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McGRAW-I4ILL SERIES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

JACK r. IIOT,MAN, Southern Methodist University

Co1tsu1lin.gEditor

RARRON . Cryogenic System ISC:KERT . hzlroduclion lo Heat and Mar Tran.fer

ECKERT AND DRAKE . Ana1y.ri.r of lien1 and Mos,r 7i-nnsfr.r

ECKEK.~AND DRAKE - Ifen1 attd A4ass 7ian.fer

HAM,

CRANE,

AND RODERS . Mechatlies of Machinery

HARTENRERO AND DENAVIT . Kinen~nlicSynlhesis of I,inkages

rrrNzE . Turbulence

JAconsm AND AYRE . EtlGqineering Vihralior~~ ~~v1NAl.i. Ettgitleering Cot1.1idera1iotl.rn/.Ylrc.~r, .ylrci~,ntzd Slretzgth

KAYS . Co~tveclir~eHeal and Mass Trcrtzsfir LICIIIY . (~'o~nbt~slior~Ettgine' Proce~~es

MAR~N. Kil~~tt~alic~and D!jtian~Lsa/ machine.^

I-IIEL.AN. I)!/~lan~icsqf Machinery

PIIELAN . ~ll~ldfltllelll~l~,~rf n/fecharlim/ I)(rrigtl

RAVEN . Arrlotnnlic Corrlrol En.gineerirtg

SOHP,N(:K . 7'hroric.r ?f Ettgitteeri~lgExpcrir~~enlnlio~l

scrrLlcrr.rrNa . Iloundary-Imyer Theory

si~io~.r:.u. Dyttamic Analysir of Machines

srrlnr.Eu . Kinenmlic Attaly.ris of iffechai~i.snzs

srrtol.eu . Mccltnr~icolEr~~gineerir~Desigrl

s~lior.~:.~. Sin~rrlnliot~nf

S~IT)F(:KI;K . R~/j.igrro/inr~ntld Air (~ondilioni~~g

Mcchnrriral Sy.clcnl.r

noundary-layer Theory

Dr. HERMANN SCHLICHTING

Profresor J3rncrit.11~nt, Llrc ICl~gincrrirrgU~~ivrr~it.~of ~~~IIIIR(.~Iwc~~,Ocr~~lnrl~ Forrner 13ircctor of thc Arrodynnrninclre Vcr~rrclrsnnslnlt (:iittirrgc~~

I'rofe~sor at ljrown

Dr. J. KESTIN

Urlivrmity in Providcr~cc.,ltliodc Ialand

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY New York - St. Louis . San Francisco . Auckland

. BogotL

.

Diisselilorf . Johannesburg . London . Madrid New Uelhi - Pa~iarno. Pnri~l. Siio I'nulo

. Singtrporo

. Mexico . Montrenl

.

Sydnoy

Tokyo . Toronto

., I his I~ookw:rs sr.1 ill 1\111irj11n.'Tllr rtlitor war 1'r:llrlc

,I. Crrrri nllrl (lie protlrlrtio~~s~~prrvisorlvns

,Jolt11 11.'

ll:trlr.

lpirsl p~tl~lisllr<lill 1111.

(:rrlll:~n lollgltngc: 1111~lrr1.111: fril,lc "(:llI':N;SSCIIl(~ll'~-~~II1501<I~"ant1

C'olpyrigltt 1951 1j.v (:. Ijra1111(vnr111.C. I~~~IIIISC~I~~lli~fl~~~~~l~~lr~~'~~kc~r~~i11. \.vrIag)

GIIII)~~,ICaslsr~~l~c

First. cllgIis11 c~liIin11(srro~~cib;fIitir)ll

of t11c br~ok)p~lhlis~~r~lill IS155

Srrotitl IC~~filisl~kCclilir)r~(1701~rl.lr1Cclitio11of Ilrr book) p~~l)lisl~rdin 1960

'I'lrirrl IC~~filisl~Rrlitii,~~(Sixl.11 1Crlilir111of tl~nImok) p~~l~lisl~rtlill I!)liS

Contents

Li~tof 'Tnblcs

Forc\vortl Alltllor'n I'rrfnrr to I.llr Sovclll 11 (I':II~~~P~I) I':[lil.i~ll

l'rnnslntor's

I'ro111 tlrr AIIIII~IV'S Introdurtio~l

1'1~elncoto tllc Scvcl~t,ll(l211glisl1)ICtliIion

I'rcfncc t,o tho I"i~st((irrlnnn) IC(1it.ir111

xiii

XV

nvii

xix

sxi

I

I A. I'IBII~~;IIII~III~~lrtws of n~olia~tfor a visrnrlr fluid

n. I'IIII~:IIIII~II~~~rqltntiollrr of 111otio11ntltl rol~I.il~r~~tynl111lic.rl to lll~itlflon.

I,. (:vllrrnl

c. 'J'11r r;~tcat nl~irll;I Il~titlrlrlnnl~tis ntrnil~rtlill Ilo~v

rl.

r.

nlrrss systclr~it1 n drfnr~~lnhlrbotlg

Ilrl:~t.i~,nI)rt\\nt.n strrsrr ittirl riitv of (lrfor~t~at~io~~ Slokm'n I~y~)otlirsin

f. 131111~viscosit.y nlld ll~rr~~~ocly~~a~~~ir1)rrsnrlrr

g. 'l'lln N:rvior-Stokrs rlrlntionn

Iirfrrrt~c~ra

n.

1).

c. 'I'llc Nn\,irr-Sto1cc.s eqt~nt,iol~sillt(\rl)rntrd as vort.irit,y lr1111~1)ort(.~II:I~~~IIR

rl. '1'11<* lit~li(,i~~gcnsc of vrsy Inrgc visvo8it.y ('cry ulnnll ILcynoltls IIIIIII~I(V')

I)orivnlion of I1rynnltl~'o1)rincil)lc of si~~~ilririt,yfro111tllr N:i\~irr.SI.okrs P~IIII~~IIIIR Frirtiol~lmsflow 11s "nolr~l.io~~s"of tlrc N~cvics-Stoltcncqc~nlio~~s

c. 'I'llr lillliting rnse of very

UIII~IIIV~S~OIIR for~~n(vrry

I. hI:~ll~c~~~:~ticnlill~~str:~lionof I.l~cprocrsn of going to

111rg12 I<ry~~oItIsIIIIIIII)~~~)

I.llr IillliL R -'m

1Zc:fcrrnrex

CIIAPTEII V.

Exnct ~olotionaof the Nnvier-Stokes eq~~ationa

a.

Parallel flow

1.

Parnllel flow tllror~gl~n straight channel and Couetto flow

2.

The Hagen-Poise~~illetl~eoryof flow thro~~gha pipe

3.

The flow between two concentric rotnting cylinders

4.

The n~~ddenlyaccelerated plane wall; Stokes's first problcm

5. I'low

0. Flow in n pipe, start,ing fro~nrest

7. 'The flow near a11 oscillating flat plate; Stolccs's second problem

8. A genernl class of non-steady solutions

fornlat,io~rin Couet,tc motion

b. Other exact solr~t.ions

9. Stngr~ntionin plane flow (FIie~nenzflo~v)

9a. l'n.0-tiin~ensiondIIOII-steadystngnntion flow

10. Stagnntion in three-dimensional flow

11. Flow near a rotating dink

12. k'lo\v in convergent nnd divergent cl~nnnels

1:). Concl~~dingre~nnrk

Refrr~nces

CIIAYL'ER VI.

Very slow rnotion

n.

The d~fircntisleqr~xtionsfor t,he rase of very slow motion

b.

I'nrallel

flow pnst n sphere

c.

The I~ydrodynnrnictheory of I~~bricnt,ion

d.

The llclc-Sllaupflow

Rcfcrolrrs

 

Fort B.

Lnnninnr Lou~~darylnyers

CHAPTER Vll.

l3011ntlary-lnycr eqr~ntionfor

tuo-dirnrnaionnl inrompre~sible flon;

bor~nd:rrylnyer on n plntc

n.

Ikrivation of bortnclnry-lnyer equations for two-dimensional flow

b.

Tile scprr:itio~rof a 1)011ndary layer

c.

i\ renlnrlc on t,l~eir~tegrntionof tl~cbortntlary-layer eqr~ntions

d.

Skin frir:tinn

e.

'Tl~cI)or~nclnrylnycr nlong a flat. plate

I.

I%or~nclnryInyer of I~igirerortlor

11

rfrrcnrrs

11 Flou in tl~rinlrt Ir~~gthof n strnigl~tcl~nnnol

i. Tllr rnctl~o~lor finite diflcrcr~crs

j 13orlndory lnycr of second orcler Rcfrrrnrc~s

\ll X.

,\l)proxi~nntr~nctl~otlsfor tl~rnolnt,ion of t,l~e'two-tli~~~r~~nion:il,strncly

l)c~~~~~cI:~ry.l~iycr~q~~ntinns

n.

,\l)!)lii.nt,io~lof tl~rIIIOIII(.II~IIIII rq~~nli~t~t.o the flow 11:lnL n fI11t 11llbt,e nt mro inc~clcnce

b.

The appr0xi1nat.cmethocl due to 'TII. vo11I<&r~n&nand I<. Pol~llraosenfor two- tli~nensionnlflours

c.

('o~npnrison bct,\r.cen the npproxin~nt.eancl exact uolutior~s

1.

Flnt plate at zero incidence

2.

T~vo-rli;nensionsIst.agnation flow

3.

Flow past n circr~lnrcylintler

d.

I't~rtl~errxiirnplcs

e.

I,IIIII~II~~flow with ntlvcrrrc I>rcssItr(agrr~cliont;~r~~:trnLion

Ilc~frrr~~rcs

XI.

C!FI.ZI"I'IPIl

Axially sytnn~rlrirt~lntlcl tltree-clit~~cr~sic,nnlI,o~~n~l:irylayers

n.

I5x1rct sol~~tionsfor 11xi11lly~y111111rlrirl11I)or~n(lnrylnycrs

 

I.

Ilotatio~~II(-:I~ tllc gror~ntl

2.

'Tile cirrnl:u. jct

3. 'I'lle nxially syn~netric\r-nke

 

4.

Ilor~ndt~ry1nyc.r ~IIn body of rrvolr~t,ion

I).

r\plproxi~nntcse~l~~tionsfor nxinlly syrn~~~otricbo~~ndnry11~~cl-a

I.

.\pl)roxin~n(csol~~tionsfor 0ountl:iry lagers on t~nclics\vhicll do not rotate

2.

lilow ir~the entrnnrc of n pipe

3.

Bo~lndnrylayers on rotating 1)odics of revolut.io~~

c.

Ilrl:~tionbct\veen nxinlly uy~n~nctric:nlnnd two-tlirnc~~sionnlbonodnry Milnglrr'3 trnnsforn~ntion

Inyers;

el.

'~l~rec-~li~~~r~~sie)~~nlI)o1111(1nrylayers

 

1.

l'hr I)o~~ntlnry1:lycr on a yn\vccl cylinder

2.

lior~rltlnrylayers on othcr I~odies

I<rfrrrnrrs

I. I'll< I

I.

'I'l~rrt~~tilIto~~~~tlnrylnycrs in Inn~innrflow

;I.

I).

I)l>riv~ltionof I llc cnrrgy rquntion 'I'r~~~l)cr:~t~~rri~~crcasc:tllror~gl~ndinl)nt.ic co~nprcssion~stngnntion tr~npernt~~re

c. 'I'l~c.ory rrf sitnil:~rityin Ireat trnnsrer

 

rl.

1Ssnct snl~~tionufor tl~cproblcrn of tc~r~pernturerlistribrrtion in n \.iscous flow

I.

1.

Cot~c.ttrflow

a. l)ejw~~(lrnccof t,l~ecl~nrc~ct,rrist.icsof n 11o1111cl:~rylnycr 011 tltc Ilcy~~oldsnr~~nber

I'~~isc~~~illrflow tl~rongl~n rt1:11111rl\vill~flat \vnlla

b. "Sinlilnr" so111t~ionsof tile hornrdnry-layer C~IIRL~OII~

 

c.

Ilo~~~~~l:rry.l~~ycrsin~l)lifirnt.ions

r.

'l'rnnnforn~nt~ionof

t.110 bonntlnry-laycr

cqontions

into

t,ho hcnt-condr~ction

f.

(:rnt%rnl11rol)crticsof thertnal boir~~~lnrylnyers

CI~II~~,~OII

I.

2.

Fnrcrcl :III(~II~I~III.~~fIo\vs

(1.

'I'l~e~non~cnt,r~~nnnd cnorgy-int.cgrnl oq~~ationsfor t,lre l)or~ndnrylaycr

 

.\<Iit~l):~tic\v:~ll

I{.clcrcnt.cn

 

:j. i\~~l~loqI)ct\\rr*nI~(-attrt111sfern11(1slcin frict,ion

 

4. K1fc.r.t Bf I'r:~ncltl nr~rnber

'11111 I

15unrt solr~tionsof the steady-stnk bountlnry-lnyrr rquations

tlirnensinnnl nlotio~~

in two-

g.

'I'~II.~III~I~11n~111darylay(.rs in forced (low

I. I';u.;rllc.l Ilo\v 1):rst a flt~tplntc at, zero incidence

L .\clrlilio~~;~lsi~~~il:~rsol~ltionsof the cqr~ntionsfor tl~crn~nlI)or~ntinrylnyers

t

a.

b. Flon in n convergent cl~annel

c. Flo~v~)nutanylinclcr; nymmet.rical cnso (Blnsi~~sseries)

(I. J301111tlnrylnyer for t.he potentin1 flow given by U(x) = Uo - axn

e. Flow in the mn.lte of flat, plate at zero inridcnce 1. 'Tlrc t.mo-tlimr~~sio~~nllnn~innrjet

g.

I'lo\r

pnst a wrdgr

I'arallrl

sl.~cnlnuin Inminnr llow

:I.

1. 'I'II~~IIIIIIbonn(li~rylnyers on \ra11s \vitlr an arbitrary tcn~peraturedistril)~~tion

5. 'l'l~c~~nirlI>nr~nclnrylayers on rotatiotrally syn~~netrican11 rotating botlirs

13. .llrtrs~~rc~~r~r~~t~on cylinders nntl otl~crbody sl~apcs

7. 1Slti-t:t of frcr-strrnn~t~~rl)nlcnce

'I'l~(.rn~irl1)o1111d:1rylayers on isothcr~nalbodies of nrbitrnry shape

11. 'I'l~crn~i~l1)01111(1:1rylnyers in r~atr~rnlflow l<~~fl~rl~llrl~s

n

Ii. I?rlntion hrl\\.ccn tllr vclocit.y all11 IIlr tr~~~prrnfrrrrfirltln

I'l~ysi(~;ilro~~si~lrrntions

I. A(li:il)nfi(: \v:ill

2. tlr:~t.tr~~~lsfcr(flnt. pl:itr, clpit1.c - 0)

v. 'l71r ll:it, liInt,r 1x1,zrro i~~citlrt~ce

(I. I!OIIII{~:I~~111ycrwit11 11011-zrroprrssllrc grntlicnt

1. Exact. sol~~tionn

I. I. 'l'llc Llli~~g\vorlI~-Stcn.nrlso~~~~:IIIS~CI~III:L~.~~II

I .2. Srlf-si111i1:irso111Iin11s

2. Ap11roxi111:1to111rt11o(lu

P. 111lrr:i(.lio11I~c~l,\vr(*t~sl~o(,lc\v;ivr n11rl lio1111[1:1ryl:iyrr l~~~ll~l~~lll~os

1:

 

I.

IZo~~~~cl:~ry-l:~yrrc-o~~trc)lill 1n111itl:ir(Ion.

n.

hlrtl~o~lsof l)o;i~~~I:~ry-l:iyrrcol~trol

I.

hl(it,io~~of tllr solid wnll

2.

~\<-(~c*lrr:~lin11 or t II(*

Iio1111(1aryInyvr (l)lc~\vi~~g)

3.

SII(*Iin11

4.

It~jc.(.lir111 of n clilli.rri~t,gns

6.

I'rrvrt~lin11t~ftrnllsit io11 Ijy IIIC j~rovisint~ofs~~i(nl~lrsl~nr~rs.I,n~~~it~nr11cr0foi1s

I;.

('ot~li~~gof I II~wnll

I).

lto~~~~(l~~ry-I~ijcrRIIC~~OII

 

I

.

'l'llc~orvliw~lrc:s~~lln

I. I.

I .2.

I.:!. ,\li[iroxi~~~:~lr.?nl~~lio~~s

I~'IIIII~:II~~II~I~~COII~~~OIIR

15xnct SO~II~~OIIS

2. lCx~ic~ri~~~(~~~l:~lrrsttlts oil s~~ctio~~

c,.

2.1. I llrrrasr ill lift.

2.2. I)vl.rrnsc? ill clrng

111jrr.tiri11of ;I dilli.rc*l~lg;ln (I<~II:II.~lio~~~~(l:~ryli~yrrn)

I.

'l'lirorrti(~:~lrrs~ilts

I.

I.

'1.111.

~IIII(I;IIII~III:IIrq11:1lio113

l .2. lCs:~vtsr~I~~lic>t~n.

I .:t, .\~~~ir~isi~~~:~l(~sol~~tio~~n

2.

I~~I)~~~IIIvIII:IIrrs111ts

I?l~ff~l~l~ll<~l~~

1. 1lo1111dnrylityer brhillrl n lnovillg ~lorlnnlsllrivlc ~vnvc:

2. Flnt 11loLe nt, mro ilrcidel~cewith vnrinblc free-8l.rcn1n vclocit.y ntld slrrface tcll~pcrn.t.t~rc

l<<~fcrrlll~(~s

CITA IJ'rl~;ltX Vl.

Pnrl C. Trnnsiliol~

0rigi11of I.II~I)III~II~;oI

n. S~III~c.xl~rrimt.t~lnlrrsl~lh011 Lrnt~~ilio~~~~OIIIIIIIII~IIII~10 t.~~rl)~ilr~~l.flo\v

I.

'I'r1111sitio11in

11ipc flow,

2.

'l'rn11siIi011 ill

1110 bo~~~~dnryliiy(*r011 n ~~liqlIio(ly

I).

I'ri~~rililenof tllc tlleory of st,aliiliLy or Inll~innrIlo\vs

1.

Introtl~rc~t,oryrotllarka

2.

Foundation of tllc ll~etllotlof ~III:LIItlist~crl~anccs

3. 'I'lle Orr-Som~nrrlrltlrql~ntiolr

4. Tl~coigcn\~nl~~oprol)loln

5.

(:cnrrol

propcrbics (IItllr Orr-So~)~r~~rrfrldcrl~lnt~ion

r. Itcsr~llsof tile theory of ntnl)iliL,y nn tllry npj~lyto tllc ~DIIII(~IL~YI~ycrti11 ii 1I:1t plat*? at zero irlcidenco

1.

Sollle oltlrr i~lvcst.igntio~~sinlo st.nl)ilit.y

2.

(Inlc:~ilnt,io~~of bl~cclarvr of iln~~t.rnlnl.nl)ilit.y

3.

I2csr1ll.sfor I.lle llr~tllllitn

11. Co111j)%ris011of t,l~rtl~roryof sliiliilil y \viI,l~rxprri111r111

I. OI(1rr IIIC:~~II~CIII~II~~of l~r:~~~sit,ioi~

2. \'crificnLion

of the I.llrory of nl.;~l)ilit.yl)y rslirri~~~ri~t.

o. I':Ifict, of osciilntil~gfrre strc*ni~~on t,rnnsitioll

f.

C~IITIII~I~II~rr11111rk

I<cferer~ces

CIIIZI"TICII

XVI I.

Origin of t.r~rl~~rlr~)r.cIT

n.

15lTrrt cif [irrsnllre r:rclir~~Lon I.rnnnit.iot~ill I)ortn(lnry I:ylcr ~IOIIK~III(>IIIII\v:~lls

11.

t)ctrri~~inntio~~ol ttr positio~~or thr. ~,nil~tof i11s1ak1ilil.yTor ))rcsc:rilirtl Iiocly sl~;il~c

c.

EITt:rt of suct,ion OII trnl~sitionin :I bor~t~tl:irylayer

tl. I':fTc:ct of

I)ocly forc:c*s on trnneitiol~

 

I.

I!ountl;iry

lnyrr on ~ol~vcx\vnlls (rrnt.rif~rgnlliircrs)

2.

The: flow of ~~on-llo~~~ogr~~mflr~i[ls(strnt,ilic:it,ion)

c.

14;ITc:cl.s

drrr lo 11rt1t.I,r~~llsTt!rnild c:o~nprrssiI)ilit.y

 

I.

1111rotl~~ct,or,yrr111:trk

2.

'Clle ckct of l~catt.rn~lnfc:rit1 i~~co~~~ljrrssilileflow

f.

:I. 'I'lle elTrct or col~~llrmsibilil,y St:~l~ilil.yof :i I~o~i~~rlaryInycr ill tllr prrnr.~lc~of Il~rr.o-~liri~c~nsio~~nl~lisIt~~~l);~r~~~c~

I. Iiloa. hct\vrcl~collcrlrl ric rot:~t.il~g~yli~~(lcrs

2. Uo~t~~rlnrylnyrrs on rollcn\rc \r:~llu

5.)'I'llr i~~fl~~r~~crof rot~pl~~lcs~011 trai~~it.io~~

:!. Stnl~ililyof tl~rc.r-(li~~~n~~sio~~;~II~OIIII(~II~~Inyrrs

I.

111lrotl~~rlr~r.yrrll~nrlz

2.

Si~~glr,ryli~~(lric-t~l1~011gl111csnrlr111r111~

3.

l~isl~rilir~tr~lr011g1111rss

11. Axially sy~l~~~~rIri?:ilIIo\vs

I?vlrrrl~(vi

4.

Qundratr~refor t,hc cnlcnlntint~of plant tr~rb~~lcntboundary layrrs

A

"I

XI X

'I'l~rorrt.icnlnssn~t~plio~~afor Illo cnlcul:~t.ionof turbr~lct~tflows

a. Fr~~rtlnn~cnl~aleq11:11io11u

1).

I'rn11tl1.l'~n~ixit~g-lr~~fillit,l~cnry

c.

l'nrt,l~cr nssutnl~lio118fnr t,l~ctnrl)r~lrnt.sl~c~iringnt.r(;ss

d.

\'o~iI(krn~h.n'nsin~ilnrilyI~ypotl~mis

o.

ITt~ivr~r-x;ilvelocity-ditllrib~~tionInwu

1.

Voi~I(hr~r~:in'svclocil~y-distril)~~Lio~~law

2.

I'1.;111t11.l'avcloei1.y-tlinlrib~~t~ionInw

f.

IC~crll~rrclovclo~)rnc~nl.of t,l~t:orct.icnlhyl~ot,l~enes

Itrfrrc-~~e,rn

(Ill~\Pl'lCI1XX.

I'nrl)ulent flow t.l~ror~ghpipru

a.

Exprri~~~cntnlresillts for 811100th piprs

h.

J<elntion hetween law of frict,ioll and voloeity distribution

c.

IInivcrsnl vclocit,y-di~tribut~ionIti~vsfor very large Reynolds numbers

d.

Ilv~ivr:rsnlresintallre law for slnootl~pipes at very Inrge Rcynoltls n~ln~bers

c.

IJil)cs of IIOII-circ111nrCPORS-~(?C~~O~~

I.

I{ongl~~tipcmnntlcclnivnlc~~t.st~ntlro~~gl~~~ess.

g.

Oll~rrIyl)cx of ro~~gl~~~rse

11.

1"low in ri~rvc~lpipes and tliffi~scrs

i.

No11-slrt~rlyflow 1t.1ro11gl1R pipc

j.

l)r:~gI.~(IIIP~~(IIIl~yt,l~cn~lclit,ionof 110ly111t:rs

I<rfrrcnc,vs

(Illt1l'~l'lSlt XXl.

'l'r~rh~~lrntl)on~rclnrylayrrn

rotnl.ing clink; r011~11ncss

nt

zero

prcsnnre

grntlier~t,;flat plate;

n.

'l'l~cs111oo1l1flnt plntc

I.

J<rnista~~refortn~~lnrlcdncetl fror~~the '/7.th-po\vcr velority-Clint,ril)~~tionlaw

2.

Ilminl.:~nccfor~nr~lntlodr~cetlfron~the lngorithlnic velocity-tlistribt~tiot,law

3.

Iprtr!11rrrefine~nc~~ts

4.

151l'cc~tof finilc clin~ensiot~s;borrnrlnry 1:iyers in rorncrs

5.

1lor111cl:rryInye:rn \vit,h unct.ion rit~tlI)lowi~~g

1).

'l'hc re~tnling disk

I.

'I'l~c"free" clink

2.

'1'11~(lid< in a. I~ortsing

(,. l'l~rrr~~rgl~~llntc

I.

l'llr rrsistn~~celi~r~nt~li\for a n~~ifort~ilyrong11 plntc

2.

hlr:~sr~r.c~~~r~~l.non sil~glcrongl~ncsn0~rll1c11ts

3.

'1'1.n11sition fro111a nl~~ootl~to ti rongl~RII~~~LCO

(I.

t1rl111issiI1lcrt~r~gl~ness

I<t*frrrc*nr~c.s

I

('1lAl"l'lClt

XXI I.

'I'l~rinron~~~rcn~ihlr:t~~rhnlr~~tl~oondai.~layer !vil.l~preqsurc gratlicnt

a. Son~rc~x~~rrit~~rnlolrrsr~ll,s

' I). 'I'l~cc.iiIr~~ln(.ion of t \yo-tlin~rr~siotrnlI r~rl)~~lt*nthonl~dnry10 yrrs

I. (:r~~c.r:~lrcn~nrks

2.

'I'I~III~I((~IIII~~~~II.'~i111rgr:11111c1l1c~l

r.

6.

Apl)lic.ation or tho 111rtllo11

0.

1tc111arkson tho I)cl~avionrof tl~ctr~rbnlcl~tbo~rndnrylayers in t,lle prcnencc of n prcsarlre gratlicnt

7.

l'~~rl)r~lr~~t.Iro~~ntl:trgInyors wit11 snction nnd il~jcctio~i

8.

llortnclnry Inyrra on rr~~~~l)rrrtl\vnlls

I II~I)IIICIII I);)IIII~IL~~III~('~H011 r~~.rofoil~;IVI~X~IIIIIIIIlift

,

.

(1. 'Ll~rc(;.tIin~e~~ni~~~~alI)~)IIIII~JL~,~I:~ycrs

1.

l301111tl:~ryInycrs on botlirn or rcvol~~tiol~

2.

Boundary Iaycrn on rot,nting I)odies

3.

Conv~rgcnta11t1divcrgrnt honr~dnrylayers

IZcfcrenccu

C!Ni\J"l'EI<

XXIII.

Turbr~lcntI~onndarylayers in cornjlressible flow

a. Getlernl rrnlarks

1.

Tnrbr~lrntl~rattransfrr

2.

The fr~t~dan~elltalequntiotls for coinpressible flow

3.

Relation betxreen the exchange coefficient,s for rno~nent~~~nand heat

b. Relation between velocity a~itltrlnperatnro distrit)ntion

1.

The trnnsfcr of l~cntfro~nn llaL plate

2.

Tl~ctmnsfer of hrnt fro111rough surfnces.

3.

'I'crl~peraturedistribt~tio~~in rornpressiblc flow

c. Inflllence of Mach nunibrr; Iaxrs of friction

I. Tllc flat plate at zero incitlence

2. Variable pressure

References

CITAPTER

XXIV.

Free t,~~rb~~lentflows; jcta ant1 \\,akcs

a. Oc~~eralrcrnnrks

b. Estirnation of the increase in width and of the decrease in velocity

r.

lcxlll1lples

I. The smnothing out of a velocity discontinuity

2. Free jet boundary

3. Txro-tlin~ensio~~dwake behind n single body

4.

6.

6. The circnlar jet

7. The two-di~nensionalwall jet

The wake behind a row of bars The two-di~nrnnionaljet

d. l>iff~~uionof temperatrlre in free tnrbulont flow

ltcferencro

CHA1'TI':JZ

XXV.

T)ctcr~ninationof profile drag

a.

Ger~rr~ilrcn~arlts

b.

Tl~ecxperiniontnl rnethotl t111et,o I3etn

c.

The experitncnlal niethod dr~cto .Joneu

d.

Calcr~lntionof profile drag

c.

1,osscu in t.he flow tl~rotlglicascatles

1. General rernarku

2. lnfl~lenceof R.eynolds number

3. Effect of Mach nurr~bor Referc~~cea Bibliography

Index of Anthon~

Srtbjcct Index Abbreviatioris List of most colntnonly uucd sy~nbols

'l':~I)lf~I,I : Visrt~siIyvo~lvt.rsir>~lf:~ctors

'l:~Ilc

I.2:

I)+.t~sify.vis(.osily. IIII~II(itlr~~liltir\,is(.osiIj nf \\:~lf't.:III(~itit. ill 1vr111s01' 1~111-

l)~.Kll1lt.P

'I':IIII~ I.:&:I<~III~III:I~ic, vist,osiIy

,. I

:IIIIV 2.1 : 'I'l~i(.I(l~vsnof Ilot~llfli~ryl:~,y(*r,h. :II I vililil~pt~Ip(?or Il:ll ~)l:llv:I(. xrsro ~II(.~U~('III.~' ill 1):1t.alIt.l III~I>III~~III.lIo\v

'I'nI)lc

5.1 : F~IIC~~OIIRorr11rri11gin IIIC8ol11lio11of ~I:III~*:III(~nxi:~llyny111111c~lrir~:11l11)\\ atngnntinl~poi~~t.I'ln~lrcnnc fro111I,. Ilon.:~rtl~( 141; :~xi:~llyfiyl~~l~~(*trir;~lr :ISP fro111 N. l~rr)(-ssli~~gIS]

ill1

'I':~l)lo 5.2:

\':111t(;s of Ill(:f1111r.1.in11sII(Y>IICIIfor Ill(*(Ivsrripliot~of III~llo\v of :I (lisl< 1,01:1tit1g ill :t lltti(l t11 r~~nl,~YII(~III:II~II111, 1.11~\v:III :IIICI$11:I III~~C*fIis1:111rvft.o1111111. \t:~ll, :IS ~III~III:II~I11y I$. hl. Sl~:trro\vIIIIII -1. I,. (:~,(%gg[:I21

'l':~l)lc. 7. 1 : 'l'llr ftt~~~.lic>l~/(I/) f~rt,l~(.l)o~tt~fl:~ryl:~y(>rill0112n 1I:1l

rt4>~I,. I II)\\.:I~I II 1I(;]

~~l:~lc%:tI.

./.(TO ~II(.~I~I~II(.I-.

'I':~l~lc.

10.1:

'I'lrl~l(! 10.2:

'I'nl)lv

10.:):

I<(:sII~~sof t111: (::II('III:II~~oIIof Ill(>1101111f1:1ryl:ly(.r for ritlr~lcv11:1sf~1011 nl)l)roxi~ll:~I(*I11r11ry

Altxililrry

l:~yf>rn,nl'lrr llr)ls1ci11:LIICIl&ol11(!11151

(lo~~~p:~rir?o~~of ~.xnc:l,:tt~rl nl)l~roxitt~:tI.cv:ll~lmof IIIV I~o~t~~cl:~ry-l:~y(~r11:1vx- ~llc.lr.rn for lllr c.:~scof I~\ro-tlit~~c~~~niot~itlR~R~II:I~~(III110\v

it Il:tt. jil:ll(* ill ~,I,~IIill-

IIIIII~II:I~I)OIIIII~III.~

~IIII~~~IIIIR

for 01t. :II)JII.~X~~II:I~~(.III(.III:II~OIIof

,. l:iI111:11.1: '1'11~ ft~l~clio~~sfor 1,Ilc v(;l~>rity(lislril~~~lio~ifor IIIPr;lst- r~fro1:1li011OVIT s1:1lio1i:1ry \v:lll, :lllrr .J. I{. Nyfl:~l~llHlttl

'l':~l)lc 12. I : I'li,ysir:tl ~~IISI:IIIIS

:I

'I':~l)lc 12.2:

l>i~~~r~~sio~~lrssco~flirir~~t.of l~c:il,lt.:~~~sft-r,,il, :III,I(li~~t(~:~sio~~lr~ssa(li:~l):~l,ir

\v:LII IcIII~~-~:I~II~P.1). for n II;LI,pl:~lc111.zrro ~II~I~I(~IIV~,fro111(>~IIIS.

(12.70) :IIICI

( l2.7!i)

'I':IIIIV 12.3:

'l'l~e(-OIISI;IIII,,I ill t11c C-(~II:I~~OII for Ill(*V;II~~III;II,~~II01' IIlf-(!(>~-fli(.i~*~~lof lt(::~l, tt,;~~~sfcrin t,l~c~~f~igl~l)n~~rl~oo~lr)f 11stng11:1t,io11poir~l,:~flc-r11. I&.SIIII~~(-ll:{l1

'I'JIIIIP12.4:

NIIIII(~~~~~:II\YIIII(>Sof ll~rf1111clir>11If( 4)

'I':tl~lc 12.5: \'ill~~rnof (,Ire f~ltlrti~l~F(x)f~rfl~rr:~l(*~~lntin~~of n IIIV~III:III)o~t~~(l:~ry1i1yr:r :L 11o11isoIlivr111:11\\-:~ll;:~flrr1). 1%.Sp:~l(Iil~g11201

'I'nl~lf!

OII

l2.G: Cof;ffivit-~~lsof IIC:II,l,ra~~sf(-rnti :t l~r:tl(~lvcri ic:~IIII:IIC

ill 11:tI IIKII ~Y)IIYV~Iir11i

(I;IIII~II:I~),

n(!r(~rdi~~g1.0 rt-k. [!):{,

!)4. [I)!).

121;)

I al~lt?13. I : 'I'l~c f!~nrI,io~~F'(,Y)

fnr t11c jlrrssllrr

~linlril~~~l,in~~:IIOII~

tt II:II III:IIA~in I,II(:

I~il~lo14.1:

tlcigl10~111rI1norlof a nliot-lc \~n\~(~.ill tt(~~or(1:111(~\vit,l~N~IIR. (l:!.S!)) :IIIII (l:l.!lO), nflrr N. (:III.IC 1241

l)i~~~~~~~sir)~~l(.ssI)o~~~~clrrv,v-l~ryc~rl.l~i~~I~~~(~sn01 ntld s11:111(- f:~(.Iorr\l/rlq

volo(:ity ~)rolil(:aill t.11~inil.i;ll 1(.11gl.l1on ;I Ilnt. p1:ilc. :LO zrrn iltrirlv~~rc.nil11 rltlifornl sllction, :t€lcr It. Iglisr~li[401

t111*

'I'r~lpleI1i.l : ~f1~~vc.lrllgt,Il,\(?I :tnd frrqllcr1c.v P,dr/~l,of 11rlll.rnlrli~111rbnnr:raill ter111sof the I<c:y~~olclnt~r~~r~l~rrR Tor t.iro bo1111c1:rryl:rycr OII rr Ilnl. ~rlst,cnt. 7.~~0i~rritlrrlce

( Ill:tniurt ~rrolilc.). 'I'l~rory nflcr W. 'l'oll111ir11I!)!)]; nr~rn~.ricnlcnlc.~~lnt.ionaby

Tor pnrnllcl flow. See Figs. I6.LO

I<

lorclirino~r1471

n~rtl1).It. Iloi~slo~~.bot.Ir

allti 16.I 1 'I'i~blr17.1 : I)cl~c~~rclcnrcof rrilirr~lRcyriolcln IIIIIII~I~:~of

vnlocil.y yrofilc~nu.iLI1 n~lotiollon

di~r~c~~~~io~iIcs$nl~ctioirvo111ri10f:t(.I~rE, :~.fterUlriclr [24:1J

'T:ll,le 20.1: I<:~t.ioof Inearl

to 1nnxi111u111vc10t.it.y ill pipe lir,w in t,ert~rsof tho expotle~~tn

of t,Ilc vclocity cliatribution, according to eqri. (20.fi)

l':il)lc 20.2: (:c~rffirient,of rmintnnre for ~1110otlipi1)en in terms of t,l~rI~eyt~oldsrll111111er

'I':tldr 21.1:

~wofilcin eclns. (21.14)nrrtl (21.15) 'I':~l>lo21.2: ~~rl~~li~sihleheight, of prot,r~hcrn~~crain t.ertiis of lhe Rcy~loltlsnr~rnhcr 'l':kl~lr 21.3: ICx:~rr~plrson tlrc a~lr~~l:~lionof ntlrrri.wiblc ro~rgl~r~casfro111 Fig. 21.16

'Ti~l~lc22.1 :

of I,IIc tlirncnsionlraa rnomrnl,~~nlt.l~irknons,Rz, of tlio di~nensionlensenergy t~l~irlrrirrtn,Rn, and of the nlinpr fnr1,or;sre rqns. (22.1ln. 5) 'rnblr 22.2: Sr11t1111nrynf n~r~rroricnlcotist,a~~tsLl~ntorcur irr t,l~cexplicit cq~lnt,ionnTor 1,110 cnlnc~lntionof rno~ncr~l~~r~~nr~rlctlrrgy t,l~icknc*s;Rrc cqna. (22.lli), (22.17),nntl

T<c.sist.nncefornrulri for fl;it p1ot.c corrrpr~tedfrotn llrc lognrit,l~micvolority

S~~nl~n:tryof the qr~n~~t,it.ieswl~icl~occrtr ir~t.hc eqnnt.iona for t.lre cnlcnlnt.ion

(22.I!))

'I':~lilr23.1 :

fro111cqn. (23.20) nnct of tl~crcco\,ery. fnct,or fror~~eqn. (2:{.27), nft.cr H. Itci- clinrdt.1731 and J.C. 1l.ottn1811 Inl~lr24.1: I'oI\-c.r 1i~1r.n for 1.11c. inc:rr:~qcin ~\.idtIi:lntl for t.lie decrenac in tllc cc?~itrc-line vrlorit,y in trrtiln of tlist.nnce 3: for proI)lr~rlaof frre t~trl)r~lrntflow

,.

The constaots 11 nrld b for the c:~,lrr~lntionof tho rocfficicnt, of lient trntrafcr

'1'0

Foreword

the First English

Eclitiotr

13oiriitlnry~lngcrt.ltcory is tho cornerst.onc of our knowledgc of the flow of air :mtl ot,lrt>rfllritls of small viscosit,y under circttn~stancc?~of interest in many et)gincrr- ir~gnl)l~lir:~l.ions.Tl~usmany complex problems in serodynamics have been rlnrifictl by a st.r~tlyof tllc flow wit,I~inthe bortntlary layer and its effect on the gcncral flow nrou~ttl t,lrc body. Srtch prol)lcn~sinclutle t,llc variations of minimum drag antl maxinlriin lift of airplane wings with Reynolds number, wind-tunnel t,r~r\,~tlener, ;LII~Io(.li~;rpnrnmctcrs. Even in Lho~ccascs wltcrc (I complete mat~hernnt,iralnnnlysis is at. ~wrsc:nt~i~iipt~arlicrtblc,t,lic I~ortrrrlnry-laycrconcrpt, 11as been cxt.morcliri:~rily

fr11ilF111nt~tl~tsrfr~l.

'rlto tlevclopn~ctltof boundnry-layer tlteory during its first fift,y ycars is a fas- c,i~~nl,ingillt~st,mt,ionof t,hc birth of a new concept,, its slow growth for many ycn.rs in tlrc hntltls of its creator and Itis nssociat.es, its bclated acceptance by otllers, and t,llc sr~I)srq~ict~t,almost expotlctrt.inl rise in the nu~nberof cont.ribut,ors t,o it.%furtller devclopnrcnt.

Tl~cfirst decade following the classical paper of Pranclt,l in 1904 brougllt forL1r fwcr t.lln.1110 papers by Pmtrtlt,l anti his st~idents,a rate of abot~tono pn.pcr per ycn.r. I)r~rit~gLlic pnsL yr:w ovrr 100 p:tpcrs were prtblisltcd on various XSI)CC~,S of bor~rt(l:~.ry-ln~~crt,hcory and rcl:~tctl nxpcrirncnl.s. l?l~enn.me of 11. S(.lrlicllt.ing first. nppc:Lrs in 1930 with his iloct,oral t,hesis on tile subject of wake flow. Short,ly therc- nft,cr Sclllicht,ing rlcuot,ed major effort to t,l~cproblcm of the stability of Intni~lnr I~onntlxry-layerflow.

Rly OIV~interest it1 !,tic cxpcrinretltal aspcct.~of boundary-layer flow begnn in

laltc l:~l,ct.wcnl,ics. Wiblt t,ltc

were ~nntlet.o find Lhc amplifictl tlisturbarlccs prctlict,cd by the theory. I'or 10 yc:Lrs tJic cxprrirnc!nl.al rcsrllt,s not only failctl to conlirm t,liin t,ltrory I)ltt s~rj)[~~rI.(!ci1.Itc idea tllnt t,r:rnsition reslrlt,etl from t,ltc presence of trrrbrtlcncc in the I'rcc air sl.rc::~rn as described in n theory set forlh by G. I. Taylor. Then on a well-rrmctnherctl day

in Augi~st,1940, thc predicted waves were seen in the flow near a flat plnt,c in a wind turlrlcl of very low turbulence, The theory of stability described in t,llc pnpcrs

of Tollrnien and Scl~liclrtingwas soon corrfimedquantitativelyaswellasr~ltalit~~t~iv~

German periodicals available in the United States after the war refcrred to a series of lectures by Sctllichting on boundary-layer theory whicli had been p~lblished in 1942. This document of 279 pages with 116 figures was not available for some time. An English translation was given Limited distribution as NACA Technical Memorandum No. 1217 in 1949. These lectures were completely rewritten to include material previously classified, confidential, or secret from Germany and other countries.

n.pl)onr;cncc of Scltlicltl,ing's pnpcrs it~f.cnsivctrl,!~r~rr~l~l.

xvi

I'orcworcI

Tl~crcs~lltwas t.11~l)onlr c~r483 pages nntl 206 figr~rospublisl~ctlin 1061 in the Gcrrnnrr

Iangrtagn.

t,llc Unit,oti St.ntcs, t.l~crowas nn inunctliat.c request fronl srvc~ralquarters for nn ICng-

lisl~t.mnslat.ion, sinro no rnrnpar:~blcbook was avnilnhlc in t,ltc 1Snglisl1 Iatlg~lngr.

'I'l~ctcc:l~t~icalcontent. of t,llc? present. I':t~glisIretlit.io~tis dcscril)ctl in t,l~cnr~t~l~or's prcf:~c.e.'l'l~cc~npl~:lsisis 011 t,l~oftlntl;rmc~l~l;rlpllysiral itlr:~srntd~c.r~,II:LII on ~nntl~c- ~rl:lt.ic.:~l rc~finrlnrllt,.RIt:t.l~otlsof t,Ileorc:t,icnl nl~:rl~sisqrc sot fort41 along wil.11 s11c:l1 c~xl~~rirnont~altln.t,n as arc ~tert.in(-tltt,n (Icfinc 1.11~regions of applic:tbilit,y of 1I1o

I~llc~orc:l~icnlrcslllt.s

\Vhcn

t,llis boolr bccn.mc Icnowrr t,o rcscarcll

workers anti ed~lcntorsit1

or t.n givr: 1i11ysic:rl it~sifillt,i~~t,ot011: p11~:11orncnn.

Ac.rot~nrtt.icnl cngirlrc:rs

ant1 rcscnrcl~ sc:irr~t.istsowc

debt

of

grnlit~~tloto

1'1xd'rssor Sc:lilicl~t.ingfor t,liis t,irnolg review of l.hc 1)rc.scrlt stat,c of I)nr~trtlnry-lnycr

t.lleory.

\Vnsl~ingtot~I). C., 1)corinl)cr 1064

Ilugl~I,.

I)rytlrn

Author's Preface to the Seve~itl~(E~lglish)Editio~~

'rhe sixth (ISnglisll) r:tlif,ion of t,l~isI)oo:c ct,pl)rnrctl it1 I!)C,8; it tlin'cl~rtlvrvy litl.le from thn fifth (Gcrlnan) ctlition of I!)FB. Tl~ofirst) ((!rrmn,rl) rtlit,ion of t01is I~oolcurns

pt~l)lishctIin 1051. 111 t.11~(itne i~tt~crvnl1)ctwccn l!)BI ant1

nl ways litllowocl n Gc.r.rrr:~nrclition. 1\11 Lri~t~rrli~Lior~aItnvc L)t!(,ri prcp~~t~xlby 1'1~ofi~s~o~

l!)fIR nn l<ilgli~l~t!clit.ion

1Ccst,ir1in nri n.rcon~plislrctlfnsl~ion.

Whcrr J decided in 1075 to writ,c a new rclit,ion of t.11i.qboolc I cnmc t,o t,llc con-

clusion

longrr ~trn.c:tic:nltlc.'I'l~crcnsotl for it wn.8 lllc 11cnvilyinc:ronscvl cost, of ~)l.int,ing. Conscqncntly, I suggrst.c-cl 1.0 the bwo pr~blishingcotnlm~lics,(:. llrnrlr~in I<nrlsl~rll~c and McCrn\v-llill in New York, to protlrlcc n ncw otlit.ion only in tSlrcEnglisl~Iangrtage. I express my t.llnnks t,o I)ot.l~I'u1)lislrers for their ronscnt,.

As in t,l~c~)rcvio~~srrtlit,ions, 1 nt.t,onrl)t~rtlt.his tirrle also t.11sclcot for inc*l~~siotr1.110 n~ost,i~n~)ort~:~nt,co~~t,ril)rrt~ictr~sfrom among t,l~cnl)r~n~I:tnt~t:rol) t,l~n.t,n,pl~r:~t.(~(lill l,ltc ~ncnnt~iitlcin t,llc licltl of bountlnry-layc:r t.l~c,ory,wit.lror~t.,I~owcvcr,nlt.c~.ingt.l~oI):lsic st,rrrctnre of nly I)oolr. I 11ol)c t.llat t,hn principal t,l~rnstof t,l~eboolc rcmni~lrtlint.net,, nnmcly t,he int,rnt. t.o rnll~lrnsizeant1 t,o present t,llcorrt,ic*alconsidrrations in a, for111 acccssil)lc t,o c.nginecrs.

was no

t.l~nt,t.l~oprc!crtli~~gst:clncnrc of a (1c.rtnnn rdit,ioll follo\vc:tl I)y nn 1Snglisl1c:clit.iotl

Tllc sr~btliLisionof tile 1)oolz into fotlr parts (I~~lntiarncnt,~llaws of ~tiot,ionof n

viscous fluid; 1,atninn.r houndnry

layers; Trnnsit,ion; 'I'r~rbr~lentItountlary

1;~yt.r~)

lras ltorn ret,airlrrl. Concerning ttlr rcrlrlilio~rsI win11 to mcnt,ion a few. Owing 1.0 t.11~

atlvrnt, c~flarge rlcclronic compr~t,r:rsit. I~ccatriepossil)lc t>otn.clclc Inany ~)~.ol)l~-tr~s t.1lnt wr1.r c:or~sitlerccttrnsolvnble in tho past,. Tl~cseinclrttlc rlr~lncric:n.lsolr~t~ionsof 1.111:

Navier-St,okes cqr~at~ionsfor moderately

rical integration of tho boundary-layer eqr~nt~ionsfor laminar nntl turbulrnt

(Cl~np.ZX),a8 well RS t,l~eexpLicit n~unerienlint.rgr:~t.ionof tllc Orr-So~l~~t~~l.r~lt equation of t.lle theory of stability of laminar bor~ntlarylnyrrs (Cl)ap. XVI). An- other sultjcct newly t,nlcrn into nccorlnt nrc cxnct sol~rt~iollsof tlle Nnvier-St,olccla cqu:~t,ionsfor tlrc t~on-st.c;~tlyst,ngr~nlionflow (Cl~np.V), ~<II(:tltcory of t.111. I:IIII~II:~.~ Itonr1t1nt.y lngcr of scrontl ortlor (C)hnp. VII nntl LX). 7'110scc:tions on l,I~t:(::~lrril:~Iio1101 two-tlinletlsion:~I,inconiprrssiblc, t,urbrllcnt boundary Inycrs (C1in.p. SXI I), on tl~c

st,abilit,y of Inn~inarboundary layers wit.11 compressibility anti heat-t,rnnsfc~rc:flccl.s (See. XVlIe), :lntl on losses in nnscn.tle llo\r,s (C:l~np.X X\') Ilavc: bee-n c*o!~~l~lrtcly revised.

large Reynol(ls numbers (Chap. IV), nnrno-

flows

xviii Ar~t,l~or'sPrefncr t.o tho Scvent.ll (Etiglisl~)Er1it.ion

Along with t.liis ncur mat,erinl, I feel t,hat I ought, to niention the topics which I spcoifioally omit,t,ctl l,o inclrtde. I do not, rliscrlss t,he effect of chemieal reactions on flow processes in bountlary laycrs as they occur in the presence of hypersonic flow.

The sarnc npplios t.o I)onndnry Inycrs in

ant1 Rows of non-Nowt,oni:~nfluids. I still t.Ironght t,liat T ought to refraiti from giving a.n rxposit,ion of t,lir st,at,ist,icalt,l~eorjrof t,ttrl)~~lenrcin t,his etlit,ion, as in t,hc prcvio~ls

OIICR, I)rrn~~sc~io~~~tlnyst.11crcarc a\.nilnblc otlrcr, good prcscnt,nt.iorls in I,oolr form.

Once again, t,I~clists of refcrenccs have bcen expanclcd considcrahly in many rhal~t,crs.The tiurnl~crof illust,rations increasctl by about G5, hut 20 oltl ones have been omit,t.erl; the number of pages increased hy about 70. In spite of t,his, I hope t.hat t,he original character of t,liis book has becn retained, and that it, strill can provide the reader wit,l~a bird'.?-e?/eview of t~liisimportant branch of the physics of fluids.

As I worltrd on the new manuscript I once more enjoyctl t,hc vigorous assistance that I rcccivetl from scvrral of my professional collcagues. Professor K. Gersten con- t.tihutctl sect,ions on boundary layers of second orrlcr t,o the part on laminar bollndary lnycrs (Seas. VIIf ant1 IX j) . This is a special field which lie successf~~llyworked out in recent ycnrs. l'rofcssor T. K. Fnnneloep contributed the completely reformulated sc-ct.ion on the numerical inkgration of t,hc boundary-layer erlt~at~ionsincluded in See. IXi. In t.hc part on turbulent boundary layers, Professor E. Truckenbrodt provitlcrl me witall a new version of the largest portion of Chapter XXII on two- dimensional and rotfationally symmetric I~oundarylayers Dr. 1,. M. Mack of the California Institute of Technology was good enough to contribute a new section on the stability of boundary layers in supersonic flow, Sec. XVIle. Dr. J. C. Rotta

tliorougl~lyreviewed Part I) on turbulent boundary layers and made many additions

to it*.For the Russian litcrxtnre I rccrivstl nlurll help from Professor Milthailov. Tlie

translation was once again cnt,rustctl to Professor J. Kestin's cornpetrent pen I ex- press my sincerc tlinnlts lo all tliose gcnt,lcmen for thcir valuable cooperation.

I sliould also like to rcpcat my acltnowlcdgemcnt of tlrc hclp I rcceived from scvernl professional friends whcn I worltcd on the fifth (German) edition Nat.urally, their contributions have now bcen rctaincd for the seventh edition. This is the ex- tensive contribution on colnprcssiblc laminar bountlary layers inChapter XIIT written by Dr. F.W. Rirgcls, Professor I<. Grrsten's section on thermal boundary layers in Chapter XI1 and Dr. J.C. Rotta's text on compressible turbulent boundary layers in Chapter XXIII.

I rxprcss my thanks to Frau Gerda Wolf, Frau IIilde TCreibohm and Mrs. Leslie Gintin for the careful preparation of the clear copy of the nianuscript; Frau Gerda JVolf was also very llrlpful for me in thc library. Mesgrs. Rotta, Iiummel and Starlre were Irinrl c:nougli to asgist wit11 the reatling of the proofs

rna.gncto-fl~~itl-tlytin~~tics,low-dcnsitty flows

J,ast,, hr~tnot Irnst, thnnlzs arc rllte to Vcrlag Braun for their willingness to accede to rny'wishrs :~ndfor thc pleasing apprarancc of the ltoolr

Transliltor's Preface to the Seventh (English) Edition

The present is the fourth edition in the English language of Professor IT. Sclilioh-

ting's "Gren7,schiclit-Theorie". Once again, the new edition was prepared in clo~c cooprrnt,ion wit,l~t,hc Autthor whoni J visit,rtl acvcral t,irnc%sin (.hct,t.ingen to finnlizo

tho content,^ and blle wording. I wish

ant1 M~Rs~R.McGrnw-Ilill for pnrt,inl financial nssistnnc:e in conncxion wit.11t.hc:sc trips.

This time there was no German print,ed editmionand t,lre modifications int,rodt~crtl by the author were transmitted directly to me.

I owe a debt of gratitude to Profcssor 11. E. Khalifa for his help in t.he task of proof-reading. My wife, Alicin, prepared the authors' and the subject. inclcxes ant1 compet,ently t,yped tellemunder difficult circumstances. My secretary, Mrs. Giarin in Providence, and Mrs. Icreibohm in Gocttingen expertly typcd tlrc manuscript; 1 express to them my sincere thanks for their paticncc. Both pultlishcrs, Mcssrs. G. Braun of ICarlsruhe and Messrs. McGraw-Hill of New York, spared no trouble, as on past occasions, in meeting our wishcs regnrding the protluction of tlic boolr.

t.o t,lrnnlr I'rofcssoi. St:ltIiclit.ing for his I~ospit.nlit.y

Providence, Rliode Island, Augilst 1078

,J.

I<estiri

From Author's Preface to the First (Gern~an)Editiox~

Since :t,I)o~tt,tltc Ocgit~nirtgof tl~t!t:ttrrcnt

ct!nt,ttr.y 11iot1t:rn rt!sr:~rt;ltin t,Itt* litsltl

of flrlitl clyn:rntics has :~clticvctlgrcat sut:ccsscs ant1 llas l)t:t:n nl~lcto ~)rovitlc:I Cllc:. oretiral clarific:tkion of obscrvt:tl ~)ltcr~on~t:nawllicll t,llc! scicncc? of rlnssirnl Ilytlro- tlyn:sntics of t,llc ~)rocctlitlgc:cntnry f:tilctl t,o (lo. 1Csscrtli:~llyt.llrt:c br:tnc:ltcs of llr~itl

tlyr~:lrnic,s11:~vcbccomc p:~rticnlarly well clcvelopctl tluritig t,l~clast fift,y years; t,llcy inclr~tlcl~ot~ntlary-layertl~cory,gas tlyrlarnics, antl acrofoil Lllcory. 7'11~present t~ook is conccrncd ~vitlttllc branch krtnwn as 11otrr1tl:~ry-layertllcory. This is the oltlt:st 1)rancll of modern flrritl tlynarnics; it w:is fort~~tlctlby 1,. I'mntltl in 1904 wllctt II~:

succcedctl

in showing how flows involving fluitls of very s~nnllviscosity, in particular

w:tt,cr ant1 air, t,ltc most imporl;:~nt,oncs from tl~cpoint of vicw of applications, c:ln 11cn~:ltlc:~tncnr~blc!lo rnnt~l~o~nr~t,icnIr~nnly.qix.'l'llis wris r~c:lliovotl11yt.tiltirlg I.11t: t:lli:c:l.s of friction into account only in regions \<.herothey arc rsscnt,i:ll, rtamely in tho thin boltndary layer wllich exists in t,ltc irntnctliatc tlcigt~bottrl~ooclof a solitl body. Titis concopt ~natlcit possible to clarify many ~)llcnomonawliicll occur in flows and a,lliclt Itatl ~n-cvionslybccn incotl~pmllcrtsit)le.Most important of all, it, ltns bcconto possiblr to sltt)ject problems connecterl with thc occurrcnc:e of tlrag to a tllcorctical an:tlysis. llte scicnco of aeronaat,ical engineering was making rapitl progress ant1 was soor1 &ble to utilize these t,l~coreticalresults in pract.ical applications. It tfitl, ft~rtliertnorc, pose many problcms wl~ichcould be solvctl with tl~caid of the ncw bonntla.ry-1ayc:r theory. Arronautical engineers have long sinco matlc: tllc conccpt of a t)ountlary layer one of cverytlay use and it is now unt.hir:kable tlo do without it,. In other fieltls of lnaclline design in wlticl~problcn~sof flow occur, in part,icular in the design of t,url~ornacl~incry,t,hc tl~coryof bottndary layers rnatlc rnt~cllslower progress, I,trt, in motlern tinies t,ht:sc rlcw conccpt,~Itavo come to t,llc fore in s11c:11applic.ztions as well.

r

,

r

7

I IIR prt:~ent1)ooIt II~SI)crn writ,tcn principally for cngir~ecrs.It is tl~colzt.comt:

Author tlclivcrctl in t,llc Winter Scn~cstcrof 1941/42

of

for I.l~rscinnt,ific worltcrs of tho Aoronatlf.ical Itcscarch Institut,c in I3r:~trnscl1wcig.Tho stll)jt!t:t. mnttcr 112sbcclrt r~tili;r.ctlafter tlto war in nlarly spc(:i:~l1cct11rt:s 11cld at t.l~t! ICngitleering Univcrsit,y in 13m11nscl1wcigfor sttltlcnb of rnccl~anicalengirtccring :Inti

pl1ysic.s. 1)r. IT. IIallriclnal~r~prcparccl a set of loctr~rcnotes :iftcr the first soric:s of lectures \rat1 been given. 'L'lrcsc were rcad mxd amplifier1 by t.hc h~rllior.They wt:rc stll)scq~lcr~t,lyp~rblishetfin mimeograpltctl form by the Office for Scicrltific I)octt- rncnt,at.ion (Zontmlc fiir wisscnschaft~licllcs 13cricltt~swc.scn)nntl tlist.rit~nt.ntl1.0 :t lirnit,crl circle of irrtcrcstctl scicntifir: worltcrs.

antdlor tlecitlcd con~p~ct~clyt,o re-etlit, this oltlcr

c:ompilat.ior~and to p1111lisl1it in the fort11 of a book. 'l'llc t.inie sccrnctl ~~art,icrtlarly propitious becallsc it appeared ripe for tllc publication of a comprel~crlsivcI)ook, and hocal~sct.hc results of tltc research work carrietl orrl, tlt~ringfJlc last trn t.o twcrtt,y yrxm ror~nrlctloff trltc wltolc ficld.

a course of Icct,rrrcs which the

Several years after tl~cwar tho

xxii

FI,OIII,\t~llior'st%r.f:~cr

IIIC lcirst, (Cit;rnlan)1?tlit,io11

'She book is tlivitlctl ink four main 1):trts. 'L'hc first, part contair~stwo irltro- tluct,ory ch:tpters in which t,l~cfl~ntlamcnli~lsof 1)ounclary-layer tl~eoryarc cxpoundctl witlrout, the use of mathematics ant1 then proccccls to prepare tho matl~ernatical and physical jllstification for the tllcory of lanlinar bortrulary laycrs, and inclutlcs the theory of thormal bor~ndaryIaycrs. The t,llird part is concerned with the plleno- menon of transition from laminar to t,nrbulent flow (origin of turbulence), arid the fourth pert is devoted to tnrl~ulcntflows. It is now possible to take the vicw that the theory of laminar bountlary laycrs is complete in its main outline. Tho physical relations have bcen complctcly clarifictl; the meifhods of catcrtlation have been largely worked out ant1 have, in many cascs, bccn simplified to such an extent, that they should present no difficulties to engineers. Jn discussing turbulent flows use has been made e~sent~iallyonly of t,llc semi-empirical thcorics which derive from Prantit,l'~mixing length. Tt is true that according to present views t.hese theories ~)ossessa number of shortcomings but not,hing superior has so far been tlevised to take their plate, nothing, that is, which is useful to the engineer. No accourrt of the slstistical theories of tr~rbr~lcncehas been inclutlcd bccanse they have not yet attainctl any pract.ical significance for engineers.

As irlt,imat,cd in the t.itle, the emphasis has been lait1 on thc thcorctical treatmcnt of problems. An att,ctnpl, has hccn made t.o hring these consiclcrations into a form whicll can he rasily graspctl by engineers. Only a small nr~ml~crof resrrlts has hccn quoted from among t(he vcry volominous oxperimcntal material. They have bccn chosen for their suitability to give a clear, physical insight. int,o the phenomena and to provitlc tlircct rcrific:rtion of thc t.lrcory prcsentcd. Some examples have been chosen, namely those a~sociat~ctlwith t,url)nlcnt flow, because they constit~ltethe fonntlation of the semi-empirical theory. An attempt, was made to tlcmonstrat,e that esscnt.ial progress is not, ~nadctlrrol~gllan accumr~lationof extensivc exprrirnental rcsriltn but ratlrer tl~rougha small nr~~ltbcrof fi~ndamentalcxperiment,~backed by theoretical consitlerat,ions.

Brar~nschweig,October 1050 - IIermanrl Schlichting

Introduction

Towards the end of the 19th ccntury t,he scicncc of fluid mechanics began $0 dcvclop in two tlircctions wlticlr had pmct,ically no points in common. On t,hc onc side therc was tile science of theoretical hydrody~tamicswhich was evolvctl from Euler's equations of motion for a frictionless, non-viscous fluid and which achieved a high degree of completeness. Since, however, the results of this so-called classical science of hydrodynamics stood in glaring contradiction to experimental results - in particular as regards the very important problem of pressure losses in pipcs and channels, as well as with regard to the drag of a body which moves t,hrongIt a mass of fluid - it had litt,lc practical importance. For this rcason, practical cngincers, prompted by tlic need to solve the i~nport~antprok~lcmsarising from the rnpicl progress in t,echnology, developed their own highly empirical scicrrce of hydraulic^. The scicncc of hydranlics was basecl on a large number of cxpcrinlent~nltlal,a :~ntl difl'ercd greatly in its mct,lrods ant1 in its objccts from the scicncc of t.llcorct,icnl hydrodynamics.

At the beginning of the present cent.ury L. Prandtl clisti~lguishedhimself by showing how to unify these two divergent I)ranchcs of fluitl dynamics. He achieved a high degree of correlation between theory and experiment and paved the way to the remarkably successful development of fluid mechanics which has taken place over tlhe past sevent,y years. It had bcen realized even bcfore l'randtl that the discre- pancies between t,he results of classical hydrodynamics and experiment. were, in very many cases, due to the fact that the theory neglected fluid friclio?~.Moreover, the complete equations of motion for flows with friction (the Navier-Stolres equa- tions) ha.d been known for a long time. However, owing to the great mathematical difficulties connect,ed ~vit,llthe solution of t,llcse equatio~ls(with the exception of :L small 11uniber of particular cascs), tho way to a thcorct,icnl treatment of viscous fluid motion was barred. Furthermore, in the case of the two most important flrlids, 11:~mclywater ant1 air, the viscosity is vcry small and, conseqnerttly, tho forccs due to viscous friction are, generally speaking, very small compared with the remaining forces (gravity and pressure forces). For this reason it was very difficrilt to comprehend that t,l~efrictional forces omitted from thc classical theory influenced thc motion of a fluitl to so large an extent.

In a pzpcr on "Fluid Motion with Very Small Friction", read bcfore the Mathc- matica.1 Congress in IIeidelberg in 1004, I,. Prandt,lt showed how i't was possible tJo analyze viscous flows precisely in cascs wlrich had great pmctica.1 importance. Wit,h

II.Schlicl~lingand II. U6rtlcr. rol I1 pp '15-584.

Abl~antllnngc~~rur

the aid of t,hcorctical corlsidcmt~iotisanti scvcrnl sinrplc oxperimenk, ho provcd that the flow about n solid botly can be dividod into two regions: a very t,llitr lnycr in t,lre neighbourhood of t.11~body (ho~~r~(la.r?jlu.?/cr)whcrc friction plays an essetitinl part, and 1,hc remaining region ont.siclc this laycr, where frict,iorl may be ncglcctcd. On tho basis of Lliis Ilypot,l~esisI'mntlt,l sl~ccccdctlin giving a physically pcnrttrat,ing nxl)lnnattion of tlrt: i~ill)ort,n.rrccof viscous flows, achicvitrg at t*lrosamc titnc n tnxxiinit~n tlegrcc of simplification of tllc attcntlant rnat,ltemntical rliffic~ilties.The t,heorct,ical considerations werc even tJ~ctisnpport,cd l)y simplc cxpcrimcntn pcrformc:d in a small water t,onncl whiall Prn.ridL1 built, wit,h his own Ilatids. Ilc thus tmok the first step towards a ro~ttiificationof tl~coryand pmcticc. This boundary-layer tilcory provctl cxtrcmely frl~it~fulin that, it provitlcd an cKcctive tool for the tlevelopmcnt of flnicl tlynamic~s.Since the 1)rgitinirlg of t.ha cnrrcnt century the new theory has been tlcvc- loprcl at n very fast r:lta lrntlcr t,llc atl(lit.ionnl st,im~tlrisol~taincdfrom t,hc reccrrtly fo~lntletlscience of aerodynamics. In a vcry short time it hecame one of thc fo~~tldat,ion st.onrs of motlern Ilnid clynamics t,ogct,hcr with thct other very inlportant tlevclop- ment,s -- t.11~acrofoil theory nncl thc sciencc of gas dynamics. In more recent t,iliics a goorl (leal of at,t,ent,ion has been devotctl to st,udies of the mntlirtnat,irnl just.ification of bounrlary-layer theory. According to tllcse, hollndary- layer theory provitlcs us wit,h a first approximattion in the framework of a more general t,hcory designed t,o ca1culat.e n,sympt,ot,ic expansions of t,he solutions to the coml)let,e equat,ions of motion. The l~rol~lc~nis retlucetl to it so-called singular pertur- bation which is then solvctl I)y t.hc mct.liod of nrat,cIrcd asymptotic expnnsions. I3ountlary-layer t.hrory t,hus providcs 11s wit,it n cIassic example of the npplication of the met,liotl or sing~~lar~)crt,rtrbnt,ion.A general presentation of pert~urbatiori rnct,horls in flnid mechanics was prepared by M. Van Dykt:t. The basis of these rnat,hotls can Ile Itraced t.o 1,. J'raritlt.I's early cot~t~ribut~ions. 'I'lic 1)onntlar.y-layer tlicory finds its applicat,ion in the ~nlcnlxt~ionof t,ha skin- friction dmg wllic:h act.s on a body as it is moved t,hronglr a fluitl: for example the rlr:lg cxl)cricncctl a flat p1n.t~at,xcro itrcitlcnce, t,Ile t1m.g of a ship, of an aeroplane wing, aircraft, t~acrllr,or t,rrrl)ineI)latlc. 13o1111dnry-layerflow 11:~st,I~cpeculiar property t.ll:tt, i~ntlorccrt.airl conditions t,lle flow in t,lte imnictliat,c ncighbonrhood of a solid wall 1)ccomcs rcvcrsed causing the I~ountlarylaycr to separate from it,. 1111isis accom- pnnirtl I,y a morc or lrss prorlourlcctl fonnat,ion of edtlics in tJlc wake of t,hc body. 'J'1111s t.hc prcssnrc (listrih~lt.ionis rltatigcd and differs marlrctlly from that in a frict.iool(\ss strcnm. ?'hc tleviat.ion in prcssurc tlist,ribut,ion from the ideal is the carise of form drag, ant1 its cnicttlat.ionis t1111.smade possible wit11 the aid of bouriclary- laycr t.lloory. 13ortntlary-ln,ycr t,heory gives an answer t,o t,he vcry irnp~rt~antquestion of' w11n.tshape ~nnst,a hotly t~ogiven in orclrr to avoid t.llis dct.rin~arit~nlscpn.ration. St.pnr:rt.ion c*n.nalso oc.c:ltr it1 l.llc i~lt.crt~:tlflow t.hrorrg11 R (:11nntrcI ant1 is trot, confitlet1 to rst,rrtrnl Ilows past solitl 0otlic:s. I'rol~lrms conrrcct,crl wit11 t.11~How of fluids t.hroilg11 t,hc clrmrncls f(>rnrctl I)y t.hc I)lntlcs of t,urhomachines (rot.ary compressors ant1 t,rlrl)inos)ran also he 1,rrntrtl wit,ll tho n.itl of 11ourrtl:~ry-ln.ycrt,Jlcory. I'r~rt.llcr~nore, ~~llc~lonrcrlawllic:l~ occur at, t,llc point of rnn.xirnnm jift, of nn acrofoil and wllicll arc assoc.int,c:tl wit,ll st.:~llitl~(:;I.II1)c 11ntlcrst.oot1only on tJlr 11n.sisof I)on~rtlary-layer

theory. I~irlally,problrms of llcat transfer I)ctwc-rn n solitl hody ant1 n fluit1 (ps) flowing past iL also bclong to tllc class of problems in wltic41 bo~~t~tl:try-l:~yc.r1)11c~no- mrnn play n dccisivc pnrL. At, first the bo~rritlary-layertltcory was devclopotl rnn.inly for f.lle c:~soof 1:~nlin:lr

flow in an incon~prcssil)leflltitl, RR in 1.Ilis c:~sct.11~ ~)l)~t~o~nt:t~oIo~it::l.lI~j,~)oI.I~t-sis

for shr:~ringst.rrsscs a1rr:ttly cxist.ctl in t.hc form

sul)scqucntly tlcvclopctl in a 1:trgc 1111rnl)crof rcsonrclt 1):tpcrs :LII(I rt::1(:11vtl s1tt~11a

stagc of pcrfoct.ion Ieltat at prcscrtt tltc problcrn of Intninar llow c:1.11111: consitlt~rctl to lt:lvc hccn solved in its main ol~llinc.1,:llcr the Llrcory w:ls cxl.ot~clt:tl1.0 int:l~rrl(? turl~nlcnt,incornprcssil)lc bountlary layers which are morc irnport,n.nt from ~.II(: poitlt, of vicw of practical applications. It is true that in tltc cnsc of t~trl)~~lc~it.flows 0. Iloy- xrolds introduced the fundamentnlly important conccpt of nppnrcnt, or virt,~tnlt,ltrl)n- lent stresses as far back as 1880. IIowevcr, ttllis conccpt was in it,sc.lf itisr~ffioirnttso mn.ke tjltc theoretical analysis of turbulent flows possible. Great progress was acllicvecl wit.11 t,he int,rotlnct,ion of I.'randtl's mixinglcrtgt.l~thcory (1025) which, t,ogol,hrr wit,li systematic cxperimcnt.s, paved the way for the theorcf,ical ttrcntmcrlt of turl)~rIc~tt flows wit,lt the aid of boundary-ln.yrr t.hcory. llowcvcr, a rational t,lieory of fcllly developc(l turbnlcnt flows is st,ill rroncxist.cnt,, ant1 in vicw of t,lic cxl,rt;rnc conl- plexit,y of sltcll flows it will remain so for a consiilcmhlc time. Onc cannot even IIC ccrtain that science will cvcr be successfnl in this t,aslr. Tn modern times tho phcrro- rnena which occur in the boundary laycr of R comprcssiblc flow have becomc the subject of int.ensive investignt.ions, the impulse having I~rcnprovided by the rapid incrcasc in tllc spcctl of flight of motlcrn aircmft,. In atltlit,ion to a velocity 1)oitntlary laycr srtc:h flows dcvclop a tllcrrnal bonntlnry 1:~ycrnrtcl its cxist~cnccpln,ys :I.!) irn- port.arit part in tllc process of heat t,rartsfcr bctwceri the Iluitl and the solitl body past which it flows. At vcry ltigh Mach numbers, the surface of Lhc solid wall bccornrs heat,etl to a high t,cmperature owing to the protl~~ct.iotlof frictional heat ("tllcrrnnl barrirr"). This phenomenon prcscrits a tliffic:nlt analytic problem whose ~ol~ttior~ is irnport.ant in n.ircmft tlcsign ant1 in t,hc ~~ritlcrsl,ar~dit~gof the motion or sat,cllites.

of Sf.oltc.s'x I:\w. 'l'l~ist,c,l,ir:

W:IS

1 Ilc ~)1tenomenonof tmnsit,ion from liltninar to t,orbnlcnt flow wlticl~is ~IIII~:LIIIBII- t.aI for t,he scicnce of fluid tlynamirs was first investigated at t,hc entl of tl~cI0t.11cell-

t,nry, naniely by 0. 12eynoltls. In 3914

with sphcrrs ant1 s~~cc~cdc(Iin showing flllatthe llow it1 tlrc 1)orcntlnry1:~ycrcar1 also I)c either laminar or turbulent and, furthermore, that, tltc problem of separnt,ion, ant1 hence the problcm of the cal~ulat~ionof dmg, is govcrnctl by this t,ransit,ion. Y'hcoreti- rat invest,igations into t,he process of t,ransiLion from laminar to tnrbulcnt flow are t)asctl on t.110 acceptlance of Iteynoltls's 11y~~otI1o~isl,liat t,hc latt,cr oc:curs ns a con- sccluc~rccof an instability dcvclopcd by I,hc 1nminn.rI)onntlary layer. 1'rnntlt.l ittit.int.ctl his thcorcl.icn.l ir~vestigntiotiof trnnsit*ionin tllc ycar 1921 ; after marly v:rin cflort.~, succcss came in the ycar 1920 wlicn W. Toll~nicncompntrcl theorct,icnlly t,hc crit,ic:aI Reynolds rrutnbor for transit,ion on a flat plate at zero incidence. Ilowcvrr, nlorc t.lran ten years werc to pass 1)efore l'ollrnictl's t,heory coialtl ho vcr;ficd t,l~rongl~t.hc vcry careful experin~cnLsperformed by 11. 1,. 1)rytlcn ant1 11;s coworltcrs. Tho st,nl)ility tltcory is capablc of taking into account the cKcct of a ni~rnhcrof parnmct,ors (pmssurc gradient,, suction, Mach nr~mlter,transfcr of heat,) on t,mnsition. This theory has found m~tiyimport.ant applications, among them in tl~cdosign of scrofoils of' very low drag (1arninn.r ncrofoils).

r

7

1,. 1'm.ndtl cnrrictl olrt, his

famous expcrimrnts

Modc:rn itlvcstigalions in id~cficld of fluitl dynamics in general, as well as in

t(11c ficld of bouritlary-ln.ycr rcscarch, are characterized by

bc!twcen theory ant1 cxpcrimcrlt,. l'hc most important steps forwards )lave, in most cases, barn t,nltcn as a rcslllt of a smn.li r~uml~crof fi~ndamcnt~a,lcxpcrimcrlt,~bacltetl by t,hcorot,icnl considcrat,ions. A rcvicw of tJlc tlcvclopmcnt of bountlary-layer t.lleory wllich st~rcsscst.11~rn~rf~nalcross-fcrt.ilizstiorl bctwccn theory and cxpcrirncnt, is cor~tainctlin srl n.rliclc writt.c.1111y A. l<ctzT. I?or about, twenty years aft,er its inception I)y T,. I'randtl in 1904 the bonndnry-la.ycr tllcory was being developed nln~ostexcll~sivclyin his own institute in Goettingen. One of the reasons for this st.nt,c of nffairs nlay well havc been root,ccl in the circum~t~anccthat, J'randtl's first pnbliont,ion on boundary-layer t~l~eorywhich appeared in 1904 was very dimcult to understatltl. This period can be said to have ended with I'randtl's Wilbur Wright Meniorial I,ect,~lre"which was dclivcrctl in 1927 at a meeting of the Royal Aeronautical Society in 1,ontlon. 111later years, roughly since 1930, other research worlters, par- tricrrlarly thosc in Grent nrit.air1 and in tllo U.S.A., also took an active pn,rt in its tlevrlopn~cnt.Toclay, the study of boundary-layer t.heory has spread all over thc world; together with ot,hcr branches, it ~onstit~utesone of t,he most import,ant pillars

of fluid mechanics.

a vcry close relation

Tho first survey of this I~mnchof science was given by 1%'. Tollmien in 1931 in two sl~ortarticles in ~JIC"llar~~lbncl~dcr lSxpcrirncnt,alpl~ysiIr":. S11orl~I.vaftcr- wartls (1936), Prnrltltl p~~l)lishcda cotnpml~cr~sivcprcsentnt,ion it1 "Acro(1ytlamic 'J'hcory" ctlitctl I)y W. I?. Durands. lluring t.11~intcrvcning four tlccndcs tllc volutrle of rescarch into this subject 11asgrown cnorrnonsly$. According to a review published by 11. I,. Drydcn in 195.5, t,hc rate of publication of papers on boundary-layer theory reached one hundred per a.nn7r.mat that time. Now, some twenty years later, tliis rate has more than tripled. Lilte several other fields of research, the t,heory of bo~rntlarylayers has reac:hetl a voll~mcwl~ichis so enormous that an individual scientist., even one worlring in this ficltl, cannot be expcctetl to master all of its specializctl s~ibtlivisions.It is, tl~rrcforc,right that, the task of describing it in a nlotlcrr~Ilanclboolt has \)ccn cnt.rustcd t,o several authorst. The hist,orical develop- ment, of 1)ountlary-layer theory has recentsly been traced by I. Tani*.

t A. I~c~z,Ziolo, Wogc r~rltll~t~~~~~.r~~l~tivrAIIRWC~~.IIII~dcr ~lr6lnlltlg~for.~cllllng,ZciLschr. VDI 91,

(1949)2fi3.

.

.

" 1,. J'rallrlI,l,Tho gor~crnlionof vortiron ill fluirlsofatn.zIIviscosit,y(15td1\I1ilbrlrWright Memorial

Jfir(llr~,1!J27).J. Jtoy. Aoro. Soc. 31, 721-741

(1!)27).

: (!/. tJlr biljliogr.zl~l~yon 11. 780. l'r:~t~tll,l,'~IIc 111ecl1a.11irsol' V~RCOIISfluiils. Arrocly~~an~ii~tl1oory (\I1.I?. I)urat~cl,rtl.), \'ol. 3,

:

I,.

34 208, l%crIin,1935.

6 11. S1:l1lirh~ing.So111etlrvcloprncn(.sof I~oundnry-layerrcsearci~in the past t,hirty years (The

'l.l~irll L~tlcl~r~lcrMet~lorin.lJ,rcture, I!)T1!)). J. ]toy. Aero. Soc. 64, 03- 80 (l%U).

Srr nl?lo: 11. Srlilicl~ling, Rccrrtt progress in hor~ndn.ry-lnycrrcse:,rch (The 37Lli Wright. Brothers

III~I~:1t11r1,!7) \I .Jttiri:~l 1
*

427 - 440 (1!)74).

I. 'I':\t~i.Ilislory of I~o~~r~rlnry-lilyorrmrnrc.11.An~~rinlItrv. rrf Izll~irIMet*hnnirs9, 87- 11t (1077).

I'art A. F~~ndamentallaws of motior~for a viscol~sfluid

Outline of fluid motion with friction

Most t.Ileoret.ica1invcst,igat,iorls in the ficld of fluid tlynamics arc based on the concrpt of a perfect,, i. c. frictlionlcss ant1 i~~comprcssible,fluid. In the motion of sncl~a perfect flnitl, two cont,act.ing layers cxpcritrnrc no tnngcntinl forccs (sl~caring st,rcsses) bl~l,act on caclr ot,llcr wit.11normal forccs (j)rcssums)only. This is cqr~ivalcnt, t.o stal.i~~gtl~nf,a pcrfc-ct, fluitl olrcrs no inI.crria1 r~~isI.ar~t~cto a cl~angcin SII:I~O.'I'IIc t.l~corytlcscribing !,IIc mot,ion of a pcrft:cl. Illlit1 is ~natl~c~~~~nt.ic:~llyvcry far tlnvclopctl ant1 supplies in many cases a satisfactory tlcscril;t,ion of real motions, sncll as e. g. tlie motion of surface waves or tlie formation of liquid jets in air. On the ot.her hand the theory of perfect fluids fails completely to account for the drag of a body. In this connrxion it leads to tllc statement that a I~otlywllich moves uniformly t,llrongh a fluit1 which cxt.ends t,o infinity expcrienccv no drag (tl'Alcmbcrt.'s psmtlox).

'Pliis unacceptable result of thc thcory of a pcrfect Iluid can be traced to tile fact t,hat. t.l~einner layers of a real fluitl t,rsrls~nitt,angent,ial as well as normal stresses, this 1:cirlg also t,l~ccase ncar n solitl wall wetted by a fluid. Thesc tangcnt#ialor frict,iorl forccs 111 a rrxl Ilnitl arc conncctctl wit,l~a propertry wllich is callctl t,l~cviscosil?/ of

t,I~cl111i(l.

IZccairsc of tllc al)scnce of t,angct~t,i:~lforccs, on the 1)oundary bctwccn a perfect llnitl :~r~tla. solitl wnII Lhcrc cxist,s, in gcnt-r:~I,:I. tlilrrrcncc in rt~l:~l.ivct,:~ngrnt.i:il

vrloc.it.ics, i.

lnolccular att,ractions callscs t,hc flnitl to adl~crct.o a solitl wall ant1 t,his gives risc

c. t.llcro is slip. On t,hc ot.l~crII:I.II~~,in r(::11 Il~ri(lst,110cxist.cr~(:t~of it~t.trr-

l,o slrraring stmsscs.

lip II(::I.I.

solitl walls cor~st.itut,ethe essential tliffcrcriccs bcl,wccn a perfect and a real fltritl. Cert,ain fluids urlrich arc of great, practicn.l imporl,n~lce,sr~cl~as water ant1 air, havc vcry smnll coefficients of viscosity. In many instsr~ccs.tl~cmottion of s11c11llvcid.~ol sn~nllviscosity a.grccs - vcry well wit.11t,llat of a pnrfcct Iltritl, bccausc in most cases tile shearing stressc?~arc vcry small. For this reason t,hc cxist,cncc of viscosit,y is corrlplctcly

nrglcct.ed in l,hc t,heory of perfect fluids, ma.inly bcca.11set,llis irltrodnccs a far-reacl~ing

simplificatiott of tllc equations of mot,ion, as

~naticalt,I~coryI~ecomcspossil~lc.Tt, is, I~o~vcvcr,islpm&,ss the fact t,Ilnt,

1 hc exist,cncc of t:rngonlial

.,

(slrcarirrg) sl,rcsst:s nr~tl l,l~ccondiliols 01 ,to

-

'

a result of

ext.cnsivc niathe-

even in fluitls wit,lt vcry srnall viscosit,ics, unliltc in 1)crfc:ct. fluiels, t.lrc rontlit.iorl of no slip near n, solill I~orlndaryprevails. 'l'l~isc:ot~dil~iorrof rlo slip int,rotlrrros in many

an(\ ronl fluitls. 111pnr-

t.iclrlar, tllc vcry largc tliscrcpnl~cjrI)ctwcc~rLlro valr~oof' drag it1 a rral ant1 a pnrkct, Iltti(1 Ir:rs its 1~lrysit:nlorigin in t,lrc contlil,ion of no slip nc,:lr :L wall.

(::~sosvery I;rrgc tlisc:rcl)arrcics in t,lrc laws of ~noLiorlof perfect

'I'lris

11oolct1r:rls wil,lr 1.Irc rnot,ior~of llrlitls

of'sm:~IIvisrosil,y, I)(-r:~rrsrof t.lrc grc:~L 1,llc cotlrsc of tlrc st2rrtlyit will l~cconlc

I~:~ct,icalitnport.ance of' tllc problcln. 1)nrirtg

clear how this p:trt,ly consistent arltl p:r,rt.ly tlivcrgcnt I)cl~aviourof pcrfrct ant1 real fltritls can l)c cxpl:tinotl.

h. Viscosity

'I'II~: II:L~,II~Cof' vi~rosit~ycan 11cstI)c visr~nlizcdwith tire nit1 of t,ltc following cx- l~rrin~nrrt,:Consit1c:r tl~c~not~ionof a fltritl l)cl,\vccrttwo vrry long pn.rallnl ~)latcs,one of wlrinlr is at, rrst, tflrc otlrer moving wit,l~n, constant velocitry pnrallcl t,o it.self, as sl~o\r,rrin Fig. 1.l. 1,ct t,lro clist.arlcohctwcc~rOlrc plates bc h,,tlrc prrssnre l)cing const,nrrt

Icig. I. I. \'rIol~it~yrlisl,ril>~~t.io~~~II:b viscorrn llr~itll)c*t~vrrnI.rve) p;~rallrl Ilrrt \vnlls (Co~lrt.t.cflolv)

In ortlnr 1.0 s~rpportt,lre motmionit is necessary 1.0 apply a I~n~~gcnt,ialforcn t,o t,lrn ttl)prr l)lnf,o, tlro li)rcc 1)eirrg in cc~t~ilibriurnwith tlrc f'ri~t~ionalforces in t,lrc flrritl. It, is Itnonw from expnrirnont,~llrnt t,ltis forcc (t.a.l~cnper unit arm of t,lrc plal,c) is ~)rol)ort.inn:r,Ito t,hc vc?loc:it,y 1J of tlrc 11l11)erplat.c, ant1 invcrsrly proport,ion:~l to lhc tlist,:r.trrc~h. 'l'llc l'ricl.ion:ll forcc por r~rrit,area, tlcnotctl by t (Srict.ional slrcaring sl,rc~ss)is, t,licreCore, proj)ort.ionnl 1.0 lJ/h,for wlricl~ill general we may als? ssulist.itpr~t,c tlii/tl?/. 'l'ltc: 1)r01)01.t~iotr:rIil.yfnr:l.or I)ct,wcnn t ant1 d71 tly, wlriclr we sllall dc~~ot,cI)y ,~i, tl(:~~ur(Isor1 tho rralfrlrc: of 1.110 ll~ri(l.11, is srna.ll for. "l,l~iri" fltti(ls, st~clrnk ival.cr or :~l(:olrol,I~trt1:~rgnin t,hc case of vcry visco~lsliql~itls,srtclt as oil or glyccrinc. 'I'l~lrs wc 1r;tvc ol)t,:~inctlt,llc ftl~rtl:rrncnt,alrclnt,ion for flllitl frict.ion itr t,lte form

I

>

=

du

~IY.

(1.2)

Tlrr rlunntit.y p is n propertry of tho fluid and depcntls to n great exl.t!nt on it,s trm- pcrnt,rlrc. It is n rnoasrrro of tlro i)i.~co.vit~yOF irI1o Il~ii(l.'1'11~ I:LW of' fri(:tior~givrtr by ccltr. (I .2) is Iznow~r:LS Nrlidotc's 1rr.v~of frictio~t.ICqn. (1.2) cntl bc rrg:rrel(vl :~.st,llc c1rlinil.iotr of visc:osit.jy. It. is, Ilowevcr, ncc:cssary to st.ross tflrnttlrc cxnrnplc cot~sicl(:rc:d irr I'ig. 1.1 (:o~rstitrrt.rs:L p:~rt,i~~~larlysinrplc case of flttitl ~not,ion.A gnn(~r:lliz:~l,it,r~of this si111111(~e:rs(: is cotrt~:r.in~:~Iin St,olc(:s's I:I\v of frict,ion (cf. (!II:L~.I I I). 'lq1t(*(1it11c~11sic)ns of visrosi1,y c:all IIC tlotlrrc:c:tl wit,hol~t,diFlicrrll.y from cqn. (1.2)-I-.'1'110 sl~c:nritrgs1,rc~ss is ~ncnsurcdin N/m2 =I J'n nrld tltc vcloc:it,y grr~tlicnt~tlu/tl?y in ~ocI. lI(s~r(~(*

wlrcro tlrc sqlrarc 1~r;~(:Icct~sarc

even the most, witlcly, employctl rlnit of viscosit,y. l'ril~lc?1.I lists t,ho vnriorrs trnit,s togctlrcr wit,lr their conversion factors.

IISC(~ t,o (lcrrol,~111ri1.s. '1'11~ :rl)ov~is not. 1,Irc: o~~ly,or

.15qn.(1.2) is rcl:rt.ctl t.o IIooltc's law for all csl:ist,ic: solicl I)otly in wl~ic:l~rasc: t,lrc shearing sCrcss is proport,ional to tho strain

Ilrrc (: tlenotes lhe n~oclnlusof shear, y the clrangc in anglc bct.vrrc.cn tfwo linrs

wlriclt were origirrnlly nt

of a1)scissae. Wllcrcas in tlrc cnsc of an elastic solitl tlrn s1rc:aring s1,rcssis 1)rol)orl.ional t,o the n~ngniturleof the strain,, y, expcricnrc tcaclrcs tlrnt in tl~ccase of fluitls it is

proport,ionnl t.o tllc vale of chnnrlc. of strrr.in tly/tll. If' we prrt

right arlglcs, nntl 6 tlcnotcs tlrc clisplr~ccrncnt,in (.Ire tlircc:t.ion

we s1r;~llol)tain, as bcforr,

t

' fl

a11

?I!/

bccal~sc5 = XI. Jlo\vcvcr, t.llis analogy is not, complcf.c, I~ccarlsc t,lrc: st,rc:ssas in :r

flt~itltlepcntl on one corrst,atrt., t,lrc viscosit.y ti, solicl tlnpcntl on two.

\vlrc~rc-:istlrosn irr :tn isot,rol~iccsI:~sLic:

t \Vc sllnll ro~~si.sl.c~~t.lyIISC ill l.l~inI)oolc l.hc grnvil:ll.iri~~:ilor c'~~gi~lr:cril~gsys1c111of r~~~its:ill

ncrord:l~tcowit11 i~ltc:rt~n(io~~nlngrccrncnt. t.l~cRYIIII~I~k1) :11111

rcsj~ectivcrt~titsof lorre; t.lte corrcspor~tli~rg~~ttiLsof n~a.rswill Ijc tlr.l~ot,rtlI,y t.lrr nl~lircvi;it.ions

I1)C \vill

I),:

rrst:(l

10 ~~(~IIoI.~:~JIP

kg nntl Ib rrspoct,ivrly. In some tnhlcs, tllc tnlit~\\.ill bc tl~osc?of 1110 SI SJ.R~(~III.

I. Ont,line of fluid lnotion wit11

friction

Table 1.l.

Visco~ityconversioti factors n. Aljsol~lteviscosity /I

 

I

kp scc/mZ

I

kp 1ir/m2

kp ~ec/m~

 

1

2.7778

x

10-4

kp hr/ltlZ

3,600

1

I'n see

1.0197

x lo-'

 

2.8325

x

10-5

kg/m hr J

2.8325

x 1W5

7.8682

x 10-8

Ibf sec/ft2

4.8824

1.3502

x

10-3

Ihf lir/ft2

1.7577

x

10"

4-8824

Ilj/ft scc

1.5175

x

10-I

4.2153

x 10-5

kg/m hr

]Id sec/fL2

/

ibf

11r/rt~

3.5316

x

10'

2.0482

x

10-'

5.6893

x

127.1

x log

7.3734

x

lo2

2.0482

x lo-'

1

2.0885

X

5.8015

X

lo-''

0.1724

x

10"

5.8015

x

10--1-6115

x 10-8

620.8

x

106

1

2.7778

x

5.358 x 10"

 

3,600

1

 

3.1081

x

8.6336 x

10-a

I

Pn see

9.8067

3.5404

x

104

1

2.7778

4,7880 x 10'

x

10-4

1.7237

1,4882

x

10"

Ib/ft see

6.5808

2,3723 x 10"

6.7197

1+3666 x

x

x

1

1.1583

10"

3.2174

X lo-'

10'

m2/sec

m2/hr

cm2/scc (Stokes)

ft2/sec

ft2/hr

tn21scc

1

2.7778

1

X

x

lo-"

9.2903

2.5806

x

x 10-5

0. I<incn~nt.icviscosity v

I

tn2/11r

cm2/scc

ftysec

I

ft2/hr

3,600

1

x

101

1.0764

x

10'

3.8750

x lo4

1

2.778

2.9900

x

1.0764

x

10'

0.36

1

1-0764 x

 

3.8750

3-3445 X lo2 9.2903~10~

1

3,600

9.21103

x

loz 2.5800~10

2.7778

x

1

be 2.

Dcnnit,y, viscosit.~,nnrl kinc1nnt.i~viscosity of wnkr utld air in terrns of tolnpcratrlrc

'I'cmperntnre

"C

ncnsity e

kg/m3

Wntcr

Viscosity

,u Pa 8oc

- 20

-

-10

-

0

99!3.3

1795

10

999.3

1304

20

997.3

1010

.40

991.5

655

60

982.6

474

80

971.8

357

100

959.1

283

Air

at n prensare of 0,099 MPa

(14.69G lhf/in2)

viscosity

1l X loe

--

1Cincri1nLio

Viscosity

viscosity

Den~it~yQ

v

x

loe

ICinelnatic

r~tz/4ee1

kg/ms

- , 1.39

, 1.34

1.29

-

1.80

,

1.30

1.01

0.601

0.482

0.367

0.2!)5

1.25

1.21

1.12

1.06

0.99

0.94

'I

Pa set

mz/sec

16.6

11.2

16.2

12.1

16.8

13.0

17.4

13.9

17.9

14.8

19.1

17.1

20.3

19.2

21.5

21.7

22.9

24.4

c. Compressibility

9

Numerical values: 111t,lre case of liqnicts the vi~cosit~y,/t, is nearly indcpct~clent, of pressurc and tlccreascs at a high raLc with increasing tcml)crat,urc. 111 tlic case of gascs, to n first npproximat,iorl, t,hc vi~cosit~ycnrl be tnlzcr~to be intlcpcntlcnt of prcmitrc 1)11t,it irlrrcnscs wil,l~l,crnllcr:~,l,r~rc.'I'Iio Itinc?~nal,ic?vi~cosil,~,11, for litll~itl.q has t,llc s:l,nlt? t.ypc of t,ctnl~er:at.ilrotloj)o~~tlct~c:oas /r, I)ct.n.ttso Oltr tlottsit,y, 0,(-l~~it~~rs

oltly ~liglrtlywith tcn~poml,~lrc,Ilowcvcr, ill t,ho caw of gn.scs, for whicl~C, tlcc:ro:~ qc~

consitlcrsbly with incrc:~silig tc1npcr:~1,11rc,11 i~~ercascsr:t.pitlly willit (,cmpcmt.urc.

Table 1.2 contains some numerical values of Q, p ant1 v for water and air.

Table 1.3 contains some additional

lisefi~lclat,a.

l'ahle 1.3.

Liquid

Glycerine

Mercury .

Mcrcrtry .

.

.

.

.

.

.

1,nbricnting oil

1,ubricating oil

J,ubricnt.ing oil

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

I<inc~nat.icviscosity

Trltipcrnt.nre

" C

1,

c. Compressibility

loe

[m2/el

x

Compressibility is a measure of the change of volume of a liquitl or gas under

the action of external forces. In this connexion we can define a moduli~sof clnsticily, R, of volume changc, by the equation

IIcrc A V/Votlcnotcs the rclativc changc in volume br;ougllt about by n prcssuro in- crease Ap. Thc compressibility of liquids is very small :c.g. for waterE = 280,00011)f/in2 which means t,llilt &: pressure increase of 1 atm (14.7 lbf/in2) causes a relativc change in volume of about 1/20,000, i.o. 0.006 pcr cent. Other liquids show similar propertics so that their compressibility can 1x3 neglected in most cases, and flows of liquids can bc regarded as incompressible.

Jn the case of gases, t,t~emodulus of elasticity, E, is equal to the initial pressure p,, if the changes are isothcrmal, as can easily be deduccd from the perfect-gas lawt For air at NTD (st~rnosphcricpressure and ice-point temperature ) E '= 14.7 Ibf/in2, which means that air is about 20,000 times more compressible than water. Similar

conditions obtain for ot,Iler gascs.

t From tlic perfect gas laor it c:ln be tlcdncetl tllnt tlie clialtgc ill vol~ltnc,A V, cnusctl tty a cl~nnge

of prcsnnre ilp. sntisfics tlie relatior1 (p,, -1- ;lp) (

Y, C A V) - p, V,. Iio~cctlp

- p, A IT/ If,,.

111ortlvr 1,o i~trswrr1,Irc ~~IICSI~~OIIof \vI~t:i.lrrrit is ncccssiLry 1.0 l.aI<eint,o account t.lrt?c:otrr~)rt~ssiI)ilit.ynfg:~st,s~II1)rol)lc.m.sof flrlicl Ilow it is rrccc:ssnry t,o cor~siclcrwhether I,Irt* t~lr:rr~~c~sill I)rr*ssrll,oI)rorlgl~t,:LIM)III. I)y 1,Irt: n~ot.iortof'I,lrcgllrtitlcarlse Jargc cllanges irr vol~~ntt~.I~rsl~c*:~~lof eor~sitlt~rir~gVOIIIIII~-S itr is :llso ~)ossiI~Icto e~1~i111~1,etJrc charlgo

/I V) (Po4-Ae) =

irr tlt*t~sil.y,0.Owilrg 1.0 (.II(.

c:otrscrv:tt.io~~ofrrrr~s~,wo tb;lri write: ( V,

If,, el,, so t.11:tt. /Ie/.,, --1 -- A if/ I',,, nlrd ~Y~II,(I .f,)

r:111 be written as

(~onsc~t~~t~r~I~Iyl.lic Ilow of a g:r.s ~.:LII IIC consit1t:rrtl iltaom~,rcssiblc:wlrc?rr tllc relative

elrango

otlrtnt.ion p t ?, wZ = i:otlst (irr = . vt:loc:il.y of flow), tl~cchange of premure, Ap, I)ro~lgIrl,:~l)orlt,I)? t.Ir(: flow is or t,ltc ortlcr of the tlyn:lmic hentl q = 1 p 1112, so that crltt. (1 .6a) I)t~t:olrrcs

~IItlrnsity

rt:rn:rins

very

snl:~ll,Ap/e0 < 1. As

know11 from

J3erno11lli's

If, t.I~t~rc~foro,/lp/e,, sllol~ltlI)<: srn:r.Il cornl)am~l\vil,ll nnitrjr t.lrcn, as seen from

cqn. (I .G),

wc ~nrtst.:~lsoIlavc q/IC Q I. It Ilas 1.1111shccn proved that flows of gascs car1 be t,rcat*ed as ir~t:o~t~~~rossil~lc,\\,it11 a good tlcgrco of approximabiocl, if t.11~clynamic lrratl is stnnll c:orrrp:~rc?tlwit01 ~JICmotlulrrs of cl:~st,icit,y.

I IIC s:Lrnc rrsrrlt, can Ijc cxprcssctl irr a cliffcrcnt way if the velocit,y of sound is

itll.rotlrtc:c~rlittl,o t,l~attqrrat,ion. Accortlilrg t,o 1,aplacc's ccjrl:~t.ior~1.11~velocity of sollrrd

is c2 =

r

7

K/c),,. llt\trrc t.hc c:orrtlit.ion Ae/pO Q 1 from c:qtr.

(1.6) can also be written

r

J Ilc ratio of1.11t:vt:locit,y of flnw, 70, nr~rnhcr

7

t,o 1.hc vcloc:ity of sonl~tl,c, is lcntrw~las the Mach

I IIC ~)r(-rctlingarg~~rrlcnt~Ieatls 1,othe cor1c:lnsion (.hat compressibility car1 bc ncglcetctl it1 I,hc l.rt~:~l.rnt:~~l~of t,llc flow of gascs if

,

,

: M2<< 1

(approximately itlcornprcssiblc),

(1.a)

i. a. if 1.lrr hlacli ri~rrnl)cris stn;rll comparctl wit,ll

vt:locil,y is srnall t:ornl)amtl with tl~cvelocity of sol~ntl.In t,hc case of air, wit,lr a

or, in otlrcr wortls, if t,ho flow

vrlori1,y of sollntl of al)or~tc .=. 1100 ft,/scc, tho cllangr irr dcnsit.y is Ap/eo - 1 M2 =

- 0.05 for

n flow vi.loc:il.y lo --- :!:jO

ftilscc. 'rl~jsvalue can be acccpt,rtl as 1,hc orlt,sitlo

litnitt wl~t:rr a g:r.srorls flow car1 I)c cotlsidorcrl int:omprcssil)lc.

It1 \vl1:1.t, li,llows \v(: slrall ofi,t:t~assume tthc flr~itlto I)c incotnprcssil)le, wllicll will rcsl,ric-1,t,l~orcs111t.sLo small hl:~cl~rulr11l)crs. Ilowcvcr. or1 sevcml occasions, ir~p:trl it:~~l:iritr ( ;II:I,~~.X I I, X 1I I, :ttltI S S I I 1, onr rrsttI1,s will l)c rxt,ct~tlrcito ir~cl~r(Ic c~orr~prc~ssil~l~:Ilrlitls.

cl. Tlre Ilngrn-Poisc~rilleeq~~atin~lsof flow tlirougl~n pipe

I Ire clc~nonl.ar~law of fricLion for a sirrrplc flow wil,lr sllonr tlt:sc~~il)ctlin SccLion

I 1) o:tn

pipe of circular cross-sccl.ion 11aving a corist~anttlia~nnl.crI) - 2 R. 'l'lrc vclocil.,~at tllc wall is zero, l)eca~rscof atlllrsiort, at~tlrcarl~c:~a tn:txirnl~rnon the axis, I'ig. 1.2. Tllc vcloc:iLy remains co~rst,arrton cylintlrical surfaces wlrit:ll arc conccnt.ric wil.11 t,lrc

tvl.r>llol.lior, t.110 vc~lot:il.yl)l.itrg

I)(: ap~)lictlto t,hc ilnl)ortant,. ant1 111orc:general, (:asc of (IOW Ir1rrt>t~g11:L sl.r:\iglrtl

axis, ant1 1.llc i~ltlivitlnalcylintlricnl i:~~ninao~litlcovor

pr~rclyaxinl c:vcrywlrcrc. A rnot,iotl of t,l~isItitrtl is c:~llt*tlIrrnri)ttrr. At. :L s~ll'Iic~ir:rrl~ly large (Iist,:trrccfrom t,l~cer~t,r:~r~c;t:si:t:t,iorr l,l~t:vt~locil~~v~list,ril)r~I~iorr:li:ross l,l~i:st:t.t ior~l)t:-. cotncs it~tlc~ctltlcntof Llrc coorclirlate :~long1I1ctlirc:c:l,iot~of Ilow.

Fig. 1.2.

l,:~rni~~nr

flo\v t.Iiro~rglln pipe

?')re

fluid moves under t,11e illf\l~~ll~~of t,l~cpressure grntliont w11ic:lr act,s in till:

directiorl of t,hc axis, whcrc.~in scctions whicl~are perpondicrllar 1.0 it tlrc prcsstlro

may be rcgnrded as constant. Owing to friction intlivitlual laycrs act on caoli ot.lrcr

witll a shcaring strcss which is proportional to the vclocit,y gmdicnL (17~/i1?/.lIctloe,

a fluid particle is accclcrated by thc pressure gratlicnt anti rclardcd by thc frictional

shearing st,ress. No additional forces arc present, and ir~part,icular inertia forccs arc absent, because along every streamline the vclocity remains constant. In ortlcr to establish the condition of equilibrium wc consider a coaxial fluid cylinder of Jcngt01 1 and radius y, Fig. 1.2. l'he condition of equilibrirlm in t,hc x-djrccl,ion rcqrlirt:~tllat the presslire force (pi-p,) n y2 acting on the facrs of t,l~ccylinclcr Oe r.q~l;\lt.o t.11~ shear 2 n ?J l . t acting on t,he circ~rnlfcrcnt~i:darea, wl~rnrowe olrllain

ln accortlancc with the law of fricLion, cqtl. (1.2), we Iravc: ir~t21reprrscnt case

'J'lrr const.nn1.of i~rt.cjim.l,inn,C, is obt.ai11ctl from 1.11~rontlit.iorr of IIO slip a,(.111t- \v:~ll. l'hlts 7, - O at ?I -. It, st, t.liat (: r= 112/4, nntl finnlly

1. Orrl.li~rr:of firtit1 motion with rrirtiotr

ILln. (1.1 I) stnt~sthi~ttbc vo1111ncr;.tc

of flow is propnrtiounl to tllc first

Ix)wcr

the 1)r""Urc

the pipe.

eqn. (1.11) can bc rrwrittcn ns

(1'0p

ppr onit lrngth (pl-p2)/l

irnd to 1.11.: fo~trt,llpowor of tllc ra(jills of

112 is

intrr)~llllsrl,

Lf the mran

vclooity over tho cross-scctioa li =

"qn

v

3

Illc n.:l,llo(l

(1-11) call

~t,ili~(:(:"6'. tlt~cxperimcnt.nl dctern~jna'io~i)f~JICviSCmit,y,,;.

ilnd of t,llc pressurn (jmp

corl~isl*in thc mCanarel?~cntof tllc rat,c of flow

across a fixell portion of ~1cn(~ill:lryt~tbcof know11 mltur. Thus cIlollg~ldnt,a rite providrcl t.o dctcrtninc 11 from ecrn. 1 I .11). T~I:type of flow to'wlrich cqns. (1.10) and (1.1 I) apply exists in reality only for rclativcly small radii arid flow v~locit~ics.For larger vclorities and radii the character of tho mol.iorl changes complctcly: tlrc prcssurc drop ceases to bc proportional to t,hc first powcr of thc rncan volocit,y as inrlicstctl by eqlt. (1.12), but becomes approxi- mately proportionnl to the second power of zc. The velocity distrib~lt~ionacross

a secbiori hccolncs much more ur~iforlnand t.hc well-ordered laminar ]notion is replaced hy a flow in which irregular and fluctuat,ing rarlial and axial velocity com- por~cntsarc supcritnposcd on tltc main mot,ion, so that, consequently, irlt,cr)sivc ntixing in a radial djrcction takes placc. In such cases Newton's law of frict.iorl,

eqn. (1.2), ceases to I)e applicable. This is the case of lzdrbtcle?tt flow, to l)c tliscnsscd

in great cl(:t,ail latcr in Cl~ap.XX.

.

\

--,-

1 I'rinciplc

of si~nilarity;the Reyr~olds

Mac11 n~~mbcrs

I

Tltc typr of ilui(l n~ot~io~icliscussn:(l in tho preenling Scct,ion wr. very simple bcnasc evcry flrricl part,icle ninvccl iltr(lcr the irifl~tcnecof friotior~aland pressure Srcas orrl.y, incrtia brcrs laing cvcrywl~crecq~lrlin zero. 111a divergent or convergent (:hn~trt~(:lfl11i11 ~):~,rticlmarc n.rt,ocl u1)ort by inert.ia forces in atlclif.io11to pressure and frirtiorr forrrs.

e. Iprinciple of ~irnilarit~;the Roynolda and Much nurnbern

13

In the present section we shall endeavour to answcr a very fundamcntol qllcstiorl, ~lamclythat, conrcrnrd wibh the contlitions under which flows of diffcrcnt fluids about two gcomct,ricellg similar bodics, and with identical initial How clircct,ions ~lisl,litygcomnt,rically nitnilar strc!atnlincs. Such mol.iorrs which lravc gconrot,rirnlly

si~nilarstrrcarnlincs arc cnllctl tb?y,atrm.icttbl?ysirnilrr.r, or .qimilnr /10111~9.Jpor two Ilowa

nl)ont, grotrrotrici~llyaitnili~r1)otIic~a(!:.

clilli~rclltvcloc:itics r~rltltiillkrcni; iincirr tlirncrtsior~s,t,o bo ~irnilar,it,, is cvidcnLly

y. irbont two s~~ltorca)wi1.h ~lill'(:~.(:tt(.(Ilri~la,

-.

.

.

Ilccessary ihat the folIo~v~~~g~q!~~~t,i~n

shoulcl be satislic(l ;.st ?ll.gc,~-me_tr,~~~!ysirni,l.r

POillt$ thC f6FCCS acting on a flrtitl psrt.iclc niust !car a fixccl ~tio-ltcvcry instatlt

.

.

.-.

.

.

df t.iii16,

\Vc sItaIl now cdnsicter the irn~~ort,nrrtcasc whcn only f'rict,ional and inert,ia

forcrs are present,. IClaslic forces wl~iclimay bc duc to clrangcs in volrnnc will 1)c

cxcllltlcd, i. c. it will bc assrlmcd that t.hc fluid is

forces will also be cxcludccl so th:~t,conscqucntly, frcc surfaces are not adtnittctl,

anti in the interior of thc fluid the forcc of gravity is assumed to be bal:~r~cccl1)y buoyancy. Undcr thcsc nssnmptions the condit,ion of similarity is satisficcl only if

at all

a motlion pnrallel to t.he x-axis thc inertia force pcr unit volr~mehas the magnit,urlc of g l)lr/l)l, whcrc u tlcnotcs tlrc componctlt of vclocity in Olrc x-(1irct:tiorr and I)/1)1 clcnot,cs the sribstantivc dcrivativc. 111tho casc of stcady flow wc can replace it by e aslax - (lx/,It = e v al~lax,where alllax clcnotcs t,hc r:hangc in vc1ocit.y with position. 'I111us the incrtia forcc per unit, volumc is cqui~ltjo C,u aulax. J'or 1.11~fric- tion force it is easy to deduce an cxprcssion from Newton's law of friction, cqn. (1.2). Considering a flllid pnrt,iclc for which tho x-direction coinci(1es with thc rlircct.ion of

points the ratio of incrtia arlcl friction forccs is tlrc satnc. 111

incompressible.

Gmvit:r.t.iot~:ll

motion, Fig. 1.3, it is found that the resultant of shcaring forccs is equal t,o

a~

=-dxdyd~.a~

Hence the friction force per unit volumc is equal to atlay, or by eqn. (1.2), top a2u/ay2.

Consequently, the condition of similarity, i. e. the condition that at all corres- ponding points the ratio of the inertia to the friction force must be constant, can be written as:

Inertin fxcc

--

Friction force

2 L!

p a2u/aya

=,on,

t.

Fig, 1.3. Frictional forces acting on,a flrlid particle

It is now necessary to investigate how these forces are changed when the magnitudes which determine the flow arc varied. The latter includc the density e, the viscosit,y p, a representative velocity, e. g. the frcc stream velocity V, and a characteristic linear dimension of the body, c. g. the diamct,cr d of the sphcrc.

Tlte vcloc+ily IL at some point i11 tlrc velocit,y field is proportionnl to t.110 free strrnln velocity IT, l,hc vcloci0y gratlictlt au/ar is proportional 1.0 Vld, ant1 similarly a2tr/~y2is proporlior~alto V/d2. Ilcricc the ratio

?'herefore, t,llc condil.ion of ~irnilarit~yis sat,isfictlif tlie ql~antil~yp V d/p f~nsthe same value in bol,l~flows. The qo:~ntityp V d//i, wllicll, wit11 11.1~= v, can also 11c wriOt,cn ns V d/11, is a tlimcnsiotlloss ~lnrnl)cr\>cen.tlscit is t.11~mt.io of t,l~ct,wo forces. It is

t,I~cl<t:ynoltls

known as t.110 Ilayitnk1.c ~slr.?t~bar,R. Tlir~st,wo flo\vs arc similar when nlltrlher

(1.13)

R =

e

I'd

I'd

--~-

-

.-

I'

v

is c(l~~alfor hoth. This principle was f rst rnunciat~tlby Osbornc

in ronncxion with his iuvrstigations into the flow through pipes and is known as

Reynolds [I 21

Rryr~olcls'sprinciple

of sin~ilarity.

'rhr

fact t.hat the Rcynol(ls nr~lttlit-ris tlimrnsiorllrss ran \)e at onrr verified

clirrrlly

l)y consitlrril~gt,hr climrnsiorls

e Vd

11

-

--.

!bC:r:2

.

fthvc

.ft . -

rtg

lbf sec

= 1

wliich proves tl~attlic Reynolcls number is, in fact, cbncnsionless.

Mrtl~oclof indiccs: Instsntl of tlte corisitlorat.ion of t,hc cotldition of dynamic

sitnil:~rit~y,Reynolds's prit~c:il)lccan also bc tlctl~~ccdhy cnnsitlcring dimcnsioris

by t.hc tnctllod of intliccs.

physical laws must be of a for111which is ititlcpcntlcnt of the particular syst,erri of ~lnitscmplo,yetl. Jn t,l~ccase ~rntlrrcorlsitlerat.ion I,lle pltysicrtl clunnt,it,ics wllich clel,er~nir~rthe flow :me: the free st.rcam vc:locit,y, V, a rt?prescnt,at,ivo1inra.r tlimc>n- sion of t.l~chotly, (1. as wt~llns thc densitmy,e, and tlic viscosily, IL. no\v a.slc

whcl.llrr t.l~crecxis1.s a rornl)itl:l.l.ion of t,l~rscq~~attt,it,ir.sin t,l~cform

.In tltis oonncxion ilse is made of the observation tellat,all

1Sq1tat~ingl.Ile cxponen1.s or L, T, and F on hot,li sitlcs of t,llc cxprcssio~rwc ol>t:lin three crqna(.ions:

F

:

)I -4-

0 ::

0 ,

rJ.liis,

tics V, d, p ant1 /L, nnmoly t,lte Itcyrtolds nl~mbcrR.

sl~o\vs~IIIL~there cxisl,s :L ~tniq~~ctli~ne~~sior~lcssct)tnI)it~al,iotiof t,l~t: I'ont. (111:1,1tti-

Din~ctlsint~lcssquaatities: 'I'hn rcasolring followctl in tllo precetlitlg drl.iv:~fitin

of the Rcynoltls nulnher can be e~t~cntledto inclndc tlte casc of diffcre~~tItrynolrls numbers in the consitlerat,ion of tlle velocit,y ficltl ant1 forccs (normn.l:~ntltangont.i:rl) for flows wiLh geornetrica.lly sitnilar bot~nc~arics.Let ttlr position of :L point in (.lie space around the gcomctricnlly similar botlics bc intlica1,ctl by tllc coortlin:tI.c~s1,!/, z; t~llentho rat,ios z/ti, yltl, z/tl arc its tlitncjlsiotlless coortlirt:~l,cs.rl'l~c vc~loc:il.yt:oltt- poncr~t,sarc lnatlc climensionloss by reli!rriog tllern to the free-stream vc*loc:il,y V, thus 711 V, 111 V, w/ V, and ll~cltorrnal and sltcarirlg strosscs, p :~ritlt, cart bo mn.clcr tlirnct~- sionlcss I)y reforring thorn t,o Lllc tlorlbfc of t,llc tlyrtatnic lieatl, i. e. to p VZt.hus: p/p 1'" ant1 t/p V2. Tlre previously cn~~nciat,c~dprinciple of dynnmical sitnilarit,y can I)cc~x1)rt~s- set1 in :Ln alternative form by asscr1.ing t,llat for tile two gcomctricnlly sirnilnr sysl,cnls

with. equal Reynolds

t/e Vzdepend only on the dimensionless coortlinatcs

two systems are geomet~ricnlly,but not dyrlamically, similar, i. c. if t.lleir Rcynoltls numbers are different, t,llen tltc tlimensionless quantities under cor~siderat~iorlinnst, also depend on t.11echamctcristic quantities V, d, Q,14 of the two ~ystcms.Applying

the principle t,llat pl~ysicallaws rnust I)e independent of the syst,cn~of nnit.s, it. fi>llows

that tl~etlimensionless qtiarif,it,ies ~c/V,

dimcrlsionless combinatlion of V, d, Q, and 11. which is ~~niqnc,being

number R = V d e/,u. Thus we are led t-otile conclusiori that for t01ctwo gcon~cbric:~lly similar systtcms w11ich have different Rcynolds nu~abcrsant1 whicll arc bring

compared, the dimensionless quantities of the field of flow can only be f~mcl.ionsof tlic tthree dimensiorlless space coordinates z/d, y/d, z/d and of t.11~R.cyriolcls number R.

Tile ~)rccc(lingdirr~c~isiotralannlysin can bc ~~lilizctlto tt~:~ltcan itrlport,:r.ttt, asscrt,iorl about the t.obl force excr1,cd l)y a fltlitl strealn on an immcrsotl I)ocly. 7'11c force acting on tlto bocly is tllc surface integral of all normal and ~llcaringst,ressc:s acting on it. If P denotes the component of the resultant force ill any given direction, it is possil~lcto write a tlirncnsionless forro coefficient of the form P/c12 Q V2, 11111, in- stead of tlrc a,re:b d2 it is cnstomary to clloose a diKcrcnt chnract,crist.ic aro:l, A, of t,he immersed body, e. g. the fro~~tala.rea exposed Ly trIle body t,o tile flow tlircct<ion which is, in the casc of a spherc, equal tjo x d2/4. IIencc tho dirnerisionlcss force coef- ficient becorncs P/A e V2. J)iniensional n.nalysis lcatls t,o the conclrlsiorl t.llat for geomet.rically similar systems t.his coefficient can dcpencl only on t,lro tlirnensionless grottp formctl wi1.11 V, (1, p, and 11, i. c. on l.11c: ltcynoltln t~rttnl~cr.'J'hc c-otnlionc-111,

numbers the dimcnsior~lessqr~ant~it~ics141 Y,

., p/p V2 i~tld

x/d,y/d, z/d. If, Ilowcvcr, t,Ile

., p/e V2, T/Q VZ can only dcpentl on a

tJlo Itcyr~olds

of I,ho resultant forcc parallcl to the ~lnctisturbctlinitial vrlority is referred to as t11e drag I), and the component perpencliculnr to that tlircct.ion is callctl lift, 5. Ifencc the dimensionless cocfficicnts for lift and drag become

C , - - A

L

nnd

C,

=

-

I)

---

-

-

18VSA

,

(I .14)

if (.he tlynatnic: 11cad 4 Q V2 is SCICC~,C~for rcfcrcrlce instcatl of t,hc clunnt,it,y e V2.

Thus tho argurncr~tleads to the conclr~sionthat the tlirncnsionless lift a,ntl drag coefficients for gcornetrically similar systems, i. c. for geometrically sirnilar bodies which have tl~esame orientatmionwith respect to the free-8trea.m direction, are ful~ctionsof orie variable only, ns~nolythe Reynolds nr~rnhcr:

c,,=/,(R); CD=/~(R). (1.15)

It is ncccssary to strcss once more that this import.ant conclusion from Reyr~olds's principle of si~nilarit~yis valid only if the assumptions undcrlying it are satisfied, i. c. if the forces acting iri the flow arc due to friction and inertia only. In the casc of colnpressible fluids, whcn elastic forccs arc important, and for motions with free sllrfaces, whcn gravitational forccs must be taken into consideration, eqrrs. (1.15) do not apply. In such cases it is ncccssary to dedrlcc diKerent similarity principles in whiclr the tlin~ensionlessFroudc nurn1)cr F = v/G~(for gravity and inertia) and

the c1irnensionless Mach number

M == V/c (for cornprossible flows) are inclucled.