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The more probable cause of unemployment in the Philippines is the unavailability of jobs provided. With a growing population of about a 8 million, millions needed jobs and only few can sure provide one. The lack of investors and businesses that could provide good jobs for the Filipino people is one key factor in the growing unemployment in the Philippines. But probably, one cause of unemployment in the Philippines may be lack of education. With the increasing demands of the fast developing world, it is really hard to find jobs when you are not a graduate of a particular skill or course. Though the Philippines is a literate country, its not enough to be able to reach the qualifications of most in-demand jobs because even mere sales ladies nowadays are required to have at least 1-2 years in college. We are facing a competitive world and its a must to reach the norms of development. Thus, a high educational attainment, which most Filipinos lack, is one way to uplift the unemployment rate of the country.
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS
Philippines Table of Contents
A high rate of population growth, lack of access to land, insufficient job creation in industry, and a history of inappropriate economic policies contributed to high unemployment and underemployment and a relatively high proportion of the labor force being in low-productivity, service sector jobs in the late 1980s. Real wages were low, having declined at about 3 percent per year since 1960, and relatively weak labor unions were unable to substantially affect the deterioration of workers' earning power.
Labor Force and Employment
Population growth averaged 2.9 percent from 1965 to 1980 and 2.5 percent in the late 1980s. While more than 40 percent of the population was below fifteen years of age, the growth of the working-age population--those fifteen years of age and older--was even more rapid than total population growth. In the 1980s, the working-age population grew by 2.7 percent annually. In addition, the labor force participation
monitoring. became the residual employer. Such endeavors are often referred to as the "informal sector. Beyond the unemployment generated from economic mismanagement and crises was a more long-term." because of the lack of record keeping by its enterprises and a relative freedom from government regulation. structural employment problem. approximately 20 percent of male household heads and 35 percent of . Cebu. Much of this growth was in small-scale enterprises or self-employment activities such as hawking and vending. and low wages. transportation. and a host of private and public services).rate--the proportion of working-age people who were in the labor force-rose approximately 5 percentage points during the 1980s. employed only approximately 45 percent of the work force in 1990. repair work. unemployment in mid-1990. largely because of the increase in the proportion of women entering the work force. Informal sector occupations were characterized by low productivity. modest fixed assets. and personal services. Manufacturing industry was not able to make up the difference. remained above 15 percent in Metro Manila. According to a 1988 study of urban poor in Metro Manila. In the first half of the 1980s.5 percent during the 1970s. for example. perforce. transportation.000 people or approximately 4 percent each year during the 1980s. Underemployment has been predominantly a problem for poor. So the actual labor force grew by 750. Urban areas fared worse. Unemployment. and Davao cities published in the Philippine Economic Journal. or reporting. Underemployment was another. inexperienced entrants into the labor force. increased drastically following the economic crises of the early 1980s. which had averaged about 4. finance. less educated. who were relatively well educated and not heads of households. accounting for almost 40 percent of the work force in 1988 as contrasted with 25 percent in 1960. The service sector (commerce. The size and growth of the service sector was one indicator. which had provided most employment. Agriculture. The unemployed have tended to be young. peaking in early 1989 at 11. down from 60 percent in 1960. more than half of the respondents engaged in informal sector work as their primary income-generating activity. a consequence of the highly concentrated control of productive assets and the inadequate number of work places created by investment in the industrial economy.4 percent. and older people. long hours of work. Manufacturing's share of employed people remained stable at about 12 percent in 1990.
By 1990 Filipino-Americans numbered 1. Most of those emigrating were professionals and their families. supervising recruitment. was about one-half the growth in the country's labor supply during that period. export of labor would be . 3. An increasing number also were merchant seamen. If so. and transport and equipment workers or operators. elsewhere. The number of seamen also increased. as well as adjudicating complaints and conflicts. The total number of placements abroad from 1980 through 1988. construction. Overseas employment created two benefits for the economy: jobs and foreign exchange. In 1982 the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration was established in the Ministry of Labor and Employment. Remittances through the banking system for the period 1983 to 1988 totaled approximately US$4. Government statistics show that overseas placements of landbased workers increased from 12.500 in 1965 to more than 25.6 billion.000 in 1988. an amount equal to 14 percent of merchandise exports during the same period. In the 1970s and 1980s. to almost 86. making them the largest Asian community in the United States.4 million. Although some were professionals. The agency also was tasked with promoting employment opportunities abroad for Filipinos.2 million.500 in 1975 to 385.500 in 1975. professionals. After liberalization of the United States Immigration and Nationality Act in October 1965. The Central Bank estimated that remittances passing through "informal channels" might be as much as twice the documented figure. such employment opportunities have been in great demand. from 23. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration consolidated responsibility for regulating overseas land-based workers and seamen. and relatives of those who had previously migrated.000 in 1988.female household heads were unable to find more than forty days of work a quarter.3 years for seamen. a growth rate of about 30 percent per annum. the majority were production. as well as service workers. Overseas migration absorbed a significant amount of Philippine labor. migrants were largely Filipino members of the United States armed services.000 in 1970. to a lesser extent.1 years for land-based workers and 6. The average stay abroad was 3. quite a different flow of migration developed: most emigrants were workers engaged in contract work in the Middle East and. the number of United States immigrant visas issued to Filipinos increased dramatically from approximately 2. From the late 1940s through the 1970s. Inasmuch as wages paid for overseas contract work have been a multiple of what Filipinos could earn at home.
Labor Relations From independence in 1946 until martial law was declared in 1972. These workers were organized into some 2. The Aquino government took a somewhat more liberal approach to labor. she had the backing of a wide . When Aquino came into office in 1986. bringing together nine broadly based. In 1987 only 350." Going beyond collective bargaining. Lakas Ng Manggagawa Labor Center. Membership in LACC included the KMU. militant. The two major union centers represented sharply different visions of the role of unions in society. and.the largest single earner of foreign exchange. accounting for approximately 20 percent of the wage-andsalary work force or 10 percent of the total labor force. the TUCP. Organized labor in the Philippines has been relatively weak. Although TUCP supported Marcos. but some of the structures of the Marcos period remained. projecting itself as a proponent of "genuine. The Marcos labor code of 1974 made arbitration compulsory. the Federation of Free Workers. The largest union body was the Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP). the KMU called for the formation of worker solidarity movements and advocated a nationalist-oriented alternative to the prevailing economic and social policies of the government. half of which were not connected to a national union or federation. formed at the onset of the Aquino administration in 1986 by then Labor Minister Agusto Sanchez. and nationalist unionism. was formed in July 1980. it represented itself as a proponent of nonpolitical unionism. drew the various factions of the labor movement together to advise the Ministry of Labor and Employment. The KMU was more openly political. In 1986 it was estimated that about 2. involved itself minimally in labor relations.000 unions. The Labor Advisory and Consultative Council (LACC). except for setting up a commission in 1970 to supervise the fixing of minimum wages. The right to strike was partially restored in 1976. but with considerable restrictions. Formed in December 1974. the government encouraged collective bargaining and. or the May First Movement. concerned primarily with the collective bargaining process. it was designated the official labor center of the Philippines by the Marcos government. the Kilusang Mayo Uno (KMU).2 million Filipinos were part of the union movement. more ideologically oriented unions. For most of the martial law period (1972-81).000 workers were covered by collective bargaining agreements. strikes were forbidden or severely limited. for a short while. Another labor organization.
and abrogation of repressive labor legislation decreed by the Marcos government. Old charges of slander and fraud dating back to 1967 and 1971 were revived against Beltran. the chairman of the KMU was murdered. or Welga ng Bayan. and antigovernment rallies. In 1990 the government charged two KMU labor leaders with sedition: Medardo Roda. More about the Economy of the Philippines.spectrum of the population. the president began to shift ground as she received vigorous protests by both Filipino and foreign businessmen against her May Day promises. her first minister of labor. After a 1990 violent strike. including extension of the right to strike.htm . Agusto Sanchez. resurfaced early in the Aquino administration. modified in some cases. The government also imprisoned the leader of the KMP. In her May 1 speech that year. The TUCP was generally supportive of the Aquino government.us/philippines/73. In particular. The pledges were rethought. The following January. the head of PISTON. in 1987. 1989. the KMU led a series of general strikes in response to dramatic increases in the prices of petroleum products. before a large and enthusiastic gathering of labor groups. In November 1986. and 1990. a federation of drivers. widespread during the Marcos era. Soon. These labor actions were noteworthy both because of a heightened level of conflict between strikers and the authorities and because of the participation of professionals and other middle-class groups. This willingness to respond to the interests of the boardroom rather than the shop floor also extended to official appointments. both the military and government officials suggested banning the KMU as a communist-front organization. on ten-year-old fraud charges initiated against him by the Marcos government. Aquino presented a package of labor-law reforms. The KMU gained influence through its leadership of the national strike. and not promulgated in others. including those affiliated with labor unions. was considered to be too prolabor and eased out within a year of his appointment. the army opened fire on a march of the Peasant Movement of the Philippines (Kilusang Magbubukid ng Pilipinas--KMP) and their supporters who were protesting the lack of government action on land reform. demonstrations. http://countrystudies. making it easier to petition for a union certification election. however. Repression of labor activists. and Crispin Beltran. Eighteen were killed and nearly 100 wounded. but the KMU and other progressive unions resisted the conservative drift of her administration through strikes. the chairman of KMU. Jaime Tadeo. From September to December 1990. during which an estimated 500 participants were arrested.
large markets for Philippine export goods. Analysts said the most vulnerable workers are those in the exportoriented industries such as electronics and textile manufacturing.800 workers. the United States and Western Europe -. executive secretary of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines' Episcopal Commission on Migrants and Itinerants. furniture maker and exporter Giardini del Sole Inc. according to the country's National Statistics Office. In Luzon. northern Philippines. Indeed. analysts said.. especially for those employed in labor-intensive manufacturing companies. Philippine economic planners expect export receipts to fall this year and this doesn't bode well for workers. how can you continue to hire people to make your products?" said Rene Cristobal. "When there's no demand for your products." said Philippine Socio-Economic Planning Secretary Ralph Recto. Intel Corp. "Workers will always be the victims in a recession.Unemployment rate in the Philippines is expected to remain high in the next few months as the global economic crisis crimps business activities. (ECOP). "The recession in our trading partners has hit our exports sector hard.Philippines tackles high unemployment rate amid economic crisis (philstar.8 percent as of October 2008. services and migrant workers. several companies reported either laying off workers or cutting working hours as the crisis reduced demand for Philippine exports." said Father Edwin Corros. southern Philippines. standing at 6. The Philippines has one of the highest unemployment level in Southeast Asia. vice president of the Employers Confederation of the Philippines. .com) Updated March 02. In Cebu. Cristobal said several of ECOP's member-companies have to lay off workers as they either close shops or reduce their output. 2009 02:04 AM MANILA (Xinhua) -. has temporarily shut down and laid off about 250 workers as a result of the financial crisis. The global economic turmoil has dampened demand in Japan. the first US semiconductor firm that established a facility in the Philippines. shut down its factory and retrenched 1. Inc. so did the demand for Philippine labor. As these markets contracted.
9 percent this year compared to last year's 9. However.7 percent to 4. regional economist of the ATR Kim Eng Securities.the bulk of which will be used to build infrastructures -. forecast that as much as 200.The Philippine Labor Department reported that 40.8 percent in the next few months.4 percent. Every year. there is reason to be cautiously optimistic that the unemployment rate will not rise beyond 6. Josef T.000 workers are experiencing shorter working hours while over 5." he said. The stimulus package -. . director of national planning and policy of the National Economic and Development Authority. But neither will it be a bed of roses. Recto conceded the crisis will pressure the employment situation.000 workers were retrenched. the Philippine GDP is expected to expand at 3. Recto said the easing of inflation (estimated to hit 3.400 overseas Filipino workers were displaced because of the crisis." she said.84 billion US dollars) stimulus package will cap the growth in unemployment rate. Yap. "The economy will not fall in the deep end. Dennis Arroyo. despite the global recession. is not high enough to absorb the burgeoning labor force. the director doesn't expect the unemployment level to hit double-digit levels which were recorded several years ago. president of the Philippine Institute for Development Studies. Luz Lorenzo. she said. Unemployment will remain a problem. around one million Filipinos go overseas.000 workers may be laid off as the crisis continues to hurt the local economy. But such economic growth. 33. but he believed that the strong macroeconomic fundamentals combined with the 330-billion-peso (about 6. In a paper issued last month.3 percent) will boost consumption and keep the economy afloat. For this year. mostly forced to leave their families to provide them with a better life.000 new jobs.will create 800. agrees that the consumption driving Philippine economy will be resilient this year. Migration: by need not by choice The lack of opportunities in the Philippines will force most Filipinos to seek greener pastures abroad. "Assuming that the economy will not decelerate further in 2009. expect unemployment levels to stay at current levels.
with 10 percent of its over 80 million population living abroad. The global crisis may have slowed businesses and even retrenched more than 5. The separation also breaks family ties and hurt the children who were left behind by their parents. seafarers and programmers. Philippine President Gloria Macapagal.000 Filipino migrant workers but analysts and government officials believed that there will be demand for Philippine labor abroad. domestic helpers. however. not a necessity.Father Corros said most of the retrenched migrant workers that the Episcopal Commission on Migrants and Itinerants has been assisting in the past few months still prefer to work overseas instead of just staying in their own country. sent construction workers to the Middle East. doesn't offer such option. They go abroad because it's difficult to look for jobs here. This policy started in the 1970s when then Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. for most of the country's labor force. nurses. The current global economic crisis. also caused social problems. they said. "Migrating is the only option for them because they can't find jobs here. faced with huge levels of foreign debt and the oil crisis. is for the government to develop an economy that will provide decent jobs and will make migration a choice. Migration has long been part of the Philippine government's strategy to solve the unemployment problem.working as entertainers. caregivers. explaining that migration. The country's economic managers said one of the factors that will support the consumption-driven economy is the steady inflow of remittances.Arroyo directed the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration to aggressively market Filipino labor and expertise abroad." he said. Filipinos continue to leave in droves -. This was done to rein in the rising unemployment levels and avoid growing social unrest. adding that "we go back to the same problem. Numerous migrant workers have been physically and sexually abused and have to endure exploitative working conditions. This kind of policy has long been criticized by migrant rights advocates." The Philippines is one of the world's biggest labor exporters. What is needed. Thirty years later. Labor deployment will therefore remain a key government . although it brought in the much needed remittances.
policy. Analysts said most Filipinos in the United States -. BPO revenues are forecasted to grow by 20 percent to 30 percent this year and companies expected to hire 100.time employment. the holding company for Ayala Corporation's investments in business process outsourcing. president of the Philippine Software Industry Association. "Right now. graphic designers and accountants. over 8. however.one of the top destination countries for Filipino migrants -. deputy executive director of the Philippine . Dennis Posadas." Recto said in last week's economic briefing. software development and back office will offer opportunities to the country's programmers. Every year. BPOs offer a lot of perks and benefits to its employees but very few are qualified to work in the industry. "We see a steady labor demand in the Middle East. "A lot of companies are under a lot of pressure to cut cost so I think it will accelerate outsourcing. But now we're trying to change that.. BPOs are offering workshops and scholarships to expand its talent pool. Australia and elsewhere which are responding to the crisis by embarking on infrastructure projects with their own stimulus packages. will not necessarily translate into full.will keep their jobs as they're usually employed in the recession-proof healthcare sectors. 000 caregivers were deployed." said Ma. Inc. Call centers will remain the biggest revenue earner and employer in the BPO sector. Outsourcing industry offers new jobs There are some bright spots in the domestic labor market. we're really leading in the contact center sector. The business process outsourcing (BPO) industry is expected to remain bullish. Cristina Coronel. But BPO executives believe that the growing demand for the high-value non-voice outsourcing sectors such as animation. To solve this problem. We're trying to expand to the higher value non-voice services. Job openings. Industrialized economies with aging populations will continue to seek cheap. CEO of LiveIt Solutions.000 Filipino nurses and 14. English-proficient and skilled nurses and caregivers from countries like the Philippines.000 new workers." said Alfredo Ayala. The Philippines is one of the world's biggest exporters of health care workers.
.ph> Subject: [ibon] Poverty Still A Growing Problem in the Philippines Article: 141707 To: undisclosed-recipients:. But even comparing government's low daily poverty threshold with the minimum wage reveals that wages are inadequate compared with what a family needs just to survive. They need to emphasize on science and math education. 9 Jul 2002 10:31:18 -0500 (CDT) From: IBON Reach Expansion Department <ibonred@info. which showed that one out of five Filipinos would rather leave the country if only they had the opportunity.com. or some 31 million Filipinos. said that as far as outsourcing in the information technology sector is concerned. President Arroyo seems to be losing the battle against poverty Poverty is one of the most serious social problems in the country today.philstar. IBON Features. very few are qualified to take the jobs because many are not adequately trained. #43.edu Sun Jul 14 10:30:12 2002 Date: Tue. Estimates of poverty incidence in the country relesaed by the National Statistical Coordination Board (NCSB) show that 40% of the population. But IBON Foundation's alternative estimates of poverty incidence show that nearly 88% of the country's households are poor. This was highlighted by the results of a recent Pulse Asia survey.math. http://www." he said. "We still need to improve basic education in our pubic schools.aspx? articleId=444878&publicationSubCategoryId=200 From owner-imap@chumbly. are poor. 5 July 2002 Despite her promise to alleviate the condition of the poor.Congressional Commission on Science.com/microsite/noynoy_aquino_inauguration_2010/article. Low Wages Comparing IBON's estimates of the daily cost of living with the daily minimum wage demonstrates that most Filipino families do not earn enough to make ends meet (Table 1).missouri. Technology and Engineering. View previous articles from this author. Poverty still a growing problem in the Philippines By Joseph Yu.
01 280.622 lat year.62 0. light and water group fell in May to P0. Beverages & Tobacco Clothing 0. Table 2 shows that the purchasing power of the peso in the country fell to P0. Minimum Wage vs Daily Cost of Living & Daily Poverty Threshold (in pesos) Region Daily Poverty Threshold Daily Cost of Living /a Minimum Wage /b Philippines 228.25 168.60 0. and wages. Notably.67 209. their hard-earned peso can buy fewer goods and services.66 0 0 6 0.62 0.62 0. DOLE.59 0.66 0.as of April 2002 /b .This is because government is dead-set on keeping living standards. down in order to keep the country competitive and attract foreign investors.62 0.60 0.69 1 6 1 0. Peso Purchasing Power by Region and Commodity Group (as of May 2002.67 0.91 530.24 NCR 295.60 0.625 last year.66 3 5 5 0.00 /c Areas outside NCR 217.66 8 6 5 COMMODITY GROUP All 0.603 in May from P0.63 416.47 Sources of basic data: NSO. due to increasing costs of fuel and electricity. Table 1. the buying power of the fuel.71 . in pesos) 200 200 200 2 1 0 REGION Philippines NCR Outside NCR 0. Table 2.76 434.65 0.564 from P0.68 0.including P30 emergency cost of living allowance Low Purchasing Power To make things worse for the ordinary Filipino worker.66 items 3 5 5 Food. NSCB /a .based on 2000 wage orders /c .
0 Employment (in '000) Rate (%) 30. oil price hikes this year have brough pump prices back to January 2001 levels.56 0. Light & Water Services Miscellaneous 9 6 0.186 .57 4 1 7 0.83 0 5 3 Source: NSO Although 2001 was marked by a series of oil price rollbacks.26% from 17.098 66. the National Statistics Office (NSO) April Labor Force Survey revealed that the unemployment rate grew to 13.51 0.9 33.621 69.49 0. or a second job.1 Housing & Repairs Fuel.70 4 2 0 0. Meanwhile. April 2002 Preliminary Results Philippines April 2002 January 2002 April 2001 Labor Force (in '000) Participation Rate (%) 35.57 5 9 0 0. Table 3.77 0.76 0.4 33.47 0.5% in the same period last year.052 69.62 0.9% from 13. are seeking more work.3% in April last year (See Table 3).54 0. This means that more Filipinos were not earning enough to meet their needs and thus. The underemployment rate also increased to 19. Labor Force Indicators.
705 89.9 3.7 Unemployment (in '000) Rate (%) 4.1 29.5 The NSO also reported an increase in own account workers.056 million a year earlier. This increase also points out the lack of employment opportunities.3 Underemployment (in '000) Rate (%) 5.86.962 workers were affected.922 19. Table 4.096 miliion from 4. yet are not paid. since these workers would probably prefer to look for jobs to better help their families . These are workers who help in the families' business or work. to 4. to 11.9 5.9 million a year earlier.6 4.393 10. The department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) reported that some 152 firms closed and 671 reduced their workforce. a 79% increase from last year (Table 4). There was also an increase in the number of unpaid family workers. A total of 20. These self-employed workers are considered employed by the government even if they do not engage in productive work.160 86.092 17.3 4. most of them in the service sector.if only there were jobs available.724 15. Retrenchment Most people also lost their jobs due to an increase in closures in the first two months of the year. Establishments Resorting to Permanent Closures/Retrenchment Due to Economic Reasons and Workers Displaced . Many of these are forced to fend for themselves due to the lack of economic opportunities in the country.7 29.866 13.4 million from 10.461 13.
PSSC Bldg. The relevance of these theories to explain the causes of unemployment in the global economy in the mid-century. How unemployment is individual and social problem Unemployment is caused by many factors in a modern market economy.500 Filipinos leave the country dialy to seek employment of migrate elsewhere. In this essay I will discuss how unemployment is an individual and a social problem and how Max Weber distinguished power. authority and coercion and how the functionalist. conflict theorist and symbolic interaction theory view the economy and by the mid century how they have evolved and the role of these theories to explain social and economic phenomenon. seasonal factors in some industries particularly such as changes in tastes and climatic conditions which affects demand for certain products and services.hartford-hwp.. at the PSSC Auditorium. According to the DOLE. their values and attitudes towards some jobs and about employers. FIND OUT MORE IN THE IBON MIDYEAR BIRDTALK: STABILIZATION AND RECOVERY? on July 10. Quezon City. accessibility for retraining and . business cycle or recessions. Philippines. 1-5pm. http://www. some 2. No wonder so many Filipinos choose to seek their fortunes abroad. 2002. Karl Marx and Social interactionist theories.com/archives/54a/247.html auses of Unemployment Published on August 27.More closures should be expected as firms fail to compete with the influx of cheap exports brought about by the government's globalization thrust.. individual perceptions and willingness to work and search for jobs. It can be caused by rapid technological change. Commonwealth Ave. 2007 by Prit in Business and Society Comments (51)|21 Liked It The individual and societal causes of unemployment in the perspectives of Max Weber.
For example a professor can influence the students to assign work and demand them to do to satisfy some criteria. authority and coercion Power can be defined as one person’s ability to influence others does what ever they want even though they don’t like to do what is demanded and they resist doing what is demanded. In a sociological point of view according to functionalist and conflict theorists the unemployment is caused primarily by the social factors than by the individual factors. As discussed above it is caused by the society as well as by individuals. Read more in Business and Society « Industrial Relation System in Australia and the Factors That Affect It Automated Customer Service in Today’s Corporate World » It can be seen from the above causes unemployment in a particular period can be a combination of caused by social factors and how the economy as a whole works and also due to the subjective individual factors.acquisition of work skills. color. In summary applying the sociological and the primary causes of unemployment unemployment is individual as well as a social problem in a market economy. ethnicity. discrimination in the workplace based on race. Max Weber’s distinction among power. willingness and perception of unemployed of the benefits of training and the possibility for them to get a job after the training even though they have a chance to get a job. Even the economy or societal factors are not present unemployment can be caused by individual perception and their own subjective behavior. As well a dictator like Hitler can control all aspects of life because of this ability to impose his will on majority of people. In other words a person or group on other person or other . However according to Max Weber and symbolic interaction theories individuals construct their own social constructs and perception and they can be subjective in their behavior and there fore can become unemployed even though the actual condition they can get a job in the job market. religion. age and class.
It then dropped to 8. Within the past the years the GDP has been making a climb. Currently. Compared to other South East Asian countries. double what it was 20 years earlier. whose rates tend to stay below 6%. That is power and authority can be different in this respect. the high population is problematic.7% in 2005. The unemployment rate steadily increased from 1990 until 2000. What has caused the Philippines to have such a high unemployment rate? edit Factors There are many factors contributing to the Philippines’ high unemployment: Rapid population growth: • The population of the Philippines was 75. It nearly doubled from 17. although it continues to grow. http://bizcovering.3 million in 1980 to 32. which would explain its recent declining unemployment rate. Employment . however from $98. there’s too many people and not enough jobs. companies have less to spend. These numbers are much higher than other South East Asian countries. During the 1990’s it stayed dramatically low. Slow economic growth: • While it has a relatively high population.7% in 2006. barely peaking higher than 8%. or money/resources to create more jobs. Factors contributing to this growth include the rapidly growing population and the increasing number of women entering the workforce. Growing labor force: • The Philippines’ labor force is said to be growing by about 2. the Philippines’ GDP is not as large. Its population tends to remain much greater than surrounding Asian countries.3 million in 2000.2 million in 2000. the unemployment rate stands at 7.3%. After a slight decline in 2001. making it hard to create new jobs for people. Mixed with poor economic performance. That is power need not come from proper authority or legitimate authority. its GDP growth was 4-6% lower then there’s.groups can use power legitimately or illegitimately. the rate continued to rise until peaking at 11. With the wealth of the nation being so low.8 billion in 2005 to $167 billion in 2008.8% each year.com/business-and-society/causes-of-unemployment/ Unemployment Rate Unemployment has been a persistent problem in the Philippines. It is predicted to double at least one more time before it stabilizes.
wikia. only 95% of children were attending primary school. Education • Education has only been a focus of government spending within the last 20 years. However. Those people that aren’t attending school are typically trying to enter the workforce. which then makes it hard to create new.com/wiki/Philippines__micro_measures(unemployment)" Poverty In Philippines We have many premium term papers and essays on Poverty In Philippines. The Philippine Economy: Development. We also have a wide variety of research papers and book reports available to you for free.com/publicdata?ds=wbwdi&met=ny_gdp_mktp_cd&idim=country:PHL&dl=en&hl=en&q=philippines+GDP Balisacan. 2001.opportunities have failed to keep up with the growing number of people in the labor force. Retrieved from "http://internationalbusiness. Rizwanul. Poverty In Philippines Introduction: This study is about the economic. This will also have an analysis of their general condition using a theory application. or furthering their education. in 2003.cultural conditions of the Urban Poor. and only were 64% attending secondary school. very poor. You can browse our collection of term papers or use our search engine. • • • • • http://www.. or better jobs.which . Each condition is specifically analyzed in different aspects and parts to further understand the study.: The World Bank. and to the very. The Philippines ranks higher in education than most countries with comparable per capita incomes.imf. it limits the resources and knowledge available. Gordon and Islam. adding to the number of unemployed.google. and Challenges. Washington. Inc. Betcherman.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2002/wp0223. and Hill. Many fiscal problems kept educational spending limited in the Philippines until mid-1990’s. East Asian Labor Markets and the Economic Crisis. The poor ranges from poor. The topic URBAN POOR was selected from a group of topics given and then given emphasis by the author according to the relevance of this specific group in today's world. Urban poor has become an interesting topic now days since it is very relevant to modern society. very poor. 2003. one will be able to broaden one's ideas and analysis in certain conditions in relation to the topic about Urban poor.C. Poverty tends to be the greatest ill that plagues the Filipino as a society. political and socio.pdf http://www. In doing so. D. With less people attending school. Policies. New York: Oxford University Press. Arsenio M. Hal.
logging and lumbering. Conclusions are from the author of the text. With all the informations and analysis represented. Students and professionals are the intended audiences of this study. accessibility for retraining and acquisition of work skills. It makes its appearance in a great variety of circumstances. This paper was developed as a requirement and further study of the Sociological Theories presented in class and as a meaningful output of all the lectures and discussions that happened during class. It can be caused by rapid technological change. their values and attitudes towards some jobs and about employers. religion. frictional unemployment. This study will hopefully be of help in the development of concrete analysis and plans not just towards the Sociological development of the urban poor. business cycle or recessions. Throughout the year some workers may appear in the labor market and then withdraw. willingness and perception of unemployed of the benefits of training and the possibility for them to get a job after the training even though they have a chance to get a job. more of secondary sources. the rate of structural employment is more than others. but unemployment is not the result of any one cause. http://www. had dreamt of exploiting the immense natural resources of the country for the best possible benefit of the people Unemployment is caused by many factors in a modern market economy. and cyclical unemployment. slaughtering and meat packing are very seasonal and give rise to a considerable . discrimination in the workplace based on race. some in economic changes.line based sources. The founder of Pakistan. individual perceptions and willingness to work and search for jobs.. some in personal factors.most probably is CONFLICT THEORY.com/essays/Poverty-Philippines/108928?topic Unemployment All persons of ten years of age and above who worked at least one hour during the reference period [the year] There are three types of unemployment: structural unemployment. Analysis was done by choosing a theoretical orientation from the ones discussed in class. ethnicity. as a product of understanding from the related sources. Students work during the summer and return to school in September. seasonal factors in some industries particularly such as changes in tastes and climatic conditions which affects demand for certain products and services. and some in legislative and regulatory conditions.. In Pakistan. Sources related to the study are referred to the bibliography at the end of the study. Building and construction activities.oppapers. a stepping stone in solving problems of today's society.. but of the holistic development as well. The informations contained in this study were based on researches provided by related literature and on. Muhammad Ali Jinnah. age and class The political class claims to have the answer. may this hopefully. color. a theory discussed in class with relation to the Sociological Theories presented.
Jobs. Similarly. . and working conditions always point the way. wages.amount of temporary unemployment. industrial and technological changes may force workers to readjust and relocate.
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