## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Lecture Notes

Dr. Jason Chun Shing Pun

Department of Physics

The University of Hong Kong

January 2005

Contents

1 Vector Algebra 1

1.1 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.3 Components of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.4 Multiplication of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.5 Vector Field (Physics Point of View) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.6 Other Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2 Electric Force & Electric Field 8

2.1 Electric Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.2 The Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.3 Continuous Charge Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.4 Electric Field Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.5 Point Charge in E-ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.6 Dipole in E-ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

3 Electric Flux and Gauss’ Law 25

3.1 Electric Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.2 Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.3 E-ﬁeld Calculation with Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.4 Gauss’ Law and Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4 Electric Potential 36

4.1 Potential Energy and Conservative Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

4.3 Relation Between Electric Field E and Electric Potential V . . . . 45

4.4 Equipotential Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

5 Capacitance and DC Circuits 51

5.1 Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

5.2 Calculating Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

5.3 Capacitors in Combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

5.4 Energy Storage in Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

i

5.5 Dielectric Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

5.6 Capacitor with Dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

5.7 Gauss’ Law in Dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

5.8 Ohm’s Law and Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

5.9 DC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

5.10 RC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

6 Magnetic Force 73

6.1 Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

6.2 Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

6.3 Hall Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

6.4 Magnetic Force on Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

7 Magnetic Field 81

7.1 Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

7.2 Parallel Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

7.3 Amp`ere’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

7.4 Magnetic Dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

7.5 Magnetic Dipole in A Constant B-ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

7.6 Magnetic Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

8 Faraday’s Law of Induction 98

8.1 Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

8.2 Lenz’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

8.3 Motional EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

8.4 Induced Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

9 Inductance 107

9.1 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

9.2 LR Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

9.3 Energy Stored in Inductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

9.4 LC Circuit (Electromagnetic Oscillator) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

9.5 RLC Circuit (Damped Oscillator) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

10 AC Circuits 116

10.1 Alternating Current (AC) Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

10.2 Phase Relation Between i, V for R,L and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

10.3 Single Loop RLC AC Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

10.4 Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

10.5 Power in AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

10.6 The Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

ii

11 Displacement Current and Maxwell’s Equations 125

11.1 Displacement Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

11.2 Induced Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

11.3 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

iii

Chapter 1

Vector Algebra

1.1 Deﬁnitions

A vector consists of two components: magnitude and direction .

(e.g. force, velocity, pressure)

A scalar consists of magnitude only.

(e.g. mass, charge, density)

1.2 Vector Algebra

Figure 1.1: Vector algebra

a +

b =

b +a

a + (c +

d) = (a +c) +

d

1.3. COMPONENTS OF VECTORS 2

1.3 Components of Vectors

Usually vectors are expressed according to coordinate system. Each vector can

be expressed in terms of components.

The most common coordinate system: Cartesian

a =a

x

+a

y

+a

z

Magnitude of a = [a[ = a,

a =

_

a

2

x

+ a

2

y

+ a

2

z

Figure 1.2: φ measured anti-clockwise

from position x-axis

a = a

x

+a

y

a =

_

a

2

x

+ a

2

y

a

x

= a cosφ; a

y

= a sinφ

tanφ =

a

y

a

x

Unit vectors have magnitude of 1

ˆ a =

a

[a[

= unit vector along a direction

ˆ

i

ˆ

j

ˆ

k are unit vectors along

¡ ¡ ¡

x y z directions

a = a

x

ˆ

i + a

y

ˆ

j + a

z

ˆ

k

Other coordinate systems:

1.3. COMPONENTS OF VECTORS 3

1. Polar Coordinate:

Figure 1.3: Polar Coordinates

a = a

r

ˆ r + a

θ

ˆ

θ

2. Cylindrical Coordinates:

Figure 1.4: Cylindrical Coordinates

a = a

r

ˆ r + a

θ

ˆ

θ + a

z

ˆ z

ˆ r originated from nearest point on

z-axis (Point O’)

3. Spherical Coordinates:

Figure 1.5: Spherical Coordinates

a = a

r

ˆ r + a

θ

ˆ

θ + a

φ

ˆ

φ

ˆ r originated from Origin O

1.4. MULTIPLICATION OF VECTORS 4

1.4 Multiplication of Vectors

1. Scalar multiplication:

If

b=ma

b, a are vectors; m is a scalar

then b=ma (Relation between magnitude)

b

x

=ma

x

b

y

=ma

y

_

Components also follow relation

i.e.

a = a

x

ˆ

i + a

y

ˆ

j + a

z

ˆ

k

ma = ma

x

ˆ

i + ma

y

ˆ

j + ma

z

ˆ

k

2. Dot Product (Scalar Product):

Figure 1.6: Dot Product

a

b = [a[ [

b[ cosφ

Result is always a scalar. It can be pos-

itive or negative depending on φ.

a

b =

b a

Notice: a

b = ab cosφ = ab cosφ

**i.e. Doesn’t matter how you measure
**

angle φ between vectors.

ˆ

i

ˆ

i = [

ˆ

i[ [

ˆ

i[ cos0

◦

= 1 1 1 = 1

ˆ

i

ˆ

j = [

ˆ

i[ [

ˆ

j[ cos90

◦

= 1 1 0 = 0

ˆ

i

ˆ

i =

ˆ

j

ˆ

j =

ˆ

k

ˆ

k = 1

ˆ

i

ˆ

j =

ˆ

j

ˆ

k =

ˆ

k

ˆ

i = 0

If a = a

x

ˆ

i + a

y

ˆ

j + a

z

ˆ

k

b = b

x

ˆ

i + b

y

ˆ

j + b

z

ˆ

k

then a

b = a

x

b

x

+a

y

b

y

+ a

z

b

z

a a = [a[ [a[ cos0

◦

= a a = a

2

1.4. MULTIPLICATION OF VECTORS 5

3. Cross Product (Vector Product):

If c =a

b,

then c = [c[ = a b sinφ

a

b ,=

b a !!!

a

b = −

b a

Figure 1.7: Note: How angle φ is mea-

sured

• Direction of cross product determined from right hand rule.

• Also, a

b is ⊥ to a and

b, i.e.

a (a

b) = 0

b (a

b) = 0

• IMPORTANT:

a a = a a sin0

◦

= 0

[

ˆ

i

ˆ

i[ = [

ˆ

i[ [

ˆ

i[ sin0

◦

= 1 1 0 = 0

[

ˆ

i

ˆ

j[ = [

ˆ

i[ [

ˆ

j[ sin90

◦

= 1 1 1 = 1

ˆ

i

ˆ

i =

ˆ

j

ˆ

j =

ˆ

k

ˆ

k = 0

ˆ

i

ˆ

j =

ˆ

k;

ˆ

j

ˆ

k =

ˆ

i;

ˆ

k

ˆ

i =

ˆ

j

a

b =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ˆ

i

ˆ

j

ˆ

k

a

x

a

y

a

z

b

x

b

y

b

z

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= (a

y

b

z

−a

z

b

y

)

ˆ

i

+(a

z

b

x

−a

x

b

z

)

ˆ

j

+(a

x

b

y

−a

y

b

x

)

ˆ

k

1.5. VECTOR FIELD (PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW) 6

4. Vector identities:

a (

b +c) = a

b +a c

a (

b c) =

b (c a) = c (a

b)

a (

b c) = (a c)

b −(a

b)c

1.5 Vector Field (Physics Point of View)

A vector ﬁeld

T(x, y, z) is a mathematical function which has a vector output

for a position input.

(Scalar ﬁeld

|(x, y, z))

1.6 Other Topics

Tangential Vector

Figure 1.8: d

**l is a vector that is always tangential to the curve C with inﬁnitesimal
**

length dl

Surface Vector

Figure 1.9: da is a vector that is always perpendicular to the surface S with

inﬁnitesimal area da

1.6. OTHER TOPICS 7

Some uncertainty! (da versus −da)

Two conventions:

• Area formed from a closed curve

Figure 1.10: Direction of da determined from right-hand rule

• Closed surface enclosing a volume

Figure 1.11: Direction of da going from inside to outside

Chapter 2

Electric Force & Electric Field

2.1 Electric Force

The electric force between two charges

q

1

and q

2

can be described by

Coulomb’s Law.

F

12

= Force on q

1

exerted by q

2

F

12

=

1

4π

0

q

1

q

2

r

2

12

ˆ r

12

where ˆ r

12

=

r

12

[r

12

[

is the unit vector which locates particle 1 relative to particle 2.

i.e. r

12

= r

1

−r

2

• q

1

, q

2

are electrical charges in units of Coulomb(C)

• Charge is quantized

Recall 1 electron carries 1.602 10

−19

C

•

0

= Permittivity of free space = 8.85 10

−12

C

2

/Nm

2

COULOMB’S LAW:

(1) q

1

, q

2

can be either positive or negative.

2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 9

(2) If q

1

, q

2

are of same sign, then the force experienced by q

1

is in direction

away from q

2

, that is, repulsive.

(3) Force on q

2

exerted by q

1

:

F

21

=

1

4π

0

q

2

q

1

r

2

21

ˆ r

21

BUT:

r

12

= r

21

= distance between q

1

, q

2

ˆ r

21

=

r

21

r

21

=

r

2

−r

1

r

21

=

−r

12

r

12

= −ˆ r

12

∴

F

21

= −

F

12

Newton’s 3rd Law

SYSTEM WITH MANY CHARGES:

The total force experienced by charge

q

1

is the vector sum of the forces on q

1

exerted by other charges.

F

1

= Force experienced by q

1

=

F

1,2

+

F

1,3

+

F

1,4

+ +

F

1,N

PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION:

F

1

=

N

j=2

F

1,j

2.2 The Electric Field

While we need two charges to quantify the electric force, we deﬁne the electric

ﬁeld for any single charge distribution to describe its eﬀect on other charges.

2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 10

Total force

F =

F

1

+

F

2

+ +

F

N

The electric ﬁeld is deﬁned as

lim

q

0

→0

F

q

0

=

E

(a) E-ﬁeld due to a single charge q

i

:

From the deﬁnitions of Coulomb’s Law, the

force experienced at location of q

0

(point P)

F

0,i

=

1

4π

0

q

0

q

i

r

2

0,i

ˆ r

0,i

where ˆ r

0,i

is the unit vector along the direction from charge q

i

to q

0

,

ˆ r

0,i

= Unit vector from charge q

i

to point P

= ˆ r

i

(radical unit vector from q

i

)

Recall

E = lim

q

0

→0

F

q

0

∴ E-ﬁeld due to q

i

at point P:

E

i

=

1

4π

0

q

i

r

2

i

ˆ r

i

where r

i

= Vector pointing from q

i

to point P,

thus ˆ r

i

= Unit vector pointing from q

i

to point P

Note:

(1) E-ﬁeld is a vector.

(2) Direction of E-ﬁeld depends on both position of P and sign of q

i

.

(b) E-ﬁeld due to system of charges:

Principle of Superposition:

In a system with N charges, the total E-ﬁeld due to all charges is the

vector sum of E-ﬁeld due to individual charges.

2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 11

i.e.

E =

i

E

i

=

1

4π

0

i

q

i

r

2

i

ˆ r

i

(c) Electric Dipole

System of equal and opposite charges

separated by a distance d.

Figure 2.1: An electric dipole. (Direction of

**d from negative to positive charge)
**

Electric Dipole Moment

p = q

d = qd

ˆ

d

p = qd

Example:

E due to dipole along x-axis

Consider point P at distance x along the perpendicular axis of the dipole p :

E =

E

+

+

E

−

↑ ↑

(E-ﬁeld (E-ﬁeld

due to +q) due to −q)

Notice: Horizontal E-ﬁeld components of

E

+

and

E

−

cancel out.

∴ Net E-ﬁeld points along the axis oppo-

site to the dipole moment vector.

2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 12

Magnitude of E-ﬁeld = 2E

+

cos θ

∴ E = 2

_

E

+

or E

−

magnitude!

¸ .. ¸

1

4π

0

q

r

2

_

cos θ

But r =

¸

_

d

2

_

2

+ x

2

cos θ =

d/2

r

∴ E =

1

4π

0

p

[x

2

+ (

d

2

)

2

]

3

2

(p = qd)

Special case: When x ¸d

[x

2

+ (

d

2

)

2

]

3

2

= x

3

[1 + (

d

2x

)

2

]

3

2

• Binomial Approximation:

(1 + y)

n

≈ 1 + ny if y ¸1

E-ﬁeld of dipole

1

4π

0

p

x

3

∼

1

x

3

• Compare with

1

r

2

E-ﬁeld for single charge

• Result also valid for point P along any axis with respect to dipole

2.3 Continuous Charge Distribution

E-ﬁeld at point P due to dq:

d

E =

1

4π

0

dq

r

2

ˆ r

2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 13

∴ E-ﬁeld due to charge distribution:

E =

ˆ

Volume

d

E =

ˆ

Volume

1

4π

0

·

dq

r

2

· ˆ r

(1) In many cases, we can take advantage of the symmetry of the system to

simplify the integral.

(2) To write down the small charge element dq:

1-D dq = λ ds λ = linear charge density ds = small length element

2-D dq = σ dA σ = surface charge density dA = small area element

3-D dq = ρ dV ρ = volume charge density dV = small volume element

Example 1: Uniform line of charge

charge per

unit length

= λ

(1) Symmetry considered: The E-ﬁeld from +z and −z directions cancel along

z-direction, ∴ Only horizontal E-ﬁeld components need to be considered.

(2) For each element of length dz, charge dq = λdz

∴ Horizontal E-ﬁeld at point P due to element dz =

[d

E[ cos θ =

1

4π

0

λdz

r

2

. ¸¸ .

dE

dz

cos θ

∴ E-ﬁeld due to entire line charge at point P

E =

L/2

ˆ

−L/2

1

4π

0

λdz

r

2

cos θ

= 2

L/2

ˆ

0

λ

4π

0

dz

r

2

cos θ

2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 14

To calculate this integral:

• First, notice that x is ﬁxed, but z, r, θ all varies.

• Change of variable (from z to θ)

(1)

z = x tan θ ∴ dz = x sec

2

θ dθ

x = r cos θ ∴ r

2

= x

2

sec

2

θ

(2) When

z = 0 , θ = 0

◦

z = L/2 θ = θ

0

where tan θ

0

=

L/2

x

E = 2

λ

4π

0

θ

0

ˆ

0

x sec

2

θ dθ

x

2

sec

2

θ

cos θ

= 2

λ

4π

0

θ

0

ˆ

0

1

x

cos θ dθ

= 2

λ

4π

0

1

x

(sin θ)

¸

¸

¸

θ

0

0

= 2

λ

4π

0

1

x

sin θ

0

= 2

λ

4π

0

1

x

L/2

_

x

2

+ (

L

2

)

2

E =

1

4π

0

λL

x

_

x

2

+ (

L

2

)

2

along x-direction

Important limiting cases:

1. x ¸L : E

1

4π

0

λL

x

2

But λL = Total charge on rod

∴ System behave like a point charge

2. L ¸x : E

1

4π

0

λL

x

L

2

E

x

=

λ

2π

0

x

ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO INFINITELY LONG LINE OF CHARGE

2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 15

Example 2: Ring of Charge

E-ﬁeld at a height z above a ring of

charge of radius R

(1) Symmetry considered: For every charge element dq considered, there exists

dq/ where the horizontal

E ﬁeld components cancel.

⇒ Overall E-ﬁeld lies along z-direction.

(2) For each element of length dz, charge

dq = λ ds

↑ ↑

Linear Circular

charge density length element

dq = λ R dφ, where φ is the angle

measured on the ring plane

∴ Net E-ﬁeld along z-axis due to dq:

dE =

1

4π

0

dq

r

2

cos θ

2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 16

Total E-ﬁeld =

ˆ

dE

=

ˆ

2π

0

1

4π

0

λR dφ

r

2

cos θ (cos θ =

z

r

)

Note: Here in this case, θ, R and r are ﬁxed as φ varies! BUT we want to

convert r, θ to R, z.

E =

1

4π

0

λRz

r

3

ˆ

2π

0

dφ

E =

1

4π

0

λ(2πR)z

(z

2

+R

2

)

3/2

along z-axis

BUT: λ(2πR) = total charge on the ring

Example 3: E-ﬁeld from a disk of surface charge density σ

We ﬁnd the E-ﬁeld of a disk by

integrating concentric rings of

charges.

2.3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 17

Total charge of ring

dq = σ ( 2πr dr

. ¸¸ .

Area of the ring

)

Recall from Example 2:

E-ﬁeld from ring: dE =

1

4π

0

dq z

(z

2

+ r

2

)

3/2

∴ E =

1

4π

0

ˆ

R

0

2πσr dr z

(z

2

+r

2

)

3/2

=

1

4π

0

ˆ

R

0

2πσz

r dr

(z

2

+ r

2

)

3/2

• Change of variable:

u = z

2

+r

2

⇒ (z

2

+r

2

)

3/2

= u

3/2

⇒ du = 2r dr ⇒ r dr =

1

2

du

• Change of integration limit:

_

r = 0 , u = z

2

r = R , u = z

2

+ R

2

∴ E =

1

4π

0

2πσz

ˆ

z

2

+R

2

z

2

1

2

u

−3/2

du

BUT:

ˆ

u

−3/2

du =

u

−1/2

−1/2

= −2u

−1/2

∴ E =

1

2

0

σz (−u

−1/2

)

¸

¸

¸

z

2

+R

2

z

2

=

1

2

0

σz

_

−1

√

z

2

+ R

2

+

1

z

_

E =

σ

2

0

_

1 −

z

√

z

2

+R

2

_

2.4. ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 18

VERY IMPORTANT LIMITING CASE:

If R ¸ z, that is if we have an inﬁnite sheet of charge with charge den-

sity σ:

E =

σ

2

0

_

1 −

z

√

z

2

+ R

2

_

·

σ

2

0

_

1 −

z

R

_

E ≈

σ

2

0

E-ﬁeld is normal to the charged surface

Figure 2.2: E-ﬁeld due to an inﬁ-

nite sheet of charge, charge den-

sity = σ

Q: What’s the E-ﬁeld belows the charged sheet?

2.4 Electric Field Lines

To visualize the electric ﬁeld, we can use a graphical tool called the electric

ﬁeld lines.

Conventions:

1. The start on position charges and end on negative charges.

2. Direction of E-ﬁeld at any point is given by tangent of E-ﬁeld line.

3. Magnitude of E-ﬁeld at any point is proportional to number of E-ﬁeld lines

per unit area perpendicular to the lines.

2.4. ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 19

2.4. ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 20

2.5. POINT CHARGE IN E-FIELD 21

2.5 Point Charge in E-ﬁeld

When we place a charge q in an E-ﬁeld

E, the force experienced by the charge is

F = q

E = ma

Applications: Ink-jet printer, TV cathoderay tube.

Example:

Ink particle has mass m, charge q (q < 0 here)

Assume that mass of inkdrop is small, what’s the deﬂection y of the charge?

Solution:

First, the charge carried by the inkdrop is negtive, i.e. q < 0.

Note: q

**E points in opposite direction of
**

E.

Horizontal motion: Net force = 0

∴ L = vt (2.1)

2.6. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD 22

Vertical motion: [q

E[ ¸[mg[, q is negative,

∴ Net force = −qE = ma (Newton’s 2nd Law)

∴ a = −

qE

m

(2.2)

Vertical distance travelled:

y =

1

2

at

2

2.6 Dipole in E-ﬁeld

Consider the force exerted on the dipole in an external E-ﬁeld:

Assumption: E-ﬁeld from dipole doesn’t aﬀect the external E-ﬁeld.

• Dipole moment:

p = q

d

• Force due to the E-ﬁeld on +ve

and −ve charge are equal and

opposite in direction. Total ex-

ternal force on dipole = 0.

BUT: There is an external torque on

the center of the dipole.

Reminder:

Force

F exerts at point P.

The force exerts a torque

τ = r

F on point P with

respect to point O.

Direction of the torque vector τ is determined from the right-hand rule.

2.6. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD 23

Reference: Halliday Vol.1 Chap 9.1 (Pg.175) torque

Chap 11.7 (Pg.243) work done

Net torque τ

• direction: clockwise

torque

• magnitude:

τ = τ

+ve

+ τ

−ve

= F

d

2

sin θ + F

d

2

sin θ

= qE d sin θ

= pE sin θ

τ = p

E

Energy Consideration:

When the dipole p rotates dθ, the E-ﬁeld does work.

Work done by external E-ﬁeld on the dipole:

dW = −τ dθ

Negative sign here because torque by E-ﬁeld acts to decrease θ.

BUT: Because E-ﬁeld is a conservative force ﬁeld

1 2

, we can deﬁne a

potential energy (U) for the system, so that

dU = −dW

∴ For the dipole in external E-ﬁeld:

dU = −dW = pE sin θ dθ

∴ U(θ) =

ˆ

dU =

ˆ

pE sin θ dθ

= −pE cos θ + U

0

1

more to come in Chap.4 of notes

2

ref. Halliday Vol.1 Pg.257, Chap 12.1

2.6. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD 24

set U(θ = 90

◦

) = 0,

∴ 0 = −pE cos 90

◦

+ U

0

∴ U

0

= 0

∴ Potential energy:

U = −pE cos θ = − p

E

Chapter 3

Electric Flux and Gauss’ Law

3.1 Electric Flux

Latin: ﬂux = ”to ﬂow”

Graphically:

Electric ﬂux Φ

E

represents the number of E-ﬁeld lines

crossing a surface.

Mathematically:

Reminder: Vector of the area

A is perpendicular to the area A.

For non-uniform E-ﬁeld & surface, direction of the area vector

A is not

uniform.

d

**A = Area vector for
**

small area element

dA

3.1. ELECTRIC FLUX 26

∴ Electric ﬂux dΦ

E

=

E d

A

Electric ﬂux of

E through surface S: Φ

E

=

ˆ

S

E d

A

ˆ

S

= Surface integral over surface S

= Integration of integral over all area elements on surface S

Example:

E =

1

4π

0

−2q

r

2

ˆ r =

−q

2π

0

R

2

ˆ r

For a hemisphere, d

A = dAˆ r

Φ

E

=

ˆ

S

−q

2π

0

R

2

ˆ r (dAˆ r) (∵ ˆ r ˆ r = 1)

= −

q

2π

0

R

2

ˆ

S

dA

. ¸¸ .

2πR

2

=

−q

0

For a closed surface:

Recall: Direction of area vector d

A

goes from inside to outside of closed

surface S.

3.1. ELECTRIC FLUX 27

Electric ﬂux over closed surface S: Φ

E

=

˛

S

E d

A

˛

S

= Surface integral over closed surface S

Example:

Electric ﬂux of charge q over closed

spherical surface of radius R.

E =

1

4π

0

q

r

2

ˆ r =

q

4π

0

R

2

ˆ r at the surface

Again, d

A = dA ˆ r

∴ Φ

E

=

˛

S

E

¸ .. ¸

q

4π

0

R

2

ˆ r

d

A

¸ .. ¸

dAˆ r

=

q

4π

0

R

2

˛

S

dA

. ¸¸ .

Total surface area of S = 4πR

2

Φ

E

=

q

0

IMPORTANT POINT:

If we remove the spherical symmetry of closed surface S, the total number of

E-ﬁeld lines crossing the surface remains the same.

∴ The electric ﬂux Φ

E

3.2. GAUSS’ LAW 28

Φ

E

=

˛

S

E d

A =

˛

S

E d

A =

q

0

3.2 Gauss’ Law

Φ

E

=

˛

S

E d

A =

q

0

for any closed surface S

And q is the net electric charge enclosed in closed surface S.

• Gauss’ Law is valid for all charge distributions and all closed surfaces.

(Gaussian surfaces)

• Coulomb’s Law can be derived from Gauss’ Law.

• For system with high order of symmetry, E-ﬁeld can be easily determined if

we construct Gaussian surfaces with the same symmetry and applies Gauss’

Law

3.3 E-ﬁeld Calculation with Gauss’ Law

(A) Inﬁnite line of charge

Linear charge density: λ

Cylindrical symmetry.

E-ﬁeld directs radially outward from the

rod.

Construct a Gaussian surface S in the

shape of a cylinder, making up of a

curved surface S

1

, and the top and

bottom circles S

2

, S

3

.

Gauss’ Law:

˛

S

E d

A =

Total charge

0

=

λL

0

3.3. E-FIELD CALCULATION WITH GAUSS’ LAW 29

˛

S

E d

A =

ˆ

S

1

E d

A

. ¸¸ .

Ed

A

+

ˆ

S

2

E d

A +

ˆ

S

3

E d

A

. ¸¸ .

= 0 ∵

E⊥d

A

∴ E

ˆ

S

1

dA

. ¸¸ .

Total area of surface S

1

=

λL

0

E(2πrL) =

λL

0

∴ E =

λ

2π

0

r

(Compare with Chapter 2 note)

E =

λ

2π

0

r

ˆ r

(B) Inﬁnite sheet of charge

Uniform surface charge density:

σ

Planar symmetry.

E-ﬁeld directs perpendicular to

the sheet of charge.

Construct Gaussian surface S in

the shape of a cylinder (pill

box) of cross-sectional area A.

Gauss’ Law:

˛

S

E d

A =

Aσ

0

ˆ

S

1

E d

A = 0 ∵

E ⊥ d

**A over whole surface S
**

1

ˆ

S

2

E d

A +

ˆ

S

3

E d

A = 2EA (

E | d

A

2

,

E | d

A

3

)

3.3. E-FIELD CALCULATION WITH GAUSS’ LAW 30

Note: For S

2

, both

E and d

A

2

point up

For S

3

, both

E and d

A

3

point down

∴ 2EA =

Aσ

0

⇒ E =

σ

2

0

(Compare with Chapter 2 note)

(C) Uniformly charged sphere

Total charge = Q

Spherical symmetry.

(a) For r > R:

Consider a spherical Gaussian surface S of

radius r:

E | d

A | ˆ r

Gauss’ Law:

˛

S

E d

A =

Q

0

˛

S

E dA =

Q

0

E

˛

S

dA

. ¸¸ .

surface area of S = 4πr

2

=

Q

0

∴

E =

Q

4π

0

r

2

ˆ r ; for r > R

(b) For r < R:

Consider a spherical Gaussian surface S

of

radius r < R, then total charge included q is

proportional to the volume included by S

∴

q

Q

=

Volume enclosed by S

**Total volume of sphere
**

3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS 31

q

Q

=

4/3 πr

3

4/3 πR

3

⇒ q =

r

3

R

3

Q

Gauss’ Law:

˛

S

E d

A =

q

0

E

˛

S

dA

. ¸¸ .

surface area of S

= 4πr

2

=

r

3

R

3

1

0

Q

∴

E =

1

4π

0

Q

R

3

r ˆ r ; for r ≤ R

3.4 Gauss’ Law and Conductors

For isolated conductors, charges are free

to move until all charges lie outside the

surface of the conductor. Also, the E-

ﬁeld at the surface of a conductor is per-

pendicular to its surface. (Why?)

Consider Gaussian surface S of shape of cylinder:

˛

S

E d

A =

σA

0

3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS 32

BUT

ˆ

S

1

E d

A = 0 ( ∵

E ⊥ d

A )

ˆ

S

3

E d

A = 0 ( ∵

E = 0 inside conductor )

ˆ

S

2

E d

A = E

ˆ

S

2

dA

. ¸¸ .

Area of S

2

( ∵

E | d

A )

= EA

∴ Gauss’ Law ⇒ EA =

σA

0

∴ On conductor’s surface E =

σ

0

BUT, there’s no charge inside conductors.

∴ Inside conductors E = 0 Always!

Notice: Surface charge density on a conductor’s surface is not uniform.

Example: Conductor with a charge inside

Note: This is not an isolated system (because of the charge inside).

Example:

3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS 33

I. Charge sprayed on a conductor sphere:

First, we know that charges all move

to the surface of conductors.

(i) For r < R:

Consider Gaussian surface S

2

˛

S

2

E d

A = 0 ( ∵ no charge inside )

⇒ E = 0 everywhere.

(ii) For r ≥ R:

Consider Gaussian surface S

1

:

˛

S

1

E d

A =

Q

0

E

˛

S

1

d

A

. ¸¸ .

4πr

2

=

Q

0

(

For a conductor

¸ .. ¸

E | d

A| ˆ r

.¸¸.

Spherically symmetric

)

E =

Q

4π

0

r

2

II. Conductor sphere with hole inside:

3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS 34

Consider Gaussian surface S

1

: Total

charge included = 0

∴ E-ﬁeld = 0 inside

The E-ﬁeld is identical to the case of a

solid conductor!!

III. A long hollow cylindrical conductor:

Example:

Inside hollow cylinder ( +2q )

_

Inner radius a

Outer radius b

Outside hollow cylinder ( −3q )

_

Inner radius c

Outer radius d

Question: Find the charge on each surface of the conductor.

For the inside hollow cylinder, charges distribute only on the sur-

face.

∴ Inner radius a surface, charge = 0

and Outer radius b surface, charge = +2q

For the outside hollow cylinder, charges do not distribute only on

outside.

∵ It’s not an isolated system. (There are charges inside!)

Consider Gaussian surface S

**inside the conductor:
**

E-ﬁeld always = 0

∴ Need charge −2q on radius c surface to balance the charge of inner

cylinder.

So charge on radius d surface = −q. (Why?)

IV. Large sheets of charge:

Total charge Q on sheet of area A,

3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS 35

∴ Surface charge density σ =

Q

A

By principle of superposition

Region A: E = 0 E = 0

Region B: E =

Q

0

A

E =

Q

0

A

Region C: E = 0 E = 0

Chapter 4

Electric Potential

4.1 Potential Energy and Conservative Forces

(Read Halliday Vol.1 Chap.12)

Electric force is a conservative force

Work done by the electric force

F as a

charge moves an inﬁnitesimal distance ds

along Path A = dW

Note: ds is in the tangent direction of the curve of Path A.

dW =

F ds

∴ Total work done W by force

F in moving the particle from Point 1 to Point 2

W =

ˆ

2

1

F ds

Path A

ˆ

2

1

= Path Integral

Path A

= Integration over Path A from Point 1 to Point 2.

4.1. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES 37

DEFINITION: A force is conservative if the work done on a particle by

the force is independent of the path taken.

∴ For conservative forces,

ˆ

2

1

F ds =

ˆ

2

1

F ds

Path A Path B

Let’s consider a path starting at point

1 to 2 through Path A and from 2 to 1

through Path C

Work done =

ˆ

2

1

F ds +

ˆ

1

2

F ds

Path A Path C

=

ˆ

2

1

F ds −

ˆ

2

1

F ds

Path A Path B

DEFINITION: The work done by a conservative force on a particle when it

moves around a closed path returning to its initial position is zero.

MATHEMATICALLY,

∇

F = 0 everywhere for conservative force

F

Conclusion: Since the work done by a conservative force

F is path-independent,

we can deﬁne a quantity, potential energy, that depends only on the

position of the particle.

Convention: We deﬁne potential energy U such that

dU = −W = −

ˆ

F ds

∴ For particle moving from 1 to 2

ˆ

2

1

dU = U

2

−U

1

= −

ˆ

2

1

F ds

where U

1

, U

2

are potential energy at position 1, 2.

4.1. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES 38

Example:

Suppose charge q

2

moves from point 1

to 2.

From deﬁnition: U

2

−U

1

= −

ˆ

2

1

F dr

= −

ˆ

r

2

r

1

F dr ( ∵

F | dr )

= −

ˆ

r

2

r

1

1

4π

0

q

1

q

2

r

2

dr

( ∵

ˆ

dr

r

2

= −

1

r

+C ) =

1

4π

0

q

1

q

2

r

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

r

2

r

1

−∆W = ∆U =

1

4π

0

q

1

q

2

_

1

r

2

−

1

r

1

_

Note:

(1) This result is generally true for 2-Dimension or 3-D motion.

(2) If q

2

moves away from q

1

,

then r

2

> r

1

, we have

• If q

1

, q

2

are of same sign,

then ∆U < 0, ∆W > 0

(∆W = Work done by electric repulsive force)

• If q

1

, q

2

are of diﬀerent sign,

then ∆U > 0, ∆W < 0

(∆W = Work done by electric attractive force)

(3) If q

2

moves towards q

1

,

then r

2

< r

1

, we have

• If q

1

, q

2

are of same sign,

then ∆U 0, ∆W 0

• If q

1

, q

2

are of diﬀerent sign,

then ∆U 0, ∆W 0

4.1. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES 39

(4) Note: It is the diﬀerence in potential energy that is important.

REFERENCE POINT: U(r = ∞) = 0

∴ U

∞

−U

1

=

1

4π

0

q

1

q

2

_

1

r

2

−

1

r

1

_

↓

∞

U(r) =

1

4π

0

q

1

q

2

r

If q

1

, q

2

same sign, then U(r) > 0 for all r

If q

1

, q

2

opposite sign, then U(r) < 0 for all r

(5) Conservation of Mechanical Energy:

For a system of charges with no external force,

E = K + U = Constant

¸ ¸

(Kinetic Energy) (Potential Energy)

or ∆E = ∆K + ∆U = 0

Potential Energy of A System of Charges

Example: P.E. of 3 charges q

1

, q

2

, q

3

Start: q

1

, q

2

, q

3

all at r = ∞, U = 0

Step1: Move q

1

from ∞ to its position ⇒ U = 0

Step2:

Move q

2

from ∞ to new position ⇒

U =

1

4π

0

q

1

q

2

r

12

Step3:

Move q

3

from ∞ to new position ⇒ Total P.E.

U =

1

4π

0

_

q

1

q

2

r

12

+

q

1

q

3

r

13

+

q

2

q

3

r

23

_

Step4: What if there are 4 charges?

4.2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 40

4.2 Electric Potential

Consider a charge q at center, we consider its eﬀect on test charge q

0

DEFINITION: We deﬁne electric potential V so that

∆V =

∆U

q

0

=

−∆W

q

0

( ∴ V is the P.E. per unit charge)

• Similarly, we take V (r = ∞) = 0.

• Electric Potential is a scalar.

• Unit: V olt(V ) = Joules/Coulomb

• For a single point charge:

V (r) =

1

4π

0

q

r

• Energy Unit: ∆U = q∆V

electron −V olt(eV ) = 1.6 10

−19

. ¸¸ .

charge of electron

J

Potential For A System of Charges

For a total of N point charges, the po-

tential V at any point P can be derived

from the principle of superposition.

Recall that potential due to q

1

at

point P: V

1

=

1

4π

0

q

1

r

1

∴ Total potential at point P due to N charges:

V = V

1

+ V

2

+ +V

N

(principle of superposition)

=

1

4π

0

_

q

1

r

1

+

q

2

r

2

+ +

q

N

r

N

_

4.2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 41

V =

1

4π

0

N

i=1

q

i

r

i

Note: For

E,

F, we have a sum of vectors

For V, U, we have a sum of scalars

Example: Potential of an electric dipole

Consider the potential of

point P at distance x >

d

2

from dipole.

V =

1

4π

0

_

+q

x −

d

2

+

−q

x +

d

2

_

Special Limiting Case: x ¸d

1

x ∓

d

2

=

1

x

1

1 ∓

d

2x

·

1

x

_

1 ±

d

2x

_

∴ V =

1

4π

0

q

x

_

1 +

d

2x

−(1 −

d

2x

)

_

V =

p

4π

0

x

2

(Recall p = qd)

For a point charge E ∝

1

r

2

V ∝

1

r

For a dipole E ∝

1

r

3

V ∝

1

r

2

For a quadrupole E ∝

1

r

4

V ∝

1

r

3

Electric Potential of Continuous Charge Distribution

For any charge distribution, we write the electri-

cal potential dV due to inﬁnitesimal charge dq:

dV =

1

4π

0

dq

r

4.2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 42

∴ V =

ˆ

charge

distribution

1

4π

0

dq

r

Similar to the previous examples on E-ﬁeld, for the case of uniform charge

distribution:

1-D ⇒ long rod ⇒ dq = λ dx

2-D ⇒ charge sheet ⇒ dq = σ dA

3-D ⇒ uniformly charged body ⇒ dq = ρ dV

Example (1): Uniformly-charged ring

Length of the inﬁnitesimal ring element

= ds = Rdθ

∴ charge dq = λ ds

= λR dθ

dV =

1

4π

0

dq

r

=

1

4π

0

λR dθ

√

R

2

+ z

2

The integration is around the entire ring.

∴ V =

ˆ

ring

dV

=

ˆ

2π

0

1

4π

0

λR dθ

√

R

2

+z

2

=

λR

4π

0

√

R

2

+ z

2

ˆ

2π

0

dθ

. ¸¸ .

2π

Total charge on the

ring = λ (2πR)

V =

Q

4π

0

√

R

2

+ z

2

LIMITING CASE: z ¸R ⇒ V =

Q

4π

0

√

z

2

=

Q

4π

0

[z[

4.2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 43

Example (2): Uniformly-charged disk

Using the principle of superpo-

sition, we will ﬁnd the potential

of a disk of uniform charge den-

sity by integrating the potential of

concentric rings.

∴ dV =

1

4π

0

ˆ

disk

dq

r

Ring of radius x: dq = σ dA = σ (2πxdx)

∴ V =

ˆ

R

0

1

4π

0

σ2πx dx

√

x

2

+ z

2

=

σ

4

0

ˆ

R

0

d(x

2

+z

2

)

(x

2

+ z

2

)

1/2

V =

σ

2

0

(

√

z

2

+ R

2

−

√

z

2

)

=

σ

2

0

(

√

z

2

+ R

2

−[z[)

Recall:

|x| =

_

+x; x ≥ 0

−x; x < 0

Limiting Case:

(1) If [z[ ¸R

√

z

2

+ R

2

=

¸

z

2

_

1 +

R

2

z

2

_

= [z[

_

1 +

R

2

z

2

_1

2

( (1 + x)

n

≈ 1 + nx if x ¸1 )

· [z[

_

1 +

R

2

2z

2

_

(

[z[

z

2

=

1

[z[

)

∴ At large z, V ·

σ

2

0

R

2

2[z[

=

Q

4π

0

[z[

(like a point charge)

where Q = total charge on disk = σ πR

2

4.2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 44

(2) If [z[ ¸R

√

z

2

+ R

2

= R

_

1 +

z

2

R

2

_1

2

· R

_

1 +

z

2

2R

2

_

∴ V ·

σ

2

0

_

R −[z[ +

z

2

2R

_

At z = 0, V =

σR

2

0

; Let’s call this V

0

∴ V (z) =

σR

2

0

_

1 −

[z[

R

+

z

2

2R

2

_

V (z) = V

0

_

1 −

[z[

R

+

z

2

2R

2

_

The key here is that it is the diﬀerence between potentials of two points

that is important.

⇒ A convenience reference point to compare in this example is the

potential of the charged disk.

∴ The important quantity here is

V (z) −V

0

= −

[z[

R

V

0

+

&

&

&

&

z

2

2R

2

V

0

neglected as z ¸R

V (z) −V

0

= −

V

0

R

[z[

4.3. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC

POTENTIAL V 45

4.3 Relation Between Electric Field E and Elec-

tric Potential V

(A) To get V from

E:

Recall our deﬁnition of the potential V:

∆V =

∆U

q

0

= −

W

12

q

0

where ∆U is the change in P.E.; W

12

is the work done in bringing charge

q

0

from point 1 to 2.

∴ ∆V = V

2

−V

1

=

−

´

2

1

F ds

q

0

However, the deﬁnition of E-ﬁeld:

F = q

0

E

∴ ∆V = V

2

−V

1

= −

ˆ

2

1

E ds

Note: The integral on the right hand side of the above can be calculated

along any path from point 1 to 2. (Path-Independent)

Convention: V

∞

= 0 ⇒ V

P

= −

ˆ

P

∞

E ds

(B) To get

E from V :

Again, use the deﬁnition of V :

∆U = q

0

∆V = −W

. ¸¸ .

Work done

However,

W = q

0

E

.¸¸.

Electric force

∆s

= q

0

E

s

∆s

where E

s

is the E-ﬁeld component along

the path ∆s.

∴ q

0

∆V = −q

0

E

s

∆s

4.3. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC

POTENTIAL V 46

∴ E

s

= −

∆V

∆s

For inﬁnitesimal ∆s,

∴ E

s

= −

dV

ds

Note: (1) Therefore the E-ﬁeld component along any direction is the neg-

tive derivative of the potential along the same direction.

(2) If ds ⊥

E, then ∆V = 0

(3) ∆V is biggest/smallest if ds |

E

Generally, for a potential V (x, y, z), the relation between

E(x, y, z) and V

is

E

x

= −

∂V

∂x

E

y

= −

∂V

∂y

E

z

= −

∂V

∂z

∂

∂x

,

∂

∂y

,

∂

∂z

are partial derivatives

For

∂

∂x

V (x, y, z), everything y, z are treated like a constant and we only

take derivative with respect to x.

Example: If V (x, y, z) = x

2

y −z

∂V

∂x

=

∂V

∂y

=

∂V

∂z

=

For other co-ordinate systems

(1) Cylindrical:

V (r, θ, z)

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

E

r

= −

∂V

∂r

E

θ

= −

1

r

∂V

∂θ

E

z

= −

∂V

∂z

4.3. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC

POTENTIAL V 47

(2) Spherical:

V (r, θ, φ)

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

E

r

= −

∂V

∂r

E

θ

= −

1

r

∂V

∂θ

E

φ

= −

1

r sin θ

∂V

∂φ

Note: Calculating V involves summation of scalars, which is easier than

adding vectors for calculating E-ﬁeld.

∴ To ﬁnd the E-ﬁeld of a general charge system, we ﬁrst calculate

V , and then derive

E from the partial derivative.

Example: Uniformly charged disk

From potential calculations:

V =

σ

2

0

(

√

R

2

+z

2

−[z[ )

for a point along

the z-axis

For z > 0, [z[ = z

∴ E

z

= −

∂V

∂z

=

σ

2

0

_

1 −

z

√

R

2

+z

2

_

(Compare with

Chap.2 notes)

Example: Uniform electric ﬁeld

(e.g. Uniformly charged +ve and −ve plates)

Consider a path going from the −ve

plate to the +ve plate

Potential at point P, V

P

can be deduced

from deﬁnition.

i.e. V

P

−V

−

= −

ˆ

s

0

E ds

(V

−

= Potential of

−ve plate)

= −

ˆ

s

0

(−E ds)

∵

E, ds pointing

opposite directions

= E

ˆ

s

0

ds = Es

Convenient reference: V

−

= 0

∴ V

P

= E s

4.4. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES 48

4.4 Equipotential Surfaces

Equipotential surface is a surface on which the potential is constant.

⇒ (∆V = 0)

V (r) =

1

4π

0

+q

r

= const

⇒ r = const

⇒ Equipotential surfaces are

circles/spherical surfaces

Note: (1) A charge can move freely on an equipotential surface without any

work done.

(2) The electric ﬁeld lines must be perpendicular to the equipotential

surfaces. (Why?)

On an equipotential surface, V = constant

⇒ ∆V = 0 ⇒

E d

l = 0, where d

**l is tangent to equipotential surface
**

∴

E must be perpendicular to equipotential surfaces.

Example: Uniformly charged surface (inﬁnite)

Recall V = V

0

−

σ

2

0

[z[

↑

Potential at z = 0

Equipotential surface means

V = const ⇒ V

0

−

σ

2

0

[z[ = C

⇒ [z[ = constant

4.4. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES 49

Example: Isolated spherical charged conductors

Recall:

(1) E-ﬁeld inside = 0

(2) charge distributed on the

outside of conductors.

(i) Inside conductor:

E = 0 ⇒ ∆V = 0 everywhere in conductor

⇒ V = constant everywhere in conductor

⇒ The entire conductor is at the same potential

(ii) Outside conductor:

V =

Q

4π

0

r

∵ Spherically symmetric (Just like a point charge.)

BUT not true for conductors of arbitrary shape.

Example: Connected conducting spheres

Two conductors con-

nected can be seen as a

single conductor

4.4. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES 50

∴ Potential everywhere is identical.

Potential of radius R

1

sphere V

1

=

q

1

4π

0

R

1

Potential of radius R

2

sphere V

2

=

q

2

4π

0

R

2

V

1

= V

2

⇒

q

1

R

1

=

q

2

R

2

⇒

q

1

q

2

=

R

1

R

2

Surface charge density

σ

1

=

q

1

4πR

2

1

. ¸¸ .

Surface area of radius R

1

sphere

∴

σ

1

σ

2

=

q

1

q

2

R

2

2

R

2

1

=

R

2

R

1

∴ If R

1

< R

2

, then σ

1

> σ

2

And the surface electric ﬁeld E

1

> E

2

For arbitrary shape conductor:

At every point on the conductor,

we ﬁt a circle. The radius of this

circle is the radius of curvature.

Note: Charge distribution on a conductor does not have to be uniform.

Chapter 5

Capacitance and DC Circuits

5.1 Capacitors

A capacitor is a system of two conductors that carries equal and opposite

charges. A capacitor stores charge and energy in the form of electro-static ﬁeld.

We deﬁne capacitance as

C =

Q

V

Unit: Farad(F)

where

Q = Charge on one plate

V = Potential diﬀerence between the plates

Note: The C of a capacitor is a constant that depends only on its shape and

material.

i.e. If we increase V for a capacitor, we can increase Q stored.

5.2 Calculating Capacitance

5.2.1 Parallel-Plate Capacitor

5.2. CALCULATING CAPACITANCE 52

(1) Recall from Chapter 3 note,

[

E[ =

σ

0

=

Q

0

A

(2) Recall from Chapter 4 note,

∆V = V

+

−V

−

= −

ˆ

+

−

E ds

Again, notice that this integral is independent of the path taken.

∴ We can take the path that is parallel to the

E-ﬁeld.

∴ ∆V =

ˆ

−

+

E ds

=

ˆ

−

+

E ds

=

Q

0

A

ˆ

−

+

ds

. ¸¸ .

Length of path taken

=

Q

0

A

d

(3) ∴ C =

Q

∆V

=

0

A

d

5.2.2 Cylindrical Capacitor

Consider two concentric cylindrical wire

of innner and outer radii r

1

and r

2

re-

spectively. The length of the capacitor

is L where r

1

< r

2

¸L.

5.2. CALCULATING CAPACITANCE 53

(1) Using Gauss’ Law, we determine that the E-ﬁeld between the conductors

is (cf. Chap3 note)

E =

1

2π

0

λ

r

ˆ r =

1

2π

0

Q

Lr

ˆ r

where λ is charge per unit length

(2)

∆V =

ˆ

−

+

E ds

Again, we choose the path of integration so that ds | ˆ r |

E

∴ ∆V =

ˆ

r

2

r

1

E dr =

Q

2π

0

L

ˆ

r

2

r

1

dr

r

. ¸¸ .

ln(

r

2

r

1

)

∴ C =

Q

∆V

= 2π

0

L

ln(r

2

/r

1

)

5.2.3 Spherical Capacitor

For the space between the two conductors,

E =

1

4π

0

Q

r

2

; r

1

< r < r

2

∆V =

ˆ

−

+

E ds

Choose ds | ˆ r =

ˆ

r

2

r

1

1

4π

0

Q

r

2

dr

=

Q

4π

0

_

1

r

1

−

1

r

2

_

C = 4π

0

_

r

1

r

2

r

2

−r

1

_

5.3. CAPACITORS IN COMBINATION 54

5.3 Capacitors in Combination

(a) Capacitors in Parallel

In this case, it’s the potential diﬀerence

V = V

a

−V

b

that is the same across the

capacitor.

BUT: Charge on each capacitor diﬀerent

Total charge Q = Q

1

+ Q

2

= C

1

V + C

2

V

Q = (C

1

+ C

2

)

. ¸¸ .

Equivalent capacitance

V

∴ For capacitors in parallel: C = C

1

+ C

2

(b) Capacitors in Series

The charge across capacitors are

the same.

BUT: Potential diﬀerence (P.D.) across capacitors diﬀerent

∆V

1

= V

a

−V

c

=

Q

C

1

P.D. across C

1

∆V

2

= V

c

−V

b

=

Q

C

2

P.D. across C

2

∴ Potential diﬀerence

∆V = V

a

−V

b

= ∆V

1

+ ∆V

2

∆V = Q(

1

C

1

+

1

C

2

) =

Q

C

where C is the Equivalent Capacitance

∴

1

C

=

1

C

1

+

1

C

2

5.4. ENERGY STORAGE IN CAPACITOR 55

5.4 Energy Storage in Capacitor

In charging a capacitor, positive charge

is being moved from the negative plate

to the positive plate.

⇒ NEEDS WORK DONE!

Suppose we move charge dq from −ve to +ve plate, change in potential energy

dU = ∆V dq =

q

C

dq

Suppose we keep putting in a total charge Q to the capacitor, the total potential

energy

U =

ˆ

dU =

ˆ

Q

0

q

C

dq

∴ U =

Q

2

2C

=

1

2

C∆V

2

(∵ Q=C∆V )

The energy stored in the capacitor is stored in the electric ﬁeld between the

plates.

Note : In a parallel-plate capacitor, the E-ﬁeld is constant between the plates.

∴ We can consider the E-ﬁeld energy

density u =

Total energy stored

Total volume with E-ﬁeld

∴ u =

U

Ad

.¸¸.

Rectangular volume

Recall

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

C =

0

A

d

E =

∆V

d

⇒ ∆V = Ed

∴ u =

1

2

(

C

¸ .. ¸

0

A

d

) (

(∆V )

2

¸..¸

Ed )

2

1

V olume

¸..¸

1

Ad

5.4. ENERGY STORAGE IN CAPACITOR 56

u =

1

2

0

E

2

Energy per unit volume

of the electrostatic ﬁeld

↑

can be generally applied

Example : Changing capacitance

(1) Isolated Capacitor:

Charge on the capacitor plates remains constant.

BUT: C

new

=

0

A

2d

=

1

2

C

old

∴ U

new

=

Q

2

2C

new

=

Q

2

2C

old

/2

= 2U

old

∴ In pulling the plates apart, work done W > 0

Summary :

Q → Q C → C/2

(V =

Q

C

) ⇒ V → 2V E → E (E =

V

d

)

1

2

0

E

2

= u → u U → 2U (U = u volume)

(2) Capacitor connected to a battery:

Potential diﬀerence between capacitor plates remains constant.

U

new

=

1

2

C

new

∆V

2

=

1

2

1

2

C

old

∆V

2

=

1

2

U

old

∴ In pulling the plates apart, work done by battery < 0

Summary :

Q → Q/2 C → C/2

V → V E → E/2

u → u/4 U → U/2

5.5. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT 57

5.5 Dielectric Constant

We ﬁrst recall the case for a conductor being placed in an external E-ﬁeld E

0

.

In a conductor, charges are free to move

inside so that the internal E-ﬁeld E

set

up by these charges

E

= −E

0

so that E-ﬁeld inside conductor = 0.

Generally, for dielectric, the atoms and

molecules behave like a dipole in an E-ﬁeld.

Or, we can envision this so that in the absence of E-ﬁeld, the direction of dipole

in the dielectric are randomly distributed.

5.6. CAPACITOR WITH DIELECTRIC 58

The aligned dipoles will generate an induced E-ﬁeld E

, where [E

[ < [E

0

[.

We can observe the aligned dipoles in the form of induced surface charge.

Dielectric Constant : When a dielectric is placed in an external E-ﬁeld E

0

,

the E-ﬁeld inside a dielectric is induced.

E-ﬁeld in dielectric

E =

1

K

e

E

0

K

e

= dielectric constant ≥ 1

Example :

Vacuum K

e

= 1

Porcelain K

e

= 6.5

Water K

e

∼ 80

Perfect conductor K

e

= ∞

Air K

e

= 1.00059

5.6 Capacitor with Dielectric

Case I :

Again, the charge remains constant after dielectric is inserted.

BUT: E

new

=

1

K

e

E

old

∴ ∆V = Ed ⇒ ∆V

new

=

1

K

e

∆V

old

∴ C =

Q

∆V

⇒ C

new

= K

e

C

old

For a parallel-plate capacitor with dielectric:

C =

K

e

0

A

d

5.6. CAPACITOR WITH DIELECTRIC 59

We can also write C =

A

d

in general with

= K

e

0

(called permittivity of dielectric)

(Recall

0

= Permittivity of free space)

Energy stored U =

Q

2

2C

;

∴ U

new

=

1

K

e

U

old

< U

old

∴ Work done in inserting dielectric < 0

Case II : Capacitor connected to a battery

Voltage across capacitor plates remains constant after insertion of dielec-

tric.

In both scenarios, the E-ﬁeld inside capacitor remains constant

(∵ E = V/d)

BUT: How can E-ﬁeld remain constant?

ANSWER: By having extra charge on capacitor plates.

Recall: For conductors,

E =

σ

0

(Chapter 3 note)

⇒ E =

Q

0

A

(σ = charge per unit area = Q/A)

After insertion of dielectric:

E

=

E

K

e

=

Q

K

e

0

A

But E-ﬁeld remains constant!

∴ E

= E ⇒

Q

K

e

0

A

=

Q

0

A

⇒ Q

= K

e

Q > Q

5.7. GAUSS’ LAW IN DIELECTRIC 60

∴ Capacitor C = Q/V ⇒ C

→ K

e

C

Energy stored U =

1

2

CV

2

⇒ U

→ K

e

U

(i.e. U

new

> U

old

)

∴ Work done to insert dielectric > 0

5.7 Gauss’ Law in Dielectric

The Gauss’ Law we’ve learned is applicable in vacuum only. Let’s use the capac-

itor as an example to examine Gauss’ Law in dielectric.

Free charge

on plates

±Q ±Q

Induced charge

on dielectric

0 ∓Q

**Gauss’ Law Gauss’ Law:
**

˛

S

E d

A =

Q

0

˛

S

E

d

A =

Q−Q

0

⇒ E

0

=

Q

0

A

(1) ∴ E

=

Q−Q

0

A

(2)

However, we deﬁne E

=

E

0

K

e

(3)

From (1), (2), (3) ∴

Q

K

e

0

A

=

Q

0

A

−

Q

0

A

∴ Induced charge density σ

=

Q

A

= σ

_

1 −

1

K

e

_

< σ

where σ is free charge density.

Recall Gauss’ Law in Dielectric:

0

˛

S

E

d

A = Q − Q

↑ ↑ ↑

E-ﬁeld in dielectric free charge induced charge

5.8. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE 61

⇒

0

˛

S

E

d

A = Q−Q

_

1 −

1

K

e

_

⇒

0

˛

S

E

d

A =

Q

K

e

˛

S

K

e

E

d

A =

Q

0

Gauss’ Law

in dielectric

Note :

(1) This goes back to the Gauss’ Law in vacuum with E =

E

0

K

e

for dielectric

(2) Only free charges need to be considered, even for dielectric where there

are induced charges.

(3) Another way to write:

˛

S

E d

A =

Q

where

E is E-ﬁeld in dielectric, = K

e

0

is Permittivity

Energy stored with dielectric:

Total energy stored: U =

1

2

CV

2

With dielectric, recall C =

K

e

0

A

d

V = Ed

∴ Energy stored per unit volume:

u

e

=

U

Ad

=

1

2

K

e

0

E

2

and u

dielectric

= K

e

u

vacuum

∴ More energy is stored per unit volume in dielectric than in vacuum.

5.8 Ohm’s Law and Resistance

ELECTRIC CURRENT is deﬁned as the ﬂow of electric charge through a

cross-sectional area.

5.8. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE 62

i =

dQ

dt

Unit: Ampere (A)

= C/second

Convention :

(1) Direction of current is the direction of ﬂow of positive charge.

(2) Current is NOT a vector, but the current density is a vector.

**j = charge ﬂow per unit time per unit area
**

i =

ˆ

j d

A

Drift Velocity :

Consider a current i ﬂowing through

a cross-sectional area A:

∴ In time ∆t, total charges passing through segment:

∆Q = q A(V

d

∆t)

. ¸¸ .

Volume of charge

passing through

n

where q is charge of the current carrier, n is density of charge carrier

per unit volume

∴ Current: i =

∆Q

∆t

= nqAv

d

Current Density:

j = nqv

d

Note : For metal, the charge carriers are the free electrons inside.

∴

j = −nev

d

for metals

∴ Inside metals,

j and v

d

are in opposite direction.

We deﬁne a general property, conductivity (σ), of a material as:

j = σ

E

5.8. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE 63

Note : In general, σ is NOT a constant number, but rather a function of position

and applied E-ﬁeld.

A more commonly used property, resistivity (ρ), is deﬁned as ρ =

1

σ

∴

E = ρ

j

Unit of ρ : Ohm-meter (Ωm)

where Ohm (Ω) = Volt/Ampere

OHM’S LAW:

Ohmic materials have resistivity that are independent of the applied electric ﬁeld.

i.e. metals (in not too high E-ﬁeld)

Example :

Consider a resistor (ohmic material) of

length L and cross-sectional area A.

∴ Electric ﬁeld inside conductor:

∆V =

ˆ

E ds = E L ⇒ E =

∆V

L

Current density: j =

i

A

∴ ρ =

E

j

ρ =

∆V

L

1

i/A

∆V

i

= R = ρ

L

A

where R is the resistance of the conductor.

Note: ∆V = iR is NOT a statement of Ohm’s Law. It’s just a deﬁnition for

resistance.

5.9. DC CIRCUITS 64

ENERGY IN CURRENT:

Assuming a charge ∆Q enters

with potential V

1

and leaves with

potential V

2

:

∴ Potential energy lost in the wire:

∆U = ∆QV

2

−∆QV

1

∆U = ∆Q(V

2

−V

1

)

∴ Rate of energy lost per unit time

∆U

∆t

=

∆Q

∆t

(V

2

−V

1

)

Joule’s heating P = i ∆V =

Power dissipated

in conductor

For a resistor R, P = i

2

R =

∆V

2

R

5.9 DC Circuits

A battery is a device that supplies electrical energy to maintain a current in a

circuit.

In moving from point 1 to 2, elec-

tric potential energy increase by

∆U = ∆Q(V

2

−V

1

) = Work done by c

Deﬁne c = Work done/charge = V

2

−V

1

5.9. DC CIRCUITS 65

Example :

V

a

= V

c

V

b

= V

d

_

assuming

(1)

perfect conducting wires.

By Deﬁnition: V

c

−V

d

= iR

V

a

−V

b

= c

∴ c = iR ⇒ i =

c

R

Also, we have assumed

(2)

zero resistance inside battery.

Resistance in combination :

Potential diﬀerece (P.D.)

V

a

−V

b

= (V

a

−V

c

) + (V

c

−V

b

)

= iR

1

+ iR

2

∴ Equivalent Resistance

R = R

1

+ R

2

for resistors in series

1

R

=

1

R

1

+

1

R

2

for resistors in parallel

5.9. DC CIRCUITS 66

Example :

For real battery, there is an

internal resistance that

we cannot ignore.

∴ c = i(R +r)

i =

c

R + r

Joule’s heating in resistor R :

P = i (P.D. across resistor R)

= i

2

R

P =

c

2

R

(R + r)

2

Question: What is the value of R to obtain maximum Joule’s heating?

Answer: We want to ﬁnd R to maximize P.

dP

dR

=

c

2

(R + r)

2

−

c

2

2R

(R + r)

3

Setting

dP

dR

= 0 ⇒

c

2

(R +r)

3

[(R + r) −2R] = 0

⇒ r −R = 0

⇒ R = r

5.9. DC CIRCUITS 67

ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX CIRCUITS:

KIRCHOFF’S LAWS:

(1) First Law (Junction Rule):

Total current entering a junction equal to the total current leaving the

junction.

(2) Second Law (Loop Rule):

The sum of potential diﬀerences around a complete circuit loop is zero.

Convention :

(i)

V

a

> V

b

⇒ Potential diﬀerence = −iR

i.e. Potential drops across resistors

(ii)

V

b

> V

a

⇒ Potential diﬀerence = +c

i.e. Potential rises across the negative plate of the battery.

Example :

5.9. DC CIRCUITS 68

By junction rule:

i

1

= i

2

+ i

3

(5.1)

By loop rule:

Loop A ⇒ 2c

0

−i

1

R −i

2

R +c

0

−i

1

R = 0 (5.2)

Loop B ⇒ −i

3

R −c

0

−i

3

R −c

0

+ i

2

R = 0 (5.3)

Loop C ⇒ 2c

0

−i

1

R −i

3

R −c

0

−i

3

R −i

1

R = 0 (5.4)

BUT: (5.4) = (5.2) + (5.3)

General rule: Need only 3 equations for 3 current

i

1

= i

2

+ i

3

(5.1)

3c

0

−2i

1

R −i

2

R = 0 (5.2)

−2c

0

+ i

2

R −2i

3

R = 0 (5.3)

Substitute (5.1) into (5.2) :

3c

0

−2(i

2

+ i

3

)R −i

2

R = 0

⇒ 3c

0

−3i

2

R −2i

3

R = 0 (5.4)

Subtract (5.3) from (5.4), i.e. (5.4)−(5.3)

3c

0

−(−2c

0

) −3i

2

R −i

2

R = 0

⇒ i

2

=

5

4

c

0

R

Substitute i

2

into (5.3) :

−2c

0

+

_

5

4

c

0

R

_

R −2i

3

R = 0

5.10. RC CIRCUITS 69

⇒ i

3

= −

3

8

c

0

R

Substitute i

2

, i

3

into (5.1) :

i

1

=

_

5

4

−

3

8

_

c

0

R

=

7

8

c

0

R

Note: A negative current means that it is ﬂowing in opposite direction from the

one assumed.

5.10 RC Circuits

(A) Charging a capacitor with battery:

Using the loop rule:

+c

0

− iR

.¸¸.

P.D.

across R

−

Q

C

.¸¸.

P.D.

across C

= 0

Note: Direction of i is chosen so that the current represents the rate at

which the charge on the capacitor is increasing.

∴ c = R

i

¸..¸

dQ

dt

+

Q

C

1st order

diﬀerential eqn.

⇒

dQ

cC −Q

=

dt

RC

Integrate both sides and use the initial condition:

t = 0, Q on capacitor = 0

ˆ

Q

0

dQ

cC −Q

=

ˆ

t

0

dt

RC

5.10. RC CIRCUITS 70

−ln(cC −Q)

¸

¸

¸

Q

0

=

t

RC

¸

¸

¸

t

0

⇒ −ln(cC −Q) + ln(cC) =

t

RC

⇒ ln

_

1

1 −

Q

EC

_

=

t

RC

⇒

1

1 −

Q

EC

= e

t/RC

⇒

Q

cC

= 1 −e

−t/RC

⇒ Q(t) = cC(1 −e

−t/RC

)

Note: (1) At t = 0 , Q(t = 0) = cC(1 −1) = 0

(2) As t →∞ , Q(t →∞) = cC(1 −0) = cC

= Final charge on capacitor (Q

0

)

(3) Current:

i =

dQ

dt

= cC

_

1

RC

_

e

−t/RC

i(t) =

c

R

e

−t/RC

_

_

_

i(t = 0) =

c

R

= Initial current = i

0

i(t →∞) = 0

(4) At time = 0, the capacitor acts like short circuit when there is

zero charge on the capacitor.

(5) As time → ∞, the capacitor is fully charged and current = 0, it

acts like a open circuit.

5.10. RC CIRCUITS 71

(6) τ

c

= RC is called the time constant. It’s the time it takes for

the charge to reach (1 −

1

e

) Q

0

· 0.63Q

0

(B) Discharging a charged capacitor:

Note: Direction of i is chosen so that the current represents the rate at

which the charge on the capacitor is decreasing.

∴ i = −

dQ

dt

Loop Rule:

V

c

−iR = 0

⇒

Q

C

+

dQ

dt

R = 0

⇒

dQ

dt

= −

1

RC

Q

Integrate both sides and use the initial condition:

t = 0, Q on capacitor = Q

0

ˆ

Q

Q

0

dQ

Q

= −

1

RC

ˆ

t

0

dt

⇒ ln Q−ln Q

0

= −

t

RC

⇒ ln

_

Q

Q

0

_

= −

t

RC

⇒

Q

Q

0

= e

−t/RC

⇒ Q(t) = Q

0

e

−t/RC

(i = −

dQ

dt

) ⇒ i(t) =

Q

0

RC

e

−t/RC

(At t = 0) ⇒ i(t = 0) =

1

R

Q

0

C

.¸¸.

Initial P.D. across capacitor

i

0

=

V

0

R

5.10. RC CIRCUITS 72

At t = RC = τ Q(t = RC) =

1

e

Q

0

· 0.37Q

0

Chapter 6

Magnetic Force

6.1 Magnetic Field

For stationary charges, they experienced an electric force in an electric ﬁeld.

For moving charges, they experienced a magnetic force in a magnetic ﬁeld.

Mathematically,

F

E

= q

E (electric force)

F

B

= qv

B (magnetic force)

Direction of the magnetic force determined from right hand rule.

Magnetic ﬁeld

B : Unit = Tesla (T)

1T = 1C moving at 1m/s experiencing 1N

Common Unit: 1 Gauss (G) = 10

−4

T ≈ magnetic ﬁeld on earth’s surface

Example: What’s the force on a 0.1C charge moving at velocity v = (10

ˆ

j −

20

ˆ

k)ms

−1

in a magnetic ﬁeld

B = (−3

ˆ

i + 4

ˆ

k) 10

−4

T

F = qv

B

6.1. MAGNETIC FIELD 74

= +0.1 (10

ˆ

j −20

ˆ

k) (−3

ˆ

i + 4

ˆ

k) 10

−4

N

= 10

−5

(−30 −

ˆ

k + 40

ˆ

i + 60

ˆ

j + 0)N

Eﬀects of magnetic ﬁeld is usually quite small.

F = qv

B

[

**F[ = qvBsin θ, where θ is the angle between v and
**

B

∴ Magnetic force is maximum when θ = 90

◦

(i.e. v ⊥

B)

Magnetic force is minimum (0) when θ = 0

◦

, 180

◦

(i.e. v |

B)

Graphical representation of B-ﬁeld: Magnetic ﬁeld lines

Compared with Electric ﬁeld lines:

Similar characteristics :

(1) Direction of E-ﬁeld/B-ﬁeld indicated by tangent of the ﬁeld lines.

(2) Magnitude of E-ﬁeld/B-ﬁeld indicated by density of the ﬁeld lines.

Diﬀereces :

(1)

F

E

| E-ﬁeld lines;

F

B

⊥ B-ﬁeld lines

(2) E-ﬁeld line begins at positive charge and ends at negative charge; B-

ﬁeld line forms a closed loop.

Example : Chap35, Pg803 Halliday

Note: Isolated magnetic monopoles do not exist.

6.2. MOTION OF A POINT CHARGE IN MAGNETIC FIELD 75

6.2 Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field

Since

F

B

⊥ v, therefore B-ﬁeld only changes the direction of the velocity but not

its magnitude.

Generally,

F

B

= qv

B = q v

⊥

B ,

∴ We only need to consider the motion

component ⊥ to B-ﬁeld.

We have circular motion. Magnetic

force provides the centripetal force on the

moving charge particles.

∴ F

B

= m

v

2

r

[q[ vB = m

v

2

r

∴ r =

mv

[q[B

where r is radius of circular motion.

Time for moving around one orbit:

T =

2πr

v

=

2πm

qB

Cyclotron Period

(1) Independent of v (non-relativistic)

(2) Use it to measure m/q

Generally, charged particles with con-

stant velocity moves in helix in the pres-

ence of constant B-ﬁeld.

6.3. HALL EFFECT 76

Note :

(1) B-ﬁeld does NO work on particles.

(2) B-ﬁeld does NOT change K.E. of particles.

Particle Motion in Presence of E-ﬁeld & B-ﬁeld:

F = q

E +qv

B Lorentz Force

Special Case :

E ⊥

B

When [

F

E

[ = [

F

B

[

qE = qvB

⇒ v =

E

B

∴ For charged particles moving at v = E/B, they will pass through the

crossed E and B ﬁelds without vertical displacement.

⇒ velocity selector

Applications :

• Cyclotron (Lawrence & Livingston 1934)

• Measuring e/m for electrons (Thomson 1897)

• Mass Spectrometer (Aston 1919)

6.3 Hall Eﬀect

Charges travelling in a conducting wire will be pushed to one side of the wire by

the external magnetic ﬁeld. This separation of charge in the wire is called the

Hall Eﬀect.

6.3. HALL EFFECT 77

The separation will stop when F

B

experienced by the current carrier is balanced

by the force

F

H

caused by the E-ﬁeld set up by the separated charges.

Deﬁne :

∆V

H

= Hall Voltage

= Potential diﬀerence across the conducting strip

∴ E-ﬁeld from separated charges: E

H

=

∆V

H

W

where W = width of conducting strip

In equilibrium: q

E

H

+qv

d

B = 0, where v

d

is drift velocity

∴

∆V

H

W

= v

d

B

Recall from Chapter 5,

i = nqAv

d

where n is density of charge carrier,

A is cross-sectional area = width thickness = W t

∴

∆V

H

W

=

i

nqWt

B

⇒ n =

iB

qt∆V

H

To determine density

of charge carriers

Suppose we determine n for a particular metal (∴ q = e), then we can measure

B-ﬁeld strength by measuring the Hall voltage:

B =

net

i

∆V

H

6.4. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS 78

6.4 Magnetic Force on Currents

Current = many charges moving together

Consider a wire segment, length L,

carrying current i in a magnetic ﬁeld.

Total magnetic force = ( qv

d

B

. ¸¸ .

force on one

charge carrier

) n A L

. ¸¸ .

Total number of

charge carrier

Recall i = nqv

d

A

∴ Magnetic force on current

F = i

L

B

where

L = Vector of which: [

**L[ = length of current segment; direction =
**

direction of current

For an inﬁnitesimal wire segment d

l

d

F = i d

l

B

Example 1: Force on a semicircle current loop

d

l = Inﬁnitesimal

arc length element ⊥

B

∴ dl = Rdθ

∴ dF = iRBdθ

By symmetry argument, we only need to consider vertical forces, dF sin θ

∴ Net force F =

ˆ

π

0

dF sin θ

= iRB

ˆ

π

0

sin θ dθ

F = 2iRB (downward)

6.4. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS 79

Method 2: Write d

l in

ˆ

i,

ˆ

j components

d

l = −dl sin θ

ˆ

i + dl cos θ

ˆ

j

= Rdθ (−sin θ

ˆ

i + cos θ

ˆ

j)

B = −B

ˆ

k (into the page)

∴ d

F = i d

l

B

= −iRBsin θ dθ

ˆ

j −iRBcos θ

ˆ

i

∴

F =

ˆ

π

0

d

F

= −iRB

_

ˆ

π

0

sin θ dθ

ˆ

j +

ˆ

π

0

cos θ dθ

ˆ

i

_

= −2iRB

ˆ

j

Example 2: Current loop in B-ﬁeld

For segment2:

F

2

= ibBsin(90

◦

+ θ) = ibBcos θ (pointing downward)

For segment4:

F

2

= ibBsin(90

◦

−θ) = ibBcos θ (pointing upward)

6.4. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS 80

For segment1: F

1

= iaB

For segment3: F

3

= iaB

∴ Net force on the current loop = 0

But, net torque on the loop about O

= τ

1

+ τ

3

= iaB

b

2

sin θ + iaB

b

2

sin θ

= i ab

.¸¸.

A = area of loop

Bsin θ

Suppose the loop is a coil with N turns of wires:

Total torque τ = NiABsin θ

Deﬁne: Unit vector ˆ n to represent the area-vector (using right hand rule)

Then we can rewrite the torque equation as

τ = NiAˆ n

B

Deﬁne: NiAˆ n = µ = Magnetic dipole moment of loop

τ = µ

B

Chapter 7

Magnetic Field

7.1 Magnetic Field

A moving charge

_

¸

_

¸

_

experiences magnetic force in B-ﬁeld.

can generate B-ﬁeld.

Magnetic ﬁeld

B due to moving point charge:

B =

µ

0

4π

qv ˆ r

r

2

=

µ

0

4π

qv r

r

3

where µ

0

= 4π 10

−7

Tm/A (N/A

2

)

Permeability of free space (Magnetic constant)

[

B[ =

µ

0

4π

qv sin θ

r

2

_

maximum when θ = 90

◦

minimum when θ = 0

◦

/180

◦

B at P

0

= 0 =

B at P

1

B at P

2

<

B at P

3

However, a single moving charge will NOT generate a steady magnetic ﬁeld.

stationary charges generate steady E-ﬁeld.

steady currents generate steady B-ﬁeld.

7.1. MAGNETIC FIELD 82

Magnetic ﬁeld at point P can be

obtained by integrating the contribu-

tion from individual current segments.

(Principle of Superposition)

∴ d

B =

µ

0

4π

dq v ˆ r

r

2

Notice: dq v = dq

ds

dt

= i ds

d

B =

µ

0

4π

i ds ˆ r

r

2

Biot-Savart Law

For current around a whole circuit:

B =

ˆ

entire

circuit

d

B =

ˆ

entire

circuit

µ

0

4π

i ds ˆ r

r

2

Biot-Savart Law is to magnetic ﬁeld as

Coulomb’s Law is to electric ﬁeld.

Basic element of E-ﬁeld: Electric charges dq

Basic element of B-ﬁeld: Current element i ds

Example 1 : Magnetic ﬁeld due to straight current segment

7.1. MAGNETIC FIELD 83

∴ [ds ˆ r[ = dz sin φ

= dz sin(π −φ) (Trigonometry Identity)

= dz

d

r

=

d dz

√

d

2

+ z

2

dB =

µ

0

4π

i dz

r

2

d

r

=

µ

0

i

4π

d

(d

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

dz

∴ B =

ˆ

L/2

−L/2

dB =

µ

0

id

4π

ˆ

+L/2

−L/2

dz

(d

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

B =

µ

0

i

4πd

z

(z

2

+ d

2

)

1/2

¸

¸

¸

¸

+L/2

−L/2

B =

µ

0

i

4πd

L

(

L

2

4

+ d

2

)

1/2

Limiting Cases : When L ¸d (B-ﬁeld due to long wire)

_

L

2

4

+ d

2

_

−1/2

≈

_

L

2

4

_

−1/2

=

2

L

∴ B =

µ

0

i

2πd

;

direction of B-ﬁeld determined

from right-hand screw rule

Recall : E =

λ

2π

0

d

for an inﬁnite long line of charge.

Example 2 : A circular current loop

7.1. MAGNETIC FIELD 84

Notice that for every current element ids

1

, generating a magnetic ﬁeld d

B

1

at point P, there is an opposite current element ids

2

, generating B-ﬁeld

d

B

2

so that

d

B

1

sin α = −d

B

2

sin α

∴ Only vertical component of B-ﬁeld needs to be considered at point P.

dB =

µ

0

4π

i ds sin

∵ds⊥ˆ r

¸..¸

90

◦

r

2

∴ B-ﬁeld at point P:

B =

ˆ

around

circuit

dB cos α

. ¸¸ .

consider vertical

component

∴ B =

2π

ˆ

0

µ

0

i cos α

4πr

2

ds

.¸¸.

Rdθ

=

µ

0

i

4π

R

r

3

ˆ

2π

0

ds

. ¸¸ .

Integrate around circum-

ference of circle = 2πR

∴ B =

µ

0

iR

2

2r

3

B =

µ

0

iR

2

2(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

;

direction of B-ﬁeld determined

from right-hand screw rule

Limiting Cases :

(1) B-ﬁeld at center of loop:

z = 0 ⇒ B =

µ

0

i

2R

(2) For z ¸R,

B =

µ

0

iR

2

2z

3

_

1 +

R

2

z

2

_

3/2

≈

µ

0

iR

2

2z

3

∝

1

z

3

Recall E-ﬁeld for an electric dipole: E =

p

4π

0

x

3

∴ A circular current loop is also called a magnetic dipole.

7.1. MAGNETIC FIELD 85

(3) A current arc:

B =

ˆ

around

circuit

dB cos α

. ¸¸ .

z = 0 ⇒

α = 0 here.

=

µ

0

i

4π

R

r

3

.¸¸.

R = r

when α = 0

**Rθ = length of arc
**

¸ .. ¸

ˆ

θ

0

ds

.¸¸.

Rdθ

B =

µ

0

i θ

4πR

Example 3 : Magnetic ﬁeld of a solenoid

Solenoid is used to produce a strong and uniform magnetic ﬁeld inside its

coils.

Consider a solenoid of length L consisting of N turns of wire.

Deﬁne: n = Number of turns per unit length =

N

L

Consider B-ﬁeld at distance d from the

center of the solenoid:

For a segment of length dz, number of

current turns = ndz

∴ Total current = ni dz

7.2. PARALLEL CURRENTS 86

Using the result from one coil in Example 2, we get B-ﬁeld from coils of

length dz at distance z from center:

dB =

µ

0

(ni dz)R

2

2r

3

However r =

_

R

2

+ (z −d)

2

∴ B =

ˆ

+L/2

−L/2

dB

(Integrating over the

entire solenoid)

=

µ

0

niR

2

2

ˆ

+L/2

−L/2

dz

[R

2

+ (z −d)

2

]

3/2

B =

µ

0

ni

2

_

_

L

2

+d

_

R

2

+ (

L

2

+d)

2

+

L

2

−d

_

R

2

+ (

L

2

−d)

2

_

_

along negative z direction

Ideal Solenoid :

L ¸R

then B =

µ

0

ni

2

[1 + 1]

∴ B = µ

0

ni ;

direction of B-ﬁeld determined

from right-hand screw rule

Question : What is the B-ﬁeld at the end of an ideal solenoid? B=

µ

0

ni

2

7.2 Parallel Currents

Magnetic ﬁeld at point P

B due to two

currents i

1

and i

2

is the vector sum of

the

B ﬁelds

B

1

,

B

2

due to individual cur-

rents. (Principle of Superposition)

7.2. PARALLEL CURRENTS 87

Force Between Parallel Currents :

Consider a segment of length L on i

2

:

B

1

=

µ

0

i

1

2πd

(pointing down)

B

2

=

µ

0

i

1

2πd

(pointing up)

Force on i

2

coming from i

1

:

[

F

21

[ = i

2

L

B

1

=

µ

0

Li

1

i

2

2πd

= [

F

12

[ (Def ’n of ampere, A)

∴ Parallel currents attract, anti-parallel currents repel.

Example : Sheet of current

Consider an inﬁnitesimal wire of width dx at position x, there exists another

element at −x so that vertical

B-ﬁeld components of

B

+x

and

B

−x

cancel.

∴ Magnetic ﬁeld due to dx wire:

dB =

µ

0

di

2πr

where di = i

_

dx

a

_

∴ Total B-ﬁeld (pointing along −x axis) at point P:

B =

+a/2

ˆ

−a/2

dBcos θ =

+a/2

ˆ

−a/2

µ

0

i

2πa

dx

r

cos θ

7.3. AMP

`

ERE’S LAW 88

Variable transformation (Goal: change r, x to d, θ, then integrate over θ):

_

d = r cos θ ⇒ r = d sec θ

x = d tan θ ⇒ dx = d sec

2

θ dθ

Limits of integration: −θ

0

to θ

0

, where tan θ

0

=

a

2d

∴ B =

µ

0

i

2πa

ˆ

θ

0

−θ

0

d sec

2

θ dθ

d sec θ

cos θ

=

µ

0

i

2πa

ˆ

θ

0

−θ

0

dθ

B =

µ

0

iθ

0

πa

=

µ

0

i

πa

tan

−1

_

a

2d

_

Limiting Cases :

(1) d ¸a

tan θ =

a

2d

⇒ θ ≈

a

2d

∴ B =

µ

0

i

2πa

B-ﬁeld due to

inﬁnite long wire

(2) d ¸a (Inﬁnite sheet of current)

tan θ =

a

2d

→ ∞ ⇒ θ =

π

2

∴ B =

µ

0

i

2a

Constant!

Question : Large sheet of opposite ﬂowing currents.

What’s the B-ﬁeld between & outside the sheets?

7.3 Amp` ere’s Law

In our study of electricity, we notice that the inverse square force law leads

to Gauss’ Law, which is useful for ﬁnding E-ﬁeld for systems with high level of

symmetry.

For magnetism, Gauss’ Law is simple

7.3. AMP

`

ERE’S LAW 89

‹

S

˛

S

B d

A = 0

∵ There is no mag-

netic monopole.

A more useful law for calculating B-ﬁeld for highly symmetric situations is the

Amp` ere’s Law:

˛

C

˛

C

B ds = µ

0

i

˛

C

= Line intefral evaluated around a closed loop C (Amperian curve)

i = Net current that penetrates the area bounded by curve C

∗

(topological property)

Convention : Use the right-hand screw rule to determine the sign of current.

˛

C

B ds = µ

0

(i

1

−i

3

+ i

4

−i

4

)

= µ

0

(i

1

−i

3

)

Applications of the Ampere’s Law :

(1) Long-straight wire

Construct an Amperian

curve of radius d:

By symmetry argument, we know

B-ﬁeld only has tangential compo-

nent

∴

˛

C

B ds = µ

0

i

7.3. AMP

`

ERE’S LAW 90

Take ds to be the tangential vector around the circular path:

∴

B ds = Bds

B

˛

C

ds

. ¸¸ .

Circumference

of circle = 2πd

= µ

0

i

∴ B(2πd) = µ

0

i

B-ﬁeld due to long,

straight current

B =

µ

0

i

2πd

(Compare with 7.1 Example 1)

(2) Inside a current-carrying wire

Again, symmetry argument

implies that

B is tangential

to the Amperian curve and

B → B(r)

ˆ

θ

Consider an Amperian curve of radius r(< R)

˛

C

B ds = B

˛

ds = B(2πr) = µ

0

i

included

But i

included

∝ cross-sectional area of C

∴

i

included

i

=

πr

2

πR

2

∴ i

included

=

r

2

R

2

i

∴ B =

µ

0

i

2πR

2

r ∝ r

Recall: Uniformly charged inﬁnite long rod

(3) Solenoid (Ideal)

Consider the rectangular

Amperian curve 1234.

7.3. AMP

`

ERE’S LAW 91

˛

C

B ds =

ˆ

1

B ds +

&

&

&

&

&

ˆ

2

B ds +

&

&

&

&

&

ˆ

3

B ds +

&

&

&

&

&

ˆ

4

B ds

ˆ

2

=

ˆ

4

= 0 ∵

_

B ds = 0 inside solenoid

B = 0 outside solenoid

ˆ

3

= 0 ∵

B = 0 outside solenoid

∴

˛

C

B ds =

ˆ

1

B ds = Bl = µ

0

i

tot

But i

tot

= nl

.¸¸.

Number of coils included

i

∴ B = µ

0

ni

Note :

(i) The assumption that

B = 0 outside the ideal solenoid is only

approximate. (Halliday, Pg.763)

(ii) B-ﬁeld everywhere inside the solenoid is a constant. (for ideal

solenoid)

(4) Toroid (A circular solenoid)

By symmetry argument, the B-ﬁeld lines form concentric circles inside

the toroid.

Take Amperian curve C to be a circle of radius r inside the toroid.

˛

C

B ds = B

˛

C

ds = B 2πr = µ

0

(Ni)

∴ B =

µ

0

Ni

2πr

inside toroid

7.4. MAGNETIC DIPOLE 92

Note :

(i) B ,= constant inside toroid

(ii) Outside toroid:

Take Amperian curve to be circle of radius r > R.

˛

C

B ds = B

˛

C

ds = B 2πr = µ

0

i

incl

= 0

∴ B = 0

Similarly, in the central cavity B = 0

7.4 Magnetic Dipole

Recall from ¸6.4, we deﬁne the magnetic dipole moment of a rectangular

current loop

µ = NiAˆ n

where ˆ n =

area unit vector with direction

determined by the right-hand rule

N = Number of turns in current loop

A = Area of current loop

This is actually a general deﬁnition of a magnetic dipole, i.e. we use it for

current loops of all shapes.

A common and symmetric example: circular current.

Recall from ¸7.1 Example 2, magnetic

ﬁeld at point P (height z above the ring)

B =

µ

0

iR

2

ˆ n

2(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

=

µ

0

µ

2π(R

2

+ z

2

)

3/2

7.5. MAGNETIC DIPOLE IN A CONSTANT B-FIELD 93

At distance z ¸R,

B =

µ

0

µ

2πz

3

E =

p

4π

0

z

3

due to magnetic dipole due to electric dipole

(for z ¸R) (for z ¸d)

Also, notice µ = magnetic dipole moment

_

Unit: Am

2

J/T

_

µ

0

= Permeability of free space

= 4π 10

−7

Tm/A

7.5 Magnetic Dipole in A Constant B-ﬁeld

In the presence of a constant magnetic ﬁeld, we have shown for a rectangular

current loop, it experiences a torque τ = µ

B . It applies to any magnetic

dipole in general.

7.6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 94

∴ External magnetic ﬁeld aligns the magnetic

dipoles.

Similar to electric dipole in a E-ﬁeld, we can con-

sider the work done in rotating the magnetic di-

pole. (refer to Chapter 2)

dW = −dU, where U is potential energy of dipole

U = −µ

B

Note :

(1) We cannot deﬁne the potential energy of a magnetic ﬁeld in general.

However, we can deﬁne the potential energy of a magnetic dipole in a

constant magnetic ﬁeld.

(2) In a non-uniform external B-ﬁeld, the magnetic dipole will experience

a net force (not only net torque)

7.6 Magnetic Properties of Materials

Recall intrinsic electric dipole in molecules:

Intrinsic dipole (magnetic) in atoms:

In our classical model of atoms, electrons

revolve around a positive nuclear.

∴ ”Current” i =

e

P

, where P is period of one orbit around nucleus

7.6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 95

P =

2πr

v

, where v is velocity of electron

∴ Orbit magnetic dipole of atom:

µ = iA =

_

ev

2πr

_

(πr

2

) =

erv

2

Recall: angular momentum of rotation l = mrv

∴ µ =

e

2m

l

In quantum mechanics, we know that

l is quantized, i.e. l = N

h

2π

where N = Any positive integer (1,2,3, ... )

h = Planck’s constant (6.63 10

−34

J s)

∴ Orbital magnetic dipole moment

µ

l

=

eh

4mπ

. ¸¸ .

Bohr’s magneton µ

B

=9.27×10

−24

J/T

N

There is another source of intrinsic magnetic dipole moment inside an atom:

Spin dipole moment: coming from the intrinsic ”spin” of electrons.

Quantum mechanics suggests that e

−

are always spinning and it’s either an ”up”

spin or a ”down” spin

µ

e

= 9.65 10

−27

≈ µ

B

So can there be induced magnetic dipole?

7.6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 96

Recall: for electric ﬁeld

E

dielectric

= K

e

E

vacuum

; K

e

≥ 1

For magnetic ﬁeld in a material:

B

net

=

B

0

+

B

M

↑ ↑

applied

B-ﬁeld

B-ﬁeld produced

by induced dipoles

In many materials (except ferromagnets),

B

M

∝

B

0

Deﬁne :

B

M

= χ

m

B

0

χ

m

is a number called magnetic susceptibility.

∴

B

net

=

B

0

+ χ

m

B

0

= (1 + χ

m

)

B

0

B

net

= κ

m

B

0

; κ

m

= 1 + χ

m

Deﬁne : κ

m

is a number called relative permeability.

One more term ......

Deﬁne : the Magnetization of a material:

M =

dµ

dV

where µ is magnetic dipole

moment, V is volume

(or, the net magnetic dipole moment per unit volume)

In most materials (except ferromagnets),

B

M

= µ

0

M

Three types of magnetic materials:

(1) Paramagnetic:

κ

m

≥ 1

(χ

m

≥ 0)

,

induced magnetic dipoles aligned

with the applied B-ﬁeld.

7.6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 97

e.g. Al (χ

m

.

= 2.2 10

−5

), Mg (1.2 10

−5

), O

2

(2.0 10

−6

)

(2) Diamagnetic:

κ

m

≤ 1

(χ

m

≤ 0)

,

induced magnetic dipoles aligned

opposite with the applied B-ﬁeld.

e.g. Cu (χ

m

≈ −1 10

−5

), Ag (−2.6 10

−5

), N

2

(−5 10

−9

)

(3) Ferromagnetic:

e.g. Fe, Co, Ni

Magnetization not linearly proportional

to applied ﬁeld.

⇒

B

net

B

app

not a constant (can be as

big as ∼ 5000 −100, 000)

Interesting Case : Superconductors

χ

m

= −1

A perfect diamagnetic.

NO magnetic ﬁeld inside.

Chapter 8

Faraday’s Law of Induction

8.1 Faraday’s Law

In the previous chapter, we have shown that steady electric current can give

steady magnetic ﬁeld because of the symmetry between electricity & magnetism.

We can ask: Steady magnetic ﬁeld can give steady electric current.

OR Changing magnetic ﬁeld can give steady electric current.

Deﬁne :

(1) Magnetic ﬂux through surface S:

Φ

m

=

ˆ

S

B d

A

Unit of Φ

m

: Weber (Wb)

1Wb = 1Tm

2

(2) Graphical:

Φ

m

= Number of magnetic ﬁeld lines passing through surface S

Faraday’s law of induction:

Induced emf [c[ = N

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

dΦ

m

dt

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

where N = Number of coils in the circuit.

8.2. LENZ’ LAW 99

B = Constant

B = Constant

ˆ

B = Constant

B = Constant

A = Constant

ˆ

A = Constant dB/dt ,= 0 A = Constant

dA/dt ,= 0

A = Constant d

ˆ

A/dt ,= 0

c = 0 ∴ [c[ > 0 ∴ [c[ > 0 ∴ [c[ > 0

Note : The induced emf drives a current throughout the circuit, similar to the

function of a battery. However, the diﬀerence here is that the induced emf

is distributed throughout the circuit. The consequence is that we cannot

deﬁne a potential diﬀerence between any two points in the circuit.

Suppose there is an induced current in the loop, can we

deﬁne ∆V

AB

?

Recall:

∆V

AB

= V

A

−V

B

= iR > 0

⇒ V

A

> V

B

Going anti-clockwise (same as i),

If we start from A, going to B, then we get V

A

> V

B

.

If we start from B, going to A, then we get V

B

> V

A

.

∴ We cannot deﬁne ∆V

AB

!!

This situation is like when we study the interior of a battery.

A battery

The loop

_

¸

_

¸

_

provides the energy needed to drive the

charge carriers around the circuit by

_

¸

_

¸

_

chemical reactions.

changing magnetic ﬂux.

sources of emf non-electric means

8.2 Lenz’ Law

(1) The ﬂux of the magnetic ﬁeld due to induced current opposes the change

in ﬂux that causes the induced current.

8.3. MOTIONAL EMF 100

(2) The induced current is in such a direction as to oppose the changes that

produces it.

(3) Incorporating Lentz’ Law into Faraday’s Law:

c = −N

dΦ

m

dt

If

dΦ

m

dt

> 0, Φ

m

↑ ⇒ c appears ⇒

Induced current

appears.

⇒

B-ﬁeld due to

induced current

⇒ change in Φ

m

so that

=⇒ Φ

m

↓

(4) Lenz’ Law is a consequence from the principle of conservation of energy.

8.3 Motional EMF

Let’s try to look at a special case when the changing magnetic ﬂux is carried by

motion in the circuit wires.

Consider a conductor of length L moving

with a velocity v in a magnetic ﬁeld

B.

8.3. MOTIONAL EMF 101

Hall Eﬀect for the charge carriers in the rod:

F

E

+

F

B

= 0

⇒ q

E +qv

B = 0 (where

E is Hall electric ﬁeld)

⇒

E = −v

B

Hall Voltage inside rod:

∆V = −

ˆ

L

0

E ds

∆V = −EL

∴ Hall Voltage : ∆V = vBL

Now, suppose the moving wire slides without

friction on a stationary U-shape conductor.

The motional emf can drive an electric cur-

rent i in the U-shape conductor.

⇒ Power is dissipated in the circuit.

⇒ P

out

= V i (Joule’s heating)

(see Lecture Notes Chapter 4)

What is the source of this power?

Look at the forces acting on the conducting rod:

• Magnetic force:

F

m

= i

L

B

F

m

= iLB (pointing left)

• For the rod to continue to move at constant velocity v, we need to apply

an external force:

F

ext

= −

F

m

= iLB (pointing right)

∴ Power required to keep the rod moving:

P

in

=

F

ext

v

= iBLv

= iBL

dx

dt

= iB

d(xL)

dt

( xL = A, area

enclosed by circuit)

= i

d(BA)

dt

( BA = Φ

m

, magnetic ﬂux)

8.3. MOTIONAL EMF 102

Since energy is not being stored in the system,

∴ P

in

+P

out

= 0

iV +i

dΦ

m

dt

= 0

We ”prove” Faraday’s Law ⇒ V = −

dΦ

m

dt

Applications :

(1) Eddy current: moving conductors in presence of magnetic ﬁeld

Induced current

⇒ Power lost in Joule’s heating

_

c

2

R

_

⇒ Extra power input to keep moving

To reduce Eddy currents:

(2) Generators and Motors:

Assume that the circuit loop is rotating at a constant angular velocity

ω, (Source of rotation, e.g. steam produced by burner, water falling

from a dam)

8.3. MOTIONAL EMF 103

Magnetic ﬂux through the loop

Number of coils

↓

Φ

B

= N

´

loop

B d

A = NBAcos θ

↓

changes with time! θ = ωt

∴ Φ

B

= NBAcos ωt

Induced emf: c = −

dΦ

B

dt

= −NBA

d

dt

(cos ωt)

= NBAω sin ωt

Induced current: i =

c

R

=

NBAω

R

sin ωt

Alternating current (AC) voltage generator

Power has to be provided by the source of rotation to overcome the

torque acting on a current loop in a magnetic ﬁeld.

τ =

µ

¸ .. ¸

Ni

A

B

∴ τ = NiABsin θ

8.4. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD 104

The net eﬀect of the torque is to oppose the rotation of the coil.

An electric motor is simply a generator

operating in reverse.

⇒ Replace the load resistance R with

a battery of emf c.

With the battery, there is a current in the coil, and it experiences a

torque in the B-ﬁeld.

⇒ Rotation of the coil leads to an induced emf, c

ind

, in

the direction opposite of that of the battery. (Lenz’ Law)

∴ i =

c −c

ind

R

⇒ As motor speeds up, c

ind

↑, ∴ i ↓

∴ mechanical power delivered = torque delivered = NiABsin θ ↓

In conclusion, we can show that

P

electric

= i

2

R + P

mechanical

Electric power input Mechanical power delivered

8.4 Induced Electric Field

So far we have discussed that a change in mag-

netic ﬂux will lead in an induced emf distributed

in the loop, resulting from an induced E-ﬁeld.

However, even in the absence of the loop (so that there is no induced current),

the induced E-ﬁeld will still accompany a change in magnetic ﬂux.

8.4. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD 105

∴ Consider a circular path in a region

with changing magnetic ﬁeld.

The induced E-ﬁeld only has tangential components. (i.e. radial E-ﬁeld = 0)

Why?

Imagine a point charge q

0

travelling around the circular path.

Work done by induced E-ﬁeld = q

0

E

ind

. ¸¸ .

force

2πr

.¸¸.

distance

Recall work done also equals to q

0

c, where c is induced emf

∴ c = E

ind

2πr

Generally,

c =

˛

E

ind

ds

where

¸

is line integral around a closed loop,

E

ind

is induced E-ﬁeld, s is

tangential vector of path.

∴ Faraday’s Law becomes

˛

C

E

ind

ds = −

d

dt

ˆ

S

B d

A

L.H.S. = Integral around a closed loop C

R.H.S. = Integral over a surface bounded by C

Direction of d

**A determined by direction of line integration C (Right-Hand Rule)
**

8.4. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD 106

”Regular” E-ﬁeld Induced E-ﬁeld

created by charges created by changing B-ﬁeld

E-ﬁeld lines start from +ve and end

on −ve charge

E-ﬁeld lines form closed loops

can deﬁne electric potential so that

we can discuss potential diﬀerence

between two points

Electric potential cannot be deﬁned

(or, potential has no meaning)

⇓ ⇓

Conservative force ﬁeld Non-conservative force ﬁeld

The classiﬁcation of electric and magnetic eﬀects depend on the frame of reference

of the observer. e.g. For motional emf, observer in the reference frame of the

moving loop, will NOT see an induced E-ﬁeld, just a ”regular” E-ﬁeld.

(Read: Halliday Chap.33-6, 34-7)

Chapter 9

Inductance

9.1 Inductance

An inductor stores energy in the magnetic ﬁeld just as a capacitor stores energy

in the electric ﬁeld.

We have shown earlier that a changing B-ﬁeld will lead to an induced emf in

a circuit.

Question : If a circuit generates a changing magnetic ﬁeld, does it lead to an

induced emf in the same circuit? YES! Self-Inductance

The inductance L of any current element is

c

L

= ∆V

L

= −L

di

dt

The negative sign

comes from Lenz Law.

Unit of L: Henry(H) 1H=1

Vs

A

• All circuit elements (including resistors) have some inductance.

• Commonly used inductors: solenoids, toroids

• circuit symbol:

Example : Solenoid

c

L

= V

B

−V

A

= −L

di

dt

< 0 c

L

= V

B

−V

A

= −L

di

dt

> 0

∴ V

B

< V

A

V

B

> V

A

9.1. INDUCTANCE 108

Recall Faraday’s Law,

c

L

= −N

dΦ

B

dt

= −

d

dt

(NΦ

B

)

where Φ

B

is magnetic ﬂux, NΦ

B

is ﬂux linkage.

∴ Alternative deﬁnition of Inductance:

−

d

dt

(NΦ

B

) = −L

di

dt

⇒ L =

NΦ

B

i

∴ Inductance is also ﬂux linkage per unit current.

Calculating Inductance:

(1) Solenoid:

To ﬁrst order approximation,

B = µ

0

ni

where n = N/L = Number of

coils per unit length.

Consider a subsection of length l of the solenoid:

Flux linkage = N Φ

B

= nl BA

where A is

cross-sectional area

∴

L =

NΦ

B

i

= µ

0

n

2

lA

L

l

= µ

0

n

2

A = Inductance per unit length

Notice :

(i) L ∝ n

2

(ii) The inductance, like the capacitance, depends only on geometric

factors, not on i.

9.1. INDUCTANCE 109

(2) Toroid:

Recall: B-ﬁeld lines are concentric cir-

cles.

Inside the toroid:

B =

µ

0

iN

2πr

(NOT a constant)

where r is the distance from center.

Outside the toroid:

B = 0

Flux linkage through the toroid

NΦ

B

= N

ˆ

B da

_

Notice

B | da

Write da = hdr

_

KEY

=

µ

0

iN

2

2π

ˆ

b

a

hdr

r

=

µ

0

iN

2

h

2π

ln

_

b

a

_

∴ Inductance L =

NΦ

B

i

=

µ

0

N

2

h

2π

ln

_

b

a

_

Again, L ∝ N

2

Inductance with magnetic materials :

We showed earlier that for capacitors:

_

E →

E/κ

e

C → κ

e

C

(after insertion of

dielectric κ

e

> 1)

For inductors, we ﬁrst know that

B → κ

m

B

(after insertion of

magnetic material)

Inductance L =

NΦ

B

i

However Φ

B

=

ˆ

B d

A → κ

m

Φ

B

9.2. LR CIRCUITS 110

∴ L → κ

m

L

(after insertion of

magnetic material)

∴ To increase inductance, ﬁll the interior of inductor with ferromagnetic

materials. (10

3

− 10

4

)

9.2 LR Circuits

(A) ”Charging” an inductor

When the switch is adjusted to position a,

By loop rule (clockwise) :

c

0

− ∆V

R

+ ∆V

L

= 0

↓ ↓

c

0

− iR − L

di

dt

= 0

∴

di

dt

+

R

L

i =

c

0

L

First Order Diﬀer-

ential Equation

Similar to the equation for charging a capacitor! (Chap5)

Solution: i(t) =

c

0

R

_

1 −e

−t/τ

L

_

where τ

L

= Inductive time constant = L/R

∴ [∆V

R

[ = iR = c

0

(1 −e

−t/τ

L

)

[∆V

L

[ = L

di

dt

= L

c

0

R

1

τ

L

e

−t/τ

L

= c

0

e

−t/τ

L

9.2. LR CIRCUITS 111

(B) ”Discharging” an inductor

When the switch is adjusted at position b after the inductor has been

”charged” (i.e. current i = c

0

/R is ﬂowing in the circuit.).

By loop rule:

∆V

L

− ∆V

R

= 0

↓ ↓

−L

di

dt

− iR = 0

(Treat inductor as source of emf)

∴

di

dt

+

R

L

i = 0

Discharging a capacitor

(Chap5)

i(t) = i

0

e

−t/τ

L

where i

0

= i(t = 0) = Current when the circuit just switch to position b.

Summary : During charging of inductor,

1. At t = 0, inductor acts like open circuit when current ﬂowing is zero.

2. At t → ∞, inductor acts like short circuit when current ﬂowing is

stablized at maximum.

3. Inductors are used everyday in switches for safety concerns.

9.3. ENERGY STORED IN INDUCTORS 112

9.3 Energy Stored in Inductors

Inductors stored magnetic energy through the magnetic ﬁeld stored in the circuit.

Recall the equation for charging inductors:

c

0

−iR −L

di

dt

= 0

Multiply both sides by i :

c

0

i

.¸¸.

Power input by emf

(Energy supplied to

one charge = qc

0

)

= i

2

R

.¸¸.

Joule’s heating

(Power dissipated

by resistor)

+ Li

di

dt

. ¸¸ .

Power stored

in inductor

∴ Power stored in inductor =

dU

B

dt

= Li

di

dt

Integrating both sides and use initial condition

At t = 0, i(t = 0) = U

B

(t = 0) = 0

∴ Energy stored in inductor: U

B

=

1

2

Li

2

Energy Density Stored in Inductors :

Consider an inﬁnitely long solenoid of cross-sectional area A.

For a portion l of the solenoid, we know from ¸8.1,

L = µ

0

n

2

lA

∴ Energy stored in inductor:

U

B

=

1

2

Li

2

=

1

2

µ

0

n

2

i

2

lA

.¸¸.

Volume of

solenoid

∴ Energy density (= Energy stored per unit volume) inside inductor:

u

B

=

U

B

lA

=

1

2

µ

0

n

2

i

2

Recall magnetic ﬁeld inside solenoid (Chap7)

B = µ

0

ni

∴ u

B

=

B

2

2µ

0

This is a general result of the energy stored in a magnetic ﬁeld.

9.4. LC CIRCUIT (ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATOR) 113

9.4 LC Circuit (Electromagnetic Oscillator)

Initial charge on capacitor = Q

Initial current = 0

No battery.

Assume current i to be in the direction that increases charge on the positive

capacitor plate.

⇒ i =

dQ

dt

(9.1)

By Lenz Law, we also know the ”poles” of the inductor.

Loop rule: V

C

+ V

L

= 0

−

Q

C

−L

di

dt

= 0 (9.2)

Combining equations (9.1) and (9.2), we get

d

2

Q

dt

2

+

1

LC

Q = 0

This is similar to the equation of motion

of a simple harmonic oscillator:

d

2

x

dt

2

+

k

m

x = 0

Another approach (conservation of energy)

Total energy stored in circuit:

U = U

E

+ U

B

↓ ↓

U =

Q

2

2C

+

1

2

Li

2

Since the resistance in the circuit is zero, no energy is dissipated in the circuit.

∴ Energy contained in the circuit is conserved.

∴

dU

dt

= 0

⇒

Q

C

dQ

dt

+ L

¡

i

di

dt

= 0 (∵ i =

dQ

dt

)

9.4. LC CIRCUIT (ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATOR) 114

⇒ L

di

dt

+

Q

C

= 0

⇒

d

2

Q

dt

2

+

1

LC

Q = 0

The solution to this diﬀerential equation is in the form

Q(t) = Q

0

cos(ωt +φ)

∴

dQ

dt

= −ωQ

0

sin(ωt + φ)

d

2

Q

dt

2

= −ω

2

Q

0

cos(ωt + φ)

= −ω

2

Q

∴

d

2

Q

dt

2

+ ω

2

Q = 0

∴ ω

2

=

1

LC

Angular frequency

of the LC oscillator

Also, Q

0

, φ are constants derived from the initial conditions. (Two initial condi-

tions, e.g. Q(t = 0), and i(t = 0) =

dQ

dt

¸

¸

¸

t=0

are required.)

Energy stored in C =

Q

2

2C

=

Q

2

0

2C

cos

2

(ωt + φ)

Energy stored in L =

1

2

Li

2

=

1

2

Lω

2

Q

2

0

sin

2

(ωt + φ)

∵ Lω

2

=

1

C

=

Q

2

0

2C

sin

2

(ωt + φ)

∴ Total energy stored =

Q

2

0

2C

= Initial energy stored in capacitor

9.5. RLC CIRCUIT (DAMPED OSCILLATOR) 115

9.5 RLC Circuit (Damped Oscillator)

In real life circuit, there’s always resistance.

In this case, energy stored in the LC oscillator is

NOT conserved,

and

dU

dt

= Power dissipated in the resistor = −i

2

R (Joule’s heating)

Negative sign shows that energy U is decreasing.

∴ Li

di

dt

+

Q

C

i

¸..¸

dQ

dt

= −i

2

R

⇒

d

2

Q

dt

2

+

R

L

dQ

dt

+

1

LC

Q = 0

This is similar to the equation of motion of a damped harmonic oscillator (e.g.

if a mass-spring system faces a frictional force

F = −bv).

Solution to the equation is in the form Q(t) = e

λt

If damping is not too big (i.e. R not too big), solution would become

Q(t) = Q

0

e

−

R

2L

t

. ¸¸ .

exponential

decay term

cos(ω

1

t +φ)

. ¸¸ .

oscillating

term

where ω

2

1

=

1

LC

−

_

R

2L

_

2

ω

2

1

= ω

2

−

_

R

2L

_

2

Damped oscillator always oscillates

at a lower frequency than the

natural frequency of the oscillator.

(Refer to Halliday, Vol1, Chap17 for

more details.)

Check this at home: What is U

E

(t) +U

B

(t) for the case when damping is small?

(i.e. R ¸ω)

Chapter 10

AC Circuits

10.1 Alternating Current (AC) Voltage

Recall that an AC generator described in Chapter 9 generates a sinusoidal emf.

i.e. c = c

m

sin(ωt + δ)

Note :

This circuit is the RLC circuit with one

additional element : the time varying AC

power supply. This is similar to a driven

(damped) oscillator.

L

d

2

Q

dt

2

+ R

dQ

dt

+

1

C

Q = c

m

sin(ωt + δ)

The general solution consists of two parts:

transient : rapidly dies away in a few cycles (not interesting)

steady state : Q(t), i(t) varies sinusoidally with the same frequency as input

Note : Current does NOT vary at frequency ω

2

1

=

1

LC

−

_

R

2L

_

2

Since we only concern about the steady state solution, therefore we can take any

time as starting reference time = 0

For convenience, we can write

c = c

m

sin ωt

And we can write

i = i

m

sin(ωt −φ)

where i

m

is current amplitude, φ is phase constant.

Our goal is to determine i

m

and φ.

10.2. PHASE RELATION BETWEEN I, V FOR R,L AND C 117

10.2 Phase Relation Between i, V for R,L and C

(A)

Resistive Element

∆V

R

= V

A

−V

B

= iR

∴ ∆V

R

= i

m

Rsin(ωt −φ)

∆V

R

and i are in phase, i.e. what’s

inside the ”sine bracket” (phase) is the

same for ∆V

R

and i.

Graphically, we introduce phasor diagrams properties of phasors:

(1) Length of a phasor is proportional to the maximum value.

(2) Projection of a phasor onto the vertical axis gives instantaneous value.

(3) Convention: Phasors rotate anti-clockwise in a uniform circular mo-

tion with angular velocity.

∴ ∆V

R

= (∆V

R

)

m

sin(ωt −φ)

(∆V

R

)

m

= i

m

R

”Ohm’s Law like” rela-

tion for AC resistor

10.2. PHASE RELATION BETWEEN I, V FOR R,L AND C 118

(B)

The Inductive Element

Potential drop across inductor

∆V

L

= V

A

−V

B

= −c

L

= L

di

dt

∴ ∆V

L

= Li

m

ω cos(ωt −φ)

= Li

m

ω sin(ωt −φ +

π

2

) [∵ cos θ = sin(θ +

π

2

)]

= i

m

X

L

sin(ωt −φ +

π

2

)

(∆V

L

)

m

= i

m

X

L

”Ohm’s Law like” rela-

tion for AC inductor

where X

L

= Inductive Reactance

X

L

= ωL

As i ↑, V

A

> V

B

∴ ∆V

L

> 0

i ↓, V

A

< V

B

∴ ∆V

L

< 0

∆V

L

leads i by

π

2

i lags ∆V

L

by

π

2

(C) Capacitive Element

∆V

C

= V

A

−V

B

=

Q

C

10.3. SINGLE LOOP RLC AC CIRCUIT 119

where Q = charge on the positive plate of the capacitor.

∴ i =

dQ

dt

⇒ Q =

ˆ

i dt

=

ˆ

i

m

sin(ωt −φ) dt

= −

i

m

ω

cos(ωt −φ)

∴ ∆V

C

= −

i

m

ωC

cos(ωt −φ)

= i

m

X

C

sin(ωt −φ −

π

2

) [∵ −cos θ = sin(θ −

π

2

)]

∴ (∆V

C

)

m

= i

m

X

C

”Ohm’s Law like” rela-

tion for AC capacitor

where X

C

=

1

ωC

= Capacitive Reactance

∆V

C

lags i by

π

2

i leads ∆V

C

by

π

2

10.3 Single Loop RLC AC Circuit

Given that c = c

m

sin ωt, we want to

ﬁnd i

m

and φ so that we can write i =

i

m

sin(ωt −φ)

Loop rule: c −∆V

R

−∆V

L

−∆V

C

= 0

⇒ c = ∆V

R

+ ∆V

L

+ ∆V

C

10.3. SINGLE LOOP RLC AC CIRCUIT 120

Using results from the previous section, we can write

c

m

sin ωt = i

m

Rsin(ωt −φ)

+i

m

X

L

cos(ωt −φ) −i

m

X

C

cos(ωt −φ)

c

m

sin ωt = i

m

_

Rsin(ωt −φ) + (X

L

−X

C

) cos(ωt −φ)

_

Answer :

1. Take tan φ =

X

L

−X

C

R

2. Deﬁne

Z =

_

R

2

+ (X

L

−X

C

)

2

as the impedance of the circuit.

3. Then

i

m

=

c

m

Z

or c

m

= i

m

Z

”Ohm’s Law like” relation

for AC RLC circuits

Check :

R.H.S. = i

m

Z

_

R

Z

sin(ωt −φ) +

X

L

−X

C

Z

cos(ωt −φ)

_

= i

m

Z

_

cos φsin(ωt −φ) + sin φcos(ωt −φ)

_

_

_

_

Use the relation:

sin(A + B) = sin Acos B + cos Asin B

Here: A = ωt −φ, B = φ

_

_

_

= i

m

Z sin(ωt −φ + φ)

= i

m

z sin ωt

= L.H.S. if c

m

= i

m

Z QED.

Phasor Approach :

10.4. RESONANCE 121

10.4 Resonance

i

m

=

c

m

Z

is at maximum for an AC circuit of ﬁxed input frequency ω when Z

is at minimum.

Z =

_

R

2

+ (X

L

−X

C

)

2

=

¸

R

2

+

_

ωL −

1

ωC

_

2

is at a minimum for a ﬁxed ω when

X

L

−X

C

= ωL −

1

ωC

= 0

⇒ ωL =

1

ωC

⇒ ω

2

=

1

LC

same as that for

a RLC circuit

In Hong Kong, the AC power input is 50Hz.

(In US, as mentioned in Halliday, is 60Hz.)

∴ ω = 2πf = 314.2s

−1

10.5 Power in AC Circuits

Consider the Power dissipated by R in an AC circuit:

P = i

2

R = i

2

m

Rsin

2

(ωt −φ)

The average power dissipated in each cycle:

P

ave

=

´

2π/ω

0

P dt

2π/ω

(

2π

ω

is period of each cycle)

ˆ

2π/ω

0

P dt = i

2

m

R

ˆ

2π/ω

0

sin

2

(ωt −φ) dt

= i

2

m

R

ˆ

2π/ω

0

1

2

_

1 −cos 2(ωt −φ)

_

dt

= i

2

m

R

_

t

2

−

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

sin

2

(ωt −φ)

4ω

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

2π/ω

0

= i

2

m

R

1

2

2π

ω

10.5. POWER IN AC CIRCUITS 122

∴

P

ave

=

i

2

m

2

R = i

2

rms

R

where i

rms

= root-mean-square current

i

rms

=

i

m

√

2

∵ Current is a

sinusoidal func.

Symbol : ¸P) = P

ave

= Average of P over time

For sine and cosine functions of time:

Average : ¸sin ωt) = ¸cos ωt) = 0

Amplitude : Peak value, e.g. c

m

, i

m

, (∆V

R

)

m

,

Root-Mean-Square(RMS) : It’s a measure of the ”time-averaged” deviation

from zero.

x

rms

=

_

¸x

2

)

For sines and cosines, for whatever quantity x:

x

rms

=

x

m

√

2

(x

m

is amplitude)

For an AC resistor circuit:

¸P) = i

2

rms

R =

c

2

rms

R

Laws for DC circuits can be used to describe AC circuits if we use rms values

for i and c.

For general AC circuits:

P = ci =

E

¸ .. ¸

c

m

sin ωt

i

¸ .. ¸

i

m

sin(ωt −φ)

= c

m

i

m

sin ωt [sin ωt cos φ −cos ωt sin φ]

P = c

m

i

m

[ sin

2

ωt

. ¸¸ .

1

2

cos φ −sin ωt cos ωt

. ¸¸ .

0

(check this!)

sin φ ]

¸P) =

c

m

i

m

2

cos φ

¸P) = c

rms

i

rms

cos φ

. ¸¸ .

power factor

10.6. THE TRANSFORMER 123

Recall tan φ =

X

L

−X

C

R

∴ cos φ =

R

Z

Maximum power dissipated in circuit when

cos φ = 1

Two possibilities:

(1) X

L

= X

C

= 0

(2) X

L

−X

C

= 0 ⇒ X

L

= X

C

⇒ ωL =

1

ωC

⇒ ω

2

=

1

LC

(Resonance Condition)

10.6 The Transformer

Power dissipated in resistor

¸P) = i

2

rms

R

∴ For power transmission, we’d like to keep i

rms

at minimum.

⇒ HIGH potential diﬀerence across transmission wires. (So that total power

transmitted P = i

rms

c

rms

is constant.)

However, for home safety, we would like LOW emf supply.

Solution : Transformers

Primary : Number of winding = N

P

10.6. THE TRANSFORMER 124

Secondary : Number of winding = N

S

In primary circuit, R

P

≈ C

P

≈ 0

∴ Pure inductive

Power factor : cos φ =

R

Z

≈ 0

∴ No power delivered from emf to transformer.

The varying current (∵ AC!) in the primary produces an induced emf in the

secondary coils. Assuming perfect magnetic ﬂux linkage:

emf per turn in primary

= emf per turn in secondary

= −

dΦ

B

dt

emf per turn in primary =

∆V

P

N

P

(∆V

P

is P.D.

across primary)

emf per turn in secondary =

∆V

S

N

S

⇒

∆V

P

∆V

S

=

N

P

N

S

If N

P

> N

S

, then ∆V

P

> ∆V

S

Step-Down

If N

P

< N

S

, then ∆V

P

< ∆V

S

Step-Up

Consider power in circuit:

i

P

∆V

P

= i

S

∆V

S

In the secondary, we have

∆V

S

= i

S

R

Combining the 3 equations, we have

∆V

P

=

_

N

P

N

S

_

2

R i

P

”Equivalence Resistor” =

_

N

P

N

S

_

2

R

Chapter 11

Displacement Current and

Maxwell’s Equations

11.1 Displacement Current

We saw in Chap.7 that we can use

Amp`ere’s law to calculate magnetic

ﬁelds due to currents.

We know that the integral

¸

C

B ds

around any close loop C is equal to

µ

0

i

incl

, where i

incl

= current passing an

area bounded by the closed curve C.

e.g.

= Flat surface bounded by loop C

= Curved surface bounded by loop C

If Amp`ere’s law is true all the time, then the i

incl

determined should be inde-

pendent of the surface chosen.

11.1. DISPLACEMENT CURRENT 126

Let’s consider a simple case: charging a

capacitor.

From Chap.5, we know there is a current

ﬂowing i(t) =

E

R

e

−t/RC

, which leads

to a magnetic ﬁeld observed

B. With

Amp`ere’s law,

¸

C

B ds = µ

0

i

incl

.

BUT WHAT IS i

incl

?

If we look at , i

incl

= i(t)

If we look at , i

incl

= 0

(∵ There is no charge ﬂow between the

capacitor plates.)

∴ Amp`ere’s law is either WRONG or

INCOMPLETE.

Two observations:

1. While there is no current between the capacitor’s plates, there is a time-

varying electric ﬁeld between the plates of the capacitor.

2. We know Amp`ere’s law is mostly correct from measurements of B-ﬁeld

around circuits.

⇓

Can we revise Amp`ere’s law to ﬁx it?

Electric ﬁeld between capacitor’s plates: E =

σ

ε

0

=

Q

ε

0

A

, where Q = charge on

capacitor’s plates, A = Area of capacitor’s plates.

∴ Q = ε

0

E A

. ¸¸ .

Electric ﬂux

= ε

0

Φ

E

∴ We can deﬁne

dQ

dt

= ε

0

dΦ

E

dt

= i

disp

where i

disp

is called Displacement Current (ﬁrst proposed by Maxwell).

Maxwell ﬁrst proposed that this is the missing term for the Amp`ere’s law:

˛

C

B ds = µ

0

(i

incl

+ ε

0

dΦ

E

dt

) Amp`ere-Maxwell law

11.2. INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELD 127

Where i

incl

= current through any surface bounded by C,

Φ

E

= electric ﬂux through that same surface bounded by curve C, Φ

E

=

´

S

E da.

11.2 Induced Magnetic Field

We learn earlier that electric ﬁeld can be generated by

_

charges

changing magnetic ﬂux

.

We see from Amp`ere-Maxwell law that a magnetic ﬁeld can be generated by

_

moving charges (current)

changing electric ﬂux

.

That is, a change in electric ﬂux through a surface bounded by C can lead to an

induced magnetic ﬁeld along the loop C.

Notes The induced magnetic ﬁeld is along the same direction as caused by the

changing electric ﬂux.

Example What is the magnetic ﬁeld strength inside a circular plate capacitor

of radius R with a current I(t) charging it?

Answer Electric ﬁeld of capacitor

E =

Q

ε

0

A

=

Q

ε

0

πR

2

11.3. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 128

Electric ﬂux inside capacitor through a

loop C of radius r:

Φ

E

= E πr

2

=

Qr

2

ε

0

R

2

Amp`ere-Maxwell Law inside capacitor:

˛

C

B ds

. ¸¸ .

∵

B

induced

ds

= µ

0

(

¨

¨¨

i

incl

+ ε

0

dΦ

E

dt

)

2πr

.¸¸.

Length of loop C

B

induced

= µ

0

ε

0

d

dt

_

Qr

2

ε

0

R

2

_

= µ

0

r

2

R

2

dQ

dt

.¸¸.

I(t)

∴ B

induced

=

µ

0

r

2πR

2

I(t) for r < R

Outside the capacitor plate:

Electric ﬂux through loop C: Φ

E

= E

πR

2

=

Q

ε

0

˛

C

B ds = µ

0

(i

incl

+ ε

0

dΦ

E

dt

)

2πrB

induced

= µ

0

ε

0

_

1

ε

0

dQ

dt

_

∴ B

induced

=

µ

0

I(t)

2πr

11.3 Maxwell’s Equations

The four equations that completely describe the behaviors of electric and magnetic

ﬁelds.

11.3. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 129

˛

S

E da =

Q

incl

ε

0

˛

S

B da = 0

˛

C

E ds = −

d

dt

ˆ

S

B da

˛

C

B ds = µ

0

i

incl

+ µ

0

ε

0

d

dt

ˆ

S

E da

The one equation that describes how matter reacts to electric and magnetic ﬁelds.

F = q(

E +v

B)

Features of Maxwell’s equations:

(1) There is a high level of symmetry in the equations. That’s why the study

of electricity and magnetism is also called electromagnetism.

There are small asymmetries though:

i) There is NO point ”charge” of magnetism / NO magnetic monopole.

ii) Direction of induced E-ﬁeld opposes to B-ﬂux change.

Direction of induced B-ﬁled enhances E-ﬂux change.

(2) Maxwell’s equations predicted the existence of propagating waves of E-ﬁeld

and B-ﬁeld, known as electromagnetic waves (EM waves).

Examples of EM waves: visible light, radio, TV signals, mobile phone

signals, X-rays, UV, Infrared, gamma-ray, microwaves...

(3) Maxwell’s equations are entirely consistent with the special theory of rela-

tivity. This is not true for Newton’s laws!

Contents

1 Vector Algebra 1.1 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Components of Vectors . . . . . . . . 1.4 Multiplication of Vectors . . . . . . . 1.5 Vector Field (Physics Point of View) 1.6 Other Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Electric Force & Electric Field 2.1 Electric Force . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 The Electric Field . . . . . . . . 2.3 Continuous Charge Distribution 2.4 Electric Field Lines . . . . . . . 2.5 Point Charge in E-ﬁeld . . . . . 2.6 Dipole in E-ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 4 6 6 8 8 9 12 18 21 22 25 25 28 28 31 36 36 40 45 48 51 51 51 54 55

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Electric Flux and Gauss’ Law 3.1 Electric Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 E-ﬁeld Calculation with Gauss’ Law 3.4 Gauss’ Law and Conductors . . . .

4 Electric Potential 4.1 Potential Energy and Conservative Forces . . 4.2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Relation Between Electric Field E and Electric 4.4 Equipotential Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Capacitance and DC Circuits 5.1 Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Calculating Capacitance . . 5.3 Capacitors in Combination . 5.4 Energy Storage in Capacitor . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potential V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10

Dielectric Constant . . . . Capacitor with Dielectric . Gauss’ Law in Dielectric . Ohm’s Law and Resistance DC Circuits . . . . . . . . RC Circuits . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57 58 60 61 64 69 73 73 75 76 78 81 81 86 88 92 93 94 98 98 99 100 104 107 107 110 112 113 115 116 116 117 119 121 121 123

6 Magnetic Force 6.1 Magnetic Field . . . . . . . 6.2 Motion of A Point Charge in 6.3 Hall Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Magnetic Force on Currents

. . . . . . . . . Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Magnetic Field 7.1 Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Parallel Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Amp`re’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e 7.4 Magnetic Dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Magnetic Dipole in A Constant B-ﬁeld 7.6 Magnetic Properties of Materials . . . 8 Faraday’s Law of Induction 8.1 Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . 8.2 Lenz’ Law . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Motional EMF . . . . . . 8.4 Induced Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Inductance 9.1 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 LR Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Energy Stored in Inductors . . . . . . . . 9.4 LC Circuit (Electromagnetic Oscillator) . 9.5 RLC Circuit (Damped Oscillator) . . . .

10 AC Circuits 10.1 Alternating Current (AC) Voltage . . . . . 10.2 Phase Relation Between i, V for R,L and C 10.3 Single Loop RLC AC Circuit . . . . . . . . 10.4 Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Power in AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 The Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ii

. . . . . . . .2 Induced Magnetic Field . . . . . . . .1 Displacement Current .3 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . Maxwell’s . . 11.11 Displacement Current and 11. . . . . . 11. . Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 125 127 128 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Deﬁnitions A vector consists of two components: magnitude and direction . pressure) A scalar consists of magnitude only.Chapter 1 Vector Algebra 1. density) 1. (e.g. mass. (e. force.g. charge. velocity.1: Vector algebra a+b = b+a a + (c + d) = (a + c) + d .2 Vector Algebra Figure 1.

Each vector can be expressed in terms of components.1.3. The most common coordinate system: Cartesian a = ax + ay + az Magnitude of a = |a| = a.3 Components of Vectors Usually vectors are expressed according to coordinate system. COMPONENTS OF VECTORS 2 1.2: φ measured anti-clockwise from position x-axis Unit vectors have magnitude of 1 a= ˆ ˆ i a = unit vector along a direction |a| ˆ j ˆ k z are unit vectors along directions x y ˆ a = ax ˆ + ay ˆ + az k i j Other coordinate systems: . ay = a sinφ ay tanφ = ax Figure 1. a= a2 + a2 + a2 x y z a = ax + ay a2 + a2 a = x y ax = a cosφ.

Cylindrical Coordinates: ˆ a = ar r + aθ θ + az z ˆ ˆ r originated from nearest point on ˆ z-axis (Point O’) Figure 1. Polar Coordinate: 3 ˆ a = ar r + aθ θ ˆ Figure 1. COMPONENTS OF VECTORS 1.3: Polar Coordinates 2.5: Spherical Coordinates .4: Cylindrical Coordinates 3.1. Spherical Coordinates: ˆ ˆ a = ar r + aθ θ + aφ φ ˆ r originated from Origin O ˆ Figure 1.3.

6: Dot Product ˆ · ˆ = |ˆ |ˆ cos0◦ = 1 · 1 · 1 = 1 i i i| i| ˆ · ˆ = |ˆ |ˆ cos90◦ = 1 · 1 · 0 = 0 i j i| j| ˆ·ˆ = ˆ · ˆ = k · k = 1 i i j j ˆ ˆ ˆ· ˆ = ˆ · k = k ·ˆ = 0 i j j ˆ ˆ i If then ˆ j i a = ax ˆ + ay ˆ + az k ˆ b = bx ˆ + by ˆ + bz k i j a · b = ax bx + ay by + az bz a · a = |a| · |a| cos0◦ = a · a = a2 . Doesn’t matter how you measure angle φ between vectors. m is a scalar (Relation between magnitude) Components also follow relation a = ax ma = max ˆ + i ay ˆ + may i ˆ + j az ˆ + maz j ˆ k ˆ k 1. Multiplication of Vectors b=m a b=m a bx =m ax by =m ay b. MULTIPLICATION OF VECTORS 4 1.4 If then i. a·b=b·a Notice: a · b = ab cosφ = ab cosφ i.e. Dot Product (Scalar Product): a · b = |a| · |b| cosφ Result is always a scalar.e.1.4. Figure 1. a are vectors. It can be positive or negative depending on φ. Scalar multiplication: 2.

MULTIPLICATION OF VECTORS 3.1. then c = |c| = a b sinφ a × b = b × a !!! a × b = −b × a Figure 1.e.7: Note: How angle φ is measured • Direction of cross product determined from right hand rule. ˆ × k = ˆ k × ˆ = ˆ i j ˆ j ˆ i. a × b is ⊥ to a and b.4. i. a · (a × b) = 0 b · (a × b) = 0 • IMPORTANT: a × a = a · a sin0◦ = 0 |ˆ × ˆ = |ˆ |ˆ sin0◦ = 1 · 1 · 0 = 0 i i| i| i| |ˆ × ˆ = |ˆ |ˆ sin90◦ = 1 · 1 · 1 = 1 i j| i| j| ˆ×ˆ = ˆ × ˆ = k × k = 0 i i j j ˆ ˆ ˆ × ˆ = k. ˆ i j ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ a × b = ax ay az bx by bz = (ay bz − az by ) ˆ i +(az bx − ax bz ) ˆ j ˆ +(ax by − ay bx ) k . Cross Product (Vector Product): 5 If c = a × b. • Also.

9: da is a vector that is always perpendicular to the surface S with inﬁnitesimal area da . z)) 1. VECTOR FIELD (PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW) 4. z) is a mathematical function which has a vector output for a position input.6 Other Topics Tangential Vector Figure 1. y. (Scalar ﬁeld U(x.5. y.8: dl is a vector that is always tangential to the curve C with inﬁnitesimal length dl Surface Vector Figure 1.1.5 Vector Field (Physics Point of View) A vector ﬁeld F(x. Vector identities: a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c a · (b × c) = b · (c × a) = c · (a × b) a × (b × c) = (a · c) b − (a · b) c 6 1.

11: Direction of da going from inside to outside .1. OTHER TOPICS 7 Some uncertainty! Two conventions: (da versus − da) • Area formed from a closed curve Figure 1.6.10: Direction of da determined from right-hand rule • Closed surface enclosing a volume Figure 1.

**Chapter 2 Electric Force & Electric Field
**

2.1 Electric Force

The electric force between two charges q1 and q2 can be described by Coulomb’s Law.

F12 = F orce on q1 exerted by q2

F12 =

where r12 = ˆ

1 4π 0

ˆ · qr12q2 · r12

12

r12 is the unit vector which locates particle 1 relative to particle 2. |r12 | i.e.

r12 = r1 − r2

**• q1 , q2 are electrical charges in units of Coulomb(C) • Charge is quantized Recall 1 electron carries 1.602 × 10−19 C •
**

0

= Permittivity of free space = 8.85 × 10−12 C 2 /N m2

COULOMB’S LAW: (1) q1 , q2 can be either positive or negative.

2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD

9

(2) If q1 , q2 are of same sign, then the force experienced by q1 is in direction away from q2 , that is, repulsive. (3) Force on q2 exerted by q1 : F21 = BUT: r12 = r21 = distance between q1 , q2 r2 − r1 −r12 r21 = = = −ˆ12 r r21 = ˆ r21 r21 r12

∴

1 q2 q1 ˆ · 2 · r21 4π 0 r21

F21 = −F12 Newton’s 3rd Law

SYSTEM WITH MANY CHARGES:

The total force experienced by charge q1 is the vector sum of the forces on q1 exerted by other charges.

F1 = Force experienced by q1 = F1,2 + F1,3 + F1,4 + · · · + F1,N PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION:

F1 =

N j=2

F1,j

2.2

The Electric Field

While we need two charges to quantify the electric force, we deﬁne the electric ﬁeld for any single charge distribution to describe its eﬀect on other charges.

2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD

10

Total force F = F1 + F2 + · · · + FN The electric ﬁeld is deﬁned as F =E q0 →0 q0 lim

(a) E-ﬁeld due to a single charge qi :

From the deﬁnitions of Coulomb’s Law, the force experienced at location of q0 (point P)

F0,i =

1 q0 qi · 2 · r0,i ˆ 4π 0 r0,i

where r0,i is the unit vector along the direction from charge qi to q0 , ˆ r0,i = Unit vector from charge qi to point P ˆ = ri (radical unit vector from qi ) ˆ Recall E = lim F q0 →0 q0 ∴ E-ﬁeld due to qi at point P: Ei = 1 qi · 2 · ri ˆ 4π 0 ri

where ri = Vector pointing from qi to point P, thus ri = Unit vector pointing from qi to point P ˆ Note: (1) E-ﬁeld is a vector. (2) Direction of E-ﬁeld depends on both position of P and sign of qi . (b) E-ﬁeld due to system of charges: Principle of Superposition: In a system with N charges, the total E-ﬁeld due to all charges is the vector sum of E-ﬁeld due to individual charges.

Figure 2. (c) Electric Dipole E= i Ei = i System of equal and opposite charges separated by a distance d. .e. ∴ Net E-ﬁeld points along the axis oppo- site to the dipole moment vector. (Direction of d from negative to positive charge) Electric Dipole Moment ˆ p = q d = qdd p = qd Example: E due to dipole along x-axis Consider point P at distance x along the perpendicular axis of the dipole p : E = E+ ↑ (E-ﬁeld due to +q) + E− ↑ (E-ﬁeld due to −q) Notice: Horizontal E-ﬁeld components of E+ and E− cancel out.2.2. THE ELECTRIC FIELD 1 4π 0 qi r ˆ 2 i ri 11 i.1: An electric dipole.

2.3 Continuous Charge Distribution E-ﬁeld at point P due to dq: dE = dq 1 · 2 ·r ˆ 4π 0 r . CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION Magnitude of E-ﬁeld = 2E+ cos θ E+ or E− magnitude! ∴E =2 12 1 q · 2 4π 0 r d 2 2 cos θ But r = cos θ = ∴E = + x2 d/2 r 1 p · 4π 0 [x2 + ( d )2 ] 3 2 2 (p = qd) Special case: When x d 3 d 3 d [x2 + ( )2 ] 2 = x3 [1 + ( )2 ] 2 2 2x • Binomial Approximation: (1 + y)n ≈ 1 + ny E-ﬁeld of dipole if y 1 1 p 1 · 3 ∼ 3 4π 0 x x • Compare with 1 E-ﬁeld for single charge r2 • Result also valid for point P along any axis with respect to dipole 2.3.

∴ Only horizontal E-ﬁeld components need to be considered. we can take advantage of the symmetry of the system to simplify the integral. (2) For each element of length dz. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION ∴ E-ﬁeld due to charge distribution: 13 ˆ E= V olume ˆ dE = V olume 1 4π 0 · dq r2 ·r ˆ (1) In many cases.3.2. charge dq = λdz ∴ Horizontal E-ﬁeld at point P due to element dz = |dE| cos θ = 1 λdz · 2 cos θ 4π 0 r dEdz ∴ E-ﬁeld due to entire line charge at point P L/2 ˆ E = −L/2 λdz 1 · 2 cos θ 4π 0 r dz λ · 2 cos θ 4π 0 r L/2 ˆ = 2 0 . (2) To write down the small charge element dq: 1-D 2-D 3-D Example 1: dq = λ ds dq = σ dA dq = ρ dV λ = linear charge density σ = surface charge density ρ = volume charge density ds = small length element dA = small area element dV = small volume element Uniform line of charge charge per unit length =λ (1) Symmetry considered: The E-ﬁeld from +z and −z directions cancel along z-direction.

2. but z. • Change of variable (from z to θ) (1) z = x tan θ x = r cos θ ∴ dz = x sec2 θ dθ ∴ r 2 = x2 sec2 θ 14 z=0 . notice that x is ﬁxed. (2) When θ = 0◦ where tan θ0 = ˆθ0 0 z = L/2 θ = θ0 L/2 x λ E = 2· 4π 0 = 2· = 2· λ 4π 0 x sec2 θ dθ · cos θ x2 sec2 θ 1 · cos θ dθ x ˆθ0 0 λ 4π 0 λ = 2· 4π 0 λ = 2· 4π 0 E= θ0 1 · (sin θ) 0 x 1 · · sin θ0 x 1 L/2 · · x x2 + ( L )2 2 · 1 λL · 4π 0 x x2 + ( L )2 2 along x-direction Important limiting cases: 1. r. θ all varies.3. L ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO INFINITELY LONG LINE OF CHARGE . x 1 λL · 2 4π 0 x But λL = Total charge on rod ∴ System behave like a point charge L: E x: E 1 λL · 4π 0 x · L 2 Ex = λ 2π 0 x 2. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION To calculate this integral: • First.

CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION Example 2: Ring of Charge 15 E-ﬁeld at a height z above a ring of charge of radius R (1) Symmetry considered: For every charge element dq considered. there exists dq where the horizontal E ﬁeld components cancel. where φ is the angle measured on the ring plane ∴ Net E-ﬁeld along z-axis due to dq: dE = dq 1 · 2 · cos θ 4π 0 r . (2) For each element of length dz. charge dq = λ ↑ Linear charge density · ds ↑ Circular length element dq = λ · R dφ.2. ⇒ Overall E-ﬁeld lies along z-direction.3.

3. z. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION ˆ Total E-ﬁeld = ˆ = 0 16 dE 2π 1 λR dφ · · cos θ 4π 0 r2 z (cos θ = ) r Note: Here in this case.2. θ. R and r are ﬁxed as φ varies! BUT we want to λRz 1 · 3 E= 4π 0 r ˆ 0 2π dφ along z-axis E= BUT: 1 λ(2πR)z · 2 4π 0 (z + R2 )3/2 λ(2πR) = total charge on the ring Example 3: E-ﬁeld from a disk of surface charge density σ We ﬁnd the E-ﬁeld of a disk by integrating concentric rings of charges. convert r. . θ to R.

u = z2 r = R .2. u = z 2 + R2 1 ∴ E = · 2πσz 4π 0 ˆ BUT: u−3/2 du = u−1/2 = −2u−1/2 −1/2 ∴ E z 2 +R2 1 σz (−u−1/2 ) 2 z 20 1 1 −1 σz √ 2 + = 2 20 z z +R ˆ z 2 +R2 z2 1 −3/2 u du 2 = E= σ 20 1− √ z2 z + R2 .3. CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 17 Total charge of ring dq = σ · ( 2πr dr ) Area of the ring Recall from Example 2: E-ﬁeld from ring: dE = 1 dq z · 2 4π 0 (z + r2 )3/2 ∴ ˆ R 1 2πσr dr · z E = 4π 0 0 (z 2 + r2 )3/2 ˆ R r dr 1 2πσz 2 = 4π 0 0 (z + r2 )3/2 • Change of variable: u = z 2 + r2 du = 2r dr ⇒ (z 2 + r2 )3/2 = u3/2 1 ⇒ r dr = 2 du ⇒ • Change of integration limit: r = 0 .

ELECTRIC FIELD LINES VERY IMPORTANT LIMITING CASE: If R sity σ: 18 z. Direction of E-ﬁeld at any point is given by tangent of E-ﬁeld line. that is if we have an inﬁnite sheet of charge with charge denσ 20 σ 20 z + R2 E = 1− √ 1− z R z2 E≈ σ 20 Figure 2. 2. 3.2: E-ﬁeld due to an inﬁnite sheet of charge. The start on position charges and end on negative charges. .4. Conventions: 1.4 Electric Field Lines To visualize the electric ﬁeld. Magnitude of E-ﬁeld at any point is proportional to number of E-ﬁeld lines per unit area perpendicular to the lines. charge density = σ E-ﬁeld is normal to the charged surface Q: What’s the E-ﬁeld belows the charged sheet? 2.2. we can use a graphical tool called the electric ﬁeld lines.

ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 19 .4.2.

2.4. ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 20 .

the charge carried by the inkdrop is negtive. Note: q E points in opposite direction of E. q < 0. the force experienced by the charge is Applications: Example: Ink-jet printer.e.1) . Horizontal motion: Net force = 0 ∴ L = vt (2. charge q (q < 0 here) Assume that mass of inkdrop is small.5. POINT CHARGE IN E-FIELD 21 2. Ink particle has mass m. what’s the deﬂection y of the charge? Solution: First.5 Point Charge in E-ﬁeld F = q E = ma When we place a charge q in an E-ﬁeld E.2. TV cathoderay tube. i.

(Newton’s 2nd Law) qE m 22 ∴ Net force = −qE = ma ∴ a=− (2.6.6 Dipole in E-ﬁeld Consider the force exerted on the dipole in an external E-ﬁeld: Assumption: E-ﬁeld from dipole doesn’t aﬀect the external E-ﬁeld. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD Vertical motion: |q E| |mg|. . Total external force on dipole = 0. BUT: Reminder: There is an external torque on the center of the dipole.2. • Dipole moment: p = qd • Force due to the E-ﬁeld on +ve and −ve charge are equal and opposite in direction. q is negative. The force exerts a torque τ = r × F on point P with respect to point O. Direction of the torque vector τ is determined from the right-hand rule.2) Vertical distance travelled: y= 1 2 at 2 2. Force F exerts at point P.

Chap 12.7 (Pg. Work done by external E-ﬁeld on the dipole: dW = −τ dθ Negative sign here because torque by E-ﬁeld acts to decrease θ. BUT: Because E-ﬁeld is a conservative force ﬁeld potential energy (U ) for the system. Halliday Vol.243) torque work done 23 Net torque τ • direction: torque • magnitude: τ = τ+ve + τ−ve d d = F · sin θ + F · sin θ 2 2 = qE · d sin θ = pE sin θ τ =p×E Energy Consideration: When the dipole p rotates dθ. so that dU = −dW ∴ For the dipole in external E-ﬁeld: 1 2 clockwise . the E-ﬁeld does work.175) Chap 11. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD Reference: Halliday Vol.257.1 Pg. we can deﬁne a dU = −dW = pE sin θ dθ ˆ ∴ U (θ) = ˆ dU = pE sin θ dθ = −pE cos θ + U0 1 2 more to come in Chap.1 .4 of notes ref.6.1 (Pg.1 Chap 9.2.

6. DIPOLE IN E-FIELD set U (θ = 90◦ ) = 0. ∴ 0 = −pE cos 90◦ + U0 ∴ U0 = 0 ∴ Potential energy: 24 U = −pE cos θ = −p · E .2.

For non-uniform E-ﬁeld & surface. Latin: ﬂux = ”to ﬂow” Graphically: Mathematically: Reminder: Vector of the area A is perpendicular to the area A. direction of the area vector A is not uniform.Chapter 3 Electric Flux and Gauss’ Law 3.1 Electric Flux Electric ﬂux ΦE represents the number of E-ﬁeld lines crossing a surface. dA = Area vector for small area element dA .

1. dA = dA r ˆ ˆ −q ΦE = r · (dA r) ˆ ˆ 2 S 2π 0 R ˆ q = − dA 2π 0 R2 S 2πR2 ( r · r = 1) ˆ ˆ = For a closed surface: −q 0 Recall: Direction of area vector dA goes from inside to outside of closed surface S. .3. ELECTRIC FLUX ∴ Electric ﬂux 26 dΦE = E · dA ˆ ΦE = E · dA S Electric ﬂux of E through surface S: ˆ = Surface integral over surface S S = Integration of integral over all area elements on surface S Example: E= −2q 1 −q · 2 r= ˆ r ˆ 4π 0 r 2π 0 R2 For a hemisphere.

3. the total number of E-ﬁeld lines crossing the surface remains the same. ∴ The electric ﬂux ΦE .1. dA = dA · r ˆ ˛ ∴ ΦE E r · dA r ˆ ˆ 4π 0 R2 ˛ q dA = 4π 0 R2 S S = q dA ΦE Total surface area of S = 4πR2 q = 0 IMPORTANT POINT: If we remove the spherical symmetry of closed surface S. ELECTRIC FLUX ˛ Electric ﬂux over closed surface S: ΦE = S 27 E · dA ˛ = Surface integral over closed surface S S Example: Electric ﬂux of charge q over closed spherical surface of radius R. E= 1 q q · 2 r= ˆ r ˆ 4π 0 r 4π 0 R2 at the surface Again.

making up of a curved surface S1 . GAUSS’ LAW ˛ ΦE = S 28 ˛ E · dA = S E · dA = q 0 3. and the top and bottom circles S2 . S3 .2 Gauss’ Law ˛ ΦE = S E · dA = q 0 for any closed surface S And q is the net electric charge enclosed in closed surface S.2. E-ﬁeld can be easily determined if we construct Gaussian surfaces with the same symmetry and applies Gauss’ Law 3. • Gauss’ Law is valid for all charge distributions and all closed surfaces. Construct a Gaussian surface S in the shape of a cylinder. E-ﬁeld directs radially outward from the rod.3. (Gaussian surfaces) • Coulomb’s Law can be derived from Gauss’ Law.3 E-ﬁeld Calculation with Gauss’ Law (A) Inﬁnite line of charge Linear charge density: λ Cylindrical symmetry. • For system with high order of symmetry. ˛ Gauss’ Law: S E · dA = Total charge 0 = λL 0 .

E dA3 ) . Construct Gaussian surface S in the shape of a cylinder (pill box) of cross-sectional area A.3. ˛ Gauss’ Law: ˆ ˆ S1 S E · dA = E · dA = 0 ˆ E · dA + S2 S3 Aσ 0 E ⊥ dA over whole surface S1 E · dA = 2EA (E dA2 . E-ﬁeld directs perpendicular to the sheet of charge. E-FIELD CALCULATION WITH GAUSS’ LAW ˛ E · dA = S S1 E dA 29 ˆ ˆ E · dA + ˆ E · dA + S2 E · dA S3 ˆ dA = S1 = 0 E⊥dA ∴ E λL 0 Total area of surface S1 λL E(2πrL) = 0 ∴ E = λ 2π 0 r (Compare with Chapter 2 note) E= (B) Inﬁnite sheet of charge λ r ˆ 2π 0 r Uniform surface charge density: σ Planar symmetry.3.

(a) For r > R: Consider a spherical Gaussian surface S of radius r: E dA r ˆ ˛ Q E · dA = Gauss’ Law: S 0 ˛ E · dA = S Q 0 ˛ E S dA = Q 0 surface area of S = 4πr2 ∴ E= Q r. ˆ 4π 0 r2 for r > R (b) For r < R: Consider a spherical Gaussian surface S of radius r < R. both E and dA3 point down ∴ 30 2EA = Aσ 0 ⇒ E= σ 20 (Compare with Chapter 2 note) (C) Uniformly charged sphere Total charge = Q Spherical symmetry. both E and dA2 point up For S3 . then total charge included q is proportional to the volume included by S ∴ Volume enclosed by S q = Q Total volume of sphere .3.3. E-FIELD CALCULATION WITH GAUSS’ LAW Note: For S2 .

4 Gauss’ Law and Conductors For isolated conductors.3. the Eﬁeld at the surface of a conductor is perpendicular to its surface. charges are free to move until all charges lie outside the surface of the conductor. (Why?) Consider Gaussian surface S of shape of cylinder: ˛ σA E · dA = S 0 . Also. ˆ 4π 0 R for r ≤ R 3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS q 4/3 πr3 = Q 4/3 πR3 E · dA = S 31 ⇒ q= r3 Q R3 ˛ Gauss’ Law: q 0 ˛ E S dA = r3 1 ·Q R3 0 surface area of S = 4πr2 ∴ E= 1 Q · 3 rr.

4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS ˆ BUT ˆS1 S3 32 E · dA = 0 ( E · dA = 0 ( ˆ E ⊥ dA ) E = 0 inside conductor ) ˆ dA S2 E · dA = E S2 ( E dA ) Area of S2 = EA ∴ Gauss’ Law ⇒ EA = σA 0 ∴ On conductor’s surface E = σ 0 BUT. Example: Conductor with a charge inside Note: This is not an isolated system (because of the charge inside). ∴ Inside conductors E = 0 Always! Notice: Surface charge density on a conductor’s surface is not uniform.3. Example: . there’s no charge inside conductors.

3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS I. Charge sprayed on a conductor sphere:

33

First, we know that charges all move to the surface of conductors.

**(i) For r < R: Consider Gaussian surface S2 ˛ E · dA = 0 (
**

S2

no charge inside )

**⇒ E = 0 everywhere. (ii) For r ≥ R: Consider Gaussian surface S1 : ˛ Q E · dA =
**

S1 0

˛ E

S1 4πr2

For a conductor dA = Q

0

( E

dA r ) ˆ

Spherically symmetric

E =

Q 4π 0 r2

II. Conductor sphere with hole inside:

3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS

34

**Consider Gaussian surface S1 : charge included = 0
**

∴ E-ﬁeld = 0 inside

Total

The E-ﬁeld is identical to the case of a solid conductor!!

III. A long hollow cylindrical conductor: Example: Inside hollow cylinder ( +2q ) Inner radius Outer radius a b

Outside hollow cylinder ( −3q ) Inner radius Outer radius Question: Find the charge on each surface of the conductor. c d

For the inside hollow cylinder, charges distribute only on the surface. ∴ Inner radius a surface, charge = 0 and Outer radius b surface, charge = +2q For the outside hollow cylinder, charges do not distribute only on outside. It’s not an isolated system. (There are charges inside!) Consider Gaussian surface S inside the conductor: E-ﬁeld always = 0 ∴ Need charge −2q on radius c surface to balance the charge of inner cylinder. So charge on radius d surface = −q. (Why?) IV. Large sheets of charge: Total charge Q on sheet of area A,

**3.4. GAUSS’ LAW AND CONDUCTORS
**

∴

35

Surface charge density σ =

Q A

By principle of superposition

Region A: Region B: Region C:

E=0 Q E= 0A E=0

E=0 Q E= 0A E=0

dW = F · ds ∴ Total work done W by force F in moving the particle from Point 1 to Point 2 ˆ W = 1 2 F · ds Path A ˆ 1 2 = Path Integral Path A = Integration over Path A from Point 1 to Point 2. .12) Electric force is a conservative force Work done by the electric force F as a charge moves an inﬁnitesimal distance ds along Path A = dW Note: ds is in the tangent direction of the curve of Path A.Chapter 4 Electric Potential 4.1 Potential Energy and Conservative Forces (Read Halliday Vol.1 Chap.

∴ For conservative forces. ˆ 1 2 ˆ F · ds = 1 2 F · ds Path B Path A Let’s consider a path starting at point 1 to 2 through Path A and from 2 to 1 through Path C ˆ Work done = 1 2 ˆ F · ds + 2 1 F · ds Path C Path A ˆ 2 ˆ 2 = 1 F · ds − 1 F · ds Path B Path A DEFINITION: The work done by a conservative force on a particle when it moves around a closed path returning to its initial position is zero. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES 37 DEFINITION: A force is conservative if the work done on a particle by the force is independent of the path taken. we can deﬁne a quantity.4. U2 are potential energy at position 1. potential energy. MATHEMATICALLY. that depends only on the position of the particle. 2. . Convention: We deﬁne potential energy U such that ˆ dU = −W = − F · ds ∴ For particle moving from 1 to 2 ˆ 1 2 ˆ dU = U2 − U1 = − 1 2 F · ds where U1 . × F = 0 everywhere for conservative force F Conclusion: Since the work done by a conservative force F is path-independent.1.

∆W 0 • If q1 . then ∆U 0. (2) If q2 moves away from q1 . then r2 < r1 . q2 are of diﬀerent sign. then ∆U < 0. q2 are of diﬀerent sign. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES Example: 38 Suppose charge q2 moves from point 1 to 2. then r2 > r1 . we have • If q1 .1.4. then ∆U > 0. we have • If q1 . ∆W > 0 (∆W = Work done by electric repulsive force) • If q1 . ˆ From deﬁnition: U2 − U1 = − = = ˆ ( dr 1 =− +C ) 2 r r = 2 −∆W = ∆U = Note: F · dr ˆ1 r2 − F dr ( F r1 ˆ r2 1 q1 q2 dr − 2 r1 4π 0 r r 1 q1 q2 2 4π 0 r r1 1 1 1 q1 q2 − 4π 0 r2 r1 dr ) (1) This result is generally true for 2-Dimension or 3-D motion. ∆W < 0 (∆W = Work done by electric attractive force) (3) If q2 moves towards q1 . ∆W 0 . then ∆U 0. q2 are of same sign. q2 are of same sign.

of 3 charges q1 . q2 opposite sign. E = K + U = Constant (Kinetic Energy) or (Potential Energy) ∆E = ∆K + ∆U = 0 Potential Energy of A System of Charges Example: P. REFERENCE POINT: U (r = ∞) = 0 1 1 1 ∴ U∞ − U1 = q1 q2 − 4π 0 r2 r1 ↓ ∞ U (r) = q1 q2 1 · 4π 0 r 39 If q1 . q3 Start: q1 . POTENTIAL ENERGY AND CONSERVATIVE FORCES (4) Note: It is the diﬀerence in potential energy that is important. then U (r) > 0 for all r If q1 .1. U = 0 Step1: Move q1 from ∞ to its position ⇒ U = 0 Move q2 from ∞ to new position ⇒ Step2: U= 1 q1 q2 4π 0 r12 Move q3 from ∞ to new position ⇒ Total P. q3 all at r = ∞.4. q2 . q2 . q2 same sign.E.E. Step3: U= 1 4π 0 q1 q2 q1 q3 q2 q3 + + r12 r13 r23 Step4: What if there are 4 charges? . then U (r) < 0 for all r (5) Conservation of Mechanical Energy: For a system of charges with no external force.

we take V (r = ∞) = 0. • Electric Potential is a scalar. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 40 4. • Unit: V olt(V ) = Joules/Coulomb 1 q · 4π 0 r • For a single point charge: V (r) = • Energy Unit: ∆U = q∆V electron − V olt(eV ) = 1. per unit charge) • Similarly.6 × 10−19 J charge of electron Potential For A System of Charges For a total of N point charges.2 Electric Potential Consider a charge q at center. the potential V at any point P can be derived from the principle of superposition.4.E. Recall that potential due to q1 at q1 1 · point P: V1 = 4π 0 r1 ∴ Total potential at point P due to N charges: V = V1 + V2 + · · · + VN (principle of superposition) 1 qN q1 q2 = + + ··· + 4π 0 r1 r2 rN . we consider its eﬀect on test charge q0 DEFINITION: We deﬁne electric potential V so that ∆V = ∆U −∆W = q0 q0 ( ∴ V is the P.2.

we have a sum of vectors For V. we write the electrical potential dV due to inﬁnitesimal charge dq: dV = dq 1 · 4π 0 r .4. F . we have a sum of scalars Example: Potential of an electric dipole Consider the potential of point P at distance x > d 2 from dipole. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 1 4π 0 qi i=1 ri N 41 V = Note: For E.2. U . V = Special Limiting Case: 1 x ∴ d 2 1 +q −q d + 4π 0 x − 2 x+ d 2 x = d 1 1 · d x 1 2x d 1 1± x 2x 1 q d d · 1+ − (1 − ) 4π 0 x 2x 2x p (Recall p = qd) V = 4π 0 x2 1 1 For a point charge E ∝ 2 V ∝ r r V = For a dipole For a quadrupole E∝ E∝ 1 r3 1 r4 V ∝ V ∝ 1 r2 1 r3 Electric Potential of Continuous Charge Distribution For any charge distribution.

2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 42 ˆ ∴ V = charge distribution dq 1 · 4π 0 r Similar to the previous examples on E-ﬁeld.4. ˆ ∴ V = dV ring λR dθ 1 ·√ 2 4π 0 R + z2 0 ˆ 2π λR √ dθ = 4π 0 R2 + z 2 0 = 2π ˆ 2π Total charge on the ring = λ · (2πR) V = Q √ 4π 0 R2 + z 2 4π Q √ 0 LIMITING CASE: z R ⇒ V = z2 = Q 4π 0 |z| . for the case of uniform charge distribution: 1-D 2-D 3-D ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ long rod charge sheet uniformly charged body ⇒ dq = λ dx ⇒ dq = σ dA ⇒ dq = ρ dV Example (1): Uniformly-charged ring Length of the inﬁnitesimal ring element = ds = Rdθ ∴ charge dq = λ ds = λR dθ 1 dq 1 λR dθ · = ·√ 2 4π 0 r 4π 0 R + z2 dV = The integration is around the entire ring.

2. V . ˆ 1 dq ∴ dV = 4π 0 r disk Ring of radius x: ∴ dq = σ dA = σ (2πxdx) 1 σ2πx dx ·√ 2 x + z2 0 4π 0 ˆ R σ d(x2 + z 2 ) = 4 0 0 (x2 + z 2 )1/2 √ σ √ 2 = ( z + R2 − z 2 ) 20 σ √ 2 = ( z + R2 − |z|) 20 = ˆ R V V Recall: |x| = +x. −x. x≥0 x<0 Limiting Case: (1) If |z| √ R R2 z2 R2 = |z| · 1 + 2 z R2 |z| · 1 + 2 2z z2 1 + z 2 + R2 = 1 2 ( (1 + x)n ≈ 1 + nx if x ( |z| 1 = ) 2 z |z| 1) σ R2 Q · = (like a point charge) 2 0 2|z| 4π 0 |z| where Q = total charge on disk = σ · πR2 ∴ At large z. we will ﬁnd the potential of a disk of uniform charge density by integrating the potential of concentric rings.4. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL Example (2): Uniformly-charged disk 43 Using the principle of superposition.

4. 20 ∴ Let’s call this V0 V (z) = σR |z| z2 1− + 20 R 2R2 |z| z2 V (z) = V0 1 − + R 2R2 The key here is that it is the diﬀerence between potentials of two points that is important. ⇒ A convenience reference point to compare in this example is the potential of the charged disk. ∴ The important quantity here is V (z) − V0 = − & z2 & |z| V0 + & V0 2 R 2R & neglected as z R V (z) − V0 = − V0 |z| R .2. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL (2) If |z| R √ z 2 + R2 = R · 1 + z2 R2 z2 R 1+ 2R2 1 2 44 ∴ V σ z2 R − |z| + 20 2R At z = 0. V = σR .

3 Relation Between Electric Field E and Electric Potential V (A) To get V from E: Recall our deﬁnition of the potential V: ∆V = W12 ∆U =− q0 q0 where ∆U is the change in P. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC POTENTIAL V 45 4.4. (Path-Independent) ˆ P Convention: V∞ = 0 ⇒ VP = − E · ds ∞ (B) To get E from V : Again. ∴ q0 ∆V = −q0 Es ∆s . W12 is the work done in bringing charge q0 from point 1 to 2. use the deﬁnition of V : ∆U = q0 ∆V = −W Work done However. W = q0 E · ∆s Electric force = q0 Es ∆s where Es is the E-ﬁeld component along the path ∆s.3. ´2 − 1 F · ds ∴ ∆V = V2 − V1 = q0 However.E. the deﬁnition of E-ﬁeld: ∴ F = q0 E ˆ 2 ∆V = V2 − V1 = − 1 E · ds Note: The integral on the right hand side of the above can be calculated along any path from point 1 to 2..

Example: ∂V ∂x ∂V ∂y ∂V ∂z = = = If V (x. z) and V is ∂V ∂V ∂V Ex = − Ey = − Ez = − ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ ∂ ∂ . z) = x2 y − z For other co-ordinate systems (1) Cylindrical: E r = − ∂V ∂r V (r. y. ∴ Es = − dV ds Note: (1) Therefore the E-ﬁeld component along any direction is the negtive derivative of the potential along the same direction. z). z) 1 ∂V Eθ = − · r ∂θ E z = − ∂V ∂z .3.4. z). y. . then ∆V = 0 (3) ∆V is biggest/smallest if ds E Generally. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC POTENTIAL V ∴ 46 Es = − ∆V ∆s For inﬁnitesimal ∆s. y. z are treated like a constant and we only ∂x take derivative with respect to x. (2) If ds ⊥ E. the relation between E(x. y. for a potential V (x. everything y. are partial derivatives ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ For V (x. θ.

φ) 1 ∂V Eθ = − · r ∂θ Eφ = − 1 ∂V · r sin θ ∂φ Note: Calculating V involves summation of scalars.2 notes) Ez = − Example: Uniform electric ﬁeld (e. Example: Uniformly charged disk From potential calculations: σ √ 2 V = ( R + z 2 − |z| ) 20 For z > 0. VP − V− = − ˆ0 s = − ˆ0 s = E 0 s E · ds (−E ds) ds = Es (V− = Potential of −ve plate) E. VP can be deduced from deﬁnition. RELATION BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD E AND ELECTRIC POTENTIAL V (2) Spherical: Er 47 = − ∂V ∂r V (r.3. ds pointing opposite directions Convenient reference: V− = 0 ∴ VP = E · s . ∴ To ﬁnd the E-ﬁeld of a general charge system. Uniformly charged +ve and −ve plates) Consider a path going from the −ve plate to the +ve plate Potential at point P. ∴ for a point along the z-axis |z| = z ∂V σ z = 1− √ 2 ∂z 20 R + z2 (Compare with Chap.g. we ﬁrst calculate V . and then derive E from the partial derivative.e. which is easier than adding vectors for calculating E-ﬁeld. θ.4. ˆ i.

4 Equipotential Surfaces Equipotential surface is a surface on which the potential is constant. (2) The electric ﬁeld lines must be perpendicular to the equipotential surfaces. Example: Uniformly charged surface (inﬁnite) Recall V = V0 − ↑ σ |z| 20 Potential at z = 0 Equipotential surface means V = const ⇒ V0 − σ |z| = C 20 ⇒ |z| = constant . V = constant ⇒ ∆V = 0 ⇒ E · dl = 0.4. (Why?) On an equipotential surface. where dl is tangent to equipotential surface ∴ E must be perpendicular to equipotential surfaces. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES 48 4.4. ⇒ (∆V = 0) V (r) = ⇒ ⇒ 1 +q · = const 4π 0 r r = const Equipotential surfaces are circles/spherical surfaces Note: (1) A charge can move freely on an equipotential surface without any work done.

V = Example: Connected conducting spheres Two conductors connected can be seen as a single conductor . (i) Inside conductor: E = 0 ⇒ ∆V = 0 everywhere in conductor ⇒ V = constant everywhere in conductor ⇒ The entire conductor is at the same potential (ii) Outside conductor: Q 4π 0 r Spherically symmetric (Just like a point charge. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES Example: Isolated spherical charged conductors 49 Recall: (1) E-ﬁeld inside = 0 (2) charge distributed on the outside of conductors.) BUT not true for conductors of arbitrary shape.4.4.

EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES ∴ 50 Potential everywhere is identical. Note: Charge distribution on a conductor does not have to be uniform.4. .4. V1 = Potential of radius R1 sphere Potential of radius R2 sphere q1 4π 0 R1 q2 V2 = 4π 0 R2 q1 R1 = q2 R2 V1 = V2 q1 q2 ⇒ = R1 R2 Surface charge density σ1 = q1 2 4πR1 ⇒ Surface area of radius R1 sphere ∴ ∴ 2 σ1 q1 R 2 R2 = · 2 = σ2 q2 R 1 R1 If R1 < R2 . The radius of this circle is the radius of curvature. we ﬁt a circle. then σ1 > σ2 And the surface electric ﬁeld E1 > E2 For arbitrary shape conductor: At every point on the conductor.

1 Capacitors A capacitor is a system of two conductors that carries equal and opposite charges. If we increase V for a capacitor. we can increase Q stored.2 5. A capacitor stores charge and energy in the form of electro-static ﬁeld. Q V Unit: Farad(F) 5.e.Chapter 5 Capacitance and DC Circuits 5. We deﬁne capacitance as C= where Q = Charge on one plate V = Potential diﬀerence between the plates Note: The C of a capacitor is a constant that depends only on its shape and material.2.1 Calculating Capacitance Parallel-Plate Capacitor . i.

ˆ ∆V = V+ − V− = − − + 52 σ 0 = Q 0A E · ds Again.5.2.2. ˆ ∴ − ∆V = + ˆ − E · ds E · ds ˆ − ds + = + = Q 0A Length of path taken = Q ·d 0A Q 0A = ∆V d (3) ∴ C= 5. notice that this integral is independent of the path taken. The length of the capacitor is L where r1 < r2 L. .2 Cylindrical Capacitor Consider two concentric cylindrical wire of innner and outer radii r1 and r2 respectively. CALCULATING CAPACITANCE (1) Recall from Chapter 3 note. |E| = (2) Recall from Chapter 4 note. ∴ We can take the path that is parallel to the E-ﬁeld.

2. we choose the path of integration so that ds r E ˆ ˆ r2 ˆ r2 Q dr ∴ ∆V = E dr = 2π 0 L r1 r r1 ln( r2 ) 1 r ∴ C= Q = 2π ∆V 0 L ln(r2 /r1 ) 5. E= 1 Q · 2.3 Spherical Capacitor For the space between the two conductors.5. 4π 0 r r 1 < r < r2 ˆ ∆V Choose ds − = ˆ+r2 = E · ds r ˆ Q 1 · 2 dr r1 4π 0 r Q 1 1 = − 4π 0 r1 r2 0 C = 4π r1 r2 r2 − r1 . Chap3 note) E= 1 1 λ Q · r= ˆ · r ˆ 2π 0 r 2π 0 Lr where λ is charge per unit length (2) ˆ ∆V = + − E · ds Again. we determine that the E-ﬁeld between the conductors is (cf.2. CALCULATING CAPACITANCE 53 (1) Using Gauss’ Law.

across C1 P.D.) across capacitors diﬀerent ∆V1 = Va − Vc = ∆V2 ∴ Q C1 Q = Vc − Vb = C2 P.3.D.3 Capacitors in Combination (a) Capacitors in Parallel In this case. CAPACITORS IN COMBINATION 54 5. across C2 Potential diﬀerence ∆V ∆V = Va − Vb = ∆V1 + ∆V2 1 1 Q = Q( + )= C1 C2 C where C is the Equivalent Capacitance ∴ 1 1 1 = + C C1 C2 .D. it’s the potential diﬀerence V = Va − Vb that is the same across the capacitor. BUT: Charge on each capacitor diﬀerent Total charge Q = Q1 + Q2 = C1 V + C2 V Q = (C1 + C2 ) V Equivalent capacitance ∴ For capacitors in parallel: C = C1 + C2 (b) Capacitors in Series The charge across capacitors are the same. BUT: Potential diﬀerence (P.5.

⇒ NEEDS WORK DONE! Suppose we move charge dq from −ve to +ve plate. positive charge is being moved from the negative plate to the positive plate. the total potential energy ˆ ˆ Q q U = dU = dq 0 C ∴ U= Q2 1 = C∆V 2 2C 2 ( Q=C∆V ) The energy stored in the capacitor is stored in the electric ﬁeld between the plates. change in potential energy dU = ∆V · dq = q dq C Suppose we keep putting in a total charge Q to the capacitor. Note : In a parallel-plate capacitor. ∴ We can consider the E-ﬁeld energy density u = ∴ Total energy stored Total volume with E-ﬁeld u= U Ad Rectangular volume Recall C E = = 0A d ∆V d C ⇒ ∆V = Ed 1 V olume ∴ u= 1 0A 1 ( ) · ( Ed )2 · 2 d Ad (∆V )2 .4.4 Energy Storage in Capacitor In charging a capacitor.5. ENERGY STORAGE IN CAPACITOR 55 5. the E-ﬁeld is constant between the plates.

5.4. ENERGY STORAGE IN CAPACITOR 1 2 0E 2 ↑ can be generally applied u= Example : Changing capacitance Energy per unit volume of the electrostatic ﬁeld

56

(1) Isolated Capacitor: Charge on the capacitor plates remains constant. 1 0A BUT: Cnew = = Cold 2d 2 Q2 Q2 ∴ Unew = = = 2Uold 2Cnew 2Cold /2 ∴ In pulling the plates apart, work done W > 0 Summary : (V =

Q ) C 1 E2 2 0

⇒ =

Q V u

→ Q → 2V → u

C E U

→ → →

C/2 E 2U

(E = V ) d (U = u · volume)

(2) Capacitor connected to a battery: Potential diﬀerence between capacitor plates remains constant. 1 1 1 1 Unew = Cnew ∆V 2 = · Cold ∆V 2 = Uold 2 2 2 2 ∴ In pulling the plates apart, work done by battery < 0 Summary : Q V u → → → Q/2 V u/4 C E U → → → C/2 E/2 U/2

5.5. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT

57

5.5

Dielectric Constant

We ﬁrst recall the case for a conductor being placed in an external E-ﬁeld E0 .

In a conductor, charges are free to move inside so that the internal E-ﬁeld E set up by these charges E = −E0 so that E-ﬁeld inside conductor = 0.

Generally, for dielectric, the atoms and molecules behave like a dipole in an E-ﬁeld. Or, we can envision this so that in the absence of E-ﬁeld, the direction of dipole in the dielectric are randomly distributed.

5.6. CAPACITOR WITH DIELECTRIC The aligned dipoles will generate an induced E-ﬁeld E , where |E | < |E0 |. We can observe the aligned dipoles in the form of induced surface charge.

58

Dielectric Constant : When a dielectric is placed in an external E-ﬁeld E0 , the E-ﬁeld inside a dielectric is induced. E-ﬁeld in dielectric E= 1 E0 Ke ≥1

Ke = dielectric constant Example : Vacuum Porcelain Water Perfect conductor Air Ke Ke Ke Ke Ke

=1 = 6.5 ∼ 80 =∞ = 1.00059

5.6

Capacitor with Dielectric

Case I :

Again, the charge remains constant after dielectric is inserted. 1 BUT: Enew = Eold Ke 1 ∆Vold ∴ ∆V = Ed ⇒ ∆Vnew = Ke Q ∴ C= ⇒ Cnew = Ke Cold ∆V For a parallel-plate capacitor with dielectric: C= Ke 0 A d

E = ⇒ E = σ 0 (Chapter 3 note) (σ = charge per unit area = Q/A) Q 0A After insertion of dielectric: E = But E-ﬁeld remains constant! ∴ E Q = Ke Ke 0 A Q Ke 0 A Q 0A E =E ⇒ = ⇒ Q = Ke Q > Q .6. CAPACITOR WITH DIELECTRIC We can also write = Ke (Recall 0 59 C= 0 A d in general with (called permittivity of dielectric) = Permittivity of free space) Q2 Energy stored U = . Recall: For conductors. In both scenarios. 2C 1 ∴ Unew = Uold < Uold Ke ∴ Work done in inserting dielectric < 0 Case II : Capacitor connected to a battery Voltage across capacitor plates remains constant after insertion of dielectric.5. the E-ﬁeld inside capacitor remains constant ( E = V /d) BUT: How can E-ﬁeld remain constant? ANSWER: By having extra charge on capacitor plates.

7 Gauss’ Law in Dielectric The Gauss’ Law we’ve learned is applicable in vacuum only. GAUSS’ LAW IN DIELECTRIC Capacitor C = Q/V 1 Energy stored U = 2 CV 2 (i. (3) ∴ Ke 0 A 0A 0A ∴ S 0 (2) Induced charge density σ = Q 1 =σ 1− <σ A Ke where σ is free charge density. we deﬁne E = (3) Ke Q Q Q = − From (1).5. Let’s use the capacitor as an example to examine Gauss’ Law in dielectric.7. Free charge on plates Induced charge on dielectric ±Q 0 ˛ Gauss’ Law Q E · dA = ˛ S ±Q Q Gauss’ Law: Q−Q E · dA = Q−Q E = 0A 0 Q ⇒ E0 = (1) ∴ 0A E0 However. Recall Gauss’ Law in Dielectric: ˛ E · dA = 0 S Q ↑ free charge − Q ↑ induced charge ↑ E-ﬁeld in dielectric . Unew > Uold ) ∴ ∴ 60 ⇒ ⇒ C → Ke C U → Ke U Work done to insert dielectric > 0 5. (2).e.

5. even for dielectric where there are induced charges. (1) This goes back to the Gauss’ Law in vacuum with E = (3) Another way to write: ˛ E · dA = S Q is Permittivity where E is E-ﬁeld in dielectric. . recall U= 1 CV 2 2 Ke 0 A C= d V = Ed ∴ Energy stored per unit volume: ue = U 1 = Ke 0 E 2 Ad 2 and udielectric = Ke uvacuum ∴ More energy is stored per unit volume in dielectric than in vacuum.8 Ohm’s Law and Resistance ELECTRIC CURRENT is deﬁned as the ﬂow of electric charge through a cross-sectional area.8. = Ke 0 Energy stored with dielectric: Total energy stored: With dielectric. 5. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE 61 ˛ ⇒ ⇒ ˛ Ke E · dA = S 0 E · dA = Q − Q 1 − ˛S E · dA = S 1 Ke 0 Q Ke Gauss’ Law in dielectric Q 0 Note : E0 for dielectric Ke (2) Only free charges need to be considered.

j = charge ﬂow per unit time per unit area ˆ i= Drift Velocity : j · dA Consider a current i ﬂowing through a cross-sectional area A: ∴ In time ∆t.8.5. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE dQ dt Unit: Ampere (A) = C/second 62 i= Convention : (1) Direction of current is the direction of ﬂow of positive charge. ∴ j = −nevd for metals ∴ Inside metals. (2) Current is NOT a vector. total charges passing through segment: ∆Q = q A(Vd ∆t) n Volume of charge passing through where q is charge of the current carrier. the charge carriers are the free electrons inside. per unit volume ∴ n is density of charge carrier Current: i= ∆Q = nqAvd ∆t Current Density: j = nqvd Note : For metal. j and vd are in opposite direction. conductivity (σ). but the current density is a vector. of a material as: j = σE . We deﬁne a general property.

. is deﬁned as ∴ ρ= 1 σ E = ρj Unit of ρ : Ohm-meter (Ωm) where Ohm (Ω) = Volt/Ampere OHM’S LAW: Ohmic materials have resistivity that are independent of the applied electric ﬁeld. but rather a function of position and applied E-ﬁeld. σ is NOT a constant number. i.8. Note: ∆V = iR is NOT a statement of Ohm’s Law.e. metals (in not too high E-ﬁeld) Example : Consider a resistor (ohmic material) of length L and cross-sectional area A.5. It’s just a deﬁnition for resistance. resistivity (ρ). A more commonly used property. OHM’S LAW AND RESISTANCE 63 Note : In general. ∴ Electric ﬁeld inside conductor: ˆ ∆V = E · ds = E · L j= i A ∴ ⇒ E= ∆V L Current density: E j ∆V 1 ρ = · L i/A ρ = ∆V L =R=ρ i A where R is the resistance of the conductor.

electric potential energy increase by ∆U = ∆Q(V2 − V1 ) = Work done by E Deﬁne E = Work done/charge = V2 − V1 .5. P = i2 R = ∆V 2 R 5. DC CIRCUITS 64 ENERGY IN CURRENT: Assuming a charge ∆Q enters with potential V1 and leaves with potential V2 : ∴ Potential energy lost in the wire: ∆U = ∆Q V2 − ∆Q V1 ∆U = ∆Q(V2 − V1 ) ∴ Rate of energy lost per unit time ∆U ∆Q = (V2 − V1 ) ∆t ∆t Joule’s heating P = i · ∆V = Power dissipated in conductor For a resistor R.9 DC Circuits A battery is a device that supplies electrical energy to maintain a current in a circuit. In moving from point 1 to 2.9.

E = iR ⇒ i= Resistance in combination : Potential diﬀerece (P. DC CIRCUITS Example : 65 Va = Vc Vb = Vd assuming(1) perfect conducting wires.9. By Deﬁnition: Vc − Vd = iR Va − Vb = E ∴ Also.) Va − Vb = (Va − Vc ) + (Vc − Vb ) = iR1 + iR2 ∴ Equivalent Resistance R = R1 + R2 1 1 1 = + R R1 R2 for resistors in series for resistors in parallel . we have assumed(2) E R zero resistance inside battery.5.D.

∴ E = i(R + r) E i = R+r Joule’s heating in resistor R : P = i · (P.D. dP E2 E 2 2R = − dR (R + r)2 (R + r)3 dP E2 =0 ⇒ [(R + r) − 2R] = 0 dR (R + r)3 ⇒ r−R=0 ⇒ R=r Setting . there is an internal resistance that we cannot ignore.5. across resistor R) = i2 R E 2R P = (R + r)2 Question: What is the value of R to obtain maximum Joule’s heating? Answer: We want to ﬁnd R to maximize P.9. DC CIRCUITS Example : 66 For real battery.

e. DC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX CIRCUITS: KIRCHOFF’S LAWS: 67 (1) First Law (Junction Rule): Total current entering a junction equal to the total current leaving the junction. (2) Second Law (Loop Rule): The sum of potential diﬀerences around a complete circuit loop is zero.e. Convention : (i) Va > Vb (ii) ⇒ Potential diﬀerence = −iR i. Potential rises across the negative plate of the battery.9.5. Potential drops across resistors Vb > Va ⇒ Potential diﬀerence = +E i. Example : .

2) (5.2) : 3E0 − 2(i2 + i3 )R − i2 R = 0 ⇒ 3E0 − 3i2 R − 2i3 R = 0 Subtract (5. i.3) (5.4) = (5.e. (5.2) (5.2) + (5.4) (5.1) (5.3) (5.3) : −2E0 + 5 E0 · R − 2i3 R = 0 4 R i2 = 5 E0 · 4 R (5.4).4) .1) (5.3) General rule: Need only 3 equations for 3 current i1 = i2 + i3 3E0 − 2i1 R − i2 R = 0 −2E0 + i2 R − 2i3 R = 0 Substitute (5. DC CIRCUITS 68 By junction rule: i1 = i2 + i3 By loop rule: Loop A ⇒ 2E0 − i1 R − i2 R + E0 − i1 R = 0 Loop B ⇒ −i3 R − E0 − i3 R − E0 + i2 R = 0 Loop C ⇒ 2E0 − i1 R − i3 R − E0 − i3 R − i1 R = 0 BUT: (5.9.3) 3E0 − (−2E0 ) − 3i2 R − i2 R = 0 ⇒ Substitute i2 into (5.3) from (5.1) into (5.5.4)−(5.

i ∴ E =R ⇒ dQ Q 1st order + diﬀerential eqn. across R − Q C P. across C =0 Note: Direction of i is chosen so that the current represents the rate at which the charge on the capacitor is increasing. RC CIRCUITS 3 E0 i3 = − · 8 R 69 ⇒ Substitute i2 .10. 5.1) : i1 = 5 3 E0 7 E0 − = · 4 8 R 8 R Note: A negative current means that it is ﬂowing in opposite direction from the one assumed.D. Q on capacitor = 0 ˆ Q ˆ t dQ dt = 0 EC − Q 0 RC . i3 into (5. dt C dt dQ = EC − Q RC Integrate both sides and use the initial condition: t = 0.10 RC Circuits (A) Charging a capacitor with battery: Using the loop rule: +E0 − iR P.D.5.

(5) As time → ∞. RC CIRCUITS − ln(EC − Q) Q 0 70 = t RC t 0 ⇒ − ln(EC − Q) + ln(EC) = 1 t = Q RC 1 − EC 1 t/RC ⇒ Q = e 1 − EC Q ⇒ = 1 − e−t/RC EC ⇒ Q(t) = EC(1 − e−t/RC ) ⇒ ln Note: (1) At t = 0 . the capacitor is fully charged and current = 0. Q(t = 0) = EC(1 − 1) = 0 t RC (2) As t → ∞ . .10. the capacitor acts like short circuit when there is zero charge on the capacitor.5. it acts like a open circuit. Q(t → ∞) = EC(1 − 0) = EC = Final charge on capacitor (Q0 ) (3) Current: dQ i = dt 1 = EC e−t/RC RC E −t/RC i(t) = e R E = Initial current = i0 i(t = 0) = R i(t → ∞) = 0 (4) At time = 0.

63Q0 e (B) Discharging a charged capacitor: Note: Direction of i is chosen so that the current represents the rate at which the charge on the capacitor is decreasing.5. Q on capacitor = Q0 ˆ Q ˆ t dQ 1 =− dt RC 0 Q0 Q t ⇒ ln Q − ln Q0 = − RC Q t ⇒ ln =− Q0 RC Q = e−t/RC ⇒ Q0 ⇒ Q(t) = Q0 e−t/RC dQ Q0 −t/RC (i = − ) ⇒ i(t) = e dt RC 1 Q0 (At t = 0) ⇒ i(t = 0) = · R C Initial P. It’s the time it takes for the charge to reach (1 − 1 ) Q0 0.D.10. ∴ i=− dQ dt Loop Rule: Vc − iR = 0 Q dQ + R=0 ⇒ C dt dQ 1 ⇒ =− Q dt RC Integrate both sides and use the initial condition: t = 0. across capacitor i0 = V0 R . RC CIRCUITS 71 (6) τc = RC is called the time constant.

5. RC CIRCUITS 72 At t = RC = τ Q(t = RC) = 1 Q0 e 0.10.37Q0 .

they experienced an electric force in an electric ﬁeld. Mathematically.1C charge moving at velocity v = (10ˆ − j −1 ˆ ˆ ˆ + 4k) × 10−4 T 20k)ms in a magnetic ﬁeld B = (−3i F = qv × B .1 Magnetic Field For stationary charges. Magnetic ﬁeld B : Unit = Tesla (T) 1T = 1C moving at 1m/s experiencing 1N Common Unit: 1 Gauss (G) = 10−4 T ≈ magnetic ﬁeld on earth’s surface Example: What’s the force on a 0. they experienced a magnetic force in a magnetic ﬁeld. FE = q E (electric force) FB = qv × B (magnetic force) Direction of the magnetic force determined from right hand rule. For moving charges.Chapter 6 Magnetic Force 6.

(2) Magnitude of E-ﬁeld/B-ﬁeld indicated by density of the ﬁeld lines. ∴ 74 where θ is the angle between v and B B) Magnetic force is maximum when θ = 90◦ (i.e.1. F = qv × B |F | = qvB sin θ.1 (10ˆ − 20k) × (−3ˆ + 4k) × 10−4 N j ˆ = 10−5 (−30 · −k + 40ˆ + 60ˆ + 0)N i j Eﬀects of magnetic ﬁeld is usually quite small. Diﬀereces : (1) FE E-ﬁeld lines. . MAGNETIC FIELD ˆ ˆ i = +0. Example : Chap35. Bﬁeld line forms a closed loop. v Graphical representation of B-ﬁeld: Magnetic ﬁeld lines Compared with Electric ﬁeld lines: Similar characteristics : (1) Direction of E-ﬁeld/B-ﬁeld indicated by tangent of the ﬁeld lines. 180◦ (i.6. v ⊥ B) Magnetic force is minimum (0) when θ = 0◦ . FB ⊥ B-ﬁeld lines (2) E-ﬁeld line begins at positive charge and ends at negative charge. Pg803 Halliday Note: Isolated magnetic monopoles do not exist.e.

We have circular motion. therefore B-ﬁeld only changes the direction of the velocity but not its magnitude. . FB = qv × B = q v⊥ B . Magnetic force provides the centripetal force on the moving charge particles. MOTION OF A POINT CHARGE IN MAGNETIC FIELD 75 6.6.2. Time for moving around one orbit: T = 2πr 2πm = v qB Cyclotron Period (1) Independent of v (non-relativistic) (2) Use it to measure m/q Generally. ∴ v2 r v2 |q| vB = m r mv ∴ r = |q|B FB = m where r is radius of circular motion.2 Motion of A Point Charge in Magnetic Field Since FB ⊥ v. Generally. ∴ We only need to consider the motion component ⊥ to B-ﬁeld. charged particles with constant velocity moves in helix in the presence of constant B-ﬁeld.

they will pass through the crossed E and B ﬁelds without vertical displacement. .E. This separation of charge in the wire is called the Hall Eﬀect.3. Particle Motion in Presence of E-ﬁeld & B-ﬁeld: F = q E + qv × B Special Case : E⊥B Lorentz Force 76 When |FE | = |FB | qE = qvB ⇒ v= E B ∴ For charged particles moving at v = E/B.6. HALL EFFECT Note : (1) B-ﬁeld does NO work on particles. of particles. (2) B-ﬁeld does NOT change K.3 Hall Eﬀect Charges travelling in a conducting wire will be pushed to one side of the wire by the external magnetic ﬁeld. ⇒ velocity selector Applications : • Cyclotron (Lawrence & Livingston 1934) • Measuring e/m for electrons (Thomson 1897) • Mass Spectrometer (Aston 1919) 6.

A is cross-sectional area = width × thickness = W · t ∴ ∆VH i = B W nqW t To determine density of charge carriers ⇒ n= iB qt∆VH Suppose we determine n for a particular metal (∴ q = e).3. where vd is drift velocity ∴ ∆VH = vd B W i = nqAvd Recall from Chapter 5.6. then we can measure B-ﬁeld strength by measuring the Hall voltage: B= net ∆VH i . where n is density of charge carrier. HALL EFFECT 77 The separation will stop when FB experienced by the current carrier is balanced by the force FH caused by the E-ﬁeld set up by the separated charges. Deﬁne : ∆VH = Hall Voltage = Potential diﬀerence across the conducting strip ∆VH E-ﬁeld from separated charges: EH = W where W = width of conducting strip ∴ In equilibrium: q EH + qvd × B = 0.

dF · sin θ ˆ π ∴ Net force F = dF sin θ 0 ˆ π = iRB sin θ dθ 0 F = 2iRB (downward) . Total magnetic force = ( qvd × B ) · force on one charge carrier nAL Total number of charge carrier Recall i = nqvd A ∴ Magnetic force on current F = iL × B where L = Vector of which: |L| = length of current segment.6.4. direction = direction of current For an inﬁnitesimal wire segment dl dF = i dl × B Example 1: Force on a semicircle current loop dl = Inﬁnitesimal arc length element ⊥ B ∴ dl = R dθ ∴ dF = iRB dθ By symmetry argument. we only need to consider vertical forces. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS 78 6. length L. carrying current i in a magnetic ﬁeld.4 Magnetic Force on Currents Current = many charges moving together Consider a wire segment.

6. j Method 2: Write dl in ˆ ˆ components dl = −dl sin θ ˆ + dl cos θ ˆ i j = R dθ (− sin θ ˆ + cos θ ˆ i j) ˆ B = −B k (into the page) ∴ 79 dF = i dl × B = −iRB sin θ dθ ˆ − iRB cos θ ˆ j i ˆ π ∴ F = 0 dF ˆ 0 π ˆ sin θ dθ ˆ + j 0 π = −iRB = −2iRB ˆ j Example 2: Current loop in B-ﬁeld cos θ dθ ˆ i For segment2: F2 = ibB sin(90◦ + θ) = ibB cos θ (pointing downward) For segment4: F2 = ibB sin(90◦ − θ) = ibB cos θ (pointing upward) .4. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS i.

6. MAGNETIC FORCE ON CURRENTS For segment1: F1 = iaB For segment3: F3 = iaB ∴ Net force on the current loop = 0 But.4. net torque on the loop about O = τ1 + τ3 b b = iaB · sin θ + iaB · sin θ 2 2 = i ab B sin θ A = area of loop 80 Suppose the loop is a coil with N turns of wires: Total torque τ = N iAB sin θ Deﬁne: Unit vector n to represent the area-vector (using right hand rule) ˆ Then we can rewrite the torque equation as τ = N iA n × B ˆ Deﬁne: N iA n = µ = Magnetic dipole moment of loop ˆ τ =µ×B .

Chapter 7 Magnetic Field 7. Magnetic ﬁeld B due to moving point charge: B= where µ0 qv × r ˆ µ0 qv × r · = · 4π r2 4π r3 µ0 = 4π × 10−7 Tm/A (N/A2 ) Permeability of free space (Magnetic constant) |B| = µ0 qv sin θ · 4π r2 maximum when θ = 90◦ minimum when θ = 0◦ /180◦ B at P0 = 0 = B at P1 B at P2 < B at P3 However.1 Magnetic Field experiences magnetic force in B-ﬁeld. A moving charge can generate B-ﬁeld. steady currents generate steady B-ﬁeld. stationary charges generate steady E-ﬁeld. . a single moving charge will NOT generate a steady magnetic ﬁeld.

MAGNETIC FIELD 82 Magnetic ﬁeld at point P can be obtained by integrating the contribution from individual current segments.7. (Principle of Superposition) ∴ dB = µ0 dq v × r ˆ · 4π r2 Notice: dq v = dq · ds = i ds dt µ0 i ds × r ˆ · 2 4π r Biot-Savart Law dB = For current around a whole circuit: ˆ ˆ B= dB = entire circuit entire circuit ˆ µ0 i ds × r · 4π r2 Biot-Savart Law is to magnetic ﬁeld as Coulomb’s Law is to electric ﬁeld.1. Basic element of E-ﬁeld: Electric charges dq Basic element of B-ﬁeld: Current element i ds Example 1 : Magnetic ﬁeld due to straight current segment .

1.7. MAGNETIC FIELD 83 ∴ |ds × r | ˆ = dz sin φ = dz sin(π − φ) (Trigonometry Identity) d d · dz = dz · = √ 2 r d + z2 dB = ∴ µ0 i dz d µ0 i d dz · 2 · = · 2 4π r r 4π (d + z 2 )3/2 ˆ L/2 ˆ µ0 id +L/2 dz B= dB = 2 + z 2 )3/2 4π −L/2 (d −L/2 µ0 i 4πd µ0 i B = 4πd B = +L/2 z (z 2 + d2 )1/2 −L/2 L · L2 ( 4 + d2 )1/2 · Limiting Cases : When L d (B-ﬁeld due to long wire) −1/2 L2 + d2 4 ∴ ≈ L2 4 −1/2 = 2 L B= µ0 i direction of B-ﬁeld determined . 2π 0 d Example 2 : A circular current loop . from right-hand screw rule 2πd Recall : E = λ for an inﬁnite long line of charge.

B= µ0 iR2 2z 3 1 + R2 z2 3/2 ⇒ B= µ0 i 2R ≈ µ0 iR2 1 ∝ 3 3 2z z E= p Recall E-ﬁeld for an electric dipole: 4π 0 x3 ∴ A circular current loop is also called a magnetic dipole. generating B-ﬁeld dB2 so that dB1 sin α = −dB2 sin α ∴ Only vertical component of B-ﬁeld needs to be considered at point P . from right-hand screw rule 2 + z 2 )3/2 2(R Limiting Cases : (1) B-ﬁeld at center of loop: z=0 (2) For z R. ds⊥ˆ r µ0 i ds sin 90◦ dB = · 4π r2 ∴ B-ﬁeld at point P : ˆ B= around circuit dB cos α consider vertical component ∴ B = µ0 i cos α · ds 4πr2 Rdθ 0 ˆ 2π µ0 i R = · ds 4π r3 0 Integrate around circumference of circle = 2πR 2π ˆ ∴ B = µ0 iR2 2r3 B= µ0 iR2 direction of B-ﬁeld determined .1.7. there is an opposite current element ids2 . generating a magnetic ﬁeld dB1 at point P . MAGNETIC FIELD 84 Notice that for every current element ids1 . .

MAGNETIC FIELD (3) A current arc: ˆ B = around circuit 85 dB cos α z=0 ⇒ α = 0 here.1. Consider a solenoid of length L consisting of N turns of wire. N Deﬁne: n = Number of turns per unit length = L Consider B-ﬁeld at distance d from the center of the solenoid: For a segment of length dz. number of current turns = ndz ∴ Total current = ni dz .7. Rθ = length of arc µ0 i R = · · 4π r3 R=r when α = 0 ˆ 0 θ ds Rdθ B = µ0 i θ 4πR Example 3 : Magnetic ﬁeld of a solenoid Solenoid is used to produce a strong and uniform magnetic ﬁeld inside its coils.

7. (Principle of Superposition) . from right-hand screw rule Question : What is the B-ﬁeld at the end of an ideal solenoid? 7.2 Parallel Currents Magnetic ﬁeld at point P B due to two currents i1 and i2 is the vector sum of the B ﬁelds B1 . PARALLEL CURRENTS 86 Using the result from one coil in Example 2. we get B-ﬁeld from coils of length dz at distance z from center: dB = µ0 (ni dz)R2 2r3 However r = R2 + (z − d)2 ˆ ∴ +L/2 B = −L/2 dB ˆ +L/2 −L/2 (Integrating over the entire solenoid) µ0 niR2 = 2 dz [R2 + (z − d)2 ]3/2 L L +d −d µ0 ni 2 2 B = + 2 R2 + ( L + d)2 R2 + ( L − d)2 2 2 along negative z direction Ideal Solenoid : L then ∴ R µ0 ni B= [1 + 1] 2 direction of B-ﬁeld determined B= µ0 ni 2 B = µ0 ni . B2 due to individual currents.2.

there exists another element at −x so that vertical B-ﬁeld components of B+x and B−x cancel. anti-parallel currents repel.7.2. ∴ Magnetic ﬁeld due to dx wire: dB = ∴ µ0 · di 2πr where di = i dx a Total B-ﬁeld (pointing along −x axis) at point P : +a/2 ˆ +a/2 ˆ B= −a/2 dB cos θ = −a/2 µ0 i dx · · cos θ 2πa r . A) 2πd Parallel currents attract. PARALLEL CURRENTS Force Between Parallel Currents : 87 Consider a segment of length L on i2 : µ0 i1 (pointing down) 2πd Force on i2 coming from i1 : B1 = |F21 | = i2 L × B1 = B2 = µ0 i1 2πd (pointing up) ∴ µ0 Li1 i2 = |F12 | (Def ’n of ampere. Example : Sheet of current Consider an inﬁnitesimal wire of width dx at position x.

Gauss’ Law is simple .` 7. we notice that the inverse square force law leads to Gauss’ Law. AMPERE’S LAW 88 Variable transformation (Goal: change r. θ.3 Amp`re’s Law e In our study of electricity. which is useful for ﬁnding E-ﬁeld for systems with high level of symmetry.3. For magnetism. then integrate over θ): d = r cos θ ⇒ r = d sec θ x = d tan θ ⇒ dx = d sec2 θ dθ Limits of integration: −θ0 to θ0 . What’s the B-ﬁeld between & outside the sheets? 7. ∴ where tan θ0 = ˆ ˆ θ0 −θ0 θ0 a 2d µ0 i B = 2πa = d sec2 θ dθ · cos θ d sec θ µ0 i dθ 2πa −θ0 µ0 iθ0 µ0 i a B = = tan−1 πa πa 2d Limiting Cases : (1) d a a 2d µ0 i B= 2πa tan θ = ⇒ θ≈ a 2d ∴ B-ﬁeld due to inﬁnite long wire (2) d a (Inﬁnite sheet of current) tan θ = ∴ a → ∞ 2d µ0 i 2a ⇒ θ= π 2 B= Constant! Question : Large sheet of opposite ﬂowing currents. x to d.

˛ B · ds = µ0 (i1 − i3 + i4 − i4 ) C = µ0 (i1 − i3 ) Applications of the Ampere’s Law : (1) Long-straight wire Construct an Amperian curve of radius d: By symmetry argument.3. AMPERE’S LAW ‹ S 89 ˛ B · dA = 0 S There is no magnetic monopole. A more useful law for calculating B-ﬁeld for highly symmetric situations is the Amp`re’s Law: e ˛ ˛ B · ds = µ0 i C C ˛ = Line intefral evaluated around a closed loop C C (Amperian curve) i = Net current that penetrates the area bounded by curve C ∗ (topological property) Convention : Use the right-hand screw rule to determine the sign of current. we know B-ﬁeld only has tangential component ˛ ∴ B · ds = µ0 i C .` 7.

1 Example 1) B= (2) Inside a current-carrying wire Again.` 7. AMPERE’S LAW Take ds to be the tangential vector around the circular path: ∴ 90 B · ds = B ds ˛ B ds = µ0 i C Circumference of circle = 2πd ∴ B-ﬁeld due to long.3. . straight current B(2πd) = µ0 i µ0 i 2πd (Compare with 7. symmetry argument implies that B is tangential to the Amperian curve and ˆ B → B(r)θ Consider an Amperian curve of radius r(< R) ˛ ˛ B · ds = B ds = B(2πr) = µ0 iincluded C But iincluded ∝ cross-sectional area of C iincluded πr2 = i πR2 r2 i iincluded = R2 B= µ0 i ·r ∝r 2πR2 ∴ ∴ ∴ Recall: Uniformly charged inﬁnite long rod (3) Solenoid (Ideal) Consider the rectangular Amperian curve 1234.

3.763) (ii) B-ﬁeld everywhere inside the solenoid is a constant. (for ideal solenoid) (4) Toroid (A circular solenoid) By symmetry argument. ˛ ˛ B · ds = B ds = B · 2πr = µ0 (N i) C C ∴ B= µ0 N i 2πr inside toroid . AMPERE’S LAW ˛ B · ds = C 91 ˆ B · ds + 1 2 & ˆ & B ·& + & ds & ˆ 3 & & B ·& + & ds & ˆ 4 & & B ·& & ds & ˆ = 2 ˆ 4 =0 ˆ 3 B · ds = 0 inside solenoid B = 0 outside solenoid B = 0 outside solenoid ˆ B · ds = B · ds = Bl = µ0 itot 1 =0 ˛ C ∴ But itot = nl ·i Number of coils included ∴ B = µ0 ni Note : (i) The assumption that B = 0 outside the ideal solenoid is only approximate. Pg. the B-ﬁeld lines form concentric circles inside the toroid. (Halliday. Take Amperian curve C to be a circle of radius r inside the toroid.` 7.

in the central cavity B = 0 7. i.4.4 Magnetic Dipole Recall from §6. magnetic ﬁeld at point P (height z above the ring) B= µ0 iR2 n ˆ µ0 µ = 2 + z 2 )3/2 2 + z 2 )3/2 2(R 2π(R .7. we use it for current loops of all shapes. Recall from §7.4. A common and symmetric example: circular current. we deﬁne the magnetic dipole moment of a rectangular current loop µ = N iAˆ n where n = area unit vector with direction ˆ determined by the right-hand rule N = Number of turns in current loop A = Area of current loop This is actually a general deﬁnition of a magnetic dipole.1 Example 2. MAGNETIC DIPOLE Note : (i) B = constant inside toroid (ii) Outside toroid: Take Amperian curve to be circle of radius r > R. ˛ ˛ B · ds = B ds = B · 2πr = µ0 · iincl = 0 C C 92 ∴ B=0 Similarly.e.

4π 0 z 3 due to electric dipole (for z d) E= p 93 µ0 µ 2πz 3 due to magnetic dipole (for z R) Also.5. . It applies to any magnetic dipole in general. notice µ = magnetic dipole moment µ0 = Permeability of free space = 4π × 10−7 Tm/A Unit: Am2 J/T 7. it experiences a torque τ = µ × B .7.5 Magnetic Dipole in A Constant B-ﬁeld In the presence of a constant magnetic ﬁeld. we have shown for a rectangular current loop. MAGNETIC DIPOLE IN A CONSTANT B-FIELD At distance z B= R.

∴ Similar to electric dipole in a E-ﬁeld.7. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 94 External magnetic ﬁeld aligns the magnetic dipoles. (2) In a non-uniform external B-ﬁeld. (refer to Chapter 2) dW = −dU. However. P ∴ ”Current” i = where P is period of one orbit around nucleus . e .6. electrons revolve around a positive nuclear. where U is potential energy of dipole U = −µ · B Note : (1) We cannot deﬁne the potential energy of a magnetic ﬁeld in general. we can consider the work done in rotating the magnetic dipole. we can deﬁne the potential energy of a magnetic dipole in a constant magnetic ﬁeld. the magnetic dipole will experience a net force (not only net torque) 7.6 Magnetic Properties of Materials Recall intrinsic electric dipole in molecules: Intrinsic dipole (magnetic) in atoms: In our classical model of atoms.

65 × 10−27 ≈ µB So can there be induced magnetic dipole? .6. l = N · h 2π 95 where N = Any positive integer (1. we know that P = l is quantized.63 × 10−34 J · s) ∴ Orbital magnetic dipole moment µl = eh ·N 4mπ Bohr’s magneton µB =9. Quantum mechanics suggests that e− are always spinning and it’s either an ”up” spin or a ”down” spin µe = 9.27×10−24 J/T There is another source of intrinsic magnetic dipole moment inside an atom: Spin dipole moment: coming from the intrinsic ”spin” of electrons..3. . where v is velocity of electron v ∴ Orbit magnetic dipole of atom: ev erv µ = iA = (πr2 ) = 2πr 2 Recall: angular momentum of rotation l = mrv e ·l ∴ µ= 2m In quantum mechanics..2.7. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 2πr .e. ) h = Planck’s constant (6. i.

For magnetic ﬁeld in a material: Bnet = B0 ↑ applied B-ﬁeld 96 Ke ≥ 1 + BM ↑ B-ﬁeld produced by induced dipoles In many materials (except ferromagnets). One more term . Deﬁne : the Magnetization of a material: M= dµ dV where µ is magnetic dipole moment... V is volume (or. ∴ Bnet = B0 + χm B0 = (1 + χm ) B0 κm = 1 + χm Bnet = κm B0 ... Deﬁne : κm is a number called relative permeability. (χm ≥ 0) induced magnetic dipoles aligned with the applied B-ﬁeld. B M = µ0 M Three types of magnetic materials: (1) Paramagnetic: κm ≥ 1 .6. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Recall: for electric ﬁeld Edielectric = Ke Evacuum .. the net magnetic dipole moment per unit volume) In most materials (except ferromagnets). BM ∝ B0 Deﬁne : BM = χm B0 χm is a number called magnetic susceptibility. .7.

2 × 10−5 ). Ni Magnetization not linearly proportional to applied ﬁeld. Co. e. (χm ≤ 0) induced magnetic dipoles aligned opposite with the applied B-ﬁeld.7. NO magnetic ﬁeld inside. Bnet ⇒ not a constant (can be as Bapp big as ∼ 5000 − 100. .2 × 10−5 ). N2 (−5 × 10−9 ) (3) Ferromagnetic: e. Fe.0 × 10−6 ) (2) Diamagnetic: κm ≤ 1 .g. Al (χm = 2.6 × 10−5 ).6. 97 e. O2 (2. Cu (χm ≈ −1 × 10−5 ). Ag (−2. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS .g. Mg (1. 000) Interesting Case : Superconductors χm = −1 A perfect diamagnetic.g.

We can ask: Steady magnetic ﬁeld can give steady electric current. × OR Changing magnetic ﬁeld can give steady electric current. Deﬁne : (1) Magnetic ﬂux through surface S: ˆ Φm = S B · dA Weber (Wb) 1Wb = 1Tm2 Unit of Φm : (2) Graphical: Φm = Number of magnetic ﬁeld lines passing through surface S Faraday’s law of induction: Induced emf |E| = N where N = Number of coils in the circuit. we have shown that steady electric current can give steady magnetic ﬁeld because of the symmetry between electricity & magnetism.Chapter 8 Faraday’s Law of Induction 8.1 Faraday’s Law In the previous chapter. dΦm dt .

If we start from B. LENZ’ LAW 99 B = Constant A = Constant E =0 B = Constant ˆ A = Constant dA/dt = 0 ∴ |E| > 0 ˆ B = Constant dB/dt = 0 A = Constant ∴ |E| > 0 B = Constant A = Constant ˆ dA/dt = 0 ∴ |E| > 0 Note : The induced emf drives a current throughout the circuit. ∴ We cannot deﬁne ∆VAB !! This situation is like when we study the interior of a battery. going to B. the diﬀerence here is that the induced emf is distributed throughout the circuit. If we start from A. The consequence is that we cannot deﬁne a potential diﬀerence between any two points in the circuit. sources of emf non-electric means 8.8.2 Lenz’ Law (1) The ﬂux of the magnetic ﬁeld due to induced current opposes the change in ﬂux that causes the induced current. similar to the function of a battery. then we get VA > VB . . However. going to A. Suppose there is an induced current in the loop.2. charge carriers around the circuit by The loop changing magnetic ﬂux. A battery provides the energy needed to drive the chemical reactions. can we deﬁne ∆VAB ? Recall: ∆VAB = VA − VB = iR > 0 ⇒ VA > VB Going anti-clockwise (same as i). then we get VB > VA .

8.3. Φm ↑ dt ⇒ ⇒ E appears change in Φm ⇒ so that ⇒ B-ﬁeld due to induced current =⇒ (4) Lenz’ Law is a consequence from the principle of conservation of energy. Φm ↓ If dΦm > 0. MOTIONAL EMF 100 (2) The induced current is in such a direction as to oppose the changes that produces it.8. .3 Motional EMF Let’s try to look at a special case when the changing magnetic ﬂux is carried by motion in the circuit wires. Consider a conductor of length L moving with a velocity v in a magnetic ﬁeld B. (3) Incorporating Lentz’ Law into Faraday’s Law: E = −N dΦm dt Induced current appears.

⇒ Power is dissipated in the circuit.3. magnetic ﬂux) . The motional emf can drive an electric current i in the U-shape conductor. suppose the moving wire slides without friction on a stationary U-shape conductor. area enclosed by circuit) ( BA = Φm .8. we need to apply an external force: Fext = −Fm = iLB ∴ (pointing right) Power required to keep the rod moving: Pin = Fext · v = iBLv dx = iBL dt d(xL) = iB dt d(BA) = i dt ( xL = A. ⇒ Pout = V i (Joule’s heating) (see Lecture Notes Chapter 4) What is the source of this power? Look at the forces acting on the conducting rod: • Magnetic force: Fm = iL × B Fm = iLB (pointing left) • For the rod to continue to move at constant velocity v. MOTIONAL EMF Hall Eﬀect for the charge carriers in the rod: FE + FB = 0 ⇒ q E + qv × B = 0 ⇒ E = −v × B Hall Voltage inside rod: ∆V ∆V ∴ 101 (where E is Hall electric ﬁeld) ˆ = − 0 L E · ds = −EL Hall Voltage : ∆V = vBL Now.

e.8. steam produced by burner. ∴ 102 Pin + Pout = 0 dΦm iV + i = 0 dt ⇒ V =− dΦm dt We ”prove” Faraday’s Law Applications : (1) Eddy current: moving conductors in presence of magnetic ﬁeld Induced current E2 R ⇒ Extra power input to keep moving ⇒ Power lost in Joule’s heating To reduce Eddy currents: (2) Generators and Motors: Assume that the circuit loop is rotating at a constant angular velocity ω.3. (Source of rotation.g. MOTIONAL EMF Since energy is not being stored in the system. water falling from a dam) .

MOTIONAL EMF Magnetic ﬂux through the loop Number of coils 103 ↓ ´ ΦB = N B · dA = N BA cos θ loop ↓ changes with time! θ = ωt ∴ ΦB = N BA cos ωt dΦB dt E R d (cos ωt) dt = N BAω sin ωt = −N BA = N BAω sin ωt R Induced emf: E = − Induced current: i = Alternating current (AC) voltage generator Power has to be provided by the source of rotation to overcome the torque acting on a current loop in a magnetic ﬁeld. µ τ = N i A ×B ∴ τ = N iAB sin θ .3.8.

An electric motor is simply a generator operating in reverse. ⇒ Rotation of the coil leads to an induced emf. Eind . the induced E-ﬁeld will still accompany a change in magnetic ﬂux. Eind ↑. (Lenz’ Law) ∴ i= E − Eind R ⇒ ∴ As motor speeds up. ∴ i ↓ mechanical power delivered = torque delivered = N iAB sin θ ↓ In conclusion. in the direction opposite of that of the battery. we can show that Pelectric = i2 R + Pmechanical Electric power input Mechanical power delivered 8.8. resulting from an induced E-ﬁeld. . However.4. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD The net eﬀect of the torque is to oppose the rotation of the coil. ⇒ Replace the load resistance R with a battery of emf E. there is a current in the coil.4 Induced Electric Field So far we have discussed that a change in magnetic ﬂux will lead in an induced emf distributed in the loop. 104 With the battery. and it experiences a torque in the B-ﬁeld. even in the absence of the loop (so that there is no induced current).

H. = Integral around a closed loop C R.e. = Integral over a surface bounded by C Direction of dA determined by direction of line integration C (Right-Hand Rule) . Work done by induced E-ﬁeld = q0 Eind · 2πr f orce distance Recall work done also equals to q0 E.S.S. The induced E-ﬁeld only has tangential components. Eind is induced E-ﬁeld.4. where E is induced emf ∴ E = Eind 2πr ˛ Generally. ∴ Faraday’s Law becomes ˛ ˆ d Eind · ds = − B · dA dt C S L. (i. radial E-ﬁeld = 0) Why? Imagine a point charge q0 travelling around the circular path.8. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD 105 ∴ Consider a circular path in a region with changing magnetic ﬁeld.H. s is tangential vector of path. E= Eind · ds ¸ where is line integral around a closed loop.

e.g. observer in the reference frame of the moving loop. 34-7) . will NOT see an induced E-ﬁeld. potential has no meaning) ⇓ Non-conservative force ﬁeld The classiﬁcation of electric and magnetic eﬀects depend on the frame of reference of the observer. INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD 106 ”Regular” E-ﬁeld created by charges E-ﬁeld lines start from +ve and end on −ve charge Induced E-ﬁeld created by changing B-ﬁeld E-ﬁeld lines form closed loops can deﬁne electric potential so that we can discuss potential diﬀerence between two points ⇓ Conservative force ﬁeld Electric potential cannot be deﬁned (or.4. just a ”regular” E-ﬁeld. For motional emf. (Read: Halliday Chap.8.33-6.

Chapter 9 Inductance 9. 1H=1· Vs A • All circuit elements (including resistors) have some inductance. toroids • circuit symbol: Example : Solenoid EL = VB − VA = −L ∴ VB < VA di <0 dt EL = VB − VA = −L VB > VA di >0 dt . • Commonly used inductors: solenoids. does it lead to an induced emf in the same circuit? YES! Self-Inductance The inductance L of any current element is EL = ∆VL = −L Unit of L: Henry(H) di dt The negative sign comes from Lenz Law. We have shown earlier that a changing B-ﬁeld will lead to an induced emf in a circuit.1 Inductance An inductor stores energy in the magnetic ﬁeld just as a capacitor stores energy in the electric ﬁeld. Question : If a circuit generates a changing magnetic ﬁeld.

like the capacitance. not on i. Alternative deﬁnition of Inductance: − ∴ d di (N ΦB ) = −L dt dt ⇒ L= N ΦB i Inductance is also ﬂux linkage per unit current.9. INDUCTANCE Recall Faraday’s Law. Calculating Inductance: (1) Solenoid: To ﬁrst order approximation. Consider a subsection of length l of the solenoid: Flux linkage = N ΦB = nl · BA where A is cross-sectional area N ΦB L= = µ0 n2 lA i ∴ L = µ0 n2 A = Inductance per unit length l Notice : (i) L ∝ n2 (ii) The inductance. depends only on geometric factors. . B = µ0 ni where n = N/L = Number of coils per unit length. EL = −N dΦB d = − (N ΦB ) dt dt 108 ∴ where ΦB is magnetic ﬂux. N ΦB is ﬂux linkage.1.

Inductance with magnetic materials : We showed earlier that for capacitors: E → E/κe C → κe C For inductors. we ﬁrst know that B → κm B Inductance However L= (after insertion of magnetic material) (after insertion of dielectric κe > 1) N ΦB ˆi ΦB = B · dA → κm ΦB . Inside the toroid: µ0 iN 2πr (NOT a constant) B= where r is the distance from center.9. INDUCTANCE (2) Toroid: 109 Recall: B-ﬁeld lines are concentric circles. Outside the toroid: B=0 Flux linkage through the toroid ˆ N ΦB = N B · da ˆ µ0 iN 2 b h dr = 2π r a 2 µ0 iN h b = ln 2π a ∴ Notice B da Write da = h dr KEY Inductance L ∝ N2 L= N ΦB µ0 N 2 h b = ln i 2π a Again.1.

By loop rule (clockwise) : E0 − ∆VR + ∆VL = 0 ↓ ↓ di E0 − iR − L = 0 dt di R E0 First Order Diﬀer∴ + i= ential Equation dt L L Similar to the equation for charging a capacitor! (Chap5) Solution: i(t) = E0 1 − e−t/τL R where τL = Inductive time constant = L/R ∴ |∆VR | = iR = E0 (1 − e−t/τL ) di E0 1 |∆VL | = L = L· · · e−t/τL = E0 e−t/τL dt R τL . ﬁll the interior of inductor with ferromagnetic materials. LR CIRCUITS ∴ ∴ 110 L → κm L (after insertion of magnetic material) To increase inductance. (×103 − 104 ) 9.2.9.2 LR Circuits (A) ”Charging” an inductor When the switch is adjusted to position a.

inductor acts like short circuit when current ﬂowing is stablized at maximum.2.). current i = E0 /R is ﬂowing in the circuit.9. At t → ∞. Inductors are used everyday in switches for safety concerns. inductor acts like open circuit when current ﬂowing is zero. Summary : During charging of inductor. . 1.e. LR CIRCUITS 111 (B) ”Discharging” an inductor When the switch is adjusted at position b after the inductor has been ”charged” (i. 3. 2. At t = 0. By loop rule: ∆VL − ∆VR = 0 ↓ ↓ di −L − iR = 0 dt (Treat inductor as source of emf) ∴ di R + i=0 dt L Discharging a capacitor (Chap5) i(t) = i0 e−t/τL where i0 = i(t = 0) = Current when the circuit just switch to position b.

For a portion l of the solenoid. we know from §8. Recall the equation for charging inductors: E0 − iR − L Multiply both sides by i : E0 i Power input by emf (Energy supplied to one charge = qE0 ) ∴ di =0 dt di dt = i2 R Joule’s heating (Power dissipated by resistor) + Li Power stored in inductor dUB di Power stored in inductor = = Li dt dt Integrating both sides and use initial condition At t = 0.3 Energy Stored in Inductors Inductors stored magnetic energy through the magnetic ﬁeld stored in the circuit. ∴ i(t = 0) = UB (t = 0) = 0 1 2 Li 2 Energy stored in inductor: UB = Energy Density Stored in Inductors : Consider an inﬁnitely long solenoid of cross-sectional area A.9. L = µ0 n2 lA ∴ Energy stored in inductor: UB = 1 2 1 Li = µ0 n2 i2 lA 2 2 Volume of solenoid ∴ Energy density (= Energy stored per unit volume) inside inductor: uB = UB 1 = µ0 n2 i2 lA 2 Recall magnetic ﬁeld inside solenoid (Chap7) B = µ0 ni ∴ uB = B2 2µ0 This is a general result of the energy stored in a magnetic ﬁeld. ENERGY STORED IN INDUCTORS 112 9.3. .1.

4.4 LC Circuit (Electromagnetic Oscillator) Initial charge on capacitor = Q Initial current = 0 No battery.2) Combining equations (9. we also know the ”poles” of the inductor. no energy is dissipated in the circuit.2). Assume current i to be in the direction that increases charge on the positive capacitor plate.1) and (9. dQ ⇒ i= (9. Energy contained in the circuit is conserved. Loop rule: VC + VL = 0 Q di − −L = 0 C dt (9.9. ∴ dU =0 dt Q dQ di ⇒ · + L¡ = 0 i C dt dt ( i= dQ ) dt .1) dt By Lenz Law. LC CIRCUIT (ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATOR) 113 9. we get d2 Q 1 + Q=0 dt2 LC This is similar to the equation of motion of a simple harmonic oscillator: d2 x k + x=0 2 dt m Another approach (conservation of energy) Total energy stored in circuit: U = UE ↓ Q2 U = 2C ∴ UB ↓ 1 2 + Li 2 + Since the resistance in the circuit is zero.

Q(t = 0). (Two initial conditions. e. and i(t = 0) = dQ are required.g.9. φ are constants derived from the initial conditions.4. Q0 .) dt t=0 Energy stored in C = Energy stored in L = Lω 2 = ∴ 1 2 Li = 2 = Q2 2C = 1 C Total energy stored = = Q2 0 cos2 (ωt + φ) 2C 1 Lω 2 Q2 sin2 (ωt + φ) 0 2 Q2 0 sin2 (ωt + φ) 2C Q2 0 2C Initial energy stored in capacitor . LC CIRCUIT (ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATOR) ⇒ L ⇒ di Q + =0 dt C d2 Q 1 Q=0 + 2 dt LC 114 The solution to this diﬀerential equation is in the form Q(t) = Q0 cos(ωt + φ) dQ = −ωQ0 sin(ωt + φ) ∴ dt d2 Q = −ω 2 Q0 cos(ωt + φ) 2 dt = −ω 2 Q ∴ d2 Q + ω2Q = 0 2 dt ω2 = 1 LC Angular frequency of the LC oscillator ∴ Also.

Vol1.5 RLC Circuit (Damped Oscillator) In real life circuit. energy stored in the LC oscillator is NOT conserved. and i (Joule’s heating) ∴ Li di Q dQ + · = −i2 R dt C dt d2 Q R dQ 1 + · + Q=0 dt2 L dt LC This is similar to the equation of motion of a damped harmonic oscillator (e. In this case.) Check this at home: What is UE (t) + UB (t) for the case when damping is small? (i. Chap17 for more details. if a mass-spring system faces a frictional force F = −bv). dU = Power dissipated in the resistor = −i2 R dt Negative sign shows that energy U is decreasing. Solution to the equation is in the form Q(t) = eλt If damping is not too big (i. RLC CIRCUIT (DAMPED OSCILLATOR) 115 9. solution would become ⇒ Q(t) = Q0 e− 2L t cos(ω1 t + φ) exponential oscillating decay term term R where 2 ω1 = 1 R − LC 2L R 2 ω1 = ω 2 − 2L 2 2 Damped oscillator always oscillates at a lower frequency than the natural frequency of the oscillator.e. R not too big).g. R ω) .e. there’s always resistance.5. (Refer to Halliday.9.

Our goal is to determine im and φ. This is similar to a driven (damped) oscillator. we can write E = Em sin ωt And we can write i = im sin(ωt − φ) where im is current amplitude. d2 Q dQ 1 +R + Q = Em sin(ωt + δ) 2 dt dt C The general solution consists of two parts: L transient : rapidly dies away in a few cycles (not interesting) steady state : Q(t). E = Em sin(ωt + δ) Note : This circuit is the RLC circuit with one additional element : the time varying AC power supply. i(t) varies sinusoidally with the same frequency as input 1 R 2 2 Note : Current does NOT vary at frequency ω1 = − LC 2L Since we only concern about the steady state solution.e.Chapter 10 AC Circuits 10. φ is phase constant. Recall that an AC generator described in Chapter 9 generates a sinusoidal emf. .1 Alternating Current (AC) Voltage i. therefore we can take any time as starting reference time = 0 For convenience.

10. V for R.2 Phase Relation Between i. PHASE RELATION BETWEEN I. ∴ ∆VR = (∆VR )m sin(ωt − φ) (∆VR )m = im R ”Ohm’s Law like” relation for AC resistor . V FOR R. (2) Projection of a phasor onto the vertical axis gives instantaneous value. i.e. (3) Convention: Phasors rotate anti-clockwise in a uniform circular motion with angular velocity. Graphically.L AND C 117 10.L and C (A) Resistive Element ∆VR = VA − VB = iR ∆VR = im R sin(ωt − φ) ∴ ∆VR and i are in phase.2. we introduce phasor diagrams properties of phasors: (1) Length of a phasor is proportional to the maximum value. what’s inside the ”sine bracket” (phase) is the same for ∆VR and i.

10. V FOR R.L AND C 118 (B) The Inductive Element Potential drop across inductor ∆VL = VA − VB = −EL = L ∴ di dt π )] 2 ∆VL = Lim ω cos(ωt − φ) π ) 2 π = im XL sin(ωt − φ + ) 2 = Lim ω sin(ωt − φ + (∆VL )m = im XL [ cos θ = sin(θ + ”Ohm’s Law like” relation for AC inductor where XL = Inductive Reactance XL = ωL As i ↑. VA < VB ∆VL i leads lags i ∆VL ∴ ∆VL > 0 ∴ ∆VL < 0 by by π 2 π 2 (C) Capacitive Element Q C ∆VC = VA − VB = . VA > VB i ↓. PHASE RELATION BETWEEN I.2.

3 Single Loop RLC AC Circuit Given that E = Em sin ωt. we want to ﬁnd im and φ so that we can write i = im sin(ωt − φ) Loop rule: E − ∆VR − ∆VL − ∆VC = 0 ⇒ E = ∆VR + ∆VL + ∆VC . ˆ dQ ∴ i= ⇒ Q = i dt dt ˆ = im sin(ωt − φ) dt = − ∴ 119 im cos(ωt − φ) ω ∆VC = − im cos(ωt − φ) ωC π = im XC sin(ωt − φ − ) 2 ∴ [ − cos θ = sin(θ − π )] 2 (∆VC )m = im XC ”Ohm’s Law like” relation for AC capacitor where XC = 1 = Capacitive Reactance ωC ∆VC i lags leads i ∆VC by by π 2 π 2 10.3.10. SINGLE LOOP RLC AC CIRCUIT where Q = charge on the positive plate of the capacitor.

S. . Then im = Check : R. B = φ = im Z sin(ωt − φ + φ) = im z sin ωt = L. Take tan φ = XL − XC R 2. SINGLE LOOP RLC AC CIRCUIT Using results from the previous section. 3. = im Z R XL − XC sin(ωt − φ) + cos(ωt − φ) Z Z = im Z cos φ sin(ωt − φ) + sin φ cos(ωt − φ) Em Z or Em = im Z ”Ohm’s Law like” relation for AC RLC circuits Use the relation: sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B Here: A = ωt − φ.10. Deﬁne Z = R2 + (XL − XC )2 as the impedance of the circuit.S. if Em = im Z Phasor Approach : QED. we can write Em sin ωt = im R sin(ωt − φ) +im XL cos(ωt − φ) − im XC cos(ωt − φ) 120 Em sin ωt = im R sin(ωt − φ) + (XL − XC ) cos(ωt − φ) Answer : 1.3.H.H.

(In US.4. Z= R2 + (XL − XC )2 = R2 + ωL − 1 ωC 2 is at a minimum for a ﬁxed ω when XL − XC = ωL − ⇒ ⇒ 1 = 0 ωC 1 ωL = ωC 1 ω2 = LC same as that for a RLC circuit In Hong Kong. RESONANCE 121 10.4 Resonance Em im = is at maximum for an AC circuit of ﬁxed input frequency ω when Z Z is at minimum.5 Power in AC Circuits P = i2 R = i2 R sin2 (ωt − φ) m Consider the Power dissipated by R in an AC circuit: The average power dissipated in each cycle: ´ 2π/ω P dt 2π Pave = 0 ( is period of each cycle) 2π/ω ω ˆ 0 2π/ω ˆ P dt = i2 R m ˆ = i2 R m i2 R m 0 2π/ω sin2 (ωt − φ) dt 1 1 − cos 2(ωt − φ) dt 2 ¨ 2π/ω 0 2π/ω 0 t sin2 (ωt ¨¨ ¨ − φ) = · − ¨¨ 2 ¨ 4ω 1 2π = i2 R · · m 2 ω . is 60Hz. as mentioned in Halliday. the AC power input is 50Hz.) ∴ ω = 2πf = 314.2s−1 10.10.

Em . e. 122 ∴ P = Pave = Average of P over time For sine and cosine functions of time: Average : sin ωt = cos ωt = 0 Amplitude : Peak value. im . (∆VR )m . for whatever quantity x: xm xrms = √ 2 For an AC resistor circuit: P = i2 R = rms 2 Erms R (xm is amplitude) Laws for DC circuits can be used to describe AC circuits if we use rms values for i and E. · · · Root-Mean-Square(RMS) : It’s a measure of the ”time-averaged” deviation from zero.g. POWER IN AC CIRCUITS i2 Pave = m R = i2 R rms 2 where irms = root-mean-square current im irms = √ 2 Symbol : Current is a sinusoidal func. xrms = x2 For sines and cosines. For general AC circuits: E i P = Ei = Em sin ωt · im sin(ωt − φ) = Em im sin ωt [sin ωt cos φ − cos ωt sin φ] P = Em im [ sin2 ωt cos φ − sin ωt cos ωt sin φ ] 1 2 0 (check this!) P P = Em im cos φ 2 = Erms irms cos φ power factor .10.5.

THE TRANSFORMER 123 Recall ∴ tan φ = XL − XC R R cos φ = Z Maximum power dissipated in circuit when cos φ = 1 Two possibilities: (1) XL = XC = 0 (2) XL − XC = 0 ⇒ XL = XC ⇒ ωL = 1 ωC ⇒ ω2 = 1 LC (Resonance Condition) 10. ⇒ HIGH potential diﬀerence across transmission wires.10.) However. (So that total power transmitted P = irms Erms is constant. we’d like to keep irms at minimum.6 The Transformer Power dissipated in resistor P = i2 R rms ∴ For power transmission. for home safety. we would like LOW emf supply. Solution : Transformers Primary : Number of winding = NP .6.

across primary) If NP > NS . Power factor : The varying current ( AC!) in the primary produces an induced emf in the secondary coils. then ∆VP < ∆VS Step-Up Consider power in circuit: iP ∆VP = iS ∆VS In the secondary.10. we have ∆VP = NP NS 2 R · iP ”Equivalence Resistor” = NP NS 2 R .6. we have ∆VS = iS R Combining the 3 equations. THE TRANSFORMER Secondary : Number of winding = NS In primary circuit.D. RP ≈ CP ≈ 0 ∴ 124 Pure inductive cos φ = ∴ R ≈0 Z No power delivered from emf to transformer. then ∆VP > ∆VS Step-Down If NP < NS . Assuming perfect magnetic ﬂux linkage: emf per turn in primary = emf per turn in secondary dΦB = − dt ∆VP NP ∆VS emf per turn in secondary = NS emf per turn in primary = ⇒ ∆VP NP = ∆VS NS (∆VP is P.

where iincl = current passing an area bounded by the closed curve C. ¸ We know that the integral C B · ds around any close loop C is equal to µ0 iincl . = = Flat surface bounded by loop C Curved surface bounded by loop C If Amp`re’s law is true all the time. then the iincl determined should be indee pendent of the surface chosen.7 that we can use Amp`re’s law to calculate magnetic e ﬁelds due to currents.1 Displacement Current We saw in Chap.g.Chapter 11 Displacement Current and Maxwell’s Equations 11. e. .

With Amp`re’s law. Maxwell ﬁrst proposed that this is the missing term for the Amp`re’s law: e ˛ dΦE ) Amp`re-Maxwell law e B · ds = µ0 (iincl + ε0 dt C . Two observations: 1. which leads R to a magnetic ¸ ﬁeld observed B.1. From Chap. 2. C B · ds = µ0 iincl . where Q = charge on ε0 ε0 A capacitor’s plates. A = Area of capacitor’s plates. e BUT WHAT IS iincl ? 126 If we look at If we look at .) ∴ Amp`re’s law is either WRONG or e INCOMPLETE. iincl = 0 ( There is no charge ﬂow between the capacitor plates. there is a timevarying electric ﬁeld between the plates of the capacitor. ∴ ∴ We can deﬁne Q = ε0 E · A = ε0 ΦE Electric ﬂux dQ dΦE = ε0 = idisp dt dt where idisp is called Displacement Current (ﬁrst proposed by Maxwell).11. iincl = i(t) . While there is no current between the capacitor’s plates. We know Amp`re’s law is mostly correct from measurements of B-ﬁeld e around circuits. DISPLACEMENT CURRENT Let’s consider a simple case: charging a capacitor. we know there is a current ﬂowing i(t) = E e−t/RC .5. ⇓ Can we revise Amp`re’s law to ﬁx it? e Electric ﬁeld between capacitor’s plates: E = σ Q = .

ΦE = S E ·da.2.11. ´ ΦE = electric ﬂux through that same surface bounded by curve C. Example What is the magnetic ﬁeld strength inside a circular plate capacitor of radius R with a current I(t) charging it? Answer Electric ﬁeld of capacitor E= Q Q = ε0 A ε0 πR2 . INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELD 127 Where iincl = current through any surface bounded by C. a change in electric ﬂux through a surface bounded by C can lead to an induced magnetic ﬁeld along the loop C. changing magnetic ﬂux We see from Amp`re-Maxwell law that a magnetic ﬁeld can be generated by e moving charges (current) .2 Induced Magnetic Field We learn earlier that electric ﬁeld can be generated by charges . Notes The induced magnetic ﬁeld is along the same direction as caused by the changing electric ﬂux. 11. changing electric ﬂux That is.

3 Maxwell’s Equations The four equations that completely describe the behaviors of electric and magnetic ﬁelds. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS 128 Electric ﬂux inside capacitor through a loop C of radius r: ΦE = E · πr2 = Qr2 ε0 R 2 Amp`re-Maxwell Law inside capacitor: e ˛ dΦE ) B · ds = µ0 (¨¨ + ε0 iincl dt C Binduced ds 2πr Binduced = µ0 ε0 Length of loop C d Qr2 dt ε0 R2 = µ0 r2 dQ R2 dt I(t) ∴ Binduced = µ0 r I(t) 2πR2 for r < R Outside the capacitor plate: Electric ﬂux through loop C: ΦE = E · Q πR2 = ε0 ˛ dΦE ) B · ds = µ0 (iincl + ε0 dt C 2πrBinduced = µ0 ε0 ∴ Binduced = 1 dQ · ε0 dt µ0 I(t) 2πr 11. .11.3.

TV signals. There are small asymmetries though: i) There is NO point ”charge” of magnetism / NO magnetic monopole. UV. microwaves. radio.. known as electromagnetic waves (EM waves). ii) Direction of induced E-ﬁeld opposes to B-ﬂux change.11. X-rays. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS ˛ E · da = S ˛ 129 Qincl ε0 B · da = 0 S ˛ C ˛ d E · ds = − dt ˆ B · da S d B · ds = µ0 iincl + µ0 ε0 dt ˆ E · da S C The one equation that describes how matter reacts to electric and magnetic ﬁelds. mobile phone signals.. That’s why the study of electricity and magnetism is also called electromagnetism. Infrared. (2) Maxwell’s equations predicted the existence of propagating waves of E-ﬁeld and B-ﬁeld. This is not true for Newton’s laws! . F = q(E + v × B) Features of Maxwell’s equations: (1) There is a high level of symmetry in the equations. gamma-ray. (3) Maxwell’s equations are entirely consistent with the special theory of relativity. Direction of induced B-ﬁled enhances E-ﬂux change.3. Examples of EM waves: visible light.

- oil can delay
- Voltage Reversal
- Vector Basis Independent
- Matlab Exer
- ch03 statik
- Colun Nitro
- ch03
- Ch1 Electric Force and Field
- Vectors
- Lecture 6
- Gradiance Online Accelerated Learning Sol
- Vectors
- 10.1.1.120.8015.pdf
- 978-1-58503-530-4-2.pdf
- Efficient Analysis of Power Ground Planes Loaded With Dielectric Rods and Decoupling Capacitors by Extended Generalized Multiple Scattering Method
- impedance_measure.pdf
- Allen Test Paper
- Vacuum Circuit Breaker Capacitor Switching Technology
- Untitled
- Lossless
- Protecting Line Card Access Switch Devices
- Xii - Pcm & Pcmc Holiday Assignment
- Notes
- Capacitor Protn
- 60-03 CPR04 Manual Copy
- diycarvs
- Contents
- SRM Institute of Science
- Question Paper - Physics
- selected+problems+ch6 (1)

Read Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading