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DT

m
AN ATLAS OF ANCIENT EGYPT.
WITH COMPLETE INDEX, GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL NOTES,
BIBLICAL REFERENCES,
etc.

L5c

SPECIAL PUBLICATION
OF THE

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.

President White Library, Cornell University.

l\.nTira

LJl^Jll^^

AN ATLAS OF ANCIENT EGYPT.


WITH COMPLETE INDEX, GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL NOTES,
BIBLICAL REEERENCES,
etc.

SPECIAL PUBLICATION
OF THE

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.


(SECOND EDITION, REVISED).

LONDON
SOLD BY

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TEUBNEK,

&

CO.

PATEENOSTEB HOUSE, CHAEINQ CEOSS EOAD, W.C.

BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, Piccadilly, W. ASHER & CO., 13, Bedi-obd St., Covent Garden, W.C. EGYPT EXPLORATION PUND, 37, Gee at Russell St., W.C.
COpposHe
the British

MuseumJ

REV. W. C. WINSLOW, D.D. (Hon: Treas: U.S.A.), 525, Beacon Street, Boston, Mass.
1894.

CONTENTS.

Preface
Introduction

...... .....
...
. . .
. .

M. Naville's Geographical Discoveries relating TO THE Route of the Exodus


List of Egyptian Geographical Names mentioned in the Bible
. .

17

Chronological Table of the Egyptian Dynasties

20

Ancient and Modern Authorities for Egyptian Geography and History

General Map of Ancient Egypt, with Adjacent


Countries
no.
,,

General Map of Modern Egypt, with Adjacent


Countries

..... ......
.

21

11

Map

of Ancient Egypt

the Delta to Beni Suef

,,

iii

Tables of the Nomes, with their Capitals, and the Gods worshipped in them (l to XX of Lower Egypt and XX XXII of Upper Egypt).

Map

of Ancient Egypt from Beni SuiF to EkhmIm Tables of the Nomes, with their Capitals and the Gods worshipped in them' (ix to XIX of Upper Egypt).

,,

iv

Map

OF Ancient

Egypt from EkhmIm

to Philae

,,

Tables of the Nomes, with their Capitals and the Gods worshipped in them (l to IX of Upper Egypt).

Map Map

of Ethiopia
,,

from Aswan to Semneh


from Semneh to Khartum
.

,,

vi
vii

,,

of Goshen and the probable Route of the Exodus


.

...
.

,,viii
i

Index to

Map

of

Modern Egypt

.pp.
etc.
.

Index to Maps of Ancient Egypt, Ethiopia,

,,viii

vii

xi

PREFACE.
The Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund issues this volume of Maps of Ancient Egypt as a Special Publication, in the belief that many of its friends and subscribers may desire to possess
such an Atlas exhibiting the latest identifications of ancient
sites,

and more especially marking the important geographical discoveries


which have resulted from the work of the Society.

Egypt changes but

little,

and the modern Map, with the natural

as well as the artificial features depicted

upon

it,

will

give a truer

insight into the physiography of the country in ancient times than

the skeleton
also

maps

of Ancient

shows the

lines of the

Egypt which follow it. This map modern desert roads (which generally
it

coincide with those of the old roadways), the Egyptian railway

system, and the Suez Canal;


travellers, as well as

will

therefore be appreciated

by

by archseological enquirers.
will

Opposite to the

maps of Ancient Egypt


of the

be found tables containing the names

Nomes and

their capitals,

and of the

local gods, but the state

of our present knowledge does not enable us to delineate their

boundaries; which, moreover, often varied.

Maps

of the

Wady

Tumilat and the Land of Goshen have

already been published by the


the results of

Egypt Exploration Fund

as part of

M.

Naville's researches conducted for the Society,

and explained
present

at length in his
is

Memoirs of 1884 and

1887.

The

Map

of that district

compiled from them, and extracts

from the Memoirs which bear upon the maps are also reprinted.

reference

list

of localities in

Egypt mentioned
fall

in the

Bible

is

appended

for the use of Bible students.


will

Since this Atlas

doubtless

into the

hands of many who


Egyptology,

have had neither time nor opportunity


interested as they

for the study of

may

be

in its results,

a few notes on certain

geographical aspects of Ancient Egyptian history are here given.

INTRODUCTION.

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS AND THEIR COUNTRY;


THEIR FOREIGN INTERCOURSE.
The Egyptian
The
on the Nubian

population,

its

origin

land of Egypt, stretching from the Mediterranean to


frontier,

and character. Aswan

has an area of only 10,292 square miles,

with a present population of nearly 7 millions, or about 600 people


to the square mile.

In extent the country has remained unaltered


is

from remotest
to

historic times, but its ancient population

supposed

have been more dense than that


Tj']

(a.d.

Some
origin,

appears to have numbered at least 7J millions. authorities hold that the Ancient Egyptians were of African
it

100)

of to-day

in

the age of Josephus

and from the South.

Others maintain that they carne from

the North-East by the isthmus of Suez; or from the East by Klis

and Coptos; or from the South-East by the straits of Bab el Mandeb; their original home, according to these several opinions,
having been
in

Asia Minor,
of which

in

Central Asia, or in South Arabia.


is

But, whatever their origin, this at least


earliest times

clear to us

from

the

any

historic record

survives, the strong,

mystic, and subtle individuality of the people was fully marked

and developed; and the physical

characteristics of their country


it is

are so correspondingly distinctive that

difficult
life,

not to consider

these as the main cause of that distinction in

religion,

and
it

art

which

is

so

much

a thing apart that

we can only describe

as

Ancient Egyptian.

Egypt "the
changes.
fertile

gift
is

of the
little

Nile."

The Delta and


of the Nile.

its

Egypt

more than the bed


pre-historic times,

Her

Delta was formed by the accumulation of alluvial deposits at

the

mouth of the river during by the Greeks on account of


of the river

and was so called

the resemblance

of its outline to that

of the fourth letter "bf their alphabet.

In the

maps
it

of this Atlas

the courses

and

canals,

and the outlines of lakes are


is

represented as those of the present day, since

impossible to

The Delta and

its

Changes.

restore the ancient beds with certainty.

The Greek

historians

and

geographers

tell

us that the Nile divided into three main branches

and that these subdivided, so that the river entered the sea by seven channels, of which five were natural, and two artificial. But these have all more or less changed, dwindled, or disappeared. In order from East to West,
at the southern point of the Delta,

they were

named by

the Greeks

the Pelusiac, Tanitic, Mendesian,

and Canopic branches, generally In the days after the principal cities through which they passed. of Herodotus, the fork of the river was three or four miles north of where Cairo stands; it is now some ten miles further north still. The Rosetta and Damietta branches of the Nile are its two chief
Phatnitic, Sebennytic, Bolbitine,

outlets at the present day,

and they may be taken as roughly cor-

responding with the Canopic and Phatnitic channels.

The

Pelusiac

branch

has disappeared.
of Ancient

geography

The elusive character of the internal Egypt largely results from natural variations

in the distribution

of the waters of the river; from great artificial

changes of the water-system (notably those made in the times of Mena, the first historic king; of the xiith and xixth Dynasties; and of the Ptolemies); and, lastly, from the cumulative effects of
local irrigation continued for

thousands of years.

Lower and Upper Egypt, Nubia, and


To
the

the Faiyum.

(or

of the North" Lower Egypt). The rest of their country was "the Land of the South" (or Upper Egypt), and extended from the apex of the

Egyptians, the

Delta

was "the Land

Delta to the ridge of granite which crosses the Nile at about 24" N. latitude and produces the "first cataract." This cataract

marked the confines of the Land and Roman geographers), known


Kash, and one
the
of
in

of

Nubia

(the Ethiopia of

Greek

of their earliest

Egyptians as the Land of conquests. Upper Egypt (including


to the

Faiyum) has an average width of only 10 miles, with a length about 450; and this also is "the gift of the Nile.'"- It is hemmed by the hills of the Arabian and Libyan deserts, and its rich black
formed
of the deposit left by the annual overflowing
is

soil is entirely

of the river.

The Faiyum
hills,
5.

a natural depression surrounded


in area,

the Libyan
'

840 square miles

by and about 50 miles south-

Serodotus II,

Lower and Upper Egypt, Nubia, and the Faiyum.


west of Cairo.

The Bahr

Ytisif,

a water-course diverging from the


El Lahiin,

river near Asylit, enters the

Faiyum through the gorge of


its

and thus connects the province with the valley of the


Faiyljm was anciently renowned for
cultivated;
its

Nile.
is
still

The
well

fertility,

and

name

is

derived from an Egyptian word signifying

"marsh, or lake district," through its Coptic form ol Phiom. Here was the celebrated "Lake Moeris" of the Greeks, the admiration of Herodotus and the work of the xiith Dynasty kings who also built
;

the adjoining "Labyrinth," and were buried near to

it,

within the

pyramids of Hawareh and El Lahun. These kings turned the natural


lake,

formed by drainage and the annual overflow of the

Nile, into

the artificially controlled reservoir of Lake Moeris.

At

its

highest,

the original lake of the Faiyurh had almost covered the province;
as reduced,
it

seems

to

have had a perimeter

of

136 miles, and a

greatest depth of 230 feet.^

To

the ancient inhabitants their river

was Hapi, and

their country

Kemt, the Black Land; while the

sandy desert was Teshert, the


the country Aiguptos, and
its

Red Land.

The Greeks

called

river Neilos, whence, through the

Latin forms oi
the Nile.

A^gyp tits and


no rain

Nilus,
falls

Little or

in

come our names of Egypt and Upper Egypt, although the

climate

is

said to be

now changing

in this respect.

The

necessary

irrigation of the crops has always depended upon the due storing

and

distribution of the waters of the yearly inundation.

buildings were generally

Ancient Quarries. Owing to the scarcity of wood, Egyptian made of bricks of Nile-mud: monumental
of

works were constructed


abundantly found
in the

hard or fine-grained stones, which were


valley.

rocky edges of the Nile

The

rock

on both

sides of the river,

and as
is

far as

Silsileh, is

limestone of
cliff

various qualities, and there


quarries; perhaps the
at Turah.

hardly half a mile of

without

finest quality

was obtained opposite Memphis


is

patch of hard quartzite

found close to Cairo at

Ahmar, and numerous fine monuments in this material Alabaster was quarried especially in the Het Nub region on exist. In the southern portion of the east bank from Minyeh to Asyut.
Gebel

Upper Egypt, sandstone took the place


2

of limestone as the chief

See The

FayUm and Lake


1892.

Moeris, by Major U. H.

Beown,

E.E., Inspector General of

Irrigation,

Upper Egypt;

Mythology.
most notable quarry is at where the rocks on either side approach and overso that the removal of the blocks was easily effected.

material for stone construction, and the

Gebel

Silsileh,
river,

hang the

the granite were quarried at Syene, crossing cataract there being formed by a vein of this syenite"great the river valley. Between the Nile and the Red Sea vi^as a

Red

granite and

some grey

porphyry variety of fine materials, such as basalt, granite, diorite,


the
latter,

perhaps, worked only by the Romans.

The

difficulties

ivth of obtaining them did not deter even the earliest kings of the stones for their Dynasty from making the freest use of these

"monuments of eternity." Egyptian mythology; its connection with the geography of Egypt. The true sources of their beneficent Nile, and the causes of its regular rise and fall in the summer and autumn months
were as unknown

Sun

himself.

Libyan hills dead passed on, and hence they preferred to found their cemeteries, In early or cities of the dead, on the west bank of the river. oases of the Libyan waste doubtless times, travellers' tales of the
led to the belief that beyond the perils of the desert,

to the Ancient Egyptians as the origin of the great His nightly disappearance behind the Western, or suggested to them that land of darkness to which their

and beyond

a fearful country which the dead must traverse,

if

they did not

perish by the way, the islands of the blest were to be found.

The

Ancient Egyptians deified


were

all

natural

phenomena which they recog-

nised as regular and persistent, and chief


deities
different

among

their beneficent

forms of the Sun-god, and also Osiris, the

fertilizing

power

of the river.
tilled

The

barren desert, ever ready to


fields,

encroach upon their

and

fertile

was inimical

to life

in the eyes of a settled

and agricultural people such as they were.^


in the

The

desert

was therefore personified

destructive

god Set;
fertile

and between Set and Osiris had been constant rivalry and warfare
corresponding to the unending encroachments of desert on
land,

and

fertile

land on desert.

The
1

State Religion

and the Government;

their feudal

character.

The gods

of the

Ancient Egyptians were essentially

This is, however, not the true Syenite of mineralogists. The " shepherds" here Incidental reference is made to this fact in Genesis sltii, 3134. referred to were nomads of the Eastern desert, who were always troublesome to the Egyptians.
2

The State Religion and the Government.


local

gods

gods of a
all

district, or

even of a

city.

Their chief deities

represented the Sun, the Earth, the principal planets and stars, and
the Nile; these being worshipped under different aspects, and

considered both as gods of the living and of the dead.


unity of their natures

The

essential

made
if

it

easy for any one of the local gods to

be regarded as national,

his city

became the

chief seat of govern-

ment and the home

of the reigning

dynasty.

The

kings were

supposed to be of divine descent, and were,

theoretically, the great

high priests of their dominions; so that, notwithstanding the number

and variety of
religion.

their local deities, the

The system

of

Egyptians still had a national government can best be described as


its

feudal;
tration

it was bound up with the state religion, and was based upon the subdivision of the land.

adminis-

The Nomas and


were divided into

their Princes.

Upper and Lower Egypt

number and boundaries These provinces were of which might vary from time to time. called hesep by the natives, and by the Greeks nomoi; whence the modern term Nomes. Each nome had its farm-land; its marshes
forty provinces, the

some

for fowling
capital,

and the cultivation

of

papyrus reeds;

its

canal;

and

its

which was the centre


priests of

of the provincial religion

and ad-

ministration.

Great vassal princes were the hereditary


maintenance of
civil order,

rulers of the

nomes and high


efficiency.

the local temples, being responsible

to the king for the due

and military

Their duties consisted

in loyalty to

the person and

interests of the king, in levying, etc., in care for the well-being of


their vassals,,

and

in

the military discipline and

command

of

all

their able-bodied men.^

Communication with

foreign

nations.

Sometimes
it

the

king sent his nobles on exploring and aggressive expeditions, whence


they were expected to return with treasure which

might please

them

to call the gifts or tribute of other lands.


fine material for the use of the

Such expeditions
sculptor, precious

brought back

metals, stones, woods, and incense, costly articles of foreign work-

manship, natural curiosities and products, and added


1

to the variety of

to the

See the biographical inscriptions of " Beni conduct of exemplary nomarohs.

Sasan I" and " Beni Sasan II,"

for particulars as

Communication with Foreign Nations.


is

the indigenous flora and fauna of Egypt, which


limited.

naturally but

Hostile, commercial,

was
the

thus

and general national intercourse Slidan, gradually established with Nubia and the
North
African
peoples,

Libyan and other

desert

tribes,

and the inhabitants of the Sinaitic peninsula, Syria, Babylonia, Red Mesopotamia, the traders and dwellers on the coasts of the Sea and in Arabia, the kingdoms of Asia Minor, the Phoenicians, and the pre-Homeric Greeks. In the seventh century B.C. Greek colonists (traders and mercenary troops) were formally recognised
by the Egyptians.

invasions of Egypt by foreign nations. Egypt was conquered by the Hyks6s^ not much later than 2000 B.C. by the Ethiopians under Sabako B.C. 700; by the Assyrians under Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal B.C. 672 665; by the Persians under

The

Cambyses

b.c.

525; and

fell,

as part of the empire of Persia, into

the hands of Alexander b.c.

:^^^.

But

it is

only from the Hebrews,


foreign
of the

and from Greeks, by

birth or

culture,
it

accounts of her civilisation before

we have any was merged in that


that
life

Roman
owe our

Empire.

The Greeks
it

linked the

of Ancient

Egypt
that

with that of Europe; and


first

is

primarily to
this

Greek accounts

we

knowledge of

country of their conquest and

adoption.
2 The Hyks6s have not yet been identified. They are stated by Josephus to have been " Shepherd Kings," and to have come from the North Bast.

iQc:

SUMMARY
OF

M. Naville's Geographical Discoveries


RELATING TO THE SojOURN OF THE ISRAELITES IN EgYPT,

AND TO The Route of the Exodus.


Memoirs" of the Egypt Exploration Fund, M. Naville has endeavoured to trace the route of the Exodus; his conclusions are drawn from the results of his excavations and researches at Saft-el-Henneh studied in the light of ancient historical and geographical records. These conclusions, with the
In the
first

and fourth

"

arguments that led to them, are here summarised, and followed

by an extensive quotation of the chapter on the "Route of the

Memoir entitled The Store City of Pithorn,} mound of Tell el Maskhutah was supposed by Egyptologists to occupy the site of the city of Raamses {Exodus i, 11); in the spring of that year M. Naville found it to be on that
Exodus" from
his

Up

to 1883, the

of Pithom.

By

the study of the inscriptions on

monuments which had already


ruins,
its

been taken from the place and were then in Ismailiah, and of those

which he himself discovered among the


the god of the city had been

Tum,
The

that

M. Naville found that religious name had been


situate

Pi-Tum
the

the Abode of Tum, and that the temple had been


Thukut.
the

in the civil city of

name Pi-Tum corresponds with


Pethom,

Hebrew
ll

Pithom,

Coptic

and

the

Peitho

of the

Septuagint.

The founder
B.C.

of the place appeared to be

13001250),^ who is usually supposed to be the Pharaoh of the Oppression, and it had evidently been built as a fortified military store-house or granary {Exodus i,

Rameses

(xixth Dynasty,

II

the

Hebrew word

here means store-houses, the Septuagint

1 The third and revised edition of M. Naville's Store City of Fithom and the Route of the JExodus was published in 1887, after the discovery and excavation of Goshen, and the friendly criticism of the First Edition by Biblical critics and Egyptologists all the vforld over.

2 The dates of Ancient Egyptian history, in round numbers, as given throughout this letterpress are, as far as possible, in accordance with those to which Professor Flinders Petrie has recently given currency in his lectures delivered at University College, London.

8
Vc^n^X-aX^'s,

PiTHOM AND SUCCOTH.


fortified
cities), in

which provisions were gathered for the Ine use of armies or caravans bound across the Eastern desert. bricks of which these "military store-houses" were built were composed of the common material, Nile mud, mixed with chopped
they were apparently

straw; but in places

made without straw

{^Exodus

V,

19).

The name Thuku


and
officials

occurs repeatedly in those letters of scribes

Dynasty which constitute the so-called Anastasi papyri, and is there followed by the determinative (a hieroglyphic symbol, marking the nature of the preceding word),
of the XlXth
indicating a borderland inhabited by foreigners.
In these writings

the

name denotes

a district including

"the lakes of Pithom of

Menephthes, which is of Thuku," and it is hence clear that before becoming the civil name of the capital, Thuku designated a region, or district, containing Pithom. Such was the meaning of the

M. Naville also gives Succoth [Exodus xii, XIII, 20) as the Hebrew equivalent of Thuku. Among the Roman ruins of the mound M. Naville further
the

name under

Xixth

Dynasty.

his
'^']
;

philological

reasons

for

considering

dis-

covered two inscribed stones, one bearing the words


the

Ero Castra,

camp

of Ero; and the second reading as follows:

victoribus, Maximiano et Severo imperatoribus, et Maximino et Constantino nobilissimis Caesaribus, ab Ero in Clusma, M. Villi e. Under our victorious lords, tiie emperors aximianus and Severus, and tiie most illustrious Caesars Maximinus and Constantine, from Ero to Clusma there are nine miles Nine.

Dominis nostris

As was

the distance

Roman provinces where Greek was spoken, given both in Latin and Greek, and the 6 at the end of the last line stands for nine. This Roman milestone was the means of leading M. Naville to the conclusion that Pi-Tum was the
usual in the
is

Heroopolis of the Greeks.


28),

In the English Bible {Genesis xlvi

we read

that Jacob, going to Egypt, "sent

unto Joseph, to direct his face unto Goshen."

Judah before him Here the Septuagint

whose

writers

must have known the geography of Egypt, translates

instead of "unto Goshen," unto "Heroopolis in the land of

Ramses

"

The Memphite Coptic

version,

which was translated from the


identification of

^ It must here be said that Brugsoh's philological argument for the and Succoth is not admitted by M. Maspero.

Thuki

The Red
Septuagint, keeps the old

Sea.

name

of the city, and has "near Pethom,

the city in the land of Ramses"; showing that at the time


this version
still

when

was made,

in

the fourth century a.d., Heroopolis was

for the natives the

abode of the God "Tum," who possibly was


In Egyptian,

not yet dethroned by Christianity.


followed

Ar or Era,

when

by the hieroglyphic sign denoting a building, means a


first

store-house, and the

part of the

Greek name

for this store city

may be the Greek transliteration of the Egyptian word ''Era!' The Greek and Roman writers who speak of Heroopolis are
unanimous
in declaring that the city

was near the

sea, at the

head

of the Arabian Gulf, which was also called Heroopolitan, and hence
it is

assumed that even

in the

times of the

Romans

the

Red Sea

it does now, and that the Bitter Lakes were then under water. Linant Bey considered it geologically proved that, under the Pharaohs of the XlXth Dynasty, Lake Timsah and the valleys of Saba Biar and Abu Balah were part of the Red Sea. This view is confirmed by the physical features of the country, for the depression of Lake Timsah has a narrow extension

extended much further north than

towards the west, presenting the appearance of the head of a

gulf.

The
city

sea would thus have extended to within three miles of Hero-

opolis.

Gradually the water withdrew, communication between


off,

and gulf was partly cut

and where the Red Sea had been

there remained only salt marshes, which were called by Strabo

and Pliny the Bitter Lakes}


el Maskhutah an historical whose reign (b.c. 286 247) the Septuagint version of the Hebrew Scriptures was begun in Alex-

M. Naville

also

found

at

Tell

tablet of

Ptolemy Philadelphos

in

andria.

This tablet gives many data which not only confirm the

discoveries already mentioned, but also

show

that another great


to Osiris.

temple of the Vlllth

Nome

was Pikerehet, dedicated


in

Pikerehet plays an important part

the tablet, the last lines of

which give the amount of taxes which were granted as income to


Monuments, S.P.C.K. 1894; pp. 259 60) Eoute of the Exodus. Up to the present time, none of the various theories can claim suflioient proof to warrant an exclusive acceptance, and until further and careful examinations of the character, date and situation of ancient remains between Lake Timsah and the Gulf of Suez have been made, no satisfactory
'

Professor Sayoe (in

The Higher Criticism and

the

specially emphasises the objections to

M.

Naville's theory of the

explanation of the Biblical statements

is

to be expected.

lo
that temple.

City of Goshen.
In the different

Nome

lists

it

is

also

named,

alter-

Nome natively with Pi-Tum, as the chief sanctuary of the Vlllth of Thuku. of Lower Egypt, and always as belonging to the region
two imNaville therefore concludes that this region contained Pikerehet, portant sanctuaries very near to each other, Pi-Tum and called a temple The Greeks the latter being the closer to the sea.

M.

of Osiris a Serapeum, and the

official itinerary of

the

Roman Empire

Serapeum, or Serapiu, as being some eighteen miles distant from Ero; and since we know of no other temple of Osiris in the neighbourhood of Heroopolis, Pikerehet must be the There are no traces of ruins which can Serapiu of the Itinerary.
mentions a
city of

be the remains of Pikerehet


of Gebel Mariam.

Serapiu, excepting those


horses
its

at the foot

The

tablet
of

speaks
Pikerehet

of the
for

and

cattle

given

to

the

sanctuary

annual

support.

passage

from one of the xixth Dynasty Anastasi papyri already mentioned, indicates that the more immediate eastern neighbour-

hood

of

Pi-Tum was known

as

the estate or farm of Pharaoh.


2, is

Now

the "before Pi-hahiroth" of Exodtis xiv,

translated in the

Septuagint and the Coptic versions as "before the farm."

Hence

M. Naville concludes
Pikerehet of the
delphos.

that the Pi-hahiroth of the


lists,

Nome

and

of the tablet

Hebrews was the of Ptolemy Phila-

GOSHEN.
M. Naville's researches
as the site of Pi Sopt (the
capital
at Saft-el-Henneh led him to identify it Abode of Sopt), which was the religious of the xxth Nome of Lower Egypt. This Nome was

known

to the

Egyptians as the

Nome
it

of Sopt or

Soptakhem, and
Arabian

Professor Brugsch discovered that

was

identical with the

Nome of Greek and Roman writers. The civil capital of the Nome was Pa Kes, from which came its Greek name of Phacusa
M. Naville found this name "Kes" in the inscriptions of the shrine of Nectanebo li (xxxth Dynasty, b.c. 367 350), at Saft-el-Henneh, and in such connections as showed that it
{Pha-Cusa).

Land of Goshen.
was
at the civil capital called

ii
this

"Kes,"that Nectanebo erected


"Pi Sopt."

shrine, in

the

religious

capital,

Therefore Phacusa
site now The names of

("Pa Kes"), the secular


religious capital of the

capital,

and Pi Sopt or Pa Sopt, the

XXth Nome, both stood upon the


the

occupied by the modern village of Saft-el-Henneh.

Goshen and Phacusa have


the Septuagint the land of

same origin in ancient Egyptian.-^ In Goshen is called Gesem of Arabia, i.e.,


of Arabia, and the term, though may yet have applied to

Gesem, which

is in

the

Nome

strictly referring

to a limited district,

the whole country occupied by the Israelites.

Kesem (Gesem)

is

mentioned
minatives
as to

in
in

such connections, and with such hieroglyphic deter-

the

Temple

lists

of offerings from the various districts,

show

stood the

hence the

that it is the civil name of the district and city in which Temple of Sopt, the God of the Arabian Nome, and land of Goshen was the country around Saft-el-Henneh,

within the triangle

lying

between the villages of

Saft,

Belbeis

and Tel-el-Kebir.
lo,

Again, the Coptic translation of Genesis xlv,

gives for our Goshen

Kesem

of

T arabia;

and

T arabia,
call

" the

Arabia,"
i.e.,

in

Coptic corresponds to what the Arabs

the Hauf,

the land between the Nile and the

Red

Sea, which

constitutes the present province of Sharkieh, and

where the

Nome

of Arabia was situate.

time when

further concludes that at the " the Israelites occupied the land, the name " Goshen

M. Naville

belonged to a region which had as yet no definite boundaries, and which extended with the increase of the people over the territory
they inhabited.

He

also thinks that the term "land of

Ramses"
that

{Genesis xlvii, ii)

applied to a larger area, and

included

part of the Delta which lies


a country which

to the eastward of the Tanitic branch,

Rameses ll (xixth Dynasty, B.C. 1300 1250) enriched with innumerable works of architecture, and which corresponds with the present province of Sharkieh. The city of Raamses {^Exodus i, 1 1 ) was situate in the Arabian Nome, but its
identification cannot

be regarded as established.

1 In the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology for June 1893, and writing on the newly ascertained Egyptian personification and worship of the zodiacal lights of the morning and evening twilights the God Sopt being that divine personification, and Pi Sopt or Pa Sopt the chief seat of his worship Brugsch shows that Gesem, the Coptic form of the ancient Egyptian name Keset, which was the name of the civil city Phacusa, means " the city of the twilights." The land of Goshen was so called as belonging to the city of Goshen.

THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS.


upon which the discovery of Pithom is certainly the tends to throw hght, one of the most important followed in going out Exodus, and the route which the Israelites The Israelites were settled in the land of Goshen, in a of Egypt.

Among

the historical events

region which perhaps extended further northward, but which certainly comprehended the Wady Tumilat, wherein was situated the
city of

Pithom, where, according to

the Septuagint, Jacob and

Bound for Joseph met when the Patriarch came to Egypt. The northern before them. Palestine, two different routes lay It went from route had been followed by the great conquerors. Tanis to the Syrian coast; it was the shortest way, but it went
through several fortresses, particularly the great stronghold of Zar.
Besides, the
first

part of

it

crossed a well-cultivated and irrigated

land occupied by an agricultural population, which was not a land


of pasture necessary for a people of shepherds.
route" is called in the Bible, the

This northern
Philistines ;

way of the land of the

and, from the

first,
it is

before any other indication as to the direction


said that the Israelites did not take that road.

they followed,

The

other was the southern route, which their ancestor Jacob had
still

taken before them, and which, according to Linant Bey, was

followed by the Bedawin of our days before the opening of the


canal.

They went

straight

from El Arish to the valley of Saba

Biar; while the traders, travelling through Kantarah, Salihieh,

and

Korein, followed very nearly the old northern route.

The

Israelites

had only
Gulf

to

go along the canal as

far as its
;

opening into the Arabian

at a short distance

from Succoth

then, pushing straight for-

ward, they would skirt the northern shore of the Gulf, and reach
the desert and the Palestine

"The
It is

children of Israel journeyed from

way without having any sea to cross. Rameses to Succoth."


Rameses, which
quite possible
It is

useless

now

to discuss the site of the city of

will

only be ascertained by further excavations.

that

we must here understand the name land of Rameses rather than to the city the land must have been either west or north of Pithom. The first station is Succoth, Thukut or Here it is important to observe that the name of the Thuktt.
as referring to the
;

From

Prof. Naville's Pithom, 3rd edition, pp. 27

31.

Etham.
place where the IsraeHtes
first

13
is

encamped

not the

name

of a city

but the

name

of a district, of the region of Thukut, in which, at the


fortifi-

time of the Exodus, there existed not only Pithom, but the
cations

which

Rameses

1 1,

his

predecessor, and

successor had
It
is

erected to keep off the plundering tribes of Bedawin.


natural that the

quite

camping ground of such a large multitude must have had a great extent. It was not at Pithom that the Israelites
halted; the gates of the fortified city were not opened to them,

nor were the store-houses.

Besides, the area of the enclosure

would have been quite

insufficient to contain

such a vast crowd.

They pitched
built,

their tents in the land of

Succoth where Pithom was

very likely near those lakes and those good pastures to which
to

the

nomads of Atuma asked

be admitted with their

cattle.

There has been much discussion about the


station,

site of the

next

Etham, which has always been considered


fortress.

as a city,

and

even as a
that

The name

Succoth, that of a region, shows

we

are not to look for a city of

Etham, but
papyrus

for a district, a
that,

region of that name.

Saneha says

in his

leaving the

Lake of Kemuer, he

arrived with his companion at a place called

Atima, which could not be very far distant. Let us now consult a document of the time of the Exodus, the papyrus Anastasi VI,
and read
in

M. Brugsch's

translation, "

We

have allowed the tribes

of the Shasu of the land of Atuma to pass the stronghold of King Menephtah of the land of Succoth, towards the lakes of Pithom-

of King Menephtah of the land of Succoth ; in order to feed themselves and to feed their cattle in the great estate of Pharaoh." That
is

what

consider as the region of Etham, the land which the

papyri

call

Atima, Atma, Atuma.


it

It

was inhabited by Shasu


were

nomads, and as
to the

was

insufficient to nourish their cattle, they

obliged to ask to share the good pastures which had been assigned
Israelites.
it

The

hieroglyphic determinative of

its

name

indicates that

was a borderland.

Both the nature of the land


what was said of Etham,

and
that

its
it

name seem

to agree very well with

was "on the edge of the wilderness" {Exodus xiii, 20). Another reason which induces me to think that Etham was a region, and not a city, is that in Niimbers (xxxiii, 6, 7, 8) we read
of the "wilderness of Etham," in which the Israelites marched three

14

Etham and Succoth.


sea.

This desert, then, would have its name; extended very far south of the city from which it derived have and one does not see how Etham, an Egyptian city, would inhabited by a Semitic population on given its name to a desert
days after having crossed the
the opposite side of the sea.
I

believe, therefore,

Etham

to be the region

ofAhma;

the desert

which began at Lake Timsah and extended west and south of it, near the Arabian Gulf. As this desert was occupied by Shasu and Satiu, Asiatic nomads of Semitic race, they may have had, some-

where on the shore opposite to Egypt, a sanctuary dedicated to and this was not necessarily a large place. their god Baal Zephon It may have been a small monument, a place of worship or of pilgrimage, like those numberless shekhs' tombs which are found
;

on the

hills

and mountains

of Egypt.

The

Israelites leaving Succoth, a region which

we now know

well, the

neighbourhood of Tell

el

Maskhutah, push forward towards


there, because

the desert, skirting the northern shore of the gulf, and thus reach
the wilderness of

Etham; but

of the pursuit of

Pharaoh, they have to change their course: they are told to retrace

between them and the desert. Holy Writ can only be determined conjecturally. Surveys and excavations are needed to give us accurate However, although it is impossible yet to bring information.
their steps so as to put the sea

The next

indications of

forward positive evidence

in

favour of this or that theory,

will

attempt to trace the route followed, relying on what seems most


probable.

Lord spake unto Moses, saying: 'Speak unto the children of Israel that they tura and encamp before Pi-hahiroth between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-Zephon; before it
the
shall ye

"And

We

must bear

encamp by the sea.'" {^Exodus xiv, 2). in mind that the sea was only
it

at a

very short
Biar.

distance from Succoth, and that

covered the valley of Saba

Judging from the appearance of the ground, as it is given maps, it is clear that the gulf must have been very narrow
space between Lake Timsah and the Bitter Lakes.

in the
in the
left

We

have

the Israelites in the land of Atuma, on the northern shore of the

Arabian Gulf, at the edge of the wilderness.

There they

receive

MiGDOL AND THE PASSAGE OF THE ReD


the

SeA.

15

command

to

camp near
back

the sea, so as to be separated by the

gulf from the desert which they had to cross.


therefore, to turn
;

They

are obhged,

to pass

between Pithom and the end of

the gulf, somewhere near Magfar, then to march towards the south
to the place

which
is,

is

indicated as their
are

question

now

Where

we

to look for

camping ground. The Migdol and Pi-Hahiroth ?


Itinerary,

As

for Migdol, the ancient authors,

and particularly the

mention a Migdol, or Magdolen, which was twelve Roman miles distant from Pelusium. It is not possible to admit that this is the

same Migdol which

is

spoken of

in

Exodus,

for then

it

would not
would

be the Red Sea, but the Mediterranean, which the

Israelites

have before them, and we should thus have


Schleiden and
track which
lies

to fall in with

MM.

Brugsch's theory that they followed the

narrow

between the Mediterranean and Serbonian bog.


are the arguments on which this system
is

However ingenious
based,
I

believe

it

must now be dismissed altogether, because we


Is
it

know

the site of the station of Succoth.

possible to admit

that from the shore of the Arabian Gulf, the Israelites turned to

the north, and marched forty miles through the desert in order to

reach the Mediterranean

The journey would have


in

lasted several
front

days

they would have been obliged to pass


;

of

the

fortresses of the north

they would have fallen into the way of the

land of the Philistines, which they were told not to take; and,
lastly,

the Egyptians, issuing from Tanis and the northern


easily intercepted them.

cities,

would have
Besides,
that
it

when the text speaks means the sea which


distant.

of the sea,
is

it

is

natural to think

close

by,

of which

they are
is

skirting
forty

the northern coast, and


All

not that

other sea, which

miles

these

reasons induce

me

to give

up
as

definitively the idea of the passage

by the

north,

and to return to

the old theory of a passage of the


it

Red

Sea, but of the

Red Sea

was

at that time, extending a great deal farther northward,

and

not the
position.

Red

Sea

of

to-day,

which occupies a very different

The Egyptian form


it

of the word
It is

Migdol xs

a very

common name;

means

2.

fort, a tower.

very likely that in a fortified region

there have been several places so called, distinguished from each

l6

MiGDOL AND THE PASSAGE OF THE ReD


by the name of the king who
built

SeA.

Other, either

them, or by some

local circumstance; just as there are in Italy a considerable

number
at the

of Torre.

should, therefore, with M. Ebers, place Migdol

present station of the Serapeum.

There the sea was not wide, and

the water probably very shallow; there also the

phenomenon which

took place on such a large scale when the Israelites went through,

must have been well known, as


of Egypt.

it is

often seen

now

in

other parts

As

at this point the sea

was

liable to

be driven back

under the influence of the east wind, and

to leave a dry way, the


fort,

Pharaohs were obliged


to

to

have there a
sea,

a Migdol, so

as

guard that part of the

and

to prevent the Asiatics of

the desert from using this temporary gate to enter Egypt, to steal
cattle

and to plunder the

fertile

land which was round

Pithom.

That there was one spot

particularly favourable for crossing because


is

of this well-known effect of the wind,

indicated by the detailed

description of the place where the Israelites are to camp.


is

There

a striking difference between this description and the vague data


It is

which we find before and' after.


to

not only said that they are

camp near

the sea, but the landmarks are given, Pi-Hahiroth,

Migdol, Baal Zephon, so that they could not miss the spot, which,
perhaps, was very restricted.
of the camping ground of the on the north-west Pi-Hahiroth, Pikerehet, not very far from Pithom on the south-east Migdol, near the present SeraIsraelites
: ;

We

have now the landmarks

peum

in front
hill

of them the sea; and opposite, on the Asiatic side,

on some

Shekh Ennedek, Baal Zephon. There, in the space between the Serapeum and Lake Timsah, the sea was
like

narrow, the water had not


sea,

much depth, the east wind opened the and the Israelites went through. This seems to me, at present, the most probable route of the Exodus. I think it agrees best with what we know of the oeoBesides,
it

graphical names, and of the nature of the land.

does

not suppose very long marches, which would have been quite impossible with a large multitude; the distances are not very great

and on that account the information which we owe


milestone
is

to the

Roman

invaluable.

17

w m w H Q W o
w

W g
w W
fa

<
CJ

o w

o H
CO
t-H ,-1

i
i8

<

<
o

Ji

19

'"

S
3-^

m 1
pq

W H

Q W O
11

W ^
P4
li.

W
<!

< u
l-H

< o o w o
H
Ph
l-H

o w o H
CO
fa

20

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES.


N.B. The dates in the following table as far as the xisth Dynasty are those which Professor Petrie has given in his Lectures as apprbximative. The uncertainty for the early period is very great, but the date assigned to the xviiith Dynasty is believed to be correct within one century. The later dates are taken chiefly from Bookh and Wiedemann from the xsvith Dynasty to the end of the native rule the error cannot be more than a few years.
;

OLD KINGDOM OR EMPIRE.


Dynasty.
I

Capital.

Dates

b.c.

II

Thinite Thinite

This, near

Abydos

This

Memphite IV Memphite V Memphite


III

Memphis, near Cairo

Memphis Memphis

..

...

VI Elephantine
VII Memphite VIII Memphite IX Heracleopolite

X Heracleopolite
XI Theban, or Diospolite

Elephantine, near Syene Memphis ... Memphis .. Ahnas (Heracleopolis Magna) Ahnas
,,

4782 4519 4217 4003 3726 3508 3327 3257 3111


301

Thebes (Diospolis)

2826

IDDLE KINGDOM OR EMPIRE.


XII Theban, or Diospolite
XIII

Theban

,,

Thebes (Diospolis) Thebes


,,

2783 2570
21 17

XIV Xoite

Xoi's, in the

Delta

(HYKSOS PERIOD).
XV Hyksos
XVI Hyksos
Avaris (Tanis Avaris
?)

2003
1933

NEW KINGDOM OR EMPIRE


XVII Theban, or Diospolite XVIII Theban ,,
,, ,,

Thebes (Diospolis) Thebes XIX Theban Thebes XX Theban Thebes XXI Tanite,and the Priest Kings Tanis and Thebes
,,
,,

1743 1592 1327 1183 1048

XXII Bubastite
XXIII Tanite XXIV Saite
...

Bubastis

Tanis
Sa'is

934 814
725 719 66s
...Sais
B.C.

XXV

Ethiopian
...

Thebes
Sais

XXVI Saite

PERSIAN PERIOD.
XXViith Dynasty [Susa]
B.C.

LAST NATIVE DYNASTIES.


527
XXViii Saite

408
587

XXIX Mendesian

Mendes

XXX Sebennyte

Sebennytus 350

MACEDONIAN RULE. B.C. 332 B.C. 305. PTOLEMAIC PERIOD. B.C. 305 B.C. 30.

ROMAN PERIOD. B.C. 30 a.d. 394. BYZANTINE RULE. a.d. 394 a.d. 638. A.D. 638, THE ARAB CONQUEST.

21

PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES ON THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT.


I. Classical Writers. 484-400 [?]). Book 11, and part of Book III of his History are devoted to Egypt, where he had travelled, note-book in hand, about 450 B.C., during the reign of the Persian Artaxerxes. Manetho (time of Ptolemy il, Philadelphus, third century B.C.) He was an Egyptian priest, with temple archives at his command, but wrote in Greek, the language of the court. It is only from his History of Egypt that we have any literary record of the dates and succession of the dynasties, and of that History only such fragments survive as were incorporated in the writings of Josephus, and the Christian chroniclers it was written soon

Herodotus

(b.C.

after B.C. 271.

Eratosthenes (b.C. 276-196). A fragment of his "Chronographia," preserved by Syncellus, contains a list of thirty-eight Theban Kings. DiODORUS SiCULUS (contemporary of Julius Caesar and Augustus). Book I of his "Historical Library" is exclusively devoted to Egypt, and later portions of his work give us invaluable information relating to the Persian period. He travelled in Egypt about B.C. 57. Strabo (about B.C.54-A.D.20: Augustus to Tiberius). His "Geography" takes into account all that he found to be most interesting and characteristic in every country. Book xvii deals with Egypt, where he travelled B.C. 24. Pliny, the Elder (a.d. 23-79). His "Natural History," which he compiled from literary sources, and not from observation, incidentally describes some of the products and monuments of Egypt, often as marvels, and summarises the geography. Josephus, Flavius (a.d. 37 to about 100). In his Greek "Jewish Antiquities," Josephus gives a fuller account of the Egyptian life of the Children of Israel than that given in the Old Testament. In his treatise defending Jewish culture and antiquity against the attack of Apion, he quotes many ancient authors in reference to the Exodus; above all, he gives long extracts from Manetho's history of Egypt. Plutarch (about a.d. 50 130). There are references to Egypt in his "Parallel Lives," and other works; his treatise on Isis and Osiris is exclusively devoted to considering the Egyptian religion. Ptolemy, the Geographer (flourished in Alexandria A.D. 139-160, surHe describes Africa and Egypt in Book IV of his viving Antoninus Pius). "Geography" of the then known world. This work was the great geographical text-book of Europe for more than a thousand years.

Antonini Itinerarium (made by successive Emperors down to the This is the official Itinerary of the whole Roman empire of Antonines). the period, in which the principal and cross-roads, together with a list of the places and stations upon them, and the distances from one place to another, in Roman miles, are all given. Africanus (wrote in 221 A.D.) ^He composed a Chronicle of the History As regards Egypt, his history was largely based on that of the World. His work is lost, with the exception of certain extracts preof Manetho.

served by other writers.

EUSEBIUS

(A.D.

264

writings of Eusebius. from the lost work of Africanus, and


translation.

Allusions Egypt are contained His chronicle of Egyptian history chieflyvarious taken
,

340).

to

in

is

is

most

fully

preserved in an Armenian
A.D.) This chronicler predecessors, including

also

GeORGIUS Syncellus (lived in the 8th Century made large extracts from the writings of his

those of Africanus, and hence of Manetho.

22
11.

Modern Works.
Geographische Inschriften.

Brown,

Major.

BrUGSCH, H.

Dictionnaire Geographique.

Lake Moeris and the Fayum.

* Geschichte Algyptens unter den Pharaonen. Catalogue des Monume?its et Inscriptions de I'^gypte Antique. Div. I. Tome I. de la frontiire de Nubie a Ko7n Ombos: par J. DE MORGAN, U. BOURIANT, etc. DiJMlCHEN, J., and Meyer, E. Geschichte des alten Aegyptens.

Erman,

a.

*jEgypten und Aigyptisches Leben im Altertum.


:

Expeditions

Description de I'^gypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont etefaites en ^gypte pendatit I'expedition de I'armee frangaise. 10 vols,
text
;

14 vols, plates.
J.

Champollion,
plates.

F.

Monuments de I'^gypte
2 vols.
dell'

et

de la Nubie.

vols, of

Notices descriptives.
I.

ROSELLINI,
3 vols, plates.

/ Monumenti Egitto delta Nubia. 9 12 Lepsius, R. Denkmaler aus ^gypten und ALthiopien.
e

vols, text;

vols, plates;

vol. text.

-loires publics frangaise au Caire.

par

les

membres de

la

Missioti Archeologique

Journals:

und Alterthumskunde.

Zeitschrift fur y^gyptische Sprache

Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie et a I'archeologie lEgyptiennes et Assyriennes.

Konigsbuch. Voyage dans haute ^gypte. Karnak. Dendirah. Deir-el-Bahari. MasperO, G. Histoire ancienne des Peiiples de I'Orient.
Lepsius, R.

Revue ^gyptologique.

Mariette, a.

la

Abydos.

Etudes de

Mythologie

et d'Archeologie

^gyptiennes.

* Histoire de

l'

Orient.

Petrie, W. M. Flinders. Ten Years Digging in Egypt. Memoirs: A Season in Egypt, Hawara, Kahun, Illahun, Medum, and Tell el Amarna. History of Egypt (forthcoming).
Societies:

Fund
(see

Excavations and Survey Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration end of this Atlas).

Wiedemann, A.

Proceedings and Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. ALgyptische Geschichte.

WiLKlNSON,Sir Gardner
*

Manners and Customs ofthe Ancient Egyptians.


be had in English translation.

May

GENERAL MAP OF ANCIENT EGYPT


WITH

ADJACENT COUNTRIES.
36

40

46

TnaU CoajS-

MAP OF ANCIENT EGYPT.


C

III.

THE DELTA TO BENI SUEF.

Table of the Nomes, with their Capitals and the Gods worshipped
IN

THEM

(i

to

XX

of

Lower Egypt and xx

to xxii of

Upper Egypt).

GENERAL MAP OF MODERN EGYPT AND ADJACENT COUNTRIES.

II

Desert
Cultivated land and

pasturage
|

SCALE OF MILES

D'

Table of the Nomes, with their Capitals and the Gods worshipped
IN

them

(ix to

XIX of Upper Egypt).

MAP OF ANCIENT EGYPT.


A

IV

BENI SUEF TO EKHMIM.

Table of the Nomes, with their Capitals and the Gods worshipped
IN

THEM

(i

to IX of

Upper Egypt).

MAP OF ANCIENT EGYPT.


B

EKHMIM TO PHILAE.

MAP OF ETHIOPIA.

VI.

ASWAN TO SEMNEH.

MAP OF ETHIOPIA.

VII.

S\xG z Canal aal

V
CO

Pii

CO

D Q O X M X
ni

a,

INDEX TO MAP OF MODEKN EGYPT,


No.
II.

Ababdeh, D g-h Abadeh, C g

Adda,

Abd

el

Hab

(Kokreb),

Eb Aden Ammam, D g
Addereworri,

Angusab, f Arabian desert, C


Arab's Gulf,

Abkor, C g Aboody, C f
Abonkir,

Adiabo,
Afat,

F
g

Tower,

b
(desert),

C
f

Agabl,

Absari,

(bay)

Agayl,

Eh Bi

Ard Jiddar, E c Argab Teshagoa


Argeyn,
Ariab,

C
g

f I,

Absol,

Abtin,

D D

g g

Abu Ahmed, D g
Bellah (lake),

Aghig (mountain), F g Ain Abu Suweirah, D c Amur, C d el Haderah, D o


,,
, ,

Argo and

Arkhab,
Asfoun, Asgade,
Ashrafi,

D
F
I.,

d
i

,,

el

Kudeirat,

Bnrra (well),Ch Darah, E e Delek, D h


Dis,

,. ,,


,,

el
el

Sheb, B e Weibe, E b

Askalan,
Asrafi,

Dg
g

,,

Hamid, B h Hawara, D c
Kelid,

Dc Do I., D c
(well),

Assanaga

Dom,
Egb,

Dg
D
i
i

Akaba
Akaba,

Bo (gulf), D
B
c

Asses Ears, B e Assouan, D e


Assur,

ez Zusar,

,,
,,

Fatmeh, C g
Gerad, C
Girgeh,
Gusi,

,,
,,

Akaba el Benat, C f Akabah esh Shamiyeh, E Akabah Zumameh, D g Akash, C f


Akeeg,

Atbara,
o

Dh Eh
(river)
,

Atbara
Atfeh,

E b-i

Cg

Haifa (wells), Haraz, D i

Akka
Akra,

(Acre),

C Atireh, C f Atmoor (desert), Atmun, D g


Ayoun,

Df

,,

Hashim,

Alem

el Halfi,

Hereji, D e Hor, D e J ez Zega. ,,

,,
,,

Al Engreyah,
Alexandria,

Bb Dg
b

Eo Do Azidei, E b
Ayina,

Algeden,
Algueib,

Klea (wells), D h Koloda, Eg'

B Eh Dg

Baaluk, E Baga, D h

AUataksora (mountain),

Mohary, B Nub, D h
Odfa,

,,

Dg Saghara, B o
Said, C e Samud, G h

,,

Amadib, F h Amandar, C g Ambigole (cataract), C Ambub, C d Ambukal, g Amet, E g

Bahak (cataract), g Babiri (Lower Egypt),


Bahneseh, o Bahr Attab Arrelan,

Bahr

bela

Ma,

Baidib, E Bakri,

Df B b-c-d Df

Shaar (Myos Hermos),


Sh^r,
Sher,
Syale,

Amka, C

Cg

,,

D D

Amman, E

Balat,

Seiyal,

Ch

Dh
e

Abut, D i Abutaki, B b
Abutingil,

Ammara, C f Ammarsheem, C e Amri (wells), C h Amur, D g


Anagulle,

Banaghir, E h Baraka, E P h Barango, D i Bardi (island),

Bardowal
Haifa),

(lake),

Abu
Acre

Usher,
(or

Ch

Akka)

Angash (Wady Aniba, C e Annak, D e

Barea,

Ph
(cataract),

Bareedy

Bar

el

Hadjar,

INDEX TO MAP OF MODEEN EGYPT.


Barnd,

Changur, C h

El Abid, C
Adek,

c
i

Baslein,

Batn el Bayuda
,,

g Hajar,

C
C h

Dh Chime, D o
Cheli,

(well), C;li

Coorcoor
Cosseir,

(oasis),

(steppe),
(desert),

Elag (wells), C h El Agel, E e Akaba, C d


,,

Cosseir, Old (Philotera),

Aliab,
,,

Dh
i

Bazeh, E i Bedareh, C d

Amra, C
Arak,

Bedshem,
Beillany,

D
C
a
f

Beisan,

E
C

Beit

el

Gawa, C g

Belagenda,
Belbeis,

Ph

Dabab, E h Dabba, D i Daga, E h Dahal, D c Dakkeh, D e Daksheleb, D g


Dal,

,,

C g

Arish,
,,

,,

Db Bagara, D g Beda, E d
(island),

Elbeh
,,

(mountains),

Bender el Beni Hasan, C c Eafa, C d


Benisouef
,

b Eeber.^D e

Cf Damanhoor, C b
Dameur,
or Nafadik,

El Belka, E b Bescum, E h d Betish,

,,

Damietta, C b

Bum, C h
Busaireh,

Benneh, C g Ben Naga, D h

Dar el Mughr, F c Dar Halfiyeh, D h


Darkein,

D Berber, D
Berab,

Darmout,
g

Ed De
C
o

Eb Egedeh, D h Elephantine (island),

Dashoor,

Dg
C
e

Dead

Sea,

Berenice (ruins), E^e Berfedu, i


Beris,

Debbee Sale, F h Debbeh, C g


Debod,
Defar,

El Fasher, E h Pekyibrahim, ,, Fokari, P d Gezir, C d


,, ,,

,,

Gimmez,
Gindi,

D
h

Bermin, C c Bersbeh, C o
Bettera,
Bir,
,,

Cg Degwig Eagd, C Dehmir, D e


Delligo,

,,

,,

Goz (wells), C h Gwa, C i Gwernaiah, C i


Hadeida,

Deiroot esh Sherif


Karaet,[_D g e

C d

,,

Abu

Hadgir,

Birbe,

Delta, the,

,,

Hagra,
Hareib,

Dh Eh
,

Bir Darfaooi,
,,

el el

,,

d Mashiyah, D o Nabeh, D f

D
b

Denderah, D d Dendur, D e
Derr,

,,

,,

es Seb,

Derrer,

Shamael,

D
C

Birket el Haj,
,,

g b

Desoor,

Dh Dd
(Old),

,,

Cd Harreyry P d Hassa, D g Hegera, B i


Haimar (well), Ci

,,

Diggo,

Fh
C g

Helba,

Eurun, C e Temseh,.C;b

Dongola (North), C g

Helleh,
,,

Hibeh,
Hiss,

Dd Dd
f

Bir Nauarik,

,,

Doosh, C e
Dougiyet,
Dra,

Sarniyeh,
Sreb,

Cg

D D

Cg

,,
,,

Birti,

Cg h
e

Bd Duderdabb,

,,

Biaagra,

Dungum

(spring),

,,

Houra, E d Howarte, C c Howeiyat, C g Hubagwi, C h


Jau,

Bisha,

Fh

Dunkuaz,
Ebar,
Ebret,

Bh

,,

Bisharen (desert), ?D Bitter Lakes, C b Borgadeh, C g


Bostan,

Jindel,

,,

Ka'a,

Eh
t

Kab,

Bd Eo Dd

Bourlos (lake), C b Brothers (island), D d Brumbel, C o Bulak, C d

Ebsamboul (Abu Simbel), C Ed Damar, D g Ed Dubbah (wells), C h Ed Dugim, D i Edermih (cataract), C g


Edfou, D e Egarin, D i

,,

Dg
D
b
e

,1

Kabur, g Ealabsheb,
Kalas,

,,
,, ,,

C g Eantara, C

Bnlu

el Argol,

Cd

Easan,
Easr,
,.

D
d

Burkat
Cairo,

(island),

,,

C b

Bkhmin, C d El Abaca, D h

,,

Bo
d

Eersh,

Carmel (monntain),
Ceiga,

Abdeh,
,,

,,

Df

Abeidieh,

,,

Eharjeh, C d Ehulasah, D b

INDEX TO MAP OF MODERN EGYPT.


El Khulit,
,,

Gabra,

Cg Koweh, D i Kudrowab, D g ,, Euds (Jerusalem), ,,


Kirbekan,
Eur,
,,
,,

Gabra (wells), C h Gakdul (wells), D g


Galakla,

Dh
Ch

Gallaweeh, C d

C g Eurum, D g, Manawi, D g

Gamba

(wells),

Harrat el Khuturra, F d Harrat e' Sydenyin, E o Harrat Moahit, F d Hasabala, E i Hassanee (island), E e Hawaia, D h

Garderamak, Gar en Nebi,


b
Garnafa,

Be Dh
Gd

Dh Hemenar, C g
Hellet,

Mashitah,

E
b

Dg

Mek,

Dh
F

Gau

el

Kebir,

Melohat,
,,

Gaza,
Gedia,

Menawi, D g Menshieh, d ,, Metzareib, E a Motmar, d ,, Muea, D g


,, ,,

Db Dh

Hesban, E b Hormareb, D g Hudeibah, P e


Ibrim,

Ordeti (N. Dongola),

Gerad, C h Gerada, D i Gerashab, D h Gerazeh, D i Gereyiy B o


Gerfedu,
Gergaf,

e
i

Id Nibeg, C
Igadeh,

lizeam,
Iran,

C
f

,,

Sonane,

Sugaleb,

Eh Eh

Fi Bi
g

Ismailia,
Itfu,

C d

Uk,

Gertod,

Em

Wasta, C d Matre, E g

Mogran, D g Ensheyfa, P d

Ghatta (bay), Ghizeh, C b Gienneh, C d


Gilif (desert),

Jafa,

Db
D
d

Jaffatine (island),

Dg

Dc Erment, D d Er Eih, E b
EreBais,

Girgeh,
Girri,

C d
i

d Jebel Adraneb, C f Agagemab, D ,,


Jara,
,,

Girshe,

D
C

Er Eumi, F b Esdood, D b Eehetabah, D h


Bshmunein, C c Esh Shoona (Leuoos Portus) Esneh, D d
,

Golhan
Goorti,

(island),
f

,,

Bh Ailo"n, E b Anaz, F d
Ain,
Araif en Nakah,

Goorgote,

,, I,

Asma,
Ataka,

Dg
C
o

Gos Kedjeb,

Eh

,,

Guba,

Dh

,,

Bs Eb

Safiyeh (wells),

Ch

E'Sh'habboo,
Salayieh,

d
i

Gubata Awara, B o Gueyra, E c Guiren Tawa, C f


Gulfah,

Bakutueb, E h Baran, D e

,,

Dh

Df Dh Dokhan, D d
Bisbish,

Cheki,
el

Saribe,

Ch

,, Sueimanieh, Etsrah, F b

Dg

Dh Turiab, D Eynunah, E e
Et Tih,
Ezrak,

Gurkab, D h Gurneh, D d Gutaba, D g Gurzael el Quez,


Habsai,

Abia,

li

'

Blag,
el
el

Oh
Ch

Erefah,

Dh

,,
,,

Hagr,

elTyh,
Erefah,

Dh Dc

elTyh.Dc

Hadanet,

E li

Ch
E
g

Fadasi, D

Hagar (plateau), F h Hagona, C i Haj (Egtn. route),

Brkowit,

DBF c-d-e

,,

es Sofiyeh,

Eynunah,
ez Zega, ez Zeit,

Dh Eo

Faioum

(the),

Di Farafreh, B d FarasB, D e
Fakirkir,

Pd Hakl, D Halfaha,
Halfiyeh,

,,

Cg

,,

Fariad

(island),

Cg

Farmundi, C f Farshoot, C d
Fateereh,

Dh Hamadun, D e Hamdal, E h Hamdun, D i


Hammadiyah Handak, C g
Handub, E g Hannak, C g Hannek, C g

(wells),

,,

Dc Ferageh, D e Garab, D c Gehdar, E h Gharib, D c Gurrat, E g


Hallat

D
g
o
f

Ch

,,

Ammur, E

Fayab,
Feiran,
Ferket,

,,

D
C

Hauran, E a Hawi, C h
Helal,

Feshn, C c
Filik,

Eh E
e

Cg

Foul Bay,

Haou, C d

Db Hummam, D Jowla, E d Eaterin, D o

INDEX TO MAP OF MODERN EaYPT.


Jebel Kissere,

Kufrah, KnlgeU,

Kureb,

Dg Dc Cg Eh

Kalat Kalat

Mandera, C f Masrura, C i

Memfayah, D d Merzum, F d Miama, 3? b Mousa, D c


Muksbeib,

Eb Eb Kalat en Nakbl, D o Kalat Medawara, B o Kamgal, D g Kamlin, D i Kandjar, D b


el
el

Hessy,

Belka,

E Eh Tagel, B h Khutraneh, B b ferba, B i Eobban, D e


Khor Omrahid,

Sawa,

b
f

Murhat el Mora, C Musmar, E g Ojmeh, D e

Karaken, C f Karanak, D i Eardaseh, D e Karkabat, B h Earnak, D d


Kasbia,

Eodokol, C g Koft, D d

Eokan,

e
e

Eoom Ombo, D Korasi, E h


Korkas
d
(island),

Eorosko,

Eash

(wells),

Korrobi,
Eorti,
Eorti,

D
g
e

Owdum, C h
Paraseh,
Eeft,

Fh

Cg Kasr Ahmed, D d
Easinkar,
el

,,

Rosas, D d Sakbar, C d

Salakh,
Sebteb,
Serbal,



,,
, ,

E E

g
c

Akhdar, F c Lebekb, C d Ezrak, E b Eerun, C c Zerka, B b Eassaba (wells), C e


el

D Eous, D
C

d
f

Eoye,

Ereder,

Eubaneeb,
Kubishi,

D
g

Kueh,
Kufit,

Sberrara,
Sbigre,
Silsili,

Eassala,

,,
,,
,,

Df De Sobaunit, D Soterba, E i Sotirba, E g


Suam, C d

Eatieh,

E h Db
(cataract),

Dd Ph
C
g

Eufriat (wells),

Eauwumi, C d
Eazeroon

Kunawat,

B
C

a g

Kurukol,

Kednet, F h Eeueineitab,

Eus Abu Deluah, C h

Kenneb

(old),

Dg Dd

Euskus, C g Kutraneh, B b

,,

Tayibal Ism, Tenaaep, C o

,,

Tobeyk, P c Tuenai, E g
Uriba,

Kenneh, D d Kenur, D g Eerak, E b


Eerreri,

Dh
C h

,,

g
e

Eez

Zaraf,

Lahaiwa, C d Libyan desert, B-C b-c-d-e Lud, D b Luxor, D d


b

Wady Lehnma, D Witter, P d Yob, E h


Zobara,

Ehan Yunas,

Khartum, D h Ehor Abdum, C g


,,
,,

D
C d

B Jerasb, E
Jelall,

b
(island),

,,

Jerin el Ful,
Jerizet

W. Jemal

,,
,,

Abu Herud, g Abu Eashim, C h Ali, E h Anseba, E h Aradaeb, E h


Baraka,
el

Maan, E b Maatuk, D i Macour (island),

e
f

Macowa (island), E Madik, C f


Magaga, D g Maharakat, E i Maharroka, D e Mahass, C f Mahatepe, F i Mahtul (weUs), C g
Mais,

Jerusalem,

Dg Jordan (river), E a-b Jubal (island), D e


Jiora (spring),

,,

Kababish, C h
Eabati,

,,
,,

Abu Euk, C h elBrega, C h el Erefah, h el Gash, E h el Laban, D h


el

Dh
(cataract),

Oalaz,

Makafab, Makhgar,
Maleki,

Ef D d D
h
e
i

Kabenat
Eabushi,

Cg

el

Wabari,

Makhmudieh,

Dh E
o

Eadd Dbaba,
,

,,

C h Fagedel, B h
ez Zaraf,

Kaf F b Kafr Ehab, D d Kagmar, C i


Kaibar,

,,
,, ,, ,, ,,

Gergaf,

Manakil, D Manfaloot,

Bh Harabsoid, E h
Hambut,
Hassanawi, C h Kashmil, E i

Cg
i

Eaibub, C

Kaisariyeh,

,,

Kalaat Ajroud, C_b Kalabab, B h

,,

Mamam, E h Mesalami, E i Omadeh, F g

d Mankabat, G d Mansora, C d Mansurah, C b Mansurieh (island), Marabut, B b

D
E

Marduuah (island), Marea, F h

INDEX TO MAP OF MODERN EGYPT.


Mareb
(river),

Mareotis

(lake),

Marowan,

Maruarti (island), C g Masara, B d

Mugatta (island) Mukaa, D o Mukari, D g Munsuf, C d


Nabesh, D f NabluB, E b Nalowaty, C

Eas Gharib,
,, ,,

Gimsah,
Golhan, Jerboah,
Jusreah,

Dc Do Ee
F
e
f

,,
,,

E
E
d

Maahabeh (island), E d Masmas, C t Massawady, D h Mataleb, C o Matarieh, C b Matammeh, D h Matammeh, D h


Medinefc el Faioum,

,,
,,

Kurkumah, E d
Maharash,
Marabat,

E
d

,,

Namahn (island), E d Natron Valley and Lakes, B-C b Nazareth, E a


Nedi,

,,

MelkelOud,
Mrek,

De
e

D E
E

Mohammed, D
Eowa,
f

Mehallet,

Meherjg,
Mekerif,

Cb Cd
g
c

Nedim (well), D g Nesle Sheikh Hassan,


Nmara, E a
Nowabat, C e Nuba, D h
Nubia, D-E-F g-h-i
Nurain,

Eassay,

Eh

Eas Shagra,

Tobit,

D
b

d
e

Tundeba,

Meks, B b Melawi, C
Melnia,
,

W. Turiam, Eedesia, D e

Eh
b

Eeyaneh, C d

Menouf C

Eoocan
Oasis, Coorcoor,
,,

(island),

Dh E
f

Menzaleh (lake), C b Menzaleh, C b Memfayah, D d

C
c

Eosetta,

C b

Great,
Lesser,

d-e

Eowa

(Eanai) bay,

,,

Eoway,
f

Memphis (ruins), Merawi, C g


Meriar (island),
Merie,

Selimeh, Western,

B B

Eufaz, Saal Hashish,


Sabderat,
ha,
di,

E g Di

D D

d d

Obisco,

Eh
e

e
of,

German, E a

Safaj (island),

Dh Meroe (pyramids), D h Merreh, D h


Meroe, Island

Okmeh, C Olag, G g

D
d

Dh
D
E
C-D
g
d-e-f

Om Bak, D
Dhayr
Doban,
el

Saghe,

Mersa Amid,

Arrakea,

Ombrega, E i Om Deras (cataract),


,, ,,

Said, the,

Dhiba, D d Dongola, E Duroor, E g

Sakai es Safiyeh, C
Salalat,

(desert),

Cg

Salamad
e
i

(wells),

C g

Omdurman, D h

Salehiyeh,

C b
c

Ef Ef Mubarik, D Shab, B e
Fedja,
Haleib,

Om
,,

Abas,

E
G
i i

Samelood,

Kadissa,

Sammoud, C
Samunt,
Sarras,

,,

Kohl,

D
f

,,

Sayala,

Sheikh Barud, EJg Shekeli, D d


Sulakh,

Say
Palinurus (rock), E e Petra (ruina of), E b
Philae,

(island),

Seberget (island),

Zebaider,

Sebou, C e Sedinga, C

Mesalamia, D i Meshteh, C d Metaghara, C o


Mgitta,

Port Dumayghah, Port Said, G b

Seflac,

C d

Sefurieh,
Seilab,

Midian, Minieh,

E
C

a
o

Mirkisseh,

Eahmanieh, C b Eaikah (island), E d Eamleh, D b Kas Abiad, F e

Ea Dg Sekket, D e

Selimeh (oasis), Selma, E d S'em Magdid, C

B
i

Mitkinab, E h Mitraheny, C c

Mogarra (wells), B e Mograt (island), D f Moie tel Abd, D d Moilah (wells), D d Moilah (Muweileh), E
Moser,

Abu Fatimeh, E f Abu Mud, E e Abu Mussarib, E d Abu Semar, D d


Beeban,
Benass,
o

Senmeh,
Senour,
Serra,

Cf Eb

Seriba Ambareb,

Eh

Dd E e
f

Serra Garby,

Elba,
Feger,

E
F

Shaab Abu Fenderah, E e Himara, E e ,,


,,

F
C

El Haif,
Furtul,

B
c

Ghadireh,

Moshi, Mousa,

Suady,

Shaba, G g

VI.

INDEX TO MAP OF MODEEN EGYPT.


(island),

Shadwan
Shaluf,

Shaibarah

(island),

Dd E d

Suega,
Suez,

Cd
b

Urbi,

TJrikeis,
i

a
Gir,
f

Suhani,

Shamba,

B li Dh

Suk Abu

Sin,

Wady Abu

Cg
1

Sharona, C o Shebaoat (wells), Sheb Alun, C e


Shegat,

Sukkot, C f Sulkhad, E a Syene (Assouan),


Tafa,

Absa, d

AUake,
Allake,

Df

C
el

Amadan, F d

Sheikh
,,

Walia, D h Hassan, D h

,,

Tahta,
Tageta,

,,

Sheikieh,

Shendy,

Dh Dh
Cc P o
c

Dh
C
d
i

De Eg Amur, D g
Amai, Amet,
Arab, E g Arabah, c
Dafielli,

Tahtah,

,,

Dh
Sherafeh,
Shererat,

Takazzeh (river), D-E-F Tamagwet, D g Tamai, E g

,, ,,

Sherm,

Abban, Abu, E

E
f

Tamaniat, D h Tamanib, E g
f

Abu Amarah, E
Datek,

Tambouk, E g Taneh, C e
Tangoor, C f Tankassi, C g


,, ,,

E Df Dehib, E f Derunkad, E Dimoka, D f


Assiam,
Dras, E g el Ain, D c
,,

,,

,, ,,


,,

Ef Ghat, E f Jeseireh, E f Med, E e Nehleh, E f Shora, E f


F
f

Tebuk, E o Teheyn, F d
Tel Atrib,

,, ,,

Ammar,

Braikhah,
Charar,

Tenedah, B d That el Hadj, Thebes, D d

Dc Dh Arabah, E b-o Pag, D e Fokari, F d


Akaba,

,,

Gar,
,,

Hodein,

E
c-g

B d Gubeten, E f Hassey, E e
Demerah,

Theran
Thofya,
Thulla,

(ruins),

Fg

,,

,,
,,

Humath, F d
Kab,

Fc F"

,,
,,

,,

Moaddan,
Rararit,

Pd
e

Heb

el

Madfu,

Thyale,

D
C

,,

D
i

Kafafah,

Ed

Tiberias (lake),
Tiberias,

,,

,,

Sany,

Fd

Shaab, E f Sheikh, E e

a
f


,,

Shely,

Tinareh,

Tarfeh,
,,

Yenbo,

Shershare,

Tineh, C b Tiran (island),

Tyh, C c
i

,, ,,

Shiban,
Shitah,

Cg Cg

Shobek, E b Shorofat e' Nejed,

Fd

Todluk, E h Toggan, E h Toogh, D d Tokar, F g

en Nail, P c Negar, E ,,
Esserba,

D
g

Ferah,

Shuwak,
Sinai,

E
c

Tomat,

E
c

Ghadaghid, Gizzl, P d
Gluarundel,

D D

Sibil Bagadi,

Tomantotal,
Tor,

D
A
B
C

,,

Habob,
Halfah,
Jemal,
Karit,

E
C

g
f

Siugat,
Siout,

g
e

Tosk,

C d

Trinkitat,

,,

Haratreb,

E
e

Siwah,

Toara,

D
C

Siyall (island),

Tuari (cataract),
Tuoki,

Cg

,, ,,

Skaghab,
Sneta,

Ed
e

Kurra,

P d

Soba
Solib,

(ruins),
f

Soleib,

Tura, C g Turf en Ruku, D e Tyflah (island), F f

Laemeb,
Langheb,
Malik,

Dg E

,,

Songari,
Sori,

,,

C g Sortot, C g
Sotahl (wells),

Ch
f-g

Souakin,

E-P

Souakin,

g
i

Um Um Eeis, E a Umm Bokhara, Um Shash, F d


Dh Umurumah, E
Umturef,

XJmboge, D g Gegaz, E d

,,

,,

Bh D Margarit, D f Mindet, E e Mojeb, E b Mokatteb, D e


Mandera,

Cd

,,

Mokattem, C g-h

Mousa
Nabeh,

(Petra),

Soudan, B-C-D-E-F Souhag, C d

Df Naham, D o

INDEX TO MAP OF MODERN EGYPT.

Wady

Nar,

Wady
,,

Sirr,

Wundi,

Nejed,
Nejib,

Ed Ed
D
e

Terib Arig,

g
f

Therry,

Fd

Nukeri (Neohesia), g Eayan, C o


Ossir,

urn Kabrit,

Yarmiik (river), Yenbo, F e

E
c

Wah
,,

Dd Satab, E h
Satag,
Sela,

,,

Werran, F a el Bahrieh (Lesser Oasis), B o Dakhel (Western Oasis), B d ,, Kharjeh (Great Oasis), G d-e ,,
b
(El Weg),

Yuba

(island),

Zafaraua
Zagazig,

(island),

D
h

Fh

Wardan,

Zerak

el

b Kurdi,

Dg Ee Shetal, E e
Selem,

Wedge

Zerbul,

Shab,

Woad

Naga,

Wold Medina,

Di Zeribah, D i Zerka, E b

INDEX TO MAPS OF ANCIENT EGYPT, ETHIOPIA,


Nos.
I.

&c.

& III.VIII.

INDEX TO MAPS OF ANCIENT EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, ETC.

INDEX TO MAPS OF AUOIBNT EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, ETC.

INDEX TO MAPS OP ANCIENT EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, ETC.

EQYPT EXPLORATION FUND PUBLICATIONS.


I.

The Store-City of Pithom and the Route of the Exodus. Memoir for By Edouard NavILLE. With Thirteen Plates and Two Maps. Third
1888.
255-.

1883-4. Edition.

II.

Tanis. Part I. Memoir for 1884-5.' By W. M. FLINDERS Petrie. 2i,s. teen Plates and Plans. Second Edition. 1888.

With

Six-

\\\.

Naukratis. Parti. Memoir for 1885-6. By W. M. FLINDERS Petrie. With Chapters by Cecil Smith, Ernest A. Gardner, and Barclay V. Head.

With
IV.

Forty-four Plates and Seven Plans.

Second Edition.

1888.

25^.

the Shrine of Saft-el-Henneh. Memoir for 1886-7. By Edouard Naville. With Eleven Plates and Plans. Second Edition. 1888. 25^. V. Tanis.- Part \\.,Nebesheh {Am) and Defenneh {Tahpanhes). Memoir for 1887-8. By W. M. Flinders Petrie. With Chapters by A. S. Murray and F. Ll. Griffith. With Fifty-one Plates and Plans. 1888. 255-.

Goshen,

and

VI. Naukratis.
VII.

VIII.

Part II. Memoir for 1888-9. By Ernest A. GARDNER. With an AppendixbyF. Ll. Griffith. With Tvi^enty-four Plates and Plans. 1889. 25J. The City of Onias, and the Mound of the Jew, the Antiquities of Tell el Yahudiyeh. Extra Volume for 1888-9. By Edouard Naville and F. Ll. Griffith. With Twenty-six Plates and Plans. 1890. 255-. Bubastis. Memoir for 1889-90. By Edouard Naville. With Fifty -four
Plates and Plans.
25^.

Two Hieroglyphic Papyri from Tanis. An Extra Volume. Translated by F. Ll. Griffith and W. M. Flinders Petrie. With Remarks by Professor Heinrich Brugsch. With Fifteen Plates. 1889. 5j. X. The Festival Hall of Osorkon II. in the Great Temple of Bubastis. Memoir for 1890-1. By Edouard Naville. With Thirty-nine Plates. 1891. 25^-. XI. Ahnas El Medineh. Memoir for 1891-2. By Edouard Naville and The Tomb of Paheri at El Kab. By J. J. Tylor and F. Ll. Griffith. Memoir for 1892-3. By EDOUARD Naville. Fifteen Plates XII. Deir el Bahari.
IX.
;

and Plans.

1894.

25 j-.

Special Extra Reports. By Edouard Naville, Percy E. The Season's Work at Ahnas and Beni Hasan. Newberry, and G. Willoughby Eraser. 1891. 2s. 6d. Archsological Report, 1892-3. Edited by F. Ll. GRIFFITH. With Seven Illustrations and Maps. 1893. 2s. 6d. Archseological Report, 1893-4. Edited by F.Ll. GRIFFITH. With Three Illustrations, 2s.6d. Plan and Maps. 1894.

Publications of the Archseological Survey of Egypt.


Edited by F. Ll. Griffith, B.A., F.S.A.
First

Memoir (to Subscribers 1890-91). Beni Hasan. Part I. By PERCY E, Newberry. With Plans and Measurements of the Tombs by G. W. ERASER.

Forty-nine Plates. Price 25.y.; to Subscribers, 20i-. Beni Hasan. Part II. By PERCY E. (to Subscribers 1891-92). Newberry. With Appendix, Plans and Measurements by G. W. Eraser. Thirty-nine Plates. Price 25^-. to Subscribers, 20s. El Bersheh. Part I. By PERCY E. Third Memoir (to Subscribers 1892-3). Newberry. Thirty-four Plates (two coloured). 25^.

Second Memoir

Sir

JOHN FOWLER,

Bart., K.C.M.G.

37,

Great Russell Street, W.C

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