The aim of this project is to study and design an Efficient Signature Identification system in MATLAB. Project objectives are listed as follows: • • • • • • • • To study and understand Signature Identification system using neural network. To design a model for an ideal Signature Identification system. To enhance the model for a high-speed Signature Identification system. To develop a program in MATLAB based on the designed model. To create a database set of signature images. To validate and test the Signature Identification system. To perform tests for program optimization and accuracy. To demonstrate an effective and Signature Identification system.


Automatic recognition of signatures is a challenging problem which has received much attention during the recent years due to its many applications in different fields. Signature identification is one of those challenging problems and up to date, there is no technique that provides a robust solution to all situations and different applications that signature identification may encounter. It is a hard problem to decide whether two signatures given as scanned binary images are written by the same person or not. Our major project gives a complex strategy to solve this problem including the preprocessing of the scanned image, conversion from RGB to Gray scale, cropping the images, image resize, reshaping of images and a decision process using a back propagation neural network model. Signature Identification focuses on still images, which can be broadly grouped into image-based and feature-based approaches. Signature identification is commonly used in applications such as human-machine interfaces, automatic access control systems, security purposes which involve comparing an image with a database of stored signatures in order to identify the signature. This project involves the design and development of an efficient signature identification system. The pattern recognition algorithm designed for this project is based on general architecture of Signature identification systems. Program source code and simulation is executed in MATLAB.


password). magnetic or chip card) or one knows (PIN. 3 . Identity verification (authentication) in computer systems has been traditionally based on something that one has (key. An electronic drawing tablet and stylus are used to record the direction. but it is unfortunately often possible to create a copy that is accepted by the biometric system as a true sample. tend to get stolen or lost and passwords are often forgotten or disclosed. We recognize others by their face when we meet them and by their voice as we speak to them. the signature actually disappears from view if the document is tampered with after signature. This technology uses the individual's handwritten signature as a basis for authentication of entities and data. Biometrics offer automated methods of identity verification or identification on the principle of measurable physiological or behavioral characteristics such as a signature or a voice sample. To achieve more reliable verification or identification we should use something that really characterizes the given person. HUMANS recognize each other according to their various characteristics for ages. speed and coordinates of a handwritten signature.Chapter-1 Introduction The problem of signature identification basically means to decide whether or not a current test signature corresponds to a given reference signature. Signature authentication technology uses the dynamic analysis of a signature to authenticate a person. The technology is based on measuring speed. These characteristics should not be duplicable. pressure and angle used by the person when a signature is produced. Things like keys or cards. Created by Topaz Systems. however. There is no encryption or message confidentiality offered yet with signature dynamics. In one iteration. but more modern examples use one-way hash functions to encrypt the signature dynamics and data and append it to the document being signed.

mainly due to increasing security demands and its potential. 4 .Chapter-2 Problem Domain Signature identification has become a popular area of research in computer vision. It is a very challenging problem and up to date and there is no technique that provides a robust solution to all situations and different applications that signature identification may encounter specially in the Banking field where the faster method for identification of signature is required. Hence. this project focuses on developing a technique that provides a solution for an efficient Signature Identification system in different applications. commercial and law enforcement applications.

BiBa signature scheme is a new signature construction that uses one-way functions without trapdoors. Use of Artificial neural networks in pattern recognition is a popular technique. BiBa stands for Bins and Balls signature a collision of balls under a hash function in bins forms the signature. BiBa has smaller signatures and is at least twice as fast to verify (which probably makes it one of the fastest signature scheme to date for verification). Claus Vielhauer. we have concentrated on some techniques to gather knowledge. An artificial neural network is trained to identify similarities and patterns among different handwriting samples. scaled and translated version of exemplar patterns.Chapter-3 Literature survey A number of biometric methods have been introduced. In comparison to other one-way function based signature schemes. The outputs produced by the preprocessor at the first stage are classified by this neural net classifier trained by a learning algorithm called double back-propagation. The most important features of BiBa signature scheme is a low verification overhead and a relatively small signature size. Neural network based invariant character recognition system using double back propagation model has proposed. rotation and scale invariant representation of the input pattern. 5 . The first is a preprocessor. The test included rotated. They are explained a method for on-line signature authentication. Before we discuss about our approach. The second is a neural net classifier. the model consists of two parts. which is intended to produce a translation. In the year of 2004 Sascha Schimke. Artificial neural network techniques have also proven helpful in the preprocessing that must take place before a handwriting sample can be considered suitable input for an artificial neural network. but few have gained wide acceptance. In 2001 Adrian Perrig introduces the BiBa signature scheme. Jana Dittmann in the Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition they discussed about the problem of authenticating for on-line signature. The recognition system was tested with ten numeric digits (0-9). Another major research is the integration of a feed-forward back propagation neuronal network.

Input face images into FF Artificial Neural Network (ANN). 6 .Chapter-4 Project Methodology The methodology of this project is based upon information collected and processed the study and research phase. Testing and validation of the program and technique. Training the neural network and simulating it for different input images. Creating a user-friendly program in MATLAB from the source code. Design of a Feed-Forward Back Propagation Neural Network in MATLAB. Pre-processing of face images in Adobe Photoshop. Importing face images into MATLAB. The technique to be applied for the design and implementation of the Signature identification systems is as follows: • • • • • • • • Data gathering of signature images of subjects from a digital camera.

The output of this node is the non-linear transformation of the resulting sum. weight matrices between input-hidden layers and hidden-output layers are updated. During the training phase. and output Layers. Images vary in format. The explanation here is intended to give an outline of the process involved in back propagation algorithm. OUTPUT The output indicates whether the original input signature is identified or not or matches with the training signatures or not Figure 5. The output of the hidden node is the nonlinear transformation of this resulting sum. which are multiplied with appropriate weights and then summed. size and resolution. The feed forward of the testing data is similar to the feed forward of the training data. the training data is fed into to the input layer. These are input. This is called the backward pass of the back propagation algorithm. The data is propagated to the hidden layer and then to the output layer. hidden. CLASSIFIER The classifier decides whether the signature belongs to the training images or not based on the information learned during training.1 Back Propagation Algorithm The generalized delta also known as back propagation algorithm is explained here briefly for feed forward Neural Network (NN). Each test vector is fed into the input layer. The NN explained here contains three layers.Generic representation of a Signature Identification system 5. no learning takes place i. 7 .e. Similarly each node in output layer gets input from all the nodes from hidden layer. which are multiplied with appropriate weights and then summed.. The image also resized. weight matrices are not changed. In forward pass. each node in hidden layer gets input from all the nodes from input layer.0. PRE-PROCESS The signature is pre-processed to remove unwanted noise from light and the environment.Chapter-5 Block Diagram & Description INPUT An image is passed to the system for classification.e. The error between actual output values and target output values is calculated and propagated back toward hidden layer. During the testing phase. The output values of the output layer are compared with the target output values. threshold and normalized. The error is used to update the connection strengths between nodes. This is called the forward pass of the back propagation algorithm. The target output values are those that we attempt to teach our network. i.

5. so we have total of 20 training signatures. Showing Training Signatures 8 . Five set of each signature is taken from each person.2 Training Signatures: The signatures from four different persons are taken in a blank page. These are shown below: Figure 5.2.

Convert to Gray Scale 3. 2.3 Signature Preprocessing: In the preprocessing of signatures involves the various operations performed on signature images before fed to the artificial neural network for training. 9 . Load data to MATLAB. Resize 4. Double 6.3.. If the file is not in the current folder. Syntax I = rgb2gray (RGB) Description I = rgb2gray(RGB) converts the true color image RGB to the grayscale intensity image I.1 Image Read: Read image from graphics file Syntax A = imread (‘filename’). rgb2gray converts RGB images to grayscale by eliminating the hue and saturation information while retaining the luminance. Description A = imread (‘filename’) reads a grayscale or color image from the file specified by the string filename. 5.3. specify the full pathname.2 Convert to Gray Scale: The RGB color image is then converted to Gray Scale. or in a folder on the MATLAB path.e. Image Read i. Following are the preprocessing operations performed on the training signatures in MATLAB: 1.5. Create Database. Reshape 5. 5.

3.4 Reshape: Reshape array.3 Resize: Enlarge or shrink image sizes Syntax B = imresize(A. scale) B = imresize(A. scale) It returns image B that is scale times the size of A. 5.3. single..0.0.m.m. An error results if A does not have m*n elements.m.[m n p . or double. 5.. B is smaller than A. RGB.) B = reshape(A. B is larger than A.n. If the input is a color map. uint16.5 Double: To convert a uint8 or uint16 indexed image to double.n) B = reshape(A.Class Support If the input is an RGB image. the input and output color maps are both of class double.. If scale is between 0 and 1. Syntax 10 .3. If scale is greater than 1. 5. The input image A can be a grayscale. to convert parallel data into serial data of image matrix.]) Description B = reshape(A.p. it can be of class uint8.n) returns the m-by-n matrix B whose elements are taken column-wise from A. The output image I is of the same class as the input image. Syntax B = reshape(A. [mrows ncols]) Description B = imresize(A... or binary image.

Syntax imwrite(A. and export neural networks and data. Purpose Open Network/Data Manager Syntax nntool Description nntool opens the Network/Data Manager window.fmt) imwrite(X. 11 .6 Create Database: A database is created with “Imwrite” command.filename. As Shown in the Figure. which allows you to import. . 5.3.7 NNTOOL: It is the neural network toolbox in MATLAB for training of Signature Database.B = double (A). In a true color image of class uint8. 65535]. the data values are integers in the range [0.fmt) writes the image A to the file specified by filename in the format specified by fmt. 255]. Description In a true color image of class double the data values are floatingpoint numbers in the range [0.map. and for true color images of class uint16 the data values are integers in the range [0.fmt) Description imwrite(A.filename.3. 1]. use. create.filename. 5.

3.” 12 .Figure 5. “NNtoolbox GUI in MATLAB.

fig for editing if it is on the MATLAB path.fig') opens the FIG-file named filename.fig') guide('fullpath') guide(HandleList) Description Guide initiates the GUI design environment (GUIDE) tools that allow you to create or edit GUIs interactively. Figure 6. Guide opens the GUIDE Quick Start dialog where you can choose to open a previously created GUI or create a new one using one of the provided templates.Chapter-6 GUIDE Guide is “Graphical User Interface design environment” is Open GUI Layout Editor in MATLAB Syntax guide guide('filename.1 Showing GUI creator in MATLAB. Guide('filename. 13 .

1 GUIDE Tools Summary The GUIDE tools are available from the Layout Editor shown in the figure below.6.2: GUIDE Tools 14 . Subsequent sections show you how to use them. The tools are called out in the figure and described briefly below. Figure 6.

15 . Matlab (R2009b) 2. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 (for Preprocessing) Chapter-8 Flowchart Signature Image Signature Preprocessing Result Feed-Forward Back Propagation Neural Network Figure 8.Chapter-7 Software requirements 1. based on the methodology.1 Illustrates the flowchart proposed for the design of the Signature Identification system.

Chapter-9 GUIDE for Signature Identification System The Figure below showing the proposed GUI for Signature Identification System.1: Guide for Signature Identification System 16 . And it is still under the Development Process. Figure 9.

B12=imread('B2. D13=imread('B3. A15=imread('A5. 17 . D11=rgb2gray(D11).jpg').1).jpg'). C11=rgb2gray(C11).3Reshaping the data: A11=reshape(A11.1).jpg'). A12=imread('A2.jpg'). B11=reshape(B11.64.1).2 Converting to Grayscale: A11=rgb2gray(A11).Chapter-10 Software Programming 11. C14=imread('C4.jpg').jpg').jpg'). A13=imread('A3.1). B12=rgb2gray(B12). A13=rgb2gray(A13). B11=rgb2gray(B11). B15=reshape(B15.64.jpg'). B13=rgb2gray(B13).jpg'). C14=rgb2gray(C14).jpg'). 11. A14=reshape(A14. D15=imread('B5. C15=imread('C5.64. D13=rgb2gray(D13).64.1).jpg').64. 11. D14=imread('B4. C13=imread('C3. A13=reshape(A13.1). A14=rgb2gray(A14). D14=rgb2gray(D14). A15=rgb2gray(A15). D11= imread('D1. B11=imread('B1. B12=reshape(B12. C12=imread('C2.64. D15=rgb2gray(D15). A12=reshape(A12.64. A14=imread('A4. C13=rgb2gray(C13). D12=rgb2gray(D12).jpg'). B13=imread('B3. D12=imread('B2.64. B14=imread('B4. B15=rgb2gray(B15).jpg').jpg'). B15=imread('B5.jpg'). C11=imread('C1.1). A15=reshape(A15.jpg'). A12=rgb2gray(A12). C15=rgb2gray(D15).64.1).64. B14=reshape(B14.jpg').1). C12=rgb2gray(C12).jpg').jpg').1 Reading Images: A11=imread('A1. B14=rgb2gray(B14). B13=reshape(B13.jpg').1).

1). A15=double(A15). A12=double(A12). C14=reshape(C14. D13=reshape(D13. C15=double(C15).64.64. B11=double(B11).1). 18 . C13=reshape(C13. B13=double(B13). 11. C14=double(C14).C11=reshape(C11. 11. D14=reshape(D14. B14=double(B14).64. D12=double(D12).1).64.1).1).4Converting to Double: A11=double(A11). D14=double(D14). A14=double(A14).1). C13=double(C13). C15=reshape(C15. D11=reshape(D11.1).6 Creating Target Vectors: T= [000 000 000 000 000 001 001 001 001 001 100 100 100 100 100 111 111 111 111].64. B15=double(B15).64.1). D11=double(D11).64.64. D12=reshape(D12. 11.5 Creating Database for training: P= [A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 B11 B12 B13 B14 B15 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 D14 D15].64. C12=reshape(C12. D13=double(D13). C12=double(C12).64. C11=double(C11). D15=double(D15). A13=double(A13).1). D15=reshape(D15. B12=double(B12).1).

and credit card number. credit transaction practices lean toward giving the buyer the benefit of the doubt. card possession and a modest attempt to approximate the signature on the card are typically sufficient to purchase merchandise. Banks who issue credit cards want their customers to use their cards frequently. The graphical user interface (GUI) in the project and the programming in the call back of every pushbutton will perform the corresponding function and will show us the details of identified person. while minimizing their exposure to fraud. credit card use generally does not require photo ID. Then the signature corresponding to that target value will be shown and hence the person will be identified. An unlocked car with the keys in the ignition is very convenient to use. Chapter-12 Applications There is a tradeoff between security and convenience. by electronically 19 . usually by collecting personal information on the victim. and performing financial transactions. The signature on the back of a credit card will not deter an identity thief who requests and signs a new card. but also easy to steal. such as name. However. crossing international borders. In general. Identity Theft Identity theft occurs when a thief assumes the identity of an individual. and uses this information to bill charges to the victim’s name. address. Biometrics is a useful method to verify identity. The output value when more closer to the corresponding target value. Signature in Retail Reliable authentication and authorization are increasingly becoming necessary for many commonplace activities such as boarding an aircraft. So. as a moderate amount of fraud is preferable to lost business and frustrated customers that results if the authentication process is too burdensome or stringent. Social Security number.Chapter-11 Result The signature is identified after giving training to the neural network and the output of the neural network will be generated corresponding to the target vectors. date of birth. once a credit card is issued. entering a secure physical location.

20 . indicating potential fraud. abrupt changes in signatures may be detected.monitor the accounts with dynamic signature verification algorithms.

May 1998. Wacom Technology Corporation 21 . Mertins. vol. 2003.epadlink.Vapnik. and A. “Comparison of Three Data Fu-sion Methods For An OffLine Signature Verification Prob-lem”. pp. 3. pp.com/productinfo/4x5. 1.Cortes and V. [5] M.REFERENCES [1] J. vol. “Handwritten Signature Verification based on Neural ‘Gas’ Based Vector Quantization”. vol. vol. M. Proc. International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition.wacom. 2003 [7] C. F. [2] Sansone and Vento. “Off-line Signature Verification Using HMM for Random. Sabourin. Nov. “Line Segment Distribu-tion of Sketches for Persian Signature Recognition”. R. Oct. WEBLINKS: [9] http://www. 1.Vapnik. Sánchez . 20. IEEE Proc. [3] E. ICDAR 2001. 2003 [6] A. F. 2001 [4] B. Vincent. 1995. Springer. pp. Université de François Rabelais. pp. B. Simple and Skilled Forgeries”.cfm Wacom Intuos2 4x5 Product Information. 2000. Á. Pattern Analysis & Applications. Yan. pp. 11–15. Arif and N. Bortolozzi and R. 105--110. Fu and H. 1. Machine Learning”. pp. J. 1862-1864. TENCON. 2003 IEEE Workshop on Neural Networks for Signal Processing. 169–181. [8] V.:273-297.N. 1995. Zhang. 627-636. “The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory”. Vélez.com/ ePad POS Electronic Signature Solution Interlink Electronics [10] http://www. vol. IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Net-works. “Signature Verification: Increasing Performance by a MultiStage System”. Justino. “Support-vector networks. Moreno. “Robust Off-Line Signature Verification Using Compression Networks And Positional Cuttings”. Chalechale and A. Laboratoire d’Informatique.

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