Facial Reconstruction From Skeletal Remains !

By: P.Vinay & M.Ganesh Kumar, III B.D.S., Ragas Dental College

What is Forensic Medicine?
Forensic medicine, also called Legal medicine or medical jurisprudence deals with the interaction of medical science with the law. The name comes from ‘forum’, the Roman market-place where lawyers did their business.


What is death ?
Death is a process, not an event. There is no single definition for death. Death is not merely the absence of life, but the cessation of life in a previously viable organism.

means the cessation of respiration and metabolism of the body tissues.Classification of death Somatic • Cellular Somatic death ----. because he is irreversibly unconscious and can’t communicate with the environment and is unaware of his own or the world’s existence. 4 .the person no longer functions as a unit of society. which is soon followed by autolysis and decay. • Cellular death ----.

Causes of death Forensic Related Self induced death: Railway track suicide CO inhalation Gunshot suicide 5 .

Causes of death Forensic Related Others induced death: Sexual assault Road accident Electric hot-plate torture 6 .

Why are we concerned about death? Almost all doctors. 7 .come in to contact with death at some time or other in their professional work. The legal & ethical aspects of this inevitable process form an important part of Forensic Medicine. whatever their speciality.

Facial Reconstruction Three types:  2-D Facial Reconstruction 3-D Facial Reconstruction Computer Aided Facial Reconstruction 8 .

3-D Facial Reconstruction The Making 9 .

3-D Facial Reconstruction Methods There are 3 methods: Anatomical method Tissue depth method Combination method 10 .

3-D Facial Reconstruction Armamentarium required Skull Tripod Stand Cotton Clay Clay modelling instruments Instant adhesive (ex: Fevikwik) 11 .

3-D Facial Reconstruction Take photograph of the skull with markers for future reference 12 .

3-D Facial Reconstruction 13 .

All tissue depth data are utilized.Combination Method It’s a method of facial reconstruction in which certain Anatomical structures are defined individually to flesh out the face. 14 .

Combination Method Preparation & Preservation of Skull: Orbits and Nasal cavity are blocked Mandible attached to cranium Spacing in Condylar fossae Freeway space is maintained Edentulous jaw is fixed using a guide 15 .

Combination Method Preparation & Preservation of Skull: 16 .

Combination Method Placing Tissue depth markers: All tissue depth markers are not used The markers are used to assist in contouring Photograph of the skull with tissue depth markers is taken for further procedures 17 .

Combination Method Tissue depth markers 18 .

Combination Method Fleshing out Anatomical landmarks Few markers are connected using strips of clay Certain anatomical landmarks like Temporalis. Masseter. Fatty buccal pad. and few Facial muscles are created using clay Eyes are also placed 19 . Parotid gland.

Combination Method Fleshing out Anatomical landmarks 20 .

Combination Method Sculpting .Part I Now the work and fun really begins It’s the matter of using those artistic skills to bring life Add clay using both the tissue depth marker guidelines and the sculpted muscles Placing ears is highly imaginary 21 .

Combination Method Sculpting – Part I 22 .

Combination Method Sculpting – Part II The face has now begun to take shape Tissue depth markers still visible Width of the nasal cavity is equal to the total width of the nose Nasal bone used to determine the slope of the nose 23 .

Combination Method Sculpting – Part II 24 .

Combination Method Sculpting – Part III Now the finishing touches are applied and the tissue depth markers are covered She had no side teeth note her cheeks Wrinkles were added to support her age Hair based on the hairstyles of that era 25 .

Combination Method Sculpting – Part III 26 .

some oil washes followed by airbrushing Polyfiber hair was punched in A cap is placed upon her head 27 .Combination Method Finishing Touches Painting is minimal .

Combination Method Finishing Touches 28 .

29 .Combination Method Conclusion The sculpture is photographed Photograph is superimposed with skull Photographs are sent for identification The process in now complete.has now been given a face. A piece of history .Albany in the early 1700s .

Superimposition Done to check whether the reconstruction was done correctly or not Three types: Photographic Video Computer aided 30 .

Superimposition 31 .

Facial Reconstruction The facial reconstruction project described here required three major steps: A computed tomograph scan A stereolithography cast of the skull A skilled technician to model the face in clay and make the molds 32 .

Facial Reconstruction Computed Tomograph Scan 33 .

Facial Reconstruction Stereolithography Cast 34 .

Facial Reconstruction Making the Clay mould 35 .

Dept.D.D.D. M. of Preventive & Community Dentistry 36 . Madhusudhanan Krishnan.D.S. P.S. of Preventive & Community Dentistry Dr. Dept. Shiva Kumar. • Head. M..S. M.. of Preventive & Community Dentistry Dr..Madhan Kumar. Dept. • Senior Lecturer.Guided By : Dr. • Reader.

Karen T. Texas Police Department 37 . Texas Deputy Chief. Washington D. Florida Police Department Mr.Acknowledgements : Ms. Texas Dept. Lois Gibson • Houston. Richard Berry • Federal Bureau of Investigation. Deputy Chief. Taylor • Portrait Artist.C. of Public Safety. Mike Deal • Altamonte Springs.

847-858. and Campbell. Bernard Knight. 11th edition. Forensic Medicine & Toxicology.References : Karen T. 3-D Facial Reconstruction on Skull. Thickness of facial tissues in American blacks.H. 1980.. 1st edition. Rhine. Simpson’s Forensic Medicine. 25(4). 1997.J.Taylor.R. Journal of Forensic Sciences.S. 2001. 38 . Forensic Art & Illustration.

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