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Prestressed Concrete UPDATE FOR THE '02 CODE
For ACI 31802, the changes to prestressed concrete design are more extensive than in the last few editions of the code. The major changes are: • The provisions of former Appendix B. relating to Unified Design Provisions, are now incorporated in the
Flexure
body of the code .. Changes in Chapters 8, 9. 10, and 18 affect prestressed concrete design. Reinforcement
limits, moment redistribution, • and determination of the strength reduction factor", are affected. Cracking at service load is now permitted in the new Class C flexural members, for which additional serviceability requirements apply. This new provision permits design using any combination of prestressing steel and reinforcement. Explicit definitions for "tendon" and "prestressing steel" are revised to reflect industry practice. They are used consistently throughout the code. Revisions to Chapter 7, giving separate (and different) concrete cover requirements for castinplace prestressed concrete and for prestressed concrete manufactured under plant control conditions.
•
•
This part (chapter) describes the changes in Chapter 18 of the 2002 code.
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
In prestressed members, compressive stresses are introduced into the concrete to reduce tensile stresses resulting from applied loads including the self weight of the member (dead load). Prestressing steel, such as strands, bars. or wires, is used to impart compressive stresses to the concrete. Pretensioning is a method of prestressing in which the tendons are tensioned before concrete is placed and the prestressing force is primarily transferred to the concrete through bond. Posttensioning is a method of prestressing in which the tendons are tensioned after the concrete has hardened and the prestressing force is primarily transferred to the concrete through the end anchorages. The act of prestressing a member introduces "prestressing loads" to the member. The induced prestressing loads, acting in conjunction with externally applied loads, must provide serviceability and strength to the member beginning immediately after prestress force transfer and continuing throughout the life of the member. Prestressed structures must be analyzed taking into account prestressing loads, service loads, temperature, creep, shrinkage and the structural properties of all materials involved.
Duct 
A conduit (plain or corrugated) to accommodate prestressing steel for posttensioned installation. Requirements for posttensioning ducts are given in 18.17.
Sheathing  A material encasing prestressing steel to prevent bonding of the prestressing steel with the surrounding concrete, to provide corrosion protection, and to contain the corrosion inhibiting coating.
270
I Eps ; 28,500 ksi 
I
I
I
I
250
230
(
f
Ii
:
:"....._
270 ksi
\
{
~
t+
Per ASTM minimum yield 1% elonga1ion :::243
A 416 strength at for 270 ksi ksi
Stress fp. (ksi)
210
190
170
150
o
0,005
I I I
I
0,010
0.Q15
Strain, Eps (inJin.)
0,020
0,025
0,030
The above curve can be approximated
by the lollowing equations:
Ep. 50.0086: Ep. > 0,0086:
Ips Ips
= 28,500 = 270

Ep' (ksi) lOp.  0.007
0,04
(ksi)
Figure 241 StressStrain
Curve for Grade 270, Low Relaxation Strand(241)
18.2
GENERAL
The code specifies strength and serviceability requirements for all concrete members, prestressed or nonprestressed. This section requires that, for prestressed members, both strength and behavior at service conditions must be checked. All load stages that may be critical during the life of the structure, beginning with the transfer of the prestressing force to the member and including handling and transportation, must be considered. This section also calls attention to several structural issues specific to prestressed concrete structures that must be considered in design: 18.2.3.,'stress concentrations. See 18,13 for requirements for posttensioned anchorages.
243
2 Cracked section.~a 19 steel Class U Uncracked G ross section 18. For Class C prestressed members.3. A permissible stress equal to 0.1 Cracked section 10.1 Gross section No requirement 9. bonded nonprestressed reinforcement shall be provided to 1 resist the total tensile force assuming an uncracked section. Both concrete and prestressing tendon stresses are limited to ensure satisfactory behavior immediately after transfer of prestress and at service loads. ly to 9. Where tensile stress exceeds the permissible values.45f~ has been added for the condition of prestress plus sustained loads.4.3.4.4.2 Cracked section.4. The permissible compressive stress due to prestress plus total service loads is limited to O.4 18. lent ken irement SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS  FLEXURAL MEMBERS . bilinear No requirement 9.1 No requirement No requirement Nonprestressed Cracked No requirement No No requirement No requirement j froOl ~mbers es that 18.5.1).6.Table 241 SelViceabifify Design Requirements Prestressed an \.4.3 Deflection calculation basis S Class T Transition between uncracked and cracked Gross section 18. c ft S 12yr.5. The code permits ide to be conservatively taken as the effective prestress fse. It should be noted that the "sustained loads" mentioned in 18.4.4.4. crack control is accomplished through a steel spacing requirement based on that of 10.2 stress at service loads 18.5.2.4 Modified by 18. compared to deformed bars. (l04). l 245 . and as modified by 18.Jf{. j.5yr. extreme fiber tensile stress of 3~ except 6. (104) for nonprestressed concrete. Eq.SyP.2 7.4. to account for lesser bond.60f~.5.4 8. Concrete tensile stress limitations for Class U and T at service loads apply to the "precompressed" tensile zone which is that portion of the member crosssection in which flexural tension occurs under dead and live loads..3 Effective moment of inertia Crack control 10.4. The code provides different permissible stresses for conditions imme····diately after prestress transfer (before timedependent losses) and for conditions at service loads (after all preItress losses have occurred). (104) is modified by 18.2(a) include any portion of the live load that will be sustained for a sufficient period to cause significant timedependent deflections.5.9.3.4.6.1 Class C Cracked Cracked section 18.60f~i . For conditions immediately after prestress transfer. ility) 3. bilinear 9.4 and Eq.6.3.4.4.4 lthe non.4. The maximum spacing between tendons is reduced to 2/3 of that permitted for bars. the code allows: extreme fiber compressive stress of O. 7. The following shows Eq. is permitted at the ends of simply supported members.4 1 18. The quantity Afps' the stress in the prestressing steel at service loads less the decompression stress ide is the stress in the prestressing steel when the stress is zero in the concrete at the same level as the centroid of the tendons.
6 for posttensioned members 247 = . For members with unbonded tendons: (1a) (ue to iough are at ve to ~used stress llowiw Creep of Concrete (CR) For members with bonded tendons: (3) on where ~r Kef ::: 2.000 psi for posttensioning) Also.0 for pre tensioned members 1.3 offers guidance to compute prestress losses and it is adaptable to computer programs. Quantities used in loss computations are defined in the summary of notation which follows this section.5 for posttensioned members where tendons are tensioned in sequential order to the same tension. ed not Reference 24. Reference 24.9 for pretensioned members. COMPUTATION·OF ensile LOSSES Elastic Shortening of Concrete (ES) For members with bonded tendons: (1) where '4fpu '4fpu 'Ofpu i6fpu 'Ofpu ioned where Kes = Kes::: 1.0 for posttensioned members 74 fpu 0. With other posttensioning procedures. The simple equations enable the designer to estimate the prestress loss from each source rather than using a lump sum value. edition (35.5.. The method is too tedious for hand calculations. are now considered obsolete. is summarized below.0 for pretensioned members 0.4 for an indepth discussion of the procedure. the value for Kes may vary from 0 to 0. 24. The reader is referred to Ref. the lump sum values may not be adequate for some design conditions. It allows stepbystep computation of losses which is necessary for rational analysis of deformations.4 presents a reasonably accurate and easy procedure for estimating prestress losses due to various causes for pretensioned and posttensioned members with bonded and unbonded tendons.ESTIMATING PRESTRESS LOSSES Lump sum values of prestress losses that were widely used as a design estimate of prestress losses prior to the '83 code. \. (2) ~ir Kcir = = 1. veen a ent or ! .000 psi for pretensioning and 25. The procedure. which is intended for practical design applications under normal design conditions. including sample computations for typical prestressed concrete beams.
16 1.62 0.2. Usually 28.00 0.74 0.Table 244 Values of C Stressed relieved strand or wire Stressrelieved bar or low relaxation strand or wire fpJfpu 0.63 0.63 0. See Eq.000.80 0.75 0. average compressive stress in the concrete along the member length at the center of gravity of the prestressing steel immediately after the prestress has been applied to the concrete stress in concrete at center of gravity of prestressing steel due to Ppi 249 .28 1.. Es ES fcds fcir fcpa ::::: = = :.69 0.76 0.41 0.00 0.27 1.:.77 0.95 0.45 1. see Table 243 stress loss due to creep of concrete eccentricity of center of gravity of prestressing steel with respect to center of gravity of concrete at the crosssection considered modulus of elasticity of concrete at 28 days modulus of elasticity of concrete at time prestress is applied modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel.18 1.66 0.68 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.57 0.80 0.67 0. When the tendon is tensioned.75 0.78 0.49 1.000 psi stress loss due to elastic shortening of concrete stress in concrete at center of gravity of prestressing steel due to all superimposed permanent dead loads that are applied to the member after it has been prestressed net compressive stress in concrete at center of gravity of prestressing steel immediately after the prestress has been applied to the concrete.49 0.05 1.37 0.58 0.85 0.83 0.09 1. (5).45 0. i " r I Ii SUMMARY OF NOTATION Ac Aps C ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: CR e Ee Eci ::::: ::::: ::::: :.11 1.66 0.:.90 0.73 0.33 Friction Computation of friction losses is covered in 18. the friction losses computed can be checked with reasonable accuracy by comparing the measured tendon elongation and the prestressing force applied by the tensioning jack.78 0.60 1.70 0.64 0.61 0.53 0.79 0.22 1.36 1.68 0.53 0.6.. fepi area of gross concrete section at the crosssection considered total area of prestressing steel a factor used in Eq.65 0.70 0.61 0.94 0. (2).89 0.
Flexural strength for such a condition must be computed by a general analysis based on strain compatibility and equilibrium. (183) only When all of the prestressed reinforcement is located in the tension zone.85) wire and strands (fpy Ifpu ?: 0. Eq.. taking into account effects of any nonprestressed tension reinforcement (co).80 for f~ 0. (184). For bonded prestressing. To avoid such lengthy calcuUtU\JU"" the code allows fps to be obtained by the approximate Eqs. and plain bars (fpy/fpu ?: 0.65 for f~ s 4000 psi 5000 psi 6000 psi 7000 psi 8000 psi form as follows: (6) = ::: = = ~ = = Eq.7.2. is not valid.3.40 for stressrelieved wire and strands. 2411 .~ Pp f~ Yp = 0. stressed members). the concrete compressive strength f~. fps. an approximate value of fps given by Eq.28 for lowrelaxation and in 10. will vary depending on the amount of tJresm:SSlng. the analysis is quite cumberespecially in the case of unbonded tendon. using the stressstrain properties of the prestressing steel and the assumptions given in 10.70 for f~ 0. The value of fps can be obtained using the conditions of equilibrium.85 for f~ 0. (183). When part of the prestressed reinforcement is located in the compression zone of a crosssection. while for unbonded tendon. 0. Eq. (183) can be written in nondimensional (Op = CO pu (1 .~ ~ to pu) where cop = Aplps bdpf~ Apsfpu bdpf~ p \e ~PJ {~ (7) (Opu ::: (8) The moment strength of a prestressed member with bonded tendons may be computed using Eq.5'5 for deformed bars (fp/fpu ?: 0. and (185). stress in the prestressed reinforcement at nominal strength. as defined PI ::: 0. _ ( Yp fpu) fps . the compatibility of strains can be ·eonsidered at an individual section.75 for f~ 0. involving dp. and compatibility (Design Example 244 illustrates the procedure).90) = 0. (183) may be used for flexural members reinforced with a combination of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement (partially pre.2. stressstrain relations.. However. and an appropriate factor for type of prestressing material used (Y For a fully prestressed member (with no non prestressed tension or compression reinforcement). For members with bonded prestressing steel. compatibility relations can be written only at the anchorage points and will depend on the entire cable profile and member loading. (183) reduces to: p).fpu 1 .80) = PI. (183). any compression reinforcement «(0'). rectangular stress block factor PI.
The rows for Rn t. whereas.003 ~ K ~ ~ t. Compute provided design strength ¢lMn = 0.a0 800 '" 'w a: '0 Q) _g c: 600 1:: Ti :E: Q) Gl U 0 400 200 o o V V ) V d V 0. The row for COpUI shows values slightly higher than (. Is c/dp::. If not.001 0.002 0. ""6000 psI =5000 P'. Assume section is at tensioncontrolled 2.t)pt. 0.. indicated by the added subscript t. K". PpJ for Type 270k Low Relaxation Strand Table 245 shows design parameters for prestressed sections at the tensioncontrolled strain limit. ___  1200 / ~~=7000~'. 'w a. and fps ::::.004 0.~oOPsj vJ I ~ a:B IJ ~I~ c. copU! is based on ips of 259 ksi. and with fse ~ 162 ksi. <P n t. because of the much higher strength of the prestressing strand. 4.1400 .375.006 0. because COput is based on fpu of 270 ksi. Compute steel tension T and equal compressive force C. 59 2 ksi. 0. proceed. . The following is a shortcut procedure for finding the flexural strength of sections in which the Grade 270 ksi lowrelaxation prestressing steel can reasonably be assumed to be in one layer with dp = d..375? If so. and Wp I are identical to those in Table 61. The final row for Ppt shows values much smaller than for Pt in Table 61. limit. 1000 ts: Q) c . Find depth of stress block a and depth to neutral axis c.007 Reinforcement Ratio Pp = A b: p Figure 243 Design Strength Curves (!jlRn VS. 2413 I' l 5. add compression steel to make c/dp::. 3.005 0. 0. 1.9(T)(da/2).
9 MINIMUM BONDED REINFORCEMENT is desirable in members with unbonded tendons.5. area of prestressed reinforcement in tensile zone Aps Ac == area of precast member Sb == section modulus for bottom of precast member Sc == section modulus for bottom of composite member effective prestress force Pse e = eccentricity of prestress force = = Md Ma = = dead load moment of composite member additional moment to cause a stress in bottom fiber equal to modulus of rupture fr Figure 244 Stress Conditions for Evaluating Cracking Moment Strength 18. the waiver of the L2Mcr provision for twoway.2Mcr requirement for (a) twoway. 24. The exception is intended to limit the amount of additional reinforcement required to amounts that provide for ductility. unhanded posttensioned slabs brings the code in line with current practices which have been shown to be technically sound and safe (Ref.9 is suggested. For flexural strength: For shear strength: 4>Mn :2: 2Mu :2: 2 (1. and (b) flexural members with shear and flexural strength at least twice that required by 92. Reference to A minimum amount of bonded reinforcement R18.3 of ACI 31802 introduces a new qualitative requirement stating that some bonded reinforcement or tendons must be placed as close to the tension face as is practicable. .2Md + 1. and is comparable in concept to those for nonprestressed members in 10.2Mcr provision often requires excessive reinforcement for certain prestressed flexural members especially for short span hollowcore members. Introduced in the 1999 edition of the code.2 waives the 1. unbonded posttensioned slabs.6MC) The 1.Examples 24.6 and 24.8. 2415 .8.7 illustrate computation of the cracking moment strength of prestressed members. Section 18.3. Note that an exception in 18.5) .
and (2) using an appropriate stressstrain relation for the prestressing tendons. Vol. For compression members with an average concrete stress due to prestressing equal to or greater than 225 psi.. PCI Committee on Prestress Losses. No. 630 pp. pp. No.4 . Precast! Prestressed Concrete Institute.11. for Estimating Prestress Losses.6. R. pp. Vol. 1999." American Concrete Institute." PCI Jour 24.4. minimum nonprestressed reinforcement must be provided (18. Chicago.." PCI Journal. 24. COMPRESSION MEMBERS  COMBINED FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS Provisions of the code for calculating the strength of prestressed members are the same as for members without prestressing. No.2 requires that all prestressing tendons be enclosed by spirals or lateral ties. Vol. ACI 423."/ Zia. JulyAugust 1975. June 1979.5 2417 . "Estimating Prestress Losses. For compression members with an average concrete stress due to prestressing of less than 225 psi.10.18. Paul." Concrete International: Design and Construction. Detroit.3 24. 18. JulyAugust 1975. which applies equally to prestressed and nonprestressed members. "Recommendations nal. 18. 4375. 1. Mast. "Recommendations for Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded Tendons. et al.2.Precast and Prestressed Concrete. 4375. pp.7 illustrates the calculation procedure.2. 20. REFERENCES 24.4.3R96 Report. "Analysis of Cracked Prestressed Sections: A Practical Approach. Michigan.11 . Example 24. F. except for walls.2 24.4.11.1). Additional considerations include (1) accounting for prestressing strains." MNL 12092 5th Edition.4 Moment Redistribution The former special provisions for moment redistribution in continuous prestressed flexural members are now replaced by a reference to 8. 43. 3238.1 "PCI Design Handbook .
725 . using Eg.95 = = 4.8 + 5. Relaxation of Tendon Stress (RE).2 x 106 KShEs (1  0.06 ~) (100 .02 x 10 x 482 x == 691 inkips (roof load only) 8 and 3.74 (270) (1.0.74) 5.74fpuAps ::: 0.6 + 5.0.6'.0 for pretensioned members. 241.4 ksi average relative humidity surrounding the concrete member from Fig. For Green Bay. (3) CR = KCf S. I.9 ksi 18. using Eg. RH == 75% and Ksh == 1.kips (dead load of unit) 2.Example 24.1 (cont'd) Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Ppi ::: 0.0 x 28.0. Kef = 2.0 for pretensioned members.4 + 4.469 ::: 0. = 8 1617 in.500 (1 .fcds) Ec == 2.RH) == 8.1 . 4. Shrinkage of Concrete (SH). Wisconsin. Total allowance for loss of prestress ES + CR + SH + RE == 5. (4) SH == 8.04 (5. (fcir ..040 (Table 243) f· C == 0.06 x 1.468 X 482 x .30 ksi where fcds == Mds ~ r.30) ::: 5.6 ksi 4290 9.224) ::: 245 kips Md ::: 0.' fpu == 0. using Eq. (5) RE = [KreJ(SH+CR+ES)]C [5 .75) RH == = 5. for 270 Grade lowrelaxation Kre == 5 ksi (Table 243) J == 0.35) (100 .500 (0..1 = 20.!3.2 x 106 x 1. ::: 691 x 12 Mds == 0.8)] 0.4 + 5.77 22.1 ksi where..95 (Table 244 for L " strand: f . Creep of Concrete (CR).6 + 5.0 x 28.
60f~i losses): psi Code Reference 18.2 e 9.Due to total loads IS.· !.2) :::: 1.4 Yb = 17.469 in.3(b) 12." 40 psf roof load == 20 psf dead load == 47 psf == 468 plf 10' .1.0.1 = 0.4 IS. At prestress transfer (before timedependent Compression: Tension: 0.2 Ie = 22. Compression: Compression: Tension: 2. Calculate permissible stresses in concrete.0" span == 48 ft f~i == 3500 psi c::====::.1. otherwise 3Jf{:) 18.60(3500) = 2100 6.[f{: = 355 psi (at ends = of simply supported members.000 psi fpy = 0. "I I f~ == 5000 psi 8 .77 in.77 in.5 in.35 in.224 x 193 = 5' .Due to sustained loads 0.90fpu .4.2 At service load (after allowance for all prestress losses): i. 0.2lnvestigation of Stresses at Prestress Transfer and at Service Load For the simply supported doubletee considered in Example 24.0" = 236 kips Section Properties ~ = 449 in.23 in. check all permissible concrete stresses imme diately after prestress transfer and at service load assuming the unit is used for roof framing. (all strands straight) fpu = 270. diameter lowrelaxation strands Aps == 8 (0. = Calculations and Discussion 1.. Use losses com puted in Example 24. VIS 1.jf{ == 849 psi Calculate service load moments at midspan: 2421 6 .74fpu = 200 ksi stress after transfer = 193 ksi force after transfer = Pp = 1.4. live load.45f~ 2250 psi .Example 24.60f~ == 3000 psi .::============tt=====:::J=h I . Yt = 6. jacking stress = 0.153 in.224 in.3.
K.) +3000 Bottom +488 +1695 2919 736 (O.K.) +2100 Table 245 Stresses in Concrete at Service Loads (psi) At Midspan .K.) +2100 Top +526 639 +448 +335 (O.Total Loads Top +488 594 +1023 +917 (O.K.K.Sustained Loads Top Bottom +488 +1695 1826 +357 (OX) +2250 At Midspan .) 849 PaJA Peey/l My/l Total Permissible Compression Tension () (+) +488 ·594 +640 +534 (OK) +2250 i.K.) +2100 At Mid Span Bottom +526 +1824 1279 +1071 (O.) 355 Bottom +526 +1824 180 +2170 (say O. 2423 .2 (eont'd) Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Table 244 Stresses in Goncrete Immediately after Prestress Transfer (psi) At Assumed Transfer Point Top Pp/A Ppey/l Mdy/l Total Permissible Compression Tension () (+) +526 639 +63 50 (O.Example 24.
(9) = 4.3.375 Tension controlled <II::: 2425 .54 in. Eq.". Calculations and Discussion Code Reference Calculate nominal moment strength from Eqs.918 x 252 (22 .85 x 12 x 5 Eq.258 10.4 = '( 6:~6 0.3 (cont'd) 2.9 }22 R9. Check to see if tension controlled c/dp = (a/~l)1 dp c/dp :::: 0.2. (9) and (10) of Part 24 Compute the depth of the compression block: :::: 0.4. r ! I IT·· Example 24.~4 J = 4565 inkips = 380 ftkips 3.~) Mn 0.2 < 0.918 x 252 0. (10) Mn = = Apsfps ( dp .3.
612 (260) a = C/(0. = 4. increase c.0151 0.48 C kips 220 228. the nominal moment strength can be calculated as follows by taking moments about T2: Mn = [«d2 .5 .Example 24.5 kips.20) x 67)]112 = = 365 ftkips 2427 .K. Calculations and Discussion Code Reference assume c (location of neutral axis) compute £1 and £2 obtain fl and f2 from the equations in Fig.306 (200) + 0. T] = 67 kips and T2 = 162 kips. Using C = 228. b.4 (cont'd) a.80 = 5.«d2 . 4. d.85f~ab compute T] and T 2 check equilibrium using C = T 1 + T2 ifC < T] + T2.(22 . T = LApsfs = 0. f. 4. e. c in.6 0. g.(4. unstressed strand at 200 ksi.dj) x Tl)]/12 [(22 .32 in. Estimate stressed strand at 260 ksi. Estimate a neutral axis location for first trial. or vice versa and return to step b of this procedure. for first try The following table summarizes the iterations required to solve this problem: Trial No.4 in. Repeat until satisfactory convergence is achieved.al2) x C) .32/0.4 5.0081 0.0147 265 265 233 229 Calculate nominal moment strength.0077 0.48/2)) X 228. £1 £2 f1 ksi 231 220 f2 ksi a in. h.32 4. Use c = 5.85 c = a/~l X = 220 kips = C 5 X 12) = 4. 241. 1 20.85 f~b) = 220/(0. compute a = ~lC compute C = 0. c.5 T1 kips 71 67 T2 kips 162 162 T1 + T2 kips 5.4 in.
Example No.1. But. R9.375 Section is tension controlled 2429 .1. Step 2 = < hf = 3 in. although the error is small in this case.5 = 0.48/0.S.3. l· Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 10.2 c/dp = 3.2.5. 1.3. Check c/dp ratio c = a/~l = 2. 24.211 .2 Section is tensioncontrolled Note: In Step 1.5. fps:::: 2. (185) was not correct.2 Check the limits of reinforcement using a 3 in. r . A strain compatibility analysis gives c = 6.5 (cont'd) 5.1 2. thick flange on the member in Example 24. :·" Example 24. the section acts effectively as a rectangular section.r .5. 183 was used to find fps.48 No change from Example 24. Check to see if tensioncontrolled c/dp = 5. Eq. with the stress block in the web. a 263 ksi No change from Example 24.01 in.10 in.81/27. the value of wpu used in Eq.375 R9.113 < 0.10/27.4 < 0.5. 3. and fps == 266 ksi. The overall depth remains 32 in.2.8 = 3.5 = 0. Since the stress block is entirely within the flange.
9 080) > 1...6 (cont'd) Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 18.2 (213) 342 > 256 O. 2431 .3 0.8.K. t" r Example 24.
With no additional tension or compression reinforcement.3) ::: 161.2 (101.4 ksi a = Apsf ps = O.al2) = 0.5 = 6. Eq.0.kips ¢IMn = 0.12 12 I x 6.00154 I .12 x 240. 2433 . Calculations and Discussion Reference Calculate design moment strength and compare with cracking moment strength.85 x 5 x 12 0.4 in. (183) reduces to: fps ::: fpu (1 . Aps ::: 0.2.5 . All calculations based on one foot width of slab. Mn = Apsfps Cdp.0 ~ 1.4 > 1.85f~b '0.4 x 0.5 = 0.12 x 240. f J i 0. dp = 8.8 = 240.57 in.4 (6.Yp Pp fp/u) ~l fc = 250 (1 _ = 0.57/2) = 179.3 in.Code Example 24.8.kips 18.4 0.7 (cont'd) 2.5 in.8) = 122.00154 x 25 0) 5 0.3 161.2 O.9 (179.12 in.K.
«h12 .O f IS \.9 10.0.5 T2 kips 6004 T1 + T2 + Pn kips 126.2 3.4. ft x 126.5 C T1 kips 36.9 X 57. = = = = [«h12 . 3.0054 0.4 ftkips Calculate design strength = c2  0.2.0119 0. 241.5) .5 135.Stresses The strain line OA drawn above. "\ \ I.6 126.003 \1' " \\ I· I ) EI ~~~ \ i~\.5 x 60.(3.0 3.al2) [(4.40 2.56 2.5) x T2)]112 = 7.4 130. and T2 = 60. 2.2. in. TI 35.7 2435 . Assuming different values of c.0 35.8 5 f~ TI = Apsi II '\ \ . This can be done by trialanderror as outlined in Example 24.8 1 2 30K 0.1 !»Pn =.1 35.5) x TI) + «h12 .2 125. P.0060 = 0. located at the centroid of the section: M.Example 24.0122 60.1 c E1 E2 f1 * ksi 157 152 154 f2* ksi 263 261 262 in. Calculate nominal moment strength.3 "From eauetion in Fiq. Strains 5. Using C 126.0060 '\ \ T2=Aps2 f2 .3.76 x C) .0055 0.4 9.2. .0062 > 0.005 Section is tensioncontrolled !» = 0. the moment strength can be calculated as follows by taking moments about Pn.0053 0.5 kips (from the sum of the other forces).5 x 35.3 kips.3)]112 = 57. 6.48 a kips 122.5) + (3. C = ho . 30 kips.4 = 51. the following trial table is obtained: Trial No.5 kips.3.0125 0.2 60.8 (cont'd) Calculations and Discussion Code Reference o .0060 = 0.0122 . equilibrium of axial forces exists. must be such that Obtain equilibrium of axial forces.9 !»Mn X 30 = 27 kips ftkips = .
.97 ksi..2 I.7k .:: 315.048 ksi and a transformed steel stress ~fp/n of 1.4 kips The stress analysis of a cracked section with axial load (from the prestress) requires. the solution of a cubic equation. The actual Mps is 1. 5.:: 8524 in.97 (1.4 + 9. at best.g.:: 219 in.836) M.:: 315.545 X 6.26/3. Equilibrium may be checked manually. Reference 24.455 .75 in. I· c.85 in.25 . C. til ' I I I I _I I I L A1:::: 11. with a concrete stress fc of 3.kips Check 6 2437 .Code Example 24.::dJ3 for rectangular area 17.2 gives one way to accomplish this..836 1 3.:: C orT .048 (12)( 17.545 ksi.:::: 9.::::fcbc/2 . The transformed section properties are A.:: 3. X Calculations and Discussion Reference (when the stress in the concrete at the same level as the prestressing steel 162.:: C Check lever arm 20. A more general approach is to find a neutral axis location that satisfies horizontal force equilibrium and produces the given bending moment.:31S..7 X X .26 in. The results give a neutral axis depth c of 17.7k :.2 4.:: 5.26)/2 C acts at top kern of compression zone .:: 297.57 in.:: 297. en to r:  12" ~I + I I I .4 Yt.9 (cont'd) The force Pdc at decompression is zero) is: Pdc ::::Apsfdc:::: .:::: 392 in. T:::: Pdc + Mps (Aps) .::9. It is too lengthy to be presented in detail here.
0.~ _J 0.9 (cont'd) Calculations and Discussion Code Reference VJ :£2 c.Example 24.oo I L j I 2439 .25 0.75 i. . in.50 Live Load Deflection.~ 2000 c Q) o ::2 "0 E _g Q) 1000 .