indian Standards Institute BIS Hallmark – Bureau of Indian Standards Basic Requirements of ISO 9001 1. color. UNIT-5(QUALITY SYSTEMS ORGANIZING AND IMPLEMENTATION) History of ISO – International Organisation for Standardisation Post World War II – BS 5750 ISO founded in 1946 Switzerland. Shingo argued that errors are inevitable in any manufacturing process. size. Either the operator is alerted when a mistake is about to be made.Implementation in manufacturing Poka-yoke can be implemented at any step of a manufacturing process where something can go wrong or an error can be made. 3. or a digital counter might track the number of spot welds on each piece to ensure that the worker executes the correct number of welds. Regular review of individual processes 6. testing etc ISO 9000:1994 ISO 9001: 2000 combined the three to one standard. installation. the cost of mistakes within a company is reduced. Geneva. 1987 . then mistakes can be caught quickly and prevented from resulting in defects. Monitoring process to ensure effectiveness 3. or other physical attributes.Three models of quality ISO 9001: 1987 – Design Development etc ISO 9002: 1987 – Production. Shigeo Shingo recognized three types of poka-yoke for detecting and preventing errors in a mass production system: 1. 2. Keeping adequate record 4. In Shingo's lexicon. Facilitating continual improvement Einstein College of Engineering . inspection. a jig that holds pieces for processing might be modified to only allow pieces to be held in the correct orientation. Defect verification and appropriate correction 5. but that if appropriate poka-yokes are implemented.ISO 9000: 1987 . The fixed-value (or constant number) method alerts the operator if a certain number of movements are not made. The motion-step (or sequence) method determines whether the prescribed steps of the process have been followed. the former implementation would be called a warning poka-yoke. service etc ISO 9003: 1987 – Quality assurance. By eliminating defects at the source. For example. Procedure to cover all processes in the business 2. or the poka-yoke device actually prevents the mistake from being made.
AT&T.Benefits of ISO Registration 1.Continuous improvement . Italy and Japan Accepted by Asian automakers – they benefit a lot. less claims. Chrysler with German. NASA. Europe and Japan ISO/TS 16949 – March 2002 – Technical Specification System for Automotive Suppliers In collaboration with US big 3 – Ford. Boeing was the brain behind it. Increase in internal quality – reduction of scrap.Enhance the mature system Sector Specific Standards Need – One system may not cover all industry Sector specific standard work in hand with regular ISO Work in tandem with certifying bodies of such industry AS91000 1997 for Aerospace industry. FAA Common in USA.Design. emission.Customer satisfaction through products and service ISO 9004:2000 QMS – Guidelines for Performance . Petro chemical and Natural gas QMS for the above ISO 14001:2004 Environment Management System – EMS Focus of Pollution. recycling etc ISO IEC 9003:2004 – International Electrotechnical Commission Einstein College of Engineering . Verizon. Cost of poor quality – scraps and rework ISO 9000 Family ISO 9000:2000 QMS – Fundamental and Vocabulary . Helps in Continuous improvement. delivery.1998 QuEST – Quality Excellence for Supplies of Telecommunications formed TL9000 Standards designed by Motorola. Lucent. sector specific and company requirement TL 9000 . Production reliability – measure of breakdowns. return of goods 4. Along with ISO 9001 they have their own standard to deliver the need of customers Five Layers ISO 9001 Requirement Common TL9000 Requirement QSR – Quality Standard Requirement HW Specific SW Specific Service Specific Common TL9000 Measurement QSM – Quality Standard Measurement HW Specific SW Specific Service Specific ISO/TS 29001:2007 Petroleum. defect prevention.Revised in ISO 9000:2005 ISO 9001:2000 QMS – Requirements . French. Time performance – marketing. time and shift management etc 3. GM. Southwest bell. rework etc 2. variation reduction and supply chain Levels – ISO 9000.Guidance document for certification . development and installation . DOD.Basic QMS . production time etc 5. External quality – acceptance by customers.
Certificate of Recognition – authenticity of the registrar. documentation procedure. follow up. unbiased etc Techniques – Examine. additional fees etc 5. fees. efficiency 4. Follow up of surveillance – periodicity of future visit. Install new system – implementation. Time schedule – process time. Petro chemical and Natural gas ISO 14001:2004 Environment Management System – EMS ISO IEC 9003:2004 Electrotechnical Software products Implementation of QMS 2. registration valid for 3 years Total Quality Management is an approach to the art of management that originated in Japanese industry in the 1950's and has become steadily more popular in the West since the early 1980's. Top management commitment – flow of action starts from the top 3. Procedure 3. parallel process 8. Auditor – trained profs. Appointment of management representative – qualified. Auditor qualifications – know the industry standard. check and review 12. types of process. TQM CULTURE: Total Quality is a description of the culture.. ASQ updates training. Registrar Accreditation Board RAB. Training – when new things are implemented then training is must 7. attitude and organization of a company Einstein College of Engineering . Random checks.Software products and related service AS9100 Aerospace industry ISO/TS 16949 Technical Specification for Automotive Suppliers TL 9000 – 1998 Telecommunications ISO/TS 29001:2007 Petroleum. Observe and interviews. Time and cost constraints – period of the process. client list. participative 4. Qualification and Experience – Track record. Records 5. Registration process – structured process. eager. customer check 3. Mutuality Document Review – Scrutiny of docs and QMS. implementation. 1. compare with latest ISO standards Preassessment – overview of docs with the process. change and acceptance take time 11. Procedure – check list. Work instructions 4.ASQ member. provide continuous improvement through feedback. Policy 2. Registration – apply for registration Documentation 1. time frame etc. trained. reference. certifies audit is compared with internal audit. audit findings. Review present system – how the new is different and better from current 9. Management review – report to the top management 13. Awareness – to all employees in the organisation 5. written and oral comm. Interest etc Registration process Application for Registration – Basic process with the authorised registrar. identify major flaws Assessment – Actual doing. honesty. help quality and productivity. industry specific 2. Document Development Internal Audits Objectives – determine actual performance. minor non compliances and feedbacks are recorded. Internal audit – inspection. change time. knowledge. Implementation team – constitute a council from all departments 6. priority list etc Registration – Selecting a Registrar . Write documents – step by step process 10. Less scope for variation Registration – verbal summary. initiate corrective action. With initial supporting docs.
when you look at successful companies you find a much higher percentage of successful TQM implementation. don't focus on the second-rate companies who can't handle TQM. actions based on facts. As well as recognizing the link between product quality and customer satisfaction. and merely meeting specifications or reducing customer complaints. The development and use of performance indicators is linked. Customer-driven quality TQM has a customer-first orientation. The company believes it will only be successful if customers are satisfied. employee participation. continuous improvement of the quality of the product is seen as the only way to maintain a high level of customer satisfaction. directly or indirectly. `being sensitive to customer requirements' goes beyond defect and error reduction. TQM also recognizes that Einstein College of Engineering . they are more likely to view EDM/PDM as an information and workflow management system supporting the entire product life cycle then as a departmental solution for the management of CAD data Important aspects of TQM include customer-driven quality. comes first. people involved in new product development. Continuous improvement Continuous improvement of all operations and activities is at the heart of TQM. and to management and employee remuneration. and has to treat these internal customers with the same sensitivity and responsiveness as it would external customers. and continue to provide. Once it is recognized that customer satisfaction can only be obtained by providing a high-quality product. The customer. look at the world-class companies that have adopted it the most effective way to spend TQM introduction funds is by training top management. Customer satisfaction is seen as the company's highest priority. with things being done right first time. Each part of the company is involved in Total Quality. The Engineering Department is a supplier to downstream functions such as Manufacturing and Field Service. As a result many people are sceptical about TQM. Attempts to implement TQM often fail because top management doesn't lead and get committed instead it delegates and pays lip service. and a TQM culture. continuous improvement. In the TQM context. to customer requirements and satisfaction. The TQM company is sensitive to customer requirements and responds rapidly to them. top management leadership and commitment. Surveys by consulting firms have found that only 20-36% of companies that have undertaken TQM have achieved either significant or even tangible improvements in quality. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company's operations. This is a key point. Some useful messages from results of TQM implementations: if you want to be a first-rate company. and people involved with customers it's much easier to introduce EDM/PDM in a company with a TQM culture than in one without TQM. TQM leadership from top management TQM is a way of life for a company. People in companies that have implemented TQM are more likely to have the basic understanding necessary for implementing EDM/PDM. fast response.that aims to provide. These systems and methods guide all quality activities and encourage participation by all employees. its customers with products and services that satisfy their needs. Many companies have difficulties in implementing TQM. The concept of requirements is expanded to take in not only product and service attributes that meet basic requirements. and in creating and deploying well defined systems. and defects and waste eradicated from operations. but also those that enhance and differentiate them for competitive advantage. It has to be introduced and led by top management. Commitment and personal involvement is required from top management in creating and deploying clear quality values and goals consistent with the objectives of the company. not internal activities and constraints. For example. competitiveness or financial return. operating as a customer to some functions and as a supplier to others. productivity. methods and performance measures for achieving those goals. However.
Elimination of waste is a major component of the continuous improvement approach. Actions based on facts The statistical analysis of engineering and manufacturing facts is an important part of TQM. Product development in a TQM environment is customer-driven and focused on quality. and plans. The statistical approach to process management in both engineering and manufacturing recognizes that most problems are systemrelated. On-going education and training of all employees supports the drive for quality. and so errors can't be corrected. data is collected and put in the hands of the people who are in the best position to analyze it and then take the appropriate action to reduce costs and prevent non-conformance. This implies that all activities include measurement and monitoring of cycle time and responsiveness as a basis for seeking opportunities for improvement. The TQM approach is based on the use of objective data. A TQM culture It's not easy to introduce TQM. review and performance tracking. the company has to respond rapidly to customer needs. communicate more effectively. Employees have to be made to feel that they are responsible for customer satisfaction. and fire-fighting is necessary and rewarded. Facts and analysis provide the basis for planning. If the right information is not available. As a result. This implies short product and service introduction cycles. and innovate. In turn this will lead to an improvement in product quality. or engineering test results. This will lead to an improvement in process quality. They are unlikely to behave in a responsible way if they see management behaving irresponsibly . Simplicity is gained through concurrent product and process development. changes. An open. can't take place.saying one thing and doing the opposite. and comparison of performance with competitors. waste. use of EDM/PDM. As people behave the way they are measured and remunerated. errors can't be identified. Product development in a TQM environment Product development in a TQM environment is very different to product development in a non-TQM environment. and to an increase in customer satisfaction. there is a focus on continuous improvement of the company's processes. and the way customer relationships are managed. Employees are encouraged to take more responsibility. It's important they participate in these activities. Management focuses on supervising individuals. then the analysis. Such participation is reinforced by reward and recognition systems which emphasize the achievement of quality objectives. product development is usually carried on in a conflictual atmosphere where each department acts independently. Efficiencies are realized from the elimination of non-value-adding effort such as re-design. They are not going to feel this if they are excluded from the development of visions. When problems do occur within the product development process. Short-term results drive behavior so scrap. and provides a rational rather than an emotional basis for decision making. improvement of operations. they are generally discovered and resolved before they can get to the next internal customer. There is also a strong emphasis on prevention rather than detection. TQM links remuneration to customer satisfaction metrics. and are not caused by particular employees. and rework are normal practice. In practice. Teams are Einstein College of Engineering . cooperative culture has to be created by management. These can be achieved with customer-driven and processoriented product development because the resulting simplicity and efficiency greatly reduce the time involved. Improvement cycles are encouraged for all the company's activities such as product development. Usually these people are not managers but workers in the process. whether it be of shop floor data. Fast response To achieve customer satisfaction. The customer-driven approach helps to prevent errors and achieve defect-free production. strategies. act creatively. work-arounds. Employee participation A successful TQM environment requires a committed and well-trained work force that participates fully in quality improvement activities. and an emphasis on quality at the design stage. The result is a dramatic improvement in the elapsed time from product concept to first shipment. Without a TQM approach.product quality is the result of process quality.
Einstein College of Engineering . Therefore. Employee involvement increases morale by creating a feeling of belonging to the organization. Awards for Quality achievement The Deming Prize has been awarded annually since 1951 by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers in recognition of outstanding achievement in quality strategy. Management's focus is on controlling the overall process. We can define leadership as ―the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. They train and coach rather than direct and supervise.process-oriented. Since 1988 a similar award (the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award) has been awarded in the US. management and execution. They encourage collaboration rather than competition. They encourage and recognize team effort. They choose suppliers in the basis of quality not price. rather than control subordinates. They establish organizational system to support quality effort. They empower. Employees are more likely to implement and support decisions they had a part in making. They continuously improve communication. and rewarding teamwork. They emphasize improvement rather than maintenance They emphasize prevention. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT Employee involvement is a means to better meet the organization‘s goals for quality and productivity at all levels of an organization. Early winners of the Baldrige Award include AT&T (1992). They learn from the problems. Milliken (1989). Texas Instruments (1992) and Xerox (1989). Employee involvement reduces labor management hassle by more effective communications and cooperation. They continuously committed to quality. Ambition and energy b. Employees are better able to accept change because they control the work environment. for it is the leader who usually provides the direction toward goal attainment. Intelligence f. Employees are better able to spot and pinpoint areas for improvement. LEADERSHIP: Leadership plays a central part in understanding group behavior. Self-confidence e. Desire to lead c. Benefits of employee involvement: Employee Involvement improves quality and increases productivity because Employees make better decisions using their expert knowledge of the process. Characteristics of Quality Leaders: They continuously evaluate the changing customer needs. Job-relevant knowledge. Employees have an increased commitment to unit goals because they are involved.‖ Six traits on which leaders tend to differ from non leaders are: a. a more accurate predictive capability should be valuable in improving group performance. Employees are better able to take immediate corrective action. Motorola (1988). and interact with their internal customers to deliver the required results. Honesty and integrity d. IBM (1990).
Duties of the quality council: a) To develop the vision. The three conditions necessary to create the empowered environment are: i. Everyone must understand the need for change. a quality council is established to provide overall direction. The typical quality council meeting agenda of a well established TQM organization : a) Progress reports on teams b) Customer satisfaction report c) Progress on meeting goals d) New project teams e) Recognition dinner f) Benchmarking report Recognition is a form of employee motivation in which the organization publicly acknowledges the positive contributions an individual or team has made to the success of the organization. d) Determine and continuously monitor the cost of poor quality. h) Establish and revise the recognition and reward system to account for the new way of doing business. and a Coordinator or consultant. Einstein College of Engineering . with the input from all the personnel. c) Create a total education and training plan. f) Continuously determine those projects that improves and affect external and internal customer satisfaction. mission and quality statement of the organization. g) Establish multifunctional project and work group teams and monitor their progress.EMPOWERMENT Empowerment means invest people with authority. the confidence. Reward is something tangible to promote desirable behavior. the senior managers of the functional areas. In a typical organization the quality council is composed of the chief executive officer (CEO). marketing. The organization must enable its employees. The system needs to change for the new paradigm iii. It is the driver for the TQM engine. production. finance. and the commitment to take the responsibility and ownership to improve the process and to initiate the necessary steps to satisfy customer requirements within well-defined boundaries in order to achieve organizational values an goals. Empowerment is an environment in which people have the ability. ii. such as design. b) To develop strategic long-term plan with goals and annual quality improvement program with objectives. Its purpose is to tap the enormous reservoir of creativity and potential contribution that lies within every worker at all levels. Recognition and reward go together to form a system for letting people know they are valuable members of the organization. Quality Council : In order to build quality in the culture. e) Determine the performance measures of the organization and monitor. and quality.
Quality Plan Einstein College of Engineering . Regulations e. Quality Assurance : Once the standards are defined and we start building the product. Scope of Work f. Organization Standards c. The key processes of Software Quality Management fall into the following three categories: 1) Quality Planning 2) Quality Assurance 3) Quality Control The Software Quality Management comprises of Quality Planning. Proper planning ensures that the remaining Quality processes make sense and achieve the desired results. 1) Quality Planning : Quality Planning is the most important step in Software Quality Management. the Organization and the means to achieve them. Project Requirements Using these as Inputs the Quality Planning process creates a plan to ensure that standards agreed upon are met. Quality Control: Once the software components are built the results are monitored to determine if they comply with the standards.o o o INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE QUALITY The definition of the ISO 8204 for quality: ―Totality of characteristics of an entity that bears on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs. We now examine a few more terms used in association with Software Quality. Standards defined for the Project b. Software Quality Management : Software Quality Management simply stated comprises of processes that ensure that the Software Project would reach its goals. Hence the outputs of the Quality Planning process are: a. Relevant Industry Standards d. This is expressed in the Quality Policy and Documentation defining the Organization-wide standards. Quality Planning: In the Planning Process we determine the standards that are relevant for the Software Product. Quality Assurance and Quality Control Processes. It is very important to have processes that evaluate the project performance and aim to assure that the Quality standards are being followed and the final product will be in compliance. We shall now take a closer look at each of them. The Scope of the effort is also clearly defined. The data collected helps in measuring the performance trends and as needed help in identifying defective pieces of code. The starting point for the Planning process is the standards followed by the Organization. In other words the Software Project would meet the clients expectations.‖ This means that the Software product delivered should be as per the requirements defined. Company‘s Quality Policy b. Using these as inputs the Standards for the specific project are decided. Sometimes additional industry standards relevant to the Software Project may be referred to as needed. The inputs for the Planning are as summarized as follows: a.
Steps: In a typical Software Development Life Cycle the following steps are necessary for Quality Management: 1) Document the Requirements 2) Define and Document Quality Standards 3) Define and Document the Scope of Work Einstein College of Engineering . thereby failing to deliver as promised. Once again consider a scenario where a tester fails to document the test results after executing the test cases. as required.Actual Observations and Measurements of the Work done or in Progress The Quality Control Processes use various tools to study the Work done. It includes prevention costs. 3) Quality Control : Following are the inputs to the Quality Control Process: . Hence documentation is the key for future analysis and all Quality Management efforts. b. Cost of Quality: This includes all the costs needed to achieve the required Quality levels. Benchmarking: The proposed product standards can be decided using the existing performance benchmarks of similar products that already exist in the market.Quality Management Plan. If the work done meets the standards defined then the work done is accepted and released to the clients. If the Work done is found unsatisfactory it may be sent back to the development team for fixes. The tools and techniques used in the Planning Process such as Design of Experiments. d. appraisal costs and failure costs. we would not be sure at what stage the error was introduced in the software at a component level or when integrating it with another component or due to environment on a particular server etc. a. Consider a scenario where the Requirements of the Software Project are not sufficiently documented. All these help us to create a Quality Management Plan for the project. This may lead to confusion later. If there were an error. .To create these outputs namely the Quality Plan various tools and techniques are used. These tools and techniques are huge topics and Quality Experts dedicate years of research on these topics. This helps us to ensure that the Project is following the Quality Management Plan. In this case it is quiet possible that the client has a set of expectations and the tester may not know about them. This may lead to poor ―Software Quality‖ as the product does not meet the expectations. Similarly consider a scenario where the development team does not document the installation instructions. 2) Quality Assurance : The Input to the Quality Assurance Processes is the Quality Plan created during Planning. Quality Audits and various other techniques are used to evaluate the performance of the project. etc. Cost Benefit Analysis. Hence the testing team would not be able test the software developed for these expectations or requirements.Quality Standards defined for the Project . Cause and Effect Diagrams may also be used here. Other tools: There are various other tools used in the Planning process such as Cause and Effect Diagrams. Importance of Documentation: In all the Quality Management Processes special emphasis is put on documentation. Many software shops fail to document the project at various levels. If a different person or a team is responsible for future installations they may end up making mistakes during installation. Changes to the Development process may be done if necessary. System Flow Charts. We would briefly introduce these tools and techniques in this article. Design of Experiments: Using statistics we determine what factors influence the Quality or features of the end product c.
4) Document the Software Created and dependencies 5) Define and Document the Quality Management Plan 6) Define and Document the Test Strategy 7) Create and Document the Test Cases Execute Test Cases and (log) Document the Results 9) Fix Defects and document the fixes 10) Quality Assurance audits the Documents and Test Logs Einstein College of Engineering .
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