PHYS1112 - Electricity and Magnetism

Lecture Notes
Dr. Jason Chun Shing Pun
Department of Physics
The University of Hong Kong
January 2005
Contents
1 Vector Algebra 1
1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 Components of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Multiplication of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Vector Field (Physics Point of View) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6 Other Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 Electric Force & Electric Field 8
2.1 Electric Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 The Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3 Continuous Charge Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.4 Electric Field Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.5 Point Charge in E-field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.6 Dipole in E-field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3 Electric Flux and Gauss’ Law 25
3.1 Electric Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.2 Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.3 E-field Calculation with Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.4 Gauss’ Law and Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4 Electric Potential 36
4.1 Potential Energy and Conservative Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.3 Relation Between Electric Field E and Electric Potential V . . . . 45
4.4 Equipotential Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5 Capacitance and DC Circuits 51
5.1 Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.2 Calculating Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.3 Capacitors in Combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.4 Energy Storage in Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
i
5.5 Dielectric Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
5.6 Capacitor with Dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.7 Gauss’ Law in Dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.8 Ohm’s Law and Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.9 DC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.10 RC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6 Magnetic Force 73
6.1 Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
6.2 Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6.3 Hall Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.4 Magnetic Force on Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
7 Magnetic Field 81
7.1 Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
7.2 Parallel Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.3 Amp`ere’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
7.4 Magnetic Dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
7.5 Magnetic Dipole in A Constant B-field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7.6 Magnetic Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
8 Faraday’s Law of Induction 98
8.1 Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
8.2 Lenz’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
8.3 Motional EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
8.4 Induced Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
9 Inductance 107
9.1 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
9.2 LR Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
9.3 Energy Stored in Inductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
9.4 LC Circuit (Electromagnetic Oscillator) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9.5 RLC Circuit (Damped Oscillator) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
10 AC Circuits 116
10.1 Alternating Current (AC) Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
10.2 Phase Relation Between i, V for R,L and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
10.3 Single Loop RLC AC Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
10.4 Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
10.5 Power in AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
10.6 The Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
ii
11 Displacement Current and Maxwell’s Equations 125
11.1 Displacement Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
11.2 Induced Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
11.3 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
iii
Chapter 1
Vector Algebra
1.1 Definitions
A vector consists of two components: magnitude and direction .
(e.g. force, velocity, pressure)
A scalar consists of magnitude only.
(e.g. mass, charge, density)
1.2 Vector Algebra
Figure 1.1: Vector algebra
a +

b =

b +a
a + (c +

d) = (a +c) +

d
1.3. COMPONENTS OF VECTORS 2
1.3 Components of Vectors
Usually vectors are expressed according to coordinate system. Each vector can
be expressed in terms of components.
The most common coordinate system: Cartesian
a =a
x
+a
y
+a
z
Magnitude of a = [a[ = a,
a =
_
a
2
x
+ a
2
y
+ a
2
z
Figure 1.2: φ measured anti-clockwise
from position x-axis
a = a
x
+a
y
a =
_
a
2
x
+ a
2
y
a
x
= a cosφ; a
y
= a sinφ
tanφ =
a
y
a
x
Unit vectors have magnitude of 1
ˆ a =
a
[a[
= unit vector along a direction
ˆ
i
ˆ
j
ˆ
k are unit vectors along
¡ ¡ ¡
x y z directions
a = a
x
ˆ
i + a
y
ˆ
j + a
z
ˆ
k
Other coordinate systems:
1.3. COMPONENTS OF VECTORS 3
1. Polar Coordinate:
Figure 1.3: Polar Coordinates
a = a
r
ˆ r + a
θ
ˆ
θ
2. Cylindrical Coordinates:
Figure 1.4: Cylindrical Coordinates
a = a
r
ˆ r + a
θ
ˆ
θ + a
z
ˆ z
ˆ r originated from nearest point on
z-axis (Point O’)
3. Spherical Coordinates:
Figure 1.5: Spherical Coordinates
a = a
r
ˆ r + a
θ
ˆ
θ + a
φ
ˆ
φ
ˆ r originated from Origin O
1.4. MULTIPLICATION OF VECTORS 4
1.4 Multiplication of Vectors
1. Scalar multiplication:
If

b=ma

b, a are vectors; m is a scalar
then b=ma (Relation between magnitude)
b
x
=ma
x
b
y
=ma
y
_
Components also follow relation
i.e.
a = a
x
ˆ
i + a
y
ˆ
j + a
z
ˆ
k
ma = ma
x
ˆ
i + ma
y
ˆ
j + ma
z
ˆ
k
2. Dot Product (Scalar Product):
Figure 1.6: Dot Product
a

b = [a[ [

b[ cosφ
Result is always a scalar. It can be pos-
itive or negative depending on φ.
a

b =

b a
Notice: a

b = ab cosφ = ab cosφ

i.e. Doesn’t matter how you measure
angle φ between vectors.
ˆ
i
ˆ
i = [
ˆ
i[ [
ˆ
i[ cos0

= 1 1 1 = 1
ˆ
i
ˆ
j = [
ˆ
i[ [
ˆ
j[ cos90

= 1 1 0 = 0
ˆ
i
ˆ
i =
ˆ
j
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k
ˆ
k = 1
ˆ
i
ˆ
j =
ˆ
j
ˆ
k =
ˆ
k
ˆ
i = 0
If a = a
x
ˆ
i + a
y
ˆ
j + a
z
ˆ
k

b = b
x
ˆ
i + b
y
ˆ
j + b
z
ˆ
k
then a

b = a
x
b
x
+a
y
b
y
+ a
z
b
z
a a = [a[ [a[ cos0

= a a = a
2
1.4. MULTIPLICATION OF VECTORS 5
3. Cross Product (Vector Product):
If c =a

b,
then c = [c[ = a b sinφ
a

b ,=

b a !!!
a

b = −

b a
Figure 1.7: Note: How angle φ is mea-
sured
• Direction of cross product determined from right hand rule.
• Also, a

b is ⊥ to a and

b, i.e.
a (a

b) = 0

b (a

b) = 0
• IMPORTANT:
a a = a a sin0

= 0
[
ˆ
i
ˆ
i[ = [
ˆ
i[ [
ˆ
i[ sin0

= 1 1 0 = 0
[
ˆ
i
ˆ
j[ = [
ˆ
i[ [
ˆ
j[ sin90

= 1 1 1 = 1
ˆ
i
ˆ
i =
ˆ
j
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k
ˆ
k = 0
ˆ
i
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k;
ˆ
j
ˆ
k =
ˆ
i;
ˆ
k
ˆ
i =
ˆ
j
a

b =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ˆ
i
ˆ
j
ˆ
k
a
x
a
y
a
z
b
x
b
y
b
z
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (a
y
b
z
−a
z
b
y
)
ˆ
i
+(a
z
b
x
−a
x
b
z
)
ˆ
j
+(a
x
b
y
−a
y
b
x
)
ˆ
k
1.5. VECTOR FIELD (PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW) 6
4. Vector identities:
a (

b +c) = a

b +a c
a (

b c) =

b (c a) = c (a

b)
a (

b c) = (a c)

b −(a

b)c
1.5 Vector Field (Physics Point of View)
A vector field

T(x, y, z) is a mathematical function which has a vector output
for a position input.
(Scalar field

|(x, y, z))
1.6 Other Topics
Tangential Vector
Figure 1.8: d

l is a vector that is always tangential to the curve C with infinitesimal
length dl
Surface Vector
Figure 1.9: da is a vector that is always perpendicular to the surface S with
infinitesimal area da
1.6. OTHER TOPICS 7
Some uncertainty! (da versus −da)
Two conventions:
• Area formed from a closed curve
Figure 1.10: Direction of da determined from right-hand rule
• Closed surface enclosing a volume
Figure 1.11: Direction of da going from inside to outside
Chapter 2
Electric Force & Electric Field
2.1 Electric Force
The electric force between two charges
q
1
and q
2
can be described by
Coulomb’s Law.

F
12
= Force on q
1
exerted by q
2

F
12
=
1

0

q
1
q
2
r
2
12
ˆ r
12
where ˆ r
12
=
r
12
[r
12
[
is the unit vector which locates particle 1 relative to particle 2.
i.e. r
12
= r
1
−r
2
• q
1
, q
2
are electrical charges in units of Coulomb(C)
• Charge is quantized
Recall 1 electron carries 1.602 10
−19
C

0
= Permittivity of free space = 8.85 10
−12
C
2
/Nm
2
COULOMB’S LAW:
(1) q
1
, q
2
can be either positive or negative.
2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 9
(2) If q
1
, q
2
are of same sign, then the force experienced by q
1
is in direction
away from q
2
, that is, repulsive.
(3) Force on q
2
exerted by q
1
:

F
21
=
1

0

q
2
q
1
r
2
21
ˆ r
21
BUT:
r
12
= r
21
= distance between q
1
, q
2
ˆ r
21
=
r
21
r
21
=
r
2
−r
1
r
21
=
−r
12
r
12
= −ˆ r
12


F
21
= −

F
12
Newton’s 3rd Law
SYSTEM WITH MANY CHARGES:
The total force experienced by charge
q
1
is the vector sum of the forces on q
1
exerted by other charges.

F
1
= Force experienced by q
1
=

F
1,2
+

F
1,3
+

F
1,4
+ +

F
1,N
PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION:

F
1
=
N

j=2

F
1,j
2.2 The Electric Field
While we need two charges to quantify the electric force, we define the electric
field for any single charge distribution to describe its effect on other charges.
2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 10
Total force

F =

F
1
+

F
2
+ +

F
N
The electric field is defined as
lim
q
0
→0

F
q
0
=

E
(a) E-field due to a single charge q
i
:
From the definitions of Coulomb’s Law, the
force experienced at location of q
0
(point P)

F
0,i
=
1

0

q
0
q
i
r
2
0,i
ˆ r
0,i
where ˆ r
0,i
is the unit vector along the direction from charge q
i
to q
0
,
ˆ r
0,i
= Unit vector from charge q
i
to point P
= ˆ r
i
(radical unit vector from q
i
)
Recall

E = lim
q
0
→0

F
q
0
∴ E-field due to q
i
at point P:

E
i
=
1

0

q
i
r
2
i
ˆ r
i
where r
i
= Vector pointing from q
i
to point P,
thus ˆ r
i
= Unit vector pointing from q
i
to point P
Note:
(1) E-field is a vector.
(2) Direction of E-field depends on both position of P and sign of q
i
.
(b) E-field due to system of charges:
Principle of Superposition:
In a system with N charges, the total E-field due to all charges is the
vector sum of E-field due to individual charges.
2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 11
i.e.

E =

i

E
i
=
1

0

i
q
i
r
2
i
ˆ r
i
(c) Electric Dipole
System of equal and opposite charges
separated by a distance d.
Figure 2.1: An electric dipole. (Direction of

d from negative to positive charge)
Electric Dipole Moment
p = q

d = qd
ˆ
d
p = qd
Example:

E due to dipole along x-axis
Consider point P at distance x along the perpendicular axis of the dipole p :

E =

E
+
+

E

↑ ↑
(E-field (E-field
due to +q) due to −q)
Notice: Horizontal E-field components of

E
+
and

E

cancel out.
∴ Net E-field points along the axis oppo-
site to the dipole moment vector.
2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 12
Magnitude of E-field = 2E
+
cos θ
∴ E = 2
_
E
+
or E

magnitude!
¸ .. ¸
1

0

q
r
2
_
cos θ
But r =
¸
_
d
2
_
2
+ x
2
cos θ =
d/2
r
∴ E =
1

0

p
[x
2
+ (
d
2
)
2
]
3
2
(p = qd)
Special case: When x ¸d
[x
2
+ (
d
2
)
2
]
3
2
= x
3
[1 + (
d
2x
)
2
]
3
2
• Binomial Approximation:
(1 + y)
n
≈ 1 + ny if y ¸1
E-field of dipole
1

0

p
x
3

1
x
3
• Compare with
1
r
2
E-field for single charge
• Result also valid for point P along any axis with respect to dipole
2.3 Continuous Charge Distribution
E-field at point P due to dq:
d

E =
1

0

dq
r
2
ˆ r
2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 13
∴ E-field due to charge distribution:

E =
ˆ
Volume
d

E =
ˆ
Volume
1

0
·
dq
r
2
· ˆ r
(1) In many cases, we can take advantage of the symmetry of the system to
simplify the integral.
(2) To write down the small charge element dq:
1-D dq = λ ds λ = linear charge density ds = small length element
2-D dq = σ dA σ = surface charge density dA = small area element
3-D dq = ρ dV ρ = volume charge density dV = small volume element
Example 1: Uniform line of charge
charge per
unit length
= λ
(1) Symmetry considered: The E-field from +z and −z directions cancel along
z-direction, ∴ Only horizontal E-field components need to be considered.
(2) For each element of length dz, charge dq = λdz
∴ Horizontal E-field at point P due to element dz =
[d

E[ cos θ =
1

0

λdz
r
2
. ¸¸ .
dE
dz
cos θ
∴ E-field due to entire line charge at point P
E =
L/2
ˆ
−L/2
1

0

λdz
r
2
cos θ
= 2
L/2
ˆ
0
λ

0

dz
r
2
cos θ
2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 14
To calculate this integral:
• First, notice that x is fixed, but z, r, θ all varies.
• Change of variable (from z to θ)
(1)
z = x tan θ ∴ dz = x sec
2
θ dθ
x = r cos θ ∴ r
2
= x
2
sec
2
θ
(2) When
z = 0 , θ = 0

z = L/2 θ = θ
0
where tan θ
0
=
L/2
x
E = 2
λ

0
θ
0
ˆ
0
x sec
2
θ dθ
x
2
sec
2
θ
cos θ
= 2
λ

0
θ
0
ˆ
0
1
x
cos θ dθ
= 2
λ

0

1
x
(sin θ)
¸
¸
¸
θ
0
0
= 2
λ

0

1
x
sin θ
0
= 2
λ

0

1
x

L/2
_
x
2
+ (
L
2
)
2
E =
1

0

λL
x
_
x
2
+ (
L
2
)
2
along x-direction
Important limiting cases:
1. x ¸L : E
1

0

λL
x
2
But λL = Total charge on rod
∴ System behave like a point charge
2. L ¸x : E
1

0

λL
x
L
2
E
x
=
λ

0
x
ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO INFINITELY LONG LINE OF CHARGE
2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 15
Example 2: Ring of Charge
E-field at a height z above a ring of
charge of radius R
(1) Symmetry considered: For every charge element dq considered, there exists
dq/ where the horizontal

E field components cancel.
⇒ Overall E-field lies along z-direction.
(2) For each element of length dz, charge
dq = λ ds
↑ ↑
Linear Circular
charge density length element
dq = λ R dφ, where φ is the angle
measured on the ring plane
∴ Net E-field along z-axis due to dq:
dE =
1

0

dq
r
2
cos θ
2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 16
Total E-field =
ˆ
dE
=
ˆ

0
1

0

λR dφ
r
2
cos θ (cos θ =
z
r
)
Note: Here in this case, θ, R and r are fixed as φ varies! BUT we want to
convert r, θ to R, z.
E =
1

0

λRz
r
3
ˆ

0

E =
1

0

λ(2πR)z
(z
2
+R
2
)
3/2
along z-axis
BUT: λ(2πR) = total charge on the ring
Example 3: E-field from a disk of surface charge density σ
We find the E-field of a disk by
integrating concentric rings of
charges.
2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 17
Total charge of ring
dq = σ ( 2πr dr
. ¸¸ .
Area of the ring
)
Recall from Example 2:
E-field from ring: dE =
1

0

dq z
(z
2
+ r
2
)
3/2
∴ E =
1

0
ˆ
R
0
2πσr dr z
(z
2
+r
2
)
3/2
=
1

0
ˆ
R
0
2πσz
r dr
(z
2
+ r
2
)
3/2
• Change of variable:
u = z
2
+r
2
⇒ (z
2
+r
2
)
3/2
= u
3/2
⇒ du = 2r dr ⇒ r dr =
1
2
du
• Change of integration limit:
_
r = 0 , u = z
2
r = R , u = z
2
+ R
2
∴ E =
1

0
2πσz
ˆ
z
2
+R
2
z
2
1
2
u
−3/2
du
BUT:
ˆ
u
−3/2
du =
u
−1/2
−1/2
= −2u
−1/2
∴ E =
1
2
0
σz (−u
−1/2
)
¸
¸
¸
z
2
+R
2
z
2
=
1
2
0
σz
_
−1

z
2
+ R
2
+
1
z
_
E =
σ
2
0
_
1 −
z

z
2
+R
2
_
2.4. ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 18
VERY IMPORTANT LIMITING CASE:
If R ¸ z, that is if we have an infinite sheet of charge with charge den-
sity σ:
E =
σ
2
0
_
1 −
z

z
2
+ R
2
_
·
σ
2
0
_
1 −
z
R
_
E ≈
σ
2
0
E-field is normal to the charged surface
Figure 2.2: E-field due to an infi-
nite sheet of charge, charge den-
sity = σ
Q: What’s the E-field belows the charged sheet?
2.4 Electric Field Lines
To visualize the electric field, we can use a graphical tool called the electric
field lines.
Conventions:
1. The start on position charges and end on negative charges.
2. Direction of E-field at any point is given by tangent of E-field line.
3. Magnitude of E-field at any point is proportional to number of E-field lines
per unit area perpendicular to the lines.
2.4. ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 19
2.4. ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 20
2.5. POINT CHARGE IN E-FIELD 21
2.5 Point Charge in E-field
When we place a charge q in an E-field

E, the force experienced by the charge is

F = q

E = ma
Applications: Ink-jet printer, TV cathoderay tube.
Example:
Ink particle has mass m, charge q (q < 0 here)
Assume that mass of inkdrop is small, what’s the deflection y of the charge?
Solution:
First, the charge carried by the inkdrop is negtive, i.e. q < 0.
Note: q

E points in opposite direction of

E.
Horizontal motion: Net force = 0
∴ L = vt (2.1)
2.6. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD 22
Vertical motion: [q

E[ ¸[mg[, q is negative,
∴ Net force = −qE = ma (Newton’s 2nd Law)
∴ a = −
qE
m
(2.2)
Vertical distance travelled:
y =
1
2
at
2
2.6 Dipole in E-field
Consider the force exerted on the dipole in an external E-field:
Assumption: E-field from dipole doesn’t affect the external E-field.
• Dipole moment:
p = q

d
• Force due to the E-field on +ve
and −ve charge are equal and
opposite in direction. Total ex-
ternal force on dipole = 0.
BUT: There is an external torque on
the center of the dipole.
Reminder:
Force

F exerts at point P.
The force exerts a torque
τ = r

F on point P with
respect to point O.
Direction of the torque vector τ is determined from the right-hand rule.
2.6. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD 23
Reference: Halliday Vol.1 Chap 9.1 (Pg.175) torque
Chap 11.7 (Pg.243) work done
Net torque τ
• direction: clockwise
torque
• magnitude:
τ = τ
+ve
+ τ
−ve
= F
d
2
sin θ + F
d
2
sin θ
= qE d sin θ
= pE sin θ
τ = p

E
Energy Consideration:
When the dipole p rotates dθ, the E-field does work.
Work done by external E-field on the dipole:
dW = −τ dθ
Negative sign here because torque by E-field acts to decrease θ.
BUT: Because E-field is a conservative force field
1 2
, we can define a
potential energy (U) for the system, so that
dU = −dW
∴ For the dipole in external E-field:
dU = −dW = pE sin θ dθ
∴ U(θ) =
ˆ
dU =
ˆ
pE sin θ dθ
= −pE cos θ + U
0
1
more to come in Chap.4 of notes
2
ref. Halliday Vol.1 Pg.257, Chap 12.1
2.6. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD 24
set U(θ = 90

) = 0,
∴ 0 = −pE cos 90

+ U
0
∴ U
0
= 0
∴ Potential energy:
U = −pE cos θ = − p

E
Chapter 3
Electric Flux and Gauss’ Law
3.1 Electric Flux
Latin: flux = ”to flow”
Graphically:
Electric flux Φ
E
represents the number of E-field lines
crossing a surface.
Mathematically:
Reminder: Vector of the area

A is perpendicular to the area A.
For non-uniform E-field & surface, direction of the area vector

A is not
uniform.
d

A = Area vector for
small area element
dA
3.1. ELECTRIC FLUX 26
∴ Electric flux dΦ
E
=

E d

A
Electric flux of

E through surface S: Φ
E
=
ˆ
S

E d

A
ˆ
S
= Surface integral over surface S
= Integration of integral over all area elements on surface S
Example:

E =
1

0

−2q
r
2
ˆ r =
−q

0
R
2
ˆ r
For a hemisphere, d

A = dAˆ r
Φ
E
=
ˆ
S
−q

0
R
2
ˆ r (dAˆ r) (∵ ˆ r ˆ r = 1)
= −
q

0
R
2
ˆ
S
dA
. ¸¸ .
2πR
2
=
−q

0
For a closed surface:
Recall: Direction of area vector d

A
goes from inside to outside of closed
surface S.
3.1. ELECTRIC FLUX 27
Electric flux over closed surface S: Φ
E
=
˛
S

E d

A
˛
S
= Surface integral over closed surface S
Example:
Electric flux of charge q over closed
spherical surface of radius R.

E =
1

0

q
r
2
ˆ r =
q

0
R
2
ˆ r at the surface
Again, d

A = dA ˆ r
∴ Φ
E
=
˛
S

E
¸ .. ¸
q

0
R
2
ˆ r
d

A
¸ .. ¸
dAˆ r
=
q

0
R
2
˛
S
dA
. ¸¸ .
Total surface area of S = 4πR
2
Φ
E
=
q

0
IMPORTANT POINT:
If we remove the spherical symmetry of closed surface S, the total number of
E-field lines crossing the surface remains the same.
∴ The electric flux Φ
E
3.2. GAUSS’ LAW 28
Φ
E
=
˛
S

E d

A =
˛
S

E d

A =
q

0
3.2 Gauss’ Law
Φ
E
=
˛
S

E d

A =
q

0
for any closed surface S
And q is the net electric charge enclosed in closed surface S.
• Gauss’ Law is valid for all charge distributions and all closed surfaces.
(Gaussian surfaces)
• Coulomb’s Law can be derived from Gauss’ Law.
• For system with high order of symmetry, E-field can be easily determined if
we construct Gaussian surfaces with the same symmetry and applies Gauss’
Law
3.3 E-field Calculation with Gauss’ Law
(A) Infinite line of charge
Linear charge density: λ
Cylindrical symmetry.
E-field directs radially outward from the
rod.
Construct a Gaussian surface S in the
shape of a cylinder, making up of a
curved surface S
1
, and the top and
bottom circles S
2
, S
3
.
Gauss’ Law:
˛
S

E d

A =
Total charge

0
=
λL

0
3.3. E-FIELD CALCULATION WITH GAUSS’ LAW 29
˛
S

E d

A =
ˆ
S
1

E d

A
. ¸¸ .

Ed

A
+
ˆ
S
2

E d

A +
ˆ
S
3

E d

A
. ¸¸ .
= 0 ∵

E⊥d

A
∴ E
ˆ
S
1
dA
. ¸¸ .
Total area of surface S
1
=
λL

0
E(2πrL) =
λL

0
∴ E =
λ

0
r
(Compare with Chapter 2 note)

E =
λ

0
r
ˆ r
(B) Infinite sheet of charge
Uniform surface charge density:
σ
Planar symmetry.
E-field directs perpendicular to
the sheet of charge.
Construct Gaussian surface S in
the shape of a cylinder (pill
box) of cross-sectional area A.
Gauss’ Law:
˛
S

E d

A =

0
ˆ
S
1

E d

A = 0 ∵

E ⊥ d

A over whole surface S
1
ˆ
S
2

E d

A +
ˆ
S
3

E d

A = 2EA (

E | d

A
2
,

E | d

A
3
)
3.3. E-FIELD CALCULATION WITH GAUSS’ LAW 30
Note: For S
2
, both

E and d

A
2
point up
For S
3
, both

E and d

A
3
point down
∴ 2EA =

0
⇒ E =
σ
2
0
(Compare with Chapter 2 note)
(C) Uniformly charged sphere
Total charge = Q
Spherical symmetry.
(a) For r > R:
Consider a spherical Gaussian surface S of
radius r:

E | d

A | ˆ r
Gauss’ Law:
˛
S

E d

A =
Q

0
˛
S
E dA =
Q

0
E
˛
S
dA
. ¸¸ .
surface area of S = 4πr
2
=
Q

0


E =
Q

0
r
2
ˆ r ; for r > R
(b) For r < R:
Consider a spherical Gaussian surface S

of
radius r < R, then total charge included q is
proportional to the volume included by S


q
Q
=
Volume enclosed by S

Total volume of sphere
3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS 31
q
Q
=
4/3 πr
3
4/3 πR
3
⇒ q =
r
3
R
3
Q
Gauss’ Law:
˛
S

E d

A =
q

0
E
˛
S

dA
. ¸¸ .
surface area of S

= 4πr
2
=
r
3
R
3
1

0
Q


E =
1

0

Q
R
3
r ˆ r ; for r ≤ R
3.4 Gauss’ Law and Conductors
For isolated conductors, charges are free
to move until all charges lie outside the
surface of the conductor. Also, the E-
field at the surface of a conductor is per-
pendicular to its surface. (Why?)
Consider Gaussian surface S of shape of cylinder:
˛
S

E d

A =
σA

0
3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS 32
BUT
ˆ
S
1

E d

A = 0 ( ∵

E ⊥ d

A )
ˆ
S
3

E d

A = 0 ( ∵

E = 0 inside conductor )
ˆ
S
2

E d

A = E
ˆ
S
2
dA
. ¸¸ .
Area of S
2
( ∵

E | d

A )
= EA
∴ Gauss’ Law ⇒ EA =
σA

0
∴ On conductor’s surface E =
σ

0
BUT, there’s no charge inside conductors.
∴ Inside conductors E = 0 Always!
Notice: Surface charge density on a conductor’s surface is not uniform.
Example: Conductor with a charge inside
Note: This is not an isolated system (because of the charge inside).
Example:
3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS 33
I. Charge sprayed on a conductor sphere:
First, we know that charges all move
to the surface of conductors.
(i) For r < R:
Consider Gaussian surface S
2
˛
S
2

E d

A = 0 ( ∵ no charge inside )
⇒ E = 0 everywhere.
(ii) For r ≥ R:
Consider Gaussian surface S
1
:
˛
S
1

E d

A =
Q

0
E
˛
S
1
d

A
. ¸¸ .
4πr
2
=
Q

0
(
For a conductor
¸ .. ¸

E | d

A| ˆ r
.¸¸.
Spherically symmetric
)
E =
Q

0
r
2
II. Conductor sphere with hole inside:
3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS 34
Consider Gaussian surface S
1
: Total
charge included = 0
∴ E-field = 0 inside
The E-field is identical to the case of a
solid conductor!!
III. A long hollow cylindrical conductor:
Example:
Inside hollow cylinder ( +2q )
_
Inner radius a
Outer radius b
Outside hollow cylinder ( −3q )
_
Inner radius c
Outer radius d
Question: Find the charge on each surface of the conductor.
For the inside hollow cylinder, charges distribute only on the sur-
face.
∴ Inner radius a surface, charge = 0
and Outer radius b surface, charge = +2q
For the outside hollow cylinder, charges do not distribute only on
outside.
∵ It’s not an isolated system. (There are charges inside!)
Consider Gaussian surface S

inside the conductor:
E-field always = 0
∴ Need charge −2q on radius c surface to balance the charge of inner
cylinder.
So charge on radius d surface = −q. (Why?)
IV. Large sheets of charge:
Total charge Q on sheet of area A,
3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS 35
∴ Surface charge density σ =
Q
A
By principle of superposition
Region A: E = 0 E = 0
Region B: E =
Q

0
A
E =
Q

0
A
Region C: E = 0 E = 0
Chapter 4
Electric Potential
4.1 Potential Energy and Conservative Forces
(Read Halliday Vol.1 Chap.12)
Electric force is a conservative force
Work done by the electric force

F as a
charge moves an infinitesimal distance ds
along Path A = dW
Note: ds is in the tangent direction of the curve of Path A.
dW =

F ds
∴ Total work done W by force

F in moving the particle from Point 1 to Point 2
W =
ˆ
2
1

F ds
Path A
ˆ
2
1
= Path Integral
Path A
= Integration over Path A from Point 1 to Point 2.
4.1. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES 37
DEFINITION: A force is conservative if the work done on a particle by
the force is independent of the path taken.
∴ For conservative forces,
ˆ
2
1

F ds =
ˆ
2
1

F ds
Path A Path B
Let’s consider a path starting at point
1 to 2 through Path A and from 2 to 1
through Path C
Work done =
ˆ
2
1

F ds +
ˆ
1
2

F ds
Path A Path C
=
ˆ
2
1

F ds −
ˆ
2
1

F ds
Path A Path B
DEFINITION: The work done by a conservative force on a particle when it
moves around a closed path returning to its initial position is zero.
MATHEMATICALLY,



F = 0 everywhere for conservative force

F
Conclusion: Since the work done by a conservative force

F is path-independent,
we can define a quantity, potential energy, that depends only on the
position of the particle.
Convention: We define potential energy U such that
dU = −W = −
ˆ

F ds
∴ For particle moving from 1 to 2
ˆ
2
1
dU = U
2
−U
1
= −
ˆ
2
1

F ds
where U
1
, U
2
are potential energy at position 1, 2.
4.1. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES 38
Example:
Suppose charge q
2
moves from point 1
to 2.
From definition: U
2
−U
1
= −
ˆ
2
1

F dr
= −
ˆ
r
2
r
1
F dr ( ∵

F | dr )
= −
ˆ
r
2
r
1
1

0
q
1
q
2
r
2
dr
( ∵
ˆ
dr
r
2
= −
1
r
+C ) =
1

0
q
1
q
2
r
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
r
2
r
1
−∆W = ∆U =
1

0
q
1
q
2
_
1
r
2

1
r
1
_
Note:
(1) This result is generally true for 2-Dimension or 3-D motion.
(2) If q
2
moves away from q
1
,
then r
2
> r
1
, we have
• If q
1
, q
2
are of same sign,
then ∆U < 0, ∆W > 0
(∆W = Work done by electric repulsive force)
• If q
1
, q
2
are of different sign,
then ∆U > 0, ∆W < 0
(∆W = Work done by electric attractive force)
(3) If q
2
moves towards q
1
,
then r
2
< r
1
, we have
• If q
1
, q
2
are of same sign,
then ∆U 0, ∆W 0
• If q
1
, q
2
are of different sign,
then ∆U 0, ∆W 0
4.1. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES 39
(4) Note: It is the difference in potential energy that is important.
REFERENCE POINT: U(r = ∞) = 0
∴ U

−U
1
=
1

0
q
1
q
2
_
1
r
2

1
r
1
_


U(r) =
1

0

q
1
q
2
r
If q
1
, q
2
same sign, then U(r) > 0 for all r
If q
1
, q
2
opposite sign, then U(r) < 0 for all r
(5) Conservation of Mechanical Energy:
For a system of charges with no external force,
E = K + U = Constant
¸ ¸
(Kinetic Energy) (Potential Energy)
or ∆E = ∆K + ∆U = 0
Potential Energy of A System of Charges
Example: P.E. of 3 charges q
1
, q
2
, q
3
Start: q
1
, q
2
, q
3
all at r = ∞, U = 0
Step1: Move q
1
from ∞ to its position ⇒ U = 0
Step2:
Move q
2
from ∞ to new position ⇒
U =
1

0
q
1
q
2
r
12
Step3:
Move q
3
from ∞ to new position ⇒ Total P.E.
U =
1

0
_
q
1
q
2
r
12
+
q
1
q
3
r
13
+
q
2
q
3
r
23
_
Step4: What if there are 4 charges?
4.2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 40
4.2 Electric Potential
Consider a charge q at center, we consider its effect on test charge q
0
DEFINITION: We define electric potential V so that
∆V =
∆U
q
0
=
−∆W
q
0
( ∴ V is the P.E. per unit charge)
• Similarly, we take V (r = ∞) = 0.
• Electric Potential is a scalar.
• Unit: V olt(V ) = Joules/Coulomb
• For a single point charge:
V (r) =
1

0

q
r
• Energy Unit: ∆U = q∆V
electron −V olt(eV ) = 1.6 10
−19
. ¸¸ .
charge of electron
J
Potential For A System of Charges
For a total of N point charges, the po-
tential V at any point P can be derived
from the principle of superposition.
Recall that potential due to q
1
at
point P: V
1
=
1

0

q
1
r
1
∴ Total potential at point P due to N charges:
V = V
1
+ V
2
+ +V
N
(principle of superposition)
=
1

0
_
q
1
r
1
+
q
2
r
2
+ +
q
N
r
N
_
4.2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 41
V =
1

0
N

i=1
q
i
r
i
Note: For

E,

F, we have a sum of vectors
For V, U, we have a sum of scalars
Example: Potential of an electric dipole
Consider the potential of
point P at distance x >
d
2
from dipole.
V =
1

0
_
+q
x −
d
2
+
−q
x +
d
2
_
Special Limiting Case: x ¸d
1
x ∓
d
2
=
1
x

1
1 ∓
d
2x
·
1
x
_
1 ±
d
2x
_
∴ V =
1

0

q
x
_
1 +
d
2x
−(1 −
d
2x
)
_
V =
p

0
x
2
(Recall p = qd)
For a point charge E ∝
1
r
2
V ∝
1
r
For a dipole E ∝
1
r
3
V ∝
1
r
2
For a quadrupole E ∝
1
r
4
V ∝
1
r
3
Electric Potential of Continuous Charge Distribution
For any charge distribution, we write the electri-
cal potential dV due to infinitesimal charge dq:
dV =
1

0

dq
r
4.2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 42
∴ V =
ˆ
charge
distribution
1

0

dq
r
Similar to the previous examples on E-field, for the case of uniform charge
distribution:
1-D ⇒ long rod ⇒ dq = λ dx
2-D ⇒ charge sheet ⇒ dq = σ dA
3-D ⇒ uniformly charged body ⇒ dq = ρ dV
Example (1): Uniformly-charged ring
Length of the infinitesimal ring element
= ds = Rdθ
∴ charge dq = λ ds
= λR dθ
dV =
1

0

dq
r
=
1

0

λR dθ

R
2
+ z
2
The integration is around the entire ring.
∴ V =
ˆ
ring
dV
=
ˆ

0
1

0

λR dθ

R
2
+z
2
=
λR

0

R
2
+ z
2
ˆ

0

. ¸¸ .

Total charge on the
ring = λ (2πR)
V =
Q

0

R
2
+ z
2
LIMITING CASE: z ¸R ⇒ V =
Q

0

z
2
=
Q

0
[z[
4.2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 43
Example (2): Uniformly-charged disk
Using the principle of superpo-
sition, we will find the potential
of a disk of uniform charge den-
sity by integrating the potential of
concentric rings.
∴ dV =
1

0
ˆ
disk
dq
r
Ring of radius x: dq = σ dA = σ (2πxdx)
∴ V =
ˆ
R
0
1

0

σ2πx dx

x
2
+ z
2
=
σ
4
0
ˆ
R
0
d(x
2
+z
2
)
(x
2
+ z
2
)
1/2
V =
σ
2
0
(

z
2
+ R
2


z
2
)
=
σ
2
0
(

z
2
+ R
2
−[z[)
Recall:
|x| =
_
+x; x ≥ 0
−x; x < 0
Limiting Case:
(1) If [z[ ¸R

z
2
+ R
2
=
¸
z
2
_
1 +
R
2
z
2
_
= [z[
_
1 +
R
2
z
2
_1
2
( (1 + x)
n
≈ 1 + nx if x ¸1 )
· [z[
_
1 +
R
2
2z
2
_
(
[z[
z
2
=
1
[z[
)
∴ At large z, V ·
σ
2
0

R
2
2[z[
=
Q

0
[z[
(like a point charge)
where Q = total charge on disk = σ πR
2
4.2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 44
(2) If [z[ ¸R

z
2
+ R
2
= R
_
1 +
z
2
R
2
_1
2
· R
_
1 +
z
2
2R
2
_
∴ V ·
σ
2
0
_
R −[z[ +
z
2
2R
_
At z = 0, V =
σR
2
0
; Let’s call this V
0
∴ V (z) =
σR
2
0
_
1 −
[z[
R
+
z
2
2R
2
_
V (z) = V
0
_
1 −
[z[
R
+
z
2
2R
2
_
The key here is that it is the difference between potentials of two points
that is important.
⇒ A convenience reference point to compare in this example is the
potential of the charged disk.
∴ The important quantity here is
V (z) −V
0
= −
[z[
R
V
0
+
&
&
&
&
z
2
2R
2
V
0
neglected as z ¸R
V (z) −V
0
= −
V
0
R
[z[
4.3. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC
POTENTIAL V 45
4.3 Relation Between Electric Field E and Elec-
tric Potential V
(A) To get V from

E:
Recall our definition of the potential V:
∆V =
∆U
q
0
= −
W
12
q
0
where ∆U is the change in P.E.; W
12
is the work done in bringing charge
q
0
from point 1 to 2.
∴ ∆V = V
2
−V
1
=

´
2
1

F ds
q
0
However, the definition of E-field:

F = q
0

E
∴ ∆V = V
2
−V
1
= −
ˆ
2
1

E ds
Note: The integral on the right hand side of the above can be calculated
along any path from point 1 to 2. (Path-Independent)
Convention: V

= 0 ⇒ V
P
= −
ˆ
P

E ds
(B) To get

E from V :
Again, use the definition of V :
∆U = q
0
∆V = −W
. ¸¸ .
Work done
However,
W = q
0

E
.¸¸.
Electric force
∆s
= q
0
E
s
∆s
where E
s
is the E-field component along
the path ∆s.
∴ q
0
∆V = −q
0
E
s
∆s
4.3. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC
POTENTIAL V 46
∴ E
s
= −
∆V
∆s
For infinitesimal ∆s,
∴ E
s
= −
dV
ds
Note: (1) Therefore the E-field component along any direction is the neg-
tive derivative of the potential along the same direction.
(2) If ds ⊥

E, then ∆V = 0
(3) ∆V is biggest/smallest if ds |

E
Generally, for a potential V (x, y, z), the relation between

E(x, y, z) and V
is
E
x
= −
∂V
∂x
E
y
= −
∂V
∂y
E
z
= −
∂V
∂z

∂x
,

∂y
,

∂z
are partial derivatives
For

∂x
V (x, y, z), everything y, z are treated like a constant and we only
take derivative with respect to x.
Example: If V (x, y, z) = x
2
y −z
∂V
∂x
=
∂V
∂y
=
∂V
∂z
=
For other co-ordinate systems
(1) Cylindrical:
V (r, θ, z)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
E
r
= −
∂V
∂r
E
θ
= −
1
r

∂V
∂θ
E
z
= −
∂V
∂z
4.3. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC
POTENTIAL V 47
(2) Spherical:
V (r, θ, φ)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
E
r
= −
∂V
∂r
E
θ
= −
1
r

∂V
∂θ
E
φ
= −
1
r sin θ

∂V
∂φ
Note: Calculating V involves summation of scalars, which is easier than
adding vectors for calculating E-field.
∴ To find the E-field of a general charge system, we first calculate
V , and then derive

E from the partial derivative.
Example: Uniformly charged disk
From potential calculations:
V =
σ
2
0
(

R
2
+z
2
−[z[ )
for a point along
the z-axis
For z > 0, [z[ = z
∴ E
z
= −
∂V
∂z
=
σ
2
0
_
1 −
z

R
2
+z
2
_
(Compare with
Chap.2 notes)
Example: Uniform electric field
(e.g. Uniformly charged +ve and −ve plates)
Consider a path going from the −ve
plate to the +ve plate
Potential at point P, V
P
can be deduced
from definition.
i.e. V
P
−V

= −
ˆ
s
0

E ds
(V

= Potential of
−ve plate)
= −
ˆ
s
0
(−E ds)


E, ds pointing
opposite directions
= E
ˆ
s
0
ds = Es
Convenient reference: V

= 0
∴ V
P
= E s
4.4. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES 48
4.4 Equipotential Surfaces
Equipotential surface is a surface on which the potential is constant.
⇒ (∆V = 0)
V (r) =
1

0

+q
r
= const
⇒ r = const
⇒ Equipotential surfaces are
circles/spherical surfaces
Note: (1) A charge can move freely on an equipotential surface without any
work done.
(2) The electric field lines must be perpendicular to the equipotential
surfaces. (Why?)
On an equipotential surface, V = constant
⇒ ∆V = 0 ⇒

E d

l = 0, where d

l is tangent to equipotential surface


E must be perpendicular to equipotential surfaces.
Example: Uniformly charged surface (infinite)
Recall V = V
0

σ
2
0
[z[

Potential at z = 0
Equipotential surface means
V = const ⇒ V
0

σ
2
0
[z[ = C
⇒ [z[ = constant
4.4. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES 49
Example: Isolated spherical charged conductors
Recall:
(1) E-field inside = 0
(2) charge distributed on the
outside of conductors.
(i) Inside conductor:
E = 0 ⇒ ∆V = 0 everywhere in conductor
⇒ V = constant everywhere in conductor
⇒ The entire conductor is at the same potential
(ii) Outside conductor:
V =
Q

0
r
∵ Spherically symmetric (Just like a point charge.)
BUT not true for conductors of arbitrary shape.
Example: Connected conducting spheres
Two conductors con-
nected can be seen as a
single conductor
4.4. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES 50
∴ Potential everywhere is identical.
Potential of radius R
1
sphere V
1
=
q
1

0
R
1
Potential of radius R
2
sphere V
2
=
q
2

0
R
2
V
1
= V
2

q
1
R
1
=
q
2
R
2

q
1
q
2
=
R
1
R
2
Surface charge density
σ
1
=
q
1
4πR
2
1
. ¸¸ .
Surface area of radius R
1
sphere

σ
1
σ
2
=
q
1
q
2

R
2
2
R
2
1
=
R
2
R
1
∴ If R
1
< R
2
, then σ
1
> σ
2
And the surface electric field E
1
> E
2
For arbitrary shape conductor:
At every point on the conductor,
we fit a circle. The radius of this
circle is the radius of curvature.
Note: Charge distribution on a conductor does not have to be uniform.
Chapter 5
Capacitance and DC Circuits
5.1 Capacitors
A capacitor is a system of two conductors that carries equal and opposite
charges. A capacitor stores charge and energy in the form of electro-static field.
We define capacitance as
C =
Q
V
Unit: Farad(F)
where
Q = Charge on one plate
V = Potential difference between the plates
Note: The C of a capacitor is a constant that depends only on its shape and
material.
i.e. If we increase V for a capacitor, we can increase Q stored.
5.2 Calculating Capacitance
5.2.1 Parallel-Plate Capacitor
5.2. CALCULATING CAPACITANCE 52
(1) Recall from Chapter 3 note,
[

E[ =
σ

0
=
Q

0
A
(2) Recall from Chapter 4 note,
∆V = V
+
−V

= −
ˆ
+

E ds
Again, notice that this integral is independent of the path taken.
∴ We can take the path that is parallel to the

E-field.
∴ ∆V =
ˆ

+

E ds
=
ˆ

+
E ds
=
Q

0
A
ˆ

+
ds
. ¸¸ .
Length of path taken
=
Q

0
A
d
(3) ∴ C =
Q
∆V
=

0
A
d
5.2.2 Cylindrical Capacitor
Consider two concentric cylindrical wire
of innner and outer radii r
1
and r
2
re-
spectively. The length of the capacitor
is L where r
1
< r
2
¸L.
5.2. CALCULATING CAPACITANCE 53
(1) Using Gauss’ Law, we determine that the E-field between the conductors
is (cf. Chap3 note)

E =
1

0

λ
r
ˆ r =
1

0

Q
Lr
ˆ r
where λ is charge per unit length
(2)
∆V =
ˆ

+

E ds
Again, we choose the path of integration so that ds | ˆ r |

E
∴ ∆V =
ˆ
r
2
r
1
E dr =
Q

0
L
ˆ
r
2
r
1
dr
r
. ¸¸ .
ln(
r
2
r
1
)
∴ C =
Q
∆V
= 2π
0
L
ln(r
2
/r
1
)
5.2.3 Spherical Capacitor
For the space between the two conductors,
E =
1

0

Q
r
2
; r
1
< r < r
2
∆V =
ˆ

+

E ds
Choose ds | ˆ r =
ˆ
r
2
r
1
1

0

Q
r
2
dr
=
Q

0
_
1
r
1

1
r
2
_
C = 4π
0
_
r
1
r
2
r
2
−r
1
_
5.3. CAPACITORS IN COMBINATION 54
5.3 Capacitors in Combination
(a) Capacitors in Parallel
In this case, it’s the potential difference
V = V
a
−V
b
that is the same across the
capacitor.
BUT: Charge on each capacitor different
Total charge Q = Q
1
+ Q
2
= C
1
V + C
2
V
Q = (C
1
+ C
2
)
. ¸¸ .
Equivalent capacitance
V
∴ For capacitors in parallel: C = C
1
+ C
2
(b) Capacitors in Series
The charge across capacitors are
the same.
BUT: Potential difference (P.D.) across capacitors different
∆V
1
= V
a
−V
c
=
Q
C
1
P.D. across C
1
∆V
2
= V
c
−V
b
=
Q
C
2
P.D. across C
2
∴ Potential difference
∆V = V
a
−V
b
= ∆V
1
+ ∆V
2
∆V = Q(
1
C
1
+
1
C
2
) =
Q
C
where C is the Equivalent Capacitance

1
C
=
1
C
1
+
1
C
2
5.4. ENERGY STORAGE IN CAPACITOR 55
5.4 Energy Storage in Capacitor
In charging a capacitor, positive charge
is being moved from the negative plate
to the positive plate.
⇒ NEEDS WORK DONE!
Suppose we move charge dq from −ve to +ve plate, change in potential energy
dU = ∆V dq =
q
C
dq
Suppose we keep putting in a total charge Q to the capacitor, the total potential
energy
U =
ˆ
dU =
ˆ
Q
0
q
C
dq
∴ U =
Q
2
2C
=
1
2
C∆V
2
(∵ Q=C∆V )
The energy stored in the capacitor is stored in the electric field between the
plates.
Note : In a parallel-plate capacitor, the E-field is constant between the plates.
∴ We can consider the E-field energy
density u =
Total energy stored
Total volume with E-field
∴ u =
U
Ad
.¸¸.
Rectangular volume
Recall
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
C =

0
A
d
E =
∆V
d
⇒ ∆V = Ed
∴ u =
1
2
(
C
¸ .. ¸

0
A
d
) (
(∆V )
2
¸..¸
Ed )
2

1
V olume
¸..¸
1
Ad
5.4. ENERGY STORAGE IN CAPACITOR 56
u =
1
2

0
E
2
Energy per unit volume
of the electrostatic field

can be generally applied
Example : Changing capacitance
(1) Isolated Capacitor:
Charge on the capacitor plates remains constant.
BUT: C
new
=

0
A
2d
=
1
2
C
old
∴ U
new
=
Q
2
2C
new
=
Q
2
2C
old
/2
= 2U
old
∴ In pulling the plates apart, work done W > 0
Summary :
Q → Q C → C/2
(V =
Q
C
) ⇒ V → 2V E → E (E =
V
d
)
1
2

0
E
2
= u → u U → 2U (U = u volume)
(2) Capacitor connected to a battery:
Potential difference between capacitor plates remains constant.
U
new
=
1
2
C
new
∆V
2
=
1
2

1
2
C
old
∆V
2
=
1
2
U
old
∴ In pulling the plates apart, work done by battery < 0
Summary :
Q → Q/2 C → C/2
V → V E → E/2
u → u/4 U → U/2
5.5. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT 57
5.5 Dielectric Constant
We first recall the case for a conductor being placed in an external E-field E
0
.
In a conductor, charges are free to move
inside so that the internal E-field E

set
up by these charges
E

= −E
0
so that E-field inside conductor = 0.
Generally, for dielectric, the atoms and
molecules behave like a dipole in an E-field.
Or, we can envision this so that in the absence of E-field, the direction of dipole
in the dielectric are randomly distributed.
5.6. CAPACITOR WITH DIELECTRIC 58
The aligned dipoles will generate an induced E-field E

, where [E

[ < [E
0
[.
We can observe the aligned dipoles in the form of induced surface charge.
Dielectric Constant : When a dielectric is placed in an external E-field E
0
,
the E-field inside a dielectric is induced.
E-field in dielectric
E =
1
K
e
E
0
K
e
= dielectric constant ≥ 1
Example :
Vacuum K
e
= 1
Porcelain K
e
= 6.5
Water K
e
∼ 80
Perfect conductor K
e
= ∞
Air K
e
= 1.00059
5.6 Capacitor with Dielectric
Case I :
Again, the charge remains constant after dielectric is inserted.
BUT: E
new
=
1
K
e
E
old
∴ ∆V = Ed ⇒ ∆V
new
=
1
K
e
∆V
old
∴ C =
Q
∆V
⇒ C
new
= K
e
C
old
For a parallel-plate capacitor with dielectric:
C =
K
e

0
A
d
5.6. CAPACITOR WITH DIELECTRIC 59
We can also write C =
A
d
in general with
= K
e

0
(called permittivity of dielectric)
(Recall
0
= Permittivity of free space)
Energy stored U =
Q
2
2C
;
∴ U
new
=
1
K
e
U
old
< U
old
∴ Work done in inserting dielectric < 0
Case II : Capacitor connected to a battery
Voltage across capacitor plates remains constant after insertion of dielec-
tric.
In both scenarios, the E-field inside capacitor remains constant
(∵ E = V/d)
BUT: How can E-field remain constant?
ANSWER: By having extra charge on capacitor plates.
Recall: For conductors,
E =
σ

0
(Chapter 3 note)
⇒ E =
Q

0
A
(σ = charge per unit area = Q/A)
After insertion of dielectric:
E

=
E
K
e
=
Q

K
e

0
A
But E-field remains constant!
∴ E

= E ⇒
Q

K
e

0
A
=
Q

0
A
⇒ Q

= K
e
Q > Q
5.7. GAUSS’ LAW IN DIELECTRIC 60
∴ Capacitor C = Q/V ⇒ C

→ K
e
C
Energy stored U =
1
2
CV
2
⇒ U

→ K
e
U
(i.e. U
new
> U
old
)
∴ Work done to insert dielectric > 0
5.7 Gauss’ Law in Dielectric
The Gauss’ Law we’ve learned is applicable in vacuum only. Let’s use the capac-
itor as an example to examine Gauss’ Law in dielectric.
Free charge
on plates
±Q ±Q
Induced charge
on dielectric
0 ∓Q

Gauss’ Law Gauss’ Law:
˛
S

E d

A =
Q

0
˛
S

E

d

A =
Q−Q

0
⇒ E
0
=
Q

0
A
(1) ∴ E

=
Q−Q

0
A
(2)
However, we define E

=
E
0
K
e
(3)
From (1), (2), (3) ∴
Q
K
e

0
A
=
Q

0
A

Q

0
A
∴ Induced charge density σ

=
Q

A
= σ
_
1 −
1
K
e
_
< σ
where σ is free charge density.
Recall Gauss’ Law in Dielectric:

0
˛
S

E

d

A = Q − Q

↑ ↑ ↑
E-field in dielectric free charge induced charge
5.8. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE 61

0
˛
S

E

d

A = Q−Q
_
1 −
1
K
e
_

0
˛
S

E

d

A =
Q
K
e
˛
S
K
e

E

d

A =
Q

0
Gauss’ Law
in dielectric
Note :
(1) This goes back to the Gauss’ Law in vacuum with E =
E
0
K
e
for dielectric
(2) Only free charges need to be considered, even for dielectric where there
are induced charges.
(3) Another way to write:
˛
S

E d

A =
Q

where

E is E-field in dielectric, = K
e

0
is Permittivity
Energy stored with dielectric:
Total energy stored: U =
1
2
CV
2
With dielectric, recall C =
K
e

0
A
d
V = Ed
∴ Energy stored per unit volume:
u
e
=
U
Ad
=
1
2
K
e

0
E
2
and u
dielectric
= K
e
u
vacuum
∴ More energy is stored per unit volume in dielectric than in vacuum.
5.8 Ohm’s Law and Resistance
ELECTRIC CURRENT is defined as the flow of electric charge through a
cross-sectional area.
5.8. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE 62
i =
dQ
dt
Unit: Ampere (A)
= C/second
Convention :
(1) Direction of current is the direction of flow of positive charge.
(2) Current is NOT a vector, but the current density is a vector.

j = charge flow per unit time per unit area
i =
ˆ

j d

A
Drift Velocity :
Consider a current i flowing through
a cross-sectional area A:
∴ In time ∆t, total charges passing through segment:
∆Q = q A(V
d
∆t)
. ¸¸ .
Volume of charge
passing through
n
where q is charge of the current carrier, n is density of charge carrier
per unit volume
∴ Current: i =
∆Q
∆t
= nqAv
d
Current Density:

j = nqv
d
Note : For metal, the charge carriers are the free electrons inside.


j = −nev
d
for metals
∴ Inside metals,

j and v
d
are in opposite direction.
We define a general property, conductivity (σ), of a material as:

j = σ

E
5.8. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE 63
Note : In general, σ is NOT a constant number, but rather a function of position
and applied E-field.
A more commonly used property, resistivity (ρ), is defined as ρ =
1
σ


E = ρ

j
Unit of ρ : Ohm-meter (Ωm)
where Ohm (Ω) = Volt/Ampere
OHM’S LAW:
Ohmic materials have resistivity that are independent of the applied electric field.
i.e. metals (in not too high E-field)
Example :
Consider a resistor (ohmic material) of
length L and cross-sectional area A.
∴ Electric field inside conductor:
∆V =
ˆ

E ds = E L ⇒ E =
∆V
L
Current density: j =
i
A
∴ ρ =
E
j
ρ =
∆V
L

1
i/A
∆V
i
= R = ρ
L
A
where R is the resistance of the conductor.
Note: ∆V = iR is NOT a statement of Ohm’s Law. It’s just a definition for
resistance.
5.9. DC CIRCUITS 64
ENERGY IN CURRENT:
Assuming a charge ∆Q enters
with potential V
1
and leaves with
potential V
2
:
∴ Potential energy lost in the wire:
∆U = ∆QV
2
−∆QV
1
∆U = ∆Q(V
2
−V
1
)
∴ Rate of energy lost per unit time
∆U
∆t
=
∆Q
∆t
(V
2
−V
1
)
Joule’s heating P = i ∆V =
Power dissipated
in conductor
For a resistor R, P = i
2
R =
∆V
2
R
5.9 DC Circuits
A battery is a device that supplies electrical energy to maintain a current in a
circuit.
In moving from point 1 to 2, elec-
tric potential energy increase by
∆U = ∆Q(V
2
−V
1
) = Work done by c
Define c = Work done/charge = V
2
−V
1
5.9. DC CIRCUITS 65
Example :
V
a
= V
c
V
b
= V
d
_
assuming
(1)
perfect conducting wires.
By Definition: V
c
−V
d
= iR
V
a
−V
b
= c
∴ c = iR ⇒ i =
c
R
Also, we have assumed
(2)
zero resistance inside battery.
Resistance in combination :
Potential differece (P.D.)
V
a
−V
b
= (V
a
−V
c
) + (V
c
−V
b
)
= iR
1
+ iR
2
∴ Equivalent Resistance
R = R
1
+ R
2
for resistors in series
1
R
=
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
for resistors in parallel
5.9. DC CIRCUITS 66
Example :
For real battery, there is an
internal resistance that
we cannot ignore.
∴ c = i(R +r)
i =
c
R + r
Joule’s heating in resistor R :
P = i (P.D. across resistor R)
= i
2
R
P =
c
2
R
(R + r)
2
Question: What is the value of R to obtain maximum Joule’s heating?
Answer: We want to find R to maximize P.
dP
dR
=
c
2
(R + r)
2

c
2
2R
(R + r)
3
Setting
dP
dR
= 0 ⇒
c
2
(R +r)
3
[(R + r) −2R] = 0
⇒ r −R = 0
⇒ R = r
5.9. DC CIRCUITS 67
ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX CIRCUITS:
KIRCHOFF’S LAWS:
(1) First Law (Junction Rule):
Total current entering a junction equal to the total current leaving the
junction.
(2) Second Law (Loop Rule):
The sum of potential differences around a complete circuit loop is zero.
Convention :
(i)
V
a
> V
b
⇒ Potential difference = −iR
i.e. Potential drops across resistors
(ii)
V
b
> V
a
⇒ Potential difference = +c
i.e. Potential rises across the negative plate of the battery.
Example :
5.9. DC CIRCUITS 68
By junction rule:
i
1
= i
2
+ i
3
(5.1)
By loop rule:
Loop A ⇒ 2c
0
−i
1
R −i
2
R +c
0
−i
1
R = 0 (5.2)
Loop B ⇒ −i
3
R −c
0
−i
3
R −c
0
+ i
2
R = 0 (5.3)
Loop C ⇒ 2c
0
−i
1
R −i
3
R −c
0
−i
3
R −i
1
R = 0 (5.4)
BUT: (5.4) = (5.2) + (5.3)
General rule: Need only 3 equations for 3 current
i
1
= i
2
+ i
3
(5.1)
3c
0
−2i
1
R −i
2
R = 0 (5.2)
−2c
0
+ i
2
R −2i
3
R = 0 (5.3)
Substitute (5.1) into (5.2) :
3c
0
−2(i
2
+ i
3
)R −i
2
R = 0
⇒ 3c
0
−3i
2
R −2i
3
R = 0 (5.4)
Subtract (5.3) from (5.4), i.e. (5.4)−(5.3)
3c
0
−(−2c
0
) −3i
2
R −i
2
R = 0
⇒ i
2
=
5
4

c
0
R
Substitute i
2
into (5.3) :
−2c
0
+
_
5
4

c
0
R
_
R −2i
3
R = 0
5.10. RC CIRCUITS 69
⇒ i
3
= −
3
8

c
0
R
Substitute i
2
, i
3
into (5.1) :
i
1
=
_
5
4

3
8
_
c
0
R
=
7
8

c
0
R
Note: A negative current means that it is flowing in opposite direction from the
one assumed.
5.10 RC Circuits
(A) Charging a capacitor with battery:
Using the loop rule:
+c
0
− iR
.¸¸.
P.D.
across R

Q
C
.¸¸.
P.D.
across C
= 0
Note: Direction of i is chosen so that the current represents the rate at
which the charge on the capacitor is increasing.
∴ c = R
i
¸..¸
dQ
dt
+
Q
C
1st order
differential eqn.

dQ
cC −Q
=
dt
RC
Integrate both sides and use the initial condition:
t = 0, Q on capacitor = 0
ˆ
Q
0
dQ
cC −Q
=
ˆ
t
0
dt
RC
5.10. RC CIRCUITS 70
−ln(cC −Q)
¸
¸
¸
Q
0
=
t
RC
¸
¸
¸
t
0
⇒ −ln(cC −Q) + ln(cC) =
t
RC
⇒ ln
_
1
1 −
Q
EC
_
=
t
RC

1
1 −
Q
EC
= e
t/RC

Q
cC
= 1 −e
−t/RC
⇒ Q(t) = cC(1 −e
−t/RC
)
Note: (1) At t = 0 , Q(t = 0) = cC(1 −1) = 0
(2) As t →∞ , Q(t →∞) = cC(1 −0) = cC
= Final charge on capacitor (Q
0
)
(3) Current:
i =
dQ
dt
= cC
_
1
RC
_
e
−t/RC
i(t) =
c
R
e
−t/RC
_
_
_
i(t = 0) =
c
R
= Initial current = i
0
i(t →∞) = 0
(4) At time = 0, the capacitor acts like short circuit when there is
zero charge on the capacitor.
(5) As time → ∞, the capacitor is fully charged and current = 0, it
acts like a open circuit.
5.10. RC CIRCUITS 71
(6) τ
c
= RC is called the time constant. It’s the time it takes for
the charge to reach (1 −
1
e
) Q
0
· 0.63Q
0
(B) Discharging a charged capacitor:
Note: Direction of i is chosen so that the current represents the rate at
which the charge on the capacitor is decreasing.
∴ i = −
dQ
dt
Loop Rule:
V
c
−iR = 0

Q
C
+
dQ
dt
R = 0

dQ
dt
= −
1
RC
Q
Integrate both sides and use the initial condition:
t = 0, Q on capacitor = Q
0
ˆ
Q
Q
0
dQ
Q
= −
1
RC
ˆ
t
0
dt
⇒ ln Q−ln Q
0
= −
t
RC
⇒ ln
_
Q
Q
0
_
= −
t
RC

Q
Q
0
= e
−t/RC
⇒ Q(t) = Q
0
e
−t/RC
(i = −
dQ
dt
) ⇒ i(t) =
Q
0
RC
e
−t/RC
(At t = 0) ⇒ i(t = 0) =
1
R

Q
0
C
.¸¸.
Initial P.D. across capacitor
i
0
=
V
0
R
5.10. RC CIRCUITS 72
At t = RC = τ Q(t = RC) =
1
e
Q
0
· 0.37Q
0
Chapter 6
Magnetic Force
6.1 Magnetic Field
For stationary charges, they experienced an electric force in an electric field.
For moving charges, they experienced a magnetic force in a magnetic field.
Mathematically,

F
E
= q

E (electric force)

F
B
= qv

B (magnetic force)
Direction of the magnetic force determined from right hand rule.
Magnetic field

B : Unit = Tesla (T)
1T = 1C moving at 1m/s experiencing 1N
Common Unit: 1 Gauss (G) = 10
−4
T ≈ magnetic field on earth’s surface
Example: What’s the force on a 0.1C charge moving at velocity v = (10
ˆ
j −
20
ˆ
k)ms
−1
in a magnetic field

B = (−3
ˆ
i + 4
ˆ
k) 10
−4
T

F = qv

B
6.1. MAGNETIC FIELD 74
= +0.1 (10
ˆ
j −20
ˆ
k) (−3
ˆ
i + 4
ˆ
k) 10
−4
N
= 10
−5
(−30 −
ˆ
k + 40
ˆ
i + 60
ˆ
j + 0)N
Effects of magnetic field is usually quite small.

F = qv

B
[

F[ = qvBsin θ, where θ is the angle between v and

B
∴ Magnetic force is maximum when θ = 90

(i.e. v ⊥

B)
Magnetic force is minimum (0) when θ = 0

, 180

(i.e. v |

B)
Graphical representation of B-field: Magnetic field lines
Compared with Electric field lines:
Similar characteristics :
(1) Direction of E-field/B-field indicated by tangent of the field lines.
(2) Magnitude of E-field/B-field indicated by density of the field lines.
Differeces :
(1)

F
E
| E-field lines;

F
B
⊥ B-field lines
(2) E-field line begins at positive charge and ends at negative charge; B-
field line forms a closed loop.
Example : Chap35, Pg803 Halliday
Note: Isolated magnetic monopoles do not exist.
6.2. MOTION OF A POINT CHARGE IN MAGNETIC FIELD 75
6.2 Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field
Since

F
B
⊥ v, therefore B-field only changes the direction of the velocity but not
its magnitude.
Generally,

F
B
= qv

B = q v

B ,
∴ We only need to consider the motion
component ⊥ to B-field.
We have circular motion. Magnetic
force provides the centripetal force on the
moving charge particles.
∴ F
B
= m
v
2
r
[q[ vB = m
v
2
r
∴ r =
mv
[q[B
where r is radius of circular motion.
Time for moving around one orbit:
T =
2πr
v
=
2πm
qB
Cyclotron Period
(1) Independent of v (non-relativistic)
(2) Use it to measure m/q
Generally, charged particles with con-
stant velocity moves in helix in the pres-
ence of constant B-field.
6.3. HALL EFFECT 76
Note :
(1) B-field does NO work on particles.
(2) B-field does NOT change K.E. of particles.
Particle Motion in Presence of E-field & B-field:

F = q

E +qv

B Lorentz Force
Special Case :

E ⊥

B
When [

F
E
[ = [

F
B
[
qE = qvB
⇒ v =
E
B
∴ For charged particles moving at v = E/B, they will pass through the
crossed E and B fields without vertical displacement.
⇒ velocity selector
Applications :
• Cyclotron (Lawrence & Livingston 1934)
• Measuring e/m for electrons (Thomson 1897)
• Mass Spectrometer (Aston 1919)
6.3 Hall Effect
Charges travelling in a conducting wire will be pushed to one side of the wire by
the external magnetic field. This separation of charge in the wire is called the
Hall Effect.
6.3. HALL EFFECT 77
The separation will stop when F
B
experienced by the current carrier is balanced
by the force

F
H
caused by the E-field set up by the separated charges.
Define :
∆V
H
= Hall Voltage
= Potential difference across the conducting strip
∴ E-field from separated charges: E
H
=
∆V
H
W
where W = width of conducting strip
In equilibrium: q

E
H
+qv
d

B = 0, where v
d
is drift velocity

∆V
H
W
= v
d
B
Recall from Chapter 5,
i = nqAv
d
where n is density of charge carrier,
A is cross-sectional area = width thickness = W t

∆V
H
W
=
i
nqWt
B
⇒ n =
iB
qt∆V
H
To determine density
of charge carriers
Suppose we determine n for a particular metal (∴ q = e), then we can measure
B-field strength by measuring the Hall voltage:
B =
net
i
∆V
H
6.4. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS 78
6.4 Magnetic Force on Currents
Current = many charges moving together
Consider a wire segment, length L,
carrying current i in a magnetic field.
Total magnetic force = ( qv
d

B
. ¸¸ .
force on one
charge carrier
) n A L
. ¸¸ .
Total number of
charge carrier
Recall i = nqv
d
A
∴ Magnetic force on current

F = i

L

B
where

L = Vector of which: [

L[ = length of current segment; direction =
direction of current
For an infinitesimal wire segment d

l
d

F = i d

l

B
Example 1: Force on a semicircle current loop
d

l = Infinitesimal
arc length element ⊥

B
∴ dl = Rdθ
∴ dF = iRBdθ
By symmetry argument, we only need to consider vertical forces, dF sin θ
∴ Net force F =
ˆ
π
0
dF sin θ
= iRB
ˆ
π
0
sin θ dθ
F = 2iRB (downward)
6.4. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS 79
Method 2: Write d

l in
ˆ
i,
ˆ
j components
d

l = −dl sin θ
ˆ
i + dl cos θ
ˆ
j
= Rdθ (−sin θ
ˆ
i + cos θ
ˆ
j)

B = −B
ˆ
k (into the page)
∴ d

F = i d

l

B
= −iRBsin θ dθ
ˆ
j −iRBcos θ
ˆ
i


F =
ˆ
π
0
d

F
= −iRB
_
ˆ
π
0
sin θ dθ
ˆ
j +
ˆ
π
0
cos θ dθ
ˆ
i
_
= −2iRB
ˆ
j
Example 2: Current loop in B-field
For segment2:
F
2
= ibBsin(90

+ θ) = ibBcos θ (pointing downward)
For segment4:
F
2
= ibBsin(90

−θ) = ibBcos θ (pointing upward)
6.4. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS 80
For segment1: F
1
= iaB
For segment3: F
3
= iaB
∴ Net force on the current loop = 0
But, net torque on the loop about O
= τ
1
+ τ
3
= iaB
b
2
sin θ + iaB
b
2
sin θ
= i ab
.¸¸.
A = area of loop
Bsin θ
Suppose the loop is a coil with N turns of wires:
Total torque τ = NiABsin θ
Define: Unit vector ˆ n to represent the area-vector (using right hand rule)
Then we can rewrite the torque equation as
τ = NiAˆ n

B
Define: NiAˆ n = µ = Magnetic dipole moment of loop
τ = µ

B
Chapter 7
Magnetic Field
7.1 Magnetic Field
A moving charge
_
¸
_
¸
_
experiences magnetic force in B-field.
can generate B-field.
Magnetic field

B due to moving point charge:

B =
µ
0


qv ˆ r
r
2
=
µ
0


qv r
r
3
where µ
0
= 4π 10
−7
Tm/A (N/A
2
)
Permeability of free space (Magnetic constant)
[

B[ =
µ
0


qv sin θ
r
2
_
maximum when θ = 90

minimum when θ = 0

/180

B at P
0
= 0 =

B at P
1

B at P
2
<

B at P
3
However, a single moving charge will NOT generate a steady magnetic field.
stationary charges generate steady E-field.
steady currents generate steady B-field.
7.1. MAGNETIC FIELD 82
Magnetic field at point P can be
obtained by integrating the contribu-
tion from individual current segments.
(Principle of Superposition)
∴ d

B =
µ
0


dq v ˆ r
r
2
Notice: dq v = dq
ds
dt
= i ds
d

B =
µ
0


i ds ˆ r
r
2
Biot-Savart Law
For current around a whole circuit:

B =
ˆ
entire
circuit
d

B =
ˆ
entire
circuit
µ
0


i ds ˆ r
r
2
Biot-Savart Law is to magnetic field as
Coulomb’s Law is to electric field.
Basic element of E-field: Electric charges dq
Basic element of B-field: Current element i ds
Example 1 : Magnetic field due to straight current segment
7.1. MAGNETIC FIELD 83
∴ [ds ˆ r[ = dz sin φ
= dz sin(π −φ) (Trigonometry Identity)
= dz
d
r
=
d dz

d
2
+ z
2
dB =
µ
0


i dz
r
2

d
r
=
µ
0
i


d
(d
2
+ z
2
)
3/2
dz
∴ B =
ˆ
L/2
−L/2
dB =
µ
0
id

ˆ
+L/2
−L/2
dz
(d
2
+ z
2
)
3/2
B =
µ
0
i
4πd

z
(z
2
+ d
2
)
1/2
¸
¸
¸
¸
+L/2
−L/2
B =
µ
0
i
4πd

L
(
L
2
4
+ d
2
)
1/2
Limiting Cases : When L ¸d (B-field due to long wire)
_
L
2
4
+ d
2
_
−1/2

_
L
2
4
_
−1/2
=
2
L
∴ B =
µ
0
i
2πd
;
direction of B-field determined
from right-hand screw rule
Recall : E =
λ

0
d
for an infinite long line of charge.
Example 2 : A circular current loop
7.1. MAGNETIC FIELD 84
Notice that for every current element ids
1
, generating a magnetic field d

B
1
at point P, there is an opposite current element ids
2
, generating B-field
d

B
2
so that
d

B
1
sin α = −d

B
2
sin α
∴ Only vertical component of B-field needs to be considered at point P.
dB =
µ
0


i ds sin
∵ds⊥ˆ r
¸..¸
90

r
2
∴ B-field at point P:
B =
ˆ
around
circuit
dB cos α
. ¸¸ .
consider vertical
component
∴ B =

ˆ
0
µ
0
i cos α
4πr
2
ds
.¸¸.
Rdθ
=
µ
0
i


R
r
3
ˆ

0
ds
. ¸¸ .
Integrate around circum-
ference of circle = 2πR
∴ B =
µ
0
iR
2
2r
3
B =
µ
0
iR
2
2(R
2
+ z
2
)
3/2
;
direction of B-field determined
from right-hand screw rule
Limiting Cases :
(1) B-field at center of loop:
z = 0 ⇒ B =
µ
0
i
2R
(2) For z ¸R,
B =
µ
0
iR
2
2z
3
_
1 +
R
2
z
2
_
3/2

µ
0
iR
2
2z
3

1
z
3
Recall E-field for an electric dipole: E =
p

0
x
3
∴ A circular current loop is also called a magnetic dipole.
7.1. MAGNETIC FIELD 85
(3) A current arc:
B =
ˆ
around
circuit
dB cos α
. ¸¸ .
z = 0 ⇒
α = 0 here.
=
µ
0
i


R
r
3
.¸¸.
R = r
when α = 0

Rθ = length of arc
¸ .. ¸
ˆ
θ
0
ds
.¸¸.
Rdθ
B =
µ
0
i θ
4πR
Example 3 : Magnetic field of a solenoid
Solenoid is used to produce a strong and uniform magnetic field inside its
coils.
Consider a solenoid of length L consisting of N turns of wire.
Define: n = Number of turns per unit length =
N
L
Consider B-field at distance d from the
center of the solenoid:
For a segment of length dz, number of
current turns = ndz
∴ Total current = ni dz
7.2. PARALLEL CURRENTS 86
Using the result from one coil in Example 2, we get B-field from coils of
length dz at distance z from center:
dB =
µ
0
(ni dz)R
2
2r
3
However r =
_
R
2
+ (z −d)
2
∴ B =
ˆ
+L/2
−L/2
dB
(Integrating over the
entire solenoid)
=
µ
0
niR
2
2
ˆ
+L/2
−L/2
dz
[R
2
+ (z −d)
2
]
3/2
B =
µ
0
ni
2
_
_
L
2
+d
_
R
2
+ (
L
2
+d)
2
+
L
2
−d
_
R
2
+ (
L
2
−d)
2
_
_
along negative z direction
Ideal Solenoid :
L ¸R
then B =
µ
0
ni
2
[1 + 1]
∴ B = µ
0
ni ;
direction of B-field determined
from right-hand screw rule
Question : What is the B-field at the end of an ideal solenoid? B=
µ
0
ni
2
7.2 Parallel Currents
Magnetic field at point P

B due to two
currents i
1
and i
2
is the vector sum of
the

B fields

B
1
,

B
2
due to individual cur-
rents. (Principle of Superposition)
7.2. PARALLEL CURRENTS 87
Force Between Parallel Currents :
Consider a segment of length L on i
2
:

B
1
=
µ
0
i
1
2πd
(pointing down)

B
2
=
µ
0
i
1
2πd
(pointing up)
Force on i
2
coming from i
1
:
[

F
21
[ = i
2

L

B
1
=
µ
0
Li
1
i
2
2πd
= [

F
12
[ (Def ’n of ampere, A)
∴ Parallel currents attract, anti-parallel currents repel.
Example : Sheet of current
Consider an infinitesimal wire of width dx at position x, there exists another
element at −x so that vertical

B-field components of

B
+x
and

B
−x
cancel.
∴ Magnetic field due to dx wire:
dB =
µ
0
di
2πr
where di = i
_
dx
a
_
∴ Total B-field (pointing along −x axis) at point P:
B =
+a/2
ˆ
−a/2
dBcos θ =
+a/2
ˆ
−a/2
µ
0
i
2πa

dx
r
cos θ
7.3. AMP
`
ERE’S LAW 88
Variable transformation (Goal: change r, x to d, θ, then integrate over θ):
_
d = r cos θ ⇒ r = d sec θ
x = d tan θ ⇒ dx = d sec
2
θ dθ
Limits of integration: −θ
0
to θ
0
, where tan θ
0
=
a
2d
∴ B =
µ
0
i
2πa
ˆ
θ
0
−θ
0
d sec
2
θ dθ
d sec θ
cos θ
=
µ
0
i
2πa
ˆ
θ
0
−θ
0

B =
µ
0

0
πa
=
µ
0
i
πa
tan
−1
_
a
2d
_
Limiting Cases :
(1) d ¸a
tan θ =
a
2d
⇒ θ ≈
a
2d
∴ B =
µ
0
i
2πa
B-field due to
infinite long wire
(2) d ¸a (Infinite sheet of current)
tan θ =
a
2d
→ ∞ ⇒ θ =
π
2
∴ B =
µ
0
i
2a
Constant!
Question : Large sheet of opposite flowing currents.
What’s the B-field between & outside the sheets?
7.3 Amp` ere’s Law
In our study of electricity, we notice that the inverse square force law leads
to Gauss’ Law, which is useful for finding E-field for systems with high level of
symmetry.
For magnetism, Gauss’ Law is simple
7.3. AMP
`
ERE’S LAW 89

S
˛
S

B d

A = 0
∵ There is no mag-
netic monopole.
A more useful law for calculating B-field for highly symmetric situations is the
Amp` ere’s Law:
˛
C
˛
C

B ds = µ
0
i
˛
C
= Line intefral evaluated around a closed loop C (Amperian curve)
i = Net current that penetrates the area bounded by curve C

(topological property)
Convention : Use the right-hand screw rule to determine the sign of current.
˛
C

B ds = µ
0
(i
1
−i
3
+ i
4
−i
4
)
= µ
0
(i
1
−i
3
)
Applications of the Ampere’s Law :
(1) Long-straight wire
Construct an Amperian
curve of radius d:
By symmetry argument, we know

B-field only has tangential compo-
nent

˛
C

B ds = µ
0
i
7.3. AMP
`
ERE’S LAW 90
Take ds to be the tangential vector around the circular path:


B ds = Bds
B
˛
C
ds
. ¸¸ .
Circumference
of circle = 2πd
= µ
0
i
∴ B(2πd) = µ
0
i
B-field due to long,
straight current
B =
µ
0
i
2πd
(Compare with 7.1 Example 1)
(2) Inside a current-carrying wire
Again, symmetry argument
implies that

B is tangential
to the Amperian curve and

B → B(r)
ˆ
θ
Consider an Amperian curve of radius r(< R)
˛
C

B ds = B
˛
ds = B(2πr) = µ
0
i
included
But i
included
∝ cross-sectional area of C

i
included
i
=
πr
2
πR
2
∴ i
included
=
r
2
R
2
i
∴ B =
µ
0
i
2πR
2
r ∝ r
Recall: Uniformly charged infinite long rod
(3) Solenoid (Ideal)
Consider the rectangular
Amperian curve 1234.
7.3. AMP
`
ERE’S LAW 91
˛
C

B ds =
ˆ
1

B ds +
&
&
&
&
&
ˆ
2

B ds +
&
&
&
&
&
ˆ
3

B ds +
&
&
&
&
&
ˆ
4

B ds
ˆ
2
=
ˆ
4
= 0 ∵
_

B ds = 0 inside solenoid

B = 0 outside solenoid
ˆ
3
= 0 ∵

B = 0 outside solenoid

˛
C

B ds =
ˆ
1

B ds = Bl = µ
0
i
tot
But i
tot
= nl
.¸¸.
Number of coils included
i
∴ B = µ
0
ni
Note :
(i) The assumption that

B = 0 outside the ideal solenoid is only
approximate. (Halliday, Pg.763)
(ii) B-field everywhere inside the solenoid is a constant. (for ideal
solenoid)
(4) Toroid (A circular solenoid)
By symmetry argument, the B-field lines form concentric circles inside
the toroid.
Take Amperian curve C to be a circle of radius r inside the toroid.
˛
C

B ds = B
˛
C
ds = B 2πr = µ
0
(Ni)
∴ B =
µ
0
Ni
2πr
inside toroid
7.4. MAGNETIC DIPOLE 92
Note :
(i) B ,= constant inside toroid
(ii) Outside toroid:
Take Amperian curve to be circle of radius r > R.
˛
C

B ds = B
˛
C
ds = B 2πr = µ
0
i
incl
= 0
∴ B = 0
Similarly, in the central cavity B = 0
7.4 Magnetic Dipole
Recall from ¸6.4, we define the magnetic dipole moment of a rectangular
current loop
µ = NiAˆ n
where ˆ n =
area unit vector with direction
determined by the right-hand rule
N = Number of turns in current loop
A = Area of current loop
This is actually a general definition of a magnetic dipole, i.e. we use it for
current loops of all shapes.
A common and symmetric example: circular current.
Recall from ¸7.1 Example 2, magnetic
field at point P (height z above the ring)

B =
µ
0
iR
2
ˆ n
2(R
2
+ z
2
)
3/2
=
µ
0
µ
2π(R
2
+ z
2
)
3/2
7.5. MAGNETIC DIPOLE IN A CONSTANT B-FIELD 93
At distance z ¸R,

B =
µ
0
µ
2πz
3

E =
p

0
z
3
due to magnetic dipole due to electric dipole
(for z ¸R) (for z ¸d)
Also, notice µ = magnetic dipole moment
_
Unit: Am
2
J/T
_
µ
0
= Permeability of free space
= 4π 10
−7
Tm/A
7.5 Magnetic Dipole in A Constant B-field
In the presence of a constant magnetic field, we have shown for a rectangular
current loop, it experiences a torque τ = µ

B . It applies to any magnetic
dipole in general.
7.6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 94
∴ External magnetic field aligns the magnetic
dipoles.
Similar to electric dipole in a E-field, we can con-
sider the work done in rotating the magnetic di-
pole. (refer to Chapter 2)
dW = −dU, where U is potential energy of dipole
U = −µ

B
Note :
(1) We cannot define the potential energy of a magnetic field in general.
However, we can define the potential energy of a magnetic dipole in a
constant magnetic field.
(2) In a non-uniform external B-field, the magnetic dipole will experience
a net force (not only net torque)
7.6 Magnetic Properties of Materials
Recall intrinsic electric dipole in molecules:
Intrinsic dipole (magnetic) in atoms:
In our classical model of atoms, electrons
revolve around a positive nuclear.
∴ ”Current” i =
e
P
, where P is period of one orbit around nucleus
7.6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 95
P =
2πr
v
, where v is velocity of electron
∴ Orbit magnetic dipole of atom:
µ = iA =
_
ev
2πr
_
(πr
2
) =
erv
2
Recall: angular momentum of rotation l = mrv
∴ µ =
e
2m
l
In quantum mechanics, we know that
l is quantized, i.e. l = N
h

where N = Any positive integer (1,2,3, ... )
h = Planck’s constant (6.63 10
−34
J s)
∴ Orbital magnetic dipole moment
µ
l
=
eh
4mπ
. ¸¸ .
Bohr’s magneton µ
B
=9.27×10
−24
J/T
N
There is another source of intrinsic magnetic dipole moment inside an atom:
Spin dipole moment: coming from the intrinsic ”spin” of electrons.
Quantum mechanics suggests that e

are always spinning and it’s either an ”up”
spin or a ”down” spin
µ
e
= 9.65 10
−27
≈ µ
B
So can there be induced magnetic dipole?
7.6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 96
Recall: for electric field
E
dielectric
= K
e
E
vacuum
; K
e
≥ 1
For magnetic field in a material:

B
net
=

B
0
+

B
M
↑ ↑
applied
B-field
B-field produced
by induced dipoles
In many materials (except ferromagnets),

B
M


B
0
Define :

B
M
= χ
m

B
0
χ
m
is a number called magnetic susceptibility.


B
net
=

B
0
+ χ
m

B
0
= (1 + χ
m
)

B
0

B
net
= κ
m

B
0
; κ
m
= 1 + χ
m
Define : κ
m
is a number called relative permeability.
One more term ......
Define : the Magnetization of a material:

M =

dV
where µ is magnetic dipole
moment, V is volume
(or, the net magnetic dipole moment per unit volume)
In most materials (except ferromagnets),

B
M
= µ
0

M
Three types of magnetic materials:
(1) Paramagnetic:
κ
m
≥ 1

m
≥ 0)
,
induced magnetic dipoles aligned
with the applied B-field.
7.6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 97
e.g. Al (χ
m
.
= 2.2 10
−5
), Mg (1.2 10
−5
), O
2
(2.0 10
−6
)
(2) Diamagnetic:
κ
m
≤ 1

m
≤ 0)
,
induced magnetic dipoles aligned
opposite with the applied B-field.
e.g. Cu (χ
m
≈ −1 10
−5
), Ag (−2.6 10
−5
), N
2
(−5 10
−9
)
(3) Ferromagnetic:
e.g. Fe, Co, Ni
Magnetization not linearly proportional
to applied field.

B
net
B
app
not a constant (can be as
big as ∼ 5000 −100, 000)
Interesting Case : Superconductors
χ
m
= −1
A perfect diamagnetic.
NO magnetic field inside.
Chapter 8
Faraday’s Law of Induction
8.1 Faraday’s Law
In the previous chapter, we have shown that steady electric current can give
steady magnetic field because of the symmetry between electricity & magnetism.
We can ask: Steady magnetic field can give steady electric current.
OR Changing magnetic field can give steady electric current.
Define :
(1) Magnetic flux through surface S:
Φ
m
=
ˆ
S

B d

A
Unit of Φ
m
: Weber (Wb)
1Wb = 1Tm
2
(2) Graphical:
Φ
m
= Number of magnetic field lines passing through surface S
Faraday’s law of induction:
Induced emf [c[ = N
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸

m
dt
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
where N = Number of coils in the circuit.
8.2. LENZ’ LAW 99

B = Constant

B = Constant
ˆ
B = Constant

B = Constant

A = Constant
ˆ
A = Constant dB/dt ,= 0 A = Constant
dA/dt ,= 0

A = Constant d
ˆ
A/dt ,= 0
c = 0 ∴ [c[ > 0 ∴ [c[ > 0 ∴ [c[ > 0
Note : The induced emf drives a current throughout the circuit, similar to the
function of a battery. However, the difference here is that the induced emf
is distributed throughout the circuit. The consequence is that we cannot
define a potential difference between any two points in the circuit.
Suppose there is an induced current in the loop, can we
define ∆V
AB
?
Recall:
∆V
AB
= V
A
−V
B
= iR > 0
⇒ V
A
> V
B
Going anti-clockwise (same as i),
If we start from A, going to B, then we get V
A
> V
B
.
If we start from B, going to A, then we get V
B
> V
A
.
∴ We cannot define ∆V
AB
!!
This situation is like when we study the interior of a battery.
A battery
The loop
_
¸
_
¸
_
provides the energy needed to drive the
charge carriers around the circuit by
_
¸
_
¸
_
chemical reactions.
changing magnetic flux.
sources of emf non-electric means
8.2 Lenz’ Law
(1) The flux of the magnetic field due to induced current opposes the change
in flux that causes the induced current.
8.3. MOTIONAL EMF 100
(2) The induced current is in such a direction as to oppose the changes that
produces it.
(3) Incorporating Lentz’ Law into Faraday’s Law:
c = −N

m
dt
If

m
dt
> 0, Φ
m
↑ ⇒ c appears ⇒
Induced current
appears.


B-field due to
induced current
⇒ change in Φ
m
so that
=⇒ Φ
m

(4) Lenz’ Law is a consequence from the principle of conservation of energy.
8.3 Motional EMF
Let’s try to look at a special case when the changing magnetic flux is carried by
motion in the circuit wires.
Consider a conductor of length L moving
with a velocity v in a magnetic field

B.
8.3. MOTIONAL EMF 101
Hall Effect for the charge carriers in the rod:

F
E
+

F
B
= 0
⇒ q

E +qv

B = 0 (where

E is Hall electric field)


E = −v

B
Hall Voltage inside rod:
∆V = −
ˆ
L
0

E ds
∆V = −EL
∴ Hall Voltage : ∆V = vBL
Now, suppose the moving wire slides without
friction on a stationary U-shape conductor.
The motional emf can drive an electric cur-
rent i in the U-shape conductor.
⇒ Power is dissipated in the circuit.
⇒ P
out
= V i (Joule’s heating)
(see Lecture Notes Chapter 4)
What is the source of this power?
Look at the forces acting on the conducting rod:
• Magnetic force:

F
m
= i

L

B
F
m
= iLB (pointing left)
• For the rod to continue to move at constant velocity v, we need to apply
an external force:

F
ext
= −

F
m
= iLB (pointing right)
∴ Power required to keep the rod moving:
P
in
=

F
ext
v
= iBLv
= iBL
dx
dt
= iB
d(xL)
dt
( xL = A, area
enclosed by circuit)
= i
d(BA)
dt
( BA = Φ
m
, magnetic flux)
8.3. MOTIONAL EMF 102
Since energy is not being stored in the system,
∴ P
in
+P
out
= 0
iV +i

m
dt
= 0
We ”prove” Faraday’s Law ⇒ V = −

m
dt
Applications :
(1) Eddy current: moving conductors in presence of magnetic field
Induced current
⇒ Power lost in Joule’s heating
_
c
2
R
_
⇒ Extra power input to keep moving
To reduce Eddy currents:
(2) Generators and Motors:
Assume that the circuit loop is rotating at a constant angular velocity
ω, (Source of rotation, e.g. steam produced by burner, water falling
from a dam)
8.3. MOTIONAL EMF 103
Magnetic flux through the loop
Number of coils

Φ
B
= N
´
loop

B d

A = NBAcos θ

changes with time! θ = ωt
∴ Φ
B
= NBAcos ωt
Induced emf: c = −

B
dt
= −NBA
d
dt
(cos ωt)
= NBAω sin ωt
Induced current: i =
c
R
=
NBAω
R
sin ωt
Alternating current (AC) voltage generator
Power has to be provided by the source of rotation to overcome the
torque acting on a current loop in a magnetic field.
τ =
µ
¸ .. ¸
Ni

A

B
∴ τ = NiABsin θ
8.4. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD 104
The net effect of the torque is to oppose the rotation of the coil.
An electric motor is simply a generator
operating in reverse.
⇒ Replace the load resistance R with
a battery of emf c.
With the battery, there is a current in the coil, and it experiences a
torque in the B-field.
⇒ Rotation of the coil leads to an induced emf, c
ind
, in
the direction opposite of that of the battery. (Lenz’ Law)
∴ i =
c −c
ind
R
⇒ As motor speeds up, c
ind
↑, ∴ i ↓
∴ mechanical power delivered = torque delivered = NiABsin θ ↓
In conclusion, we can show that
P
electric
= i
2
R + P
mechanical
Electric power input Mechanical power delivered
8.4 Induced Electric Field
So far we have discussed that a change in mag-
netic flux will lead in an induced emf distributed
in the loop, resulting from an induced E-field.
However, even in the absence of the loop (so that there is no induced current),
the induced E-field will still accompany a change in magnetic flux.
8.4. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD 105
∴ Consider a circular path in a region
with changing magnetic field.
The induced E-field only has tangential components. (i.e. radial E-field = 0)
Why?
Imagine a point charge q
0
travelling around the circular path.
Work done by induced E-field = q
0
E
ind
. ¸¸ .
force
2πr
.¸¸.
distance
Recall work done also equals to q
0
c, where c is induced emf
∴ c = E
ind
2πr
Generally,
c =
˛

E
ind
ds
where
¸
is line integral around a closed loop,

E
ind
is induced E-field, s is
tangential vector of path.
∴ Faraday’s Law becomes
˛
C

E
ind
ds = −
d
dt
ˆ
S

B d

A
L.H.S. = Integral around a closed loop C
R.H.S. = Integral over a surface bounded by C
Direction of d

A determined by direction of line integration C (Right-Hand Rule)
8.4. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD 106
”Regular” E-field Induced E-field
created by charges created by changing B-field
E-field lines start from +ve and end
on −ve charge
E-field lines form closed loops
can define electric potential so that
we can discuss potential difference
between two points
Electric potential cannot be defined
(or, potential has no meaning)
⇓ ⇓
Conservative force field Non-conservative force field
The classification of electric and magnetic effects depend on the frame of reference
of the observer. e.g. For motional emf, observer in the reference frame of the
moving loop, will NOT see an induced E-field, just a ”regular” E-field.
(Read: Halliday Chap.33-6, 34-7)
Chapter 9
Inductance
9.1 Inductance
An inductor stores energy in the magnetic field just as a capacitor stores energy
in the electric field.
We have shown earlier that a changing B-field will lead to an induced emf in
a circuit.
Question : If a circuit generates a changing magnetic field, does it lead to an
induced emf in the same circuit? YES! Self-Inductance
The inductance L of any current element is
c
L
= ∆V
L
= −L
di
dt
The negative sign
comes from Lenz Law.
Unit of L: Henry(H) 1H=1
Vs
A
• All circuit elements (including resistors) have some inductance.
• Commonly used inductors: solenoids, toroids
• circuit symbol:
Example : Solenoid
c
L
= V
B
−V
A
= −L
di
dt
< 0 c
L
= V
B
−V
A
= −L
di
dt
> 0
∴ V
B
< V
A
V
B
> V
A
9.1. INDUCTANCE 108
Recall Faraday’s Law,
c
L
= −N

B
dt
= −
d
dt
(NΦ
B
)
where Φ
B
is magnetic flux, NΦ
B
is flux linkage.
∴ Alternative definition of Inductance:

d
dt
(NΦ
B
) = −L
di
dt
⇒ L =

B
i
∴ Inductance is also flux linkage per unit current.
Calculating Inductance:
(1) Solenoid:
To first order approximation,
B = µ
0
ni
where n = N/L = Number of
coils per unit length.
Consider a subsection of length l of the solenoid:
Flux linkage = N Φ
B
= nl BA
where A is
cross-sectional area

L =

B
i
= µ
0
n
2
lA
L
l
= µ
0
n
2
A = Inductance per unit length
Notice :
(i) L ∝ n
2
(ii) The inductance, like the capacitance, depends only on geometric
factors, not on i.
9.1. INDUCTANCE 109
(2) Toroid:
Recall: B-field lines are concentric cir-
cles.
Inside the toroid:
B =
µ
0
iN
2πr
(NOT a constant)
where r is the distance from center.
Outside the toroid:
B = 0
Flux linkage through the toroid

B
= N
ˆ

B da
_
Notice

B | da
Write da = hdr
_
KEY
=
µ
0
iN
2

ˆ
b
a
hdr
r
=
µ
0
iN
2
h

ln
_
b
a
_
∴ Inductance L =

B
i
=
µ
0
N
2
h

ln
_
b
a
_
Again, L ∝ N
2
Inductance with magnetic materials :
We showed earlier that for capacitors:
_

E →

E/κ
e
C → κ
e
C
(after insertion of
dielectric κ
e
> 1)
For inductors, we first know that

B → κ
m

B
(after insertion of
magnetic material)
Inductance L =

B
i
However Φ
B
=
ˆ

B d

A → κ
m
Φ
B
9.2. LR CIRCUITS 110
∴ L → κ
m
L
(after insertion of
magnetic material)
∴ To increase inductance, fill the interior of inductor with ferromagnetic
materials. (10
3
− 10
4
)
9.2 LR Circuits
(A) ”Charging” an inductor
When the switch is adjusted to position a,
By loop rule (clockwise) :
c
0
− ∆V
R
+ ∆V
L
= 0
↓ ↓
c
0
− iR − L
di
dt
= 0

di
dt
+
R
L
i =
c
0
L
First Order Differ-
ential Equation
Similar to the equation for charging a capacitor! (Chap5)
Solution: i(t) =
c
0
R
_
1 −e
−t/τ
L
_
where τ
L
= Inductive time constant = L/R
∴ [∆V
R
[ = iR = c
0
(1 −e
−t/τ
L
)
[∆V
L
[ = L
di
dt
= L
c
0
R

1
τ
L
e
−t/τ
L
= c
0
e
−t/τ
L
9.2. LR CIRCUITS 111
(B) ”Discharging” an inductor
When the switch is adjusted at position b after the inductor has been
”charged” (i.e. current i = c
0
/R is flowing in the circuit.).
By loop rule:
∆V
L
− ∆V
R
= 0
↓ ↓
−L
di
dt
− iR = 0
(Treat inductor as source of emf)

di
dt
+
R
L
i = 0
Discharging a capacitor
(Chap5)
i(t) = i
0
e
−t/τ
L
where i
0
= i(t = 0) = Current when the circuit just switch to position b.
Summary : During charging of inductor,
1. At t = 0, inductor acts like open circuit when current flowing is zero.
2. At t → ∞, inductor acts like short circuit when current flowing is
stablized at maximum.
3. Inductors are used everyday in switches for safety concerns.
9.3. ENERGY STORED IN INDUCTORS 112
9.3 Energy Stored in Inductors
Inductors stored magnetic energy through the magnetic field stored in the circuit.
Recall the equation for charging inductors:
c
0
−iR −L
di
dt
= 0
Multiply both sides by i :
c
0
i
.¸¸.
Power input by emf
(Energy supplied to
one charge = qc
0
)
= i
2
R
.¸¸.
Joule’s heating
(Power dissipated
by resistor)
+ Li
di
dt
. ¸¸ .
Power stored
in inductor
∴ Power stored in inductor =
dU
B
dt
= Li
di
dt
Integrating both sides and use initial condition
At t = 0, i(t = 0) = U
B
(t = 0) = 0
∴ Energy stored in inductor: U
B
=
1
2
Li
2
Energy Density Stored in Inductors :
Consider an infinitely long solenoid of cross-sectional area A.
For a portion l of the solenoid, we know from ¸8.1,
L = µ
0
n
2
lA
∴ Energy stored in inductor:
U
B
=
1
2
Li
2
=
1
2
µ
0
n
2
i
2
lA
.¸¸.
Volume of
solenoid
∴ Energy density (= Energy stored per unit volume) inside inductor:
u
B
=
U
B
lA
=
1
2
µ
0
n
2
i
2
Recall magnetic field inside solenoid (Chap7)
B = µ
0
ni
∴ u
B
=
B
2

0
This is a general result of the energy stored in a magnetic field.
9.4. LC CIRCUIT (ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATOR) 113
9.4 LC Circuit (Electromagnetic Oscillator)
Initial charge on capacitor = Q
Initial current = 0
No battery.
Assume current i to be in the direction that increases charge on the positive
capacitor plate.
⇒ i =
dQ
dt
(9.1)
By Lenz Law, we also know the ”poles” of the inductor.
Loop rule: V
C
+ V
L
= 0

Q
C
−L
di
dt
= 0 (9.2)
Combining equations (9.1) and (9.2), we get
d
2
Q
dt
2
+
1
LC
Q = 0
This is similar to the equation of motion
of a simple harmonic oscillator:
d
2
x
dt
2
+
k
m
x = 0
Another approach (conservation of energy)
Total energy stored in circuit:
U = U
E
+ U
B
↓ ↓
U =
Q
2
2C
+
1
2
Li
2
Since the resistance in the circuit is zero, no energy is dissipated in the circuit.
∴ Energy contained in the circuit is conserved.

dU
dt
= 0

Q
C

dQ
dt
+ L
¡
i
di
dt
= 0 (∵ i =
dQ
dt
)
9.4. LC CIRCUIT (ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATOR) 114
⇒ L
di
dt
+
Q
C
= 0

d
2
Q
dt
2
+
1
LC
Q = 0
The solution to this differential equation is in the form
Q(t) = Q
0
cos(ωt +φ)

dQ
dt
= −ωQ
0
sin(ωt + φ)
d
2
Q
dt
2
= −ω
2
Q
0
cos(ωt + φ)
= −ω
2
Q

d
2
Q
dt
2
+ ω
2
Q = 0
∴ ω
2
=
1
LC
Angular frequency
of the LC oscillator
Also, Q
0
, φ are constants derived from the initial conditions. (Two initial condi-
tions, e.g. Q(t = 0), and i(t = 0) =
dQ
dt
¸
¸
¸
t=0
are required.)
Energy stored in C =
Q
2
2C
=
Q
2
0
2C
cos
2
(ωt + φ)
Energy stored in L =
1
2
Li
2
=
1
2

2
Q
2
0
sin
2
(ωt + φ)
∵ Lω
2
=
1
C
=
Q
2
0
2C
sin
2
(ωt + φ)
∴ Total energy stored =
Q
2
0
2C
= Initial energy stored in capacitor
9.5. RLC CIRCUIT (DAMPED OSCILLATOR) 115
9.5 RLC Circuit (Damped Oscillator)
In real life circuit, there’s always resistance.
In this case, energy stored in the LC oscillator is
NOT conserved,
and
dU
dt
= Power dissipated in the resistor = −i
2
R (Joule’s heating)
Negative sign shows that energy U is decreasing.
∴ Li
di
dt
+
Q
C

i
¸..¸
dQ
dt
= −i
2
R

d
2
Q
dt
2
+
R
L

dQ
dt
+
1
LC
Q = 0
This is similar to the equation of motion of a damped harmonic oscillator (e.g.
if a mass-spring system faces a frictional force

F = −bv).
Solution to the equation is in the form Q(t) = e
λt
If damping is not too big (i.e. R not too big), solution would become
Q(t) = Q
0
e

R
2L
t
. ¸¸ .
exponential
decay term
cos(ω
1
t +φ)
. ¸¸ .
oscillating
term
where ω
2
1
=
1
LC

_
R
2L
_
2
ω
2
1
= ω
2

_
R
2L
_
2
Damped oscillator always oscillates
at a lower frequency than the
natural frequency of the oscillator.
(Refer to Halliday, Vol1, Chap17 for
more details.)
Check this at home: What is U
E
(t) +U
B
(t) for the case when damping is small?
(i.e. R ¸ω)
Chapter 10
AC Circuits
10.1 Alternating Current (AC) Voltage
Recall that an AC generator described in Chapter 9 generates a sinusoidal emf.
i.e. c = c
m
sin(ωt + δ)
Note :
This circuit is the RLC circuit with one
additional element : the time varying AC
power supply. This is similar to a driven
(damped) oscillator.
L
d
2
Q
dt
2
+ R
dQ
dt
+
1
C
Q = c
m
sin(ωt + δ)
The general solution consists of two parts:
transient : rapidly dies away in a few cycles (not interesting)
steady state : Q(t), i(t) varies sinusoidally with the same frequency as input
Note : Current does NOT vary at frequency ω
2
1
=
1
LC

_
R
2L
_
2
Since we only concern about the steady state solution, therefore we can take any
time as starting reference time = 0
For convenience, we can write
c = c
m
sin ωt
And we can write
i = i
m
sin(ωt −φ)
where i
m
is current amplitude, φ is phase constant.
Our goal is to determine i
m
and φ.
10.2. PHASE RELATION BETWEEN I, V FOR R,L AND C 117
10.2 Phase Relation Between i, V for R,L and C
(A)
Resistive Element
∆V
R
= V
A
−V
B
= iR
∴ ∆V
R
= i
m
Rsin(ωt −φ)
∆V
R
and i are in phase, i.e. what’s
inside the ”sine bracket” (phase) is the
same for ∆V
R
and i.
Graphically, we introduce phasor diagrams properties of phasors:
(1) Length of a phasor is proportional to the maximum value.
(2) Projection of a phasor onto the vertical axis gives instantaneous value.
(3) Convention: Phasors rotate anti-clockwise in a uniform circular mo-
tion with angular velocity.
∴ ∆V
R
= (∆V
R
)
m
sin(ωt −φ)
(∆V
R
)
m
= i
m
R
”Ohm’s Law like” rela-
tion for AC resistor
10.2. PHASE RELATION BETWEEN I, V FOR R,L AND C 118
(B)
The Inductive Element
Potential drop across inductor
∆V
L
= V
A
−V
B
= −c
L
= L
di
dt
∴ ∆V
L
= Li
m
ω cos(ωt −φ)
= Li
m
ω sin(ωt −φ +
π
2
) [∵ cos θ = sin(θ +
π
2
)]
= i
m
X
L
sin(ωt −φ +
π
2
)
(∆V
L
)
m
= i
m
X
L
”Ohm’s Law like” rela-
tion for AC inductor
where X
L
= Inductive Reactance
X
L
= ωL
As i ↑, V
A
> V
B
∴ ∆V
L
> 0
i ↓, V
A
< V
B
∴ ∆V
L
< 0
∆V
L
leads i by
π
2
i lags ∆V
L
by
π
2
(C) Capacitive Element
∆V
C
= V
A
−V
B
=
Q
C
10.3. SINGLE LOOP RLC AC CIRCUIT 119
where Q = charge on the positive plate of the capacitor.
∴ i =
dQ
dt
⇒ Q =
ˆ
i dt
=
ˆ
i
m
sin(ωt −φ) dt
= −
i
m
ω
cos(ωt −φ)
∴ ∆V
C
= −
i
m
ωC
cos(ωt −φ)
= i
m
X
C
sin(ωt −φ −
π
2
) [∵ −cos θ = sin(θ −
π
2
)]
∴ (∆V
C
)
m
= i
m
X
C
”Ohm’s Law like” rela-
tion for AC capacitor
where X
C
=
1
ωC
= Capacitive Reactance
∆V
C
lags i by
π
2
i leads ∆V
C
by
π
2
10.3 Single Loop RLC AC Circuit
Given that c = c
m
sin ωt, we want to
find i
m
and φ so that we can write i =
i
m
sin(ωt −φ)
Loop rule: c −∆V
R
−∆V
L
−∆V
C
= 0
⇒ c = ∆V
R
+ ∆V
L
+ ∆V
C
10.3. SINGLE LOOP RLC AC CIRCUIT 120
Using results from the previous section, we can write
c
m
sin ωt = i
m
Rsin(ωt −φ)
+i
m
X
L
cos(ωt −φ) −i
m
X
C
cos(ωt −φ)
c
m
sin ωt = i
m
_
Rsin(ωt −φ) + (X
L
−X
C
) cos(ωt −φ)
_
Answer :
1. Take tan φ =
X
L
−X
C
R
2. Define
Z =
_
R
2
+ (X
L
−X
C
)
2
as the impedance of the circuit.
3. Then
i
m
=
c
m
Z
or c
m
= i
m
Z
”Ohm’s Law like” relation
for AC RLC circuits
Check :
R.H.S. = i
m
Z
_
R
Z
sin(ωt −φ) +
X
L
−X
C
Z
cos(ωt −φ)
_
= i
m
Z
_
cos φsin(ωt −φ) + sin φcos(ωt −φ)
_
_
_
_
Use the relation:
sin(A + B) = sin Acos B + cos Asin B
Here: A = ωt −φ, B = φ
_
_
_
= i
m
Z sin(ωt −φ + φ)
= i
m
z sin ωt
= L.H.S. if c
m
= i
m
Z QED.
Phasor Approach :
10.4. RESONANCE 121
10.4 Resonance
i
m
=
c
m
Z
is at maximum for an AC circuit of fixed input frequency ω when Z
is at minimum.
Z =
_
R
2
+ (X
L
−X
C
)
2
=
¸
R
2
+
_
ωL −
1
ωC
_
2
is at a minimum for a fixed ω when
X
L
−X
C
= ωL −
1
ωC
= 0
⇒ ωL =
1
ωC
⇒ ω
2
=
1
LC
same as that for
a RLC circuit
In Hong Kong, the AC power input is 50Hz.
(In US, as mentioned in Halliday, is 60Hz.)
∴ ω = 2πf = 314.2s
−1
10.5 Power in AC Circuits
Consider the Power dissipated by R in an AC circuit:
P = i
2
R = i
2
m
Rsin
2
(ωt −φ)
The average power dissipated in each cycle:
P
ave
=
´
2π/ω
0
P dt
2π/ω
(

ω
is period of each cycle)
ˆ
2π/ω
0
P dt = i
2
m
R
ˆ
2π/ω
0
sin
2
(ωt −φ) dt
= i
2
m
R
ˆ
2π/ω
0
1
2
_
1 −cos 2(ωt −φ)
_
dt
= i
2
m
R
_
t
2

¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
sin
2
(ωt −φ)

_
¸
¸
¸
¸
2π/ω
0
= i
2
m
R
1
2


ω
10.5. POWER IN AC CIRCUITS 122

P
ave
=
i
2
m
2
R = i
2
rms
R
where i
rms
= root-mean-square current
i
rms
=
i
m

2
∵ Current is a
sinusoidal func.
Symbol : ¸P) = P
ave
= Average of P over time
For sine and cosine functions of time:
Average : ¸sin ωt) = ¸cos ωt) = 0
Amplitude : Peak value, e.g. c
m
, i
m
, (∆V
R
)
m
,
Root-Mean-Square(RMS) : It’s a measure of the ”time-averaged” deviation
from zero.
x
rms
=
_
¸x
2
)
For sines and cosines, for whatever quantity x:
x
rms
=
x
m

2
(x
m
is amplitude)
For an AC resistor circuit:
¸P) = i
2
rms
R =
c
2
rms
R
Laws for DC circuits can be used to describe AC circuits if we use rms values
for i and c.
For general AC circuits:
P = ci =
E
¸ .. ¸
c
m
sin ωt
i
¸ .. ¸
i
m
sin(ωt −φ)
= c
m
i
m
sin ωt [sin ωt cos φ −cos ωt sin φ]
P = c
m
i
m
[ sin
2
ωt
. ¸¸ .
1
2
cos φ −sin ωt cos ωt
. ¸¸ .
0
(check this!)
sin φ ]
¸P) =
c
m
i
m
2
cos φ
¸P) = c
rms
i
rms
cos φ
. ¸¸ .
power factor
10.6. THE TRANSFORMER 123
Recall tan φ =
X
L
−X
C
R
∴ cos φ =
R
Z
Maximum power dissipated in circuit when
cos φ = 1
Two possibilities:
(1) X
L
= X
C
= 0
(2) X
L
−X
C
= 0 ⇒ X
L
= X
C
⇒ ωL =
1
ωC
⇒ ω
2
=
1
LC
(Resonance Condition)
10.6 The Transformer
Power dissipated in resistor
¸P) = i
2
rms
R
∴ For power transmission, we’d like to keep i
rms
at minimum.
⇒ HIGH potential difference across transmission wires. (So that total power
transmitted P = i
rms
c
rms
is constant.)
However, for home safety, we would like LOW emf supply.
Solution : Transformers
Primary : Number of winding = N
P
10.6. THE TRANSFORMER 124
Secondary : Number of winding = N
S
In primary circuit, R
P
≈ C
P
≈ 0
∴ Pure inductive
Power factor : cos φ =
R
Z
≈ 0
∴ No power delivered from emf to transformer.
The varying current (∵ AC!) in the primary produces an induced emf in the
secondary coils. Assuming perfect magnetic flux linkage:
emf per turn in primary
= emf per turn in secondary
= −

B
dt
emf per turn in primary =
∆V
P
N
P
(∆V
P
is P.D.
across primary)
emf per turn in secondary =
∆V
S
N
S

∆V
P
∆V
S
=
N
P
N
S
If N
P
> N
S
, then ∆V
P
> ∆V
S
Step-Down
If N
P
< N
S
, then ∆V
P
< ∆V
S
Step-Up
Consider power in circuit:
i
P
∆V
P
= i
S
∆V
S
In the secondary, we have
∆V
S
= i
S
R
Combining the 3 equations, we have
∆V
P
=
_
N
P
N
S
_
2
R i
P
”Equivalence Resistor” =
_
N
P
N
S
_
2
R
Chapter 11
Displacement Current and
Maxwell’s Equations
11.1 Displacement Current
We saw in Chap.7 that we can use
Amp`ere’s law to calculate magnetic
fields due to currents.
We know that the integral
¸
C

B ds
around any close loop C is equal to
µ
0
i
incl
, where i
incl
= current passing an
area bounded by the closed curve C.
e.g.
= Flat surface bounded by loop C
= Curved surface bounded by loop C
If Amp`ere’s law is true all the time, then the i
incl
determined should be inde-
pendent of the surface chosen.
11.1. DISPLACEMENT CURRENT 126
Let’s consider a simple case: charging a
capacitor.
From Chap.5, we know there is a current
flowing i(t) =
E

R
e
−t/RC
, which leads
to a magnetic field observed

B. With
Amp`ere’s law,
¸
C

B ds = µ
0
i
incl
.
BUT WHAT IS i
incl
?
If we look at , i
incl
= i(t)
If we look at , i
incl
= 0
(∵ There is no charge flow between the
capacitor plates.)
∴ Amp`ere’s law is either WRONG or
INCOMPLETE.
Two observations:
1. While there is no current between the capacitor’s plates, there is a time-
varying electric field between the plates of the capacitor.
2. We know Amp`ere’s law is mostly correct from measurements of B-field
around circuits.

Can we revise Amp`ere’s law to fix it?
Electric field between capacitor’s plates: E =
σ
ε
0
=
Q
ε
0
A
, where Q = charge on
capacitor’s plates, A = Area of capacitor’s plates.
∴ Q = ε
0
E A
. ¸¸ .
Electric flux
= ε
0
Φ
E
∴ We can define
dQ
dt
= ε
0

E
dt
= i
disp
where i
disp
is called Displacement Current (first proposed by Maxwell).
Maxwell first proposed that this is the missing term for the Amp`ere’s law:
˛
C

B ds = µ
0
(i
incl
+ ε
0

E
dt
) Amp`ere-Maxwell law
11.2. INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELD 127
Where i
incl
= current through any surface bounded by C,
Φ
E
= electric flux through that same surface bounded by curve C, Φ
E
=
´
S

E da.
11.2 Induced Magnetic Field
We learn earlier that electric field can be generated by
_
charges
changing magnetic flux
.
We see from Amp`ere-Maxwell law that a magnetic field can be generated by
_
moving charges (current)
changing electric flux
.
That is, a change in electric flux through a surface bounded by C can lead to an
induced magnetic field along the loop C.
Notes The induced magnetic field is along the same direction as caused by the
changing electric flux.
Example What is the magnetic field strength inside a circular plate capacitor
of radius R with a current I(t) charging it?
Answer Electric field of capacitor
E =
Q
ε
0
A
=
Q
ε
0
πR
2
11.3. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 128
Electric flux inside capacitor through a
loop C of radius r:
Φ
E
= E πr
2
=
Qr
2
ε
0
R
2
Amp`ere-Maxwell Law inside capacitor:
˛
C

B ds
. ¸¸ .

B
induced
ds
= µ
0
(
¨
¨¨
i
incl
+ ε
0

E
dt
)
2πr
.¸¸.
Length of loop C
B
induced
= µ
0
ε
0
d
dt
_
Qr
2
ε
0
R
2
_
= µ
0
r
2
R
2
dQ
dt
.¸¸.
I(t)
∴ B
induced
=
µ
0
r
2πR
2
I(t) for r < R
Outside the capacitor plate:
Electric flux through loop C: Φ
E
= E
πR
2
=
Q
ε
0
˛
C

B ds = µ
0
(i
incl
+ ε
0

E
dt
)
2πrB
induced
= µ
0
ε
0
_
1
ε
0

dQ
dt
_
∴ B
induced
=
µ
0
I(t)
2πr
11.3 Maxwell’s Equations
The four equations that completely describe the behaviors of electric and magnetic
fields.
11.3. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 129
˛
S

E da =
Q
incl
ε
0
˛
S

B da = 0
˛
C

E ds = −
d
dt
ˆ
S

B da
˛
C

B ds = µ
0
i
incl
+ µ
0
ε
0
d
dt
ˆ
S

E da
The one equation that describes how matter reacts to electric and magnetic fields.

F = q(

E +v

B)
Features of Maxwell’s equations:
(1) There is a high level of symmetry in the equations. That’s why the study
of electricity and magnetism is also called electromagnetism.
There are small asymmetries though:
i) There is NO point ”charge” of magnetism / NO magnetic monopole.
ii) Direction of induced E-field opposes to B-flux change.
Direction of induced B-filed enhances E-flux change.
(2) Maxwell’s equations predicted the existence of propagating waves of E-field
and B-field, known as electromagnetic waves (EM waves).
Examples of EM waves: visible light, radio, TV signals, mobile phone
signals, X-rays, UV, Infrared, gamma-ray, microwaves...
(3) Maxwell’s equations are entirely consistent with the special theory of rela-
tivity. This is not true for Newton’s laws!

Contents
1 Vector Algebra 1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Components of Vectors . . . . . . . . 1.4 Multiplication of Vectors . . . . . . . 1.5 Vector Field (Physics Point of View) 1.6 Other Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Electric Force & Electric Field 2.1 Electric Force . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 The Electric Field . . . . . . . . 2.3 Continuous Charge Distribution 2.4 Electric Field Lines . . . . . . . 2.5 Point Charge in E-field . . . . . 2.6 Dipole in E-field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 4 6 6 8 8 9 12 18 21 22 25 25 28 28 31 36 36 40 45 48 51 51 51 54 55

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3 Electric Flux and Gauss’ Law 3.1 Electric Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 E-field Calculation with Gauss’ Law 3.4 Gauss’ Law and Conductors . . . .

4 Electric Potential 4.1 Potential Energy and Conservative Forces . . 4.2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Relation Between Electric Field E and Electric 4.4 Equipotential Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Capacitance and DC Circuits 5.1 Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Calculating Capacitance . . 5.3 Capacitors in Combination . 5.4 Energy Storage in Capacitor . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potential V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10

Dielectric Constant . . . . Capacitor with Dielectric . Gauss’ Law in Dielectric . Ohm’s Law and Resistance DC Circuits . . . . . . . . RC Circuits . . . . . . . .

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57 58 60 61 64 69 73 73 75 76 78 81 81 86 88 92 93 94 98 98 99 100 104 107 107 110 112 113 115 116 116 117 119 121 121 123

6 Magnetic Force 6.1 Magnetic Field . . . . . . . 6.2 Motion of A Point Charge in 6.3 Hall Effect . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Magnetic Force on Currents

. . . . . . . . . Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Magnetic Field 7.1 Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Parallel Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Amp`re’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e 7.4 Magnetic Dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Magnetic Dipole in A Constant B-field 7.6 Magnetic Properties of Materials . . . 8 Faraday’s Law of Induction 8.1 Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . 8.2 Lenz’ Law . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Motional EMF . . . . . . 8.4 Induced Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Inductance 9.1 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 LR Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Energy Stored in Inductors . . . . . . . . 9.4 LC Circuit (Electromagnetic Oscillator) . 9.5 RLC Circuit (Damped Oscillator) . . . .

10 AC Circuits 10.1 Alternating Current (AC) Voltage . . . . . 10.2 Phase Relation Between i, V for R,L and C 10.3 Single Loop RLC AC Circuit . . . . . . . . 10.4 Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Power in AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 The Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ii

. . . . . . . .2 Induced Magnetic Field . . . . . . . .1 Displacement Current .3 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . Maxwell’s . . 11.11 Displacement Current and 11. . . . . . 11. . Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 125 127 128 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Definitions A vector consists of two components: magnitude and direction . pressure) A scalar consists of magnitude only.Chapter 1 Vector Algebra 1. density) 1. (e.g. mass. (e. force.g. charge. velocity.1: Vector algebra a+b = b+a a + (c + d) = (a + c) + d .2 Vector Algebra Figure 1.

Each vector can be expressed in terms of components.1.3. The most common coordinate system: Cartesian a = ax + ay + az Magnitude of a = |a| = a.3 Components of Vectors Usually vectors are expressed according to coordinate system. COMPONENTS OF VECTORS 2 1.2: φ measured anti-clockwise from position x-axis Unit vectors have magnitude of 1 a= ˆ ˆ i a = unit vector along a direction |a| ˆ j ˆ k z are unit vectors along directions x y ˆ a = ax ˆ + ay ˆ + az k i j Other coordinate systems: . ay = a sinφ ay tanφ = ax Figure 1. a= a2 + a2 + a2 x y z a = ax + ay a2 + a2 a = x y ax = a cosφ.

Cylindrical Coordinates: ˆ a = ar r + aθ θ + az z ˆ ˆ r originated from nearest point on ˆ z-axis (Point O’) Figure 1. Polar Coordinate: 3 ˆ a = ar r + aθ θ ˆ Figure 1. COMPONENTS OF VECTORS 1.3: Polar Coordinates 2.5: Spherical Coordinates .4: Cylindrical Coordinates 3.1. Spherical Coordinates: ˆ ˆ a = ar r + aθ θ + aφ φ ˆ r originated from Origin O ˆ Figure 1.3.

6: Dot Product ˆ · ˆ = |ˆ |ˆ cos0◦ = 1 · 1 · 1 = 1 i i i| i| ˆ · ˆ = |ˆ |ˆ cos90◦ = 1 · 1 · 0 = 0 i j i| j| ˆ·ˆ = ˆ · ˆ = k · k = 1 i i j j ˆ ˆ ˆ· ˆ = ˆ · k = k ·ˆ = 0 i j j ˆ ˆ i If then ˆ j i a = ax ˆ + ay ˆ + az k ˆ b = bx ˆ + by ˆ + bz k i j a · b = ax bx + ay by + az bz a · a = |a| · |a| cos0◦ = a · a = a2 . Doesn’t matter how you measure angle φ between vectors. m is a scalar (Relation between magnitude) Components also follow relation a = ax ma = max ˆ + i ay ˆ + may i ˆ + j az ˆ + maz j ˆ k ˆ k 1. Multiplication of Vectors b=m a b=m a bx =m ax by =m ay b. MULTIPLICATION OF VECTORS 4 1.4 If then i. a·b=b·a Notice: a · b = ab cosφ = ab cosφ i.e. Dot Product (Scalar Product): a · b = |a| · |b| cosφ Result is always a scalar.e.1.4. Figure 1. a are vectors. It can be positive or negative depending on φ. Scalar multiplication: 2.

MULTIPLICATION OF VECTORS 3.1. then c = |c| = a b sinφ a × b = b × a !!! a × b = −b × a Figure 1.e.7: Note: How angle φ is measured • Direction of cross product determined from right hand rule. ˆ × k = ˆ k × ˆ = ˆ i j ˆ j ˆ i. a × b is ⊥ to a and b.4. i. a · (a × b) = 0 b · (a × b) = 0 • IMPORTANT: a × a = a · a sin0◦ = 0 |ˆ × ˆ = |ˆ |ˆ sin0◦ = 1 · 1 · 0 = 0 i i| i| i| |ˆ × ˆ = |ˆ |ˆ sin90◦ = 1 · 1 · 1 = 1 i j| i| j| ˆ×ˆ = ˆ × ˆ = k × k = 0 i i j j ˆ ˆ ˆ × ˆ = k. ˆ i j ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ a × b = ax ay az bx by bz = (ay bz − az by ) ˆ i +(az bx − ax bz ) ˆ j ˆ +(ax by − ay bx ) k . Cross Product (Vector Product): 5 If c = a × b. • Also.

9: da is a vector that is always perpendicular to the surface S with infinitesimal area da . z)) 1. VECTOR FIELD (PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW) 4. z) is a mathematical function which has a vector output for a position input.6 Other Topics Tangential Vector Figure 1. y. (Scalar field U(x.5. y.8: dl is a vector that is always tangential to the curve C with infinitesimal length dl Surface Vector Figure 1.1.5 Vector Field (Physics Point of View) A vector field F(x. Vector identities: a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c a · (b × c) = b · (c × a) = c · (a × b) a × (b × c) = (a · c) b − (a · b) c 6 1.

11: Direction of da going from inside to outside .1. OTHER TOPICS 7 Some uncertainty! Two conventions: (da versus − da) • Area formed from a closed curve Figure 1.6.10: Direction of da determined from right-hand rule • Closed surface enclosing a volume Figure 1.

Chapter 2 Electric Force & Electric Field
2.1 Electric Force

The electric force between two charges q1 and q2 can be described by Coulomb’s Law.

F12 = F orce on q1 exerted by q2

F12 =
where r12 = ˆ

1 4π 0

ˆ · qr12q2 · r12
12

r12 is the unit vector which locates particle 1 relative to particle 2. |r12 | i.e.

r12 = r1 − r2

• q1 , q2 are electrical charges in units of Coulomb(C) • Charge is quantized Recall 1 electron carries 1.602 × 10−19 C •
0

= Permittivity of free space = 8.85 × 10−12 C 2 /N m2

COULOMB’S LAW: (1) q1 , q2 can be either positive or negative.

2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD

9

(2) If q1 , q2 are of same sign, then the force experienced by q1 is in direction away from q2 , that is, repulsive. (3) Force on q2 exerted by q1 : F21 = BUT: r12 = r21 = distance between q1 , q2 r2 − r1 −r12 r21 = = = −ˆ12 r r21 = ˆ r21 r21 r12

1 q2 q1 ˆ · 2 · r21 4π 0 r21

F21 = −F12 Newton’s 3rd Law

SYSTEM WITH MANY CHARGES:

The total force experienced by charge q1 is the vector sum of the forces on q1 exerted by other charges.

F1 = Force experienced by q1 = F1,2 + F1,3 + F1,4 + · · · + F1,N PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION:

F1 =

N j=2

F1,j

2.2

The Electric Field

While we need two charges to quantify the electric force, we define the electric field for any single charge distribution to describe its effect on other charges.

2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD

10

Total force F = F1 + F2 + · · · + FN The electric field is defined as F =E q0 →0 q0 lim

(a) E-field due to a single charge qi :

From the definitions of Coulomb’s Law, the force experienced at location of q0 (point P)

F0,i =

1 q0 qi · 2 · r0,i ˆ 4π 0 r0,i

where r0,i is the unit vector along the direction from charge qi to q0 , ˆ r0,i = Unit vector from charge qi to point P ˆ = ri (radical unit vector from qi ) ˆ Recall E = lim F q0 →0 q0 ∴ E-field due to qi at point P: Ei = 1 qi · 2 · ri ˆ 4π 0 ri

where ri = Vector pointing from qi to point P, thus ri = Unit vector pointing from qi to point P ˆ Note: (1) E-field is a vector. (2) Direction of E-field depends on both position of P and sign of qi . (b) E-field due to system of charges: Principle of Superposition: In a system with N charges, the total E-field due to all charges is the vector sum of E-field due to individual charges.

Figure 2. (c) Electric Dipole E= i Ei = i System of equal and opposite charges separated by a distance d. .e. ∴ Net E-field points along the axis oppo- site to the dipole moment vector. (Direction of d from negative to positive charge) Electric Dipole Moment ˆ p = q d = qdd p = qd Example: E due to dipole along x-axis Consider point P at distance x along the perpendicular axis of the dipole p : E = E+ ↑ (E-field due to +q) + E− ↑ (E-field due to −q) Notice: Horizontal E-field components of E+ and E− cancel out.2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 1 4π 0 qi r ˆ 2 i ri 11 i.1: An electric dipole.

2.3 Continuous Charge Distribution E-field at point P due to dq: dE = dq 1 · 2 ·r ˆ 4π 0 r . CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION Magnitude of E-field = 2E+ cos θ E+ or E− magnitude! ∴E =2 12 1 q · 2 4π 0 r d 2 2 cos θ But r = cos θ = ∴E = + x2 d/2 r 1 p · 4π 0 [x2 + ( d )2 ] 3 2 2 (p = qd) Special case: When x d 3 d 3 d [x2 + ( )2 ] 2 = x3 [1 + ( )2 ] 2 2 2x • Binomial Approximation: (1 + y)n ≈ 1 + ny E-field of dipole if y 1 1 p 1 · 3 ∼ 3 4π 0 x x • Compare with 1 E-field for single charge r2 • Result also valid for point P along any axis with respect to dipole 2.3.

∴ Only horizontal E-field components need to be considered. we can take advantage of the symmetry of the system to simplify the integral. (2) For each element of length dz. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION ∴ E-field due to charge distribution: 13 ˆ E= V olume ˆ dE = V olume 1 4π 0 · dq r2 ·r ˆ (1) In many cases.3.2. charge dq = λdz ∴ Horizontal E-field at point P due to element dz = |dE| cos θ = 1 λdz · 2 cos θ 4π 0 r dEdz ∴ E-field due to entire line charge at point P L/2 ˆ E = −L/2 λdz 1 · 2 cos θ 4π 0 r dz λ · 2 cos θ 4π 0 r L/2 ˆ = 2 0 . (2) To write down the small charge element dq: 1-D 2-D 3-D Example 1: dq = λ ds dq = σ dA dq = ρ dV λ = linear charge density σ = surface charge density ρ = volume charge density ds = small length element dA = small area element dV = small volume element Uniform line of charge charge per unit length =λ (1) Symmetry considered: The E-field from +z and −z directions cancel along z-direction.

2. but z. • Change of variable (from z to θ) (1) z = x tan θ x = r cos θ ∴ dz = x sec2 θ dθ ∴ r 2 = x2 sec2 θ 14 z=0 . notice that x is fixed. (2) When θ = 0◦ where tan θ0 = ˆθ0 0 z = L/2 θ = θ0 L/2 x λ E = 2· 4π 0 = 2· = 2· λ 4π 0 x sec2 θ dθ · cos θ x2 sec2 θ 1 · cos θ dθ x ˆθ0 0 λ 4π 0 λ = 2· 4π 0 λ = 2· 4π 0 E= θ0 1 · (sin θ) 0 x 1 · · sin θ0 x 1 L/2 · · x x2 + ( L )2 2 · 1 λL · 4π 0 x x2 + ( L )2 2 along x-direction Important limiting cases: 1. r. θ all varies.3. L ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO INFINITELY LONG LINE OF CHARGE . x 1 λL · 2 4π 0 x But λL = Total charge on rod ∴ System behave like a point charge L: E x: E 1 λL · 4π 0 x · L 2 Ex = λ 2π 0 x 2. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION To calculate this integral: • First.

CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION Example 2: Ring of Charge 15 E-field at a height z above a ring of charge of radius R (1) Symmetry considered: For every charge element dq considered. there exists dq where the horizontal E field components cancel. where φ is the angle measured on the ring plane ∴ Net E-field along z-axis due to dq: dE = dq 1 · 2 · cos θ 4π 0 r . (2) For each element of length dz. charge dq = λ ↑ Linear charge density · ds ↑ Circular length element dq = λ · R dφ.2. ⇒ Overall E-field lies along z-direction.3.

3. z. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION ˆ Total E-field = ˆ = 0 16 dE 2π 1 λR dφ · · cos θ 4π 0 r2 z (cos θ = ) r Note: Here in this case.2. θ. R and r are fixed as φ varies! BUT we want to λRz 1 · 3 E= 4π 0 r ˆ 0 2π dφ along z-axis E= BUT: 1 λ(2πR)z · 2 4π 0 (z + R2 )3/2 λ(2πR) = total charge on the ring Example 3: E-field from a disk of surface charge density σ We find the E-field of a disk by integrating concentric rings of charges. convert r. . θ to R.

u = z2 r = R .2. u = z 2 + R2 1 ∴ E = · 2πσz 4π 0 ˆ BUT: u−3/2 du = u−1/2 = −2u−1/2 −1/2 ∴ E z 2 +R2 1 σz (−u−1/2 ) 2 z 20 1 1 −1 σz √ 2 + = 2 20 z z +R ˆ z 2 +R2 z2 1 −3/2 u du 2 = E= σ 20 1− √ z2 z + R2 .3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 17 Total charge of ring dq = σ · ( 2πr dr ) Area of the ring Recall from Example 2: E-field from ring: dE = 1 dq z · 2 4π 0 (z + r2 )3/2 ∴ ˆ R 1 2πσr dr · z E = 4π 0 0 (z 2 + r2 )3/2 ˆ R r dr 1 2πσz 2 = 4π 0 0 (z + r2 )3/2 • Change of variable: u = z 2 + r2 du = 2r dr ⇒ (z 2 + r2 )3/2 = u3/2 1 ⇒ r dr = 2 du ⇒ • Change of integration limit: r = 0 .

ELECTRIC FIELD LINES VERY IMPORTANT LIMITING CASE: If R sity σ: 18 z. Direction of E-field at any point is given by tangent of E-field line. that is if we have an infinite sheet of charge with charge denσ 20 σ 20 z + R2 E = 1− √ 1− z R z2 E≈ σ 20 Figure 2. 2. 3.2: E-field due to an infinite sheet of charge. The start on position charges and end on negative charges. .4. Conventions: 1.4 Electric Field Lines To visualize the electric field. Magnitude of E-field at any point is proportional to number of E-field lines per unit area perpendicular to the lines. charge density = σ E-field is normal to the charged surface Q: What’s the E-field belows the charged sheet? 2.2. we can use a graphical tool called the electric field lines.

ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 19 .4.2.

2.4. ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 20 .

the charge carried by the inkdrop is negtive. Note: q E points in opposite direction of E. q < 0. the force experienced by the charge is Applications: Example: Ink-jet printer.e.1) . Horizontal motion: Net force = 0 ∴ L = vt (2. charge q (q < 0 here) Assume that mass of inkdrop is small.5. POINT CHARGE IN E-FIELD 21 2. Ink particle has mass m. what’s the deflection y of the charge? Solution: First.5 Point Charge in E-field F = q E = ma When we place a charge q in an E-field E.2. TV cathoderay tube. i.

(Newton’s 2nd Law) qE m 22 ∴ Net force = −qE = ma ∴ a=− (2.6.6 Dipole in E-field Consider the force exerted on the dipole in an external E-field: Assumption: E-field from dipole doesn’t affect the external E-field. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD Vertical motion: |q E| |mg|. . Total external force on dipole = 0. BUT: Reminder: There is an external torque on the center of the dipole.2. • Dipole moment: p = qd • Force due to the E-field on +ve and −ve charge are equal and opposite in direction. q is negative. The force exerts a torque τ = r × F on point P with respect to point O. Direction of the torque vector τ is determined from the right-hand rule.2) Vertical distance travelled: y= 1 2 at 2 2. Force F exerts at point P.

Chap 12.7 (Pg. Work done by external E-field on the dipole: dW = −τ dθ Negative sign here because torque by E-field acts to decrease θ. BUT: Because E-field is a conservative force field potential energy (U ) for the system. Halliday Vol.243) torque work done 23 Net torque τ • direction: torque • magnitude: τ = τ+ve + τ−ve d d = F · sin θ + F · sin θ 2 2 = qE · d sin θ = pE sin θ τ =p×E Energy Consideration: When the dipole p rotates dθ. so that dU = −dW ∴ For the dipole in external E-field: 1 2 clockwise . the E-field does work.175) Chap 11. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD Reference: Halliday Vol.257.1 Pg. we can define a dU = −dW = pE sin θ dθ ˆ ∴ U (θ) = ˆ dU = pE sin θ dθ = −pE cos θ + U0 1 2 more to come in Chap.1 .4 of notes ref.6.1 (Pg.1 Chap 9.2.

6. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD set U (θ = 90◦ ) = 0. ∴ 0 = −pE cos 90◦ + U0 ∴ U0 = 0 ∴ Potential energy: 24 U = −pE cos θ = −p · E .2.

For non-uniform E-field & surface. Latin: flux = ”to flow” Graphically: Mathematically: Reminder: Vector of the area A is perpendicular to the area A. direction of the area vector A is not uniform.Chapter 3 Electric Flux and Gauss’ Law 3.1 Electric Flux Electric flux ΦE represents the number of E-field lines crossing a surface. dA = Area vector for small area element dA .

1. dA = dA r ˆ ˆ −q ΦE = r · (dA r) ˆ ˆ 2 S 2π 0 R ˆ q = − dA 2π 0 R2 S 2πR2 ( r · r = 1) ˆ ˆ = For a closed surface: −q 0 Recall: Direction of area vector dA goes from inside to outside of closed surface S. .3. ELECTRIC FLUX ∴ Electric flux 26 dΦE = E · dA ˆ ΦE = E · dA S Electric flux of E through surface S: ˆ = Surface integral over surface S S = Integration of integral over all area elements on surface S Example: E= −2q 1 −q · 2 r= ˆ r ˆ 4π 0 r 2π 0 R2 For a hemisphere.

3. the total number of E-field lines crossing the surface remains the same. ∴ The electric flux ΦE .1. dA = dA · r ˆ ˛ ∴ ΦE E r · dA r ˆ ˆ 4π 0 R2 ˛ q dA = 4π 0 R2 S S = q dA ΦE Total surface area of S = 4πR2 q = 0 IMPORTANT POINT: If we remove the spherical symmetry of closed surface S. ELECTRIC FLUX ˛ Electric flux over closed surface S: ΦE = S 27 E · dA ˛ = Surface integral over closed surface S S Example: Electric flux of charge q over closed spherical surface of radius R. E= 1 q q · 2 r= ˆ r ˆ 4π 0 r 4π 0 R2 at the surface Again.

making up of a curved surface S1 . GAUSS’ LAW ˛ ΦE = S 28 ˛ E · dA = S E · dA = q 0 3. and the top and bottom circles S2 . S3 .2 Gauss’ Law ˛ ΦE = S E · dA = q 0 for any closed surface S And q is the net electric charge enclosed in closed surface S.2. E-field can be easily determined if we construct Gaussian surfaces with the same symmetry and applies Gauss’ Law 3. • Gauss’ Law is valid for all charge distributions and all closed surfaces. Construct a Gaussian surface S in the shape of a cylinder. E-field directs radially outward from the rod.3. (Gaussian surfaces) • Coulomb’s Law can be derived from Gauss’ Law.3 E-field Calculation with Gauss’ Law (A) Infinite line of charge Linear charge density: λ Cylindrical symmetry. • For system with high order of symmetry. ˛ Gauss’ Law: S E · dA = Total charge 0 = λL 0 .

E dA3 ) . Construct Gaussian surface S in the shape of a cylinder (pill box) of cross-sectional area A.3. ˛ Gauss’ Law: ˆ ˆ S1 S E · dA = E · dA = 0 ˆ E · dA + S2 S3 Aσ 0 E ⊥ dA over whole surface S1 E · dA = 2EA (E dA2 . E-field directs perpendicular to the sheet of charge. E-FIELD CALCULATION WITH GAUSS’ LAW ˛ E · dA = S S1 E dA 29 ˆ ˆ E · dA + ˆ E · dA + S2 E · dA S3 ˆ dA = S1 = 0 E⊥dA ∴ E λL 0 Total area of surface S1 λL E(2πrL) = 0 ∴ E = λ 2π 0 r (Compare with Chapter 2 note) E= (B) Infinite sheet of charge λ r ˆ 2π 0 r Uniform surface charge density: σ Planar symmetry.3.

(a) For r > R: Consider a spherical Gaussian surface S of radius r: E dA r ˆ ˛ Q E · dA = Gauss’ Law: S 0 ˛ E · dA = S Q 0 ˛ E S dA = Q 0 surface area of S = 4πr2 ∴ E= Q r. ˆ 4π 0 r2 for r > R (b) For r < R: Consider a spherical Gaussian surface S of radius r < R. both E and dA3 point down ∴ 30 2EA = Aσ 0 ⇒ E= σ 20 (Compare with Chapter 2 note) (C) Uniformly charged sphere Total charge = Q Spherical symmetry. both E and dA2 point up For S3 . then total charge included q is proportional to the volume included by S ∴ Volume enclosed by S q = Q Total volume of sphere .3.3. E-FIELD CALCULATION WITH GAUSS’ LAW Note: For S2 .

4 Gauss’ Law and Conductors For isolated conductors.3. the Efield at the surface of a conductor is perpendicular to its surface. charges are free to move until all charges lie outside the surface of the conductor. (Why?) Consider Gaussian surface S of shape of cylinder: ˛ σA E · dA = S 0 . Also. ˆ 4π 0 R for r ≤ R 3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS q 4/3 πr3 = Q 4/3 πR3 E · dA = S 31 ⇒ q= r3 Q R3 ˛ Gauss’ Law: q 0 ˛ E S dA = r3 1 ·Q R3 0 surface area of S = 4πr2 ∴ E= 1 Q · 3 rr.

4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS ˆ BUT ˆS1 S3 32 E · dA = 0 ( E · dA = 0 ( ˆ E ⊥ dA ) E = 0 inside conductor ) ˆ dA S2 E · dA = E S2 ( E dA ) Area of S2 = EA ∴ Gauss’ Law ⇒ EA = σA 0 ∴ On conductor’s surface E = σ 0 BUT. Example: Conductor with a charge inside Note: This is not an isolated system (because of the charge inside). ∴ Inside conductors E = 0 Always! Notice: Surface charge density on a conductor’s surface is not uniform.3. Example: . there’s no charge inside conductors.

3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS I. Charge sprayed on a conductor sphere:

33

First, we know that charges all move to the surface of conductors.

(i) For r < R: Consider Gaussian surface S2 ˛ E · dA = 0 (
S2

no charge inside )

⇒ E = 0 everywhere. (ii) For r ≥ R: Consider Gaussian surface S1 : ˛ Q E · dA =
S1 0

˛ E
S1 4πr2

For a conductor dA = Q
0

( E

dA r ) ˆ

Spherically symmetric

E =

Q 4π 0 r2

II. Conductor sphere with hole inside:

3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS

34

Consider Gaussian surface S1 : charge included = 0
∴ E-field = 0 inside

Total

The E-field is identical to the case of a solid conductor!!

III. A long hollow cylindrical conductor: Example: Inside hollow cylinder ( +2q ) Inner radius Outer radius a b

Outside hollow cylinder ( −3q ) Inner radius Outer radius Question: Find the charge on each surface of the conductor. c d

For the inside hollow cylinder, charges distribute only on the surface. ∴ Inner radius a surface, charge = 0 and Outer radius b surface, charge = +2q For the outside hollow cylinder, charges do not distribute only on outside. It’s not an isolated system. (There are charges inside!) Consider Gaussian surface S inside the conductor: E-field always = 0 ∴ Need charge −2q on radius c surface to balance the charge of inner cylinder. So charge on radius d surface = −q. (Why?) IV. Large sheets of charge: Total charge Q on sheet of area A,

3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS

35

Surface charge density σ =

Q A

By principle of superposition

Region A: Region B: Region C:

E=0 Q E= 0A E=0

E=0 Q E= 0A E=0

dW = F · ds ∴ Total work done W by force F in moving the particle from Point 1 to Point 2 ˆ W = 1 2 F · ds Path A ˆ 1 2 = Path Integral Path A = Integration over Path A from Point 1 to Point 2. .12) Electric force is a conservative force Work done by the electric force F as a charge moves an infinitesimal distance ds along Path A = dW Note: ds is in the tangent direction of the curve of Path A.Chapter 4 Electric Potential 4.1 Potential Energy and Conservative Forces (Read Halliday Vol.1 Chap.

∴ For conservative forces. ˆ 1 2 ˆ F · ds = 1 2 F · ds Path B Path A Let’s consider a path starting at point 1 to 2 through Path A and from 2 to 1 through Path C ˆ Work done = 1 2 ˆ F · ds + 2 1 F · ds Path C Path A ˆ 2 ˆ 2 = 1 F · ds − 1 F · ds Path B Path A DEFINITION: The work done by a conservative force on a particle when it moves around a closed path returning to its initial position is zero. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES 37 DEFINITION: A force is conservative if the work done on a particle by the force is independent of the path taken. we can define a quantity.4. U2 are potential energy at position 1. potential energy. MATHEMATICALLY. that depends only on the position of the particle. 2. . Convention: We define potential energy U such that ˆ dU = −W = − F · ds ∴ For particle moving from 1 to 2 ˆ 1 2 ˆ dU = U2 − U1 = − 1 2 F · ds where U1 . × F = 0 everywhere for conservative force F Conclusion: Since the work done by a conservative force F is path-independent.1.

∆W 0 • If q1 . then ∆U 0. (2) If q2 moves away from q1 . then r2 < r1 . q2 are of different sign. then ∆U < 0. q2 are of different sign. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES Example: 38 Suppose charge q2 moves from point 1 to 2. then r2 > r1 . we have • If q1 .1.4. then ∆U > 0. we have • If q1 . ∆W > 0 (∆W = Work done by electric repulsive force) • If q1 . ˆ From definition: U2 − U1 = − = = ˆ ( dr 1 =− +C ) 2 r r = 2 −∆W = ∆U = Note: F · dr ˆ1 r2 − F dr ( F r1 ˆ r2 1 q1 q2 dr − 2 r1 4π 0 r r 1 q1 q2 2 4π 0 r r1 1 1 1 q1 q2 − 4π 0 r2 r1 dr ) (1) This result is generally true for 2-Dimension or 3-D motion. ∆W < 0 (∆W = Work done by electric attractive force) (3) If q2 moves towards q1 . ∆W 0 . then ∆U 0. q2 are of same sign. q2 are of same sign.

of 3 charges q1 . q2 opposite sign. E = K + U = Constant (Kinetic Energy) or (Potential Energy) ∆E = ∆K + ∆U = 0 Potential Energy of A System of Charges Example: P. REFERENCE POINT: U (r = ∞) = 0 1 1 1 ∴ U∞ − U1 = q1 q2 − 4π 0 r2 r1 ↓ ∞ U (r) = q1 q2 1 · 4π 0 r 39 If q1 . q3 Start: q1 . POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES (4) Note: It is the difference in potential energy that is important. then U (r) > 0 for all r If q1 .1. U = 0 Step1: Move q1 from ∞ to its position ⇒ U = 0 Move q2 from ∞ to new position ⇒ Step2: U= 1 q1 q2 4π 0 r12 Move q3 from ∞ to new position ⇒ Total P. q3 all at r = ∞.4. q2 . q2 . q2 same sign.E.E. Step3: U= 1 4π 0 q1 q2 q1 q3 q2 q3 + + r12 r13 r23 Step4: What if there are 4 charges? . then U (r) < 0 for all r (5) Conservation of Mechanical Energy: For a system of charges with no external force.

we take V (r = ∞) = 0. • Electric Potential is a scalar. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 40 4. • Unit: V olt(V ) = Joules/Coulomb 1 q · 4π 0 r • For a single point charge: V (r) = • Energy Unit: ∆U = q∆V electron − V olt(eV ) = 1. per unit charge) • Similarly.6 × 10−19 J charge of electron Potential For A System of Charges For a total of N point charges.2 Electric Potential Consider a charge q at center. the potential V at any point P can be derived from the principle of superposition.4.E. Recall that potential due to q1 at q1 1 · point P: V1 = 4π 0 r1 ∴ Total potential at point P due to N charges: V = V1 + V2 + · · · + VN (principle of superposition) 1 qN q1 q2 = + + ··· + 4π 0 r1 r2 rN . we consider its effect on test charge q0 DEFINITION: We define electric potential V so that ∆V = ∆U −∆W = q0 q0 ( ∴ V is the P.2.

we have a sum of vectors For V. we write the electrical potential dV due to infinitesimal charge dq: dV = dq 1 · 4π 0 r .4. F . we have a sum of scalars Example: Potential of an electric dipole Consider the potential of point P at distance x > d 2 from dipole. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 1 4π 0 qi i=1 ri N 41 V = Note: For E.2. U . V = Special Limiting Case: 1 x ∴ d 2 1 +q −q d + 4π 0 x − 2 x+ d 2 x = d 1 1 · d x 1 2x d 1 1± x 2x 1 q d d · 1+ − (1 − ) 4π 0 x 2x 2x p (Recall p = qd) V = 4π 0 x2 1 1 For a point charge E ∝ 2 V ∝ r r V = For a dipole For a quadrupole E∝ E∝ 1 r3 1 r4 V ∝ V ∝ 1 r2 1 r3 Electric Potential of Continuous Charge Distribution For any charge distribution.

2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 42 ˆ ∴ V = charge distribution dq 1 · 4π 0 r Similar to the previous examples on E-field.4. ˆ ∴ V = dV ring λR dθ 1 ·√ 2 4π 0 R + z2 0 ˆ 2π λR √ dθ = 4π 0 R2 + z 2 0 = 2π ˆ 2π Total charge on the ring = λ · (2πR) V = Q √ 4π 0 R2 + z 2 4π Q √ 0 LIMITING CASE: z R ⇒ V = z2 = Q 4π 0 |z| . for the case of uniform charge distribution: 1-D 2-D 3-D ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ long rod charge sheet uniformly charged body ⇒ dq = λ dx ⇒ dq = σ dA ⇒ dq = ρ dV Example (1): Uniformly-charged ring Length of the infinitesimal ring element = ds = Rdθ ∴ charge dq = λ ds = λR dθ 1 dq 1 λR dθ · = ·√ 2 4π 0 r 4π 0 R + z2 dV = The integration is around the entire ring.

2. V . ˆ 1 dq ∴ dV = 4π 0 r disk Ring of radius x: ∴ dq = σ dA = σ (2πxdx) 1 σ2πx dx ·√ 2 x + z2 0 4π 0 ˆ R σ d(x2 + z 2 ) = 4 0 0 (x2 + z 2 )1/2 √ σ √ 2 = ( z + R2 − z 2 ) 20 σ √ 2 = ( z + R2 − |z|) 20 = ˆ R V V Recall: |x| = +x. −x. x≥0 x<0 Limiting Case: (1) If |z| √ R R2 z2 R2 = |z| · 1 + 2 z R2 |z| · 1 + 2 2z z2 1 + z 2 + R2 = 1 2 ( (1 + x)n ≈ 1 + nx if x ( |z| 1 = ) 2 z |z| 1) σ R2 Q · = (like a point charge) 2 0 2|z| 4π 0 |z| where Q = total charge on disk = σ · πR2 ∴ At large z. we will find the potential of a disk of uniform charge density by integrating the potential of concentric rings.4. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL Example (2): Uniformly-charged disk 43 Using the principle of superposition.

4. 20 ∴ Let’s call this V0 V (z) = σR |z| z2 1− + 20 R 2R2 |z| z2 V (z) = V0 1 − + R 2R2 The key here is that it is the difference between potentials of two points that is important. ⇒ A convenience reference point to compare in this example is the potential of the charged disk. ∴ The important quantity here is V (z) − V0 = − & z2 & |z| V0 + & V0 2 R 2R & neglected as z R V (z) − V0 = − V0 |z| R .2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL (2) If |z| R √ z 2 + R2 = R · 1 + z2 R2 z2 R 1+ 2R2 1 2 44 ∴ V σ z2 R − |z| + 20 2R At z = 0. V = σR .

3 Relation Between Electric Field E and Electric Potential V (A) To get V from E: Recall our definition of the potential V: ∆V = W12 ∆U =− q0 q0 where ∆U is the change in P. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC POTENTIAL V 45 4.4. (Path-Independent) ˆ P Convention: V∞ = 0 ⇒ VP = − E · ds ∞ (B) To get E from V : Again. ∴ q0 ∆V = −q0 Es ∆s . W12 is the work done in bringing charge q0 from point 1 to 2. use the definition of V : ∆U = q0 ∆V = −W Work done However. W = q0 E · ∆s Electric force = q0 Es ∆s where Es is the E-field component along the path ∆s.3. ´2 − 1 F · ds ∴ ∆V = V2 − V1 = q0 However.E. the definition of E-field: ∴ F = q0 E ˆ 2 ∆V = V2 − V1 = − 1 E · ds Note: The integral on the right hand side of the above can be calculated along any path from point 1 to 2..

Example: ∂V ∂x ∂V ∂y ∂V ∂z = = = If V (x. z) and V is ∂V ∂V ∂V Ex = − Ey = − Ez = − ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ ∂ ∂ . z) = x2 y − z For other co-ordinate systems (1) Cylindrical:    E   r         = − ∂V ∂r V (r. y. ∴ Es = − dV ds Note: (1) Therefore the E-field component along any direction is the negtive derivative of the potential along the same direction. z). z) 1 ∂V Eθ = − ·   r ∂θ          E  z = − ∂V ∂z .3.4. z). y. . then ∆V = 0 (3) ∆V is biggest/smallest if ds E Generally. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC POTENTIAL V ∴ 46 Es = − ∆V ∆s For infinitesimal ∆s. y. z are treated like a constant and we only ∂x take derivative with respect to x. (2) If ds ⊥ E. the relation between E(x. y. for a potential V (x. everything y. are partial derivatives ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ For V (x. θ.

φ) 1 ∂V Eθ = − ·  r ∂θ           Eφ  = − 1 ∂V · r sin θ ∂φ Note: Calculating V involves summation of scalars.2 notes) Ez = − Example: Uniform electric field (e. Example: Uniformly charged disk From potential calculations: σ √ 2 V = ( R + z 2 − |z| ) 20 For z > 0. VP − V− = − ˆ0 s = − ˆ0 s = E 0 s E · ds (−E ds) ds = Es (V− = Potential of −ve plate) E. VP can be deduced from definition. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC POTENTIAL V (2) Spherical:    Er           47 = − ∂V ∂r V (r.3. ds pointing opposite directions Convenient reference: V− = 0 ∴ VP = E · s . ∴ To find the E-field of a general charge system. Uniformly charged +ve and −ve plates) Consider a path going from the −ve plate to the +ve plate Potential at point P. ∴ for a point along the z-axis |z| = z ∂V σ z = 1− √ 2 ∂z 20 R + z2 (Compare with Chap.g. we first calculate V . and then derive E from the partial derivative.e. which is easier than adding vectors for calculating E-field. θ.4. ˆ i.

4 Equipotential Surfaces Equipotential surface is a surface on which the potential is constant. (2) The electric field lines must be perpendicular to the equipotential surfaces. Example: Uniformly charged surface (infinite) Recall V = V0 − ↑ σ |z| 20 Potential at z = 0 Equipotential surface means V = const ⇒ V0 − σ |z| = C 20 ⇒ |z| = constant . V = constant ⇒ ∆V = 0 ⇒ E · dl = 0.4. (Why?) On an equipotential surface. where dl is tangent to equipotential surface ∴ E must be perpendicular to equipotential surfaces. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES 48 4.4. ⇒ (∆V = 0) V (r) = ⇒ ⇒ 1 +q · = const 4π 0 r r = const Equipotential surfaces are circles/spherical surfaces Note: (1) A charge can move freely on an equipotential surface without any work done.

V = Example: Connected conducting spheres Two conductors connected can be seen as a single conductor . (i) Inside conductor: E = 0 ⇒ ∆V = 0 everywhere in conductor ⇒ V = constant everywhere in conductor ⇒ The entire conductor is at the same potential (ii) Outside conductor: Q 4π 0 r Spherically symmetric (Just like a point charge. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES Example: Isolated spherical charged conductors 49 Recall: (1) E-field inside = 0 (2) charge distributed on the outside of conductors.) BUT not true for conductors of arbitrary shape.4.4.

EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES ∴ 50 Potential everywhere is identical. Note: Charge distribution on a conductor does not have to be uniform.4. .4. V1 = Potential of radius R1 sphere Potential of radius R2 sphere q1 4π 0 R1 q2 V2 = 4π 0 R2 q1 R1 = q2 R2 V1 = V2 q1 q2 ⇒ = R1 R2 Surface charge density σ1 = q1 2 4πR1 ⇒ Surface area of radius R1 sphere ∴ ∴ 2 σ1 q1 R 2 R2 = · 2 = σ2 q2 R 1 R1 If R1 < R2 . The radius of this circle is the radius of curvature. we fit a circle. then σ1 > σ2 And the surface electric field E1 > E2 For arbitrary shape conductor: At every point on the conductor.

1 Capacitors A capacitor is a system of two conductors that carries equal and opposite charges. If we increase V for a capacitor. we can increase Q stored.2 5. A capacitor stores charge and energy in the form of electro-static field. Q V Unit: Farad(F) 5.e.Chapter 5 Capacitance and DC Circuits 5. We define capacitance as C= where Q = Charge on one plate V = Potential difference between the plates Note: The C of a capacitor is a constant that depends only on its shape and material.2.1 Calculating Capacitance Parallel-Plate Capacitor . i.

ˆ ∆V = V+ − V− = − − + 52 σ 0 = Q 0A E · ds Again.5.2.2. ˆ ∴ − ∆V = + ˆ − E · ds E · ds ˆ − ds + = + = Q 0A Length of path taken = Q ·d 0A Q 0A = ∆V d (3) ∴ C= 5. notice that this integral is independent of the path taken. The length of the capacitor is L where r1 < r2 L. .2 Cylindrical Capacitor Consider two concentric cylindrical wire of innner and outer radii r1 and r2 respectively. CALCULATING CAPACITANCE (1) Recall from Chapter 3 note. |E| = (2) Recall from Chapter 4 note. ∴ We can take the path that is parallel to the E-field.

2. we choose the path of integration so that ds r E ˆ ˆ r2 ˆ r2 Q dr ∴ ∆V = E dr = 2π 0 L r1 r r1 ln( r2 ) 1 r ∴ C= Q = 2π ∆V 0 L ln(r2 /r1 ) 5. E= 1 Q · 2.3 Spherical Capacitor For the space between the two conductors.5. 4π 0 r r 1 < r < r2 ˆ ∆V Choose ds − = ˆ+r2 = E · ds r ˆ Q 1 · 2 dr r1 4π 0 r Q 1 1 = − 4π 0 r1 r2 0 C = 4π r1 r2 r2 − r1 . Chap3 note) E= 1 1 λ Q · r= ˆ · r ˆ 2π 0 r 2π 0 Lr where λ is charge per unit length (2) ˆ ∆V = + − E · ds Again. we determine that the E-field between the conductors is (cf.2. CALCULATING CAPACITANCE 53 (1) Using Gauss’ Law.

across C1 P.D.) across capacitors different ∆V1 = Va − Vc = ∆V2 ∴ Q C1 Q = Vc − Vb = C2 P.3.D.3 Capacitors in Combination (a) Capacitors in Parallel In this case. CAPACITORS IN COMBINATION 54 5. across C2 Potential difference ∆V ∆V = Va − Vb = ∆V1 + ∆V2 1 1 Q = Q( + )= C1 C2 C where C is the Equivalent Capacitance ∴ 1 1 1 = + C C1 C2 .D. it’s the potential difference V = Va − Vb that is the same across the capacitor. BUT: Charge on each capacitor different Total charge Q = Q1 + Q2 = C1 V + C2 V Q = (C1 + C2 ) V Equivalent capacitance ∴ For capacitors in parallel: C = C1 + C2 (b) Capacitors in Series The charge across capacitors are the same. BUT: Potential difference (P.5.

⇒ NEEDS WORK DONE! Suppose we move charge dq from −ve to +ve plate. positive charge is being moved from the negative plate to the positive plate. the total potential energy ˆ ˆ Q q U = dU = dq 0 C ∴ U= Q2 1 = C∆V 2 2C 2 ( Q=C∆V ) The energy stored in the capacitor is stored in the electric field between the plates. change in potential energy dU = ∆V · dq = q dq C Suppose we keep putting in a total charge Q to the capacitor. Note : In a parallel-plate capacitor. ∴ We can consider the E-field energy density u = ∴ Total energy stored Total volume with E-field u= U Ad Rectangular volume Recall    C         E = = 0A d ∆V d C ⇒ ∆V = Ed 1 V olume ∴ u= 1 0A 1 ( ) · ( Ed )2 · 2 d Ad (∆V )2 .4.4 Energy Storage in Capacitor In charging a capacitor.5. ENERGY STORAGE IN CAPACITOR 55 5. the E-field is constant between the plates.

5.4. ENERGY STORAGE IN CAPACITOR 1 2 0E 2 ↑ can be generally applied u= Example : Changing capacitance Energy per unit volume of the electrostatic field

56

(1) Isolated Capacitor: Charge on the capacitor plates remains constant. 1 0A BUT: Cnew = = Cold 2d 2 Q2 Q2 ∴ Unew = = = 2Uold 2Cnew 2Cold /2 ∴ In pulling the plates apart, work done W > 0 Summary : (V =
Q ) C 1 E2 2 0

⇒ =

Q V u

→ Q → 2V → u

C E U

→ → →

C/2 E 2U

(E = V ) d (U = u · volume)

(2) Capacitor connected to a battery: Potential difference between capacitor plates remains constant. 1 1 1 1 Unew = Cnew ∆V 2 = · Cold ∆V 2 = Uold 2 2 2 2 ∴ In pulling the plates apart, work done by battery < 0 Summary : Q V u → → → Q/2 V u/4 C E U → → → C/2 E/2 U/2

5.5. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT

57

5.5

Dielectric Constant

We first recall the case for a conductor being placed in an external E-field E0 .

In a conductor, charges are free to move inside so that the internal E-field E set up by these charges E = −E0 so that E-field inside conductor = 0.

Generally, for dielectric, the atoms and molecules behave like a dipole in an E-field. Or, we can envision this so that in the absence of E-field, the direction of dipole in the dielectric are randomly distributed.

5.6. CAPACITOR WITH DIELECTRIC The aligned dipoles will generate an induced E-field E , where |E | < |E0 |. We can observe the aligned dipoles in the form of induced surface charge.

58

Dielectric Constant : When a dielectric is placed in an external E-field E0 , the E-field inside a dielectric is induced. E-field in dielectric E= 1 E0 Ke ≥1

Ke = dielectric constant Example : Vacuum Porcelain Water Perfect conductor Air Ke Ke Ke Ke Ke

=1 = 6.5 ∼ 80 =∞ = 1.00059

5.6

Capacitor with Dielectric

Case I :

Again, the charge remains constant after dielectric is inserted. 1 BUT: Enew = Eold Ke 1 ∆Vold ∴ ∆V = Ed ⇒ ∆Vnew = Ke Q ∴ C= ⇒ Cnew = Ke Cold ∆V For a parallel-plate capacitor with dielectric: C= Ke 0 A d

E = ⇒ E = σ 0 (Chapter 3 note) (σ = charge per unit area = Q/A) Q 0A After insertion of dielectric: E = But E-field remains constant! ∴ E Q = Ke Ke 0 A Q Ke 0 A Q 0A E =E ⇒ = ⇒ Q = Ke Q > Q .6. CAPACITOR WITH DIELECTRIC We can also write = Ke (Recall 0 59 C= 0 A d in general with (called permittivity of dielectric) = Permittivity of free space) Q2 Energy stored U = . Recall: For conductors. In both scenarios. 2C 1 ∴ Unew = Uold < Uold Ke ∴ Work done in inserting dielectric < 0 Case II : Capacitor connected to a battery Voltage across capacitor plates remains constant after insertion of dielectric.5. the E-field inside capacitor remains constant ( E = V /d) BUT: How can E-field remain constant? ANSWER: By having extra charge on capacitor plates.

7 Gauss’ Law in Dielectric The Gauss’ Law we’ve learned is applicable in vacuum only. GAUSS’ LAW IN DIELECTRIC Capacitor C = Q/V 1 Energy stored U = 2 CV 2 (i. (3) ∴ Ke 0 A 0A 0A ∴ S 0 (2) Induced charge density σ = Q 1 =σ 1− <σ A Ke where σ is free charge density. we define E = (3) Ke Q Q Q = − From (1).5. Let’s use the capacitor as an example to examine Gauss’ Law in dielectric.7. Free charge on plates Induced charge on dielectric ±Q 0 ˛ Gauss’ Law Q E · dA = ˛ S ±Q Q Gauss’ Law: Q−Q E · dA = Q−Q E = 0A 0 Q ⇒ E0 = (1) ∴ 0A E0 However. Recall Gauss’ Law in Dielectric: ˛ E · dA = 0 S Q ↑ free charge − Q ↑ induced charge ↑ E-field in dielectric . Unew > Uold ) ∴ ∴ 60 ⇒ ⇒ C → Ke C U → Ke U Work done to insert dielectric > 0 5. (2).e.

5. even for dielectric where there are induced charges. (1) This goes back to the Gauss’ Law in vacuum with E = (3) Another way to write: ˛ E · dA = S Q is Permittivity where E is E-field in dielectric. . recall U= 1 CV 2 2 Ke 0 A C= d V = Ed ∴ Energy stored per unit volume: ue = U 1 = Ke 0 E 2 Ad 2 and udielectric = Ke uvacuum ∴ More energy is stored per unit volume in dielectric than in vacuum.8 Ohm’s Law and Resistance ELECTRIC CURRENT is defined as the flow of electric charge through a cross-sectional area.8. = Ke 0 Energy stored with dielectric: Total energy stored: With dielectric. 5. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE 61 ˛ ⇒ ⇒ ˛ Ke E · dA = S 0 E · dA = Q − Q 1 − ˛S E · dA = S 1 Ke 0 Q Ke Gauss’ Law in dielectric Q 0 Note : E0 for dielectric Ke (2) Only free charges need to be considered.

j = charge flow per unit time per unit area ˆ i= Drift Velocity : j · dA Consider a current i flowing through a cross-sectional area A: ∴ In time ∆t.8.5. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE dQ dt Unit: Ampere (A) = C/second 62 i= Convention : (1) Direction of current is the direction of flow of positive charge. ∴ j = −nevd for metals ∴ Inside metals. (2) Current is NOT a vector. total charges passing through segment: ∆Q = q A(Vd ∆t) n Volume of charge passing through where q is charge of the current carrier. the charge carriers are the free electrons inside. per unit volume ∴ n is density of charge carrier Current: i= ∆Q = nqAvd ∆t Current Density: j = nqvd Note : For metal. j and vd are in opposite direction. conductivity (σ). but the current density is a vector. of a material as: j = σE . We define a general property.

. is defined as ∴ ρ= 1 σ E = ρj Unit of ρ : Ohm-meter (Ωm) where Ohm (Ω) = Volt/Ampere OHM’S LAW: Ohmic materials have resistivity that are independent of the applied electric field. but rather a function of position and applied E-field. σ is NOT a constant number. i.8. Note: ∆V = iR is NOT a statement of Ohm’s Law.e. metals (in not too high E-field) Example : Consider a resistor (ohmic material) of length L and cross-sectional area A.5. It’s just a definition for resistance. resistivity (ρ). A more commonly used property. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE 63 Note : In general. ∴ Electric field inside conductor: ˆ ∆V = E · ds = E · L j= i A ∴ ⇒ E= ∆V L Current density: E j ∆V 1 ρ = · L i/A ρ = ∆V L =R=ρ i A where R is the resistance of the conductor.

electric potential energy increase by ∆U = ∆Q(V2 − V1 ) = Work done by E Define E = Work done/charge = V2 − V1 .5. P = i2 R = ∆V 2 R 5. DC CIRCUITS 64 ENERGY IN CURRENT: Assuming a charge ∆Q enters with potential V1 and leaves with potential V2 : ∴ Potential energy lost in the wire: ∆U = ∆Q V2 − ∆Q V1 ∆U = ∆Q(V2 − V1 ) ∴ Rate of energy lost per unit time ∆U ∆Q = (V2 − V1 ) ∆t ∆t Joule’s heating P = i · ∆V = Power dissipated in conductor For a resistor R.9 DC Circuits A battery is a device that supplies electrical energy to maintain a current in a circuit. In moving from point 1 to 2.9.

E = iR ⇒ i= Resistance in combination : Potential differece (P. DC CIRCUITS Example : 65 Va = Vc Vb = Vd assuming(1) perfect conducting wires.9. By Definition: Vc − Vd = iR Va − Vb = E ∴ Also.) Va − Vb = (Va − Vc ) + (Vc − Vb ) = iR1 + iR2 ∴ Equivalent Resistance R = R1 + R2 1 1 1 = + R R1 R2 for resistors in series for resistors in parallel . we have assumed(2) E R zero resistance inside battery.5.D.

∴ E = i(R + r) E i = R+r Joule’s heating in resistor R : P = i · (P.D. dP E2 E 2 2R = − dR (R + r)2 (R + r)3 dP E2 =0 ⇒ [(R + r) − 2R] = 0 dR (R + r)3 ⇒ r−R=0 ⇒ R=r Setting . there is an internal resistance that we cannot ignore.5. across resistor R) = i2 R E 2R P = (R + r)2 Question: What is the value of R to obtain maximum Joule’s heating? Answer: We want to find R to maximize P.9. DC CIRCUITS Example : 66 For real battery.

e. DC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX CIRCUITS: KIRCHOFF’S LAWS: 67 (1) First Law (Junction Rule): Total current entering a junction equal to the total current leaving the junction. (2) Second Law (Loop Rule): The sum of potential differences around a complete circuit loop is zero.e. Convention : (i) Va > Vb (ii) ⇒ Potential difference = −iR i. Potential rises across the negative plate of the battery.9.5. Potential drops across resistors Vb > Va ⇒ Potential difference = +E i. Example : .

2) (5.2) : 3E0 − 2(i2 + i3 )R − i2 R = 0 ⇒ 3E0 − 3i2 R − 2i3 R = 0 Subtract (5. i.3) (5.4) = (5.e. (5.2) (5.2) + (5.4) (5.1) (5.3) (5.3) : −2E0 + 5 E0 · R − 2i3 R = 0 4 R i2 = 5 E0 · 4 R (5.4).4) .1) (5.3) General rule: Need only 3 equations for 3 current i1 = i2 + i3 3E0 − 2i1 R − i2 R = 0 −2E0 + i2 R − 2i3 R = 0 Substitute (5. DC CIRCUITS 68 By junction rule: i1 = i2 + i3 By loop rule: Loop A ⇒ 2E0 − i1 R − i2 R + E0 − i1 R = 0 Loop B ⇒ −i3 R − E0 − i3 R − E0 + i2 R = 0 Loop C ⇒ 2E0 − i1 R − i3 R − E0 − i3 R − i1 R = 0 BUT: (5.9.3) 3E0 − (−2E0 ) − 3i2 R − i2 R = 0 ⇒ Substitute i2 into (5.3) from (5.1) into (5.5.4)−(5.

i ∴ E =R ⇒ dQ Q 1st order + differential eqn. across R − Q C P. across C =0 Note: Direction of i is chosen so that the current represents the rate at which the charge on the capacitor is increasing. RC CIRCUITS 3 E0 i3 = − · 8 R 69 ⇒ Substitute i2 .10. 5.1) : i1 = 5 3 E0 7 E0 − = · 4 8 R 8 R Note: A negative current means that it is flowing in opposite direction from the one assumed.D. Q on capacitor = 0 ˆ Q ˆ t dQ dt = 0 EC − Q 0 RC . i3 into (5. dt C dt dQ = EC − Q RC Integrate both sides and use the initial condition: t = 0.10 RC Circuits (A) Charging a capacitor with battery: Using the loop rule: +E0 − iR P.D.5.

(5) As time → ∞. RC CIRCUITS − ln(EC − Q) Q 0 70 = t RC t 0 ⇒ − ln(EC − Q) + ln(EC) = 1 t = Q RC 1 − EC 1 t/RC ⇒ Q = e 1 − EC Q ⇒ = 1 − e−t/RC EC ⇒ Q(t) = EC(1 − e−t/RC ) ⇒ ln Note: (1) At t = 0 . the capacitor is fully charged and current = 0. Q(t = 0) = EC(1 − 1) = 0 t RC (2) As t → ∞ . .10. the capacitor acts like short circuit when there is zero charge on the capacitor.5. it acts like a open circuit. Q(t → ∞) = EC(1 − 0) = EC = Final charge on capacitor (Q0 ) (3) Current: dQ i = dt 1 = EC e−t/RC RC E −t/RC i(t) = e R  E  = Initial current = i0 i(t = 0) = R  i(t → ∞) = 0 (4) At time = 0.

63Q0 e (B) Discharging a charged capacitor: Note: Direction of i is chosen so that the current represents the rate at which the charge on the capacitor is decreasing.5. Q on capacitor = Q0 ˆ Q ˆ t dQ 1 =− dt RC 0 Q0 Q t ⇒ ln Q − ln Q0 = − RC Q t ⇒ ln =− Q0 RC Q = e−t/RC ⇒ Q0 ⇒ Q(t) = Q0 e−t/RC dQ Q0 −t/RC (i = − ) ⇒ i(t) = e dt RC 1 Q0 (At t = 0) ⇒ i(t = 0) = · R C Initial P. It’s the time it takes for the charge to reach (1 − 1 ) Q0 0.D.10. ∴ i=− dQ dt Loop Rule: Vc − iR = 0 Q dQ + R=0 ⇒ C dt dQ 1 ⇒ =− Q dt RC Integrate both sides and use the initial condition: t = 0. across capacitor i0 = V0 R . RC CIRCUITS 71 (6) τc = RC is called the time constant.

5. RC CIRCUITS 72 At t = RC = τ Q(t = RC) = 1 Q0 e 0.10.37Q0 .

they experienced an electric force in an electric field. Mathematically.1C charge moving at velocity v = (10ˆ − j −1 ˆ ˆ ˆ + 4k) × 10−4 T 20k)ms in a magnetic field B = (−3i F = qv × B .1 Magnetic Field For stationary charges. Magnetic field B : Unit = Tesla (T) 1T = 1C moving at 1m/s experiencing 1N Common Unit: 1 Gauss (G) = 10−4 T ≈ magnetic field on earth’s surface Example: What’s the force on a 0. they experienced a magnetic force in a magnetic field. FE = q E (electric force) FB = qv × B (magnetic force) Direction of the magnetic force determined from right hand rule. For moving charges.Chapter 6 Magnetic Force 6.

(2) Magnitude of E-field/B-field indicated by density of the field lines. ∴ 74 where θ is the angle between v and B B) Magnetic force is maximum when θ = 90◦ (i.e.1. F = qv × B |F | = qvB sin θ.1 (10ˆ − 20k) × (−3ˆ + 4k) × 10−4 N j ˆ = 10−5 (−30 · −k + 40ˆ + 60ˆ + 0)N i j Effects of magnetic field is usually quite small. Differeces : (1) FE E-field lines. . MAGNETIC FIELD ˆ ˆ i = +0. Example : Chap35. Bfield line forms a closed loop. v Graphical representation of B-field: Magnetic field lines Compared with Electric field lines: Similar characteristics : (1) Direction of E-field/B-field indicated by tangent of the field lines. 180◦ (i.6. v ⊥ B) Magnetic force is minimum (0) when θ = 0◦ . FB ⊥ B-field lines (2) E-field line begins at positive charge and ends at negative charge. Pg803 Halliday Note: Isolated magnetic monopoles do not exist.e.

We have circular motion. therefore B-field only changes the direction of the velocity but not its magnitude. . FB = qv × B = q v⊥ B . Magnetic force provides the centripetal force on the moving charge particles. MOTION OF A POINT CHARGE IN MAGNETIC FIELD 75 6.6.2. Time for moving around one orbit: T = 2πr 2πm = v qB Cyclotron Period (1) Independent of v (non-relativistic) (2) Use it to measure m/q Generally. ∴ v2 r v2 |q| vB = m r mv ∴ r = |q|B FB = m where r is radius of circular motion.2 Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Since FB ⊥ v. Generally. ∴ We only need to consider the motion component ⊥ to B-field. charged particles with constant velocity moves in helix in the presence of constant B-field.

they will pass through the crossed E and B fields without vertical displacement. .E. This separation of charge in the wire is called the Hall Effect.3. Particle Motion in Presence of E-field & B-field: F = q E + qv × B Special Case : E⊥B Lorentz Force 76 When |FE | = |FB | qE = qvB ⇒ v= E B ∴ For charged particles moving at v = E/B.6. HALL EFFECT Note : (1) B-field does NO work on particles. of particles. (2) B-field does NOT change K.3 Hall Effect Charges travelling in a conducting wire will be pushed to one side of the wire by the external magnetic field. ⇒ velocity selector Applications : • Cyclotron (Lawrence & Livingston 1934) • Measuring e/m for electrons (Thomson 1897) • Mass Spectrometer (Aston 1919) 6.

A is cross-sectional area = width × thickness = W · t ∴ ∆VH i = B W nqW t To determine density of charge carriers ⇒ n= iB qt∆VH Suppose we determine n for a particular metal (∴ q = e).3. where vd is drift velocity ∴ ∆VH = vd B W i = nqAvd Recall from Chapter 5.6. then we can measure B-field strength by measuring the Hall voltage: B= net ∆VH i . where n is density of charge carrier. HALL EFFECT 77 The separation will stop when FB experienced by the current carrier is balanced by the force FH caused by the E-field set up by the separated charges. Define : ∆VH = Hall Voltage = Potential difference across the conducting strip ∆VH E-field from separated charges: EH = W where W = width of conducting strip ∴ In equilibrium: q EH + qvd × B = 0.

dF · sin θ ˆ π ∴ Net force F = dF sin θ 0 ˆ π = iRB sin θ dθ 0 F = 2iRB (downward) . Total magnetic force = ( qvd × B ) · force on one charge carrier nAL Total number of charge carrier Recall i = nqvd A ∴ Magnetic force on current F = iL × B where L = Vector of which: |L| = length of current segment.6.4. direction = direction of current For an infinitesimal wire segment dl dF = i dl × B Example 1: Force on a semicircle current loop dl = Infinitesimal arc length element ⊥ B ∴ dl = R dθ ∴ dF = iRB dθ By symmetry argument. we only need to consider vertical forces. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS 78 6. length L. carrying current i in a magnetic field.4 Magnetic Force on Currents Current = many charges moving together Consider a wire segment.

6. j Method 2: Write dl in ˆ ˆ components dl = −dl sin θ ˆ + dl cos θ ˆ i j = R dθ (− sin θ ˆ + cos θ ˆ i j) ˆ B = −B k (into the page) ∴ 79 dF = i dl × B = −iRB sin θ dθ ˆ − iRB cos θ ˆ j i ˆ π ∴ F = 0 dF ˆ 0 π ˆ sin θ dθ ˆ + j 0 π = −iRB = −2iRB ˆ j Example 2: Current loop in B-field cos θ dθ ˆ i For segment2: F2 = ibB sin(90◦ + θ) = ibB cos θ (pointing downward) For segment4: F2 = ibB sin(90◦ − θ) = ibB cos θ (pointing upward) .4. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS i.

6. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS For segment1: F1 = iaB For segment3: F3 = iaB ∴ Net force on the current loop = 0 But.4. net torque on the loop about O = τ1 + τ3 b b = iaB · sin θ + iaB · sin θ 2 2 = i ab B sin θ A = area of loop 80 Suppose the loop is a coil with N turns of wires: Total torque τ = N iAB sin θ Define: Unit vector n to represent the area-vector (using right hand rule) ˆ Then we can rewrite the torque equation as τ = N iA n × B ˆ Define: N iA n = µ = Magnetic dipole moment of loop ˆ τ =µ×B .

Chapter 7 Magnetic Field 7. Magnetic field B due to moving point charge: B= where µ0 qv × r ˆ µ0 qv × r · = · 4π r2 4π r3 µ0 = 4π × 10−7 Tm/A (N/A2 ) Permeability of free space (Magnetic constant) |B| = µ0 qv sin θ · 4π r2 maximum when θ = 90◦ minimum when θ = 0◦ /180◦ B at P0 = 0 = B at P1 B at P2 < B at P3 However.1 Magnetic Field   experiences magnetic force in B-field.  A moving charge   can generate B-field. steady currents generate steady B-field. stationary charges generate steady E-field. . a single moving charge will NOT generate a steady magnetic field.

MAGNETIC FIELD 82 Magnetic field at point P can be obtained by integrating the contribution from individual current segments.7. (Principle of Superposition) ∴ dB = µ0 dq v × r ˆ · 4π r2 Notice: dq v = dq · ds = i ds dt µ0 i ds × r ˆ · 2 4π r Biot-Savart Law dB = For current around a whole circuit: ˆ ˆ B= dB = entire circuit entire circuit ˆ µ0 i ds × r · 4π r2 Biot-Savart Law is to magnetic field as Coulomb’s Law is to electric field.1. Basic element of E-field: Electric charges dq Basic element of B-field: Current element i ds Example 1 : Magnetic field due to straight current segment .

1.7. MAGNETIC FIELD 83 ∴ |ds × r | ˆ = dz sin φ = dz sin(π − φ) (Trigonometry Identity) d d · dz = dz · = √ 2 r d + z2 dB = ∴ µ0 i dz d µ0 i d dz · 2 · = · 2 4π r r 4π (d + z 2 )3/2 ˆ L/2 ˆ µ0 id +L/2 dz B= dB = 2 + z 2 )3/2 4π −L/2 (d −L/2 µ0 i 4πd µ0 i B = 4πd B = +L/2 z (z 2 + d2 )1/2 −L/2 L · L2 ( 4 + d2 )1/2 · Limiting Cases : When L d (B-field due to long wire) −1/2 L2 + d2 4 ∴ ≈ L2 4 −1/2 = 2 L B= µ0 i direction of B-field determined . 2π 0 d Example 2 : A circular current loop . from right-hand screw rule 2πd Recall : E = λ for an infinite long line of charge.

B= µ0 iR2 2z 3 1 + R2 z2 3/2 ⇒ B= µ0 i 2R ≈ µ0 iR2 1 ∝ 3 3 2z z E= p Recall E-field for an electric dipole: 4π 0 x3 ∴ A circular current loop is also called a magnetic dipole. generating B-field dB2 so that dB1 sin α = −dB2 sin α ∴ Only vertical component of B-field needs to be considered at point P . from right-hand screw rule 2 + z 2 )3/2 2(R Limiting Cases : (1) B-field at center of loop: z=0 (2) For z R. ds⊥ˆ r µ0 i ds sin 90◦ dB = · 4π r2 ∴ B-field at point P : ˆ B= around circuit dB cos α consider vertical component ∴ B = µ0 i cos α · ds 4πr2 Rdθ 0 ˆ 2π µ0 i R = · ds 4π r3 0 Integrate around circumference of circle = 2πR 2π ˆ ∴ B = µ0 iR2 2r3 B= µ0 iR2 direction of B-field determined .1.7. there is an opposite current element ids2 . generating a magnetic field dB1 at point P . MAGNETIC FIELD 84 Notice that for every current element ids1 . .

MAGNETIC FIELD (3) A current arc: ˆ B = around circuit 85 dB cos α z=0 ⇒ α = 0 here.1. Consider a solenoid of length L consisting of N turns of wire. N Define: n = Number of turns per unit length = L Consider B-field at distance d from the center of the solenoid: For a segment of length dz. number of current turns = ndz ∴ Total current = ni dz .7. Rθ = length of arc µ0 i R = · · 4π r3 R=r when α = 0 ˆ 0 θ ds Rdθ B = µ0 i θ 4πR Example 3 : Magnetic field of a solenoid Solenoid is used to produce a strong and uniform magnetic field inside its coils.

7. (Principle of Superposition) . from right-hand screw rule Question : What is the B-field at the end of an ideal solenoid? 7.2 Parallel Currents Magnetic field at point P B due to two currents i1 and i2 is the vector sum of the B fields B1 . PARALLEL CURRENTS 86 Using the result from one coil in Example 2. we get B-field from coils of length dz at distance z from center: dB = µ0 (ni dz)R2 2r3 However r = R2 + (z − d)2 ˆ ∴ +L/2 B = −L/2 dB ˆ +L/2 −L/2 (Integrating over the entire solenoid) µ0 niR2 = 2  dz [R2 + (z − d)2 ]3/2  L L +d −d µ0 ni  2 2  B = + 2 R2 + ( L + d)2 R2 + ( L − d)2 2 2 along negative z direction Ideal Solenoid : L then ∴ R µ0 ni B= [1 + 1] 2 direction of B-field determined B= µ0 ni 2 B = µ0 ni . B2 due to individual currents.2.

there exists another element at −x so that vertical B-field components of B+x and B−x cancel. anti-parallel currents repel.7.2. ∴ Magnetic field due to dx wire: dB = ∴ µ0 · di 2πr where di = i dx a Total B-field (pointing along −x axis) at point P : +a/2 ˆ +a/2 ˆ B= −a/2 dB cos θ = −a/2 µ0 i dx · · cos θ 2πa r . A) 2πd Parallel currents attract. PARALLEL CURRENTS Force Between Parallel Currents : 87 Consider a segment of length L on i2 : µ0 i1 (pointing down) 2πd Force on i2 coming from i1 : B1 = |F21 | = i2 L × B1 = B2 = µ0 i1 2πd (pointing up) ∴ µ0 Li1 i2 = |F12 | (Def ’n of ampere. Example : Sheet of current Consider an infinitesimal wire of width dx at position x.

Gauss’ Law is simple .` 7. we notice that the inverse square force law leads to Gauss’ Law. AMPERE’S LAW 88 Variable transformation (Goal: change r. θ.3 Amp`re’s Law e In our study of electricity. which is useful for finding E-field for systems with high level of symmetry.3. For magnetism. then integrate over θ): d = r cos θ ⇒ r = d sec θ x = d tan θ ⇒ dx = d sec2 θ dθ Limits of integration: −θ0 to θ0 . What’s the B-field between & outside the sheets? 7. ∴ where tan θ0 = ˆ ˆ θ0 −θ0 θ0 a 2d µ0 i B = 2πa = d sec2 θ dθ · cos θ d sec θ µ0 i dθ 2πa −θ0 µ0 iθ0 µ0 i a B = = tan−1 πa πa 2d Limiting Cases : (1) d a a 2d µ0 i B= 2πa tan θ = ⇒ θ≈ a 2d ∴ B-field due to infinite long wire (2) d a (Infinite sheet of current) tan θ = ∴ a → ∞ 2d µ0 i 2a ⇒ θ= π 2 B= Constant! Question : Large sheet of opposite flowing currents. x to d.

˛ B · ds = µ0 (i1 − i3 + i4 − i4 ) C = µ0 (i1 − i3 ) Applications of the Ampere’s Law : (1) Long-straight wire Construct an Amperian curve of radius d: By symmetry argument.3. AMPERE’S LAW ‹ S 89 ˛ B · dA = 0 S There is no magnetic monopole. A more useful law for calculating B-field for highly symmetric situations is the Amp`re’s Law: e ˛ ˛ B · ds = µ0 i C C ˛ = Line intefral evaluated around a closed loop C C (Amperian curve) i = Net current that penetrates the area bounded by curve C ∗ (topological property) Convention : Use the right-hand screw rule to determine the sign of current. we know B-field only has tangential component ˛ ∴ B · ds = µ0 i C .` 7.

1 Example 1) B= (2) Inside a current-carrying wire Again.` 7. AMPERE’S LAW Take ds to be the tangential vector around the circular path: ∴ 90 B · ds = B ds ˛ B ds = µ0 i C Circumference of circle = 2πd ∴ B-field due to long.3. . straight current B(2πd) = µ0 i µ0 i 2πd (Compare with 7. symmetry argument implies that B is tangential to the Amperian curve and ˆ B → B(r)θ Consider an Amperian curve of radius r(< R) ˛ ˛ B · ds = B ds = B(2πr) = µ0 iincluded C But iincluded ∝ cross-sectional area of C iincluded πr2 = i πR2 r2 i iincluded = R2 B= µ0 i ·r ∝r 2πR2 ∴ ∴ ∴ Recall: Uniformly charged infinite long rod (3) Solenoid (Ideal) Consider the rectangular Amperian curve 1234.

3.763) (ii) B-field everywhere inside the solenoid is a constant. (for ideal solenoid) (4) Toroid (A circular solenoid) By symmetry argument. ˛ ˛ B · ds = B ds = B · 2πr = µ0 (N i) C C ∴ B= µ0 N i 2πr inside toroid . AMPERE’S LAW ˛ B · ds = C 91 ˆ B · ds + 1 2 & ˆ & B ·& + & ds & ˆ 3 & & B ·& + & ds & ˆ 4 & & B ·& & ds & ˆ = 2 ˆ 4 =0 ˆ 3 B · ds = 0 inside solenoid B = 0 outside solenoid B = 0 outside solenoid ˆ B · ds = B · ds = Bl = µ0 itot 1 =0 ˛ C ∴ But itot = nl ·i Number of coils included ∴ B = µ0 ni Note : (i) The assumption that B = 0 outside the ideal solenoid is only approximate. Pg. the B-field lines form concentric circles inside the toroid. (Halliday. Take Amperian curve C to be a circle of radius r inside the toroid.` 7.

in the central cavity B = 0 7. i.4.4 Magnetic Dipole Recall from §6. magnetic field at point P (height z above the ring) B= µ0 iR2 n ˆ µ0 µ = 2 + z 2 )3/2 2 + z 2 )3/2 2(R 2π(R .7. we use it for current loops of all shapes. Recall from §7.4. A common and symmetric example: circular current. we define the magnetic dipole moment of a rectangular current loop µ = N iAˆ n where n = area unit vector with direction ˆ determined by the right-hand rule N = Number of turns in current loop A = Area of current loop This is actually a general definition of a magnetic dipole.1 Example 2. MAGNETIC DIPOLE Note : (i) B = constant inside toroid (ii) Outside toroid: Take Amperian curve to be circle of radius r > R. ˛ ˛ B · ds = B ds = B · 2πr = µ0 · iincl = 0 C C 92 ∴ B=0 Similarly.e.

4π 0 z 3 due to electric dipole (for z d) E= p 93 µ0 µ 2πz 3 due to magnetic dipole (for z R) Also.5. . It applies to any magnetic dipole in general. notice µ = magnetic dipole moment µ0 = Permeability of free space = 4π × 10−7 Tm/A Unit: Am2 J/T 7. it experiences a torque τ = µ × B .7.5 Magnetic Dipole in A Constant B-field In the presence of a constant magnetic field. we have shown for a rectangular current loop. MAGNETIC DIPOLE IN A CONSTANT B-FIELD At distance z B= R.

∴ Similar to electric dipole in a E-field.7. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 94 External magnetic field aligns the magnetic dipoles. (2) In a non-uniform external B-field. (refer to Chapter 2) dW = −dU. However. P ∴ ”Current” i = where P is period of one orbit around nucleus . e .6. electrons revolve around a positive nuclear. where U is potential energy of dipole U = −µ · B Note : (1) We cannot define the potential energy of a magnetic field in general. we can consider the work done in rotating the magnetic dipole. we can define the potential energy of a magnetic dipole in a constant magnetic field. the magnetic dipole will experience a net force (not only net torque) 7.6 Magnetic Properties of Materials Recall intrinsic electric dipole in molecules: Intrinsic dipole (magnetic) in atoms: In our classical model of atoms.

65 × 10−27 ≈ µB So can there be induced magnetic dipole? .6. l = N · h 2π 95 where N = Any positive integer (1. we know that P = l is quantized.63 × 10−34 J · s) ∴ Orbital magnetic dipole moment µl = eh ·N 4mπ Bohr’s magneton µB =9. Quantum mechanics suggests that e− are always spinning and it’s either an ”up” spin or a ”down” spin µe = 9.27×10−24 J/T There is another source of intrinsic magnetic dipole moment inside an atom: Spin dipole moment: coming from the intrinsic ”spin” of electrons..3. . where v is velocity of electron v ∴ Orbit magnetic dipole of atom: ev erv µ = iA = (πr2 ) = 2πr 2 Recall: angular momentum of rotation l = mrv e ·l ∴ µ= 2m In quantum mechanics..2.7. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 2πr .e. ) h = Planck’s constant (6. i.

For magnetic field in a material: Bnet = B0 ↑ applied B-field 96 Ke ≥ 1 + BM ↑ B-field produced by induced dipoles In many materials (except ferromagnets). One more term . Define : the Magnetization of a material: M= dµ dV where µ is magnetic dipole moment... V is volume (or. ∴ Bnet = B0 + χm B0 = (1 + χm ) B0 κm = 1 + χm Bnet = κm B0 ... Define : κm is a number called relative permeability. (χm ≥ 0) induced magnetic dipoles aligned with the applied B-field. B M = µ0 M Three types of magnetic materials: (1) Paramagnetic: κm ≥ 1 .6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Recall: for electric field Edielectric = Ke Evacuum .. the net magnetic dipole moment per unit volume) In most materials (except ferromagnets). BM ∝ B0 Define : BM = χm B0 χm is a number called magnetic susceptibility. .7.

2 × 10−5 ). Ni Magnetization not linearly proportional to applied field. Co. e. (χm ≤ 0) induced magnetic dipoles aligned opposite with the applied B-field.7. NO magnetic field inside. Bnet ⇒ not a constant (can be as Bapp big as ∼ 5000 − 100. .2 × 10−5 ). N2 (−5 × 10−9 ) (3) Ferromagnetic: e. Fe.0 × 10−6 ) (2) Diamagnetic: κm ≤ 1 .g. Al (χm = 2.6 × 10−5 ).6. 97 e. O2 (2. Cu (χm ≈ −1 × 10−5 ). Ag (−2. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS .g. Mg (1. 000) Interesting Case : Superconductors χm = −1 A perfect diamagnetic.g.

We can ask: Steady magnetic field can give steady electric current. × OR Changing magnetic field can give steady electric current. Define : (1) Magnetic flux through surface S: ˆ Φm = S B · dA Weber (Wb) 1Wb = 1Tm2 Unit of Φm : (2) Graphical: Φm = Number of magnetic field lines passing through surface S Faraday’s law of induction: Induced emf |E| = N where N = Number of coils in the circuit. we have shown that steady electric current can give steady magnetic field because of the symmetry between electricity & magnetism.Chapter 8 Faraday’s Law of Induction 8.1 Faraday’s Law In the previous chapter. dΦm dt .

If we start from B. LENZ’ LAW 99 B = Constant A = Constant E =0 B = Constant ˆ A = Constant dA/dt = 0 ∴ |E| > 0 ˆ B = Constant dB/dt = 0 A = Constant ∴ |E| > 0 B = Constant A = Constant ˆ dA/dt = 0 ∴ |E| > 0 Note : The induced emf drives a current throughout the circuit. ∴ We cannot define ∆VAB !! This situation is like when we study the interior of a battery. going to B. the difference here is that the induced emf is distributed throughout the circuit. If we start from A. The consequence is that we cannot define a potential difference between any two points in the circuit. sources of emf non-electric means   8.8.2 Lenz’ Law (1) The flux of the magnetic field due to induced current opposes the change in flux that causes the induced current. similar to the function of a battery. then we get VA > VB . . However. going to A. Suppose there is an induced current in the loop.2.   charge carriers around the circuit by   The loop  changing magnetic flux. A battery   provides the energy needed to drive the  chemical reactions. can we define ∆VAB ? Recall: ∆VAB = VA − VB = iR > 0 ⇒ VA > VB Going anti-clockwise (same as i). then we get VB > VA .

8.3. Φm ↑ dt ⇒ ⇒ E appears change in Φm ⇒ so that ⇒ B-field due to induced current =⇒ (4) Lenz’ Law is a consequence from the principle of conservation of energy. Φm ↓ If dΦm > 0. MOTIONAL EMF 100 (2) The induced current is in such a direction as to oppose the changes that produces it.8. .3 Motional EMF Let’s try to look at a special case when the changing magnetic flux is carried by motion in the circuit wires. Consider a conductor of length L moving with a velocity v in a magnetic field B. (3) Incorporating Lentz’ Law into Faraday’s Law: E = −N dΦm dt Induced current appears.

⇒ Power is dissipated in the circuit.3. magnetic flux) . The motional emf can drive an electric current i in the U-shape conductor. suppose the moving wire slides without friction on a stationary U-shape conductor. area enclosed by circuit) ( BA = Φm .8. we need to apply an external force: Fext = −Fm = iLB ∴ (pointing right) Power required to keep the rod moving: Pin = Fext · v = iBLv dx = iBL dt d(xL) = iB dt d(BA) = i dt ( xL = A. ⇒ Pout = V i (Joule’s heating) (see Lecture Notes Chapter 4) What is the source of this power? Look at the forces acting on the conducting rod: • Magnetic force: Fm = iL × B Fm = iLB (pointing left) • For the rod to continue to move at constant velocity v. MOTIONAL EMF Hall Effect for the charge carriers in the rod: FE + FB = 0 ⇒ q E + qv × B = 0 ⇒ E = −v × B Hall Voltage inside rod: ∆V ∆V ∴ 101 (where E is Hall electric field) ˆ = − 0 L E · ds = −EL Hall Voltage : ∆V = vBL Now.

e.8. steam produced by burner. ∴ 102 Pin + Pout = 0 dΦm iV + i = 0 dt ⇒ V =− dΦm dt We ”prove” Faraday’s Law Applications : (1) Eddy current: moving conductors in presence of magnetic field Induced current E2 R ⇒ Extra power input to keep moving ⇒ Power lost in Joule’s heating To reduce Eddy currents: (2) Generators and Motors: Assume that the circuit loop is rotating at a constant angular velocity ω.3. (Source of rotation.g. MOTIONAL EMF Since energy is not being stored in the system. water falling from a dam) .

MOTIONAL EMF Magnetic flux through the loop Number of coils 103 ↓ ´ ΦB = N B · dA = N BA cos θ loop ↓ changes with time! θ = ωt ∴ ΦB = N BA cos ωt dΦB dt E R d (cos ωt) dt = N BAω sin ωt = −N BA = N BAω sin ωt R Induced emf: E = − Induced current: i = Alternating current (AC) voltage generator Power has to be provided by the source of rotation to overcome the torque acting on a current loop in a magnetic field. µ τ = N i A ×B ∴ τ = N iAB sin θ .3.8.

An electric motor is simply a generator operating in reverse. ⇒ Rotation of the coil leads to an induced emf. Eind . the induced E-field will still accompany a change in magnetic flux. Eind ↑. (Lenz’ Law) ∴ i= E − Eind R ⇒ ∴ As motor speeds up. ∴ i ↓ mechanical power delivered = torque delivered = N iAB sin θ ↓ In conclusion. in the direction opposite of that of the battery. we can show that Pelectric = i2 R + Pmechanical Electric power input Mechanical power delivered 8.8. resulting from an induced E-field. . However.4. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD The net effect of the torque is to oppose the rotation of the coil. ⇒ Replace the load resistance R with a battery of emf E. there is a current in the coil.4 Induced Electric Field So far we have discussed that a change in magnetic flux will lead in an induced emf distributed in the loop. 104 With the battery. and it experiences a torque in the B-field. even in the absence of the loop (so that there is no induced current).

H. = Integral around a closed loop C R.e. = Integral over a surface bounded by C Direction of dA determined by direction of line integration C (Right-Hand Rule) . Work done by induced E-field = q0 Eind · 2πr f orce distance Recall work done also equals to q0 E.S.S. The induced E-field only has tangential components. Eind is induced E-field.4. where E is induced emf ∴ E = Eind 2πr ˛ Generally. ∴ Faraday’s Law becomes ˛ ˆ d Eind · ds = − B · dA dt C S L. (i. radial E-field = 0) Why? Imagine a point charge q0 travelling around the circular path.8. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD 105 ∴ Consider a circular path in a region with changing magnetic field.H. s is tangential vector of path. E= Eind · ds ¸ where is line integral around a closed loop.

e.g. observer in the reference frame of the moving loop. 34-7) . will NOT see an induced E-field. potential has no meaning) ⇓ Non-conservative force field The classification of electric and magnetic effects depend on the frame of reference of the observer. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD 106 ”Regular” E-field created by charges E-field lines start from +ve and end on −ve charge Induced E-field created by changing B-field E-field lines form closed loops can define electric potential so that we can discuss potential difference between two points ⇓ Conservative force field Electric potential cannot be defined (or.4. just a ”regular” E-field. For motional emf. (Read: Halliday Chap.8.33-6.

Chapter 9 Inductance 9. 1H=1· Vs A • All circuit elements (including resistors) have some inductance. toroids • circuit symbol: Example : Solenoid EL = VB − VA = −L ∴ VB < VA di <0 dt EL = VB − VA = −L VB > VA di >0 dt . • Commonly used inductors: solenoids. does it lead to an induced emf in the same circuit? YES! Self-Inductance The inductance L of any current element is EL = ∆VL = −L Unit of L: Henry(H) di dt The negative sign comes from Lenz Law. We have shown earlier that a changing B-field will lead to an induced emf in a circuit.1 Inductance An inductor stores energy in the magnetic field just as a capacitor stores energy in the electric field. Question : If a circuit generates a changing magnetic field.

like the capacitance. not on i. Alternative definition of Inductance: − ∴ d di (N ΦB ) = −L dt dt ⇒ L= N ΦB i Inductance is also flux linkage per unit current.9. INDUCTANCE Recall Faraday’s Law. Calculating Inductance: (1) Solenoid: To first order approximation. Consider a subsection of length l of the solenoid: Flux linkage = N ΦB = nl · BA where A is cross-sectional area N ΦB L= = µ0 n2 lA i ∴ L = µ0 n2 A = Inductance per unit length l Notice : (i) L ∝ n2 (ii) The inductance. depends only on geometric factors. . B = µ0 ni where n = N/L = Number of coils per unit length. EL = −N dΦB d = − (N ΦB ) dt dt 108 ∴ where ΦB is magnetic flux. N ΦB is flux linkage.1.

Inductance with magnetic materials : We showed earlier that for capacitors: E → E/κe C → κe C For inductors. we first know that B → κm B Inductance However L= (after insertion of magnetic material) (after insertion of dielectric κe > 1) N ΦB ˆi ΦB = B · dA → κm ΦB . Inside the toroid: µ0 iN 2πr (NOT a constant) B= where r is the distance from center.9. INDUCTANCE (2) Toroid: 109 Recall: B-field lines are concentric circles. Outside the toroid: B=0 Flux linkage through the toroid ˆ N ΦB = N B · da ˆ µ0 iN 2 b h dr = 2π r a 2 µ0 iN h b = ln 2π a ∴ Notice B da Write da = h dr KEY Inductance L ∝ N2 L= N ΦB µ0 N 2 h b = ln i 2π a Again.1.

By loop rule (clockwise) : E0 − ∆VR + ∆VL = 0 ↓ ↓ di E0 − iR − L = 0 dt di R E0 First Order Differ∴ + i= ential Equation dt L L Similar to the equation for charging a capacitor! (Chap5) Solution: i(t) = E0 1 − e−t/τL R where τL = Inductive time constant = L/R ∴ |∆VR | = iR = E0 (1 − e−t/τL ) di E0 1 |∆VL | = L = L· · · e−t/τL = E0 e−t/τL dt R τL . fill the interior of inductor with ferromagnetic materials. LR CIRCUITS ∴ ∴ 110 L → κm L (after insertion of magnetic material) To increase inductance. (×103 − 104 ) 9.2.9.2 LR Circuits (A) ”Charging” an inductor When the switch is adjusted to position a.

inductor acts like short circuit when current flowing is stablized at maximum.2.). current i = E0 /R is flowing in the circuit.9. At t → ∞. Inductors are used everyday in switches for safety concerns. inductor acts like open circuit when current flowing is zero. Summary : During charging of inductor. . 1.e. LR CIRCUITS 111 (B) ”Discharging” an inductor When the switch is adjusted at position b after the inductor has been ”charged” (i. 3. 2. At t = 0. By loop rule: ∆VL − ∆VR = 0 ↓ ↓ di −L − iR = 0 dt (Treat inductor as source of emf) ∴ di R + i=0 dt L Discharging a capacitor (Chap5) i(t) = i0 e−t/τL where i0 = i(t = 0) = Current when the circuit just switch to position b.

For a portion l of the solenoid. we know from §8. Recall the equation for charging inductors: E0 − iR − L Multiply both sides by i : E0 i Power input by emf (Energy supplied to one charge = qE0 ) ∴ di =0 dt di dt = i2 R Joule’s heating (Power dissipated by resistor) + Li Power stored in inductor dUB di Power stored in inductor = = Li dt dt Integrating both sides and use initial condition At t = 0.3 Energy Stored in Inductors Inductors stored magnetic energy through the magnetic field stored in the circuit. ∴ i(t = 0) = UB (t = 0) = 0 1 2 Li 2 Energy stored in inductor: UB = Energy Density Stored in Inductors : Consider an infinitely long solenoid of cross-sectional area A.9. L = µ0 n2 lA ∴ Energy stored in inductor: UB = 1 2 1 Li = µ0 n2 i2 lA 2 2 Volume of solenoid ∴ Energy density (= Energy stored per unit volume) inside inductor: uB = UB 1 = µ0 n2 i2 lA 2 Recall magnetic field inside solenoid (Chap7) B = µ0 ni ∴ uB = B2 2µ0 This is a general result of the energy stored in a magnetic field. ENERGY STORED IN INDUCTORS 112 9.3. .1.

4.4 LC Circuit (Electromagnetic Oscillator) Initial charge on capacitor = Q Initial current = 0 No battery.2) Combining equations (9. we also know the ”poles” of the inductor. no energy is dissipated in the circuit.2). Assume current i to be in the direction that increases charge on the positive capacitor plate.1) and (9. dQ ⇒ i= (9. Energy contained in the circuit is conserved. Loop rule: VC + VL = 0 Q di − −L = 0 C dt (9.9. ∴ dU =0 dt Q dQ di  ⇒ ·  + L¡ = 0 i C  dt dt ( i= dQ ) dt .1) dt By Lenz Law. LC CIRCUIT (ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATOR) 113 9. we get d2 Q 1 + Q=0 dt2 LC This is similar to the equation of motion of a simple harmonic oscillator: d2 x k + x=0 2 dt m Another approach (conservation of energy) Total energy stored in circuit: U = UE ↓ Q2 U = 2C ∴ UB ↓ 1 2 + Li 2 + Since the resistance in the circuit is zero.

Q(t = 0). (Two initial conditions. e. and i(t = 0) = dQ are required.g.9. φ are constants derived from the initial conditions.4. Q0 .) dt t=0 Energy stored in C = Energy stored in L = Lω 2 = ∴ 1 2 Li = 2 = Q2 2C = 1 C Total energy stored = = Q2 0 cos2 (ωt + φ) 2C 1 Lω 2 Q2 sin2 (ωt + φ) 0 2 Q2 0 sin2 (ωt + φ) 2C Q2 0 2C Initial energy stored in capacitor . LC CIRCUIT (ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATOR) ⇒ L ⇒ di Q + =0 dt C d2 Q 1 Q=0 + 2 dt LC 114 The solution to this differential equation is in the form Q(t) = Q0 cos(ωt + φ) dQ = −ωQ0 sin(ωt + φ) ∴ dt d2 Q = −ω 2 Q0 cos(ωt + φ) 2 dt = −ω 2 Q ∴ d2 Q + ω2Q = 0 2 dt ω2 = 1 LC Angular frequency of the LC oscillator ∴ Also.

Vol1.5 RLC Circuit (Damped Oscillator) In real life circuit. energy stored in the LC oscillator is NOT conserved. and i (Joule’s heating) ∴ Li di Q dQ + · = −i2 R dt C dt d2 Q R dQ 1 + · + Q=0 dt2 L dt LC This is similar to the equation of motion of a damped harmonic oscillator (e. In this case.) Check this at home: What is UE (t) + UB (t) for the case when damping is small? (i. Chap17 for more details. if a mass-spring system faces a frictional force F = −bv). dU = Power dissipated in the resistor = −i2 R dt Negative sign shows that energy U is decreasing. Solution to the equation is in the form Q(t) = eλt If damping is not too big (i. RLC CIRCUIT (DAMPED OSCILLATOR) 115 9. solution would become ⇒ Q(t) = Q0 e− 2L t cos(ω1 t + φ) exponential oscillating decay term term R where 2 ω1 = 1 R − LC 2L R 2 ω1 = ω 2 − 2L 2 2 Damped oscillator always oscillates at a lower frequency than the natural frequency of the oscillator.e. R not too big).g. R ω) .e. there’s always resistance.5. (Refer to Halliday.9.

Our goal is to determine im and φ. This is similar to a driven (damped) oscillator. we can write E = Em sin ωt And we can write i = im sin(ωt − φ) where im is current amplitude. d2 Q dQ 1 +R + Q = Em sin(ωt + δ) 2 dt dt C The general solution consists of two parts: L transient : rapidly dies away in a few cycles (not interesting) steady state : Q(t). E = Em sin(ωt + δ) Note : This circuit is the RLC circuit with one additional element : the time varying AC power supply. i(t) varies sinusoidally with the same frequency as input 1 R 2 2 Note : Current does NOT vary at frequency ω1 = − LC 2L Since we only concern about the steady state solution.e.Chapter 10 AC Circuits 10. φ is phase constant. Recall that an AC generator described in Chapter 9 generates a sinusoidal emf. .1 Alternating Current (AC) Voltage i. therefore we can take any time as starting reference time = 0 For convenience.

10. V for R.2 Phase Relation Between i. PHASE RELATION BETWEEN I. ∴ ∆VR = (∆VR )m sin(ωt − φ) (∆VR )m = im R ”Ohm’s Law like” relation for AC resistor . V FOR R. (2) Projection of a phasor onto the vertical axis gives instantaneous value. i.e. (3) Convention: Phasors rotate anti-clockwise in a uniform circular motion with angular velocity. Graphically.L AND C 117 10.L and C (A) Resistive Element ∆VR = VA − VB = iR ∆VR = im R sin(ωt − φ) ∴ ∆VR and i are in phase.2. we introduce phasor diagrams properties of phasors: (1) Length of a phasor is proportional to the maximum value. what’s inside the ”sine bracket” (phase) is the same for ∆VR and i.

10. V FOR R.L AND C 118 (B) The Inductive Element Potential drop across inductor ∆VL = VA − VB = −EL = L ∴ di dt π )] 2 ∆VL = Lim ω cos(ωt − φ) π ) 2 π = im XL sin(ωt − φ + ) 2 = Lim ω sin(ωt − φ + (∆VL )m = im XL [ cos θ = sin(θ + ”Ohm’s Law like” relation for AC inductor where XL = Inductive Reactance XL = ωL As i ↑. VA < VB ∆VL i leads lags i ∆VL ∴ ∆VL > 0 ∴ ∆VL < 0 by by π 2 π 2 (C) Capacitive Element Q C ∆VC = VA − VB = . VA > VB i ↓. PHASE RELATION BETWEEN I.2.

3 Single Loop RLC AC Circuit Given that E = Em sin ωt. we want to find im and φ so that we can write i = im sin(ωt − φ) Loop rule: E − ∆VR − ∆VL − ∆VC = 0 ⇒ E = ∆VR + ∆VL + ∆VC . ˆ dQ ∴ i= ⇒ Q = i dt dt ˆ = im sin(ωt − φ) dt = − ∴ 119 im cos(ωt − φ) ω ∆VC = − im cos(ωt − φ) ωC π = im XC sin(ωt − φ − ) 2 ∴ [ − cos θ = sin(θ − π )] 2 (∆VC )m = im XC ”Ohm’s Law like” relation for AC capacitor where XC = 1 = Capacitive Reactance ωC ∆VC i lags leads i ∆VC by by π 2 π 2 10.3.10. SINGLE LOOP RLC AC CIRCUIT where Q = charge on the positive plate of the capacitor.

S. . Then im = Check : R. B = φ = im Z sin(ωt − φ + φ) = im z sin ωt = L. Take tan φ = XL − XC R 2. SINGLE LOOP RLC AC CIRCUIT Using results from the previous section. 3. = im Z R XL − XC sin(ωt − φ) + cos(ωt − φ) Z Z = im Z cos φ sin(ωt − φ) + sin φ cos(ωt − φ)  Em Z or Em = im Z ”Ohm’s Law like” relation for AC RLC circuits Use the relation:    sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B  Here: A = ωt − φ.10. Define Z = R2 + (XL − XC )2 as the impedance of the circuit.S. if Em = im Z Phasor Approach :  QED. we can write Em sin ωt = im R sin(ωt − φ) +im XL cos(ωt − φ) − im XC cos(ωt − φ) 120 Em sin ωt = im R sin(ωt − φ) + (XL − XC ) cos(ωt − φ) Answer : 1.3.H.H.

(In US.4. Z= R2 + (XL − XC )2 = R2 + ωL − 1 ωC 2 is at a minimum for a fixed ω when XL − XC = ωL − ⇒ ⇒ 1 = 0 ωC 1 ωL = ωC 1 ω2 = LC same as that for a RLC circuit In Hong Kong. RESONANCE 121 10.4 Resonance Em im = is at maximum for an AC circuit of fixed input frequency ω when Z Z is at minimum.5 Power in AC Circuits P = i2 R = i2 R sin2 (ωt − φ) m Consider the Power dissipated by R in an AC circuit: The average power dissipated in each cycle: ´ 2π/ω P dt 2π Pave = 0 ( is period of each cycle) 2π/ω ω ˆ 0 2π/ω ˆ P dt = i2 R m ˆ = i2 R m i2 R m 0 2π/ω sin2 (ωt − φ) dt 1 1 − cos 2(ωt − φ) dt 2 ¨ 2π/ω 0 2π/ω 0 t sin2 (ωt ¨¨ ¨ − φ) = · − ¨¨ 2 ¨ 4ω 1 2π = i2 R · · m 2 ω . is 60Hz. as mentioned in Halliday. the AC power input is 50Hz.) ∴ ω = 2πf = 314.2s−1 10.10.

Em . e. 122 ∴ P = Pave = Average of P over time For sine and cosine functions of time: Average : sin ωt = cos ωt = 0 Amplitude : Peak value. im . (∆VR )m . for whatever quantity x: xm xrms = √ 2 For an AC resistor circuit: P = i2 R = rms 2 Erms R (xm is amplitude) Laws for DC circuits can be used to describe AC circuits if we use rms values for i and E. · · · Root-Mean-Square(RMS) : It’s a measure of the ”time-averaged” deviation from zero.g. POWER IN AC CIRCUITS i2 Pave = m R = i2 R rms 2 where irms = root-mean-square current im irms = √ 2 Symbol : Current is a sinusoidal func. xrms = x2 For sines and cosines. For general AC circuits: E i P = Ei = Em sin ωt · im sin(ωt − φ) = Em im sin ωt [sin ωt cos φ − cos ωt sin φ] P = Em im [ sin2 ωt cos φ − sin ωt cos ωt sin φ ] 1 2 0 (check this!) P P = Em im cos φ 2 = Erms irms cos φ power factor .10.5.

THE TRANSFORMER 123 Recall ∴ tan φ = XL − XC R R cos φ = Z Maximum power dissipated in circuit when cos φ = 1 Two possibilities: (1) XL = XC = 0 (2) XL − XC = 0 ⇒ XL = XC ⇒ ωL = 1 ωC ⇒ ω2 = 1 LC (Resonance Condition) 10. ⇒ HIGH potential difference across transmission wires.10.) However. (So that total power transmitted P = irms Erms is constant. we’d like to keep irms at minimum.6 The Transformer Power dissipated in resistor P = i2 R rms ∴ For power transmission. for home safety. we would like LOW emf supply. Solution : Transformers Primary : Number of winding = NP .6.

across primary) If NP > NS . Power factor : The varying current ( AC!) in the primary produces an induced emf in the secondary coils. then ∆VP < ∆VS Step-Up Consider power in circuit: iP ∆VP = iS ∆VS In the secondary.10. we have ∆VP = NP NS 2 R · iP ”Equivalence Resistor” = NP NS 2 R .6. we have ∆VS = iS R Combining the 3 equations. THE TRANSFORMER Secondary : Number of winding = NS In primary circuit.D. RP ≈ CP ≈ 0 ∴ 124 Pure inductive cos φ = ∴ R ≈0 Z No power delivered from emf to transformer. then ∆VP > ∆VS Step-Down If NP < NS . Assuming perfect magnetic flux linkage: emf per turn in primary = emf per turn in secondary dΦB = − dt ∆VP NP ∆VS emf per turn in secondary = NS emf per turn in primary = ⇒ ∆VP NP = ∆VS NS (∆VP is P.

where iincl = current passing an area bounded by the closed curve C. ¸ We know that the integral C B · ds around any close loop C is equal to µ0 iincl . = = Flat surface bounded by loop C Curved surface bounded by loop C If Amp`re’s law is true all the time. then the iincl determined should be indee pendent of the surface chosen.7 that we can use Amp`re’s law to calculate magnetic e fields due to currents.1 Displacement Current We saw in Chap.g.Chapter 11 Displacement Current and Maxwell’s Equations 11. e. .

With Amp`re’s law. Maxwell first proposed that this is the missing term for the Amp`re’s law: e ˛ dΦE ) Amp`re-Maxwell law e B · ds = µ0 (iincl + ε0 dt C . Two observations: 1. which leads R to a magnetic ¸ field observed B.1. From Chap. 2. C B · ds = µ0 iincl . where Q = charge on ε0 ε0 A capacitor’s plates. A = Area of capacitor’s plates. e BUT WHAT IS iincl ? 126 If we look at If we look at .) ∴ Amp`re’s law is either WRONG or e INCOMPLETE. iincl = 0 ( There is no charge flow between the capacitor plates. there is a timevarying electric field between the plates of the capacitor. ∴ ∴ We can define Q = ε0 E · A = ε0 ΦE Electric flux dQ dΦE = ε0 = idisp dt dt where idisp is called Displacement Current (first proposed by Maxwell).11. iincl = i(t) . While there is no current between the capacitor’s plates. We know Amp`re’s law is mostly correct from measurements of B-field e around circuits. DISPLACEMENT CURRENT Let’s consider a simple case: charging a capacitor. we know there is a current flowing i(t) = E e−t/RC .5. ⇓ Can we revise Amp`re’s law to fix it? e Electric field between capacitor’s plates: E = σ Q = .

ΦE = S E ·da.2.11. ´ ΦE = electric flux through that same surface bounded by curve C. Example What is the magnetic field strength inside a circular plate capacitor of radius R with a current I(t) charging it? Answer Electric field of capacitor E= Q Q = ε0 A ε0 πR2 . INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELD 127 Where iincl = current through any surface bounded by C. a change in electric flux through a surface bounded by C can lead to an induced magnetic field along the loop C. changing magnetic flux We see from Amp`re-Maxwell law that a magnetic field can be generated by e moving charges (current) .2 Induced Magnetic Field We learn earlier that electric field can be generated by charges . Notes The induced magnetic field is along the same direction as caused by the changing electric flux. 11. changing electric flux That is.

3 Maxwell’s Equations The four equations that completely describe the behaviors of electric and magnetic fields. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 128 Electric flux inside capacitor through a loop C of radius r: ΦE = E · πr2 = Qr2 ε0 R 2 Amp`re-Maxwell Law inside capacitor: e ˛ dΦE ) B · ds = µ0 (¨¨ + ε0 iincl dt C Binduced ds 2πr Binduced = µ0 ε0 Length of loop C d Qr2 dt ε0 R2 = µ0 r2 dQ R2 dt I(t) ∴ Binduced = µ0 r I(t) 2πR2 for r < R Outside the capacitor plate: Electric flux through loop C: ΦE = E · Q πR2 = ε0 ˛ dΦE ) B · ds = µ0 (iincl + ε0 dt C 2πrBinduced = µ0 ε0 ∴ Binduced = 1 dQ · ε0 dt µ0 I(t) 2πr 11. .11.3.

TV signals. There are small asymmetries though: i) There is NO point ”charge” of magnetism / NO magnetic monopole. UV. microwaves. radio.. known as electromagnetic waves (EM waves). ii) Direction of induced E-field opposes to B-flux change.11. X-rays. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS ˛ E · da = S ˛ 129 Qincl ε0 B · da = 0 S ˛ C ˛ d E · ds = − dt ˆ B · da S d B · ds = µ0 iincl + µ0 ε0 dt ˆ E · da S C The one equation that describes how matter reacts to electric and magnetic fields. mobile phone signals.. That’s why the study of electricity and magnetism is also called electromagnetism. Infrared. (2) Maxwell’s equations predicted the existence of propagating waves of E-field and B-field. This is not true for Newton’s laws! . F = q(E + v × B) Features of Maxwell’s equations: (1) There is a high level of symmetry in the equations. gamma-ray. (3) Maxwell’s equations are entirely consistent with the special theory of relativity. Direction of induced B-filed enhances E-flux change.3. Examples of EM waves: visible light.

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