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Air Force Glider Program History - Part 1

Air Force Glider Program History - Part 1

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SCA.NNED BY ISA

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TU'E GLIDSR

PILOT

TRAINING

PROGRAM,

19,41 to 1143

As'ststa.nt

a' utsto'r"ical
Chief

P,repared
A il

by
Staff,

Dh1shl11 Septembat, 19,43

Il\telligenee

UNCLASS FlED

Ci-UH,AI'

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

,
~

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".

,

.. :-~V~}

".~~~r:.

TABLB
Ohapter nrmooUCTIOlJ I ••, •••••
.-

OF CONTENT-S'

•••

11

.

I

THE ISXPERDIENTAL GLIDER./ PllOGRAK, I'9Jmaar1 II, 1841 • Ineeptton of the Program •••••••••••••••••• FIrst Expertmeitla1 TrIlilllJJg_ • • • • .. • • .. .. • • • • • • • ~ fO!' FutUl'e Tra1D1ng ••••• ........,... I'm-tber Expe.lfme:Dl;il Tra.t.DqThe 110 ClIfJcer-pUot PrQgram. • • ... • • • •
!Ii :.I:
tI I! .. .. • • • • • • • • • • •

I"

..

<"J,

&tmmH,

•••

., • • .. .. • • • ••

• •••

,.,•••

II

......

II

10

,
'I

.5 ". 5-'

..

'1'lIE 1,000 GLIDER PILOT PROGR.AII, Feln'qIItJ Plans for a Glldel' Ecb61on. • < , • • • • • • TI"~la.8: Plan. ..
II • • • • •• • II •

1',1 ......





,

L. • •
II 9 .. • • • • •

,

to

..

II

..

~rocuremeqt BUla Progam liII.1J&'urated.
~atrat1ve 8um.mazrJ"

I

..

..

I

..

II

__

"

••,••••• (ib,ang_es
!Ii • .." ...".

12
II

11 U 11-12

l'


II:



• 1



..

.. •


..




I ,


12-13

1.1.

lit

•••••••

m


IV

THE 4,200 GLIDER PlLOT'" PROGRA~Apdl 1, 1M2 ••••••• TrlpliJlg ol the Program • • • • • • • • • • • • •• •••••• P~~, , "., BBtabllBhlDe1lt ci' seboOlII • .. • , ,. • Program uI IDstruc"'Uon • • • •
I • • tI • • • • • • • • I • tI • .. • • • • • •• .....

.

~=
i4
-18

,15~1&
,
..

1'~1I5

t.

Materiel

s.,rmmar1 •

Reqa1remeDfs • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ',' • • •
I • •
II ... II .. • .. • • • I • I • II ~ ••

18

I

..

••

1"7 11

TIlE 6~OOO GLDlEa PILOl' PROGltAM, ~

8, 1841

s, •••••

lD.cl"eJ,sed Qb,Jactl\!e • • • • " • • • ' . ... '.' •• •• EstablJshmelit Oil SehoOls ••.••••• ••• , ••• Combat Tl'ablJng of the Glider PUQt .•••••••• Procramof lnstrucflon, PreliIl1iaar7 ~hool81 PrbgJ'am 01 IIIStru.cUon, , Proeurmql!at

L(Pt AU'-p1aae R.~I Procill'ement

.. f ....

_.mt.i

I.
19'
It

I'f 2'1.... 8

2a..
19-80 .D 10-11 31'

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Chaptel' V THE JULY 18, lH2J REvmON OF TBB:GLmER OB)EC'rlYE • . • • • • • , • .. • • • • • • • • • Revised Objective and· 'l'nl.d.iDg PJ"C$'J'aJIl. • • PrDgr8JQ df lnstrgcUon. ••.••••••••• AamJalBtrat1,D of Tra~ ..,............ Plans loi: AclVlUlCed Tra~ '0 ~ • • •• • • • FlfteeJ)-pia.c:e Glider Pr.ooucttan. Tow Plane ReqUlre·ments
I • • • • .. tI ......."..

PILOT TRAINING
•••••••.•••• •,••••••••••
•••,••• •••••
t ~ • • • • • • .. • •

32

31 S8

0 .. 3 3 34-~5
3S,-!lB 36-,8'1

• . • • • • • • '. • • • • • . • • • .
I • • • • II II .. •

Instruetor Reqllire'ments .. m.. ...,. .. ,. • • ,
I • •

Tralld.Dg

GIlder

and LialS'OD Alrp.l.aDe ReqIIlrtments.
«•
.. • '.

•• ••••••
t • • .. • " I.. • • .. 11 • •• .. -. , •

as


..

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II

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3a 31
.S9 39-40
89

VI

THE AUG11ST10,
OBJECTIVJ!t.

BaSic Pl'CIgram 01 lDstnlJ:tlon. •••••••

• • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • '.' • . • . • 8udd811 Revision c.tj ect1ve EsllhlJahme:ut CJf SCiJC:Mjls • ~ by the Chi} Aer~cs AiIm~I01L •..•••.•.• Ble.Dleutary Program of 1IlStr-uc::tlQD • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

194a, REVlSION OF THE GLIDER PILOT 'l'RAINlNG

or

II<

,

II

..

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I

11

'II

II

'-

I

II!

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II

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II

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40

Gr.OiIDd

, ••••••.•••.•.

-~ry

Prog;ram 01 II:1structiOtl. • • • • • • • • • • .' • • • • • • • • • AdYaJu:ed Instructuri!l' Scbool. ...................., Ina.ali6n Bf Advanced 'J!nJning. • • • • • • • • • • . • • • . . . . ~ til lDstr-UC!tt~ '" ,. " SbCIIrtAf;e 01 Gliders and TOW PlaDes. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
I. I .. • " • .. tI
j

41 41-42 42
-44

4.0-41

42

•• -'". . .

r

44 45 45
45

42--44

II

;

".

,.

..

••

•••

111

it

••

,.

I

••

"

..

THE SEP'rE¥BBll
TRAlNlN(I

30, 1942, REVlSIGN OF THE GLIDER :AILOT
•••• ••••••••••••••, ••••••

Rension 01 Objective. , ••••.•.•.••••••.•. Effectuation of 'Hew Objective ••••••••••••••••••••• Slnu:tural J'l'(hlre of the FUtten-place StJm1ltl:ry. .."
Requirement..

OB]EC'J'IVE

, ••••.

AceWilulattlim of StudeBl:s in POOl1i. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • CbDgas in PersoDn1!!l :Procedute-s ••••••••••••••••••• TQ1I Plane IlDd Gilder

GlJ,deJ'. • • • • • • • • • • • "
I " " ,. •

,

••••••••••••••••• PIDOT TRADJ, .. • • • • • • " I

48 --48 46-47 -48

"~6

vm

THE DECEMBER 1. 1942, REVJ$ION OF! THE GLIDQ INC (JB,,JE.CTI'VB. • • • • •

!

I

II

II

.""

"

..

11

11

~ve Halvfd • • • • • • • . • • . • . . . "Vl~"mae_ TraiDilll • • •• •• PlaDe- RequltemeDta • ... • • • • • • • hrplllS of 'Tr:ainhIg .G1iderB. • . . . . ..

49

• ••••
• ••••
iI ••••

48 49 49-50 50-52
50 60

FUteeD-plac.e Glider Requir.emeDts. • • • • lIIaintenance. df FUteeJl--place Glliler. • • • • • • • • • • • C~ lD. ~ Pools. Attempts to R~ the MorN' Problem • • • • • , • • • Loss Of l!'lytng PrOficiency. • • • • • . •• •.••••••••••• AtfeJDpts to Accelerate Ad,YIUlc,ed Trai:nlJlg,. ...,........ Necessity t<J1 Combat Tratn:I,ng • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Plans fO!' ConsoUdated (_;lider Peo1. • . • • • • • • • • • • StatUs oJ the Gllder ,Program. " , , " SrlmmarJ. • • • • . • . . • • • • . • • • • • . • • • • ~ • •.
I • ~ , ... " •• I' .... II ,. "

• • • •, •••••
••••• •• •• .
I.. II

51'

It

'"

••

.....

It

to

••.

.

'11'113 63 53-54 54-55 55-58 58 '51

I'

-U -

I

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

Cbapier IX THE FBBRUARY ie, 1"'8, REVISION OF THE GlJDER PILOT TRAINING OSlECTIVE AND TIlE DlSPOSlTION OF EXCEas
GLIDER PBRSONNEL •••••.•.••....••.••.••• New CoverlliDg Factors •••••• _' ••••••••••••••• • RecommendatiOns of the QjieratlOhS D1Yi81lDl • • • • • • • • • RecGmm-eDlkt1omr or'Troop Cauler CQDI.mIliId • • • • • • • • • Recommendations of A-3 . • • • • , • • .' • . •. .•••••• ReeommeDdatioDS of the FlyiDC Tl'1.bi1Dg CODl)llaDd • •

sa

68 58 58-59

a~om.m.enda(loJU:l 0( Conference to Determine Glider Prosr&m R:ecommendatiou 01 Board to DeterDiille GlI.derProgr.aa ••• ,RenBion of the GIlder Program • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • •
£ffectuatlon

Di8JIQsltton 01 Excess GlideI' Per:sOrillel • • • • • • • • • • • • •
't'be GIlder Survey ~.

or

the Revts.1on

• • • • • • • • • . • • • • .. • • • •
F • • • • • • • •

81-83 '82

69 69 59.60 8O-tl

8uzxlmar-y • lfJ.1.S. •

••••
• • Ii •

82-84
eI-fI?

t

Ii

,.

Ii

..

tI

Ii.

1t4I.......
• •

117
18,
• • • II II

X

TftE REVISED 8IJl)ER.
t • iii • • •

PJLOT ~G
••• • • •
II • • • Ii ,. I •

PROGRAM, FebrlW'f
Ii • • • • •

a
..



II

Ad!tl.tn1&traH'V'eC~es • ••••" Status of Advance4 Tra:lnblg •.••• , . . • • • • • • • • • •• • Advanced Pl'ogram Of InstructlOJr. . • • • • • • • • • , • • • • • Program Instnctlon CODBOlidati!i:l GltdJ!r Pool. • • • . • • •
• .. • • • • Ii • • • •

68

88 68
11

Gllder Maint~nanee Courfje • • • • . , . . . . . • . • . • • •• • Materiel Requiremellts . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

or

88-10

'1Q-l1

Revisioll

PlAns f(fr 1~
8u~

of Advanced T.riUniDg Prop-am •• • • • •• • •• • •• Gilder PI101l'~ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• Tile 19« GU~ Program • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • •

''12-"'13 1,1-".
'm
'13...74 74-'16

Measurement

_

of Procluciton
1'1

I

"

..

• ~,.

..

• 11..

• •••••

..

t

•••••
_ ••••

••••••••••••

'1&
'l8 'lB' '1B-'l'l 'I't 17-'18 'l8 'lB-OZ9 79-80

',..

XI

THE OPERATIONAL TR..UNING OF THE GLIDE PILO't Plans for OJrerational TJ'atnbIg •••• ~ , • • • • •• Mmmtstrattoll of Operational TrilbllJlg. • . . < • • • A.vallabUity of Materiel .••••••••• .••••• Operatiolla.l 1lraining PI'DgI'ItDl. • • : • • ., • • • • • • status of Opera:tional Tratntng • • . • • • • • . • ~ • •

.••••• • ••••
• • • •• •

• • .,. •• Per,!lmut~l Preblems . . . • . . . . , . . • • . • • • • . . • •• • E-stabL£shmeJit of aitder: PUot Colilbat Tr~ O'Dit .. Program at lnatructton, Glider Pilot Combat 'l'rabllJli Ulilt • • • Plan& fo.r Future 'boop Carrier ~atlliDg • • '. • • . • , • • • • •
BIlmm:ary • • • • • • .. • • • • • ~ .. • • • TESTDJG AND EMPWntENT
I • .. • • .. .. • .. .. • • .. ..

••••••

• • • • ••

SO-81 Bl 81
82 82

xn

TACTIC:Ai. Firat

Status cd Hie Glider . . . . • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
TaCftical Employment ••••.•.••••••••••••••

OF THE GLIDER

•••••

Haneuye~ {If lOlst Airborne DlvtJillon •••• : •••••••••• Plans for Crmcl.ust..e DemOl\Stration •• • ••••••.•.••••
Laur1nhu:rg-lKaztotl DemonstrattDU • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Refinement at the CG..4A. •.'. • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • ••

lIZ

as

82-83

U-R
lK


"

...-,

A

.
'_r ,.. .1 • '~.,..... •

C4-2655,Ar

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

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UNCLASSI

Page
C"'-go~""8 Am:omat:IeTow Co:mftt E~
AlmmlJ'7

New TJpe8 d GlIders

II. •••••• .-." "' •••••••••••••
III. I

I

..

"

... ..

M ••
85

,? t

II

Ii"

"'

...

of Gl1ders •••••••••
..

••••••
..
"" •••••

85
8'7

• .. ..
w ••• , •••••••• ~ •••••••••

85~87

XIlI

8UMJ1ldlY.
BIIJ-~~"'.t APPBNJ)lX A.

88-90
1

.•
• .. •••••••••

"".iI

tt-98
84

...

"

••••••••

11

••••

APPBJiDm B , . . . • .. .. .. • .. .. .. • • .. .. , .. .. •
AP~BRJ)IK C ...............................,,",..

II'

..

~.

95 98

iii

GLOSIb\RY O~ MiBRBVIATIOlIS. tNIlEX. .••••••.••• : •••

••..•••••.•.•. . . , ••••••••••••
".1

&7-98
99-104

-

tv

,-

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MeT

OF lLl"USTRATIONS 19l1Q.JIlggPU'

Planned Tactical

EIIIPl~ent

~ GUders

••••

12

Delad SUck LlUlding Pl'.actlce • • • . • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • Flow

:'0
ZI

at

8tude~

June 15,

tb.ro\IrI'
1941 ~

Sept.

GlJder

a.

8CboO'ls

1M2. • • • • • • • • • • •

...

CoDverted Cub Type GUdera • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• . , FloW cdBtu48r1ta tlltougJI Scbools, Sept. 14, iM2 - Feb. 1948

.

lI8

as,
I

The CG-4A

Glider • .. . .. • .. • • • ,. •

I!

..

"

,

..

I

'"

,..

..

10

GlJd.er 8 In Fltght ..
GroUDll Combat

" " .. .. .. • .. ..

II

,

..

70
80

~au,tq

••. •,•••.•. . . •. ., .•. .
to .. II! • .. ... .. •
I .. ill • .. .. .. •

Glt4er Pickup D..nce • " .. .. .. .. ,

84

]
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VNCLASSIFI

ftBSRICTHD
FOREWORD It I. the desire d. tbe ])resld!l!nt, the Beeretary O! War, and the Cmnmancll",
(jenera!, co~lled. Army

Air Forces, ·that a scUd record

of the 8lqMIrieaees

« tile

AAF be

TlUli 18 one

or

a

IIIJrieB

of l!ItiIilles prepa;r,ed as a fffiralt taRatlYe~-' ill
Ar'lA'1

the p~Je&tted cmtr-all

fdafort aI the

..tu Forces.

Tile dec1slUl to m6e the iIIform.d1ClDcoata1aed hereiD avaJIable for
opel'lttional use

staff d
sauree&

without de~

baa pJ!eYented

l'8CQnr88

to 9ClJI1e p~1mary

ReacterBfamUiar with this _ect

matter are inVited to contr1llute l$U8iestloDs.

addlUCMJal

facts. l.IIterpretaf1eu,

aDd

co~'9'e

Thia studT ldll be baDdled tn. std,ct eompllanee with AR ·380-5.

(J~~
C

TON BJ88SLL General, V. S. Al'JIiJ AS8111taDt ChI,ef of Air

MaJ

,weUtsenee

-..$

ConSructl1'8 cnttc1S11U1 8lId. aiIcI1t1OJU1l factlB ~ lDtel'p;&,'etatt,0D8 an r8q1J.ested. 11'0 that end pedorafed. sbefU pr.opedl addressed are ~d In ~ appeDdiL

'-

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

UN

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

INTR'ODUCTIQN For lnuIdreda of years men baa tried tQ eDlUlate the flight of, tlle b1r:ds, bUt if was not until the last year, of the. nirurteeJ)t1). century and the lust deed. of the twenUetb uat a few clarj.ng lnd~'IilIUals bega.D to aperlmeDt 8uct.e~Ul1y with gliding GIshL Fo~emost IUDGIli theae -wer-B Otto LUtenthal hI Germany and OCtave Chanute and the Wl"igbi bl'~s ill the United states. But wlth fhe development of I?owel'tid flight and the siwsequent coneeJltr.uOIl Oft OI1lttiLFy ·aw."Uon during Worm. War It P ogres tn the art 01 gUCI__ fiJ1Dg u.s tbe evolutl.oa 01 the glider aU but stopped.

As. earlYtas 1909, however. a group, of GermaD 8choolbD,s began t"o devel~ tUlt:JDc After t.he World War and the eOJl8f!qUent l'estrtctloD8 placed 011 powered arid10A in Germany, the gltcltng meyement in that cQuntry cOlILmeneed to aathet momMtll.1ll uatu bJ. 192Z the first true s8.l.lplane bad Wen deslgned and tested:: Interest in iHdlng spread to France ud England, bUt S(I()n S1IblIided, aQd it remained for Germany to deYlflap the techmquea of gUdlng and lKJUing thro~hoJ¢ the tIlellll.. . as
III

filDOlt.

,,.

1928 bJ a IJ'OUP of B'iW~1th. couutr" Soulns societies a'~eared ov.ntght. As the ~!ril'i1LD ROJtulatt~ became cog'llUant at. the tlIrJllB UId 6j1Ortlol glldillf, me science of tbermal S~1ll'1nJ was mastered and ro&l fltgbts lli11lre a.oIl1eved.
German pilots.

MotorlesB flight was

again

A wav·e of enthusiasm

illtroduced to the United statellin
for glldlDg alIiI stjUing

j

As early as 1929 clnllan soaring .enUlWlluts begaa to a4y~ l(l1d.lq" lUI a ate and lnexpeui:n mfllnS at preliminary power pUot tratJUng. In Gdrma,n'y, 'Ftt~. and other cOUlltrJes experiments ao4 actual trunlqg albng this line were beiq developed. That year, in .response to countless letters a.DEl queries, tI«! ArJDTf" Air COl'PS CDf'i!led • lNl'Yey to 118-teJ;'lllliDe the worth or tuder tr,all1iJ1g a.s u lidjunct to. power bal.nlng. The cpiJdOA Of the personne;} at Brooks Field. Teua. was: • •

It l8 mot believed tba:t any goad plttpose would be ser.,Qd by tntrodu<;t~ tbtt use of gUdblg in the Armr flying !SChools. Thl' 0bj~tive or the MJJII1. fiytug scboolS Is t9 fr..aili pilots to fiJi miUtarr a.trpU.nes, These planes Qt. hIgh powe ...ed aM DG beneficilil result would eUIie from tr-mini 0lIl' student pilots in tlidfng.4 • fUtr.uct'Ol' opinion 'was somewhat diUez:entj the)' bttlllWed ~ gltders oUer-ed more promise ,~ be1ng rJf valWh particularly "ill •ft1wlnc a feellng of sustentathm. ~han U dfd of 00_ 01 DO value/" OplniOD at the Advanced School at Kellf Fieldl, Texas, 'Was that:
the

~t ,:w.l'ch Field. California,

use

2. P. W. PawlClWl3k1, DIr.ectQr d Ole Nat1olllJ. Glider ASSDelation. to Maj. Gen. J. E. J'eeAet. Chief of the Air Corps, Aug. 1, 1929, in AAG 373 A, Glfil.,.. Flyfq. (Ohief ~ tile Air Corps itereidlter cdted as C/A~H. 3. C/AC to D. F. Walte!'" Miulager [)f the National Glider A,SSOCiatlODt June 15. lfllt. In lbtd. 4. 2nd Indorsemeat (~:ecutiV~1 Office Chief of All' CorJlB to Com.JIII.IKIlng omc.rt AIr Corps herebl&ftft

1. LewlDB. a-rl'inger,

Flight without Poyer, 1-13.

Training Center, JllD.e15, U39). Commandin, Oftlcer. BFcoks Field, Tens, to Command_ 0fI1~e,~ Air Corps T..ra.1lP1!B>enter, July 8, 1,2Q, in ibid. C (Offtc.e Chief at Air C~
eited as OCAC; Oommanding

clted as CO, ACTC). • 6. 4th IntIOI'Semellt (hecutlve. OCAC t9 CO,AC'l'C, June 15, 1911), CO, March F1:eld, Callfot. to CO~ACTCI 1.y Z~, 182-11,n: I .

OOlcer,Aa

COrps TraUltng

center

_tblAfter

C"-ISH,AIP

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

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UNCLASSIFIED

students l'ejlortt:og at this school are, in general, cDllSidered competent pUOUI, able of se,vtee e;quipment with., a short periQd of trasitl$'ln tnl!llng. delis caJlDotbe utlliZ'ed m tho training of stlIdents at the Adnnc:ed FlyJnc School.

to nJ IUI¥ typ~

'f-

This study re811Ued in an All' Corp:; deciBl911 that "glider flying ,sbould lint be added to the eurr1e:ulum or the Air CGrp8 Fly-ing Sc:hools." 7 TMa position was maintained throughout the thirties. Certain oUie~rs aDd. .mea Dl the Air Corps alId bt:Iler bra.neheB Of tbe Arm, begaa to awilfost tnterest in soarlng' as a.sport, bu." thelt ~d"eJd>8 were- te;rmb.ted h7 an Adjutant General letter of Decembe~ 38. 1931, wh1e:h~ that '"lexe• on specUle perform aI glider flybrg
miSsIon. from the WILl' DepaI1ment
in

other than GoV'er_nmBnt-owned alrc~t."8

Army l1ersoJUl~

are

prohibited

fum

parlielpatblg

bl !lily

As the rue of. tile cilctatl1lr gevernments began to thr-eateu mhlruatloD8il Piace, the Wu Department, IDd -especially the Air Corps, was delupd wttl! advice IUlcl querl., rep.r,d1ng inaupration of' glftier fl~ at Ab' Corps schools, The AJr CorpJ'lclung·to Its old concept--tllllt glid.er tlymg was Gf no benellt as a prellmiDary t'o 1nstruetlQD DIl atrPJalie8. A1:r Corps oolntl)!!. WJIB based on UifOl'DlaUOn from abroad whtch indlmed that although fheu had been uextenBive gUder ft)'lng .ill Germany aDd Franc~, subsidked to some utat bJ the governmelltS 01 tbOse ccnmtrles/' it had not beeD! included a pUt 01 tI1e oUl"nCUlwa 01 samee fiM schools.S Neither tlm Air Oorpsk t.he War DepartDJent irI eenl\l'~. 1'),01' elvtltilnc soaring enthuSiasts bad yet rt!ali.z:eci the posslbUiUes of the glider Itself as a mtlitary weapon •

.as

The surprise emploJiment ~ mammoth tr:oop-C8rryiD&' and ClU'go-CliU'1'}'blg gllders by the Germans iii the PoliSh e~ ill the fUJ. (jf 199-g and later, in the Low Coumri". in the BJ?I'~ ol 1MO caWled a renovation of:A CQrps tldntlng remd1~ the ~itle8 a.JJd wse of g1l.ders. Barly ctn 1941, before the ~ctaeulu Cretan clJN)a1gn. "in Yiew of certatn in• formation recel~ mom abroad" the Ailr Corps beUl!ved it nad:rtll'able t1J.at1 a be kdtlat" with II view to de'le~OplDg a. t~ 01 glider thai: C'8il be to"ed by aiJ'craft ..' 10 TblUl the Army gllder prQgl'am was bo:rlll.

studr

As a J'l!sult cil. thtt G_arman employment Of. gll.s~ clVi1Jaa gUd"ipg in the United fresh impetus. In the sprblg of 1941 the National Youth ACimbUstratton in con1unctton With:. the CiVil AeronautiCS Adm1ri15b'atton laid plaDB for So gliller tra~ llr.Qiran. fat the iOidb ~ America. 1.1 DUrmg that Jev sevel'al bUls were lmFocIueed in €Q •• SB .. hle)l providd for the establishment of so.eietles and wor.MhQPs to pr.oDlOtelnterest In gUlling
state&llGqldred

f

IDd ~. The AU' CMPS opposed sllCli programs on the p-aunds Plat the tlJiitect Statts .~ then • ill the midSt of &Il. aU-oat defenJile wogram') and that "military demands for POWelC- atr.el'lIft and copapetent ail'DlU shGuld ~ puamOlmt. 1;1 Ful'thermor,,~ tbe All' Corps believed that to efteetive1y

exp~fence Deeded to navipte a ~~

pilot

a towedgl:ldel'

• • • does not reqmethe

plane o~el' long distances,

Imowledge

~

al;Id

8. 8th lnilorselllent (lb!ecutiye. to t;o,ACTC July 30,

~. 8. 9.

10.
11.

12.

QOAC tp CO,ACTC, June 15, 19.29), CO, Kelly FIeld, T~. In ibid. . C/AC to D. Walker, Aug. US, 1929. 1'n "ibid. AS 580.2 (1)2-23-31) Misc. A. O.~ Dec. 28, U131. M~moranclum lor G-S by ElrecQtlve. QCAQ. Oct. 4, 1929, ill AAD ,'13 A, GHder FlJiv. (Memo will hereinafter ~place memor·andUlQ.) . ' RaulbIg and Rec;ord sfie~, PllDS DtVilsi1n "to }tll::scuttve, Maleriel Dinsioll. F.b. 18, lMl. tD ue '62.1 A. Glldeta. (Herelntfter citedi as a68). Memo lot CfAC Tra1ldJlg,and Operations m\llslOll, June 7" 1941, In AAG 35:1.9 A, QHdel' Tratidng. (Tratflng aDd OIleratlons Dltisllln heretnafter ,eHed lIB 'FAO. J For further details of lem.slatfve pba:le consult study. "L!@BlaU'Ve PrQPO~ aod ED&Gtments ReIatt:ng Jo·the AAF TraiJdDg Progt1Ll¥l, 1989-19i3, • ~4:!g prepared in AC/AS, IDtelllgence, Sfstorical DlvJ:sloD. Admtntstrattve Bistort Branch. ~Hlato1'1CaI Dl't1S10ll hereinafter cited as .AFIHD.)

-\r.

lOa,.

..

,

hi

me

J

i

.e
4-.Z555,AF

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

u
I tbOUSa.MB or pilots III t1i1S c~~ who.bye lUll eompletal I)l" ~ IID1 pan at the fll~ fnlId.ItC given In OlD' Antq: tmd N&YJ' ftJlDg achooIsJ could 8QtceBItuUy lIaIIdle sall planes' liter l'el~frQm t» tn, u these uaft have beeJt empl0Jed br the GerIDlUUl. Pr.~ wtth plans fDl' e1vtlla.n glidar actlvttin grew, 1M. with the tpcl"~ at AmerieaJl blYolvemeat ID wu aDd wlUl the deDlOlUltraUOD b1 u. ~ a& the O:treu1v:e and 8t1PP!' capahtuttes 0( the militarf glider. Upon lbe ~e crt the 1fiItei _ iDto 'florid' War D and the reqa.btittordQl or all dvtUaa slidara bJ the pnl'JlJll8llt, tht!!ld", Pl'OIP'esaed ir.om (oatertug cMliaa pidtl' programs to the development " the ~ ~ and the trlltDlq " the :Dlil1tal'j1 pilot. •
UkeIibood

.Ider

war, a new 1QId.tried trainllIg pr~ .. ~ The time ,... hardly uapIctoa8. wW' 0,., 1acJt c( CQ~ aperlence, the peacettme DIlglect a( the m1l1QlrJ piOtems.1W .. of. the ..... was omtnOus for a lI&t1on be~edly dte__ to acb1eve adequlte nattonal ·dar..... Elpaciftcally. there had ~ 11.0 dZ'JlfUq at woHable tMJaiDg plans, 110 ~ _ telllliIII fI, tho n'ieileil materiel, "l.nd 110dete~mI.IIat1on of till tactJ;c:al ral:e 0'1 the ~ III CO:aIbat ~ The r.equlre~1'.s at U. C8JUU'al ezpanldon prOFa •• d1ffteult as tbq .... to a,cJd.De, hacI been drawn up without z'efer8QCB ~ 1ih'ertlIIs JDaDpOWeJ' and materiel to prGdtacUoa ol. .. t1111H
Khelc»n.
of

oat til the l"Iftier ~

&..... 811888

tIlat tbe glider might be. • OU;eef" ~

~k

quateJy pr.pated nattoa to a wart1me. lGOtlq, It is amau Older that tile 1&1mebed em a rocky COUI'Be. Bat tlle pre'S8ur. WGrld events bad, bf II!&1"lrlMi J promlHDt Air Carps leader. that the gilder ... 11 IIiIllW'J ftII)OII. JIHded bt tile Al<m¥, Dpptte the- obv1~ dlfftcu1ti .. att.. at to the cle\'el:OpDUlfd. cI the pr... tUa1dD& lD terms of procuremeat, ~. ao4 emp)oymeut of • &fIder -ecbelaa.; pllot tratDblg effort ts tbe bmd8n d thIII ....,.

necessary prelimblary pll.llNII8 aDd ~rtllllWzdatlan were dzrawIDc to a clos8, the 1Jbttei stat_ was eogageCl ba .. -global war. In tlIe tremeDdlnui! tut cd CObV'ersloa« • IiItI1l ..

HaJ'moQ with atber ~

lwI to be~.

ADd ~

_

t:lJDe tJie

mr .....

or

.tder

C:oIlvbIced Uld.ted St'atea The
,

,...

tMi'

CllIlu

bepD.

11. AaaiStaDl Secretan'
GUd.ers.,

Il.

war

for Air to W. S. B.9aU June 16, llMl. III MG 411.1 ~
J

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

C ASS F

D

Chkpter
THE E,XPEIUJ.tENTAL GLIDER

I PEJUlUARY 25,
1941 ..

PROG:RAII.

InG'.ption, 91 Ute .Program. Tentative ~ Corpe tbtDkbta did lICIt r~lJlr. 10Jll to aaatenalI:ze intO ,. .. lvips the moSt caatrOftJ'siaJ, tniJIiDg PI'~ eYer UDd.l'tMu bJ the A;rrq AU FOE'ces. ForJDBl initiaUQQ. oJ the' glider prosram occurred Febr-.ry 25~ lMl, .. ben. Major Gtmeral B. It ArDold; Dep~ ClUef of staff It)( Air, directed Mafai' OeDera! G. R. arett. .A.ctiDI Ohlef -of Air Corps,l to 1Jqp~D1eDt the develapment. of a tr~ pJder. The Air COJ'PS bad l'eeOgDlz.ed the tactfcK]. value 01 tbe RUder IS delllClJl8tnCecI b1 the ~JDIU in PoIaDel aDd ~ fOl" the dlnett.e sp8cilitcl a ~ .. boae •• stOil WOUld 'be ~b'IdpoIotbig ~fIOanel and materiel uul 1181_ objectives that caa not normallJ be ~hed by >COIlYUttoDaI jIttAlDd Wlits.~· SpecUl.calJJ', tba gIJder ..as t~ be trGOp_ ana eHlJ1l-eFl'JiDI aDd ca· pable t1 ~ towed i5I.DelJ or eD-tri1Il,. traapoitlllg ill fo 15 ADd. " portable 'JDUhlae guns with 500 'rOUQllJl cd UlDlUDltloa 10r ncb ~ or ca})lllJle of ~lDJ ID wef8Jlt tn..eq\l1Plnent. Each sUder cre" 91U1 to be a. self-cOIitaiIled. J:OtDbat t8Uil. On JOtcti 4 the direit.ive was referred to the' Tec:lmi.caI ExecutlYe 0{ the Mat~rlel Division, at wright Field, apio.. ty ~'neeessar, action.·# and a new pbase ill United states mUltrary avtatlcm was 1IDIfer

_talent

fun, ~

aoldt".

wa,..
or

S, mtd-JA, -efsht twp-plaee gltd1lr8 had been Ql'dered tHm lour aircraft. c~tiQ118 ~B- wtlll .. ~ eIgI¢-{llace and one "flfteen-.,lacs glldu for ataUc aDd apuimeJJta1 teata. A~ tmmel madel as eight~jllac:e ~r had alao beell prOClll'flI:Lfor emperlmbtll purposes. TbJ'ee <Jf tfieae ezpetolmeatal tl'atDbIg glklers were achecIulecl lor delivery to Wi1gbt Field ~ the mJ4dltl Of l1me; theJ'efore, the Materiel Dlvtstoa, _ice Cblef of Air

tra~

ing."

Comsl felt that the sl*r pr~!eet had rtl1QW I'e~~ a stille where it t. Imperative thd: of gUcIer p1lota be U'IIUIgtJd in order to e:arrr OIl future cI~QPraent UJd -.e.rvlce test.

;9J'OP088lB bad *ead!' been_ reeetved from two civWan apDeies, ~e F.rankfOri &11Compally' aDd the. Elmira Area SoarlDs Cot'pOl'atiGII, to train six AIr Gorpa oftkers e:adl In IJjder piloting. TIIe})ropQseCl CQUrEfIf ,. ... e to be 01 apprGXiIDat$ tlb'ee "eea' duration at the cost of ,350 to ,395 a stuaeat. pUmeCouEl!l!H!Dtly. on Mar 16, leu. tile,. Materiel DiYlSion was JnBtnlCted, Deptiate 'the aeceaSlll')' CoJabacts to pi'oride for the tralilbig of twel ..e .Mr Corps Offteers. Before Udf8 ~lmeDta1 tra1nJltg cOuld be lIaplamented, lunrever,lt 1I'U Jlec"~ that the 1981 War Deparbmeat reBtrl~ OIl Illder nJtag 1!Y Army personnel be TeVOked. TIItI:wa1 accomplishecl J-. &, 1941.

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

~ EZ2utmental Tr1tinlft,. From JUDI! ~ to 23. 1941, at the Elin1r& Gll.d1nKAl'ea Soaring Corporation. Harris aU!. Eluma, New Tork, and the LtntI8 Bcbool c( AeronauU~s. Lo~rt. Il1lDots. the first Bper'im$ltal ~ or Air Corps officers 1D gUIIer pUotLng took place. Twelve pJlot8 were tratJled, lQUr from the Ml.tertel DivISion. .. elgbt bam the 5Gth TranfJport Wlns.8 The tniJiillg W3.& atmnar to the coarse lbese Idtltuti'Olll!l had been glYlq to UIetr etrillan <stwielit8. At the ElmtrA Gli&tJ.Ds Area. 8o*tac Cor.. ration Inttilll inStruction was given on ablgle ..plaee li'raDklin t1W1tJ Glldelts wtth automobUe t9W. TIuI rUcler was towed across the fit!ld at 50 mph and the pilof requi'I'lMi to teep the illdel' on tbe gtpuDd altboQlll he had auaici~Jd: spMd to !lJ. Successive series of tows permUted the pUOl to go I, 5, 10, 30, 75, 160, !OO. aDd 500 feet cif the grolDd. After reLeaamg the tow rope, the pUc4 would pra£tice approaches aacI spQt JandllW ~ the descent. After ~elJ etgbt hoariI flyiJlg Franklin 'QUUty GUd~s. the tastrUCtiOIl was IIhlited to two~

place Schwelzer SaUplaaes.
"'lih the inStructor

u.

or

in the. rear -coellplt. Tnatructloa coat1aUecl ,.ith wtneb, automobile. and ai,J'plane tows. WIlen poa81bUt. the atqIeDt would 'shipe soar' or seek 'thermal activity' to p1'Olollghis flltbt. After demoil~~ prOllCdellCY, lIt\KleJ1t8 nn tben UUPlIDU BOlo from tIMI

The 8tIldeat oe~ed

the

fr()Dt 'CocJIptt

With a 336 I!.p COIlti.neDtal eagUll. EaCh student completed ewtat hours of dual tow WOl'k, aDd had at least GIl8 hc>ur .. pllof t1 tM _ J)lBaa. The Uytng of Illders lJI formaUOII. belitDd a tow PkU did JIOt pre8eDt many new prob18lD11 QVer for'mallon'tlylq. The opuatlcc of the t~ al,rplane iltd taU'oduce many De1f coDdlttOlllll. !I'he last ~ ~ fhe iutrbctloo Fogr .. consisted. 01 a 9088 coaDtr,. fltJbt. AIl atudents made at least cme Cf'C)sa epuntry tl1gbt Which termlgated 011 an trabler

tront cockpit.

Dual sailplane .trplau tow. were ...

WliDIrwaco

airport at least 40 miles awa,.. 9

Tbtt initial lmItMletion

at

the W'wis School ~ Aeronautic.

was g1ven by lIlstrtmtol' in the rear eooJqHt of the saflplalle. The latter was lapncbed by wlHh tow. After three wblob _" tILe .. eat wa. allowed to 8010, with emphasis on spot landiQga Ilil ~U1 aPlU'OI&(lhe8. Aft~1' approztma.tB1, tell bo~ of ny,tDg time wltb ~ l*uacbeI, the studetat was liVeD iJdttal ail'plane tows under the inatructOl"a 8~toD. Dar. the lirst two hourll of alrplaae towj the t1lStr1lctor Clire lD8tr1lC~ non ltt thermal lIOIU'iDg as the gl\der was deaceadlDg. After demoaItrat .. ing Pl"oficleD~Y, sbidents fle.., solo Oft airplane tows .-ttll practice air work Stlcb: as splliS, stall8, aad loops. AJl'plalle tows were made 'i.1SlIII a Weco bI.ine;r with 230 H. P. ~h ~udent «)ompleted at least tell bov8 of ~ tow and all lJtu4ents bid at 18ut one IOUIDi flilht (I two hoVs.

e..,.

R.1u.I- t.!u 'utun T~Unln(. Thta ,ul, aptl'iJItf$l petlod of tile tu8t procuremeJll fJl Clldera IDd the tr.dnta& Of tb, firlt ",elva I11dv pUota ,... ebu-aGterblld 117 an abullCe of lUll' detaJ.led pWl tor the futUre tratalftS: Of cI1der pU.. '1'be lIatuiel DlYUtlon, eOBCfrDed otu the need of sUder lIlJoW lor It. upertmeDtal WDI'k, 011 lit, IIN1, urled the TrRl.'II.tnc aDd OperaUona Dt'tl81OJl ad PlanJI Divill1on. Mica ChleJ ~ Aif

:rue

8. ItQ, OOAC to DeplItf Chlef el staff tOJ' Mr, lue 11, lOU, ill UG
GUIler- ..

451.1 ...

8. J.lemoraadwrl Report ...Materiel DtviBioa, 8erlal Number BXP ..M-ll-A.D81'l, ]uu 15. leu, In AAGan.9 A. GlteSer TrllDllli. 10. Xe1llOI'&Ddum Report, Materl~l JJiVielon., SwlBi !Nmber' EXP-M-ll-A:D8a,. AcId. If

JQIle 26, IMl.

in

Jli!b

.

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

e Declassified lAW E012958

8 sCbOOIat Elmua
Corps, to establtsh'_

,We

defInite glider tJ:ai~ program IltiUzmg thO [aciltt1e~ Of the ~ the tr$ed instructors Qd personnel there .. ere still ayaUa.ble.

Tl':alD:brg aDd. Operations temporized, statiq that althougb it wo\lld UDdoubtedIy be uscel!J$lr1 in any future iJ.ider program 10 trMn fDStructOt 111b:89UDel t a ctvUian scbool, a
of a d.efbrlte plan for the ~ of glider pilGUI It ls impl'J.cUcatlle fer tb18 Division to furnlSh any recommendafjol1S. B 1s felt that the period 01. tlme that will elapse before gUdel's are ma4e aw.1la1l1em'\Ktllrender any effort to lntttate tra1niJii of. instructor p8l'$#JJmel at Elmira.- premature at tbis fime. 1

In the absence

tlil

Pla'Ds DiVf.8ion, hovever, did "not eon~ with tbe!!lt' l'eeommellllatiOM and atropgly ur;cecI ibat the Tl'a:1DJnglru! Operations 1>l'VLsIQu'be directed to determine & d~te glider
IJI).Ot traIsUDg

prQlJ'&ID. The Cbtef ef the Air Corps approvid the reeommeJldat.OlUI at the Plus .DlvtslOD, IUd the problem was retul'aed t4 ~ and OperattalUl for further eoJ)Std8l'atlOlL. 1. TralDlBg I.iId Operations reported tbat 11 tlelleved tbat the mttlal t1'alBblg covld be gtfttll aost ~torn, at It el\'fl coa:tra.d ~hool WIdei' a plao slmllar to tlIat betni ~ ploJed f'or 'tiemeotary pilot ~alJlln&. proposed to lnitlate tlWI pr~ by tralnblg' cluaea of &om tea to ffftlHm afUe-er pilats and than to as81gn them to units wb1£11.outil be evelltllllll, ~ with gliders. After the BupervlBolT persolmel bad 'bEen trained. Tr~ and Operatiou ~ tbld: futiIr~ glider trainees be enlisted men 'wfth tJle same status as enlisted ptIOt$I. 1t was alsol~sh!d tliat tha iliitid tralniag ~gIIt be S'l-ven by lli8 Civil Aerouvtics AdmbIJatrattOD.. ~~1Ily 2 tile teDl:at1"e plan 11'&:9 app.roved by the Air Staff) and the ~e CJda[ l4 Air Cqrp was I'fIClueBted to work 0Ilt a BOlu1:tOD:In conjundicm wltll the C1Til AerCllll.Ut1er MininfatraU,QII. 1,1-

n

Pl"evtously~ 8D Iue U. TraiD1zJg aocI ~J!.u0lUJ DivialonJ lstrator of the C.A.A~. requesttllg tJ"ai:nlftg 1m the foUowlng tentative

1941. Bdpdier GeIlerll DlLv@POrl JolmsDIl, Chief cit the had cootacted Drtgadler Gener.al.Donild H. CsnnoUl't Admtnwhether the C.A.A. would consider the tmtlatton Of I;lid~r basis:

The C.A.A. to take o'Ver the initial phase of traintJIg slideI' pilots hi. much the- same manner 8.11 is Il,OW be1ttg acc~pliBhecl in the C.P.T. program. The Army tQ carr, on additional b>a.talq ot the l1'.a.duates for tbose who 'enlist ta the Arm~'t Thi~ phase to be duetted to the petiorDlllDCe at a mmta:r, fUBtton.
General ConDOll! :tePUed on JUDe 23 that thll C.A.A. would consider such II. program, bUt supested that It be of an ~rimenta1 :mature am also pobIted out that .,ost of SUI!h "a propaDl would be at the etpense at the Oi'llltaD Pilot TratntDg :PJ:ogram.

t;1

U ... fIB No.2,

U. iUttt. vatede1 JUrlelon to T6:0, Plaps,. ~ee~tlvs, June 1~ 1911, in lbili. TI;O to Plans, JUne 1'1, au, in ibid. U. XU No. &, PIa.1lS to »Xec.uU,e., June '23, 194.1, in IbId" . 14. RU No. 4, C/AC to TfiO, June 25, 1941, in ibid, 15. RI&R No. 6. T~. to Executid ~ougll Plana, Jlme 18, 1911., In iIlld. 18. OIl funa 20, IMl, the Al'1DJ Air For4!les with an Air I3Blff was created to coordinate tbe work of the Office Chief of Air Corps aDd tile Ail' Force Combat Command. 17. R6R No.8, Air staff to OOAC, July 2J 1941, In Mil ~53.9 ~, Gllder TralJitJlJ· 18. ~ Gen. Da:reaPorl Johnson to Brig. Gell. Donald ;It. Comwlly. June 1S, .1&41. 1n .!AG 351.9 B. GUder Tranafnl. '19. GeIIeral COIlIlOllJ ttl GeIleralloluumD.. JIDP! 23, 1941, iD Ibid.

C4-255.5,AF

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

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'1

General

Connolly

'The pliu\, however,

or

the .folloliliDg AtrCor:p.s

Pl'Ol'ed to be abortive,

decislon:

for on July 26 GeneJ:l8l JohnSWI Wormed

After further study and e nsidel'lltlon or 'tile problem toyolve!i. ~t is believed tha:t: all tr$iQg insofar as W, Air ~orps is cronl:erne4 should beeoafhl.eCI tel the tra.tolng oj. ~rSOJUlel wbo are in ttxa M1lltal"Y SeI"V~e
• • • utlHztng such com.mercial facUitLes as are needed aDd suitable.

fol' a second. first inaicate

Tn,tp:tng. EvIl" 10 July arrlUlfe:DleDts .. ue made to receive tltder puot trltfnlq at ElD1Jl'Il. Arrangemoat;'Jat that ten officers wue to tak1e this coutae,21 but it appears that if was given to twelve imilrl1ctOr8 Irom the k'$igg centers,! who it wu C;0lltemplatMl would later be used lUI lmUuetors Ol' supervisol'B up€In ftfrther expansitm of glidu pilot training. The train1lJg. condu:cted in -two claSses of six students each, was completed September 30, 19(.1. 2

Further

emas

Expe-rtmentlLl

at bffleers

a

.At, this time. the Office Chief of Air COl'pS prepared the fir-at propam ~ ilIBtnIctiOll for glider pOots. This ptogram waa ntiurallr tentative and subject to change as thetedl~ niQUe of Dillttary glid:er flYing were dewltmed. The dural10n a[ the course was not tc exee'ld fOllr wee_. and Us Objectlve 'Wasta quality the ","i4er-pl1o! to the de'p'ee of prOfhlieney fteeeIsary tor au. jnstl'UdW' or super.vlsor Of KlitJer flying triUnlng. The s~~ of the prqgram 111-

e11liled

,

~

..
sGariIJg. big

qualBtcatlon In the art of g'l1der flying to 1ncl\1d~ 'IIJnch", auto, Bad atJ'plane.< tow, t:hi! arti of Hlermill soutng wttl!. pa:rUeular empliasis on spot lIi.Ddh\g proUciency and dual airplane towing practice. Qualification in the duties of ~ growKl superviS0r to lnclUde use and care oI eQ)Jlpment. QIIIlliflca~ Mon In the du,tle~ ('/. an atr ilmt.rueto% and pllQt of the tow plane. Aclual' flying iJIBtmIctlon to last 25 to 99 hours with ,1 hO\ll" sf famfliatizatton, " 11evs C)f winch aJld auto tow, 2 1/2 hoUrs (if single a.irp,Eane tow and 5 cI. dOuble. ooe t'Wo"hQur Cl'ilsa-conntry fligbt mat least so miles. and. 5 1/2 to 15 112 bQlll's of ridge and thermal

"lIS

to sallpIanes or efftcienct, take-Off tecimlque methods, landlng techniques, saublg meteor.Ology. 'ibsb'wuents and their Wiell, Bl:QPe BillU'tng~ and therma:l sOIUl'lDi', FamUlartzatiw wt,th Lewin B. Barrfnger'~ booJt, FUght wtth.out Powsr, .. as 1..11'0eclwed. a~ Aetually: thia course r dWered 1ittle trolD tl'Iat. ktvell in the past b1 cfrllian Soaring schodls.

flJ1.i1l field m ~anjunCltton with

The pmmd school

COlD'se.. ,.,billh was to be ~'gl"en In the elas$'oom or on the daily flytng actlvt~es, U was to lnehxle aero5yoaaDtcs pertainand gl.ltte.rSJ.clestlt1pt1ort of types gliders IUld satlRJanea witb eDq)hasts aD

The ISO Offieer -Pilot Pronam .• By JlIly 'I, IM1. the glidel" program b,ad progre'SSed flU" enDugb to necelllSitale det1Dtte plllml for the traiD1ng f4 tnstructor perSOllllel for the coritemplated fmlll'e ~odueti.oll .of gUder pUnts. em that date General ArJUlld directed Brt~el' Genoral Carl Bpaatz, Chief of the <Aii' to expedUe the preparation iIf .. direct11:8 oubtntDg HIe reqUirements of tbe .Ur Eorces fol' glider RUols. In order tbat lull aduJa. tqe mJght. ~ ~ of the- civil slld,r sctiools akeady in operattOli. aad an that the TraiJIlDS

start

20. General Johnson to 'General Connolly, lUly 26t 194::1, 10 ,ibid. 21. Memo fbI' Obl~ elf stattsUcs Branch, General awl by ~", OCAC. lulJ 8, 19041, ill AAG 452.1 A, G:1JderB. U. let !n4oxseme,nt '(Asst. AU. West Caaai Air Corps ~ala1p, Center to CIAO, Sept. 20. 19(1), T60 to C~ 'Gener;al, West Coast Air Corps Trllk1lDBCmer, Sept. 211, 1841. 10 MG 363.9 A, Glider Tr.1n'ln.I. (CommamlfDg General, West Coast Atr Corps TJ'ain.1Dg Center hereLndtu cited as CG.~CACre). 23. Program of IDstruction for the ef Air Corps CX!ic'er!PUots in Glider

FIYllfg at CIYft Contract

1941, In ibid.

IIIlIi! r.!"II,c ...

l'
C4-2B55.AF

.R
THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

8 DivlsioD C01iI.dmake the proper long.range
~iflcall,..

»tans, thlfl was to be ac:eD~lfhed Generlll Amwid diI'eeied the tratni~ of 1St) olilcer--:p1.1ou.

lmmedfatBly.

.

..

At this ttme DO deflDite doctl'tne bJ.d ~~ fOJ)mulat_edon 'the mllUan- "1II~QJlIlBl1t d gliders. the units to be I~med. the litze f1f these IlDits. aDd tile numbel' 01. mea to be It-U.t!l~ ported by the llid~r ed1elon. It was, ~erefOl'e. impossible for the Air FQ1':oes to det.erlidlle the QVH.aJ1 Dumber of glider pi_lota tio be trained. Eo.ever, an. A'\IIUIIl ZI the Chier ~ the AiT Staff directed the Ch.!!'f of the AIr Corps to .make the necessary plans "or tbe lnatrtwtiOZl of ttie 150 oUieel'-pUots. Senn days later, August 28J the Ch1ef of tlie Ail' Corps submitted the fol1~ plan fQl' apprDYBl. Pir..t, & contract &hould be made with tn Elmira Area S9aring Corpora. tton toJ' the tratnlug of. Dine pilots, 61ree 'from each b'a-lniJ)g 1!entsJ', lIIstrt1ctloD to CIODlm81lC8 llb9ut September 25. 'l'h1& would provide- a total -of :93 .glidet: pilots tiralned WIder the ItFet PI'~_. if from ,the Materiel Division. 8 fr.om the 5-00,.T~ Wihg. aDd 2l_ from tile tJoalnhig e.eii:ters. In order ,that tra1ld.ng mlgld: get under way, ImmiKIlate-- approvaJ; .of thls part of the plan T,equeated.2 6 Apprflal was _g1v;en September 4, 2"l1Uld lIy the fUteenth on orders bad been. issued for
ginniDg September20. 28

w.~

the RiDa~otll to proceed to Elmira for • tour weeb' cour.. be-

Seeondll' ~ the pIan proposed tlie trll,tning of the re~[:Nier 01 tile 150 llUotl1i at eentrac-t. Bc1':ools in. the South and West in order t-o take advant~e of the more fa.vorable weatller prevailing ther~ durtng tile wtnter molitlis. Th1s training was to t:leRin as 800n as tile sites had. tieen selectecl Uld the l'f!qJdstte pel'soDDeland equipme t useltlbleil, was re2.11,zed at this tIme tIiat .as 9OO1las the. .requirements for ~er trat~ bad been. established, tralniliB en: a far targer ~e would be nuessary. Aec~y, the €:blef .0f ,the Air Corps also subJDittet1 a. I)rjef plan for the c-:onliUet of slIch' tralhtng. ClvU cOIlt1'.act Elementary 8ehoo:ls were to 'be established for elem~ glid.er tl'ainlng. At first onl, one Advomced Army- CII:lder Scllool was be acl1vated, wl'th mere in the futUil'e, if' t4-e tratnhlg progTa:m so required, This Ih.a:se v,as expeeted to consist of, two-place gltder trabitllg with emphasts on tmtiblgwork and transition to. lranJij)ort gliders. Theker pel'80l1Del, lnstructONl. and. tbe cadre for the AdvaaeeCi&:11001 weze to W furntsJJ"fro~ the glider pilots lIlreadJ tl'atned uncle.. the, preltmbtary program aad tJie 150 Offlcer-pilol Prolfl'aDI. Jt was also svggeated tI)at I:he glider pUots be OI"gaJl.Ued ~o units before lhtm:1l88ipme~t: to tbe All' 8v.ppol't ColDllllUML 'the plan alae urgem:I, r.ecommi!Dded lha:t at least fifty of the 150 pUGts be ~l'om the AIr Support ColD.DllllMl, it 1IIas belietl'ed that to. pUclS should ba,Te the course in glider ~ nying 111or4er to perforra. their duties more dectlvely. 29 The entil'e plan was appr.oved by the Chief ol the Air staff on september 4 _Inapt far the recommemlatlOD that f_lfty of the pilots lie furmahed by the Air SuDuOrt C-ummaud. It was felt tlIat these pilots eo:U1dDOt ~ 8~~ from their current cluttSs: 3D _

n

*0

AclrDIJI1stratin mac1tinerJ to effect the 150 Officer-pilot Program "u, qW91y planed til motlOll.. fol' by the mtdCOe of September tbe trabltJl! cenle.rli bad been iuuuctH to compile a liSt of at least' fifty pr08peetLve glider a_ents, aM tbe 6ec:rett.n' Of the I!llmira

24. Rtdt.

2.5 R6R ~ • .t. Cblef of the 411' awl to CIAC, Aug., 21, 1941, in lbta., •. (Chtef of the Air Staff hereinaftel' c.t~ as C/A.S). 216. Rill No.5, C/AC to CIM, Aug. 2S, U41., tn ibid. 2'1. BIlK Nb. 13 GIAB to C/.AC. Sept. 4, 1941. In ibid. .. 2.8. R6R lio. oj, T60 to C/AC, Sept. 15, IOU. ~. ibid. 29. RIiR No. ~, C!AC to elM. Aoug.28, 1941, in AAG S53.g SA Glider TriiDing .30. BAR No.6, C/AS to C/AC, Sept. 4, 11M1,10 Ibid. • -•

TJ.'aihfag.

Gene-ral Arno14 to GeDe_r~ Spaatz" JUly, 'I, 1941, in AAG 9:~3.9 3A} Glider

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

e Declassified lAW E012958

..

~ 8Qa.rlng Corporatlo.a was tov~sttptblg sites lor ,.intel" slichr tral.miDI.S1 ToRemy-able PaltnB Air Aelldemy, Twenty-lltne PlUms" California, was selected.. and a contract negotl&tecl La Sepfeuwer. This eooti'act 1'I'ovided for ilie li'a~ of 126 officer-pilots, ijIe fast class to enter ~o\>ember 30, 1911. and the laSt Uaz;ch 21, 1942.32 At ~ time an Advanced StllOol was not considered necesBal;'J, but sites were being lIIv¥tlgated. Tr~ at Twenty-nine PallJl8 cUd not begin as scb~ed. Aro. the lint or J8mlUy. 1942 • .a refresher course was conducted tar the cfYiUanglider Irlstr.1letors, and stQdent tradnlng commeneeCl the Dineleenth Of that month with a clallS GI twelve shICIellts. Two weekS later a clus of eighteen entered, and fhereafter.. classes of twenty-fol,ll" ever, hfQ weekB.35

'If'*l

The students, all volUliteers from_ Ule instructors d tha trdDitlg centen, wee flva lauro-week course. IMtructiOll was slmllar to f.bn at :Elmira. with thJtty imm:s of Hl'fDg ,... trailL1ng igettle tow! methed~ of. lalUlCliin~ gllders: auto pl1l1, pulley tow" winch tow, aud air .. plane tow. Naturally. at We tlme the curJtlculum lor glider tl'aln1Qg was BtU! 1a the UP8l"lmental stage. Procurement ol military type gUl\erB wa,s 2uat getting IIDde!' way. aad the only. me.n In th1s countr, 1am11llU' with the t1!Cbn1queof glider flYing were tbe ciVilian soarlDg enjhusiUts who had been developing the art of tber~ soartQg ovel! the past ten ,earB. Con.sequently. training at TWentJ"-nine Palms 191IS gtven In saUplaneB and c()DlIlt1ted prtnctpally of BoaI'iq. a tnae tlb'atDing tbat later prov4i\d of little value in miUtAry ~er pUotlng. Durf:ng tihis perlotl the' glider trll1nlng _program, as wen as other Air Forces Pfograms, luffered from
R.

severa

lace of tralll1ng

eqUlpm.eut, in tMB

clISe

gUders and taw p!ane8.3'l

one Of fbe rellSolU! fer the wI, confusion.,qd iDde:Cieionwhletl ebl.racterized the gUder program was the fact tbat glide1"11 and the tratn1ng dl gUder pUote W80B entirely ~ep to Air COl'jls _personnel. There also seell1S to have Blsted then.J--aad throughout tlI.!t mil-a program--a IHsincl1.nBtttJl~ on tn~ part of 'V'artous Air )'utes ·qencles to t"8 proper respoulbUiW for Us achievement. The basis for this iIItuatlGD can probably be found in the evuprs88Dt anUpatby of the power pUot tow~d iD! i;Jther tJP8 Qf aircraft. Atlother c:ause of diffiCulty wasperbape that the glld-=r Pl'ogr~ was a borlil.erIine project. a case of dlrided 1"pllqlOnsibUity between tbe Ground and· A11' ~!IIS. This early c()nfllslon wu alle"tiAted co.nslderably La October; IHl,wben Gener~ Arn'Old persQnally summoned Lecwin B. BuriDger to WasIdIlglen to ad in a civfllan capacity • as coordluator r1 tlJe jUder program. Barringer was one of the out.tanilIJJg aUthDrltlee dil tile art of gltd~g 111 ~ U~ted stnes. He was C(jzmq:lsste~ ti_ majOl' in May. 1942, and aa~ slgned tQ the OOt~e Qt the Di1"Bctor d. Air Support io lllll charge at all matters pertatoiug to gUders. Barl'iq,r continued in fll-is position untH Ictnuuy, 1841, when the plane in which he was Hying to Euglaud WIUI lost over the Caribbean. 38 To bbu. must gQ m1.lCb the credit for til the achievement.of a DeW iUId tremendOUS pHject. Not Only did he pia, a ~ put in the development of tlIe glider prodUCtion IUld tJ'a,I.ubrg prog,nuns, but he alao "made possible the p~acttcal II. pplieatioo or a de.-tce "h1~h enabled SI.II aJr.plane In ntgbt to plck up a tow... lider g on the groumi." 39
3L, ~ No. '1, reo to C/AC. sept. 15, IM1, In Ibid. 82. RrzR, to Materiel DlVisiO&, Sept • .22, 1941" In lbUt. 8S. RU No. '1, T60 to C/IJ.C, Sept. 15, 1941. in ibid. 34. Telegram.. Commanding General, hIllY J.fr Forces Fljibg TrIlilljDg Command to C/AC; .Dec. 311, 1941t III Army AU Fotcu Pl)"lng.,;rra.tnlng Commaacl pues. (Arl!l1 Air Porces P,ly,tng Tr:a.brlng Com.mand l1el'einlfter cited .as AA:FFTC). Si. Telegram. General W. R. Weaver, to OG'.WCACT"C, Ian. 2, 1942, 111ibid. 18. WD Pren Re1tase, Marcb lB, 1912. 3'1. Sketch bylllllJ. D. - t.t HamtiWD, June 1'1, 1942", in AAeFTC FUes. 38. 001. It. F. SteaFley to ComDUllldtng General, Army Air Fl'Ce8, Aprll 22. 1943. in AAG 201. Lewin. B. Barr_'er. (ColllllWldtng GMieral. Army Air FarcH benf.naf~er cited as _CG.AAF). S9. Oltatlon for- Distinguished
ceJrVJ.IiW __
tQII.i~..

.~

1

".0

..
r

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

10
SUmnlaq. lnmaierle:l development, trainlngproc,edureB. and: tceotattve p1amJJng foJ' f1lbIre sU4!-r pUot l!1'odueticm; the ODe yep- ~r1melJtal ,11del' progrllm IaiCi the fOundilfl.on for bu'pr progrplS 00 come. But retaJ:ded by a 1&elt of knowledge of ~cb of gUder pilotage ,. necessan: _preli'lllinUy e~l'illlentat4on, this period bl'QUgJit about iml), the most. elemeDtarJ de.. elbp~nls" &stalIll$limeot 01 a definite b'at~ procedure was blndered bj' the UDCel'taiDtJ 011future .Klidel' employment aQd the X'esullaDt lact oJ plans- for a gllder ecbelon. III till. 01. preparation, aD att•• wu made to prG\li.de potential tastructor persoDIUIl.. TratniDg, however, waB experlmeJltal and lNbject to tile II5e of c:lviJi'lm soaJ'iog methods ibid aport tp gU.d'ers. hiWe progress WILlI made towa.;rd m.Uita.fy ender flyiDf. A taw chuae. te.rLsDc: polides were e_l1shed, as, for 8Xl\Dlple,he \lSe d civilian eODtractseboais aad t ~ratloa With the ~i'V1l Aeronautics AcImlnlstratloftl

-an

tim.

..;

...

..

CA-2555,AlI'

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

QrE8TlUCTED
s
¥ IN

THE

1,000

aJ;;IDER

PILOT'

PROGR,A.M,

FE"BRUARY

1.9, 19U

F'lan"S foJ' a. GJiif.eT EleheloD. mUe the 150 omeer ..pllol Program was sWl t.he lmplementation sta,ge, plans were being f&rmulated to provide the United Siatea ArID, with a new tIPe of 'Weapon, a glider ecbelon. On DecembeJ' ~, IM1, tbe plan Eor the first large glider program, Ole 1,000 Program, 'Was fOl"Wardeil:fl'om General Spaatz, Cbtef of U. Ail' statf,. to the CMei Of StaU with the eoncurrences of G-l~ G-3. War Plana Division, lJlld the Cbief df staff of hlle G.K.Q. Air For_ce. ThiS progl'am "llaac baosed an uprovl,diDg air tnDapor~ by mea;ns of troog airpla.nes and gUalD's for one air-borne dinsi'on at the eat11est pra:eUeable da:te"~ and ''pr()vid~g air tf:lllIlPOl't bY a1~as and. gUders for a second alr-borae ,dlvislonby aXpatlSiOD or contlll_tion of the PJ,'ogram as dictated by the exp@1'lIellce previdiii tng the atll ti'ansporfatloa for, Ule first atr-bnr,ne diVision." 1

ip

At Uit8 time the taettcs aIid te~hniques of aifborne dil"i'SioDB W81'e still In tb&- ezpel'imental stage. It ""'!'S estiPlued fhat approximately '75 per ceiI1 Of the penoDllel and equipm.ent oi tlle a.ve~a,ge triangular division at 14,000 men CQuld be e~rled iD gllders and the remaining 25 pel' cent toaild be trartSpOrt.ed by the tow planes. In ordel' to tnnsPQl't t~ diVlston, therefore. 1,000 gUde;rs aud 192 tranaport ptaneB would Pe requmed. Of ~he gliders, 500 were- to tie eight-:placeJ, transporting 8,500 tr·oops, a:n4 thfl other 50(l, Ilfteen-];Ilace" traoaporting '1.000' troops. It "as estimated tliat fOUF elgllt-Pla.Cce or thr-ee filfteen-p1ace gllden coUld be towe<! bebind each ranBpOrt. Ev,.en ilt this ear.ly date the All' FOl'ces realize!! tbat the gJldel' program mlg)Jt 1uterwttlr otller pr4ilJected aircraft programs. alth~ it '91&8 lIelteyed, that it would not cause an): serious delay £II' disruP!lon. Proeuremenl tJC lIl!iHrtuy gUdel"s was already \I1l4er way. one staM.c test a.Jld ODe fUgl'at test model of both the eight-au! flJteen-plue gH4ell8 being OD OMCll' from eao.li Of four manuiaetU'l'ers. ,DeU,ery of these gliders to the MJ,tertel Dtl'islon for test1~g and evaluatLon was expected befween December' 1, 1941. loRd )larch 1, 1942. ~ was esflmatad. that the nee.essa:ry eJg)~iment~ could n~ be completed before Jllly 1, 1942. IiI n_ of Q\e faet tlIat the alrcraft iDduSky lacked the requisite exp'er'ence and eoglrt.eel"1DlJlmawl~ f.or the manufacture of tile ~lU'g~ gllder4. n waS upected that it would take at least IUteen months to ptolnce the l~DOO glide-rs. Pllovtded Wa.t the MatllH'lel Division 'Would be able toplace orders by April, 1942, U; was eli'tlmated "that a sutfldent numDeJ' of gItd'l'8 -fOJ' III tnfantq test air-lauding battalion can be pl'odllced by NDvember 1, 1943.TI tere was predicated all tile belief that'sutflclfat traDJtow ,Planes tn the teSfing, RUot ttamtng_, aJld operaUenal tr.aintng pha:s:ee of the progn,Jll, The fQCUl:ties the Dough:. ~~t prodace'rs of 0-4'1 llb,plane8, were dready being;- ut-U1!Zed under mstrng procurement B.cheduleS and ... 0Wd contlnue to be until IanWtry, HI!f.S. It was believed .. howei'Ve1'1 that 'the program cmuld be C2rSted out by tr-an~el'Ting plJanes from othel' UBeS and lijI: Douglas pl'otluct1Dn betwet:ll Janual'JIIlId. June, t~3.

port plan_eB would be

'the plan for the 1

~nuabl~ _[pI' USIl aR

000

Prog;ram

or

ates of th~ Air Corps Flying Scll.oolS,••' d\(e'to the IMge amDunt f!Jfl skill beUeved ne-.:essary to pilet. glldeTS at nignt under instrument conditiol1S and to laodthem lb small fl.IdB. The plan outlined. the followi", tra.Lninr prORJlam:

T r _at n i n g P llt 1'1 • -The plan alSo contained a It did not cootemplate fhe tratning Of ('other thanqualflied

PJ'Qj'ram for glider ptlottra.tn1Dg.
airplane

pnots.

preferably

gradu.

t.

Meroo for Chief of BUlff by C/ AS. Dec. 2, 191U, I'D AAG 4'Si.1 A, GUd8l's. 2. Memo lor' Chlef of Staff by f(A!~ Dee. 1

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

'f'.rimaI'1 tralnlllg will be given a four .eekB 001U'1I8 ~ dYil schools, op~rat~ UDder cOiltra.ct to tile 1i1F Cm;ps, with an a.m.ua:l Ual..ni:ng caplWity of 1000 pilots. It is esttmatflCi that a mutmum of leur schools will be needed. This tr~ will lndude auto_. wl.ncb~ and airplane tow III two-$~a;ter tra.l.b:l:ng «tidal's. The general paL~ tern for these s¢bools Will follow that ·01the civil SCl~ c~tr~tM ing for pr1~ airplane ~raUttnBi' • • . The graduates of these BChoo).a will receive the, ra.ting (If GUdu PUo!.

m.

Obly one scbOOl for ad.vanced gIrder traming wftI be 1Ie'eesSU'J. At Ws scbOol graduates of the primary glider scbools wUlreceive tbDl'9\lgb lruitrucUon in the flying and mQ,itary use !;If 'the klrge troop curytilg gliders. 'I'his traiDlJlg will ill~Ude ntrht flying Ud the actual carryinlt of p-ound troops. and lmMHngthem uDder simulated 1I'at' COadlttobS. S
Chief

Tile 1,000 Glider PU~p:r(ijtl'am f:i staff (or Air. Procurement

'was approved December ~ort[y

l,l0, liMl, by Genez:al Ml1Old, Deputy
.

the pUot could Dat a:fford. to lQ~ 1,000 power pilots to the gUd'!r program. Aeoord3'1 the" ka~atan1 OhM the Ab' sta!:f, A-3, f'8Commeaded to the TramtQg Dlvtslon that ~ glider pUots'be Ifelecfed from graduates of the cirillan !pU~ trUtttng schools 'Or tha't SOme sy$lem be ""ol'ked Old: wherClby gltlrer· trainees 'Would be proctlBsed ~h the el,mentarl' stage of pilOt trail1lQ.g only and then be. transferr$i to glider tra.in1ng. training program hjg!y, on ~embf;l'

Basls.

after Pearl Harbar

it was reaJ:illlOed ~t

.

,

or

The ~ DtvlslQn had alTead)'; been c-onteDlplll.ltng II. ~evtslon of the pr'ocurem~Dt basfs, and -on 1a.st day Of December ri!commended fhi! tollm,i~ ~e& to the qhtef of ille Air StaH on the condition that tbe training of the 15(1 oftleer-pilotB conthm8 as plamted .. ·GUder trainees were to be selected fro. volunteel'!l ill the followtng C&t~sprje8. in tbe Ol'der Jlsted.

we.

1.
2. 3.

Power plane pilots wbo have had the
Power plane ptlotswJJo Glider have had the

.

eM Seeondary Course
ellA
Pl"IDlIlJ'Y Course time.

pilQtB "Who have. bad at least

30 bolD'S ~ider

R was also rel;QlDm.eoded that aplillicants u'come fl"om the Combat Arms blaam.llch &1'1 th~i Blmdd funetron as a meRibel: Of the Com'6at 'l'eam UPOD luxIing,;' and also "that a gx'ade not lower' t:ba.n Staff Sergeant be $lit up for persormel compleffng t-J:le gUd..er £OU1'SIJj the griLduates to reeei'Ve thl-s ratJng af.ta paduatioll. trom Ule Army AdV:am:led Glider CliIUl'se.'· T,JIis ·pIan was approved by A-3, January 10, 1942.7 . Program lnau.gurated. Formal, iJlltuguratiOJl of ttle 1,OO() GUdeI' P.Uot T,aID~ tag Progr,am m;leur!'~ February U, 1942. under the authOrity of AAp 580.'1. The acbechile called fitt the graduation bl JaIlUlrl" 1; 1.948, of 1,000 glider pUdts, In adelmon to those 3. Mem.o fcSr Cllief ci! Sta.U t)y CIAB~ TiUI '.<g", DI'C. 2, 11M!. In ll:i~. 4. MeDlJl for Chtl!f or ~ by C/A-B, Dec. 2, 1941, In ibid. 5. On November 22, 1941. the Tralmng and (jperatiollli D1vtsllin, Chief of' All' Corps vas split in three puts: the 'l:raUling DiVision. the Ope:£lI.t1.Qu Dinsion, and lhe Commlm.icatioDs DlVlston. 6. R&R~ Air stall, A-3. to OCAe, Traflllng DiviSion, Dec. 2'1, 1941, in AAG 3.53.9 A,

.-

ome<e

GIrder Training, '1. RIB, OCAC tp CIA!, Dec. 3'1, ~941,

m

.~ld.

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

e Declassified lAW E012958

SE8URPfY

T»O<Ip-e8l'ryl"Dg ;e:llde1"8 1.oad ~t. da"n i'OI' aD airbi)r:bEI ~ra1;lon~ ny :in from & dlsl3P;L"811l f1e14 to hi te.h OJ\-

C-46

tow planes

pf:n Uu: Arm, Ail' Forces first laid its pI.rlll for tbe develop.ent of a ,1 i de ... fiche! on, Ii tt 1e ,.,•• lcno'llm abot!. t the 1II111~. ry elllJl"Jymeat: . 0,.1 tile Klide.!' except what had been gleaDed from 0_1'1II8n. use of this Dell secret weap,on. Tbe extensive program launched • ., lIubje-ct to the errors of ~xperimen atiol1. without kno.le~le Df the peZfOl'll18nee eha~a,cteri •• tics of a tx-aallport plane t .W'ing miUtarY glidel'! alng1.1 or en-train, it .as believed t.hJt B twin-engine! plane could to;w at least tl1l',ee fully loaded gliders. plans for combat emploY'ment were balled on this a •• uaspUon. Oreat achievements we r e h~ped for from t'ki. new ,airborn!; strilc. ing foree, util1eing madmvm offen:si"e poy,er .ith B minilllum e.pctns·e of powered equipment.

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13 tD tra1DlDg. Their tr~ Yas to mel_ a FeU:m.iDar7 QCMI1'8. aI apprcatmJataly tbtrty hours In ~"o~pli.ce tr.alD1ng gll4era at Twenty-Dine PabDa aDd. 1ID advaDCed courH 1a trlillSpQl't gliders at an Advanced Behool yet to be selected. TIle mbdmum J:'etulremeats for application for this tratDiDg "ere thOse propopd ~ the T~ D1Yistcm .... RppJ'oveIi br B A~I uc.,t that Jl1¢er pnat.. JIlIIIft bave at ~lft, hour. or glider time iDstiead ft thIrtJ. "This was later cballged to thirtyhoUr8 gli4eJ' tIJIle or 200 fiigIItJI.8 The phyalC!al reqUlre'a18Dla were to be tJIe same as thoSe tor alrern trallllllg. The tralMes vere to receift O tratniug in eulIirt1ld ~ &lid upon graduation be promoted to the p-.de 0I.staff

&1T~

,east

aer:paat.t

Admll1istr,aUve Cba.cea. Sltortlyalter the emra:ace of me Unlted stat. bIto World War 11<1 actloD .. ps bdUate!d in HePd~erB tp prcmcie an IlgeIIq BCJkJf uapoilB1hle Iv the rapldly npaJICUug tt1UitlDg actlviUea Of the ~my Air forcelS. The ~Bioa of, '1rliJdng lLdi91ties "ft8 a fQllcttOll of the Cllief of th-e Air Corps. but U .aa fell t.bat to order Uto Ii\fee effe:etive supervision IIad directiC')Jl to this "'at t.r.ailllM effOrt. it la neceBSarJ tbai the ClUef the Air C~rpa leal with one coJDJDaDder. who 11'111 UIWlC1JIIIbere( bJ oth~ be dutles.~· t aOll Jhuar.y lM2:, tbeJ."eJOl"e, tINt Air CQlPB FJ.;y1Dg Tra:tn1rlB CoJJt1D1U14 .... est;lbliBhed 1 under Maj,or Geftiral Botnn It Yount, the former- CommBDllfq Generil tJf the West: Coast TraJlIlD« CJlnter. '" ThUS, the individual fl'a.bWlg of tJ¥t gilder pl.lat beeaBUI a function of the Fl)'lng Trtll11!1K CoDlJliaDd.

i"

~'t

Stammary. With the plazmlngand iDauguratl.OIl of the 1.000 Pr...-m, the gUder pUot program progressed from ~1menta1 tra1DbIg of future IJuIt:nctors 101'a coatemplated but yet 1IDformuIated projlect to a defUdte ~ based on the elllfmated ~ _ an at.r1lor.,ne division. VIldU' Ods lfl'Op'am. ~ fjf the characteristic. polides of the gllcler pro. pam were ~irst- eata;bHshecL These, ~1O! aJ,tb;nagb BllbJeet to tnIbaeqa.ut chaDgea in the Itl1der IIUQt Objedt.,e and tJjftaeJlcacl tn" fluct1laUon m the a~ cf persoanel and IUterlel &lid the d,velopmeae of more ef!tct8lll traiDl.ilg mefh.ocI8, haft reDlliDed aSMatiallJ the _e. A~ the policies estabDqhed were the per801mel procurell1em buts of e'Dllstid mu 1Irltb preYlqus anattoa ~leace. promotion upon graduatlon. to fblJ grade of staff sergeant... the 1'.tinB of gltder 1'lliJt:, priplary, tr~ a't civil contract 'SeIIbGUI, aud ~ ~ at Army schOols. Future gUder ~ prOSl'ams followed the admllllstraU'I. patted elltabll8hed iUID~1' the 1,000 Pr~am..

8. AAF 580.'1 Glld~. Feb. 19. 194a 9. Memo for Col. B. A. JohiJso:D bJ u. Col. G. F. Schb.tter. Mareh 21, 1942, ill AAJ.I'FTC Enes. 1'0. AAF 580. T Glider, Feb. 11, 1'941. 11. Memo lor D~ Chief of Staff tor All' by Actiq' C/AC, Dec. 28. lK1, 1ft AAG 321.9 12. AG 312.3 (1.. -43}MR-M..AAF!A-l, lu. 28, 1M!. 13. Acting C/AC to Maj. GeL.D. X. YOUDt, Jan.. 18, 1M2. ill AAG 311.9 A. !iF Tecludcal

A, AP 'l'echnic:al

ilralaiDs Co......
AF I'lyIDg

AP J'l1JDg

Tra:l:IaDg

CoIIIJDaDd.

r

1'l'atrl:I.Df

CommaDd,

TJ'aJn1ng Commlllld.

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Cha.pter THE 4~200 GLIDER PILOT

In
APRIL 1,19411

PROGRAM,

Tl'lpUng l)-f the Program. Trammg uMl!l" th& 1,000 Glider Ptlct. Proaram actually never was effectuated. The last crasIS under t)le 1iO Officer-pilot Progra;m did not ..trtculate at 1Iwe.,aty-nlDe Palms.untll the last of March, ~942.and on the twentY-sixth oJ. U!at mOlltb General AIoneld IDttiated a 'Study to lriplf! the gU. program. It wouId Beem that this experimental UJd y~ untried iPl"Qject was cllUght in tile tremendoua ~toD tlJat was cbaracteristtc of the Army, ~ m the Air Fordt!s in particular, in tlie early.months of World. War n, Not Dn1V~ was the glider objeetlve greatly increased, but the a.m:oant01 Ume allotted to its aehleV!emem was decreased. On March 28 Qener¥ A1;ttold stated to tbe Chief of tbe All' Staff:
In any actioll myol'li1;lg alr-borne troops, tile use dI rUdel's must be considered.and in all probability they wID be .-equJred. At the present ~lJle our glider development and procurement is proceeding without benefit of a deliDite plan. I beJieve t.fiat· we shoWfl flgure on a ~regram elf pi.oeurln and ind1~T training a gIlder 'aree of , gamtn.g ~

.

\

:.ibCnt 3000 'five to eight place gliders bY December 1943, and war-

The I)ire.ctora,te or Gro\Dld-Alr Support immediately proceeded t'O implement thls n_ program. A-4 was d11'eded the follOWingOJ' to prepare a study for the appro.val of the' Cbief Of the Air staft on tIii! pJ:QCllr@ment 0(" 3,00.0eight-place gliders ta be deitvered naf l~l' than 15, 1943. GJ:Olmd-Alr SUpport set abput selecting sites for rUder tryn1Dg BDd ~ng tables Ilf !lrgant~toll. The Direct.or of Indlv1dual TPaining was d1:rected to p)'o'"'-.de fOJ' pilct pt'OCU1'ementand tr-aining. The CommandinG Gimeral. Al'my Ground FDl'ces was iJI[-Ol'lDed of the Jnerease·d program. t:lu'wgb the A1l'bol'ne section Of the G.rOmrdForces staff,!
On AprU 1 Genera:! Arnold direeted. the Commanding General of the ;Materiel Gomman1113 t9 procuret in addlUoo to the 150 tw'o-pl.ac~, 3QODlDe-p!ace • .Jtnd TOO fl(t~D~p~e gllders aIr!!Sdy Oil procurement, 150 twl'l-plltce. 200 nme-Ja1aee" ami a,ooa mleeu-plllCe gliders by JulJ I, 1"943,800 01 the fmeeD-place glldeJ:S to be cfelivel'ed by January 1. 19\t3.4 .

~.l';

force wif1:l other troop~ lIIlmediatel, fhueafter. Get the Staff busy 011 the pliUlS to. ultimate use of tb,ese .gliders aJHi the wuga.niing Decessary, and I will in. the meanU:me get a program of. Pl'OcUJ'etneat UId pllot trllljJ.iDg starfed w~ieb wiU meet th-e ded-line as s~ at December 1942.! .

Prior fa Geaeral Arnl:Jld'a second directive. representatives of A-4, the Dlreetdrull GrOUDd-AIr SUpport. a~ the Matedel Ce.rnma:nd conferred on. March 31 in regard to prel~ direcllve. Due to a miSunderstanding between A-4 aDd the ~terlel Oommand, verbal cOJiUDttments for an aactUl,Qn3.l 1.1,000 gliders were madefinmedJat&l,. by the MaterIel
(jf

t_

i~

CG,AAF to C/AB, March 26. 19U,in US 452.1 A. GMders. 2. Rldt No.2, Dttector 01 GrGw:ul-Air Support to Aliaistant Chief of the Air Stalf, A-3, Aprll oft 1M2, in ibId. (Dboector of Ground-Air Sl1l!port hereiruilter Cited as AFRGS~ A!JSIstant Cbler of the Ail' staff, A-3. as AFACT). 3. As II result of the Mareb 9~ 11M2, reo:rgaaizatloZl of the Army A,lr Foreea th. Materiel
ntYlSlon became otteil
1.5

the

Materiel

COmmand.

4. CG,AAF te CO, MaterieL
~",r AFAMC~.

CO.lllll'UYld.

April

r,

1M2, til ~

(Materiel ColiUDand herelo-

C4-255i,AE

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e Declassified lAW E012958

13

w" ~ Incl. a pl'ellml.Jlaq cour.. __ .appl'cmtmafel1 tbU# hours In two~pl:ac tr ..1a:ing sltdH'-S at Twauty.nille PallllB and RIl ad~ed. course III transport Klt4ers at an ~p.Jl(:ed Scbool Jltfi W fie ulected. The, mlDlDUlm requlrem.eata for a,ppltC'aUon. !.or Ws tr'abUD:J were tJlQsa pr~ed by the TraWnt ;Df'ris1cm .. approved tiJ It A-a scept thlIl rUder PUObI IIJUI!It baye" at least ruty hoUrs ct gJ.14el' time lutead 01 thirty. Th.. wu later C!~ed to tblrty howl gMder time or 200 ntsfdWl.9 The pIlyafcal r_air. ... menta 1I'ere to be the UJD8 118 tMee for aircrft tr,atn1ug. The tr.-mee. were to recei.,.. ti'a:lnl.Dg ill &'DUsted status and upon .graduation be promoted to the lUde IItdf aergeaIIl.to
aJread! ill frBlDlDl. TJmir 'lralDilig

'*

Admlnistrative Chayaa. ShQlltlJ after the lenfraBCe Of tlIe DnJ.tecl Un 1Dto II, acUon was filitla.ted In Seadquarters to proriile au ageac, Bedel, reJlPOlUllble for th.a rapidly ~lng tr...mlQg ~rities of. tbe Army Air Forces. Tbe sqpen:iBI.OiI of tra1nJ.ng activities 'W'U a fuction of U1e Chief 01 the Air COrplll, ~ It ,... felt tl1at ill order "to gl~e effecttn supervisio1l I.Dd dfrKUc:lD 10 Ws vast tralDiDl effort, lt is aec:esolllU'J'tbat the Chlef of tbe Air Corp8' aeal with ODe eolllJDlbll1er. who wW be unenCQlllbered by other duties." 11. 011. Tannar, 23, 1942, t'herefm:e. the Atr COQ18 .Fl1bll Tral.Jlbl,g COmBll.lld was e~lished ~2 under ¥alor GaDfr41 Bariou It y011litI the f01'mer CommpncliDg, Cene.ral of tile WMt Coast Tr!:Ul1nJ Celltl!l1. ·'1 Thus. tbe tndl'lidnal trabttJIg err !be glld8r plJot" became a
World War fUnction

or

till! Flying Training

CQDUlWId.

With the Jllat)nJng aud lnuigJD'a:f1~ of tM 1,000 Pl.'Ogl'lUIl,the g},td8r traiIdDg of fUUlre tDstrue~B (01' a ctJDtemp1ated but y~ dol'lnUlated projecrt to a. detiDite program .baBeiI OIl the estimate4 reqatremuts 01 all airborne division. Ullfler tilts program many or tbe clW'actert,st!.c pcilleleB or the glider pmp.iIIIl were ftrst aatabUshed. These poltcies, sahJ~ to aubsequJ1t ~eB ID. the glld., pilot oJ)jecti'fe U\d Uiflueeed b, fluctuattoD. In the avaUabillty or perSODD&l aQil materiel ·amI the .duelopmeDt of ~l'8 (lfticlent trabUiJs methQds. ha¥'e remained the same. ~ the pollcles establiShed were the :gerscmnel llJ'OC\I1'emeDi bUlB Cd enlisted meJl with pil'eviou a'f1&tioD ezpel'.i4HJCel prolDDij:an upQD gr&c:tuatton to ~ gtade of staff supa:at; the rating' Of gHdel' pUol, prlmary tJ'aiDbIg at ciVIl contract seboo.ls. cd adVlPlCed tralntnl at

pilot

pt'ocram .,~ogressecr from 'Upertmemaf

fhmmarJ.

althovJh

eutlntl.u,.

Army sc!hools. Future glider pilot progrlUll8 followed the 'adDlinistrati"e s-ttel'D. establlshed uder the If 000 PrQP'UI.

a

I. AAF 580.7 mtder" Feb. 18" 191~. 9. lifema for Clol. B. A. rPhn.soti bY U. CQ1.G. F. Scblatte, Much 23, iM~. ba .AAFFTC FUes. 10. AAT ti8&.'1Gltder, Feb. 19, 1'42 • • 11. JIlemo for Dep_' Cbi'ef of StIff k»r AiF by A.ctlDg C/AC, .Dec. 13, 'lIM1. 1DAAO 321.9 4, AI' Teclmtcal ~ Com ..... IIII, AF J'lyiDg TratniDg <rom .... nd 11. AS 322.2 (1-4 ..4':UMR-M-AAF!:A ..l, Jaa.. 23. 1M2. U. Act'1Ds CiAO to Mal. Gen. B. X. YOIIQt. Jan. 18. 194'~ m AAG 321.9 A. AF Tedurleal Tl'atJdDg CQDIlDiUlCI~ AI' 1'1ytDg Trm1ng Colllllllllid.

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Cbapte-t THE .,200 GLIDER PILOT

nr
APRIL

VROGllAM,

1,1942

was cbaracterlsttc W01'ld War n,

'l'r1piiDg or tile P.roaram. (fraJning undel' the 1,000 Glider Pilot Program nenr was effectuated. The last class under the 150 0Utc:&J.-Pl1ot Progrll:Dl did not ~e at Twenty-Dine Palms \mt11 the of Maxcb, 1942, and OJ! the twentY..stxth Of that mcmth General Arnollf' initiated a study to triple the glliler pr()gratD. It would 'irll!bl that tb,Js experimental and yet untried projeet was eaulbt LDthe tl"eJ!len¢OWl SPADslOD that

~:v

la_

Of tbe AnDy" and ot the Alr ForcCes in PalIUcUJar. increased,
General

1Ji the

early

mamba ol

Not: only was fh~ glider Qb;ebuve greatlJ' ils IIlQhle'le1bent was decreased. On March 28 AIr Staff:
to

but the amount
stated

Mnold

.

of tiDle alldited to the Ohief of the

In aay atltron lmmlving air4Jorne troops, tbl! use Of gUders mU$t and in all proba.0Ulty thef will be ~equ1fed. At the present time our glider dev.elopment and pl'OIZurement is proceeding wUbOut benefit of a definUe plan. l'1!eIleve tha~ we should figure on a JJl!~ clWOCtll"iDg ancI tndi.vldually tl'atmng a rUder force 0f ab01:It 300'0 five to eight place g1;1ders by D.eee.r 1942~ and wargaming thIS force with, other h'oops immedlat~11 ijlerealter. Get the Staff busy OD tb.e plaD.a for wUDiafe WlE of these gl:ideil.'ti and the 1ft1'gaming ll;8Cessa:ry. a.mI [ will 1n tbtl meant:hne get a program of pro_ clll'emeDi a.I1d pUQt lratrmg ,.ta;ded wbi(lh will meet fhe dead-Jine as fl.et at Decembu1942.
be considered

-. "

The Dlretk!rate of ~ound-Al.r Support ':Immedi:tf:ely proceeded t<l implement tbi13 new {!rogram. Wile, directed the fQUo....ng day fo prepare , stullJ' f()r the aPJD'oval of the Chlel of tHe, Air Staff on Ule prDellrement of S,llDO e:lgl:tt-pla.cre glider.a ~o be d&liwteCi nQt laler ~ s.epteD1ber 1'5, 1942. Ground-AiI' SIqlport set about: selectl:qg sites tor glider tra11d~ alld preparing tablea Qf oil'prustion. The Dj.rector of IndiVidUal Ttallling was dtrected to Pl'9Vide for 'pilot P.l'~urement a:nd tl-aijling. The Commanding General, Army G:rouml.Forces 'QJI l8fo:rmed at the jncrea.ced progral1l thrl'tlgh the Airborne Section of t,be ,uround ..-orces Staff.2

A-.

Arltold directed the Comnvond'lng General of the Materiel CUlmand'3 to procure, in 'Ildd1UoR ~ the 1I'iOtwo-pla.ee, 300 Dine-place, HId 'l00 fifteen-place gUders alreacJy on procliremeat, 150 tW(j-place~ 2:00 moe-place, and ~QOO fifteen-'Dla.ce gIiders by ul, I, 1;943. 800 of the filteen..:ptacr.e gUder-,s to be delivered by January 1, 1943.4On AprU

1 General

,

r

\

·Prior to General Arnold's seoond dif'eeti'1E, repreaenta!:ives of A-4, the DiJ>ecUJII&te af GrOlDld-Alr BuppOFt. and. tIle Materlel Command conferred on March 31 in reglll'd to the prellmbla.ry dtrec:tive. Due to a misunderstanding Qetween A-4 8.Dd the Materiel Colll.llUlncl, verlSal cODmlibl!enw for all at'ld~tlGnal 4JOOO gliders were made lmmed1atlely bJ tile Mat~rtel

L R~,

Assistant Cblet of the Af:r stall, A-'; as AFACTJ. 3. As & result the March 9. 1942. reOl;gantza,Ulin of tbe A:»mytd,r Forces the ~rlel DiriSl.Oll ~e the Materiel Coounand. 4. CG.AAF to eG, Ma1it!riei ColDlDlUld" April I, 1942, in ibId. (Materiel CoJllJllaDd D&TelD.-

CG,AAF to clM, Marcb 26, 1942, In AA134\62.1 A, GUders. 2. R6I.l ND, 2, D1req,t:er 'Of Ground-Ail' Suppo~ to AssistMt Chief-'. of the Air ~. A-B, A~U l, 11M2, in ibid. Q)vec:tO:l' of GroUnd-Air SUPpOrt herelnllftex: cited ~ AFRGs.

...

or

after cIted as AFAMCl.

f

Ct-8555,AF

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This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

15
Chmmanil lb an effort to upedlte tliis propam. In. order to avoid replaJuli,Jl,g of tIl~ ~ a,sd the eonaequellt: l~ rif limB, on April 10 1$ Materiel CO~ requested that tb.ia figure, he allowed to rematn. ThiB request 111&8 g;J:Ute4 Apt'll :la, 1942.
In or4er. that thls mammoth. q-abl1.ng effOl"t CDUild be .,laeSJi in operattOD as IItXm aa pos~1bleJ a dlrec:Uve daed April 1. 19f,2, over the lllgn:atw-e ot. the Conojm~"AM1l1 General, A;rq A.ir Forees, ordef·ed the Flying Tratning CoDilidJid to train 4,300 gltcU!Ppflots by july 1, 19U, 2,000 or whom •• e to be p-adwaed by JanQUy 1. This e,ntaUecI au inereaae f1 3~OO Cl'l8r the previous pr:Ogl'~, as Ole 1,000 formetly diJ:eCted. were lneluded in Ods figure. In cmifl1ct with tbe procurement polley of. tae 1.000 Pl',ogram. as ~ as possible of these tramees .. em to be ,aduates uf tile Twln 1,!D:gtneAdvanced pilot Course of fUgbt oUtcer Dr commtilstonecl grade.
4

P r 11 c ur em ell t B a,s l § • Tlib day. later, hoWever, the tndecblfOll widell. c-baraetuI!zed this pe1'iod apm 9USed a chluiJe iu proeur&Jbent poJ1cy. All gilder tramees .. ere DOW. to bit wlsted gra.dua,tes of the Air FOrces Advanced F1Jillg Adftncad pilot gradu-

ates were specified fer the (ollowfill reasons:

School..

1. TrtlQp gl1del',s now an procurement of 9 and Hi-place xaughly equinlent in 81'Ze to a. B-18 ail'"1l1aae. 2. JO-place e,lqM!l"ill1erAl gliders ~ftb
lI!I'e II01Il UDder deY8lQPm8Jit. cSpaDS in exo,elYl

.

type :ue cl. tbe B-1'7

a.

Formation, night aud ba.$trum.ent flying ~eq.emeata

commensura.te to
Glider

those

requ1ree (or

ab'pllDe

pUotB •
11:8

wm

be

4:, PUots .must be provided -at 1111au.tt~s eapaclty.8

pUbts wLth· this dual. bacqrcnmd

to a;;qt

Clln be utWzed

t:ug pfl~. 1n this •

Dlrector of Personnel that fhere woUld hav.e to be an immediate alteration. In the nppl:r III g114en tn.jnees. Under the l~OOO PrDgram, graduates of the ·CIY1UaaPilot Tra~ Prop-am. had ... en selected tor trajningat ""~-nlne Palms btginntng A_prU 13. 441 the tr!WdD,g Oil fb.ese mea. ~as now prohibited, forty-five enll~ pUots woulel ba~ to be supplied for *he April 13 class aud ,additional students every two .. eekS tI,lere8fter. It 'WIUI SDUD realized, however., tbat the trlULllfer of 4,200 enlisted pUotB to tba slider pl'ogram .,qutd seJ'lolls1y tlQP8.ir establlsbed pIlot priorities. Ob. AprU 11, therefDr., Ole Dl1Jl.imum req\dremeuta for gnaill' pUot tr.a1n1q wen revtMd as follows: :1:. 2. 3. Pb1l1eJl.
In.Ying ~ge. 18 - 32 iIIeb:asive.

Th compUance wlth thl"8 pollcy

cbaDge the Flying

Tra1Jllng COJJI,1II,8.JId, IIOtifted the

experience! Meet ooeof the foUOWing: a, Graduat~ at the CPT Seccmclaty
b. Bohl en- have held II: prlwte A,trDlllll. Certificate or higher, witb a 0 to MO. h.p. or 2 B~.
CQurse.

ClUB I

I. 6. 'I. 8.

CG,AFoAMC to CG,MF, AprU 10, 11M2" 1D~. ExeS-lltl..,." AFAMC to Technical Exeeutl:v-e,.Wright Fleld, Aprl1 UL1MJ, 16 Jb1d. eG.A""F to CG,AAFFTC. A}lrD I, 1.942, in AAG 353,9 lA, Glider Tl'~. Director of Individual Tra,tnll1,g 0 CG,AA.FFTC. April 3, 194.2. iD ~ (Du,etor r#. IadlVldUlll Tl'.iDiDg herejna1~el' I Cited as A.ntrr). I 9. AG,AAFFTC to Director Of Per&JlUlel. April 8. 194:2, in ibid. (Director of PtrS&ftMl harelnilfter cited as AFDOP). .

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e Declassified lAW E012958

4.

~.

c. GIlder pUats with 30 hours or aoo 1Ughts. No caDdidata who has bi;len eltmiDated from 1Ur crew trallUng in the Azmy or Na.,- AU! Force will be- (tliglbl'B. Enlisted ,e~somtel who c:811 qualify under 1, 2, and 3 abo, .. are aut,hQr.tzed to babJ in gllde.
.. ouIII be given the l'lLtl.ng of gilder

Upon pa4uat1on. the tr~1l grade 01. stIilf sergeaat.

Pl~

and promated

to the

lIilltary
classes

As tbete Dew l"equirements were effecfive tmmecHa.tely. on the tbLrteenth ApI'U. P~I'BOlIllel .,~ InstrUcted to prqclll'e' at:Ud.ems lor the !Pl"U 13, April 27.1 and I&J' 11 at T1renq.-Dlne Palms; from elilJstel1i personnel or the Ar~ Air FOl"ces . .11
Establlsbmel1t_g!

«

Aprll 1, tbe Fl,lDg

Schools. Upon nC"eipt cd Ceneral MJlOld'l!) dirKtlve of TraiDlng' Command lmmed:1alely Sl!fabout elqlandtng fac:U1ties. establtsh1llg a coQrse of inlJfrUcUO'n~ and UlJ.tlatl:ng uqui'et.s lOr matertel. DJ addttLOn to TwentJ'-ntlle PalmsJ aet1cm was tuen to bestn opera.tions at tbree more ctvUian E1em.entary Schools between 11&,. 1 and JUne 1. TheY' were La.Jil.esa~Texas. under Ute' Gulf coast Tratmnc ewer, Elmln_ _New York, under the SGuthea,st 'l'rawllS Genter,lUId Wickenburg, Arl~ona, WIder the West Coast Trabling Cent~r. Action was a},SQ miUated at this Ume to establbtb two Au

,orc.e

Adhnca 8IlhoOls,l.2
Program

~es aftOll'e'if and soarLDg fllg!lt, night a.rui Bay. a.od to be qualfflJ!f:l to servh:~ gliders ill the field. J, The B.cope of the program was exac:Uy tbe same, "qualification In the &J1: r.I. gUd- flylng tit 1nclude wincb, autD.. and airPlane to.. ~ the art d'thermal. soaring wUb pa:rtlcWar empluJ.sfB on spot lallfllng proficiency and multiple. a~lane to.me: practice. Quallf:l.cattob In a&selilbly, Be'rriciDg, ilDd pneral maintenance of gliders and the t()wi~ ge311.u13· The tlJD,.e til be spent ill laJlilltarizatiiQ11 was iittteased to 2 hourS, .. hUe that dnoted to winch :IUd auto taw .... decreased Jrom a total of 9 hpur-p to '7 hours by da.y !lJ!,d J by- night. The '1 1/2 hours allot~ to alr.plan.e taws and the two-laour cross-colintry' fllght remailled the same. Rt~ and tbermal soaring .. as reducoo to 8 hour.s, and 2. 1/2 hom-s o! litsirum.ent ft.YI118ilUtlier the bood were added.
two

The prolP'aDl of inBtl'u,cUon 1'01' enltsted personnel exper~ente8.1 glider tra..irlYlg had' b~n bt progress (or almost a '1eB.l"J the course a.ctuallY dtHered very little from. tllat establiShed for the mstruetor officer-pilotS'. It conteznplate<l thirW botus of flying lnStl'uct1on and Bev.ent,-two boors of ground school fo be stYen In four weeks. Tbe objective- was to p,l"eduee a glider piJot pJ'oflctent to the df:lJl'ee that he would be ~lfied l'tO QPe-r~te glider!! in the v'artous

waa establiBbecf

af Inst.l'lletion. April 15, 1942. AJ,tbouih

1!o\h

lowed "l)lI}y 'With Bl&Ch variations as are permtt!ted in 'W1'1t1ngby the contl'aatJng officer. "14. Actually. it would seem at: this time. IIi.Id throll£hQut the eJltire PF0gI'llm, that ground scllool lnstl'lletfOD ",as very sketchy. The contractors ezperlenced gr~t dWlculty In aecurfug ade• quately quaUfled Instructor persObIlel. and as wey were pA,1d the basis of actual fbrtD8 hours per student, there was little incent:ive to provide truly adequate V0ll,lld. schOOl i.bstiuc.tlon. It. te~ye ptogr.ain. or filty hbW-s' traiD.lJlt!' In III1VlU1cedtype g11d.ers '1I'as also de'll'elqped • this Ume. Due to tuture changes I:.D. th.e glider p~0JP'a.m, howell'er.; lId.s progrAm was .,neYer plaeiId in operation.

teehniqJle,

'THe 8featest cmaage occurred In tIfte QrD'llDd sehaol cow-se. It pl'esc:ribed. snentyhouri! ~ InStructlDn, tOlD" hOW"B a. day. It lnalu,ded IllStruct1011, in rp.etepJ:'olOD, soaring
GAlro-dynamf:CB,

towIng. ma]ntenanee,

instrument-B.

and navig.atioa 'lind ...

to bl! fol-

on

10. 11. 11. U.

A'PRIT to C/AS, Ap,ril 11, 1942" in bid. Da11y Diary. AFRIT Aj)r·U1S. 1942, lD MG 319.1, Dally Diary. CG.AAFFl'C. to CGls. TC'sr April 27, 1M2, in AAPFTO File-s. PrGgram. of .lD8truction for the Tr-aiJdng of Air Corps Elillated P'BrsolUlel in GIlder FlJiDg at Civll Coutraet Schools. April 15. l'flO. in liG a53d~ SA, GIlder TPainiDg. 14.~ 15. Sketch by Maj. D. M. ~on, J~ 1'1, 1M2, !.Ii. AAFPTO FUes.

. .

C4,_c2655,AFe

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

1'1 gram. requ1r8il UJe MIIDll'ilUD 1ID Ol all antlable tra.tDhlg glider.. The PIJlDg Tra1I'l1lI8' COlDm.IDIl, therefore, OIl April Z5, lNB. J'eq1lested 1bat ~ 8u1~1. tow plane be macle a:vallllble fM every three two-place glliIer •• Ie Earl), in JIq the Dlrector' of (hooundoiAir 9uppOrt inlttilted action ~ p!'OYiiIe th. Ur8t twenb' ,01 the requested L-tA ~.17 By tlils ttme, 1Iowev1tl'_, the giider pliO!: 06jeetlve bad been bcrelUled 'to 81lCh tID- exteDt tbat the t01I' plaae lUted'll Of tJIe J'1J1nB 'I'ra1DJ.ne OOIlUlWld w.va completel, chUset!.
'umaary. EB8eaUall,~ the 1:200 GWler PllotPrOll'UD cOD8Ututed. c~ and ezpa:asloll 01 tile polkfeS aacI fuWtles elt:*bUshed WIder the 1,000 GlIder P1lcit Propam. The belief ~ ~r pUot: 'traiDe8s should be graduates of. Serne. 8CboolB ~ III attempt b) ,return procurameDf: td this bas_II, IR1t r-.ptd Air Force. ~1!tl0ll prelud.id tt.f &ecompllabmellto Alth&ugh th1I program ..... In optIl'at101l Uttle wer a JDODtlI. 1.ra1II.1D& ... effected" aDd Ii defbllte trl.lDfrJl prflll'8lll astabllillled. which ref1ech1d the l1'adual. *ltboaBh IUDIllI" developlllent 01. AU Force. bowledge of Ifltder tr&talDg procedves ana alI.QIIarda • Mate r1e1

Reauirements.

Tbe implementation

and eordlJct Of this

new

pro-

fit1DI

"

,
1

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

Chapter THE 6,000 GLtDER PILOT

IV MAY: 8,1942

.

...

PROGRAM,

InC!'eaud Qblaethe •. on 8, I~. aactly thUV-~ ~ .after the Inittalton 01 fbe_ 41200 PragraZil~ Uie Ely,tng''rEIdidng Command was Instructed bN the Cliief of the Air Staff tQ iIlereaBe once mOl'e tb~ glider pilot· traiDblg objective. This directive spaclfled that 8.,lJOO glider pilots must be traiDed DY ~e~1' I, 19(2, and. a tPWl at 8~OOOby DeeeDJher II, 1M2, 1 which coDStttuded not O1Ily an increase In quotas hut a decrease in proiducflon tiDl&. 'l!hls 11'~IJ augmented program was tlie result of It confe'rence held same· day, 8, 1H2, betvieen m-eIilbe1'8 of the Fl.". TraJrung C01JUDa.nd,the Dlr~r of Per~ and tile lhtel'iel Command on new obiedives oufllDed by Gt!llel'liil Arnolcl. The conference resUlted in M entlrely new trli:inblg prQp~

Ma,

Mil_,

u.t

><As .qpeclfled in tblt ~ ciir~U:v~ the 8.000 ProgrlUll was to be aceompUs~ by reducmg the t~inU!g program to sUI; weebJ ,ilnrattilli. Trainees were now to ree.1Ye '30 hours. w.1tliln fbUr week:S on cUb type a.trermt.. 8 hours within one Wit. on one- Or two-place sliders; a~cr 8 hours within one week QD Din,~- 01' Ufteen-pllJC8 gUde-rAJ for a tetal 46 boura' tnstrut:tlOD. The qualiflcatious lor appl1cation fQr gUcler pilot trafnilli" were cllanged, the new r.equlrements being ODe of the fo11o"I:lIg:

t

or

1. 2.
8. f.

Male graduate

of CPT - C1tfzen of Hie United. States.

Holler of private C.A.A. Airmen CeFttf1cate 'or b1.gher.
Form&l'I Ucel1at!!i C.'&.A.1JIt1Qts 'Whose UeeDSe hBa not been invalidated more. fhan ,ears.

nro

Betw~ 18 ami. 35 years at age; D.e'Verha\dng been eliminated [Grfly~ deficienc, in the Army, Navy, or C.A •.A. fly,iug tratnbtg.

Tile last t(UIllticatloD was chBnge4 Uwee days later to allow former aYiafttrn cadets. or av1atton 8~ to apply U the¥ lladbeea.elfminated ~1" flying deficiency after imriq l!Iuccessfull, completed th.e elemellfuy phase of instructio~ Ile;ldqtarters in Washington was charged .. lth tile pl'ocur.ement Gf the lI8CeSSqy pel'_ sollllel, the Flying 'l'ratnmg Comman4 with the establiShment (If the ~ of lli.e IleW training Pl'osramJ and the Coliimand tn. COIl,luneHon With the t.railllllg ceb.tel'S with the ~qu1r.IJIg. BtaH-' inI'. and ~uipplng of the n_ training acl100ls required. by the ace~Ier:-Ided gilder propalD. On Yay 16 tIie tratntng cemel'S 'Were i:o&tl"ueted to Unplemettt the new p1"4gI'am.

EstabUShmellt of S:chools. Fe»: the accompI1~Dt ae the first phase of the objective, 8,000 glider pUObJ by september 1, IfK2. tile training centers were lnsb'ueted to ea1:uUsb P:-eItmiDaXl-ILight :Airplane GliiIlIlg Sc~ools. All theee schHls "ere to be 111operatIon by JlUle 1~ 19&2.5 By that date tbe filemendf.lus taak or open1ng eighteen clVll contract Pl'eUnti.nar} SchooJs was accompltshed. Tbey were: 1. CjJJS to CG,AAFnC, May e, 1M2, iD AAG :153.9 SA, Gl1del' T1'aintng. 2. Dally Dlarv; AFRIT. MaJ 8, 194Z. S. elM to CG,AAFFTC, Mar iI. 1942. 11\ AAG 355.9 3~, GUd r Tra1JW1g; •. U. CoL A. S. ~nhar,t to CG,AAFFTC, May H, 1942, iD A.A.G3&3.9 A, Glide]' Training. 5. oAAF.FTO to ce 8, TC sJ May 16" 1M!, til AAl'FTC PUes.

..

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

1.

UDder the j!J]'tsdiCltton of the ColllDlllDdb1g General, Ab' Forces TrainiJIg CaQ-ter.

Southeast

loll,. FlytDg BerV1c::e, ~aod
L.
M1Jmescta

Foatana.. SchoQI f.1 Aer&naUUC8~ Roebellter. Bmck Flfing Servlce, rnc... MOntiJ:!eliD, .MinneROta. North Avia.ttw Company, Stulwa.ter, Minnesota
Anderson Air Aetlvtttes, .2.
MOl'BY Ailltlane CQlDP&lly:~

Mlliet.Wittig, CrookltQ11,

Forks, North DakOta
MlDnesota

Capacity

212
112

lID

htigo,

l~sl'illeJ

11-2 lUI

Wisconsin

Wueoll8.ln

112 140
Gulf Caut

UDder the lW"lsdletion Of the Air Forces Tra:bWIg Center.

Commanding

GenerIlJ,

~Farland Flyiag Service, Pttt.~, lCa.a.sas Ong AIrcraft Corp(p'atiOIl", Goodland, lfanBas Bunter Flytnz Ser.riee. Spencerl Iowa • boer Air Tratning C0l'pont{on,

240

12G

Harte 'Plyi.llg ~-rvtce, 11'»'8, DnBIl$ ADdenD" ad BreJUllJ1 F~g ~mce. .Aberdeen, S. D. Kenneth Starnes Flying BIImce, Loanoke,
A~;kansal!i

Oklab:oma

OkmIIl,,",

180
160 160
8()

180

I.

UDder the Jurisdiction of the Commanding General. West Coast All" Forces Tl'atm:ng Center. plains Airways, Fort MorgaD, Colo~ Cutter-Carr, FIJ1Bg S$'vic;e. ClovlB.. Ne,w IIMleo Qtg Spring Flytne 8eJ,ovtce, Big Spring. Te:u.s Clfnt Bl'eedlove Aerial- Service, PlainView, Tuas

184
1,84 8 152

80

tl'a~ alr~
lIB

To accomplish the new type of' 1n~ctIOD on trabling qd CQgo type gHduSt the centeJ1l were lJIBtrw:ted to ~Bh II8'W :MQIf gltCler sel)oOls ~ addltIoa to tbe two operating. VI~NI aJlthorJzed to J:aqueBt addlUonU enllstild per8C),IIIl.l to IItdf the schools, but the iD.Btnc:tilr8 would !lave to be pr·o'rlded from graduates of the glider scllOOl8. These schOols were to be in operation ~ JDly 6. 1943. &Ad teatage 'IiU IdthorlAd

The,

Ad.varu::ed &:hoola bad already been opened. They were coJltract -schools, tile 10hn H. WtlsoD Glider School. J:.a.mes~ Tens, UDder the Gulf coast Trll!lling Cente!'. aDd the ~ Glt!UDc A*emy, WjekeJ,1bUEig, Arizon.ll. under the, West Ooast TtaiJdng Center. These .. ere. in addition to tbe two alreadY opel'atiIIi. TWenty-ll1ne 'Palms, (l1d110l'n1a.. UDder the lurtad1ctfOil of tb8 West Coast T.r~ &Dd tlte Elmlra: Area Soadl!8' CorponUOIr' ~ located at 14"oblbI ~bama, unCleI' the Southeast Tr~ CantIN'. Five additlwlal A4' Force EI.raeatary-Mvancal Schools were ready for oceupaficm by July I. TIley were at AmarflIo, T~. Waco, '1'-.8. _el" Gulf COIIBt; Loclbourne., ghlo, UJl4eJ:' So11tiieast; and Fod 8umrae.r., New !.I_cd, UDder the West Coast Tra1Dtng Center.

there was not time for pel'man.nt

eon~OIl.

s,

the

ftrst

or Juae

two

DeW

~-

Cem"_

6. 7.
B.

TratJl1i!g.

Ma1.

l.iewhl "Barringer to COl. J. B. Ackermaa, .May 18. 19U. ill MG
Training Report,

S58 B SA. Ollder
A

AAFFTC to eG's, TO's, Ma.y 16. 1942, In AAFFTC Files.
AAFFTC Pilot

July

5, 1942, in A.FIHD Piles.

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958
• " li., I" ~r •,' •
~ "" " .

20
Plans were also lalA at this time far tlIe 1I.ccompUshmmlt of the secODd phase of the objective, the addtt10nal 3,000 graduates by Dee~mbel' 31, 1'842. By July 15 the tratnbl&' eentus were ttl subnl1t the nam.es and capa.elttes of t1i.e PrelbDinU:r 9cboolB recommeQded IOJI reteJlttOl1 to aeeommodate' a total of 260 a'tudents ((II' all the tratnJDc canters. The remalllder .&re to be closed. AU but one of the Army-operated. scbools wQ're to be closed by AupBt

14.9

IIlay be said to have been In its fll\st formative stage. AItlloIl&b the AU POl'OOS IaaIA lauuebed a prQgram designed to give ll1tllvtd\l8l tratnlng to theg1icler pUot. verr Uttl~ p'l8Mtng had takea plaee towuc1 ~e.elopfDg his role In colllbat ~rations. R 1IIIl8 kDDwD that he .QuId be part of an 'atr~rne dlriSff'l~ and upcm completion of tle gllder) 8 traasport mtsstOll, he wlNld bko part in grouru:l combat opel'&tlonB". ActwLUy I the c:omblt gU~ Ila.-If waa BlW IJl aper!D1eatal mOOel, aDd the tactl'cs and teclmlques for ptL:ttJDs this glider t.l a combat operatlon JJaa Dllt yet been establlsl).ed.

t:ratIIing pregrUl

Combat

Traini-ng

ru:

the

GlideI'

Pi'lot.

Up to We time the sUder pilot

With the direc1il!1e In!ttatblg tile 6,000 Program, the first deflDlttOD of the rUder pUot's me as a lI1f!mber of the I!.ombat team TMU transmitted to tile FlJhIg Trldnfng Com,.1IIllDII aDd thetlOe tG the traiQing centers. It stated:
In tJ'a1nlng glider ptlots. prhnary attentton will be; girven to their training ill the pilotlDg rore. Ttl. Becoudary functloD. Of theae pil(ltll • , • • ill CGDBlst al 1P.'000d c'oDibat opentloltll with the air-borne units wlUell bave beet! uansp(Jl'teci In their elidViS. It is upecled tliat the glider pilot will: receive the major4ty qf his srOllDd eomltat tr~ in coQjuncticm. with U~ ma&1j tl'aiillng of alr-b'ol"ne troops iii gllder.s. Ground combat traiD1ng will be illCluded as a seeol1dar1 phase of his glider pilot tra:1nl:ng only to lnlch e~ent as will not tatufare with his tra.l.nklir as a pllbt. . The ro~ 01 the glider pUot in combat will be prtmaJolly to land hla gUder safel}:". ~e(lne tile rapid debarkatiOn at his passenpr.s. secure hiB glider on Hie groUnd. aB8lII'e that transpart which may laIId after the

glider-bone troop. ha,y.& -secured the airdrome or localttyto permit re ... 1iIfor&:emeJlt y transpel't-bol'ne troops. b The gIlder pilot will ~cipate in ground. combat Duly in exemt onaI ctrcumstances or alter his girder has ~n wracked in llUlclLng.

'l'biB definitilJD was transmitted as a. dlrect1i'i tp the tl'a.t.aing center&, lnclvdiag the tmplelllelllal'fqn of a p01llld combat: trabrlng progr~ It wDuld appear. I1owe.er, from eenversat:1OJm with :Instructor and studem: personnel. that at this time Utu,ein tlie Will' t1l • 00orcllD,8tecl prttgram was adifevec1. Evidently the contract schools dld not have the bistruetors Or tile lnc.entlve. 8.Dd little seems to have been done at the Air Farce scbools beYQDd a p~alcal eODdittoo:lng program.

Program Df lush-Ilction. PreHmtna:tY Schools. The establtslimOlli.of the. light afrplllne glkllng c9ur:se and the eonseq~ent (lp8ning of <tile Preltm1Dary &cbOols ""as a llQiUer ~ eQed1eney dictate(! by the materiel factor. the lact of sufficient traiaing gIld&l'B.12 The lOur-week at illsttuetion at the P.rellmillary Scllools had as its object t~ g:radu_ ate !l shdeDt p:tQfieiellt to tbe degree (bat be was uqualUled to operate light itrplanes, I.lld to mate ali landings With 19niUlIll ~ botb night and ~1, and to be qua,J.Hied to service then airplanes 1D tbe Held. Its scope ""u d.ef~ as "q_uaJ.ilt~aUolUI in the an of J1gbt atrplaae glfdiuLio taelude ~cular empllasls 011 sp&t pI'Gflc1ellCy" Il!Ild "qu.a.llffcaUoB In ~ hl'vfCiDg aa:l geDetal m.aintellJ1DCe 0,[ Ught alrptaneB.

p:roaram

...

I.

J.a.DdiDJi

9, AAlTTC to CO's, TC's, May 1", 1943, bI AAFF'fC FDes. 10. Memo for AFRlT bJ Brig_ Gen. L. B. Kuter, ~y 12, 1942) tn ~G ndes IUId Grades. 11. AArF.Te'to eG's, TO's, May 111,1.942, in A.AFFTC FUes. 12. suteb by .Maj. D. II. B'amllton. June 17, 1942" in ibid,

211 A, Officers,

C4.2555.:AF

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

FLOW OF STUDENTS THROUGH GLIDER SCHOOLS
JUNE /5, 1942-SEPT. 14 1942
j

CLASS lOA· STUElENTS

I
3Q HOUR.S - + WJ:EISS DI!:..... STICI(. L!.ANDINGS D

PReLIM.NA~¥

l

I

t

I
~H""SE I

PR.E.LlMINARV.

40 HOURS -!So WE£K$ E.L.ENtEWTARY PILOT T1W""~G

J
PRELIMINARV,

g;EAcsnCK1\IGUA.$

PHAsE' II LANQINGS
2. WEEKS

.,.

Po

ELEMENTARY-ADVANCED
HOURS: -I We,EK I iIo '2' P'I..ACE GLIDERS

e

CLASS

"'I<. STUDEhiTS

AeRIAL E.)t"PERJ ENt:E of'; O~I$ OF l'HE FOLLOWIr.aOT'YPES REQUIRED: 1.I(Obb£(l OFalIlR£N'TLY

.!:!2

CLAss-a"STUDENTS
PR1iVIOU& AERIAL EXPERIEN·OE
PRIVATE G/?,ADE Of{ NlfSHER.

EFFf;jJTlVEAIRM:AN CFIITlF/GATE,

2. H(JlJ)£8 fJF:A I.APS'1fJ) AIRMAil CI/(,FIFJCA'7.E.

P.II(}YI.f)Ef) 'THAT SUCH f2IlTlFi1C41'E

DID HOT

/.APSE /TRIOR 10JANtJAliY 4 I'Hi/.

s.

HAW;,tS C(JNf)J.i7GP 200 0JIi HORE Gf_jfj)~ FLJGi(rS.

'1 "

4. !lltOT TIiAIJ'ltI!l6 FUM/litES, P/?OWI¥{) :rilEY HAVE 'JFTY"HOUI?SA~ PI/INC/PAL P1bOT OR STtJHN'T PllDT IN .MltlTAHY {)Il NAVAL n'PE AIIlCAAFT.

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

ft
TJie tIlJ:d1 bOurs~ Wpt ~ W&J ilItendecl to Bimalate ftJIDI U £l.oBelJ' poaeltile. It .... to be given for tweutr dap at one ,aad O_~W IIaaH a dar. T.wo.bollr8 .. ~ to be .s,wted. to sb1ls lUId ap1Ds7 IUId four tioare to 1800 qproI.Cbas with tile \JIdtlQll turDed Oft at 2.000 feet. TIle approaches were deslpell to deTel., approadl patt.e-.. PlIftiJiI QJe e.mpbu18 Oft hiIh approacbea JDd S turu UI!d slips. 1'198 lIIJIUoa vre aIloIted to YIU'toaa appt'oUhU With tile l:(pdtl.oD. tarDed d:f at 500,. 1,.000, 1,500, 1,000, ... !S,OOOfeet. Pi........ wen aQo to be devoted to predillon laad1npt to .. IIII.l't wttJloat. fIIiB 11M of braJrM .. deYelGp.. JIIUt r1JudpleDt of laDdiDg rol.., wbibr "straap neld 1.""11111' fl'OJD ~ all at 5,000 feet foll~ 1I&vlptbm ffisht to 'i~OIl rI1 poiDt' shOd of laIIdIBg fte2d ' were allotteIl flft IJom's. To D1gbt Uuldtnp from '1pl.t1oa ~ pOliIt" at 2,000, 3,_ ....... 4,000 feet, ftr. hoQs were alpo The fellUlJDfDI four boUtlI CIf the qe 1:11 be dlStrlb1lted aDlOQI tile other p1laaes €I tile C.OUl'Be as t.FaiJdtIi ue«bI mdicatecl.
&8

Ci".'

~r ..

kctuall.y tile dUd Btkk 1Qd1ag proved to be OIlS 01 tlIe m~ ImportaIlt JihaseB fa the :tra,hung 01 the glider pilOt. once the mGto.r was tuJ'Uf ~ Ole IIbI6Dt had 110 recourse W to lAe tile ~oaeh i:orreetly aad achte'Te lUI. accurac, JaIId1Dc. J1 .. fOllllll tbd br ~Iq 8tu11enta t~1 la:rd m"aclBely 011 a ebllJm m.ark OIl the fteJd, tb8J 4eveloped ace1leDt. j..... at elf distances udll1dtDg range~ qaaUU,ee e&Antbl to propef gli4er pUotap. R ' A eizt1-hDv eourae 1Jl p'owwl school IDatnictlon ,... also 1Delude.d. TIIla C01II''' e&llelll for t1terity iIa,.~ ~cm at three bOurs a cI'af. Fle1d V...... ,I' aad TecbII1~ ..... al;8 ~ere Usted as tpiB. JLDd. the tratrdDg eeDiel'8 1181". direCted to malat enry effort to IIIJIIPlJ each. Bt1alIIIit wlth the necesS&l'f copteB. Tbla coune was &Il improYeaIeDt CJIII. Wmoas 1P'0UIKi school courses JB that It better Hrved to prepue file g1lder pilot u .. iDeIDber 01 tile armed Seniue &lid far IW5 ....~ mb6100. D: ·ptresertbed tQ hours d. meteoJolacf. 5 elf Il&vt~ 1, 01 liIablteJllUl"ce. 2 01 lJrcraft ~ 1 til ebemfOJ warfare ....... " 1JI tutrwDezdB. 30 01 pbJS1\f t.r&1nlag, .... 8 hDurlI of cutoms dI the 1IaaI.e IIIlUtal7 li1cloctrtllatlOD. aDIl dr.m.

aerne.,

no cue

J;l1'OIl'1UD8 of 1dBtruettOll; 1lo1renr, .we .st.a)Illahed mereI7 as pIdn, QId 111 foUowecl. hom C01lverlll.t,lcmA with gllder pullOllllel, it waaJd BettlD the' cmitraetors, b1 Yl.-."r or tim terDIB 0( their coalracts, wen maInlJ ialerftltecl 1a F'V'bW: the requlJ'ed bmlre in the air to dJe,~. Ci'rillan taatructora. due to the lIldBt'eace at other war trUJdD& pragnlDJl W8re eztr.emelJ dlffk:lllt to SKue. The deat.:red. nUo at 1n8tructw. to stud.eJits was jlliae" at ODe to .f1.." but the eodl'aetor8 .... autllmised. ft1;baUJ fo operate with one ~uctor to !leY$! aDd OIlII-half stud.ala u:aW addltlOlll.l tr&lDed IUtrv.c~ .. became ItvaUable. U .. oum also appear that It V8!'f .mall pel'ce .... CIf 'tJae studata received grolJDd I.'DStn¥:t1ODJ aDd .bat .. receiHd. 8ft1llS to bave been "Mr7 ~. These

,bat

11'9l'8 they rigidly

two... eek prGfl'1LIIl of lPtr1U!UOIl· OJ' Klem -Adne 1iiCl1iiIiGbatl poaad aQII tnplt sthocil. Th e stated ohJect1n ud 8C'1P8 riC tbe COIII'H .~. ea.ctl)' tile ........ those e~~ed lIJidar the ;P"~OUS pl'OSJ'UIl el Aprll_ n, IMI. Tbe 0_ 1ICIIocd. to opente for te dalB at mle IIour I.IId lIftr141Ye IDiDut •• a a.,-, .... .dinded tDt;o two pbaaetI, elemeatarr aad 1Idvt-M.ed. The jdementAzy e.our..&e 111.8 IdDWaJ! to ijIat lino UDile~ tile pr8f1oU P1CIfP'UII. except urat the ~1~D of the 11lbt atrpluf! ~ phase eaablel tba c01II'IIe to be aIlort .... to .. It hours and thtrtJ m1IiliteB. ft:m1lIarlDtlbD was allotted ... boar. 0alJ GlIAl br ta&fPC fJf elJht ,;aa to be dnobId to p,reclstOil J&1I4ftnp·trom 1I'lDei1t pull" CD' &ato taw. J'CRII' 11. PrIJll'&Dl of IDstru:ct1Od fer the TnbdDg of Air Pm;c:ea p_~ b Pr.\tmbII.rJ mw.r (ClvU Contraet) Behoo18-~LI.gbt Airplane GUdi:Dc Course. Ma.J 12. 1941, iD .. U. ADalJsta Of the Duties of Air".", P.-aoonelJ BulleUn No. Ott The Psyc~c81 Dtv.tJdba; ~e or tlle AIr Sarg8OD. Aq, 28. INI. . 11. PrOSJ'&Dl al InstJ'llctioa for ihe TralDiDg of Air Forces Penoue1 b. PteJi-1..,.,. Glldu (Ulril Colltl'act) SeblXils.-Llght Ah:plape Glldinc Course. "lrfaf 12. 1M2, III .AAl'J"rC 16. j,AFFTO to CG'1lItTe"Dt M'a1 23, 1M2, tu ~

Prona • .i.!

'DltrUit1tfe.

Ble=an-Ai!l"'~

'1M",

m-.

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958
~
• II. ~ I~ __ , •

22
slugle airplane tows -.ere to be made m looe bour:. 8.Dr! r~ multiple airplane loll'S hJ In two hours. At n.lgJit fOur mUIUJIle IItrpl,llle tri's "'ere also to ~ m.a.de~ one hQlll' and tbtrir DdJmtes being. deroted (0 these. The time allotted to soarlng was deereasecl l!olSlderlblJt only two hoW's DOW belD.g prescribed, ind 1mB or these WIder the .hood. Dvm, the aecoDd week tn1ntng .as tQ be give'll on n:lne- ud IUteen.pIace gIlders. This.aa the first atttmpt

,

!la,

preaeribed ODe, hour of fllmiUilri~atlOll • .m four preCision ~s tQ two hours eo the gliders iD ~e taw posUloD. Four hn.rs .ere to be dev.oted to multlple tow. one durlJIg lb. d!lt, one dm1lIg tbe day nmfer the bood,. ODe hour at mght, aIIIl 0&. durbas the da.y with a precf:s(oo ~ on a stra:age tield after release at ~,OOO feet. Thts WILlI a PQ1'~11 hypotbeUcaI. COlU"~. as' the large gliders were not yet in productJen, and their IImo,rmance -e1la:t'~18UC. Y81'S Dot known.

to DlUe oUt

ltD

adyanced program, IlId due ta mJbsequ.at ~lopmetats

tt .as nBnr UIleeL n

tarsa

The new jp:'ound school coW'se, as prescl'lbed to ~ IU'opam of filstruct1bn CO%' the Elementa.ry-Adv:u.eed School, was to be ginn in teD" days at three hours .. day. TeeJm1cal &Ill Fleld AIamJala 'Wt!r:e de.stpated as 'texts for the 6 holD'S in Iilnt trltiDel'.· .hoUr ... ill radio.
equipment l)pe1"8.Uon, 5 hours iD. IIIalntewLD.Ca, and 8 ~s In phyBical tralnlflg. Tbe.se "' .... Dew covrseSj thoae rema1n~ from the old progra.m were Rve "hours at 'BOtar):ng meteorolOJl1 and five holiis to be clevoted to Ute charactel'istlC8 bd 8yi11g teehJifque glfdus"IoBarrfncers FHSbt. without Pove.l' was designated as the text COl' the" last two courses. I.

a

or

the, DIrector 01 War Orgll.lltu.atlcm I!IId MQ1'ement stated that orders had he. iBBUed tor traaafer c:l 300 of these plaus frQD1 Groua4-Alr Supporf units. Alsv the Air Sprvlce ColIUIII.Dd hall b8IeJI buIt.ru~ to divert May production of l1aison type Ilireraft to tbe F1Jing 'rr~ Com. mand. /j1 t1lese mellJlS, the OomllWld wits 0 rellelve about 8S0 of the requested 934 Ught

L!&I!! A i~ P 1a. n e, R e qui rem e p, til. In order to !mplemem: the new prtlUl')" trabiiJIg program aad thereby meet the aea4 lias 0( 8',000 gUiler pilote by September 1. 1942, on May 18 the FIytDg Tratnbi~ ComJl:l8Jld 1riform_ ~ua.r.te!l"B 1hat it must be lm.mecDately 1It!pplied. With OM apt Ilirplanes oJ tbe "puddle ~pert ty)ie. 18 .As.as. the case tiJroughout the _Ire gl4ler )n'OInm, SlUlpl)' did nQt meet the 4emandS 0( the objecttve. OIl May 28

pkiae&.

'l'h1B Situation was but another 1Ddtca:tloD of the problems of an explUldlJlg Mmy. The Field ArtiUery )lad been allucMed 1,960 aI: these llght planes for delivery priOr to }an.uary 1, 1M3, ,on a PJ'iol'iity eqwU to ~ of the Flying Tra:In1ng Command, u4 lIoth c6 these needs had to be met COl1CU1'J:II!AUy. By the first of July. howeyer~ it RpPelLrS that ~, needs of tile Flytllg TralDlng OommlUld were met by furtber diversion from June prpctuet:ton. 1

'Procureme&t 1tl PerliOllDe.l. All the g,tgantie tad of tralD~ 3,000 glJdel' pUtJts by 8EPeml1el' 1 bad to !be ~lement:ed hy luna 1 with a. of 600 tralDees, Idton 'iJa& tatb lmmedta.tely In Hetl.dquart.e?S to expedite the procurement riL "_sclQlel. The Director d: Personnel was charged with' the respcmstbUHy ~ prOCUl'iDg 3,600 tratnees, ltD al10waDce of 20 per cut attrition and bavlng theclll at the trlllnlng $e1ioolB in jIIeven etas-us between June 1 Imd ~lembel" 1. ~2

ease

1'1.

19.
20. 21.

18.

22..

of Instruction for the 'Pralning ol Air .Fort!.eS PeJtBOnnel In Elemeutll1'Y a:ad AdY&BCed Glider Schools, Mal' 12, 19U, ill ibid. CS,AAFF'tC. to CQ,.&.AF. ](ay lit, 11M2 In liG .. ti3.1 A, Gl~ders. lIema for AC/AS. ,\,-4 by nlreclor Gf Will' Orpnbation IUld )fo9:ement. Ma.y _~ 11M2, 1D ibid. (Dtr_ector of War Ol;'ll&lJb;atioD and Movement berelnaltel' d.ted as 4FROM). MemD for CG,AAFFTC by AetAS. A-4 .. MI., 22, 1Q42, in MUTC FUes. Sr. IndOrsement (orlgLna1 unknown), A-4 to CG,AI'AIIC, June Ull 1M2. In lbtcl. elM to CG,AAFFTC, May 8, 1942, m AAG nUl SA. Glider Tr,alu1ng.
I

Program

..r

Ct-35$5,AJ'

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

GUder

tl'alnees

ready

tOl' 8 IIIOrn:lng of' sillllqaf.ed! g11tlel'

.

fl71nl!;,.

S~"".eD:t prepares

t::a execute gl:1d1ng I!Ipproa~h and d~ad sUck

l&DiUllg trca

·1gnitlqn

oft po1llt.·

...

l'hl!! light air-pi.ne llidln eDurse, esh,bll.hed b~cJlu~e of the lAck tl'.irliDIL glideI'll. proved fa be of great value. It ~n.bled the .tudent to d.ev-elop ski.ll 1ft accuracy lal1,:Un&S and ;odl1llent of dht.nc~. And IUdin~ range. of

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

RBS'fttIC'fED
s
23

..

on May 9 The Adjutant General was requesfed ttl launch an ext~ive p1il;!Uei.tycampaign. The CiVil Ael'onaut.l.c~ .Adm1niStra.tiOD was also conta.llted and in cooperation witb MllttiU"1 Pel"soDllel began ~ circularizing of a.pprOJrt~telJ 85,000 AirIiDarJ Certificate h&lders 011 recQJ!d 'i;li'i:th that office. . • lett~ elthe Procurement [ll'aq. Air Forces· Pe.rsonnel. em May 11, 1942, II. circular "as dent to the Cotnm,andel'S of all Posts, staUons, A.ctivlt.ies and Higher lteadqu&.rtf!l'S Army Atr Forees in lihe coiltineJltal United States. Thl~ lilttel"' outlined the enormity of tne progI:alb and Itrged !.hat.' !ill qnalifled per sonne! be' encou;,:llged to 2pply for this training lit once, The trainin,g was to he open to aU oHice:rs aad elll,ilJted lIlen who were cRttlen&, efghte,en to thfJoty-fille years Of ag~, and wlll!! had not been eltD11,nated from a SerVIce or cirilla}l Uytog school. Aerial ~er1el1ce c4 ~)Jle of Ute followlng ty.pes was required:

-.._

1. Holder of cUl'rently
()l"

effective AtFman Certificate, private grade hlgher. _ Z.• Holder of 11l,piied Airman Certificate. ' .... ovtded that slIch eerttnc~te did not lapse prfor to Jauuary 1~ IJ14i~. 3. Havmg completed 200 or mare ,glideE tnghts .•

Candidates must be il.ble te I1ds the pflysical ,examtnatIon for flying duty, Class D or betWl'. Ell'li~tell applicants jlJ.ust b'e able to make a score of 110 Ol' bette.r 011 the Army General CiasB.iftcation Test.24'
Only five'Mys later tki:s letter wu am~Med> and the qnalif1c:atiODS were recluced. to tap It lugl!F reservoir of pl"oapeciive ti"ainee$. The ,period of lapse of the Airman CerliftolRe was pushed. back to lIllUIB.l'Y' I, 194:1, and glUIer pUot tratnlng was no 10.. er closed to those who had been ellmblated from pilot kfrtlDil).g. for fiylhS; deftc1erre1 prOVided they had f10wD as prtneipal ptlot lilt' stul1ent l'Uot .IQ1" at least fmy boars In mlUtary OT naval t}'Pe atrcl'aft. Qffic,eNl and enlisted. men were [0 train in. grade, a.nd upon graduation file enlisted men were to be promoted to the grade of stafi s'81"geant and r3ted as glier pUots. B the eJl.us~ student bald one Of the fttSt tlu'ee l1""es, he would maiJJt:al'n (hat g;rade upon graclulitlOn;. iii alletrart to make gllder pilot training more aitractbe and thereby increase the mIDlber III applicants, tbi~ letter was further ameItled on Ii. Selected gl'atluates were to be a,ppelnted officers in tbe .Army of. the United States. Dem.Ohstl'atien Of sQlc:Uerl.y qualities of leaderfll'lip,. juclgment. torce and IfiscipUne wmbe the criteria. upo~ whlch suelt appoWtments al'e based. ·26

hWle

J..

, .

of May B, lMIJ the procw:'ement plan tllr the enUsl:mel1t of .ciVilifllll ~Ueants bad been pianned.. orpDlzec1., amiplaeed in operation. The Ci.'Vll AerOJlalltlcs Atlministratton 'Was cii'c\JJ:arizLng 9.PPl'oX'Jmately Blgh.t,.~fiye tIiousa.nd. Alr~D. CerWtcate bolders 011 :record with tlJat Offtce. If the prQspective trainee expressed itttere.llt in glId.er tra.lning, and If eKamtnation at the agpllaant's qualifications i_tated lIAilequate aerial. experience anlI general ~equuementsJ 'the C.A.A. cettlfl.ed the II:ppUcant as generally suited for this trv,'hl1nB. Upon ,Presen.at1ol1 of the certification to his IDCal /kmy 1'ecrmting oU'lce, tne 'appUc_ant was ac.cepted [Ql' enlistment and I.asued ,3;n.authQI'h:.atl:.on for tra:v.el to O-J1e of seventeen Al:r Fo1'C:8 stations, The sevel1teen . ataflons designated for procIUI.etag were~ McOhord Fle14, WashlngtoD.; 8;allDas Army Air Baq, dl:recfive

Procureme_tlt

P'lan.

Ci'Vil1a.n

AppHcQ.nts.

Eight days after recelpt of the

Ca.lifornIa:: Army Ail" B!lse. klt Lake OiW" Utilll; Mareh Field, California; Westover Flelll, Massaebusettsj Mitchel FIeld, Haw Y,Dl'k,~ Olmstell,d Field, PeDfllS'Jl'\'ania.; Langley Field, Vtr~
23. Memo fOl" AG ~, Military

24. AAF

(.Military Per'S"onnel hereinafter

25. Mo.F 351, May 18, 194,3. 2&. UP 352, JUI1e 5, 1942.

ssa, May 11, 1M2 •

Perl50nnelJ May fI,JlKlil In AAG 353.9 A~ Gil.d.er Training • cittd as AFPMP).
j

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

Boirman Field, K"B;ntIwkr,. Cllanute Field. WluQ1S;Seett FIeld. 'ttltnQ~B'j5lIer~ Field, DIIBaB't RandolPh Flel~, Tensi U:rwry 'Field, Colorado;Sha!lFIeld, South CuoJlna. KMslel!' Field. IIf5sl.ss1ppij ad.d: Army Aiir Bas~ Orlando, FLor.lda. Upon arrival at ~af Ulese statlollB, tbe candidate wasgiVien eUber the :MIllY General .class1flca:t1$n Test 0:0 wjUch a .miD1mwn score of' no 'Was aeees~ foJ' ~uaIif1cattoa~ or the A"ViatioD. Cadet .Mental kl'eenbig Test .• Form AC-IO-B, on. WMlciI tbe requi!slte mllDlmum· Sllore 'lUIS 65. or F'Ol'm AC lO-B, ;,Ith II r.equlreil s~e elf "15..' The S4:ores necessary oDt:hEHlviat:l.on cadet q,uallfyi~i ~stsjJere lifteeu poiDfll lower than theSe reqtd:red for qualificaUon tor avlatlon cadet tr~g. . Ap:glteants f01llldl .mentilll, qualffied 'Were then given the Ph,ys1elll ExamklaHon for Fl:YlDC DUty. If they were fa:imd both mentally and physically qwijHied. a,PP1ieants :we%'c then enlisfed in at. Air Corps (WWlstgned) as privates and at.taclled to tbe statloll whe're the!wete prEM;e.peJdiJlg isBuaDce ,of 01'4e1:'8 ~l'olDHe:td4bllarierS" Arm, Au F(l<rcea, Dlr.ct.or of Per,lIOIIIIle1·for
aastgmnent

to

gUder

tn.1ntDg scbools.'

Sel'lic:.es cd' BuppJ,. Oons~uenti1. Orl Mal UJ. 1943., a memorandUm. was fOl'WiU'ded to 0-1 DeparimeDt General aatf, requestllijJ that, &iue: to ihe nee.esstty of meeting aiat1sls tralD.tng seJledQlea, acticm be auflWl'tzed ImmeOjate1t to make gIld_ l!Uotstt~ avanabl. to qualifled offieers and men of fhese 1ll'1WI. 'Tllls mem.oran.dwn :rel:ntrune1lded I. ptoepre .... plan, whereby T~ Adjutant Genenl 'Would be directed to cb£Wub!:e all ol"pDiz.a1iOllS ~ tile Gl'IOUDd Y()JIces and the Sernces at ~1l1y.
War

Procare,ment Plan. ~ G~r~u.lld Forc'es 'Uul ServUea 01 iYJ!!:l Pe r 9 on Ile 1. When ,tt soon became apparent that a.deq.ualie RersoDll,~l for the enetllMd, IUClef ~nGt ~rogram would not hf!. _a'lallable from etvUUfe. aDd . wltbin ·the Army' Ail' i'ercea. J:U.Air l'o~ceB decided to tap th~ lilst rw:a:a>tniJli soU!'c:e. '11J;ie Chill :lerooalitlcli ~ in DB circutarlut'illD a( 111i1i.de,rs .ct nunt lieellBeli. had dl~()vel'ed that a large nWDber of prnper,ly qualiffedilldividilal5 were to be found am$?,Qg the pel'SDIlIle1 ,of the Arta,y Gr01md PWetl& and!

In the case 01 enltsted ap1!ltcants for gllderp:llot fraimns::. The AdJutant General w1ll isstte orders ,.illllli.edfately, tl'~fl.rb!l in grade" to the Air Co:rpl'l (UII.iU!slgned:)ncll meJl, lUI are- '8 eIeeted ami :recommended for this b'atn:Ing by the Cbmmandfrng peneral of tile Army Air F'"oree~ Md atreeUng so bansferre(";o the AIT CO.qjs to proeeed to lutallq;Uozm designated by the CDlJUIUIiDdf~gGeo:eral m

tn"

t:he Army Au Forces.

.

The Adjutant Ge.nera! will issue otdus detaUbrg for the pe,rloG of Imllmg auell officers Wlow fie!' raJdl: DIlly be seiee-ted aDd r.eCoJDmended f(i)l' th1~ tl'atmng by the Oommanding Gcne:ral of the Army .Air Fore-ss. The Adjl¢ailt General.ill issue ordellS ttansfer'J'ing to tile ' Ai; Corps Beserve, ,ntboUt 1088 of rank Or seDiori1y, those officers Who lSuccessfuny complete the prescribed CoW's.e of g-lider lIilAilt tr,lU!Q1ng.

as

~ a4i:tltlon to the fioregelng, The Adjmallt Gen~lla1t "in, through immediate cOllunaDdlngofficers omy:. Mmmunlcate with such jUllrior oUl'CI;l"S ind cenll5ted men of the Army Ground Forces" 5eI'Tices df Sup~ ply and Army All' Forces l8 mar 1iJe· on lists ~UI'nfshec1 that purpose to by the Collll1lll:Ddmg Genellal of the Arll'{Y :Air Forces. . • . The fbl101riDg'BY, M&y l\piS an Mjldant: General letter. .
2'1'. AmOP
to .commandJ,Dg

pIan was approved
of seventeen

by

G~l,31 -and.four da,ys later ~blte'ud, bJ'
May 1:CIlB42,,1n J AAG 3;3.9 Bf

'.

Gltder Tea;lnlng. . 28. AAI' 352, Mayl~, 1M2. 29. WD P,r,e8S1 Release, June 1, !'1HZ. 30. AFPKP' to Com,ma.ad~ OOiUI'-8 of seve:ateeD stations .• Mil)' 16. 1942.
. U. Uns~gDed memo for Assisfant Chi~ of Staff, 312. A'G 358 C5'-2el-42:)EA,
1'1IakIlDg. _.

QffIcen

sUitiODli.

lJl AAG 358,.9

B.

Glider

1'ralD1n(.

G-I

_

Mar 18, 1942,

In AlG 81:13.9 Glider A.

llit.y 23;~ l~

.

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

Status of Procllrement Effprt. By the end (ll1U, It became aPDBl'elit. In the tremendOus proeureUlenf. eflort on the PlU't of the Director at Persouel, The Adjutant Gelle~al, and the CIvIl \eronautlcs Adm.1niwatiOD, tllat quota.B foJ' tlie f1l'at 8l:lJ.edule4 claSses \\uld DOt be met. By May 'Q Galy -seventy tra.inees ~ beell ordered to eiWlian Bcholill!'o1 COJLl:!e4uently. on lune I the ciVil contract schOolS began opttratlOO8 on a reduced ba81a.1MI By Ule fourth of that mOllth there 'Were 228 students In tralnlug. but U1ere was DO backlog of studems, .and the program yas already ODl! week beMnd and short i~l00 candidate. for the present classes alone, At this time it Wllo& hOped ~ the pelle, promulgWid by A-I til eomlBlssl'Ou a certam Jru.mber o.f graduates would encDUl'B,ge appllcat1D1l wben su.ff1clen.tIy cirClllarillltlC. So sel'lous WIIS the sftWltlon, however-. 'tba;t on June .( the Director ~ IDdivldaal Training depa:rted from time-,lloDOrecl mJ11fan practlce by reeommendtDg that Immediate actIpD be initiated to orcbtr to glide!;' pllGt traiDlng1 -wit1lou~ 1lSklng. (or volunteers. a .~clent ulUl1ber of Q~Uied A:r.my pel'sonnet from outside the All' E~Ces to meet the objective. spite
of

*he

4

JWle 10 to devl~e fuathil¥
m,akf

A. ~onferenee was field tn the OOlae of the

all members
volUnteers

trolD. expe;tJ.cmced students who were willing to transfer quirements f.Q those l'e<!ulred by the

secure

at

the first class

mean$ (Olt encq\lraglug

AsSl.Ft&nt Chief of the Air StIlCf, A.-I, GIl glider pUQbapplicatiollS. It W!l8 dec~W to staff sergeants lml1lediaite~. to intensHJ t1Ie campaign to pilots of light airplanes, ta compile a. !let of aViation tQ glider pUnt Wlt:ruCtial).. and the physical reeMl Aetonallttc~ Admml.m-a.t1on.

tSlecl11ea

J

New Training Plan and Procuremellt Ballis. SiI1ce oulJ Uowt tIne-ttdl'd of the til'jrt W'eeIdy quota .had reported tor trabdng b¥ June 6, die FIYiDI T:raln1q Commaad reallzed that the ttalB1ng 1'1.IIn e=tabllshed by the dlirective- of )fay a ~oulcl not PQ8.~lf be fulfilled aDd Submitted an alternate OOUJIBe ,of action. This neW plan entailed entertDg lUI quaUfled appli~ts directJ3r t¢o the Elementltry-Adnncild Glider Schools. It was est:tmabltcl that tile Direetor of Personnel c,ould lill approximate,l, 30 per ce.,t of tJIe aebeduled qnotU tar tb1s type pf persounel. In this 'Way, the Eilemeo1aFy-Adn,nced Schools would graduate apprOXimately o.l1athousacd pUots hom the previousl, established. four -week eleuteJl't.lry course alibllt: A\JiUSt 17. By tliat tlme tJle Elementary Scb.ools .. ovIil begjn to reeeln student. frQD).the PrellDlt.n:ary SchoolS and would 'ehange from the four-wee1£: eleme:ntu)' course to the two-week combination lementar;Y-advaneed coUrse, as specified lB Ae direc:Uft Of May 8. Twt1 sttll remal:lled, however. 2000 gliCler pllotl;l to tie procured aud ba1ned to meet the 3..000 ~ei'fied by September I., 1942; therefore" the Flying 'h1liniDg CommamL prllp»Bea a. ne'll procurement basla. The Command sulSeat&d tbat I!PPUcant:s who bad had IfO preYiQl[s nytng ~J'llen~ but .. 110otherwise conformed (0 the present requirements 11& accepe. ad (Ol" gllder pnot tra!.nilll., Tbls was indeed a 4e~t!e from the day when only gradUates of tbe Ad.vanced Flying SChools ware to, be gt'Vel1 gllder pl10t tralDiD8. Tbis new ~ of trll1llee was to be given In eight weeks COI1l'Be cGiilSiming of aizpJa:n& pIJot tl'aiDI,ng 'for five w:ee.ka and tbree w,eee of. dead stick lanQll]gs in ll~ht airplanes, Tbi!D aUlYIIIiDg Ime week 1M travel between glIder scl100"ls,thue ~ fo'llow OilS' week af eleJllentary. and oue" Week III ad4 vanced gl:l.der tra1Jilng. Tile flYing Training Command reaI1r:ea tbat this plu Pl'Ovided a sketecb,ytrJll1ni1l8.program for secoru;1 quailly ~FSOIIllId anda:dm1tted. that it woWd UDlfOUbtedly be reflect~d in the fhud quality 01 tile product. n approval of tbis Dew prQgi'am wete gramed, the C'll~1lIltI requested thattbe ae~ Une for tit (1nal graduat1Dg class be emnded two wel!'U, the final claSs gra4uating about OCtober 12.
'llhe Flyt)1g Tniulng Command stated tbat it believed that under this new program tile fil-at obJectlve cauld be reacbed by Bept.ember 28 wltll a total Of about thklty-two hundred trafned lUd8l' pnots. In nrde,:. to aeeompUl\lb this objMtlve, it would be

necess!IJ:'Y fOr perSOlJll.el'tj) be pl'oe~ed llnd delivel'ed at the :ca~ of abQUt 825 pt:1' week for lour weeR ~gtlQ11ng JUDe 22. 19'42, 'In. addfUon to appraxtma.tely 200 Ii weeil: who have bB,c:l pl'enOUB llvtattOD traiJllng.
33. Memo for Chief cd Sfaff by AFRI'l'. May 90, 1942~ in liG 353:9 B, Gl1deJ' Traln1llg. H. Teletype, CG.AA'FFTC tb eG's, TC's~ May :sO, 1912, in AAli'i'TC .FUes. 35. Bien, ~PRlT etD CIA!, JUDe ., 1M2, 1'JfMG 3&~.9 SAl Glider TratniJIg:. 36. A-I Dany Rcqlort, June 1D, 1942, AMi I, A~l Daily Report.

C4-2555,M'

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

Allowing.

~proxtmatel1 30% attrition. thlB shbuld produce 2200 glider pUots. 'Whleh adiIed to tlmse entered direetl)' into the gUDr schools, sbouhl PJ.odtlce a lQt'a,l of lIil3o_ 3200 gUder pUotB by Bept. 28, 1M2. • .• 7 .

On luo,e 11 the Director of millVUlWll Tratumg mtormed the Flying TrItJDinl Combad been approved with one seepttoll! '-'The allotment of thue devotecl to dead 8U~ . is reduced by one week. This tB Ilecessa.r:y in ord.er to allow a one week ooshlo~ JK!tween the date at the toUd numb'er reJlUired and the date the totaI number complete fratniug. I' ,38 The dead IInefal' the fmal gta,duaUng class waa not exteDCIed as .l'e~ qqested; however. on 18 bJ' i'i1J!ecf1.ve from lIIe Becr>etan 0.( the, Air start it wu extended to ~teJDDer 25. 1942. If mand lbat

~~Jr:
IT'

mar

On JUne 12, 1942, the Director of MUI~ RJ!quksm&Jlts ssued" forma1dJ::rftUve embo4yiDg the r~riBed glider pUot training plan er tne RljiDg 'baJDiDg CollllllB.l1d. Tblp diredt:fve stated that applicantS' laCkblg preV1f)US aerlal upene..ce woUld be ac~e~ lor train.lag proVided they possessed tile other rel:(hlslte quali(icat:iQfts., 'rhlB Dew type Of efUdent 'Waa designated as. Class B, while traillees wIth preVioWi aerial QPetience was .desflDa,ted ClUs A. ThiS' program would be jn effect, hl!)w~el', olllp long enough to all4!riallie' fhe-shQr.tage of lJfudents 1flth avlatiollleqlertenee., T.hese students were to ~ecelve tnmiu.cUon as follows:

I. Elemedtary fnstrucUnn
2. t.
Dead stick landimgs Travel tfme t"o glIder schools arpprOld.ma,tely a-place tra:lJling, gliders 1- and

40 hours

5 ..~U 2 weelr:B
1 weW!:

15 hours

f. mlder
5.

8 ilQura 1 ~eek

e
R(lsses:nng the required

Gilder tr.linln3J 9- apd t5~lace gliderf!! Or COBy,erted aIrplanes

l!; hours 1 week 72 hours 10 weets
I*sb!. The studeuts

ariattoa elIpe:rience were to be entm-ed dlrect1y Into the tll.irlJ-hour eleJD~tar1 8.iICl to be It,1J'en•'such advan~ tl"allllng as tiJIle and fadlittes p(!rJilit. H_ mediat.e ment of ment dI DlrectQr by June

'tbef'

we:r.e to be advanced on a proficiency

gUder course

'"

.

The Dlre.ctor (if' Penanne:!. bY .tI'itS same di7ectlve was Ins,tructed fo ,coJrlillftce imP~Ul'em.ent of the new type traiflee, bQt at the IIams time WQ t9tfontmu& prcx:uretril'inees with Pl_)eviollsaViation expeJ'ten~e as rapidly as possible. Actually, procurethl Ire t:ype Itppll.ca:llt. Class .B, ba.d bet!q _lemented three days earlier who the 01 Pel'~e:l Instructed,. Th.e Mjutant GeDel"al to prcw\lt"e 1,000 Cass B appllc;anta 22, 19f,b COmmanders. in the. fielil 'Wue iDfiilrm"ild of Class B trclllning byAJJ.F letter. June 10. With the mstltUtlOD ,et CliiJ.E'sB tr;pnbl.g. tbe other r~uisffe, qua11f1catloua remained the .same. exoept tiE f(Q" ~ applicant the vts~ acuity' for ~e Olass n physical ~I.OD. miCht b8 20-40 wltlmut glasses, Jeorreeti,blll to 20_20.48 37. eS,AAFFTC 16 CG,/oAF. f1llle 6, 1942, in >lAG 303,'9 34., Glider Training. 38. ~st 1'Ildo1'SeD\ent (C8.AAFFTC tQ CG,AAB. June 6, 1942), AFlUT to C~JMFFTC, JUDe ~1.
'!;M2,

in...iM!l.

.

.

39. 4:0. 41. f2.

AJJ. 3'53, June 10, 1942. 4:3. AFDOP to "01 June 9, 1M2,

COl. J. Y. York. Jr., Seereftr, Air Staff. to CrG. AAFFII'C, June 18, 1Q4.2, in ibid, AmOK to CG'a, AAFF'FC, i\FAKC, AFPMP, june 12., 1942, SOibid. AFPMP wAG, JUDe 1t1042, in &AG 353.9 H, Glider Tra1n1ll1.

m

liG

3·53.9 B!GUder

Tratnhlg.

04-255fi •.AJ'

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

Inauguration of Class ~ Tutn.illi. On June 10 the Flytng TralD1ng Command dll"lectect the tJ:'atntRg Icenters 'to institute Class B trainiJig. As !he first two phues d. tlils training were to be duterent It-olD the instruction gtVeII to Clas8 A trablees, neW programs of instruction were establiShed Pbue I. elementary Hying iQ$.I'ucUQn in Prel1mmary Ugld Atr.plane Gliding Schools, was to consislt of forty hours' tr~ fil five weets. Enlphi.sta was to be placed on coordinaUQn apd precision laildin~, aAd progress Of "'" iJullvitNal st1Jd.eDtWItS o)e based on l!l'oflcten.cy Wttl1 all poasible consideration given to OJ tuerlulQI av:ta.tioQ El.lq)erien.ce, howeveJ!.small. 'JIhe second ph,ase, dead sUck landtDgS hit the Preliminary Light Airplane Gliding Seboow, was to consist of rutllea "hours' traintn,g ill twi) 1II~k$. Stu-

..

Schools, but this h!llvel t:i.lne was to be held to a minimum and utlltzed .as far trablmg purposes,

dents were .then to be lULowed OIle week for.travel

to the Elemetltary-Ad~ced

Glider

llS

pos81ble fer

'Fbis cllange in .the met,hod, of iilstruotion. wa~ ml!('ely a matter of elqled1ency--necetf,. sttated by'the enormity Of Ute objecUv,eand lhe ~ifficttlty of ISBcuring adequately qualified trainees. It was· not to interfere in any 'way with the course established 01:1 May U, 1942, for the training of men wUh the relluirecl auatiOll experience. It was rl!alJzed that the admlJltiltr.llf;i:Qn of this dual training wl>wd ~ exbemely ~ifficult. Therefore. the tra.ining centers .-ere g:iven CQltlplele authority lO arnnge the trllinblg in a manner best f!wted to maintain proper balance of Class A and Class B stUdents In the sehools. ?OE' the present the thlr~,.hour elementary glider course wa.s to COllUnue in operation, as no graduate df the dead stick land~ SO'Ul"se~ould be a'vai'l:able until Jwy 6, 1942. These schools were to be cenfinued at capeRy operation with Class A students ~ far a.s a;vat1abl~ equ1p1item would permit.44 To allow implementation of, thfiS ne" program.. the MaterteI Co;mmand negotiated tbe necessary contract awndmentp to pE'"olllde fOE an enllUlged total capacity: and the. adcliftonlll pblse of instructi0fe . ;r.he -achoolS' total capacity was nO1¥: ,336 studentJl with a weekly entr~ 3 rate of 834. P'rograms 0'1 Instr1Jctton. Class I!.. Training. The first pliase of the pre11D1lnlr1 CQlllflle for Class B student~ was d;estglletltQsuve as a subat1tllte for th-' prevllNii f'[_yi'llg training required of Class It. st.u4ents. Its objective w.as to produce a,graduate "quallfled to ope:ra.te ltg~t 2irplanes, b(l)toh nlgllt and day, a:nd , •• ~uawied to servlee these atJ'~ .planes III the tteld.· Forty hours or fUght SGhool, twenty-five d&yll at Dne hour and thirt1-.~ ~inu.te$ a day, was prescriJ;led. This inclUded nlJ).eteen heUl's !1 duil apd twenty-on, of solo ",:lintrig. The course was sl.mil'a.r to the preiiminary flying trAining given hi the Civil Aeronaotles AdIlltnlstr.atlon, a.lthougl:lparticular emphasis 'Wu to be plaped on the attainDlellt of p:rafLclenc, in spot la.ndings-, GrouDd school instruction was placed at seventy-five hours. The subjects. the ammmt of time to be devoted to eachj aru1 ~h~ te~B .&r~ to be the same IlIi p1"eserlbed for Class A students in theprelimllW'y light airplane gliding nourse. As DWIJ 0( these students Mte&::edthe glider pUot Pl'og_l"atn dbec:Uy from civil life, 4Jl attempt was m;a.de to give them some lfilSlc mIlitary t'r.ainlng. To physical training twenty-five bours wer\fo be de1'Oted aDd 8'iXteen fo .customs at trle servtce., baste IIlilttJlFf trufo.ctrtnat1on, and drID, The liItlc00d pbase of inatrudton fO!' Class • students, the dead stkk landin& course, was an abJ)revtat.ed form of that pl'en to Clan A uaillees, The hoIIrs sp.ecH'ed tor fly1Dg training were halved to fJftee" tbe dUJtaUpn reduced {rOJll five to NO ,.,eells. Tbe r~vt.. D~ssarJ for Class A students wa"s ell.m.iMtild. lJlatruction U1aU other mAJleltfers was retained except. that the time to \le lQlotted to Qach wae decreased.
44. AC.AAFFTO to CG1S;, Te's,. June 15,. 1942, In AAFFTC 4$. UnSigned letter to CG,AFAMO, July 4. 1942, in Ibid. (Cirll COllua"t) khools. . I--Elementa:FY Flying Course 1o! Class

rue.

46.. Appendb: V to lette!l'~ AG.AAFF'l:C t.o es's, TC'a., June 11;. 1942. in ibid. 47. Pr~am 01 InstnlcJlQD fur the Train;j;ng of Air Forces PersollDel in Pteltmtna.Jo, Glider

pl:lase

"Bu

Students, June 12, 1-94.21ill ibid.

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

anddrta

IIours .as pl'escribed. 8 bours to be del'ated to tnefeol'ology •. a:. to navtption, Ii to Dlafllt;enance. 10 ~S physical tl'a1nlng~ and 4 to custllmS of the Service. bal!lic lllilltltry indootDlnation,

Duri.Dg tile se£ond

pllas'!), ground

school

IInstructiOli ~as

eontinu.ed.

A

tot.t

o! 311

Ad.ministratlon J!1 Dual Tl'lLinin.,:. 01:1 JUllli! 13, 1942, the FltJng TrafDing Command submitted Its revlsed schedule for g}tder pilot training to Military Personnel, r.",uestlDg Qult CllIss A students '1)9 given ptiority ass.igament to each j!lass and that t).iey be diBtrllnlted to all schools In proportion to the schools~ ca.paclty. It was ruijler 'requested that Only Class A stulleullil be (Jr(iered tilt the E'lemellfaJ'Y-Advanced &110015. 49 Thta prQCedll1'e "u clm.Dged JUly 1, 1942. :After that ~te glider candidates were ordered to one of tll1'ee: stattoas, Loekbourne. Ohi(l, in the Southeast Training Center, Randolph Fteltl, Texas, 1n. the GIll( Coast TratulJig <;enler. or santa Ana, ea,!uQl"nta., in. the West Coast 1"ra.bdng Center, sbielL .~e des-ignated as l'egtllcEl'll1ent ce~rs for glli:l.eYtrainees. !rne ~ratriing etttLe-r com. DlaDdera then dlstr;tbutl!d tile nandidates -among the schOOls under their lurjsdtcUon. The gUder replace:1ent center at santa AJill was liI.ter transferred to Kirtland Field, Alb1Jqaerque, New M1ieo. 1 IUiiI iti 8eptelllber tile pool at l;.oc~W"n~. Oblo, was moved to Sm~na"Tennesaee •.- and in November to Stuttgart. Arkansas. •
studellt quGtas for the glide" schools w,eJ'e at let befog met by the e~ of June, the rat;lo of Class A students 10 C13lss:B studeJl.ts be-lng !tbem OJIe to one. By 1ui), 13. 3.800 trainHs had entered preUmirlary training" un students bad graduated JUly 11, and it wa~ esttmated t.ba.t gradwtlrea "!li'Ollld&iCJ'ease weeny untiL August 8 .. ben the requtred weekty output 01 680 WOUla be establiShed. • AppUcaUon Inducem'ents. AltMagh the persolUlel procl1l'E!lIlent prQgram w-as provery TleU ill vIew of fb.e tremelidous task fact"g the Ab Forces, early In Iuly it beeame ap~nt tbat tbere 'Would be a ahol'ta.ge .of th& most aesiralUe appHca.nts. Cal).seque.nUy. the Director crf P·ersannel promulgated a pollcJl whereby Al:r Forces per80linel able fa meet the lilinimwn Beria1 experiGl'lee for OlaliB A tr-aining would be granted certain walVel'1J Ott tile 1:"U15:tte physlCJ.l !}!ualificatiQt.s. AJlPIi.c:ants wer.e to be certified as phf81cally ~iJlf!d provided they could t successfully pass a physical eumklatfon fo" fl~ (,(uhlerPUot, Training}1 ...Uh a substandard visual acuity oJ 20-100. correctf.flle to 20..20.' Applicants were Relt tG bEl disqualified due to defective enlor nsiaa. For those "with defecti've color nSion which would normally c1i.aqualifl them, . • ~ an e{Jth'e phY5lc~1 examrlinattoD wlU be liY'eb. setfidg faith a complete study of the 1:9101' ViSion. U • gressing .At this same tilll(j another lI1ducemem designeti to 'Secure mol'! ~pll.cams for tratDlng was put into effect. EnlIsted Class A appUean~s ~low be grade of stElfcf serg-el\llts Were to be promoted to that grade upon entert,ng tr.tutng instead of at tlle c,omllietton of the entire If thelle men were eliminated. however, -they 'woUld l"evert to their former

!!latus.

fi1urse.

e~ for glider pilot trainlng would be Of the same soetaJ and edU:caUonal callJJer as those (or pilof training. But. as the program expanded S9 .rapfi:lly and :as .tt became necessary to

When the glider

program

was first

wHated.

it w.as Ipl'llnlJed that the persolUlelpro-

i8.. Program

SClVil Contr.ut)

Pel'BGQDel in PreUm:lna:.ry Gllder $cboo!s--Phase D--Lfgl\t Airplane Glidbtg; C'mll's" (Dem SUck--for 1Z:1ass 'B" Students). June 12:, 1942, in ibid.

of lllStruetion for the Tl<'atlling of Ail" Forces

49. CS,AAFF'PC to CG.AAI". ,AtLn; Aviation Cadet Section_, JUIle 13" 1942, In UG 353.9 1A! Glliler 'l'raini.D,g. SO. Dally DIar,. AAFFTC, July 1, 1942, lin AC/AS, Training Files, 51. Ibid., J1IIy 18, 1M2. li2. ]hid., Sept. 12. 1942. 53. Ibid., Nov. 18, 1942. 54. Memo for AFRlT by FLYing 'I'ra.mIng Sec.tjon, ~FA.¥C, 15, 194)'. in AAG 3,5&.g C, Glider 'Draining. . 55. Ai'DOP to CG, All' 8erYice CotnmaDl:i. JUly 3. 1942, m AAG 353.9 TrafDing fn Aviation, PilOt Training. (AU- SerVice 00 herefn:dter eif~ed as AFASC!).

:.£. •

1m,

I.

SE"RE:r
"
,. L

C 4-'2S55,AF " t

.,

...

It,
I" ~ ;"

~
'.

&.. ~

J

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

TCl-5

j\t:!t'onca.

TC-8

piper

than

t 1:8 ining lo.d necesl'li t:at.e4 more training- typ'e glider. were- on hc.ud OT. in R1"onuetion. By' rClI;1oving the, eng,jn ••• lhrtl'e type. eli light airplanes wer~ converted to eOll)p~etely •• tisfactor" tr.ia-

An inereased

iOIf- typ.e glidl!r9.

...

...

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

29
widen the procurelllent ba.al~ so exteDSjvel,. the A1r For~es flllUDil it alma'" ob{1galGry to eDlist all applicants physlcall, aad mentAlly qualified. The glltterlDg publicity eiDplOJ'eiI to energize the pl"Qgra.m-..premi8e5 at hlgh 1RlY;,rapld ad'filDC::em~t. IqHt adyenture.-bI'oujht 1D a
t-ype of JDBD heretof()l'e rarely found among the ranks of Air .Forces pilDf pi!t1lOmK'l1. J'1'QDl coftversati-oDS witb _&~ees· it wOUld BeeD!. tbat lD8:JIJ af fhe PI'OBpfiItiYe ptdttr pIlGt8 Jotoed the program for just these reaa.oas or 1Il the I:JeU'8f tbat glider pilotage woufilprcmt • lUCrative qccupaUu in postwar aYiaUol1. Tbis sJ1ua.tlon la perhaps 0118 of the cOflFlbllUag factors to the extFeme mO.l'ale and dtscl~ p)'(Jb1ems that later 1:haracterlzed the program.

Personnel Procedures .. Duri.ng this earq per1W the growth of the glide, program neeessttated t'Iu! estllbllshmeJlt at oertaln. perSOlUlel PJoeeawes. In september, 19t1~ act1G~ was initiated to e.stablish the rating Of glldex' ..pUot. ;)11 Tits ratlDg was later a1ltborizecl, ud an appropriate avlatlOIl b'adge .approved. Durlng June, 1942, however ~ U WIIB .ec1d8d that gUder pUots lI'owcl nd be gl'eD ratings but issued certificates. This ruling created Il storm
01 protestamoDg same beneIDs

quartel'S was Drea:JdDg faitb with its Pl'e,~~ aeptember the ruble JIU re-esta.lllished.
iDsurbI!:8 •.

the individuals

closely

eonneeted

IiJJ

mel 1egi.8latt'la provlslons

88 'aYfilUcm stUdent"". lDcludl.l:lg

prDmises to the :Jltder tralJJeu. FU$llJ. ill hi. May, 1M2, gUdel' batoef!" were at_ad. tie
$10,000

wUh the pr:opam.

as

it was

felt ~

Bltad-

iO,el'1Ul181lt life

The -queStiOn Of lllght pay lor gUdt;lr trainees and pildt$. with an ita potlmtlal CODgresstoJial ramttleations, also eawred coaatderablQ discussion in tbcl early da~s of the pro-. gr~ ,&iath(tl'ity (or the payment of fiyliog pa_y was panted in March, 1942. ~"bul rated power pUots UDderlOing glider training had f:g perform the r4!qUked ~ ot fl'lg!its ibid hours to the au to receive theLt mgbt pay.80 Sbortage J!1 Equlpment. As trainlng Uilderlhe 6,000 P.ropam bepb to Jet lEDder war. early in J1ily n beGame e\"ldent that the ai::tu1 QUmhers or UgJit alhlJRnflS 011 baal at the Prelt.mtnarr SChools and tow planes and gliders "at tile EltmelltUJ-Adqaced 8choo1a woU1cl Qat take ear. of Ule wl'ea.aecl trllbUng load and the, collStaallI3r lP'owiDI tiow cI &aluea to the Schools. Two attempts" had bean DUUfe to lIllevf.at. Ws sltuailOIl. Tbree~. GIl 11ibt airplanes had been llonvlJl't'ed b, remoVIng the engine. These light plues. eon.verted ID this mcumer ~pOS$e88ed many of the characteristics 01 gUdellS lad hacl pl'oved. to J:;e qulte saUS!actory. Ali privately o'Wned. gliders an the UD1ted states of a. sati.r~tOl'.Y ~ bacl beea. secured eIther by 'PW'cba$e or condemnation. Many 01 these, however, were fOIIDdto be- ia a &tate Df disrepa;lr amd prese ..ted. a DlItjOl' matnt"llDlUl1:6 and repair. prOblem. Due to tile laCk of ~Uipment., students were collecting, at tbe glider FeJ'Illtcemellt centers and were baYillliiito be poqled there awa!tI.q the Ume

..

when

theT c9Ulcl be aec:omillOilatecl

at the glider

scbooJll.o1

Revised Tl'atntng8ebedule. COJIII~entl}'. on JUly 18 aDd 14 a. cODference l'~e8el'1tali"e8 of the il'ajirlng centel's vas called at the He'a.dQUarters d. the Flytag ~ CplWD.Bill4. It: was decided to dtscimt1aue enterblg Btude~s into t.he Pl'e.1p"D8J"1 Sthoo1& tor the next lbra weeks, and to keep all preUmiury graduates at these schools for f~ tral~ umU they could be accomrllOit4ted. at; the Eiem.~l-AtI~ed GUiter Sd!ools • .-This WIUi" j ust the first fndfeattcm Of the tremeJid.ous DIIlterlet JJ'01)lem tbat was to play .so gI'eat a. p8lit in the glider" Pl\ogram-.,a :problem brO\lght aboUt by Iaek pi coOtdlDatiOli of prOCUrement of men and materiel. 56. Materlti DMslC1b, OO.&C to Exper1men.tal EDgtneer1ng SedtOll~ Wright Field, sept. 8, 194-1, i'II AAG 211 D. PUots. p'l'" Project Book of the CG,AAFFTC. 58. MeDlll for CG,AAF by AEDOP, May 20, 1943, lit MG 353.'9 B. Glider Training. 511.Memo fGI' OG,AAFFTCl.bJ' c.s, AAFFTC, Aprll lD, 1"2, III AAFFTC FUN. ISo. AAFFTC to CG,WCACTClJ MarCh 10. 19:4:2, in ~
-6L K~Q 62~ Ibld. for CG,AAFFTC ~ CoL O. F. Schlatter; JUly '.15r lMJ, in ibJd.

or

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On July 17 ~ Flying TEainingCDn:unand, iWltruded the t.raWng. centers to pla.l:e thfs'l'evDIeCI seheduletn operation. The shortage of equtpmellt had J1eaessltatedsucb. a decrease fn tlie.Dow of stuilem.'S tbli.t there wel':e nQi enougb train.ee.s to support the eighteen Prell..m.inary SChools. €onsequenuy, t:lIe Boutheast Training Center wa"$ instrucled to close all 01 Us .Pl'eHmtnary Schools, th.e Coast to elose three or its seven, and the West CoaSt to l'educe the entrance rate in its '1oUl' schoOls to a total of 14B tl"a1Ii.aes ea:eli week. The EJem~-Adr.lruled Scbools at LQc:kbourne, Waco~.and Lubbock. Wel'e atso eLaseft and the schools at DalJiart ~ Yort Swnner were ,to be 'b'~fe:rl'~d to Ad~anc~ Scl100Ul for

Ci&

transition tratn~ng all ,cargo gnderswhen those gliders became available. . .

Dta.P:d

Pohntlal Traln.ing reported to Uie Commanding

Estimates.
General, Army

The followl:ng day the F1:r1ng Tramil!8 Air Fpf'ces that in cp'mmtaslqn at the

Com-

Elementary-Adwanced ratder Scbool&, it wW be posstble, to tra.ln approxtma:tely eight hundred (!l00) glidflr pJlots betWeen fuly ~'l'.1 U.2 am September 28. 19!12. As Qf lull' '27. 942 about five hundred (.oOO} tiifdel' "Hots will 'have hell 'pl'ddu.cec1, 'ma,Idng a. total of apprmt mately
tWteen hulldred (1300) gJ1l!,e:l' pUots avaUalale by September 28, 1M2.

Wlth the gl1de.J:~ now actually

on bl!lld ~

This was leSJ; tlJan one.haIf the l10mber ca1led for by the directive. Tbe most recent productioll ligu.reB wl1["ch had been received by the Flying TJ'ainlng C01nDla:nd. howevel'; ind.lcatea that 13 gl1tters and 110 conye~ted,1ight airplanes would be deUv'e.red in J\I1y, 21 gnd.ers alld 500 planes in A\lgnst tUId 26 gnders and 140 planes in. September.. It deUverles conformed t.O these scheclwes. t~ Com~ .eaUmatelii. tltat "a vasUy acEeleute:d progrll;Dl wm begin on ~ 3, lH2~ and '!I'Ul :r.each !tit peak Of over five llWldred (ilUOJ gUdel' pilat grad]1ates per week by September 1, 1M2." em this bash! i1t wall estimated that through July, 500
glider pUots wOldd be trained" l,~,oO tn August, and 2,000 in SeptQnWer. Alter the 3,000 objective had been "N!aehed» ihe Cq.mmand pl;:um~ to l'educe tim accelerated rate of f;FaiIIing so tHat about three bUDdred trainee&; "ould be gradua1:ed each. week: during the rest d 1942. Although; the: l'equ1~i~e Jl,WDber of personnel would have been trained, they wotild not have Fecelveci trausition trai1iln~ en ~argQ we gU(lers. The Comm~. therefore. urgently requested t.bat if It was deiired that this type Of tral.nJng lie given by it. that it shQuld immed1at~t1 be furnisbed withJargo gliders, multieng!:ne tow planes and pUots, all<! te.m:porary additIOnal trainlng sites.. 'nr II. t n i n R Pro b 1ellis. It wpuld seem that the ,;Flying T.'talnmg ei:lmmaJXl's estimates of potieriUa1 tr~ WeJ"e a l:Jit qpttmt~tlc in view of ilie acute gUde-r shortage. The u£oD!Plis.hment at. the, glidel' ~ab\jrrg aDjectiVe l'~u:f.re4 144 ,g.ne- and t.wD-ptace gILders and lBO n:iluI'- and ftfteen~Pla.ce glide,rs .in July. The Wtel',el Command had preY10uSly estImated that tlJirty-one c.onv.erted gliders wOUld De dellv81',ed 'in June and 180 In July~ bO'llle.vel', :Of me fifteenth .01 July I1Qt O.Ile of these gliders 1wI been received at the b'abdDg Bohool&. P';llevlous esUmate.& of flilteen-place glide~5 hiId .contemp'lated the mmutaclure or 250 In .1m" 500 in August, :and '150 in Seple~r. By mrd~JlIly howeveil'. the Milteriel CO,llUDlQld el!tt.m.atfld that none would be manufactured in Jll1t. but that quantity prodllet10n 'IIould be reached during Augubt and September wUtl 1.tlOD ~a.rgo gliders being manuhcbD'ed duri.ng these moDtbs. • The glider progl'lIJIIi. was again stalled" Now that the persoNl:.el proclD'ement pr~m had be\lD solve4,the lallure to. pronde g1td~l's 'Was re&ultlllg .111 large num.bera;,Of elementlirJ ~td!!r gradm~e~ for whom advanc.ed tralnlJlg was not ava:Uab~e. This co~tho.n complicated by a, serious- housllig Shortage. 'ConstrucHon at tbe Ad'Vanced

WlUS f1ll'ther

63. UFFTC to eG's /fe's. T'Uly17, 1942, in AAFFTC Files. 84. C9,AAFFrr'C to OG,AAF, JUly IB, 1942, In AAG '53.9 'SA, Gllder

Trainln$.

C4-2f1ofi.AF

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31
Schools bad. been provided 0.tI the tia~is CJf two tlUSes being pre8elit at one tilDe; therelore, it \Vall tmpracticll1 to order ell!men~ gJ1llduates til) these st:attAM to await fm"ther training.65 Solution Of seme of theS"e probleJllS W&8 La come with ImYlar re'rision of the glldex: pilot b~ obj.ecUNe.

Summ3.ry. In IUl otIler ,perloCt as fllat frt)m May to JUly 18, 1942, .. en tile "6,000 Praplilm was in effect, did the glider JU"ogum wuielPgo so many significant changes. These changes were, in the majorUy, a result of the excesS1v:e reqUirements 'of the ODjeett't'e and the ~.mely short IUIlOUllt d. time allotfed! to its ~cu~IOD. Old polletes were madllie4~ nn ODes introduced. l!1 tact. all Bubs~ent programs are but a med1flcatlon of the p.roductlon quotas ¥4personnel pEoeeduus establtsbed. NUl! gIlder pilot ®ject],.veJl:,with one 0C&ptton.ue but a dqwnw8.l'1 revJ,slOll a&! the produ.qlon quotas of this prognlm. T~e uteulv. wfdeninc' of<J fheproeuremenl ~siS to secure ap;pUtants from all Arms of the· Service and clv:ll1lOllife and the lowering, of qWUlftcatlons to admit trainees without preytOUB aer.faJ .elqi3erlene. rep:reBeatsthe high tide 11 procurement efiiori. FW'iher pN)Curemam policies II:J'e tl:u~.tkedby a Ml':ro-wfqg t,t the ~la and a. tlglitenlng of quat.'iffl\latioJlS. It eannot be said tlIat the 6,.000 ProgflgD is chara.ctertzed Ql' the most si'gnUicu,t changes In the l1'aiDlngprogram .. far it was latlH"subject to the dletates or otber salient fa.ctors. But I:,ertaln Important developmen~s elia occur. Among tbese w'er. ijle lntrodllctlon of IIAe.ilt1rely 1i81'i' tnJe 01 training,
the ilead. ~th:k 1iU1&g course4 'lJJ):lch, although br.ought about as a matter <i expediency. proved to be or :.111gb value. Also under this prapam, the gr;owul scbool de¥elop.ed more fully, fOIr tbet1rst tlme "there WIioS ,. reallJ:a.t1on the peed for prepar.lag the gUder 'pUQt for hiS f\ltu2'e 1:0.( duties. Urul~ the 6,000 ProgrUll, the scaniby of lDa~rie1 for the fbst

e

a.D4.

at:

time becaJP..e a JpajoD factor in determ.1rdng lbe future course of the gllf2er program, which _CS to grow bOth in mature a.ud. tiIflUence as I!lder pUcIt tiJ!~ progressed.

a factor

"

..

65. Memo tor AFRlT by Flftni
AAG as3.IJ C, Glider l1r~

1Talnillg Section, Materiel Dl.risioll,

July 1~, 1942, in

CI-2555.,AF

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This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958

"THE

HILT

18:, 194<2. REVISION OF' TRE TRAlNING OBJECTIVE

GLIDER

PILQ'X

...

and Tl'a1.ning Prog.ram. ConGlll'r:eat with fhefl~ ~mum glider pilat gradua.tion wlth g.lletuattllg glider ptocl1u:tj.ooestimates" Deadtjuarte-il's .ra'alized that uncleI' existing materl.eleond,ttiQllS • achievement of the ",ODO obJ;ediV'e was impossiDb". €omlequentl" on July 18, 1942" tile I»r,ector of IildivtdUal TraiJlilm: halved Ute immedfate p_,rQgl'am. Tbe new ,dir,8ctive ~eqliired
I'l'aiDiI\B Command's attempt to harmonize tbe training of 1,500 slider pllots by Sepi:embe.r 16, 1942'", and an additional

Revts,ed

Obi ecUve

ber 31. Glider pUot proo.uc:tilonduring 1943 was to contlnu.e at the rate. Gf U,IOOO & )'au. The dil'ee#rve aJao aut'fiQrlz.e:d the: Flying Training ColDDJaDd to amemf and mcreatJe tbe- course pi 1nstl'uet1on tn order to inSure JDaldmum proff-eieiiey in eacJI phase 80 ~ as a'll'allahle - equipment would pel'mit. It was POlnted Gut· thalmore tDstruction BhOllld be liveD in towed gliders, both the converted ail'Dlaae- type and ibe flfteeD -pJue. 'glider. If praefi.cable, this tnstrucUOII. should 1M! doubled. 1 UP9G receipt 01. lbiB diredive, a conference at r~preaematl.ve8 Of t1ie th1~ ce~. c~vened at tile fleadquarters of the Flying 'l'raiD.lng CODlIwmd. Tlds coDierellCe resulted iD a radloal revtBiOll of thil entir~ gUiler pilot trat.DlDg pr1lPUl" wht1:h vlept in*D eI1ed by dlreeU .. " AU@i!f8t 7~ UlUA, Up t9 tile ublevemam at the first halt Of the new oi)jeetlve, 1,500 Bllder _pilots, tramlng at the Preli'mlnary Schools was to consIst of 40 11ours' prhwu7' IDgbt t::raliIiDJ for Olalls B stUdents 1.Jl !) weeks plus 3Jl additional 15 hWrs in 2 wee1i:s of dead stick ~s, and 30 lIPurs m 4' ".e1l:s at dead stick JandiIIIS for Class A tratneel!l. 80th !yp\S of stwJents were to receive 17 hburll' hi ! .,.,eekS of eleme:nt.lU1f-~vanced
"R~

1,5l)Q by Decem-

batmng.

y2

Program of IlIstruc.:Uon, The prQ£ram of Inlltorc.tloll for CiiU:l5B BtiUdents ~1:1l both. pJJa.ses, the p:rfDUU'}: flXj,ng crnnSe. and the dead stIck landing; eOIU!.se, ana the dead stick la.ndl:ng course for (llass A. students remained essentially the same, Tn the l:!!i}yeD~ anjl one-half Mur elementary-advanced cGUr·s.1i! ore emphasis m was, placed OR ce-nain m(Ulellver..s whose "se was contemplated to pl'epa:re tl'!e'gli.d~;r pilot m~ adequdely for' eoJl¢!at gpecra:ttona, Among tile Jnaneuvel.'S p2"aeticed were str,aig1tt and Je.vd fl,..mg, preoision tlll'1lS~ entry ana recovery !rom -spLns anJi spflr"al db-ea, staUs, wing "ers, lazy e:i'ghts, and llGcW\acy lan,if-, iQs.. The 'jVf~ aver and lazy eight v.lere taught because they rerjulre the pUo'tto maste;r precision Uying ~d c"t)orifinlltlQJI of (:"ontrols. Launefihtg by meanJ3 of Wi:nch and auto tow .. .as DO longer Etmplo~, for it bad been fOUIld tBa.t the small tilDe prescrlbed cauid be. devoted more aclva.ntageously to airplane toWj.ng. AlSo p,rescrlbeEl tlme wu DO lenge.:: allbtt~ to soaring training or instrUctton in the 1J5e 01 thermal!!!. as it was gradually being. realized that this type of traililng p1'<lve,d to Ire of little- value il\t'o'!liiqg OJ' in hmdlng in a IIJlecial apprOl1ell pattern.
Th:.e grwnd school 1nsttucUon tau.gbt and in 'the attIou.nt Of i'nstruction With t~ dlffel'ent schoolS. both ill. the eou.rs.t!s, On the w.hole the cutrtcwum. w.u I:elatively the same u wb.en e>lementarr-advan~ed 1n1#FUCUOn: ,had first. been ,establisbjd. App,roxtmately eight bour;s or instruction was now bei~g given OD. Linli: trainers. The tl'liiiners, however, bad nut ~ modified tp asgl1~ers. anti COOEleI@E1lltly thelr flying c:!laracfe~istjcS cillfeped .eonskIe~ablY iT.OD1 those of gltders 3 . varied

a,

given.

1. 2. 3.

Ai'WT to CG,AAFFTC. lUly 18, 194:2, in AAG 3'63~9Af Gli~er T~.a.u1.lug. Pr!lj'eet Boo): of the CG,J.AFFT~. Analyslrs of' the D1¢ies Qf Alrcrew Pe.rs:o.nn&l. BulleUn Neil. 9, The Psyoh()l~c21 O(q:C$ or tlie Ail' Surgeonj. Aug~ 28, 1'942.

DlY1sion,

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

e Declassified lAW E012958

_'"

As traiIW:lg prO£'l'essed certain weaknesses became eVident tn the currlClilum. It llf6'U4Cl seem that there Was not enough cQrr~natiGn between the prelimInary gU.cler and the gUd~ schools; student wa1i sufler1~ from inadelluate 1115tructiOD in Signals and staadard op81'atblg precedur.e;; In flt"ht tr.aining liiSuHicieut t\.me w,as being de~ to pree~stoa fl71ng and strange field l~tlings. In tile ground school t_e students were not takinga.n acttV& enough partin the: mdiliteJlQ.llce course. The Trwmg Sectl1n of the· Fl~ TraiDfng Command m1i,(lean attempt to I'ecttfy these faults by directIve, put SOUle Of the weaknesses in the tl'a.1nlng propam mulrt of necessity, be laid to inadequate materiel and trainlng ~aids. Fer ex:ample, many of too schOols werewith,out tnstrume-nts and t11ePefolle coW.dllot givt the I'equlre_d hours in instrument tnining-. Tbis situatl.,Q!I was recognized ali! -unavoidable, and-Oll AUgust 26 'the Elemenlary--Advan~ed Scl!oo1s were authOJ'tzed to ll'8dllate stwiellls Without tnBb:ument traliW;{1g.5 •

nnf\g

When tlJe gHder trailltng program w.as intiututeQ; military glider "trabi:i. in the Un}.tect statefl wail! II. completely new science. Cmt~quently~ lWSOIufell' no teas, elther tor instructors or sfud~s, were available to supplement t~e bare outli..ms cd the programs of .instrl.lC~ tion lsaued 1;!y the Flying Traimng CGmmanli. The responsitiUtll' for prQl1:tUllJ texts tberpfo:re. riel/obed -upon the directors 4f tl"ai!ll.ng at the iJidhrfdual -sch()Qls. Throuchout the period June. JUly. August of 1'9'42 wrltteR tmtJIwb,l began -t:9 appear at the s~hools. NQ coo rRnated text, hawevell, was ev~ published until tenbUve 'l'eetudcal Manuals appea.red in I Hit; Admin-istl'a.tio,n of Training. Wh1le the fil'st halt at' tbe new tntnlng objeCllve was beIng reachedl fttl'the.l' en_tl'ance (if trainees into, P,rellmina::ry SChoc11s was tp be dls,eont111u ed, All l?reUmtlllUY graduates who cou.ld not be lUl-Gommbdated at the ElemeJitary-Advanc:erS SChools werato be Mld at tbe P1'ellminary Schools fbr ftll't:her dead stick lancI1Dg practice. ~e EleJJleDtar?-Adva:nc·ed Glider Schools weife to be kel_){in Qpel'at1~ at IIWlimwn capacity ,1oIBtil Sepl:emtier '1, 11M2.

Septembflr H. 1942, a new gliget" tr'ain1l'lg prQgram of sls:teea weeks of instruction ftepara"te stages walii :sched1il:eii to go into effeet. ElLeh phase was now to be (WI' weeks lo.ng and 'given at a 8~puate school. It wts to conslst: bl' a begtllDel'~S eOl,lrs_e of 30 hours In powet- nyiqg for CJa8a B students at Preliminary Seh,ools,a 30-hqur course tn dead stl~k landings for Clas-e A students and ~e8 the Prelbllinuy Schools at Elementary Glider Seb:ools, II. 30~hmu' C1)Ul'se in t~ai:WDg gUders at fbe Baslc GUller ~hools, and at Advanced GIld.er Scboolq,. a 4_D-b.ou.r course of tn~~ctton In eargo &llders.
f)n_

in four

«

1 ".
• ..

Tille new pr(l{!:ram WOuld requir.e 8 Pl'eililllnary SChools, all MW, 8 Eleme~ ScbOols • 8 BaBic Schools, IUl increase of 4 over the exi5Ung nWilber, anlil S Advanced Schoola. It was contemplated that during AUgust tile 'Proop Carrier Command. would as~1Pl tp the Flyiq '£l'ailling CODi:Jl!land three Of fts ma,Uo1;1s comple'fewlth personnel1 cargo gliders, tow planelf, tow plane pilots, aJ1.d Ci'ews. The 1,600 gpadaates of the elementary~ad\I'aDeed COUl'Be wGllld be: transferred to the Ttoop CUriel' Cozrtmand and given as much advanced ~ aa p~ss1blll by 8epte:ttlbe1' 26. On that date tbe iliStructQrs., woo w.rmld ,have been pl'eviOllBly trained at a. speial instructors' B~hc)ol at I.;Q£lkilou.rne, 0lli0, WQuld retun.to tile Flying Training Command to tntfia1e the new advaneed training program. ThieS cDlilpletely reviseii trainiDg pl'QgraIQ was Bc'lleduled to begin Atlgtlst 24 Hi the El,e._.mentary Scbools, ~e~ 14 in tQ B-JlSic SchoolS, and .ontabeZ" 5 in the :Adva:nced SChOOl!!. Tra1ntng was also scheduled a\ this time to begtn Ck!tober 12 in the PJ:'elilllihary Seboola i however. negotiations wej'e bein& curled on With the Civil Auonautics AdministraUon Wltn a Ylew,to that ag_encl"a: giving tbls type al ~.S These n,gcltiattons were completed Jta.ly 25. the C,ivil Aeronautics AlimlDlstration agreeiq to $Upply 3.000 Clan B pl'ellminary grad'Uat~s by Septembe'r 15, 1942.9

s.
6.

4.

-

'1.

s, 9.

baJJy Dlary_. AAFFTC. -6,1IiI. 19, 1942 lbtd ... Aug. 28, 1M2 AG.AAFFTC to eG's, re's, Allg. 7, 11HZ. in AAFF1'C Files. Project Boak of the CG"A.AFFTC• AGtAAFF1'C to CG'II, Te's. Aut. Of, 1942, in AAEF'fC Files. Memo for the AssLsta:rit SecJ!etaq of War by CIAS, Oct. 19, lH2~ ba MG 31i3.DB, ~raiJll:ng--C.A.A.

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

Iltaua ill Advanc-e;d Training. The gUder pilOt tralillng program clUJ!lllltbe summer of 11M2 was in a. state .of flux, con;st.Qd changes m t~ meUv>d of aceompliBhmel1t beins Ifece8Aftated by revi:sed ob~ectiTe5 and t11,e shortages of materiel. Actually, trat1l11l1 had I1mpe4 iIloug as materiel 'became avallable. TlU'ooghout tins period planj'l had beeD ma.de to irnpleaent' adnnced tra1ntDg, but up to september no advanced. t'raill!.ng wba.tsoeYer was liven on fMteen-place factfcaJ. gl1d~rs 8_Jy because tbese gliders wen not ClOUting off ·HIe prDlfucti.6n lin.e!!~ Glider sbIdlUlts we:re being proces!led as rar a.s possible aJId we.reaeCWlNlallg in great nu.mbers awaiting the advanced 8tage of training. As early as JUIle tile J'1Jb1g 'lTatofng; ColllDWld IteIan to make definite preparatiodS to imple.ment thi8 train~ ~ soon as p,Gsstble. on. the twentieth of that month it l'equetltedthe Mat~ttel Com~ .maad to IIl1lke UI'a.qe:ments in orde'r that pilots could ,be l:Iant (ro;D ea,ch tra.tn1ng center to Wright. Field fw- Lnstruetion on the fifteen-placEr glid&X'. This wali! necessary ill order to ~ that in each trainipg" achoel thIIl'e wO\llQ be: at least. One pilot with e~ertem:e .. Ilf-

1lIC thlB 'SIdp.1D

011 luly 1'1', 1MJ.. the J4aterl~l Oo~ asked the. Fly'lng Tl'aiJdJlrComllUDd to fteOlUdder tts request. TJie lPteriel Comrmmd !Pted that although a sUder field .. tiebtc eBbbJtabed at ~ Oblo, 1t could I10t " used lor larp, JllderS wdU the field wu ~ ... it WOUld DOl: be ready for operations untU ~ Noftm1ler 1 the ... _ tlm& &lWf1' fiyiDg 'IfODl.d eantlDue at .Wright FleW, but.

r.

Ope-ratioDa tously

of botb the gliders and abplanes. tram:iDg ~h:Ool off Wl'ight Field wwId agl1"avate aD abead)' serious COtIdiijon. Only two 15-pIace ftperlmemtal gliders have ~Jt del1Yered to date. 'l'.hese are betng used to get the b ba.od!1og characlerlsfic.ll. cj)oJ.1ng data and range information wbUe belng towed by nriou,s ail'planes cOBtempbied {or tug a1rplanes. It is estt- Mated that withln the next few months ~rOXimatelJ 15 dUfe.rent Ibp1anes wU1 be temed tor BUrtallflity as g'lid,r tugs. Pilot trldootrtnaUOIl c.atmat be earrlsd out on the two gliders at the prrsent UtIle·by

of ,Uders at meldal afrplut$ are ~ To QPeJ'8te a IUde1"

wZ'iiiht

liaDdIeaps nOl"JDal.operations
pUot

ccmatttutes

:rteld at

a. daugel'0Il8 co.udlttOq flII.4 Mr-

t~ same thne

that experl-

de4J1n8"

the exp8l'1D1ental. defltlopment

progl"lUD ••••

CQDS8CIIl8lIU,., Materiel Dhisioa S118Psted til alternate plan. Tb1s plan entailed aelldt~ Ing tile fIrst: pi"Odilct1onf1ftlen-plaQe gl1del'"1. to one 9f the estabU~hed glider schools aaell as that .t Lockbourne, OhiG. The instructors .from the trlWli'ng centers would tie seld: to tbLs field for pilot I.ndoct.rtilatton, and the Gl1del' U1li.t, Akcn1t La:boratoQ". ~,dDleDtal Engineer-IJlI secttOll wnuId make aWiIable two gJ1der pllots on tempo.f'Ary loan for ih!.rif days to act as inStructOl's.12 on July 14, tbe formal t1Iria.n for tbe hdUat10n of the ad"aDced g,Uder fi)rQiram was preIS$lted by tb.e nincior of IncHridlial Traioltag. The plan cOJ1t:empll\ted that:
8,.

The Mateitel Command be requh·ed to ~rni.sh two or more c;ompete;nt 15-plaee glider pilots to the Flying TTatning Command as soon as .Ilroduclion model 15-pl.aee gliders are a\<aflabUi. These gUdet pIlot~1U'e to
10 be used for (2)

OJ Ferryblg Kp"proXiiaately tile first 10 "nders from
pllotiJ1f the 15-p~ gUders. .

the ~a.ct.or, 1'0 Air FOl'ce AdVanced Glider &:hooJ.. lit LoCkbPllrne, Ohio. For 1nstruet1,ng Fl'!1QJ T-raining COlWDalld gUile!" pUots in

10.

11. Ur

AG,AAFFTC tp CG,AFAMC, June 20, 1942, In AAG 11111, Officers, Titles and Gradea. 1st Indorsement (Exec:unve, AFAMe to. 'Peebni.aal. Executive. Wt'ight Field, JUIle 2'1. 11M2>-_' FAIIC tQc AAFF'l'Ct JUly I'll 1942. 'ill t1l1d. A !btiL

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b.

As soon ~s the gliders have been deUTered to Loekhour.ne and a suf!rdenl number of instructors have been qualified to ilUlUre CODtinuation of the In.structors school, the glid!!'r pilots fr0lll tile Materiel Com.ma.nd wul bn returned to Wright Field. The Troop carrier Command be required to furnish C-41 type UaJl8port a.I;planes~ with prope:r towing ~-aebments aad competent creW's

for:

« ..

c.

(3) 'l"h& ferrf'i~g of addltio.na.lgliders from the factory to ot~r advlUlce4 gUcer scllools. {" Fer tOwing gliders at advanced sehools. , (5) It is further reComm~ded, In the eve!d that it has I10t alzreac:tybeen done tbat the Troop Carrier ComllliWi send at least 10 crews to the Materiel Center for instruction in Slidei' tOwltm opnat1oll$. It 1S re£._ommended that tb:l.s be acco1Ilf!llished a.s early 0 pnttt"able and in any 8VQnt in S\LfficiSnt time to inSilre an adeq,LlatEi umber of towing cre-wa n betng aVlI-llable bl August 10th. The Director Base Services he harged With providing necessary ballast {3{Jprmnmatflly 6tlO lbs. per U;,-place glider}, at the factory at 13 WiChita, at a rate eom'Puable to the delivery ~e Gt tbe Illlte.s ••.•

{.21 FOr the condact ot: too

(1) The ferrying' I1if Hi-place gliders lifruetQrs schaol at Lac~CilUrne.
insttuctQl"S

from the factory

to the in-

se hool

at

Lockbaurne.

or

..

Tbia plan was immediately cOJKl1ll"red by the Dlrector of Grgund ..Air SUpport and the in Di.rectar of War Qrgani-z-ation and Movement, provided that the Troop CarrIer Command's cQmmitrnent would not exceed one group.14 The eoneuerences of the Troop Curler and Materiel Commands were also secured, and arrangements were made witb the Commanding ()ffi~fll' of. £he Traop Carrier C~mmaml for the lnStr.uctiOJl fi[ tow plaDe crews in gllder tQ'fILng oprmdion5.15 On AugllSt 1 the Chief of the Air Staff apP:l'Oved the pIau and instructed the Director of Individllal Training to issue the neceS'sary directives to implement tire p"l"~am.l6' Accol',jijngly, on A.ugust 'It 11M2, a fonna). direcUve was issued to the FIring !I'raiDlng Commanil relJl'lestlng: that immediate action be taken to put tbe advanced gndel' training pr9il'ILm Into effect,17 Fifteen-Place €;lldet Prodll,etioll. At the time this plan \VolS promuIaated. that th~ firflt deliveries 00 the CG-4A glider, the lifteen-place glider, from tbe Cessna plant would OCC-UI" AUi\lS1 10.18 Tbe del1"'ery dat-e was soon teV'1sed to the
l't was esUm:ited

twet«b 01' fij_fteenrh,19 an'tl a tew days later the ]4ater,ieL Command advised that ~ gliders would be delivered AU_gu5t 21, del~y being cal.lsad by dllfieuJt.y In seeurlog ()utaln r!f materi!Us.20 Actual delivery 01 the first CG-4A. glider !fame on ~ptemBel" t, 1942.

13.
A •

14.
1'S. 16. 18. . 111. 20. 21.

-

I

n.

R&R, AFRIT to C/A~ tiu'ouJ(h AFHGS, AFROJd, AFAMe, and Troop carner commaDCi, July 24, 1942, ill AAG 353..9 C. Glider rrJ;'aln.tng. (irl'QQP Canier Co~ beremaftel' lated as AFTCC). BatR No.2, AFRGS to AFROM, Jllly 24, 1942, and No.3, AFROM tEl AFTCC, JulY 26, 1942, In ibid, R&R No.4. AFRGS to AfAMC, July 27, 1942, and No.5, AFAMC to C//I.-S, JUl, 29, 1942, jn ibid. RIIR No. "6, CIAS to ~FlU'r. Aug. I, 1942, in tbid. AFRIT to CG,AAFFTC1 Aug. ",.1942, in ibid. Ibid. AFRIT to CG,AAFFTC, Aug. 4, 1942, tn ~ Dally Dairy, AFRt:r, Aug. 14. 1912. Ibid.. Sept. 1, 1942.

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The l'e~stbUlty, for the delay in the production of the fifteen-place glider cannot be laid! at anyone f8 doo~~; the gll:derprQduCfton pl'Qgr-am was a viCUm of GirClltllstUcea. :garly iii. the spring 01 194.2 the Materiel Command was directed to secure I,SOO flfteenplace. gliders by Oc-tOber IJ 1M2, and an addlUollal 1,500 by lhe end of the year. hom t1he begl:nning of tM PJ'odu.ct1onprogram the Mate!'!el eQJJlIIl.IIl1i:l real1z:eti that if was practically i~Bible' to JIlt!et U$ fifteen-pbme glider l'ernnrement, but it wa5 informed t:bat icaU1 the praJecrt wa.6 most u£ge:Jlt ana that the pr,oduction schfidul~ must be "m.et.

str_-

fereKe

The gltdel" prbCW'eme~ pragl'BDl, mo-reo¥el', had to be II.ccompli&heti without lnterWith Ute 8b)1lane PI'QChlct!n prORrUll. Accor~y, the. ~teriel Cammand uUllzed eve1'J potential J;eSOUFoe.calling on m:an.y ~ma.U companies wbl.ch b,ad bail 110 exper'lence in building gli-dU8. ~ I:tften ain:.taft at any kind.2.2

Tbr~out the BIlmmer of 1942 the gUder .manufa.ct"\Lters experienced extreme, 4Uicul'ty in ~11V1: the DReBSa!'y raw materialS. ~_ly ip June. "on the tDS:lstence of the CommaniJ. ing Genehl of the Army Air Foreea, II gliders were removed trom Group VI and placed in GrOlql I at tbe Atrc.rllft Pretecrellce LM.le Th1'a alone 11lustcr,ues- lfhe tmporlatnc.b attached to ~ IUder Pl'ogrRJll. as p.reviausly only four~engine heavy bombers bad_been a~stgned to this pl'1orltl'.24 But gUder", did 1lOt enjol this posttiOIl IQr ve~, llillfg, and despite the contm\led efforts of the Matel'tel Command. the priGrlty r!tlD& accoriied to gliders· was collUnually
shifted from one' c.~y to antither by ebang'j.~ p:ttiority directives. This situation resultelil 111pl'9ductlQA de14y, mlUlUfactw1ers.' plants be! sj.illD~ed with parl~y fapricated glider,s _¥ch they wire unable to complete.25

waa do'Ub~ycpmplUated by the taa: that Bome of too slttliller compaates and flDa.n~. TheJr coiltrilNtion to early. fifteea-plae:e 'glide.r produet1'on prEJY~ to be aliBo~ ~ig;i~le. The larger mamda.ci:turers ~e,h lUI Cessna and Ford, hoWe'V8l'.. were better ahJ.~ to av~l themselves of the assistance Of the Materiel CDmDland OD e~ and materiel pl"'Oblems.26 In order- to eIlpedite productiOll, C~SSIUlWIISparticularly aided by the. Materiel comman~ even to the extent of upsettl.ng otber aucraft programs.2~ Tile SituatloJr
m~ed wete ~rl)'

~Phne Requirements. But c.onstant deJay lD the ~~oew:-eJD.eDtf gliders wall o not the 0Dl! matertel ~rDblem U!at hindered tbe aceornpllslun.lmtilf th& advanced gilder program.. TI1UlSpOrt. aiPplane production of the Douglas plant was committed t.hr()Ugh 1942, and Troop carrier groups, wliOse responsibility it was t.o furJtlSli the tow planes f·ot adv.anced glider trat.dng, were being clJ,mmitted to active theate-rs as soon as they were tr2l.n~. As early as t1Je last rif ~prU. 1942, the Flying Traininlt C,ommand ~gan to r-eqy.est to'l( planes for the time wlJen mne-and fifteen-pla.ce g11.de:rswould ~eome a"",Uable •.28 011 Jwte 8 t1ie Commana request.ed that the D1t'~ctor of Wu orgam~at1on and MOvement make artillffile 60 c-4lf~. or 90 td' .a type plane capable of fowHjg two cargo type glldl1rs, Or 180 of ·a type able to tow one of these gtider.~.2,!) . . 22. 23. 2,,, 15.
2&. 27, 28.

29.

!ilemo lot CG,AA1 by CSr:l\.FA.MC~ Aug. 2.% 1942, in AAG 452.1 B, GUders. AO,AAFFTC to A:FRlT, A))rll 15, 11M2. in AAG 452.1 A. Gliders. ~rd lnd.o!'Siitrnent (.\G,AAFFTC to CG,AFAMC. !b,y 2'8'; :1"9'12),AAFfTC to AFllOM, June 8; 1942, UI. ibid.

Memo for the Under secretary of War by Bdg. Gen. So E. Myers. April 14, 1843, in .tAG 45"J.l, Gllders. Memo for Joint Aircraft Committee by General My;ers, JWlt! '5, 19U, in ibid. CG~AF"'Me t~ 0(1, Materiel Center, lune 5, t:~2, fn US 462.1 B. GUders. Memo for. Joint Aircraft Committe'6 by CG.MAlIIe, Sept. ll, 19i.l2. in AAG .0452.1C, 'Gllders. ASi¢. CSr\FAMC to .All" liiSpe.etqr'. Feb. 1"3, 1943, in AAG 452.1. Gilders.

.-

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37 Tbl~ rl''l!lo«st Wustrat,es one of the 'fallacieS' up~ whicb the glider training OItjeetlve When tile program was planned and the tables Of orpn1zd1on est~lt5hed, it W84 bellaved tluU; large transport airplanes would be c.apable of towing tlIl"ee full~ equ1ppe<l aDd Planned cargo gliders at the same time. Dul'Utg !1.Ule, 194'%. the ~rimental Engl.nee:r1q Sect1tln at Wrlg1rt. Fcleld conducted fUgJll. tests With a 0-4'1 towiD(l: two fUteea-pl1lCB glUteI'S. It wq .fOUl\cl t:bJ!.t "tihe eatl:mlJ,ted tak&-off run was ~OOO feet. The estimated dtstance to cle'u & fifty foot Obsta.cle :was 6000 feet. Cijmb Vias very slow. the maJduium -altttllde attainable was 3500 feet above sea level. 'Dur.ing a period of this tow. engine temperatures exceeded thODe pe.rmltted/' Aithqt.lgh action WIUI immediately takeIl to improve the cooling of the -4'1 engtne~ th.e Materiel COIDlDllJld believed that towtng t.)wee fuUy loaded! CG-U- salie.rs wOilld be impossible and ttialtowing Of two "emed qu.entionit;Ile (p,om It tactfcal staJ}dp-oint.30

was fouridfd.

e

Command's request for to"" planes bad baen referred to thll Air but that Command rep~ied that ''tM tact1.oal commitment. or the Commana, IUIdei' tbe apeclfie directives f~om Gen,nl Arnold. I1ave been. SQ 1n.tepoateli with the ava.tlab1e and ellJl)eeted atreraft af bOth C-41 and C-S3 t:wes &s to make it UJwo2lsible to provide the towi,ng atreraft. "32 The Plying TrafJi1~ Command replied that if the required aircraft \9ere not furnished. it would be impo~sib1e to give IUd" pilots traJl:slUOJl trai:rdDg lmd. tbereby complete tbelr tt:U.D1ng.33 In an effort to alleViate the sttuat10llt the Director of War Organization uel Movelll.ellt requested iilfor'matiol\ from thit Matertei Coll1Jll8ftil as to what other types of p1anee had. been tested as proBplHllive gl1d~r bigs.34. .At tbis time, , lI'lid-Jun!l!-, only tM B-23: and. the C~4'l Jiad been tested, but it was expected that tests on the . AT-lO and tile .A'1'~H would be completed by the end of fulYr35 By JUfte' 24 tba prospect for

'I'J'ansport COmDland.Sl

The flytng

Training

tow plane-shad .not changed. The F1Ylqg Trajnl.Dg Command was iDtOl'med by the DIrettol" of War Ol'ga.Di21ation and MOyeDlent that All C-47 :UrplalteB It,re DOW beitlg 1I.8s1111" to a ldgh pricirity prQject. 'l'b&Te -arB' Dilly 24 B-2S a..Irpla.nes aDd the present \lses of them, m4lin1y toWing ta.rget)il, proving grilUDd t!lsts, and traaspor~lQll for ttle &Udfa of Air Forcs'a lQ.kea it 1nad11is2ble to reassll.gn them for gll<@F traln-· ing. Ati SooD as lite su'lia.bmty of a.vailallle types Qf. 'a1rp1anea lor towing niIle-plue and fifteen-place gliders bas been determined. tb1S Headquarters will take, the .a8cesSUy a~OD proflde them. 36

ta

Ali 'the Flylng Traitlllll Co,mm,a.nd obviQusl, cCiUld nQt eondl1.ct advaneed,Iider traiDbig wttboutLhe necelfsuy tgv( plane~, a c()ilference wall called la Washington the week of TDly tl to 19 to work 0Ilt a [eaMble solution. It wa$ :participated irt by tJle Commandinl Officer of the TrQeP Carrier Command. the Director of Ground-Air SUpportl and tile Director of Indt~ Tra1mnf. T~ e.onfel'ence deCided t~ on.e l'rOQp Carn'llr grOllp, the 61 est. would "be delayed in it.s movement. progrllm order to provide airc.l'aft. ~ jdlpts for the towing 01 large ,Udeu for the pllrpose of training gHder pUot~ and traD8pOrt pUots U1 such work .• , This .1l'01l1) was to be available prloJ' to JUly 25:. 1942c, but tJu! Increased delay in tbe deUvery of tifteen.place glickrB made it \IJIJ1ErceSlJary for tbe Tl'oop Curler Conun:uJd to fIu~Bh the pl89t.8 at We time.a'l .

m

so.
31. U. 34.

32.

35.
36.

3'l.

IJJteI'~oUlce IIIIUDO, taa:ter-1el DlYls10D for CG,~'FAMC by Ohief. Gxperimental Engiaeer ing SecflOll, Jlllte, 1142, I.t1 AAG 45~.1 ~. Gliders. ". 00 JUIl-e 10, 1p42", tbe Air Transport €oJllDLaNl was renamed til Troop C.-rrier Commalld and tbI Ferrying command ~came- the ,Mr Transport CblDlJ1aDd. Os, Air 'tranSport Com:m.ana to AAFFIJ:1C. June 6, 1942. in llG 45,.1 •• Gliders. 1st Indorament (OS, All' Tnup.ort Command to AAFTTC, June 6, IR2). AAFFTC to AFRO¥, June. 15, 1942, iD~ 2nd. IJKIo~B"ment (CSt Air TrlUlSpott C~d to AAFFTC, J~ 6, IH2), AFROK to CG.AFAMC, 111118lB. 1943. 1n ibid. 'I'd Indbrs911!lent (CS, Air Transport Command to A.A.Ff'TC, fune 6. 1142), A.F.AMC to AFROId, June %1, 1~.z, tn ibid. 4tl\ Indorsement (C 9, Air TrllJl~rl CaDllllUl.d to AAFFTC, JUDe 6-. l:942} AFROJI to CG,AAFFTC, Jline 24. 1943, In ibid, CB.AFTCC to CG.AAF. July 2~, .194~ n

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RequlrementlJ. WbUe flie 1mplethat was being carried on $ring fWy was also hamper.ed by the laek of a.t:Iequ.a.te mate:r-iel eoupled with a dearth of civiliu tUd!lr ilIsb'llctors. ']lhe delivery of eonverted @.Ddcub type airplanes al'ld saJlplanes was Ilot' Bllffident to meet aurum gJldeX' pilot quotas. as The mate,t',iel sib~ati6" was rurt.her complicated in July by the decisiol'l that two-place stiilphme gliders were only of 1imited value in lJrainmg. Flll1her production of these was discontinued, and as all future trainlng was to be accomplished ill three-plaee cOD'V:erted e.ubs, the dema:nd fOil" this type crtft became even more uiI"ge.nt.39 Even though the objective bad beeg ba,lve<!, tbe Flyttlg Tra1n1ng Command needed an addl.t1onal ninetY L-IA. 011' simUa.r typ@ plane for elementary and basic ina immediately 3J;Ul: another nmety by Allgust IS. These planes were reqlle~ted 11111 27.4 ~ tbeo tlJ1.rd 01 August the Di.rectoJ" of War Or£anjzatlon aDd MoveIneDtrepUed that a maximum of only 120 additional L~l or L-1A, glanes CQuld be furlllshed. These· ships wue now auigned to ubservatiOn organizations, and due fo a lack of !>Ultable. J:"eplacement~, tl,Iey coUld not be transferred at a rate 0[ h1gJie"l" tha.II twent,Y-ftve a moath. -The C~J!1and was t61d that the addiijonaJ small tow plane ~equirem.entli!must be met Qy- cOnllel'silm 1)( training type air-

mentatioo

TraJ,nhlg
of

too advanced training program was delayed. the training

Glider

and LIaison

.AIrplane

trfn-

plane!! alread, asSi~d

to it.41

struction had been left almost entirely to their dtscretiOllt the ~hOOls were turqing out graduates qualified in soarlgg hut; with £;~at1vely litUe prru;tlce. in the teebn1ques, as they were .later devel~Md. l'eJnUsite for combat glider £lying. Tlie rapid @JCpanSl.on of the PJXJgrIUn even more seriously complica.ted the problem, So flnall¥ hi July the Fly;i:qg Tl"alntng Command decided to employ qIlaillcied graduates of the glider sc.hools as lJtstruewrs, Tl'le Materiel Dtviston. was requested to melotfate the necessary chlutge ordl!rs,42 anel {his was &ecom,. plisbed by the .middle Of A~st. S Sum:mary. Wtth the revtsion of Jw.y 18, 1942, Oie gllder pilot trato.iIlg program progresSed to a new vbaSe. The basJ:c operating policies, with a few e)(cepi1ons, had already been established d\UiDg the period of rapid expansion. After July tile major factors inilu6nci~ the cCU"rSeof lbe p.rogram were the avai~lU¥ of materiel, partietllarly gliders and tow p1mtes for advan.eed tr~. and later, the de:velop.ment of combat glider tacUcs and techniques.

ID.stru C to~ R ego i 1" e m e at s , Slnc,.e tbe implementation of the gHder tl'a1n1l)g program, the lack of adequately qua,UIied c1:vili,aJ! i.nstruct()rs had eOJ'lstltuted a ~riQl:I.s drag 011 the ~DmpllsbmeDt 0f the gU(fer ob).ecU:ve. Glider flying fn the Umted State::. 'Was a compara.tively new art, and only those few men whO had been 1nt:erested in soulng as 'Ii spQrt we~ Camillal'; With the teehoique 0( flying gU:ders. As ,;Udtng before tbe war had been developed princfpally 1n Germany" many of tlleS"e S.D~ _ens were of Gelman extr:a.c.tlon or had extenslVcfl c{lnnectiottS in that cowlh·y. This factor naturally made I.t even more dlffic,ut to secure the nece.s-sary inBfruc1;or~. Man,y of these ci'rllian soa.r.ing entll1lsia:sts were employed ill "tile contract SChOOls, and a'S. especlaJ.4r iB tbe euly days of tbepreg.ram, the ~ in-

..

prevtOllS

Dllrlll.& the time the reTi>SiOD of July 18 was in effect, the h~,sI!!Dns, lear-Iled fro. traiDDIg lJepn_ to Q&rl a m.ere deliruta influence, for e~le. the deletion of (heTJUl soariq :mcl. auto a!ld Winch tow from the tl'~ progrlyn, a:nd the development of a new type of trllini.Dg gllt:ler. In Ws perlod plans fbr the fou:r-~~traJ.nil!g program. the training ~lan that eonttilu:ed un1:U t.be reduction of glide,r pilot trll1~, were establ~hed. With the promulgation of the plan for adva+lCel1 train1ng~ the lraiDiJlg prpgram. had fheoretl~auy attained its Onil type !:OXJn.

39. 40. 41.

3&.

42. 43.

P,roject Boo~ CG.4A.FFTC. Rlz.R. AFROS to AFAMCA; Jwy 25. t'942,. En UG 452.1 B, Gliders. ASst. AG,AAFFTC' fo Cti,AAI'\ Jtlly 27:, !Ii)4.2, ill ibid. R&R No.2 .. AFROM; tQ "FRIT. A~. 'Sf 1M2, in ibid. CG.AAFF'PC to CG,AFAMC. laly 13, 1942, in fiG 353.9 €, Glider 'fraining. COIIUa.et section, AFAM.C to CG,AFA¥C, Allg .. 14, 1M2, In ibi.d.

.J;

C4A55S,AF

A

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This Pa e Declassified lAW E012958


Chapter THE AUGUST 10, GLIDER PlLO'r VI

19U. REVISION OF THE TRAINJ:NG OBJl!:CTIVE

Sudden Revah)!l of Obhctive. As a result 01. ftgures co pned by the recently ealabllshed Office w;,Program Planning and COIlftol, another u.p1II'arcil'ensioJl Qf the ,glider pilot tr.atn.~ ol?jecU.ve OCCUl'JlM A.ugust 10.. 194-2. 'This \UI~ee-ted new dtl'eetlv:e called {or the trainIng G17,800. gllde!' Pilots by Mareb 1, 1943. inSte.ad of the 8,000 that woW have been proouced by that dlf,te under tile revisiBn or July 18. GUder pilot tralnipg fo hie stablUze4. at the rate of 12jOOO iI"aduatesa year th~r~aftel'.

.as

The :Flying Tra.ining Command immediately ;pr-oe-eeded to effeet~te thia nn progrua. It coUld only be il.c.compHsbed by the fabulous p;aduaMon rue d. 'lDD pUots eyer)' two weaks untU Febr~ 1'1, 1943" an ~aaJ. rate of IWproxlmateIy eighteen tbousand. 'thereafter, the annual :ttate was to be .1'~o.ed to l.2,OOQ, 4.6"2 trainees gI'ad~ every hvo Weeks. 1 The tre.tntog centers were tnstrade'd t,Q enter eYer1 two weeks. begbmlJlg Aup$t '8, .. toQ1 of 8S9 studeJ).t$ for the eleyl:l~ trourse. B16 students for (he ba!;lc courss,. and 778 BtudeDfs
fOF

tile advan-ceci

Ootlt8e.

..

menta Of tb:e new direct1v.e llDmecltatelr wUh .graduates rJf It.l! elementary ~.~ cautse. £be Southeast -r.-a.ini'ng Center conducted loW' cllt.$ses l'feg:lJDhI.g~ 31 Dl 68:5 stud.llls each at 118 s.even Pi'~1imlnary Light A1tplane <Gll.c9ng Schools. On September a the Director of JDdivldual TTainiDg- rlaquested the. Ciril Aeroaautl.c:rs AdmJlili!tration to linter students in ita pl'eUmlllar,y (;O\lrse I.ri. suftt,cient nlJ,D!.b~1'5 supply 54Q graduates for el~mentary trahllJlg every to two w.eekS after DeC'embJ!~4, 1942.' for A gt'a.nd (otAl of 16... 40 gl14el' tralnees.5 4 Attar the llecessan flow [rom U1~C.A.A. ,acbools had es~U5bed. the Pl'eltmtna'ry Schools. 1D tile Southeast Ti'Allili11;r Center we_re to be elosed.

As the

Pint

A.er:onauMcs: Administration

would

. not be

able to meet the reqaire-

.

bfeD

The course Cif instruction was establisbed at 12 weeks, lOG ho'1lrs for Class It. 1Ittldents, and 16 w~. 130 bours for ChaOS B ~eBls. Clas5 B stUdents "reed,. thirty bGurs at Pl'elimklary Se.bools. 80th CJ.a.ss A ~ Class B students .. ere to be given thirty hours in dead stiCk, landings at Elementary Schools lUUlthirty hours in basic babilog gliclera at the Basie SChools. At this time it was. plannl!Jl fhal the dVl).cftcedeolll'"Se "Vi011ld C!0Il81m. .ot f'Vi, hGUl'S on (largo gUilers. In the interim befllre the Qew tr-atning propaJll. was to go into effect! tratnlnl: cOlltfnuetf under the for.m.er .Plan.
Est a b li all m.e .II t ,QJ. B& h Q' 1s . Aside from the 'I Prel.imiDary Schools in openttoo, thel'e w.eI'e 8 Elemental'y Schools IUId9 Basic SChool&. Three of tjlese Basic Schools 'l weZ'eschedule!l to dose a))OUt Oetober 1 but arr~.ents "ttre made to apen four others. J,s advanced tl'~tnklg was scheduled b> beg1:n on a per1i1Dlltnt baala on October 1, the Flyilll . TrIl1mng Conunand ehttmated UIBl ·Seven stallons for tbis type! dI trlUnlD( had to be, In opention JlY \bat ilate. ht the Wem Coast Training Centel' t.hey 1Dc:1Uded ori Sumner, N,. Me*ico, F and aIlew site yet to be desl.gna~. ht the Gulf Coast Tr,alrung Center. Dalhal't, Tens, ed. two moz:e Dew statiOJ18 We1.'8 Deces~y, vittle ill the Soutbell$!; ~ Center, Walnvt RIdge, ;ArkaJi5u, and StuJtgart. A:rllauas lLoe~DUrJlP. OhiQ, be:tn~ tranmerl'ed there abOut the fb'st of October). ~ould lu4ve tit he In operatiQn. II

1. AnuT

to CGl.APETC. Aug, 10, 1942, in AAG 353.9 .A. Glider Trablb!g.
A:1lg. 17, 1942:.
'i. •

3. Memo for A...4,llFFTC, by Col. W. R. Cilrtel', Aug. 15, 1942, in AAJtFTC i!Ues. 4. Daily Diary, j;FRJT, Sept. 2, 1942•.
5. M:em.or

2. Dail,; DJa:ry, AAFFTC,
'01'

...

8. AG,AAFFTC t9 CG,GCAFTC, .Aug• .JO.. t942, m AAFFTC Files. 'l. Project Book the GO.A.Unc . 8. AG.AAFFTC to. CG,AAF, Aug;. 811 1ll42, 11'1 liG S!iS.9 A, GHder Tl'alnillg•

Tralmng~~C.A.A.

AssisQnt

Seeretary

of Wa.r by C/AS.

OCt. 13, 'J942, in AAG 353.9 B.

or-

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

,

.....

,

-

,."!to

1I

4.0

Actwilly. all of these sc)it.ols "ere DOt activated, u they were never nuptred due to dElay In the dell<veQ cd advue. ecUdpmel!.t and sUbsaauent m.a.1nteiumce difficulties. In October Stui!tgart, Al'kanBas, aDlI. Lubboe1t. Texas, were III operaUol\, 'Ud 10 lilo'V'8m.her Dalha.r~ Texas. and Vlctol'vUle, cal'1forn1a~ entered traLpees lnto the a4vanced st.. Fort SUIIJIlel', Hew K~l:o. remained a BaAl~ SeftGrll, W41nut Riijge,J :Arkansas., va.s nev.er useit, and tlte third schoOl In the Gulf Coast TrllbdDg Cemer was never uti.nted.

tM

Tra.ining !!1 ~ Cldl Aer'oalluttu .&dmhll.atraUon. AroUJP the (frat of gepteJDber the new rour-~ge gl:1tl~r trainbIg p~:ila wehl tnto IdiecflPrlelimtna.ry traintng, except fOl' the foUl' classes eondueted in the Southeast TraJDblg Center. was 1IOW deJegated to tlte Cl'dl A:ercmautic5 Admmtstration.. The full ldiUzi;Uon. of tlte faciUUes 01 the Chil Aeronautics AdmbUstr,aUon by the Army A1rForces enabled the F1Jint Tra(nllllJ CCDUJWMl DlOl'e eflid,ellUy to carry cut its tra,lmn, ef)lIUIlItmeJlts--~dl power and sltder pUDt. The trainees -were enllstied tn the Air Corps EnliSted R&sel've, and alter completioll of C.P. T. tratDtng were called ~o active JiUty for glider _pilot traiDing. students ,{eregivilitu the eight.-1UJeH C.P~T. elelaeDtlltJ'7 courae. whiCh eODaiSted of zto !leYba' greund sch®l (nshu:ction lind 35 to ti hours' fllibt lnBtr1IctiOI\ in 5a to. 65 h.p. aircraft. I
As was the case througJXJlrt aU phases of the war tralntng program. the C.A.A. SOQn f01md that U could not 8nt1re1y meet i~ IlSsigQed quotas. By septe:mller 24 approdJllate1y bve . th~ gracluates had been aisslgnedto Flying 1'l'abd.ng Co~ smttonfl, but as fhe Commatid bad rteo previ()"1l8Ly tnfP .. 01 tbls delay. it bad been able toma&e adjustlaents &cear!lingly. 'When the Ct"in~ Pilot Tf.ainil!g gr~ began flowing to tb~ glider Mols, it was fQ1lDd tbat many of them did Dot meet tbe reqUlsite Mystel\1 quaJjftcattOD& 0.1" tbat they Ilat:I been graduated with liIBuffieteit nytDg tratning. Of 2,185 tr!atnees examilied it tb& glider pools tttroJlgb October 10. 15.88 per cent were ofound to be phys1Ca!Uy- dlaquaJ.lIted.U On auother occasion it was necessary ttl _return seventy-one trailiees to the '.P.T. for further tl'abilDg.13 lD accora.a.noe with a later reduction of Die gilder piltlt objelffivl::, early in OCtoller c'Pii' glider ptlpt training was curtaUed, ~ pJ'ot:ure.ment of addUlolW. tra1llee~ d1scQntimHld. Tr~ eonttnned, howuer, through Noyember and DeeeDlbel', ,nth final cteUvery of traiJlees about JIlD1lIU'Y 15, 1943. •

mw

'0

for both ClUs :A aDd Olass B students ,.as established at thirty bayrs' flying time .. ithin fcjur weeD. The. stated objective w.as to produce a PUOl: "profieiel1t In the flying: of light airRlanes. both wiDl power on and 'WIth power Off. The tra.biee must UJUJeI16tadd the fuutlatll6n~1s cJf airplane flying and must ~come accustomed to makll)g lItalll anli wheel lud~ with fgnttron f!ff boUt night aM dill. a.m must lie qualified to sel!;vlce equipment 111the fleld. ' •The de[lned scope wa.s slm1la.r tq that of the old prelimtn.a.:ry; 'tOlll'se lar ClaJis A stultents ~tP U!.at "mUiraty training to further the b';Unee's apll1'eciation Of ·tbe necessity for strict compllanj:e with i:JI$llctions, ~ prepare htm 19l' ifIIe duties and' reliponsibUi'ties of ~ b£ffcer," 8Dd ''physical tralD:lJll to malniatn and. impJ'ove physical and mental a1ertn~9s were added. The ~ying bab1tilg WlUI prescribed lit Il mhttm~ alSO botu's. 18 1/a dual aM 16 1/2 BOlo. Night nytng was to oc:c1!P}' t least Uv'e of the tbirt¥ hO\ll's. As the Ilwtlber of a pl'8ambed hours was deflnUe1y llriLtted,the ratio of dual ~ solo mmllt be eNanged to aecordII. CClftB011dat"'- Fly1Dg Train~ Report, Nov" 1942, 1n UIHD FUes. 10. Proposed AAF Memo 50- • (Jet. 90, }oM!!, in AAG 35!.-9 ~ Tl"aining-~C.A.A. 11. MeDio for Assistant SeCretary of War,1n' ClASt Oct. 13, 1M2, in ibid. 12. Daily Diary, AAFFTC, Oct. 1'1. 1942•. 1-3. Da'UJ AFRlT, Oct. 28, 1942• • 14. Qdd.,Oct, 29, 1~. 15. ~. ~. M and 2i, HW2.

EJementa-:ry

Program

of

Instl'uct1on_

The new eleme!!,tary

mlntng coll1'se

Diu,.

...
••

I

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

41

.. '
.

,qce

wth the aIJillty of Ute iMlYidual student, NIJld nylog wali to be· eoncemated to the last thtl'd. Of the prognm with emphasis 011 .l.a.DdfJIgS bom 500, 800, and. 1,000 reri After tha first hour of clwil, aU land.iDJs were to be made ~tb the 19jUtJon taraed oft.

Of tl:ie ,old elemeutary.adtaueed coarse. lt~ objeetlve and seope were defined 1D the same manner, It_apt, as In the new pre11.mi.!tlUT e:QlD"se~ milituy and pbysica1 tralll'_ vere added. The gener&! flight plan was as follows:
IIWI)'

course 'las simUar in

Basi,.,

ProgJ!a.m

way. to the tiut: h41f

of Instruction.

The

Dew

tbIrty~hour,

lO1ll'-week baste

DulU

.2

Solo

Total
2

Pr.ecililion iandi:np. basl.c !Ud precislon fiylng .. permitting, otherwise time as Deededl. in free
Searla&' (Weather

manellYel's.

5

8

13

arid equipment

distribute

1
I

1

.2 1
6

lnslr.umeDt time under the hood

ntght.

Nl,ght Flylug.

2

Navigational IDlb:ts ani! strapge fi.elc11~. Cu.t-oft poiD.t' to lie 1nU1mu:m d1stance from "landing

..

Iteld.
~e

Total

_:1_ is

.....L
1'1

_d_

3D

for alch 100 stuA~. tabltshed,

dual to solo tUne depended on the pJ'op'ess of tbe lDdi-vldual lltudents. StUdeDts l'equLred to have 1\ m~UJD ,of t'hr~ pass&mger ho\U"s la the tow ~. IIIId ten hqurs ~ LfiIlI: trainer lnstrllCfioD. Tae Director of Base 8erVi~es hlid ~ .r~ed to pmride the illUde. ll~ Advanced SChools W.tth L~ tralAers at ,. ~lft[mWll' ratio ol thr,e

were

ritto Qf
alSD

8

GrOll·'; Program _g_f_ Ip§bucUon. A. new ~OUJKI tra~ program 'PS __ coordinaWd between the fIlree stt.g«s given at the A.ir Force f1CbOOlB.In elelDeJltlU'Y 117 flours were- to be devoted t(I. uound traiDlng, 24 [(I military, 55 to ground tra.:iDlDg, 11 ~D medical t~g, at to pbYBlc~.' and a to line maintenance. "'be .1ftJ-1:tn bowL 011 grpund watDlIIg iIuilucled 'Weather, A!b&JDiei.l 1Itartare, IUi4 t:044t ami bUnker mmmunfeat1oDs. The muttary program I.neluded lnatructtDD in clese order drill., cerltmOnil'B,_ecttpu. m:lltw far, courtesies aad customs of rue Seri1c::~. War Department publtCliti0D8. aIId .1If~

mllitary 1Dformatlo:o.

Tile ba.lJic gra~ scbool prescribed 1Oi.hours 0( tralD1ng to be dtBbfbatad J.JIlOJIg mllltlO'y. 46 ct ground; 9 of medical. 24, of physical, and 3 of Hile maiDtenaace. fa the gt-oUDd. phase, lIleteorolog:y, map r84d1~ and. J1&Vigation, glider Char-acter1aftCB, coile and blIIIker commlllltclltiDllB, and inStruments "'Were inerwfliJl. The military program iJleluded £.lo$e order dl'iU. ceremaPles.. inspecUmm, m1li~ courtesfes and ~ms Of" the SerYlce. tntm:ior guard dUty, aDd mUitary correljpo.ndence, 24

or

1

+

18. D1rectecl PrQgl'RIlII of Elementary 011dal' TralDJDi, Jan. 15, 1"&43, in AAPP'TC Ftlas. Directed P'lIogram of JDstructton for Bastc Glider Tl'aininI. Jan. 16. 11148,In AAFFTC Files.

n.

\.

l8. DatlT DI,iry, AFlUT. Aug. 14, 1942. 18. D});lected P.rograOJ of 'lbstnction in Ground Tnlning Glidel'Sdhools, Jan. Lit IOU, in AAFFTC Pfles.

in ElemeJ!'tuy-Baslc-Advaaced

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958 .'

From an. enm.Jnation of these programs it is evident tbal a morl!! coneentrated effort wa:s being devdted to llre~ring the prospective glider pilot for biB duties a:; a m~mber of the mUitary estitbUshmenf. Many of the trate8S entered the glider program directly from clYlliaD Hfe. ami the only basic military training they reee'iVed wa.s !.netdental to their tra.lning as slider- 'Jlldta. For thta reason, it Jiad beeJI 'found tbat many of the early ,gra.duate5, although qualified hi gllder flytng, PQs5esse(J Uttle knowledge or tratrung h1 the lJUltlific~D)ns and daties 01. mUltar" personnel. . without standard teld:lI and detaU~ brel(kdowns lit pf0gt'8.DlS or In·Btroctlon. One exception may be fOlmd 1n JhI! met@rologiCal 1tJstructio.n. at the- Elementary and Basic Schools. WhUe g-ll.der train1~ was opera.ting wider the p.receding: program, €!\ptli:in B. "1.. Wiggen of the Office· of the ml'ector'Of Weather made a tour Of inspection Of ttie gIlder Schools for the express purpose of coordinatl.ng and st8Jldar.d1zb1g meteorological insLTtl.ctton, 20 As a result of this toW'. Captain WiggeD drew up a compreheQIi}ve and cStlli~d.iz~r¥nabus of w,eatl:l~r l1lBtructlon; t:ta'2 ~lementarJ was lmplemented at the sclurols iii September. and the basic in Of!tober, 1M2.
A d 17 c e dIlls an t rue t or:rs' S c b ()0 1. As it was necessary tolnftJ.ate. advaneil!d tralnh!g as seen as possibl., and s~ce dell'Yery of the (ifieen-'place gl~der was expected dally throughout August, on the: tweJ¢y-thiPd of that month t:IJe FlylQg Tl!1aint~gCommand was 111sttueted to order lift, power pUot gl'ilduates oftbe baste course to LOc'kboW'lle, Oh~o, fop transition U!Qning on the car"go glider. Fttteen cd these fuiW'8 tnstru.etCJTs hnmwiihlly proceeded 00 LockbOurne, and forty-five more, for a total Of sixty. SOon foilowe_d. 23 AIth,ough these men were vitally needed. at the bainUJg ce~ers. they bided their time at Lockbotn'ne wdil the arrl'!8l of the gliders. By the ml~e of "5eptemberthe lranslti.on tratnUm of tllese men. had been a£oompIished. and after ferrying tile gliders to the new Adva.l1Ce.d Schools, they retlU'lied to their former stations. These meD were distributed among tile bd'l'lQlced SChools and ~eame the, backbone Qf the adyaru:ed gltder lrain1.EIg Pl'ogra:m~ Aside from 'TecltDicll and Field M.II:nWlls. the stlhoo1s were sttU almost e:ntlrely

The fifteen-plue CO-4A gltaer 'lias an entirely lieW military machfile, both to the gUder p1lots and to ~ pUma of the Sist Troop CUrier Group who p~ovid~ the towing. It
was to eSb$Ul5h an operational and trlU1:SitiOn training prooedl,U'e as well ACtually, the CG~~ p:t;oved to be a comparatively simple craft for- 311 ezpel'ieQBed power pilot tq f)y, ,",d the t;tanaitlon tr.a.lnillg Of Lhese future i.nSlructors cons:l.sted of about two l)ours of checking off in the new ~nder. It woull1 appear bom conve.rsatlODS wfth men who' aUeDded the Lockhournlt'school Jb.at the entire lnstl'uetol'sJ eourse was characterbed by lU'pment disagreement, and that considerable time waa lost due to a lack of cOQPe.ratlonbetween the glider. pllots and the TrQC:lp Carrier pilots. This 'cmulitl()n, that rirst manifested lt$eU hel"~, sums ~o bave: been prev,alent tJ.ttQugbout fhe whole program.

as corred

their

Te&poDSitii2:lt¥

towing methods.

ana

Ina ugu r aHo n of Ad • ltD. c.e d T.r al n in g. As s.oon IlS tbese sixty I:nf!truc.tors had finished their traln.ing and personnel 'bacL \leen. p'revtded for the Advanced Schools, the advanced training etllll'sewas at last Ilnplemented. Instead of the preVioqsly planned tQrty~lIour eOlD'se, traiAiJlg' .. as decreased to fifteen hours.24 As the case thro~bQ,ut the elltire glider progrlLlD tl\e actual method. Of !nStructioll wa'S left to the dis:el'etion of the d.lr'eetor of training ind his instructors at the Indl\1idu:U schools. lila attempt was made at first to adbere to eatabliahed flow chart!j men .. ere tramed a~ available equipment p~l'lD1tte4,

,....5

j

quired
Cotll'se

mDilmum tra1nlng wu estabUshed for the fUteen-hoUl', two-week ad~ced glider on. Wember U. 1M2. It had as Us $j!l;etive the prcduction of a glider pUot
to Gper.ate cargo gliders in the 11IIricius types
I)j towed flight,

Program

of In~tr\lcUan,

Tbe usual progrAtu

of instnrcU~

outltn1ng the re-

"'qualified

bOth mght and clay,

to CG,MF, July 17, 194;2, in AAG 3,53.9 H, Trllblbg, M.ett&J:olP8Y. til eC,AAF, Aug. 281 l1H2. in ibId. 22. Daily Diary. AAiFFTC, sept.. HI" 1942. • 23. Teletype 'D16G~CG,AAFFTC, tQ CG,AAF. Aug. 251 1M2, m AAFFTC Files. 34. Te1etne, CG,MFFTC to CG,85AF'fe, Sept 15, 194Z, in ibid. ,
20. AG,AAFFTC 21. AO.AAFFTC

tun

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

aid • .• qualttted to service gliders iD the fieU." The scope .. the COIIl"ae'I'a8 deftnecl as "fqU1UDleations 1D,t~ art of gll~r fiy:ing to ~ude airplane t~. wUb particular emphasIS on spot bndlng proiimeney. and night n,iDg'~ ~eattoll to. the aSllemblblft. loadlaa. I'DIl general ma1utenplCe at gliders aDd the towlDg gear. U The flightscbool
FanwUiuizaiion

ltIBtl'uetlori was estabUthed
filght

as
Dual 112

,on~ws:

Tow technique, take-aff, cliD).b. cUmblDg turn&; stra:lght m:l level

tows~ reco~e.ry from bad to,. positiOD, to inclUde prop wash.
Coot"dinatioll e)Eercises.

'1

1

1/2

1/2

SUUs. plI.ri;ial ad complete wl.th tmmedi1dC!! re~DveJ'y, from sttatgllt glides and ,11el108: turDS.
PreciS100

I I

1 1 1 1

a.1r speed.

n~

stress

constant:

Landings, including use of brakes &lid nose skid for sl)Qrt roll. Accurac1 It.Ddtn;a,

1

1lW> stage.
1/3
1

I)escent on tn from 9000 '·eet to 1600 sLde position.

1/_a 2

Nlgbt,

flf'lnr .
aDd the

Fmal eheck:
It was specified that the 1~ live bours .Q1 _ gross lDad.26

1/2 tast
IloUr


at DiIbt
SJI(Iald b&

llawa With

The twenty-five-flour g1'ound scbool course pl'el(ler1beC1 ault]ects tbI1 bereldore had n<lt'been ftlqht. Tecbnical tanuds and FIJld Manmds .ere 4eslgnated lIS tots, Ten boors .. ere to be devoted to matnte~e of BIttlerD and to1l' equipm.. The litudeAt8 wfte to do servicing and. ID.UJorrepa.l.r.s, as It was confemplated tluit they would have to perform this function in th~ t1:eJ~. The program ~rescI'UmiS' five bours for tMtlcal. mapll aad .en.!. ph0tographs. To aircraft ldentiflcation IiU Mqrs were allofted. &lid two to camouf1all8.~6 J)ur!q tbe ~ly npflrtmentatl(q1 with the cargo glider I it had beell dec.td,_ tbat. fD eOJabat qtUatim.a some 01 ~e craft In. the gIlder echelon would transport a jeep UcI siz JIlen, CClllll8qUeDtlrI b.i 1942. the Flyin. Tr~ Co1ll1D&.Dd had been lIl.fItl'~ted. to I.nClUde IJa8t1"tI&ltton "til o,peratioD, se.rv1ci:ng. aDd mtilQI' maintenance GI. Ute 1eep iocluiliD« the most efflctent method 01 Joadmg, storUtg. ami unl~ :laps from lo5'-pl&ce gDders. III 2'f -Meek-ups of'the 'ifteen-plac. glider ,,~e pra'lidec:l to faeUitate the' two b~S' Instr~lon ~o be devoted to tblB tJpe fif. tr_iD1Dg.28

1Ia,.

25. Progrllrl
.~

of IDStruction for Advanced GlIder Sc1loOla. Sept. 31, 19<1a, 10 AC/lt.S,

Tl'rLtIllUl

16.

2'l:'DaUf DiU'J, AFRIT, May 18, 1HZ. 28. RD, DAMe to APRIT, my 23, 1&&:1. tl! AAG 4:U.l B, GUders.

FUes. 1b1d1 •.

d,,-III55,AP'

THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

This Page Declassified lAW E012958

In i{ap1ezntntlDg

Sch~ JIOOD fOUDd that 1htJyeoul.d not adeQUately pnSCl"tbe meth~ of tl'ztnlJlg without tnfOJlm8UQD. as to the type or ttajJllng ta be gfiren by the T1'QOP Cartier Comomoo. the ultimate missioa 01. the _glilier pilot, and the gro:und. duties be might: be called OIl to perform. These

th. advaaced

co1lru,

the <I"ec~OI'S 01 bafnlD£!' at lila Advauced

faDCtlons '1I'ere not. 1tDown in tbe Hea.tqIl8l'tU'a or the FlVng' 'l'rainlng Command; tbay had lIot bema worked oui in the Troop "Canter ~ommaud DOl' la WlUlbibgtOn., The FlJiRI Tral.JliDg COlD!' ~ feU, ho1I'ever. that the seOOola sbOuld... nof concern themselves with !DOre than ltmtted

tralldng,

transltio~~rafuingand ·Sbortage

groWld school--Ute short
'.

fUteen-hour eollt'se pPeCJu.ded more utens"'e

• of GUdel''S aP4 ~ Pla.n.n. By the eild bf Septe.m.r the Flying 'InfIII.nc Commaud .reallEed UIat 1t eoUld D.Ot po$SilIl, meet the tra.iniJlg oI)]ect.t,e as determlucI by the diz'eetlw d: August 10, 1M2. The plan. .w oPiglll.aUy eslabl~ bad '(conlemplated. emerlog 'lJ'l advanced. griller sb1dents ev;ert two yeeks. for a four w8j!k course of 40 Mara OJ!. CG-U. 8ltcferSt and would ha"e·refI~tred. 369 gIlders and 189 tow pla;D.es," ~ 'the coarse bad been reduced to fifteen hOurs, the s1tuation. bad been helped CfiWSlderabl'J only 154 guders &lid 154 tow planes tieing requlrl!d. But Jnt this time the CDmmand bad r;enet,.ed .1nfo.rmation that only Dtqety Bllder~ aDd r1.ft,-~o pl¥es were to be iarniBhed. Furtliermore, as ODe squadron of tow plUes was to be llSeiI lor: tel'rying purposes, O\Y tl\b't1-ntDe tow planes • would be available to c:ondaet the eDUl'e adv:ane.ed traintllg grograat. ~el'ieD!C:e bad demonstrated that one tow plane could not tll'Clyide tcnring lor more thaD tbe stu.dellts ill. ,el;cb elus, n was esumated, tlJereiore. tDat the tb.itty-niJl~ to.w shiPs would not eruible tra;1iJ.1Dg Of more t:barl 185 glider pilots eftr,. t"p weeks or approxim&teil¥ fOJ"ty-~~ht h~ecl glider pllols a year I aUo1riDg for 0 per ceBt. eHmlnatten. The Situation Willi doUbly compUcafed by tbe lact that the 18,000 a year tra1uing rate had a1read¥ beeD iDatlluted as far as procuremel)1 d: parsi:mD8l was coneenned, The P1'eltmtnary and ElemeDtary SChQols .. ere already operlitlDs at thLs r2te, Basic Schools were ~tlng ~ the rate of about 10,000 a year, but .&re 'being lI<apidlyupauded as faat IWI the necessary equjpment was l'ecetyed. Naturally, this eond.ltton led to the acCJltilw.atlon gf vast 1l1UDHr8 of partlaUy trained studentg whelm DO adVllJJced training was available. The PIJ1.ai TraJDiDg Co1DDWld had met the situation by ac.c:umula.t:l:Dg the.se stlidentEI In two gUder pools, one f~ IbOse await1Dgbasic .tra.ia1ng and! ODe for thee ..w~lIIgadvan:ced.

(or

.e

...

.

was obvious, tberefor" ColIUiiaDd proposed t'tr,o solutlous. Either a.cliOn II1DSt be taku to 1Dof the AdYlUlced Scll;oolB by proridblg tile lleceslJilJ"Y eqWpDlllDt, or the gUder pilot objective must be redueed to an atent foenable the absorption of those alre2d, ).n tra1DIug while at the same time dtastfp1&, cf¢tillg eft £he fiow of et1idelltS entel'bJg tramtag. 10 The effort to deal witb this situation oeea&IOlUid another revision of the IRcler plIot 'tile n,iD:g Tra.tDiDg crease the c~l1J

The DeceSS:ity far the estaM1sbment ci 1111 1tegrated. progrun b

traIJdDI obJeeUve.

the tifty..'one days lhItt file uvirdon of A.ugust. 18t 11MB, ne.. or unpla.bn:ed, poltey clwigel'l oc()urred. The period 'IrQ charaelerbed by tmplellUHltatloJi IUIti adtustment of th~ new four-~e prop-am. But "Uh the commencement 01 advanced tratntng. iDiltcat10ns of c'~8 JlIld lIifluencing factors relaUve remained In iafJeet no
fio ~ Summary. Tlvougholll
ma.jQl'

AlIumg Uese was a cQUctoUSDe.&s of the, e:ventual IDipBion of the glfder pUOt a.ncl the need for a tratnlng program designed toward th1s end. But the Ilu1l@UlI;J of III,!lter-tel I'a!lamed the dominating dete.rmtn.8!'. both in possible pnot production !URI la tU rjta1lltaut aeriOll8 probleJD at. 1'1p1d &ccwuulation at p8.1'tiall), tr ..~ stildeotll "in JlOOls. 29. aDd IIIdorsem.e'm. {CO.! SOuth Pll1D8 Army FlylJig 8chool to CG~GCAFTO. Sept 12, 19a)~ .AG,AAF!'TC to CO.GCAF'FC, Sept 21, 1M2, in AAFPTC FUes. (SoInb PlaiDs Ar • ., Plylul :Icbool herell*fter e1ted u SPAFS~.. . 30. CG,AAJ'.FIl!C to CGJAAFoJ Sept. SO, 11M2, 111 .AAG 353 A, Gllder TraiBtng. Se,e Appendix B.

bep.D to ~.

lat...

Cit-2§55,AF

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FLOW OF STUDENTS THROUGH GLIDER SCHOOLS
SEPT. 14, 1942 :- FEB. 26, 19-'13

CLASS (1,14.'"
STUDENTS

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PRELIM. NARY
WEEKS
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P. T.
ELEM ENTARY FLYINGELEMENTARY PILar TR.A.INING COURSE

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ELEMENTARY
30 HOURS -4 WEEKS OEADSTICI( LANDINGS

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BASIC 30 HOURS-4 WEEKS 2 s, 3 flLACE GLIDERS

AtNANCED{Q:t.1 f4,/J:&2I;!94
15 HOURS-4WEEKS 2&.3 PLACE GLIDERS

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ADVANCEO(At-21,~#;k"ZQ~
8 HOURS -2 WEEKS

15 PLACE GLI DERS

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THIS PAGE Declassified lAW E012958

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