Chapter 7 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

Professor Hisham Z. Massoud Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Fitzpatrick Center, Room 3521 Duke University, Durham, NC 27708–0291 massoud@ee.duke.edu

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.1

Chapter 7 – BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. 7.5. 7.6. 7.7. 7.8. 7.9. 7.10. 7.11. 7.12. 7.13. 7.14. 7.15.

Introduction Integrated-Circuit Bipolar Junction Transistor Structures Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation Basic BJT Operation in the Forward-Active Mode BJT Static I(V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model BJT Capacitance-Voltage C(V ) Characteristics BJT Dynamic I(V ) Characteristics: Charge-Control Model BJT Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit Temperature Effects Frequency Effects Switching Analysis BJT Breakdown BJT SPICE Model Summary

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.2

7.1. Introduction
• William Shockley at Bell Labs submitted his patent for the junction transistor on June 26, 1948, and the junction transistor Patent No. 2,569,347 was issued on September 25, 1951. • Semiconductor devices in which both electrons and holes participate in the conduction are termed bipolar devices and for this reason the junction transistor is now more commonly called the bipolar-junction transistor (BJT), or, simply, the bipolar transistor. • Shockley’s junction transistor patent included heavy doping near the contacts even though no junction transistor had yet been fabricated and demonstrated. The “existence proof” for the junction transistor was made on April 7, 1949, at Bell Labs with a Ge structure fabricated by Bob Mikulyak.

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.3

7.1. Introduction
Representation of the junction (bipolar) transistor in Shockley’s patent (2,569,347).

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.4

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures
Junction Isolation

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.5

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures
Junction-Isolated Bipolar Junction Transistor

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.6

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

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Dopant Profiles in the Bipolar Junction Transistor

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures 

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

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7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures
Bipolar Junction Transistor Types and Their Symbols

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N P N Bipolar Transistor

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.9

7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium
Energy-Band Diagram in Thermal Equilibrium

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.10

7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium
Depletion Widths in Thermal Equilibrium

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.11

7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium
Charge Concentration, Field, and Potential Distributions
E p+ B n C p

(x)

+ qNd,B

− −qNa,C − −qNa,E

x

Ex (x)

x ψ(x)

x
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.12

7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation

Bias Region Cut-off

Forward-Active

Saturation

Reverse-Active

Base/Emitter Junction Reverse-biased NPN: VBE < 0 PNP: VEB < 0 Forward-biased NPN: VBE > 0 PNP: VEB > 0 Forward-biased NPN: VBE > 0 PNP: VEB > 0 Reverse-biased NPN: VBE < 0 PNP: VEB < 0

Base/Collector Junction Reverse-biased NPN: VBC < 0 PNP: VCB < 0 Reverse-biased NPN: VBC < 0 PNP: VCB < 0 Forward-biased NPN: VBC > 0 PNP: VCB > 0 Forward-biased NPN: VBC > 0 PNP: VCB > 0

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.13

7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.14

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

IE

E p+

B n

C p

IC

vIN

IB

RL

vOU T

VEB

VCB

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.15

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

IE

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IC

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ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.16

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Variable Region Type Evac (x) Ec (x) Ei (x) Ev (x) EF n (x) EF p (x) Ex (x) ψ(x) Built-in Voltages

Emitter Region Base Region Collector Region p+ n p Evac,E (x) Evac,B (x) Evac,C (x) Ec,E (x) Ec,B (x) Ec,C (x) Ei,E (x) Ei,B (x) Ei,C (x) Ev,E (x) Ev,B (x) Ev,C (x) EF n,E (x) EF n,B (x) EF n,C (x) EF p,E (x) EF p,B (x) EF p,C (x) Ex,E (x) Ex,B (x) Ex,C (x) ψE (x) ψB (x) ψC (x) Vbi,E/B Vbi,C/B

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.17

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Variable n(x) p(x) Dopant Concentration Equi. Maj. Carrier Conc. Equi. Min. Carrier Conc. Depletion Width Wd Minority Carrier Mobility Minority Carrier Diffusivity Minority Diffusion Length Minority Carrier Lifetime

Emitter Region nE (x) pE (x) − Na,E − p◦ = Na,E E − n◦ = n2 /Na,E i E Wd,E (VEB ) µn,E Dn,E Ln,E τn,E

Base Region nB (x) pB (x) + Nd,B + n◦ = Nd,B B + p◦ = n2 /Nd,B i B Wd,B/E (VEB ) Wd,B/C (VCB ) µp,B Dp,B Lp,B τp,B

Collector Region nC (x) pC (x) − Na,C − p◦ = Na,C C − n◦ = n2 /Na,C i C Wd,C (VCB ) µn,C Dn,C Ln,C τn,C

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.18

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

Energy-Band Diagram

7.19

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Depletion Widths

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.20

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Minority-Carrier Distributions

E p+

B n

C p

nE (x)

pB (x) n◦ C

n◦ E 0

p◦ B

nC (x) WB WB +WC
7.21

−WE
ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Terminal Currents
E p+ B n C p

→ IE

→ IC

↓ IB
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.22

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Electron and Hole Transport, Generation, and Recombination
E p+ B n C p

Ip,C

Ip,C

Irec,B Iscr,E/B In,E

Iscg,C/B In,C

In,C Iscg,C/B Irec,B Iscr,E/B In,E

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.23

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Detailed Current Components
E p+ B n C p

Ip,C

Ip,E

Ip,C

Irec,B Iscr,E/B In,E

Iscg,C/B In,C

In,C Iscg,C/B

Irec,B Iscr,E/B In,E

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.24

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Detailed Current Components Current Ip,E In,E Iscr,E/B Irec,B Description of Current Component Hole diffusion current injected from emitter into base Electron diffusion current injected from base into emitter Emitter-base space-charge recombination current Current due to recombination of injected minoritycarrier holes with majority-carrier electrons in the neutral base region Portion of Ip,E injected from the emitter into the base which diffuses across the base and flows in the collector and is given by Ip,C = Ip,E − Irec,B Collector-base space-charge generation current Current in the C/B junction due to the diffusion of electrons from collector to base and due to the diffusion of holes form collector to base
Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

Voltage Dependence exp(qVEB /kB T ) exp(qVEB /kB T ) exp(qVEB /2kB T ) exp(qVEB /kB T )

Ip,C

exp(qVEB /kB T )

Iscg,C/B In,C

exp(qVCB /2kB T ) exp(qVCB /kB T )

ECE216

7.25

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

IE = Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B , IC = Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B , and IB = I E − I C , = Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B − Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B , = Ip,C + Irec,B + In,E + Iscr,E/B − Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B , = In,E + Iscr,E/B + Irec,B − Iscg,C/B − In,C .

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.26

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Current Gain The base transport factor αT is defined as the ratio of the hole current that reaches the collector to the hole current that enters the base region from the emitter. It is defined as Ip,C Ip,E − Irec,B Irec,B αT ≡ = =1− . Ip,E Ip,E Ip,E The emitter efficiency γE is defined as the ratio of the emitter current injected into the base region to the total emitter current. It is given by γE ≡ Ip,E Ip,E = . IE Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B

The common-base current gain αF is defined as the ratio of the hole collector current to the total emitter current. It is given by αF ≡
ECE216

Ip,C Ip,C Ip,E Ip,C = = · = γ E αT . IE Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B Ip,E
Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.27

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
The common-base current gain is less than one and is generally found to be near 0.998. Although the current gain in the common-base configuration is less than unity, the output voltage is very large compared to the input voltage. In good transistor design, all base-current components are made as small as possible. Since the electron diffusion current injected into the emitter In,E does not give any collector current, it will be seen to be minimized by doping the emitter with a very large acceptor concentration for the pnp BJT. Space-charge recombination current I scr,E/B is emitter-base current which does not contribute to the collector current so that steps are taken to minize space-charge recombination in the emitter-base junction. Also, the base-region recombination current Irec,B represents the loss of holes which are injected into the base by the emitter, and the base region is made thin to minimize this current. Therefore, bipolar transistors are designed to make these currents, which flow in the base lead, small as compared to Ip,E , the hole diffusion current injected from the emitter into the base.

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.28

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
The collector current IC is given by IC = Ip,C + In,C + Iscg,C/B , = αF IE + In,C + Iscg,C/B , = αF IE + ICBO , where ICBO is the collector-base reverse saturation current when the emitter is open (so that IE = 0).

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.29

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Minority-Carrier Distribution in the Base Region

E p+

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ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.30

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Minority-Carrier Distribution in the Base Region We assume that the base width WB is smaller than the minority-carrier diffusion length Lp,B of holes in the base region of a pnp transistor, (WB < 0.1Lp,B ). The minoritycarrier concentration goes to zero at the edge of the depletion region at the basecollector junction because this junction is reverse-biased. We assume that Wd,B/E < WB , Wd,B/C < WB , or that Wd,B/E WB − Wd,B/C that pB (0) and pB (WB )
ECE216

0, WB , p◦ exp B 0.
7.31

qVEB kB T

,

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Minority-Carrier Distribution in the Base Region We can then write that for a linear distribution of minority carriers in the base region going from p◦ exp(qVEB /kB T ) at x 0 to p◦ exp(qVCB /kB T ) at x WB in the form B B pB (x) = p◦ exp B = p◦ exp B p◦ exp B qVEB kB T qVEB kB T qVEB kB T − p◦ exp B x WB x 1− WB 1− qVCB kB T + p◦ exp B . 1− x WB + p◦ exp B x , WB qVCB kB T ,

qVCB kB T

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.32

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Minority-Carrier Charge Stored in the Base Region The net charge stored in the base region Qn,B (C) is given by
WB

Qp,B (VEB , VCB ) = q A
0 WB

[pB (x) − p◦ ] dx , B p◦ exp B p◦ B qVEB kB T 1− x WB dx

= qA
0 WB

WB x qVCB +qA exp dx − q A p◦ dx , B kB T WB 0 0 q A p ◦ WB ◦ qVEB B = pB exp 2 kB T q A p ◦ WB ◦ qVCB B + − q A p ◦ WB . pB exp B 2 kB T and for VCB < 0, we can write that qVEB q A W B n2 q A p ◦ WB qVEB i B Qp,B (VEB ) . exp exp + 2 kB T kB T 2 Nd,B
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.33

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Emitter-Base Current The emitter-base hole diffusion current is found from the expression for p B (x) as Ip,E = −q A Dp,B dpB (x) dx ,
x=Wd,B/E

= −q A Dp,B p◦ exp B q A Dp,B n2 i = exp + WB Nd,B

qVEB kB T qVEB . kB T

1 WB

,

The emitter-base electron diffusion current is found from the expression for In,E = q A Dn,E dnE (x) dx ,
x=−Wd,E

= q A Dn,E n◦ exp E q A Dn,E n2 i = exp − WE Na,E
ECE216

qVEB kB T qVEB kB T

−1 −1 .

1 WE

,

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.34

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Base Recombination Current The recombination of the injected minority carriers in the base region is obtained from the continuity equation of holes which is written as ∂pB (x) 1 ∂Jp,B (x) =− + (Gp,B − Rp,B ) = 0 , ∂t q ∂x in steady state. With no external source of generation, we can write that G p,B = 0 and the continuity equation becomes dJp,B (x) [pB (x) − p◦ ] B − . = q Rp,B = q dx τp,B Integration of this equation yields
Jp,B (WB )


Jp,B (0)

dJp,B (x) =

q τp,B
0

WB

[pB (x) − p◦ ] dx . B

The integral on the left-hand side gives Irec,B which is then given by Irec,B
ECE216

qA = −A[Jp,B (WB ) − Jp,B (0)] = τp,B
Jp,C Jp,E

WB 0

p◦ exp B

qVEB kB T

1−

x WB

dx .
7.35

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Base Recombination Current Integration gives Irec,B = Ip,E − Ip,C , qA ◦ = p exp τp,B B qVEB kB T qVEB kB T x2 x− 2WB ,
WB

,
0

q A W B n2 i = exp + 2 τp,B Nd,B = Qp,B . τp,B

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.36

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Collector Current The collector hole current is the difference between the hole current injected into the base and the base recombination current, or Ip,C = Ip,E − Irec,B , q A Dp,B n2 i = exp + WB Nd,B qVEB kB T q A W B n2 i − exp + 2 τp,B Nd,B qVEB kB T

.

The collector current for the emitter open and the collector-base junction reverse-biased is the reverse saturation current given by In,C q A Dn,C n2 i =− . − WC Na,C Ip,E ,

The total collector current is the sum of Ip,C and In,C given by IC Ip,C + In,C = Ip,E − Irec,B + In,C q A Dp,B n2 i = exp + WB Nd,B qVEB kB T for Ip,E > Irec,B > In,C . The collector current IC may be written as IC
ECE216

Ip,E

.
7.37

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Collector Current or that IC q A W B n2 i exp + 2 Nd,B
Qp,B

qVEB kB T

2 Dp,B 2 , WB

which permits writing IC as IC Qp,B 2 Dp,B 2 WB Qp,B , τ t,B

where τ t,B is the base transit time. This equation emphasizes that the collector current is directly proportional to the charge stored in the base region.

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.38

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Base Transit Time The velocity of holes in the base region is given by vp,B (x). The hole flux in the base Fp,B is written as Fp,B (x) = vp,B (x) pB (x) = vp,B (x) p◦ exp B The flux is multiplied by A and q to give Ip,B = q A vp,B (x) p◦ exp B qVEB kB T 1− x WB , qVEB kB T 1− x WB .

which is also given by the expression for the diffusion current Ip,B dpB (x) q A Dp,B p◦ B = −q A Dp,B exp = dx WB qVEB kB T .

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.39

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
By equating these two expressions for Ip,B we find that the hole velocity can then be expressed as Dp,B Dp,B vp,B (x) = . = x (WB − x) WB 1 − W
B

The base transit time is given by
WB

τ t,B =
0

dx = vp,B (x)

WB 0

2 (WB − x) WB dx = . Dp,B 2 Dp,B

If WB is 1 µm and Dp,B is 1 cm2 /s, then τ t,B is 5 × 10−9 s.

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.40

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Gummel Number The Gummel number GN is defined as
WB

GN ≡
0

+ Nd,B (x) .dx

It accounts for position-dependent uniformly doped base region, then as q A Dp,B n2 i IC exp + WB Nd,B

dopant profiles in the base region. In the case of a + GN = Nd,B WB . The collector current is rewritten qVEB kB T q A Dp,B n2 i exp GN qVEB kB T .

In the absence of recombination in the base region, the collector current is inversely proportional to the integrated base doping, and the smaller the Gummel number, the higher the collector current for a given VEB . Typical values of GN in high-performance bipolar junction transistors range from 1012 to 1013 cm−3 .

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.41

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Evaluation of the Common-Base Current Gain αF We derive an expression to evaluate the common-base current gain. For V EB > 3kB T /q, the −1 term in the diffusion current expressions may be neglected. By cancellation of common terms qA, the emitter efficiency for the bipolar transistor becomes γE ≡ Ip,E , Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B 1 = , Iscr,E/B In,E 1+ I + I p,E p,E =
+ Dn,E Nd,B WB 1+ − Dp,B Na,E WE + Dn,E Nd,B − Dp,B Na,E

1 , + Nd,B WB Wd,EB exp(qVEB /2kB T ) + 2 ni Dp,B τp,B exp(qVEB /kB T ) 1 + Nd,B WB Wd,EB qV + exp − EB 2 2kB T 2 ni Lp,B ,

= 1+

WB WE

where Wd,EB = Wd,E + Wd,B/E .
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.42

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Evaluation of the Common-Base Current Gain αF The expression for γE shows that increasing the ratio of emitter doping to base doping, − + i.e. making Na,E Nd,B , decreases the electron current from the base into the emitter so that γE approaches unity. The term due to space-charge recombination has a voltage dependence as exp(−qVEB /2kB T ) in the denominator. As VEB increases, the effect of space-charge recombination on γE will be reduced. The base transport factor αT is given by αT = 1 − Irec,B , Ip,E

+ q A WB n2 Nd,B WB i =1− , + q A Dp,B n2 2 τp,B Nd,B i 2 WB =1− . 2 L2 p,B

It is clear that the base transport factor approaches unity for WB

Lp,B .

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.43

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

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Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in the base region of a pnp transistor for • an open emitter to give ICBO • a shorted emitter-base junction to give VEB = 0.

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.44

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.45

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.46

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

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7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

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Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in the base region of a pnp transistor biased in the saturation region with both junctions forward-biased.

7.48

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

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Minority-carrier hole concentration pB (x) in the base region of a pnp transistor biased in the cut-off region with both the emitter-base and collector-base junctions reverse-biased.
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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.49

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7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Common-Emitter Current Gain βF in a P N P Transistor In a common-emitter configuration, the input current is the base current I B and the output current is the collector current IC and their ratio is of interest. 

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.50

¨

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Common-Emitter Current Gain βF in a P N P Transistor We can write that IB = IE − IC = (Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B ) − (Ip,C + In,C ) . Neglecting the collector-base reverse-bias saturation current In,C which is very small for Si transistors, we can write that IB = (Ip,E + In,E + Iscr,E/B ) − (Ip,E − Irec,B ) = In,E + Iscr,E/B + Irec,B . By arraning the bipolar junction transistor in the common-emitter configuration, the output current IC is much larger than the input current IB . The collector current is written as IC = Ip,C + In,C = αT Ip,E + In,C = αF IE + ICBO .

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.51

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Common-Emitter Current Gain βF in a P N P Transistor The emitter current is given by IE = I B + I C . We can then write that IC = αF (IB + IC ) + ICBO , or that IC (1 − αF ) = αF IB + ICBO , αF ICBO IB + , (1 − αF ) (1 − αF ) IB for Si transistors. The ratio of IC to IB is known as the commonwhere ICBO emitter current gain βF defined as IC αF = βF ≡ . IB (1 − αF ) The collector-emitter leakage current for IB = 0 is represented by the second term as ICBO ICEO ≡ . (1 − αF ) IC =
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.52

and

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Common-Emitter Current Gain βF in a P N P Transistor In most bipolar transistors, αF approaches unity, which means that βF can be much greater than 1, and ICEO will be much larger than ICBO . For example, when αF = 0.98, then βF = 49.0. The usefulness of the bipolar transistor in the common-emitter configuration is that a small base current can control a much larger collector current. The variation of βF with VEB or the collector current indicates that at small values of IC , βF does not become relatively constant until the space-charge recombination current Iscr,E/B is much smaller than the diffusion current Ip,E . At larger values of IC , βF decreases due to high-level-injection effects which give a diffusion current variation as exp(qVEB /2kB T ).

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.53

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region
Common-Emitter Configuration and Bias with an N P N Transistor 

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.54

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
Basic Model The Ebers-Moll model is the most commonly used static model for the bipolar junction transistor. It is the basis for the model used in SPICE. Space-charge generation and recombination currents are not included in this model but these currents can be readily added. Carrier recombination in the base region is included. We consider an NPN transistor in this analysis. The terminal currents I C , IE , and IB are expressed in terms of the terminal voltages VBE and VBC . We divide this problem in two parts by applying each voltage at a time, solve for the resulting currents, and then use superposition to combine the two solutions into the total solution. The currents obtained are labeled forward when VBE is applied and VBC = 0, and reverse when VBC is applied and VBE = 0.

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.55

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
The forward current IF is given for the base-emitter junction as IF = In,E + Ip,E = IBE·S exp qVBE kB T −1 ,

where IBE·S is the base-emitter junction saturation current, and VBE is the base-toemitter voltage. The reverse current IR is given for the base-collector junction as IR = In,C + Ip,C = IBC·S exp qVBC kB T −1 ,

where IBC·S is the base-collector junction saturation current, and VBC is the base-tocollector voltage.

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.56

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
The interaction of the two junctions in a bipolar junction transistor results from the thin-base region which results in a fraction of the emitter current reaching the collector and vice versa. The collector current IC is expressed in terms of IF and IR as IC = α F IF − I R , where αF IF is the part of the collector current due to the base-emitter junction and IR the part due to the base-collector junction. The emitter current IE expressed in terms of IF and IR as IE = I F − α R IR , where IF is the part of the emitter current due to the base-emitter junction and αR IR that duet to the base-collector junction. The base current is given by IB = IE − IC = (1 − αF )IF + (1 − αR )IR .
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.57

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.58

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
Consider an NPN transistor where the diffusion lengths of minority carriers in the emitter, base, and collector regions are much larger than the physical widths of the emitter, base, and collector regions, respectively. Assume that the emitter area is A E and that the collector area is AC . We can write the saturation current for the base-emitter junction as IBE·S ≡ In,E·S + Ip,E·S , where In,E·S and Ip,E·S q AE Dp,E n2 i ≡ . + WE Nd,E q AE Dn,B n2 i ≡ , − WB Na,B

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.59

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
We can write the saturation current for the base-collector junction as IBC·S ≡ In,C·S + Ip,C·S , where In,C·S and Ip,C·S q AC Dp,C n2 i ≡ . + WC Nd,C q AC Dn,B n2 i ≡ , − WB Na,B

We note that, if AE = AC , then In,E·S = In,C·S .

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.60

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
Reciprocity Relationship We can write the product αF IBE·S as αF IBE·S = γE αT (In,E·S + Ip,E·S ) , In,E·S = αT (In,E·S + Ip,E·S ) = αT In,E·S , (In,E·S + Ip,E·S ) and αR IBC·S = γC αT (In,C·S + Ip,C·S ) , In,C·S = αT (In,C·S + Ip,C·S ) = αT In,C·S . (In,C·S + Ip,C·S ) When AE = AC , we can write that In,E·S = In,C·S , and consequently αF IBE·S = αR IBC·S ≡ IS . A more detailed proof shows that the reciprocity relationship is satisfied for a general geometery where AE = AC .
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.61

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
SPICE Ebers-Moll Model We write αF IF and αR IR as ICC ≡ αF IF , = αF IBE·S exp = IS exp and IEC ≡ αR IR , = αR IBC·S exp = IS exp qVBC kB T qVBC kB T −1 . −1 , qVBE kB T qVBE kB T −1 , −1 ,

The current IF becomes ICC /αF and the current IR becomes IEC /αR .
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.62

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
In the transport version of the Ebers-Moll model, the terminal currents are IC = ICC − IE = and IB = ICC IEC − IEC − ICC + , αF αR 1 1 = − 1 ICC + − 1 IEC . αF αR IEC , αR

ICC − IEC , αF

We define the common-emitter current gains βF and βR as βF ≡ and βR ≡
ECE216

αF , 1 − αF αR . 1 − αR
7.63

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

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ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.64

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
The terminal currents can then be written as IC = ICC − IEC , αR

= ICC − IEC + IEC − = (ICC = (ICC and IE = ICC − IEC , αF

IEC , αR (αR − 1) − IEC ) + IEC , αR IEC − IEC ) − , βR

= ICC − IEC − ICC + = (ICC = (ICC
ECE216

ICC , αF (αF − 1) − IEC ) − ICC , αF ICC − IEC ) + , βF
7.65

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
The two reference currents are replaced by a single source ICT ≡ ICC − IEC = IS exp qVBE kB T − qVBC kB T .

The two diode currents become ICC IS = βF βF and IEC IS = βR βR exp qVBC kB T −1 , exp qVBE kB T −1 ,

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.66

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

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ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.67

7.6. BJT Static I (V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model
Limitations of the Ebers-Moll Model 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Base-Width Modulation (Early effect) Punchthrough Base-Collector Junction Breakdown Space-Charge Layer Recombination High-Level Injection Emitter Crowding Series Resistance Nonuniform Doping Profiles

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.68

7.7. BJT Dynamic I (V ) Characteristics: Charge-Control Model
Under time-dependent conditions, the relationship between the instantaneous values of terminal currents and terminal voltages is described by the differential equations that relate the currents and the charges stored in the emitter, base, and collectore quasineutral regions, and in the base-to-emitter and base-to-collector depletion regions. In a pn junction, the charges stored in the diode are Qn,P and Qp,N in the quasineutral regions and QDEP in the depletion region. The relationship between the total instantaneous value of the diode current and the diode charges is written as iD (t) = dQp,N (t) Qp,N (t) dQn,P (t) Qn,P (t) dQDEP (t) + + + + . dt τp,N dt τn,P dt

In an NPN bipolar junction transistor, the chages stored in the emitter, base, and collector regions are Qp,E , Qn,B , and Qp,C , respectively. The charges stored in the depletion region of the base-to-emitter and base-to-collector depletion regions are Q DEP,B/E and QDEP,B/C , respectively.

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.69

7.7. BJT Dynamic I (V ) Characteristics: Charge-Control Model
The complete charge-control model equations for an npn transistor are as follows QF (t) 1 1 dQR (t) dQV C (t) dQV S (t) QR (t) − − + − − , τF τR τBR dt dt dt QF (t) dQF (t) QR (t) dQV C (t) dQV E (t) iB (t) = + + + + , τBF dt τBR dt dt 1 QR 1 dQF (t) dQV E (t) QF (t) + iE (t) = − + + + , τR τF τBF dt dt iC (t) = where QF (t) and QR (t) QR0 exp qvBC (t) kB T −1 , QF 0 exp qvBE (t) kB T −1 ,

See Hodges and Jackson, p.220.

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.70

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model
We assume that our DC or quiescent point Q is defined by VBE and VCE . We expand iB and iC as iB (vBE , vCE ) = iB (VBE , VCE ) + (vBE − VBE ) + higher order terms , and iC (vBE , vCE ) = iC (VBE , VCE ) + (vBE − VBE ) + higher order terms . We recognize that iB (VBE , VCE ) ≡ IB , iC (VBE , VCE ) ≡ IC , vBE − VBE ≡ vbe , vCE − VCE ≡ vce , iB − I B ≡ i b , iC − I C ≡ i c .
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.71

∂iB ∂vBE

+ (vCE − VCE )
Q

∂iB ∂vCE

Q

∂iC ∂vBE

+ (vCE − VCE )
Q

∂iC ∂vCE

Q

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model
We assume that ic and ib are small enough that we can ignore the higher-order terms, and rewrite the above equations as ib = and ic = where gπ ≡ gr ≡ gm ≡ go ≡
ECE216

∂iB ∂vBE ∂iC ∂vBE ∂iB ∂vBE ∂iB ∂vCE ∂iC ∂vBE ∂iC ∂vCE

vbe +
Q

∂iB ∂vCE ∂iC ∂vCE

vce = gπ vbe + gr vce ,
Q

vbe +
Q

vce = gm vbe + go vce ,
Q

input conductance ,
Q

reverse transconductance ,
Q

forward transconductance ,
Q

output transconductance .
Q
7.72

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model
For an npn transistor biased in the forward-active region, we have IC IS exp qVBE kB T .

The forward transconductance is then given by gm ≡ ∂iC ∂vBE =
Q

q kB T

IS exp

qVBE kB T

=

IC . (kB T /q)

The input conductance is given by gπ ≡ ∂iB ∂vBE =
Q

∂(iC /βF ) ∂vBE

=
Q

gm 1 ≡ . βF rπ

The output conductance is given by go ≡
ECE216

∂iC ∂vCE

=
Q

IC kB T g m 1 . = ≡ |VA | q|VA | ro
7.73

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model
The base-emitter capacitance Cπ consists of the B/E junction depletion and diffusion capacitances because the junction is forward-baised. It is given by Cπ = A E q
Si + − Nd,E Na,B

+ 2 Vbi,B/E (Nd,E

+

− Na,B )

Vbi,B/E qIS + τ t,B exp Vbi,B/E − VBE kB T

qVBE kB T

.

The base-collector capacitance Cµ consists of only the depletion capacitance because the junction is reverse-baised. It is given by Cµ = A C q
Si − + Na,B Nd,C

− + 2 Vbi,B/C (Na,B + Nd,C )

Vbi,B/C . Vbi,B/C − VBC

The variation of vCE changes the collector depletion-layer width which results in a change in the base width. The variation in base width results in a change in the minority-carrier charge stored in the base and a change in the base current. A small change in vCE causes a change in the base current iB which is represented by a resistance rµ from the collector to the base of the equivalent circuit. This resistance is given by rµ =
ECE216

∂vCE ∂iC ∂vCE = = β F ro . ∂iB ∂iB ∂iC
7.74

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model
Basic Small-Signal AC Equivalent Circuit for an N P N Bipolar Transistor 

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ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.75

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model
Complete Hybrid-π Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit for an N P N Bipolar Transistor

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ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.76

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model
Cutoff Frequency fT The cutoff frequency fT is the frequency at which the current gain in the commonemitter configuration is unity while the output is shorted for an ac signal. The shorted output eliminates the output resistance ro and connects Cµ in parallel with Cπ . In this simplified model, rb , re and rc are ignored, but a more complete model would generally include rb . Because rµ is a large resistance which is now in parallel with the small resistance rπ , rµ may be neglected. For these conditions, the equivalent circuit is

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ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.77

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model
Cutoff Frequency fT The input current is given by iin = [1/rπ + jω(Cπ + Cµ )] vbe , and the output current is iout = −gm vbe . The magnitude of the input current is |iin | =
2 1/rπ + ω 2 (Cπ + Cµ )2 vbe .

The ratio of the magnitude of the output to the input current is iout = iin gm . 2 1/rπ + ω 2 (Cπ + Cµ )2

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.78

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model
Cutoff Frequency fT At high frequencies, where ω(Cπ + Cµ ) > 1/rπ , the ratio |iout |/|iin | = 1 at fT , which is given by gm fT = . 2 π (Cπ + Cµ ) Because the diffusion capacitance can be larger than the depletion capacitances, (C π + Cµ ) → Cπ = τ t,B gm . The cutoff frequency is then given by fT 1 . 2 π τ t,B

2 With τ t,B = WB /2Dn,B , fT may be written as

fT

Dn,B 2 . π WB

This expression emphasizes that fT depends on the minority-carrier diffusivity in the base region (favoring NPN over PNP), and that a thin WB is necessary for high fT .
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.79

7.8. BJT Small-Signal AC Model
Maximum Frequency fmax The high-frequency behavior of transistors has also been specified by the maximum available power gain at high frequencies. For maximum power gain, the load resistance RL must be matched to the output resistance ro of the transistor. At high frequencies, the power gain decreases with frequency. The power gain falls to unity at f max which is obtained as fmax gm = 16 π 2 rb (Cπ + Cµ )2
1/2

fT = 8 π rb (Cπ + Cµ )

1/2

.

Both fT and fmax are often used as figures of merit for comparison of high-frequency transistors.

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.80

7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors
Element and Model Lines The element and model lines in SPICE for the bipolar transistor have been summarized by Banzhaf.The general form of the element line for the bipolar transistor is QXXXXXX NC NB NE <NS> MODNAME <AREA> <OFF> <IC=VBE,VCE> where QXXXXXX is the name of the bipolar transistor, NC the collector node, NB the base node, NE the emitter node, and MODNAME the model name which is used in an associated .MODEL control line. These items are required in the bipolar transistor element line. The optional parameters are the quantities in the < · · · > and an element line may be continued by entering a + sign at the start of the next line.

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.81

7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors
The meanings of the optional parameters are: NS AREA The node of the substrate which defaults to 0. The area parameter specifies how many of the bipolar transistor model MODNAME are connected in parallel to make one QXXXXXX. The initial condition of QXXXXXX for dc analysis. SPICE will use VBE and VCE as the initial conditions for the bipolar transistor base-emitter and collector-emitter voltages rather than the quiescent operating point for a transient analysis.

OFF IC=VBE,VCE

The model form or the model line for the bipolar transistor is .MODEL MODNAME NPN<(PAR1=PVAL1 PAR2=PVAL2 . . .)> .MODEL MODNAME PNP<(PAR1=PVAL1 PAR2=PVAL2 . . .)> where MODNAME is the model name given to a bipolar transistor in the element line, and NPN or PNP denote that the device is an npn or pnp transistor. PAR is the parameter name of one of the optional parameters listed in Table 4.2 for PSpice. PVAL is the value of the designated parameter. Care must be taken to assign the correct units which are also designated in the tables.
ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.82

7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors
SPICE DC Model Parameters No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Text SPICE Parameter Name Symbol Keyword Is IS Saturation current βF BF Ideal maximum forward current gain βR BR Ideal maximum reverse current gain nF NF Forward current ideality factor (1.0<nF <2.0) nR NR Reverse current ideality factor (1.0<nR <2.0) Is, src ISE Emitter-base space-charge recombination saturation current nE NE Emitter-base ideality factor (1.0<nE <2.0) Is,src ISC Collector-base space-charge recombination saturation current nC NC Collector-base ideality factor (1.0<nC <2.0)
Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

Default Units Value 1.0E-14 A 100 – 1 – 1.0 – 1.0 1.0E-13 1.0 1.0E-13 1.0 – A – A –
7.83

ECE216

7.9. SPICE Model for Bipolar Transistors
SPICE DC Model Parameters No. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Text SPICE Parameter Name Default Units Symbol Keyword Value VA VAF Forward Early voltage ∞ V RB RB Zero-bias base resistance 0 Ω RE RE Emitter resistance 0 Ω RC RC Collector resistance 0 Ω CjE (0) CJE Zero-bias emitter-base depletion capacitance 0 F mE MJE Emitter-base grading coefficient 0.33 – Vbi,EB VJE Emitter-base built-in voltage 0.75 V CjC (0) CJC Zero-bias collector-base depletion capacitance 0 F mC MJC Collector-base grading coefficient 0.33 – Vbi,CB VJC Collector-base built-in voltage 0.75 V τF TF Ideal forward transit time 0 s

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.84

7.10. Temperature Effects

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.85

7.11. Frequency Effects

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.86

7.12. Switching Analysis

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.87

7.13. BJT Breakdown

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.88

7.14. Summary

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.89

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