J

Reg. No.:

I...____.__.____._~,--I...L_I---'---11_.0 -'-

Question Paper Code :553321
B.E.IB.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIlIMAY 2011. Fifth Semester Electrical and Electronics Engineering EE 1302 - PROTECTION AND SWITCHGEAR (Regulation 2004) (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Fourth Semester, Electrical and electronics Engineering, Regulation 2005) Time: Three hours , Answer ALL questions. PART A - (lOx 2 = 20 marks)
1.

Maximum: 100 marks

What are the causes of faults in power system? Define zone of protection. Mention any two applications of differential relay. What are the features of directional relay? Give the limitations of Merz Price protection. Why bus bar protection is need~? What is RRRV? What do you mean by current chopping? Compare MOCBand bulk oil circuit breaker. What is dielectric test of a circuit breaker?

2. 3. 4. 5.
<t-

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

14.

(a)

Discuss the recovery rate theory ';and energy balance theory of arc interruption in a circuit breaker. (16) Or

(b)

(i)

Discuss the problem associated with the interruption inductive current and Capacitive current. Explain terms restriking voltage and Recovery voltage.

of Low (5 + 5)

(ii)

(3+3)

15.

(a)

Explain the construction, working principle and various types of air blast circuit breakers with neat diagram. (16) Or

(b)

(i)

Explain the construction and operation vaccum circuit breaker with neat diagram. (10)

'"

(ii)

Explain the diagram.

operation

bulk oil circuit breaker

with suitable (6)

"

3

55332

I'J 322?~1
B.E.lRTech. DEGREE EXA.\HNATION, MAY/~JUNE 2009. Fifth Semester (Regulation 2004) Electrical and, Electronics Engineering EE 1302 - PROTECTION AND SWITCHGEAR (Common to BE (Part-Time) Time: Three hours Answer ALL questions. PART A -- (10
1./
,

Fourth Semester Regulation 2005) Maximum : 100 marks

..

x 2 :::20

marks)

List the essential features of switchgear. What are the causes of faults in power system? Define pickup value and current setting as applied to protective relaying. What are the advantages and disadvantages of static relays? What are the requirements of protection of lines?

2/ 3/ 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

What is Buchholz relay? Where it is used? What is meant by restriking voltage?' What is meant by current chopping? How is self compensated explosion pot used in oil circuit breakers?

A 3 phase oil circuit breaker is rated at 1200 A, 1300 MVA and 11 kv. Find the rated symmetrical breaking current and rated making current.

PART B 11.
(a) (i)

(5 x 16 = 80 marks)
(6)

Explain the different types of faults in power system. Explain how fault components. current is calculated using

(ji)

symmetrical (10)

Or
(b) (if
(ii)

Describe the different types of power system earthing. Write short notes on need for protective schemes.

(10)

(6)

12.

(a)

Explain the working principle of impedance type distance relay and explain its characteristics on V-I and R-X planes. (16)

Or
(b) 13. (a) Explain the working principle of directional and non directional type over current relay. (16) Explain the different protection scheme necessary for the protection of a power transformer. (16)

...

Or
(b) Explain the following protection schemes of alternators: (i)
(ii)

Stator interturn protection Merz price protection. Derive an expression for restriking voltage and RRRV. Explain interruption of capacitive current.

(8) (8) (8) (8)

14.

(a)

(i)
;;

(U)

01'
(b)..

(i)

Explain the phenomena of arc and arc interruption. Describe DC circuit breaking. Describe the working principle of SFn circuit breaker. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of SF6 breaker. Or

(10) (6) (10)

(ii) 15. (a)
(i) (ii)

(6)

(b)

(i) (ii)

With neat sketch explain the principle of vacuum circuit breaker. (8) ,
,

,

Write notes on testing of circuit breakers.'

(8)

2

~J 3222

Reg. No. : 1L___l.____j_____L____L1 ____l1____l_1 _.l__1__l_1 ----LI ____il__jj

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRILIlYIAY 2008. Fifth Semester (Regulation 2004) Electrical and Electronics Engineering EE 1302 - PROTECTION A~D SWITCHGEAR (Common to BE (Part-Time) Fourth Semester Regulation 2005) Time : Three hours Answer ALL questions. PART A - (10 x 2
./1.

Maximum: 100 marks

= 20 marks)

./

List out the types of faults in powersystem .
t#

2.
/

What is the need for protection zones in the system? What are the advantages of overcurrent relays ovr-r electromagnetic types? Draw the block diagram of a static differential relay.

3. 4.

5. .: Why current transformers are required in protection schemes?
6.

Busbar protection need special attention why? What are the problems encountered in DC circuit breaking? What is meant by arc interruption in circuit breakers? How does a circuit breaker differs from a switch? What is meant by rupturing capacity of a circuit breaker?

7. 8. 9. 10.

PART B -

(5 x 16 = 80 marks)

11.

(a)

(i)

Explain the various protective schemes used in power system. Htr.' the protective zones decided for complete protection of power (10
e

system? (ii)

Give the essential qualities of protection and explain them in detail.

(6)
Or
(b) (i) Briefly explain the method of calculating fault current usmg (10)

symmetrical
(ii)

components. and the characteristics

Discuss the types system.

""

of fault occur in power (6)

12.

(a)

Explain the principles of various methods used for feeder protection and how the various grading systems are used for discrimination faults in over current protection. between the (16)

Or
(b) (i)
It

Describe HIe principle and operation of instantaneous

over current (8)

static relay with neat block diagram and detailed circuit. How is the torque produced torque equation. in induction

(ii)

type relays? Derive the (8)

13.

(a)

Explain protection scheme used in starlstar against through fault' and internal conditions.

and star/delta

transformers (16)

fault for .grounded and ungrounded

Or
(b) An alter,nator The protective current secondary rated at 10 KV protected by\;he balanced resistance circulating of10 ohms .

current system has its neutral grounded througlta relay is set to operate of 1000/5 ratio resistance of 1.8 amps. windings

.

when there is an out of balance current transformers.
(ii) the

In the pilot wires, which are cOl;nected to the Determine minimum
(16)

(i) the percent

winding which remains

unprotected,

value of the earthing

required to protect 80% of the winding.

2

'55332

PART B 11. )ii)

(5 x 16

= 80 marks)
of protection system.

Discuss the basic requirements

(8)

Explain in detail Power System earthing.

What is its significance.(8)

Or
(b)

(i)

Explain the asymmetrical

theory faults.

of symmetrical

components

for calculating (8) in power (8)

(ii )

Discuss the procedure for computation of fault currents system, when a double line to ground fault occurs. principle and the characteristics

12.

S?1

__,/.

Explain the operating relay.


Or

of an impedance (16)

. (b)

(i) (ii)

Describe the operating principle of an attracted armature relay? What measures are taken to minimise the noise in it? Explain a directional relay in detail. For such faults

type (10)

(6)
give their (16)

'13.

(a)

What are the rotor faults in an alternator? causes and suggest protective measures.

Or
(b) Explain the principle of pilot-wire relaying schemes transmission lines. List out its merits and demerits.
(i)

for protection

of (16)

14.

(a)

Explain the term restriking voltage. Derive an expression for the same in terms of system voltage, inductance and capacitance across a circuit breaker, when a three phase fault occurs. (8) Explain current minimised. chopping in circuit breakers and how it can be (8)

_(ii)

Or
(b) (i) (ii) Explain the -interruption difficulties faced? of capacitive current. What are the (8)

For a 132 kV system, the reactance and capacitance up to the location of the circuit breaker is 3 ohms and 0.015 u f respectively. Calculate:
(1) the frequency

of transient

oscillation. voltage.

(2) (3) (3) V 4573

(2) maximum (3) maximum

value of restriking value of RRRV.

2

15.

(a)

Describe the construction and working of SF'6 circuit multiple breaks. What are its merits and demerits?

breaker

with (16)

Or
(b) Discuss the various methods of testing of circuit breakers. (16)

3

V 4573

lC 3221 J
B.E.lB.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2007. Fifth Semester (Regulation 2004) Electrical and Electronics Engineering EE 1302 - PROTECTION AND SWITCHGEi\R

(Common to BE (Part-Time) Fourth Semester - Regulation 2005) Time : Three hours Answer ALL questions. PART A - (10 x 2
1.

Maximum: 100 marks

= 20 marks)

What is meant by Switchgear? What are the functions of protection relaying? Define the terms (a) pick up value (b) plug setting multiplier. What are the advantages of static relay? What are the common methods used for line protection? What is the importance of busbar protection? What is meant by current, chopping? List the factors on which the arc resistance depends. What is self compensated explosion pot? What is the special feature of vacuum circuit breakers?

2. __ 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. . 10.

PART B 11. (a) (i)

(5 x 16 = 80 marks) components method to analyse an

/

Discuss the symmetrical unbalanced system.

)ii)

In a 3phase 4wire system, the currents R,Y and B under abnormal conditions of loading are as under

.. Calculate the positive, negative and zero sequence currents in the Rline and return current in the neutral wire. Or (b) (i)
(ii)

Describe the essential qualities of a protective relay. Explain primary and back up protection.

12.

/

(a)"

Describe the construction and principle of operation of Induction type directional over current relay. Or

(bY/ Explain the construction, working principle and characteristics reactance relay type distance relay. 13. (a)
(i) (ii)

of

Discuss the faults which may occur on an alternator. A star connected 3 phase 10 MV 66 KV alternator is protected by A, Merz Price circulating current principle using 1000/5 current transformer. The star point of the alternator is earthed through a resistance of 7.5 ohm. If the minimum operating current for the relay is 0.5 A, calculate the percentage of each phase of the stator winding which is unprotected against earth faults when the machine is operating at normal voltage. Or

(b)

(i)

What are the complications of circulating current in a transformer? Write the remedial measures also. Compare C.T and P.T. 2

(ii)

C 3221

14.

(a)

Explain the phenomena of arc and the various methods of arc extinction. Or

(b)

(i)

A 50 Hz 11 kV, 3 phase alternator with earthed neutral has a resistance of 5 ohms per phase and is connected to a bus bar through a circuit breaker. The distributed capacitance upto circuit breaker between phase and neutral is O'01-~F.Dete~ine (1) peak restriking voltage across the contacts of the breaker (2) frequency of oscillation (3) average rate of rise of restriking voltage upto the first peak. Discuss DC circuit breaking.

(ii)

15.

(a)

How is SF6 gas used as a arc quenching medium. Describe the construction and working of SF6 of a circuit breaker. State its advantages and disadvantages and its applications. Or

(b)·

(i)

What are the advantages breaker?

& disadvantages

of air blast circuit

(ii)

Discuss synthetic testing of circuit breakers.

3

C 3221

Reg. No. : l_._IT..L___l_1 -L-I ----..l._.....____)_1

_L-I __j_1--'-----'------'

IR33421
B.E.IB.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBERJDECEMBER 2007. Fifth Semester (Regulation 2004) Electrical and Electronics Engineering EE 1302 - PROTECTION AND SWITCHGEAR (Common to BE (Part-Time) Fourth Semester Regulation2005) Time: Three hours Answer ALL questions. PART A - (10 x 2 = 20 marks) 1. 2. 3. What are the causes of faults in power system? What are the different types of faults in power system transmission lines? What type of relay is best suited. for long distance very high voltage transmission lines? 4.
~

Maximum: 100 marks

What type of relay is best suited for generator protection? What are the different protection schemes used in bus-bars? What are the applications of CTs and PTs in power system? Define recovery voltage in circuit breakers. Define restriking voltage in circuit breakers. What are the types of circuit breakers? Write any two advantages of SF6 circuit breaker.

\

5.

6.

7. 8.
9.

10.

PART B - (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11. (a) (i) What are the -different types of earthing made in power system? Give the circuit diagram for Arc-suppression coil earthing and explain its principle. (3 + 5) Six 6.6 kv, 3 phase alternators are connected to a common set of bus bars. Each has positive, negative and zero sequence reactances of 0.90 ohm, 0.72 ohms and 0.30 ohms respectively. An earth fault occurs on one bus bar. Determine the value of fault current if all alternator neutrals are solidly grounded. (8) Or (b)
(i)

.cii} v

What are the basic requirement of a protective relaying? overhead conductors?

(6)

(ii) . What are the causes of short circuits due to failure of insulation on

(5)

(iii) Draw the sequence network for a double-line-to-ground fault at the terminals of an unloaded alternator to find fault current interms of equivalent sequence impedances. (5) 12.
0/

(a)

Draw and explain the operating principle of non-directional over-current relay or earth leakage (induction type) relay. (16) Or

~b)

Djaw the schematic of an admittance relay and also the operating characteristic of Mho type distance relay. Derive its torque equation and condition for its operation. (16) Draw the "Merz Price circulating current protection scheme" for the protection of alternator against stator faults (phase to phase and phase to ground) and explain its operation. Explain why 100% of winding of alternator can not be protected using this method with earthing resistance to limit the fault current. Explain the modified protection scheme to provide greater sensitivity in the event of earth fault on the stator winding. (6 + 4 + 6) ,

13.

(a)

(b)

(i)

Expl'ain a biased differential protection scheme applied to 3 phase transformer with diagram. Also tabulate the different types of CT connections used for different types of transformer primary and secondary winding connections. (6 + 4) A 3 phase power transformer has a voltage ratio of 33/6.6 kv and is star delta connected. The protective CTs on the 6.6 kV side have a current ratio of 100 : 1. What must be the ratio of protective CTs on the 33 kV side? (6)
2

\

Or

(ii)

R3342

14.

(a)

(i) (ii)

Explain the arc interruption methods used in circuit breakers. Explain resistance switching for arc extinction.in circuit breakers.

(8) (8)

Or (b)
(i) (ii)

Draw the schematic of a HVDC circuit breaker and ~xplain its functioning. Explain the problem of direct current interruption. (10 + 6) and its (10 + 6)

15.

(a)

Describe the constructional details of SF6 circuit breaker operation: Give its advantages and disadvantages. Or

(b)

Explain the various tests conducted on circuit breakers.

(16)

3

R3342

IT 81961
B.E.IB.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBERJDECEMBER Fifth Semester Electrical and Electronics Engineering EE 1302 - PROTECTION AND SWITCH GEAR (Common to B.E. - (Part-Time) Fourth Semester - Regulation 2005) 2006.

(Regulation 2004) Time : Three hours Answer ALL questions. PART A ""1.

.Maximum:

100 marks

(10 x 2

= 20 marks)

Write any two functions of protective relaying. Whatare the desirable qualities of protective relaying?

2.
-r:

3. 4. 5.

For what purpose distance relay is used? Give any two _advantages of static relays over electromagnetic What are the two types of protection given for bus-bars? is the meaning of burden on C.T.? relays.

6.\ What
7. 8. 9. 10.

Define recovery voltage. Define rate of rise of restriking voltage.

Write any two merits of vacuum circuit breakers. List the routine tests conducted on circuit breakers.

PART B - (5 x 16 = 80 marks) 11. (a)
(i)

Draw the protective zone diagram for a sample power system network and explain its rules. (8) A 3 phase 11 KV, 25000 KVA alternator with Xl
=
XgO

Jii)

=

0.05 p.u.,

0.15 p.u. and X2 = 0.15p.u. is grounded through a reactance

of 0.3 ohms. Calculate the line current for a single line to ground fault ..

(8)
Or (b) (i)
(ii)
(i)

List the causes of faults in different equipments in a sample system. Explain Arc-suppression coil.earthing with diagram.
r

(8) (8) (8)

\..,.../

12.

(a)

Draw the constructional details of non-directional Induction Relay. Draw and explain the schematic of an impedance relay and its operating characteristic on R - X diagram. (8) Or

(ii)

(b)

(i)
(ii) "

Explain the principle of current differential relay with diagrams. (8) List the advantages and disadvantages of static relays.

(8)

13.

(a)

(i)

What are the faults that may occur on an alternator? Give the diagram for circulating current protection in alternator. (8) A 5,000 KVA, 6,600 V star-connected alternator has a synchronous reactance of 2 ohm per phase and 0.5 ohm resistance. It is protected by a Merz Price balanced current system which operates when the out of balance current exceeds 30% of the load current. Determine what proportion of the alternator winding is unprotected if the starpoint is earthed through a resistor of 6.5 ohms? (8)

(ii)

(b)

(i)

\' Draw a diagram of connections of the Merz Price circulating current
system for protection of a 1000 KVA, 11000/400 volt delta/star 3-phase transformer with the star point connected to ground and mark on the diagram the turns ratios of the CTs for a nominal 5A secondary current.' (8)

,

Or

(ii)

Draw and explain protection scheme of an A.C. induction motor 3 phase. (8)

2

T8196

14.

(a)

(i) (ii)

Explain the arc phenomena for initiation of arc, maintenance of arc and the methods used for interrupting the arc. (8) From the following data of a 50 Hz generator; emf to neutral 7.5 KV (rrns), reactance of generator and connected system 4 ohms, distributed capacitance to neutral 0.01 ).IF, resistance negligible; find (L): the maximum voltage across the contacts of circuit breaker when it breaks a short-circuit current at zero current, (2) 'the frequency of the transient oscillation and (3) the average rate of rise of voltage upto the first peak ofthe oscillation. (8) Or

(b)

(i) (ii)

Show schematic arrangement of a breaker with a resistor connected across the contacts and its Laplace equivalent. (8) Draw a schematic of a HVDC circuit breaker and explain its working. (8)
<OIl

15.

(a)

Show the constructional layout of SF6 breaker and give its advantages and disadvantages'. (16) Or

(b)

Show sectional view of working portion of a typical low-oil circuit breaker (one phase). (16)

3

T8196

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