better you get • Knowledge acquisition: Knowledge is generally acquired through experience • Learning itself is a problem solving process. More you play tennis. .WHAT IS LEARNING? • Learning covers a wide range of phenomenon: • Skill refinement : Practice makes skills improve.

etc. case analysis. matching.LEARNING BY TAKING ADVICE • Initial state: high-level advice • Final state: an operational rule • Operators: unfolding definitions. .

LEARNING FROM EXAMPLES • Initial state: collection of positive and negative examples • Final state: concept description • Search algorithms: candidate elimination. induction of decision trees .

explanationbased learning.LEARNING IN PROBLEM SOLVING • Initial state: solution traces to example problems • Final state: new heuristics for solving new problems efficiently • Heuristics for search: generalization. utility considerations .

analogy.DISCOVERY • Initial state: some environment • Final state: unknown • Heuristics for search: interestingness. etc .

.SUMMARY • The very first efforts in machine learning tried to mimic animal learning at a neural level. they might build learning machines from very simple parts. Such hopes proved elusive. • Collections of idealized neurons were presented with stimuli and prodded into changing their behavior via forms of reward and punishment. • These efforts were quite different from the symbolic manipulation methods. • Researchers hoped that by imitating mechanisms of animals.

. • Neural network models are based on a computational “brain metaphor”. partly as a discovery of powerful new learning algorithms.SUMMARY • However. the field of neural network learning has seen a resurgence in recent years. • Learning algorithms inspired by evolution are called “genetic algorithms”. a number of other learning techniques make use of a metaphor based on evolution where learning occurs through a selection process that begins with a large population of random programs.

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