Fichas de Trabalho de Inglês

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Luís A. P. Varela Pinto 2001

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• Adjectivos (3) • Few / a few; little / a little (5) • Passive voice (7) • Reported speech (10) • Some / any / no; every; each other / one another (12) • Vocabulary: family relations (16) • Relative clauses (18) • Simple present v. present continuous (20) • Simple past v. present perfect (22) • Verb tenses (24)

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COMPARATIVES: as… as, -er than, the same as , the same… as, different from

a as… as, -er than Look at these sentences: Alan is taller than Bob, but he isn't as tall as David. David is older than Clive. Clive's shoes are as big as Bob's.
The information in these sentences comes from this table:

Height (m) Alan Bob Clive David 1.78 1.69 178 1.81

Age 19 18 17 18

Shoe size 46 45 45 43

USING THE TABLE, MAKE MORE SENTENCES ABOUT THE BOYS. USE THESE PHRASES: taller than, shorter than, as tall as; older than, younger than, as old as; bigger than, smaller than, as big as.


the same… as , different from Look at these sentences: This is the same as mine. Your coat is the same colour as my gloves. Their view is different from mine. When we use the same to make comparisons, we also use as. PUT AS, THAN OR FROM IN THE FOLLOWING: 1. his name is the same _________ our teacher's. 2. This is a very different size ___________ that. 3. London is bigger ___________ Paris. 4. Tom isn't ________ clever _________ Kate. 5. She's about the same age _______ my sister. 6. Her ideas are completely different _________ yours. COMPARATIVES: -er, more Look at these sentences: Mount Everest is higher than Mont Blanc. Gold is more expensive than silver. We make the comparative of short adjectives with -er , e.g. smaller than, higher than, hotter than

COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING WITH -ER THAN OR MORE… THAN USING THE ADJECTIVES IN BRACKETS: e.g. She is fatter than her sister (fat) 1. This book is _________________ that one. (interesting) 2. The air here is _______________ in a big town. (clean)


3. The cowboy film was very bad. 3. It was __________________ all the other films. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING IN THE SAME WAY AS THE EXAMPLES ABOVE: 1. it is ___________ . she was ____________________ all the other speakers. it is __________ difficult. mine was much ________________ than hers. Fiona is fatter than all the other girls. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING IN THE SAME WAY AS THE EXAMPLES ABOVE: 1. Cars are much _________________ than motorbikes. SUPERLATIVES: -est Look at these sentences and notice the difference in use between taller than and the tallest: Roger is taller than all the other boys. In fact she is _________________ student. 2. SUPERLATIVES: most Look at these sentences and notice the difference ion use between more expensive than and the most expensive: This car is more expensive than all the other cars. better than. she is _______________________ the other girls. they are _______________ animals. worse than. COMPARATIVES: more. Notice that we say the tallest but just taller . he is _________________ all the other runners. Mosquitoes are ________________ flies. She is _________________ all the other girls. 5. Notice the irregular forms: good. the worst. the best. A I think motorbikes are ________________ cars. (safe) COMPARATIVES: -er . 3. he is taller than all the others. she is _______________ girl. it is __________________ all the other trees. Use these forms in the following: 7. That house is bigger than all the other houses. she is ___________ all the other students. 6. 4. (cheap) 4. Mrs Johnson was _________ interesting speaker. 4 . (small) 6. in fact it was __________________ film of all. This is the tallest tree. it is the most expensive. (dangerous) B I agree. This machine is ___________ efficient ____________ all the other machines. he is the tallest. This is the most expensive car. 8. it is ____________________ house. Tina is a very good student. it is more expensive than all the other cars. Fred is the fastest runner. Sylvia is __________ intelligent girl. Notice that we say the most expensive but just more expensive. 2. Elephants are bigger than all other animals. 4. (slim) 5. A Was her ring _________________ yours? (expensive) B Yes. bad. This exercise is ________________________ the other exercises. Roger is the tallest. Fred is ________________ his father. Sylvia is the prettiest girl.

but enough’. For dessert. I bought ____________ bottles the other day. but enough’. He changed his job because the old one gave him ____________ opportunities to travel and he was bored. It should be a pleasant evening. and I’ll need ____________ time to think about it. 2. it is used with countable nouns. Just a little. few and a few Few is used with negative meaning. I can’t give you a decision immediately. 5. and are similar to ‘some’ but a few means ‘not many. 5 . The concert was not a success. Only limits the positive sense of a few. so I’d be grateful for ___________ suggestions from the audience. Very few people came to hear him play. 4. I’ve got ____________ things to do before I can look at the project.Few. Look at these examples: It was a very difficult question and so few (not many) students got it right. Only ____________ people supported it. so I’ll open one. but ____________ came. Compare its use with that of ‘a few’ in these examples. In normal conversation we tend to say ‘not many’ rather than ‘few’. Very ____________ delegates at the conference filled in the questionnaire. a few and a little We use a few with countable nouns and a little with uncountable nouns. and a little means ‘not much. Only a few friends came to hear him play. ____________ friends of ours are coming to dinner this evening. Look at these examples: I’ve bought a few flowers for your birthday. The concert was not a success. The party did badly in the elections. and note the different connecting words. We could have ____________ wine with the cheese. b. 4. He invited a lot of people to the party. There are ____________ people in the class who would pass the exam if they were prepared to make ____________ effort and do ____________ work at home. Both have positive meaning. always working in the same office. Complete the sentences with either few or a few: 1. a little a. ____________ writers have described the situation in the country accurately. little. so and but. 3. 2. 3. I hope this new job will give me ____________ opportunities to travel. Complete these sentences with either a few or a little: 1. I’ve invited ____________ people to a party this evening. and only ____________ of those really understand the reason for it. I’m going to serve ____________ strawberries with ____________ cream on top. The party did badly in the elections. Would you like some milk? Yes. Very ____________ people voted for it. very emphasizes the negative sense of few. I’d like to visit foreign countries. please. a few. The question was too difficult for most of the students but a few ( some but not a large number) got it right.

Complete the sentences with few. you won’t find it so hard. and gets ____________ satisfaction from it. e. There’s very ____________ work to be done here at weekends. You work too hard. They knew they had ____________ chance of success. 3. 6 . We sometimes get ____________ urgent messages to deal with. 5. and gained ____________ experience. a few. little or a little: 1. except that little and a little are used with uncountable nouns. You should relax a little (enough to improve your health). When you’ve worked with the machine ____________ times. 4. and very ____________ operators learn it straightaway. a little The distinction between little and a little and the use of only a little and very little are the same as for few and a few. He earns very ____________ money. 2. I was so cold that there was very ____________ feeling in my legs. ____________ climbers would have attempted to climb that mountain in winter. but in general the office is quiet. a few. You need ____________ patience. but with ____________ luck they would have reached the top. It’s sad that the snowstorm forced them to turn back when they were only ____________ metres from the summit. He cares very little (doesn’t care very much) for anyone but himself. It’s a difficult process.g. little. few. and can be used adverbially. but when I tried to take ____________ steps I almost fell down.c. I could move my feet ___________ . ____________ people would put up with working conditions like that.

People always admire this picture. _______________________________________________________________________ 7. _______________________________________________________________________ 4. Someone has broken two of my dinner-plates. He hurt his leg in an accident. _______________________________________________________________________ 9. Somebody can do it. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. People formerly used the Tower of London as a prison. Somebody built this bridge last year. _______________________________________________________________________ 3.Passive Voice 1 1. _______________________________________________________________________ 7 . _______________________________________________________________________ 11. _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Did anyone ask any questions about me? _______________________________________________________________________ 10. _______________________________________________________________________ 8. People will forget it in a few years' time. _______________________________________________________________________ 12. Somebody has invited you to lunch tomorrow. You must write the answers on one side of the paper only. Somebody left the dog in the garden. ___________________________________________________________ 2. No one has opened this box for the last hundred years.

This picture ____________________________________ .No one can answer your question.This exercise ___________________________________ very carefully. ______________________________________________________________ 2.? (answer .(leave . ______________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________ 5. next month?(finish .They still deny women the right to vote in some countries.You ____________________________________________ to lunch tomorrow.(beautifully write . ______________________________________________________________ 3..They will ask us several questions.present continuous) 4.simple present) 2.They had eaten all the dinner before they finished the conversation.future) ______________________________________________________________? 10.(always admire .past perfect) 8.infinitive) 7.simple past) 3.Passive Voice 2 COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING PASSIVE VOICE SENTENCES WITH THE VERBS IN BRACKETS IN THE TENSE INDICATED: 1.(invite .The stolen car ______________________________________ in another city.They requested the stranger to leave the meeting.present perfect) _________________________________________________________ ? 9.(do .The matter ________________________________________ tomorrow.future) 6..(find . _____________________________________________________________ 2.The others told the new students where to sit. _____________________________________________________________ TURN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO THE PASSIVE VOICE: 1.Hats and coats must _________________________________ in the cloakroom.The wind blew his hat down the street..(discuss .Your question.An unseen hand opened the window.. _____________________________________________________________ 3.The article _________________________________________ .They gave my little sister a ticket.(hurt . _____________________________________________________________ 4.past perfect) TURN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO THE PASSIVE VOICE(IDIOMATIC): 1. too.future) 5.His leg _________________________________________ in an accident.The book. ______________________________________________________________ 8 .

Someone has spilt the tea all over the tablecloth. ______________________________________________________________ 9. ______________________________________________________________ 6.Nobody has ever spoken to me like that before. _______________________________________________________________ 9 . ______________________________________________________________ 8.5.They did nothing until he came.The fire destroyed many valuable paintings. ______________________________________________________________ 7.Did the noise frighten you? ______________________________________________________________ 10.Somebody must have taken it while I was out.

wonder. c)for requests/orders:tell. ask. SAY and TELL: —say is used with or without the person addressed:He said that there was no appeal or he said to him that there was no appeal. These changes only occur when the introductory verbs are in the past and their subjects and indirect objects are third persons (he /him.advise.beg. they/them) 2.. inform.want to know.REPORTED SPEECH (Main changes which occur in sentences when you report what somebody said) PERSONAL PRONOUNS POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS REFLEXIVE/EMPHATIC PRONOUNS DIRECT SPEECH 1ST PERSONS I you we me us my myself ETC. say. 10 .enquire. 3. OTHER ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS this these REPORTED SPEECH 3RD PERSONS he/she he/she/they/him/her/them they him/her them his/her himself/herself that those WORDS/PHRASES OF TIME AND PLACE now here today yesterday tomorrow this week/month/year last week/month/year next week/month/year ago then there that day the day before the following day that week/month/year the week/month/year before the following week/month/year before VERB TENSES present(do/does) past(did) present perfect(have/has done) future(will do) imperative(Do/Don’t do) past(did) past perfect(had done) past perfect(had done) conditional(would do) infinitive(to do/not to do) NOTES 1..order..add.she /her. Introductory verbs: a)for statements:tell.reply.etc. urge. answer.etc. b)for questions:ask.remark. —tell must be followed by the person addressed:He told him that there was no appeal.etc.

I have never been here before. Why didn't you get up earlier? (He asked her) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. Which book are you taking? (He asked her) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. I can't do it now. I enjoyed myself very much. Susan? (He wanted to know) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. (He said) 11 . Where are you going. Last night I went to the cinema and saw Tom Cruise's latest film. (He told her) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Don't wipe your dirty fingers on my nice tablecloth. How did you do that? ( She asked him) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. I am going to town with my sister. (He admitted) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. and am going to take my other girl-friend tonight.Reported Speech Exercises 1. You have bought yourself a new hat. I want to speak to you. (She told him) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. (He said) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I've sold all those you gave me. They went away yesterday. Is it time to go? (He wondered) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 12.I don't know what she will say. (My boy-friend Cyril told me ) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. (He informed her) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Does your car always make a nasty smell? (She asked him) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. (She informed him) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. You must decide what you want to do. (He said) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Wait until I come. but I expect I can do it next week. (She asked them ) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. (She told him) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. (She told him) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.

(She said) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. I'll try to be in time today. I expect to hear some news tomorrow. I'm sorry I forgot to come yesterday. so that you needn't worry.__________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. I will tell you if I do. (She told him) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 12 .

(belong) 13 . and Paul often writes to Brenda. Everybody and everyone mean "all the people" They are all singular and take a singular verb. and Pauline loves Alan. _____________________ in their bedroom ____________ blue. EVERYBODY OR EVERYONE AND THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB IN THE FOLLOWING: 1. and Neil sometimes makes cakes for David. and I respect Fred. Nowadays ___________________ too much money. Everybody goes home at 5 o'clock.(like) 3. and the Tomlinsons hate the Smiths. and her sister never argues with Cathy.Cathy never argues with her sister. Mrs Rowe admires Mrs Webb. and Mrs Webb admires Mrs Rowe. 2. Brenda often writes to Paul. EVERYTHING. Fred respects me . The Smiths hate the Tomlinsons. Alan loves Pauline. Everything means "all things". EVERYBODY / EVERYONE Notice the verbs in these sentences: Everything is dirty. 4.(spend) 4. 8. David sometimes makes cakes for Neil. Everyone in the office knows James. _______________ in the house _______________ to their parents.EACH OTHER / ONE ANOTHER Compare these sentences: Tom helps Kate and Kate helps Tom Tom and Kate help each other / one another Both sentences have the same meaning. 6. Ben often complains about Sara. 3. 7. and Sara often complains about Ben. Almost _________________________ young children. 5. PUT EVERYTHING .(be) 2. but we usually use the second sentence pattern with each other or one another CHANGE THE FOLLOWING IN THE SAME WAY: 1.

who was it? 5. It's not a difficult job. but ______________ wanted to listen because they were all watching television. in an affirmative sentence. I don't care. Somebody is used in a positive statement. NOBODY / NO ONE Look at these sentences: I saw somebody in the garden. Someone means "a particular person". ANYBODY OR NOBODY IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES: 1. SOMEONE / SOMEBODY. etc. Nobody was in the garden.) Nobody is negative and is not used with another negative word. means "a person.SOMEBODY / SOMEONE. ANYONE / ANYBODY Compare these sentences: Listen! There's someone at the door.g. and _________________ should tell him so. ______________ from the post office brought this for you. anyone. I didn't see anybody in the garden. A — ______________ telephoned this morning. Somebody and nobody can be the subject of the sentence. ______________ came to see me at the weekend. any person. Doris Mr Cross Oh. Ssh! ________________ may hear you. whoever he is and whatever he is like" COMPLETE THESE SENTENCES WITH SOMEONE / SOMEBODY AND ANYONE / ANYBODY WHERE APPROPRIATE. (not. although perhaps we don't know his name. We cannot use anybody as the subject of the sentence. ANYBODY / ANYONE. Anybody is used in a statement with a negative word. 7. ________________ is talking. e. 2. 8. Somebody was in the garden. ______________ would say the same in my situation. 6. instead of nobody we can use no one with he same meaning. I wanted to talk to _______________ about my problems. never. Anyone could do it.. instead of anybody we can use anyone with he same meaning. B — Oh. 3. I saw nobody in the garden. _________________ rang while you were out.: Doris Flo Doris He's an impossible man. _________________ is talking because everybody has a lot of work. Who was it? 14 . 4. Please don't tell _______________ my secret. I don't know ______________ who speaks Chinese. PUT SOMEBODY. but I don't know who it is. so I was all alone. Note that: instead of somebody we can use someone with the same meaning.

3. I'm thirsty. Miss Smith. didn't we? 4. There isn't a cafe anywhere near here. NOTHING. because I'm leaving. ANYTHING. I didn't ask him. er. 2. ANYTHING. you'd better look for _______________ then. My pen must be _______________ in this room. Mr Cross Now. Mr Cross. never. There isn't anything in that box. Nothing is negative and is not used with another negative word. Miss Smith. ______________ but you would have asked him his name. The children haven't ________________ to play games. But your wife might like to know that you took _____________ out to lunch today. don't get upset. Something is used in a positive statement. etc). Good heavens! _______________ with a little common sense would have taken a message. Doris Well. Not… anywhere is used in a negative statement. We can use an adjective after these words (something. 4. Doris Mr Cross Well.Doris Mr Cross I don't know. It was completely empty. There was ______________ in the case. but I haven't got anything to eat. I didn't see ___________________ about the fire in the newspaper. SOMEWHERE OR ANYWHERE IN THE FOLLOWING: 1. SOMEWHERE. 15 . Notice which sentences are positive and which are negative: There's something in that box. I expect he'll ring back. but I haven't got _____________________________ . Notice the use of the infinitive. Anything is used in a statement with a negative word (not. 2. We'd like to go somewhere. ANYWHERE a. There isn't anything heavy in hat box. b. you know. That's what I pay you for. but they haven't got anywhere to sit. _________________ could do a simple job like yours. 5. PUT ANYTHING OR ANYWHERE AND AN INFINITIVE IN THE FOLLOWING: 1.It may have been _________________ important. 3. ________________ can lose his temper. etc). They're tired. e. Doris. They'd like to play football. SOMETHING. There's something heavy in that box. There's nothing heavy in that box.g. He'd like to read something. We saw _______________ very unusual this morning. NOTHING. after anything and anywhere: I'm hungry. but we can't think of ______________________ . but he hasn't got __________________________ . Somewhere is used in a positive statement. if it was. There's nothing in that box. but they haven't got ___________________________ . to eat. PUT SOMETHING. There's a cafe somewhere near here. ________________ called Gloria from the accounts office. to sit.

16 . EXAMPLE: Old Mr Clark is Mr Tom Clark's father. According to the example. build up as many sentences as possible about the family tree above .A Family Tree Old Mr Clark & Old Mrs Clark Mr Tom Clark & Mrs Donna Clark Mr Water & Mrs Clare Water Rose Bill & Ann William & Mary Fred Susan Bob Betty Family relations: Great Grandparents Great Grandfather Great Grandmother Husband & Wife Grandparents Grandfather Grandmother Parents Mother Father Parents Father Mother -in-law Son Daughter Brother Sister Children Son Daughter Brother Sister Uncle Aunt Nephew Niece Cousin A.

B. EXAMPLE: Who's Old Mr Clark? — He's Tom Clark's father. According to the example. Whose father is Old Mr Clark? — He's Tom Clark's (father) 17 . build up questions and give the adequate answers about the family tree.

. But sometimes you must use who for people ..Everything that happened was my fault.I don’t like stories that have unhappy endings. It is also possible to use that instead of who: . We use that instead of it/they: where are the eggs? — They were in the very friendly The man who lives next door is very friendly.The girl who was injured in the accident is now in hospital.’) Now study the next unit for more information about relative clauses. . . . (who lives next door tells us which man ) . we use that (not who) in a relative clause. . we know a lot of people — they live in London We know a lot of people who live in London.The window that was broken has now been repaired.Do you know the man who lives next door? (not ‘. who he lives .Anyone who wants to do the examination must enter before next Friday.Relative clauses with who/that/which a) Study this example: The man who lives next door is very friendly.What was the name of the man who lent you the money? . A relative clause tells us which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means: ..see Unit 91.Where are the eggs which were in the fridge? That is more usual than which in the sentences in this Unit.The man who lives next door .People who live in London .. We use who instead of he/she/they: the man — he lives next door . .Gerry works for a company that makes typewriters.The man that lives next door is very friendly..An architect is someone who designs buildings.see Unit 91. . b) When we are talking about things. relative clause A clause is a part of a sentence. You can also use which for things (but not for people): .. 18 . Where are the eggs that were in the fridge? . c) Remember that we use who/that/which instead of he/she/they/it: . But sometimes you must use which .. (who live in London tells us what kind of people) We use who in a relative clause when we are talking about people.

. 5 Alexander Bell was the man ..................... (a shoplifter) ....................... he/she steals from a shop he/she doesn’t eat meat he/she designs buildings he/she breaks into a house and steals things he/she doesn’t drink alcohol he/she buys something from a shop 1 2 3 4 5 6 (an architect) An architect is someone who designs buildings.................................... She is now in hospital.................. Example: A girl was injured in the accident.......... Now you have to read two sentences and then write one sentence with the same meaning................... he invented the telephone she runs away from home they are never on time they stole my car they used to hang on that wall it it it it it makes typewriters gives you the meanings of words won the race can support life was found last week 1 Gerry works for a company that (or which) makes typewriters 2 The book is about a girl ............................................................... The man ..... 3 Some boys were arrested............................................. 88.In this exercise you have to explain what some words mean..................... She was very impolite and impatient.................... 2 A waitress served us............................... 7 The police are still trying to identify the body ........... Use a dictionary if necessary......................... 3 What was the name of the horse ............. 19 .............. (a burglar) A burglar is someone ..............................................................................3 The sentences in this exercise are not complete.............................. The boys ......................... A man answered the phone............................................................... (a vegetarian) A vegetarian . The ......................................... Choose the most suitable ending from the list and make it into a relative clause............................................................................. Choose the right meaning from the list and then write a sentence with who........ (a teetotaller) .......... 9 I don’t like people ........ (a customer) . He told me you were out......................... Use a relative clause in your sentence...... The girl who was injured in the accident is now in hospital................................. 10 It seems that Earth is the only planet ... 6 Where are the pictures ........ They have now been released...................... 4 The police have caught the men ................................................... 8 A dictionary is a book .......................

.................... 17 . 10 ......."Don’t talk so loudly!" — "I .... (not / to work) and I need it.......... 2 .....I ........Jane .....They .....I .... (they / to go) to the pub every evening? 13 ...... (to have) to be done.Good students .. (now / to rain)..... .........................How often a day .........He .It ..... 1 . Present Continuous Put the verb into the correct form ... (you / to fix) it this morning? 21 ...... 7 ........She .....................Why .... (to think) she ....... 20 .... 14 . 8.......... (now / to learn) to treat animals.... (always / to go) to bed very early........I ... 6 ......Margaret ...... 4 ..... 12 ...... (to come) late........... (to do) it because it . (to sit) on an armchair........I ....... (to be) very pretty...... 19 . (always / to study) hard........Why ... (to talk) to a friend at the moment...........He ........................................................ (you / to eat) ice-cream? 11 ...He ..... (to smoke) a pipe.... 5 ...... (to sleep) under the table at the moment..... (to teach)...... (never / to rain) in Summer but it ........Present Simple or Present Continuous..... (to know) all about the film.. (you / not / to fix) it later? 20 ........... ( not / to like) his job......... (generally / to arrive) early but today they ........ 22 .He .............. 16 ....................................Simple Present v. 18 ....... 9 .... 3 ....The dog .Teachers .They . (often / to clean) the house on Saturdays..... 15 ................... (never / to do) this at this time but today it ...... (not / to talk) loudly".................................... (to love) music and dancing......... (not / to work) on Sundays............

...He ....... 26 ..... 38 ..... (never / to eat) anything while she ......................... (hardly ever / to read) thrillers....... 40 . 35 .............. 34 ............. (you / to enjoy) staying at home as a rule? 39 .............I .................................. 29 ..............She ..... (to see) a man on the roof.... (to work). (nearly always / to take) a nap after dinner but today he ..He ..........We .. 28........ (to be) at the office......I ..They ..... (usually / to have) breakfast at 7 nowadays.(to ring)..... (to visit) the Smiths today. 36 ...... He .........I ..........The concert ................. so please don't interrupt me............. (usually / they / to hear) the news on the radio? 27 ............. (frequently / to meet) my friends in a nearby coffee bar......He ................ (the concert / to begin) at 5 or at 6? 32 .........When ............................. 25 .She ......... (to stay) at the Plaza Hotel... 33 . 21 .........We ..... 37 ............. (you / to do) it every lesson? 30.... (to sharpen) my pencil at present..... (to finish) at 12......I ......(to cry) for help. (always / to wake up) before the bell ........ (to do).......... (to watch) television.............23-"Write down in pencil!" —".... 31 ..... (I/ not /to write)?” 24 .............. (to want) to know what we ......

. 20..I ..........I don't want to go to the cinema... 21 ....... I ....... (to keep) us waiting a long time last night. 6 ........ (not / to write) any..I .... (to move) now.......... (already / to do) it once.................. Present Perfect Put the verbs into the correct tense ............................ I ...........You'll have to wait...She ..... 8.......I . (to sell) a lot of my old pictures a few months ago.... (to visit) twelve different countries now......... (to post) the letters this morning but mother (to post) hers yesterday evening... (to see) you in town two or three days ago but you .......... l .. (not / to come) to see us since you left the office................ (not / to rain) today... I ......... 10 ..... 9............... (to sell) a lot of my old pictures lately..........You .. 12 ...... (to do) his a long time ago........ 4 ...................... (not / to come) to see us last week......It .. 3 ..... (to see) this film some weeks ago....... (not to see) the exhibition yet but Michael ...... (to write) some articles for the school magazine last year but this year he .... 14 .. 5 .. (just / to do) my homework but Peter .. 15 ......... (not / to rain) yesterday and it .I ................. I ................. 19 ............................... (to disappear). 13 .............I ................ 11 .............I'm not going to do it again.You ...............I ...Simple Past or Present Perfect........ He must pay them soon....She .......... (not / to pay) his taxes yet.. (not / to see) me..Have you seen my glasses? They .. (to find) a super flat just before I ....................... (not / to finish) yet..I .....Simple Past v.........He ........ 18 ......... (to see) it last Saturday............. 2 ........... 17. 16 .He . (to go) on holiday..... (to keep) us waiting a long time this evening. 22 .He ..... (to go) to the circus at the weekend........I .....I ............... (to see) Jane twice this week but last week I (not / to set) eyes on her. 7 ..

... 23 . 24 ......His father .... (to spend) two months in Madrid but she .Tim ...........Last year Joan ............ 25 .............. (not / to come back) yet.......... (to look) at some the day before yesterday.........................................I ...........22 .............. (already / to lose) it.......... (to borrow) my car last evening and he .. (to give) him a watch for Christmas but he ... (to forget) how to speak Spanish now.. (not / to buy) a new carpet yet but I ... 23 ..

Verb Tenses Exemplification verb:to drive. driven (conduzir. drove. guiar automóvel) Active Voice Present Simple I you he she it we you they drive drive drives drive drive drive Continuous I you he she it we you they am are is are are are driving Perfect I you he she it we you they have have has have have have driven Perfect Continuous I you he she it we you they have have has have have have been driving Past Simple I you he she it we you they Continuous I you he she it we you they was were was were were were driving Perfect I you he she it we you they Perfect Continuous I you he she it we you they drove had driven had been driving 24 .

Active Voice Future Simple I you he she it we you they shall will will will will shall will will I you he she it we you they Continuous shall will will will will shall will will I you he she it we you they Perfect shall will will will will shall will will I you he she it we you they Perfect Continuous shall will will will have been driving will shall will will drive be driving have driven Conditional Simple I'd you'd he'd she'd it'd we'd you'd they'd I'd you'd he'd she'd it'd we'd you'd they'd Continuous I'd you'd he'd she'd it'd we'd you'd they'd Perfect Perfect Continuous I'd you'd he'd she'd it'd we'd you'd they'd drive be driving have driven have been driving 25 .

Passive Voice Present Simple I you he she it we you they am are is are are are driven I you he she it we you they Continuous am are is are are are being driven Perfect I have you have he she has it we have you have they have Perfect Continuous have I you have he she has been being driven it we have you have they have been driven Past Simple I was you were he she was driven it we were you were they were I you he she it we you they Continuous was were was were were were being driven I you he she it we you they Perfect Perfect Continuous I you he she it we you they had been driven had been being driven 26 .

Passive Voice Future Simple Continuous Perfect I shall you will he will she will have been driven it will we shall you will they will Perfect Continuous I shall you will he will she will it will we shall you will they will I shall I shall you will you will he will he will she will be driven she will be being driven it will it will we shall we shall you will you will they will they will have been being driven Conditional Simple I'd you'd he'd she'd be driven it'd we'd you'd they'd Continuous I'd you'd he'd she'd be being driven it'd we'd you'd they'd I'd you'd he'd she'd it'd we'd you'd they'd Perfect Perfect Continuous I'd you'd he'd she'd it'd we'd you'd they'd have been driven have been being driven 27 .

Ex. Charles owns a big car.30. The children imitate their parents. espectáculos e horários em geral. por exemplo: “What time do you meet me?” A forma correcta seria: What time are you meeting me?”) PRESENT CONTINUOUS O Present Continuous emprega-se: • para exprimir continuidade. Ex.: I live in Portugal. transportes públicos. Aparece ligado a certos advérbios ou expressões adverbiais tais como: frequently always every day once a week generally sometimes everyweek twice a week usually often every month several times rarely • acções futuras previamente planeadas em ligação com viagens.: The moon moves round the earth. • para exprimir uma acção que se desenrola no momento em que se fala. We sail in October. Ex.: When does the film begin? The train starts at 12. Ex. • algo que persiste no tempo. • leis naturais ou científicas.: I am speaking English much better now.SIMPLE PRESENT O Simple Present emprega-se para exprimir: • simples factos ou verdades aceites como tais. Ex: My children play with computers at school. Nota: o Simple Present nunca se usa para falar dos planos e combinações pessoais. 28 . Nunca se deve escrever. • acções repetidas e habituais.

last month. 29 . What are you doing now? • para falar de projectos pessoais num futuro próximo.: I’ve bought a car. pois.Simple Present) PRESENT PERFECT O Present Perfect é um tempo muito importante em Inglês por ser de uso muito corrente. com palavras como yesterday. Exprime acontecimentos recentes. num momento ano identificado. two weeks ago.Ex.) O Present Perfect nunca pode.: The weather is getting better. Ex: Are you doing anything tonight? She is arriving in Lisbon next saturday. por exemplo. O Present Perfect emprega-se: • para exprimir uma acção que ocorre num tempo indefinido. o qual terá sido adquirido anteriormente.: When are you eating? (= when are you going to eat ?) When do you eat? (I eat at midday . • para exprimir situações de mudança. referindo-se sempre a um tempo indefinido. O Present Perfect não está relacionado com a altura em que a acção se realizou mas com a ideia. ser usado com qualquer tipo de referência a um momento bem definido do passado. O que se pretende frisar é a posse do carro. Ex. • ligado a certas expressões de tempo: now today at present these days at this moment this season Nota: WHEN interrogativo só pode usar-se com o PRESENT CONTINUOUS quando este exprime futuro próximo Ex.: I am having dinner (at this moment). Ex. (Nada se diz ou se sugere sobre quando o carro foi comprado. O Present Perfect liga o passado ao presente.

UNTIL. Ex. 30 .: I’ve just written this letter. I have been living here for six months. How long have you waited? • com JUST (= this minute) para exprimir uma acção que acaba de completar-se. AS SOON AS.) • com os seguintes advérbios e expressões adverbiais: recently ever it’s the first time this morning lately never this week up to now already this month yet Ex.: What have you done lately? Have you seen him recenVy? Have you ever been to India? No. She has been waiting for me since 4 o’clock. quando equivalerem a AFTER. (Precisely at this moment the letter is ready. • com FOR.: I’ve worked in England for three years. Ex.: I’ve been ill. com SINCE e com HOW LONG para exprimir uma acção que começa no passado e continua até ao presente. She has waited for me since 4 o clock. Ex.Ex.: Come and see me when (= after) you have had your dinner. I’ve never been there. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS O Present Perfect Continuous usa-se nos mesmos sentidos em que se usa o Present Perfect e com os mesmos advérbios e expressões adverbiais. I’ve seen her. para exprimir algo que está a acontecer no momento em que se fala. Ex.: I have lived here for six months. Have you cleaned your shoes yet? • em frases começadas por WHEN. He has been ill since Christmas.

FUTURE SHALL/WILL e GOING TO • SHALL/WILL exprimem uma simples previsão de futuro.: I’m going to repair it tomorrow. Things will be different in three years’ time.: There’s a stone on the way. You’ll feel better tomorrow.: I’ll repair it tomorrow. ALL THIS YEAR. • GOING TO é muito pouco usado em ligação com outras orações. I’m going to go by plane. • SHALL/WILL exprimem uma acção futura que ocorre ao espírito no momento em que se fala. Não há projecto nem intenção. She’s going to sell her house. Ex. I think I’ll read it tonight. não tendo sido previamente decidida. Por isso é mais usado com pessoas do que com coisas.: It’ll soon be midnight. Ex. He’s going to fall. That’s all right! I’ll tell them you’re asleep. 31 . Look at those big black clouds! It’s going to rain. ALL DAY. • GOING TO é usado para exprimir uma situação futura (geralmente um futuro próximo) que está dependente de uma situação presente.Usa-se principalmente com verbos que exprimem uma acção que dura e se prolonga no tempo. • GOING TO usa-se para exprimir intenções e decisões pessoais previamente tomadas. He’s going to pick me up at 5. ALL THIS WEEK. tais como: expect sit study learn sleep rest lie stand wait live stay work Alguns dos advérbios que se usam com o PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS costumam ser precedidos de ALL. Ex. que pode ser longínquo. a fim de reforçar o sentido de continuidade e duração: ALL THIS MORNING. Ex.

You won’t speak English very well unless you go to England. We weren’t talking very loudly. Ex. he’ll give you a new one.: If you go with him.: Last year I walked to school every day (= I used to walk). SIMPLE PAST O Simple Past emprega-se: • para falar de acções e situações que ocorram num tempo bem definido do passado.: I was waiting for the train. Ex. When I go shopping. • com os seguintes advérbios ou expressões adverbiais relativas ao passado: at 9 o clock last saturday a few minutes ago at half past six last week two days ago yesterday last month two months ago the day before yesterday long ago PAST CONTINUOUS Ex.: She bought a new dress (last week). I’ll buy some food.Ex. What was he doing there? What were they doing there? She wasn’t talking very loudly. • para falar de acções e situações habituais e repetidas no passado. Ex. • para falar de uma acção que se segue a outra no passado. They were waiting for the train. 32 . podendo os advérbios de tempo adequados estar expressos ou apenas subentendidos.: The telephone rang and then someone knocked at the door.

Nota: Não se usa o Past Continuous com verbos como want.: The men had been fighting for some minutes before the police appeared. exprime acções que começam. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS O Past Perfect Continuous é a forma passada do Present Perfect Continuous.: I had arrived at midnight. PAST PERFECT Ex.: I was living in France when Mary was born. ocorreu no passado. they were listening to records. Had she taken the job? Had they taken the job? We hadn’t lost the key. 33 . Usa-se em circunstâncias idênticas situadas no passado: • para exprimir continuidade e acção prolongada no passado. duram e terminam no passado. Ex. What were you doing at 5 yesterday? While I was studying. You hadn’t lost the key. etc. a qual. (ver Simple Present e Present Continuous). Ex. the train had already started. know. por sua vez.: I had been working for two hours and so I was tired.: I didn t go to the cinema with them because I had seen the film before. I was having dinner when the telephone rang. O Past Perfect usa-se: • para exprimir uma acção que aconteceu antes de outra. When I arrived at the’station. O Past Perfect Continuous usa-se de modo semelhante ao Past Perfect. She had arrived at midnight. Ex. assim como acções simultâneas. Ex.O Past Continuous apresenta um certo paralelismo com o Present Continuous. Had he been driving the other car before he was caught by the police? We hadn’t been telephoning when he tried to connect. reforçando a noção de continuidade e prolongamento da acção no passado.

Nível Intermédio • As / like (35) • Compound nouns (37) • Had better / would rather (39) • If-clauses (41) • Modal verbs 1 (44) • Passive voice (50) • Still / yet / already (51) • Used to / would / be used to (54) • Modal verbs 2 (57) • Relative clauses (70) • Nível elementar .

2. As I was saying before you came in. recognise. we have opened several new branches. Complete these sentences with as or like: 1. as I do/his father does. He behaves ____________ a film director when he takes a picture of the family on the beach. ____________ you. think of. ____________ Chamberlain at Munich. He works hard. 35 . Compare these sentences: He treats his students as friends. as we do. is ____________ the one in France. in fact. ____________ them. ____________ our rivals. we must have a law of this kind — ____________ every civilised country has. 3. She could run ____________ a deer. He hopes to have a career ____________ a film director. ____________ they have done. I’ve always wanted to appear ____________ Hamlet. we may lose money at first in some of them. see. If we use like after any of them. The new law. We can’t afford to give the workers the idea that we will do anything to keep the peace. we need someone like you to help us. know (usually b e k n o w n ). we are making a comparison. I’m in favor of negotiation. (comparison: it isn’t a real railway) As refers to a person’s role in life or profession. Of course my new novel is written ____________ a novel. use. A number of verbs are commonly followed by a s (see list below). b. count. Compare these sentences: He works as an engineer. or a part he/she takes in a play. Complete the following sentences with a s or like: 1. But I’m not prepared to give way to pressure. like me/his father. regard. ____________ a play. Like is used for comparison. (comparison: he’s not a monkey) I’m doing this as an experiment. characterise. ____________ the French.(He is friendly towards them) He treats his students like animals. like a. known as. 3. class. as an engineer. like is followed by a noun or pronoun. 4. describe. behave. I had him ____________ my teacher at school for many years. however. ____________ you’ve already heard. interpret . like us In comparisons. and we’ve noticed an increase in business. but he was so kind that he was more ____________ a father to me. 2. treat. Look at these examples: He works hard. define. You can’t expect to make a living ____________ an athlete. (in the part of Othello) He can climb like a monkey. but I’ve never wanted to be ____________ him in real express. l o o k o n . ____________ I said. c. or ____________ the previous manager did when he gave way the last time. In my long career ____________ an actor. as in exercise b . a s is followed by a clause (that is a subject and a finite verb). (That is his job) He was brilliant as Othello. treated as etc. He’s very fussy about photography. like a monkey. (It is an experiment) I’ve built this like a real railway. (He treats them as if they were) Common verbs of this type include: a c c e p t . but there are some chapters written entirely in dialogue. ____________ you are. film etc. 5.

3.) and a s or like: 1. 4. but I don’t see how you can define a country ____________ if no one has the freedom to express himself ____________ an individual. etc. He is regarded ____________ the greatest actor of his generation. 2. 5. I expect you to behave ____________ an adult. You have no right to treat people ____________ slaves. and the newspapers here class ____________ socialist. and I have never thought of ____________ a satisfactory ruler. it. The country describes itself ____________ democratic.Complete the following sentences with a pronoun (him. not ____________ a spoilt child. 36 . but the government have never officially recognised __________ such. They look on ____________ their king.

7. It is also used for periods of time: two days’ holiday. f containers: cigarette case ( a case that holds cigarettes). hyphenated or two separate words: e. The time when we have dinner.Compounds Nouns Noun phrases and compound nouns It is difficult to lay down firm rules for the use of nouns in apposition. The ‘s genitive is used for personal possession: my father’s car and in cases where the idea is that the person or living creature did something: the teacher’s letter ( she wrote it). however. where one noun is used in front of the other as if it were an adjective. A pie made of apples. The first noun describes the second in some way and comes before it like an adjective. the end of the programme. So a school play is a kind of play (theatrical performance) performed by students at a school. There are many expressions. the more likely it is that the two nouns have joined together: bedroom. 2. Here is a list of common groups of this kind: a place: a London school ( a school of London) b time: morning coffee ( coffee drunk in the morning) c material or ingredients: a gold watch (a watch made of gold). 3. a strawberry ice-cream (an icecream made with strawberries). A brush for cleaning your teeth. You may have to check a dictionary to see if the words are joined together. A kitchen table 1. When can we do this. because although in many cases the ‘s genitive is possible. Some expressions are joined by a hyphen: boy-friend (though this is beginning to be spelt boyfriend). 2. Note 1: Plural forms are not used in the adjectival position. The longer an expression has been in the language. 6. Boxes that hold matches are called matchboxes. 4. A case for books. A window in a bedroom. 2: Spelling varies and is in process of change. d purpose. 9. where we use a noun as if it were an adjective. function or subject: a peace conference ( a conference to discuss peace). and when is it preferable to use the ‘s genitive form or write ‘the________ of the ____________ ?’ The following suggestions are made for general guidance to overcome the common errors. a Use the definitions given below to form compound nouns or noun phrases. A race for horses. 37 . A house in the country. A table used in the kitchen. An actor who acts in films. Some still remain as two words: radio signal. It is wiser to use a structure with of rather than the ‘s genitive with things. 3. e parts or sections: kitchen door (the door leading to the kitchen). with places: London’s history. mainly to play. 8. but do not provide an exhaustive discussion of the subject: 1. A story about love. g complement: woman doctor (a doctor who is a woman). a play school is a kind of school where young children not of normal school age go. A nightclub based in Paris. for example. the of structure will always be correct in these cases (the history of London) and there are many where it is the only accepted form: the back of the house. 5. 10.g.

b. I’m going to wash up the cups of coffee. A cigarette packet is empty. 3. 7. 5. A student who is not yet a nurse. 5. 8. Now look at these sentences: A person who works in a shop is a shop worker. as in the example: I’m going to buy a whisky bottle. The council responsible for a city. a packet of cigarettes is full or has some cigarettes in it. Put the milk bottles on the doorstep. A person who collects statues is a collector of statues. 6. Someone who keeps (=looks after) a house. bottle of wine Compare these sentences: He bought a packet of cigarettes. Good heavens! Johnny has eaten a whole bag of sweets. Make compound nouns or noun phrases for the following people: 1. A student who is studying nursing. so I’ll buy a potato sack. Note: There is a difference between the second and third sentences. where student is used adjectivally to indicate someone not yet qualified. We’re going to have a lot of people staying with us next week. A person who collects works of art is an art collector. 4. A team that plays football. Note that the singular form is used when the noun is used as an adjective even though it is a countable noun (cigarette packet). I’m going to buy a bottle of whisky. People who collect taxes. The milkman will collect them. Which of the following would you give a friend as a present: a case of champagne. 9. He threw the cigarette packet away. a cognac bottle. What else do we need at the grocer’s? Oh. 3. yes. 1. 4. Someone who paints landscapes. Wine bottle. a box of chocolates. A biology student is a student who is studying biology. In the last two sentences note that it is not always possible to make compound nouns and noun phrases. Correct the sentences which are wrong. usually because the activity is not common enough for such phrases to have come into the language. 2. Someone who paints carnivals and processions. a bottle of perfume? 38 . Someone who works in a factory. 10. A student doctor is a student in a hospital who is still training and has not yet qualified as a doctor. some tins of fruit and a matchbox. 2. A driver who has not yet learned to drive. a cigar box.

A: Would you like an apple? B: I'd rather have an orange. hadn't you? You'd better is short for you had better. B: Then you'd better stay in bed. red wine/white wine 5. MAKE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN THE SAME WAY WITH THE FOLLOWING: 1. _______ ? would rather a I'd rather Notice the use of I'd rather (I would rather) in these sentences: A: Would you like some tea? B: I'd rather have coffee. You'd better go to the doctor's. go to the circus with me next week (to the zoo). A: B: 2. 5. A: B: 4. _______ ? I've got headache. hadn't you? 1. A: B: 3. _______ an aspirin. A: B: 5. a boiled egg/ an omelette 1. would rather had better Look at this conversation: A: I've got a cold. _______ shops. strawberries/raspberries 3. _______ early. Had is the past form of have. MAKE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN THE SAME WAY WITH THE FOLLOWING: 1. _______ you? I've got toothache. 1. if it's no trouble. go to the theatre with me on Friday (Saturday). _______ ? We've got no food in the house. but had better refers to future time. __________________________________________________________________ 39 . wine/beer 4. We use had better to say what is a sensible thing to do in a situation. if you don't mind. 4. _______ ? My shoes are dirty. 2. I'd rather play on Sunday. 3. 2. A: B: I've got a lot of work to do tomorrow.Had better. a glass of milk/ a glass of beer __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Here is another example of I'd rather: A: Would you like to play tennis on Saturday? B: Well.g. _______ to the dentist's. if you don't mind. 2. USE HAD BETTER AND A SUITABLE VERB TO REPLY TO THE FOLLOWING AND COMPLETE THE QUESTION-TAGS: e. _______ them. __________________________________________________________________ 2.

ride my motor-bike (sit on the back). play chess/play cards. grapefruit/yogurt 2. __________________________________________________________________ 5. MAKE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN THE SAME WAY WITH THE FOLLOWING: 1. I'd rather not (play ) if you don't mind. ice cream/ fruit salad 5. __________________________________________________________________ Note: If we make a comparison about what we would rather have at any one moment. If we are talking in general terms. __________________________________________________________________ 3. I prefer coffee to tea 40 . cheese/cake 4. we can either use the same form or say. have lunch with me on Tuesday — have got to go to the dentist's — Friday. __________________________________________________________________ 5. 2. go to. e. go for a walk — feel tired — playing chess.3.the cinema with me tomorrow — have got to do some work — Wednesday. __________________________________________________________________ 2. 5. boiled potatoes/chips 1. watch the game on TV — don't like football much — the play this evening. we say.g. listen to some records (watch TV). I'd rather have coffee than tea. g. I'd like to watch the football match on TV. 3. e. please. __________________________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________________________ b Would you rather? Notice the question form: A: Would you rather have tea or coffee? B: Tea. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ c I'd rather not Notice that we don't need to repeat the main verb after I'd rather not: A: Would you like to play tennis on Saturday? B: Well. come round for a drink this evening — am very busy — tomorrow. __________________________________________________________________ 4. (listen to) a classical record/a jazz record 3. How about Sunday? MAKE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN THE SAME WAY WITH THE FOLLOWING: 1. 4.

a)______________________________________________________________________ b)______________________________________________________________________ 7. He'll come if you wait. I'd write to him. If he wrote to me. We won't go if it doesn't stop raining. It would have been better if they hadn't come. someone will come.if and unless A)for each of the following sentences write the other two types of if-clauses: 1. a)______________________________________________________________________ b)______________________________________________________________________ 5. If you ring the bell. If you go to town will you buy something for me? a)______________________________________________________________________ b)______________________________________________________________________ 10. You'll catch the train if you take a taxi. a)______________________________________________________________________ b)______________________________________________________________________ 4. If you could come it would be very nice. You would have found the book if you had opened the bag. a)______________________________________________________________________ b)______________________________________________________________________ 9. a)______________________________________________________________________ b)______________________________________________________________________ 6. a)______________________________________________________________________ b)______________________________________________________________________ 8. a)______________________________________________________________________ b)______________________________________________________________________ 3. a)______________________________________________________________________ b)______________________________________________________________________ 2. What would you do if a bee stung you? a)______________________________________________________________________ b)______________________________________________________________________ 41 .

..... If it rains you ______________ wet. 3. If I had the courage. The servant won't come if you don't ring the bell...........I wouldn't do that if I __________ you.(get) 3. __________________________________________________________ 3.... Maisie's mother ______________ what to do if she were alive............. It will be impossible for me to finish my work if you _______________ that chatter... I _____________ him back...................(not answer) 5.............I won't write to her if she doesn't write to me.(stop) 2... must assert their rights not to be regarded as cheap 42 .. School-leavers labour... ___________________________________________________________ 4.......(get) 8......(know) C)replace if for unless and make the necessary changes: 1..B)fill in the gaps with the adequate tense of the verbs in brackets: 1...... she would never have heard the news...... 2. ____________________________________________________________ 5................ If John eats another cake. he ________________ sick........... He won't come if you don't invite him.. If he had........ If you had.... 4.... She only referred that because he was complaining... He will not learn much if he doesn't work harder... You should have come before in order to get an autograph from the President....(answer) 6................. If she ______________ the phone...... If he hadn’t........ _____________________________________________________________ D) Rephrase the following sentences as indicated below: 1...... We are going to play tennis this afternoon if it ________________ raining... He didn’t study hard and so he failed his exams....(not cease) 7.......(be) 4. _________________________________________________________ 2.. We'll go for a picnic if it doesn't rain...

.... 9............... The Environmental Protection Association made the right recommendations and so the town people were able to avoid the disaster.......................... If the protesters try..................... If they were flexible enough they............... 8............. If the government hadn’t............... 10... They have built factories there because they found out coal in the soil................................ If the TV station hadn’t.... Environmentalists protested so vehemently because the government projected to destroy the rain forest.... 7............... If they hadn’t.......................................... The town people only changed that way because the TV station was sabotaged............................................... The protesters tried to block the gates and so they were put to prison............ 43 ........If school-leavers..... They should be flexible enough to allow workers the freedom to participate in the decisions of the government................... 6................... 5............. If the Environmental Protection Association didn’t..

don't/doesn't need to. Can my friends come to see me? Yes.g. they can come this evening. Then you're almost certain to lose. In the second sentence. Main verb need forms questions and negative with do. He needs some new shoes. We also use can for present possibility.Modals 1. Number 11 might win. In England. you must drive on the left-hand side of the road.g. Des he need some new shoes?. I'm going to bet on one of the numbers. Look at this dialogue: Terry broke his leg playing football yesterday. whether or not he is driving at the time. Remember. it then goes with an object. needn't Look at these sentences: A: B: I need to go to the bank. number 11.g. we would say.g. The black may win. Drive carefully. b need to. might Notice the use of may and might in these sentences: Roger and Carol are at the casino. I don't need to go till next week (or: I needn't go till next week). or a verb with to. must and need to a must Look at these sentences: I've got toothache. Positive statement I need to go She needs to go Negative statement I don't need to go She doesn't need to go question Do I need to go? Does she need to go? 44 . e. We need to tell everybody. You have only one chance in 36. do not use to after must. (perhaps it will win — the chances are about 50/50) But it may not. not one particular time. We don't need to tell everybody. Roger: Carol: Roger: Carol: I'm going to bet on the red. Terry: Doctor: Terry: Doctor: Terry: Doctor: Can I get up this afternoon? Of course you can't. I might not. can. asks if it will be possible for the old man to climb the stairs. you may (might) have an accident. It may win. When will I be able to get up? Quite soon. (It's possible but unlikely.g. e. I've got plenty of money. Now he is in hospital and his leg is in plaster. e. 2. 3. I must go to the dentist. may. e. the speaker is asking for permission. will be able to Compare these sentences: Can I have an ice-cream. please? Will your grandfather be able to climb the stairs? Can you come / Will you be able to come to my party next week? In the first sentence.) Note that can is only used for possibility when we are talking about what is possible at all times. e. and sometimes future possibility as in the third sentence. Accidents can happen . but in giving a particular person advice. The verb need is usually a main verb. You won't be able to walk immediately but you'll be able to go around on crutches.

g. It must be about 7 o'clock. but I don't often get the chance. He can't have lost it. 4. They are all shivering. You'll see first-class tennis there. A: B: Why didn't you go to the club on Sunday? Because I had to write letters to Pat and Jean. You've been working hard all day.g. 6. He must have dropped it on the way. The water must be very cold Must (and not have to) is used when we are almost certain something is true because our logic tells us so.c must and don't/doesn't need to Look at these sentences: Fred must go but I don't need to (go). should Look at these sentences: A: B: A: B: I really enjoy watching tennis. must (to express a logical deduction) a must Look at these sentences: It's getting dark. We don't need to repeat the second go. had to Look at these sentences: I must go to the dentist. I had to go to the dentist seven times last year. b must have Look at the following: A: B: He couldn't find it when he arrived at the office. Then you can use their tennis courts. In these examples you should go. but I don't know where to play. too. you should join mean "It would be a good idea for you to…" 45 . e. The negative is formed with can't have (normally present perfect) and couldn't' have (normally past simple) + past participle. because we know what the sentence means without it. My teeth are very bad. I'd like to play tennis. A: B: He says he's lost it. 5. You should go to Wimbledon. e. You should join a club. You must feel tired. The negative of had to is didn't have to and the question form did you / he / etc. Must have + past participle is the past tense form of must when it expresses a logical conclusion about a past action. The past of must is had to. have to. I've only just given it to him.

ought to go. THE FIRST LETTER OF EACH MAIN VERB IS GIVEN: a. ought not to eat.7. of course you _______ . ought to pay. _______ she s_______ the night here? Of course she _______ . When are they going to take it off? The doctor thinks they _______ t_______ it off next week. so I _______ d_______. But I _______ p_______ football again for two months. COMPLETE THESE DIALOGUES WITH CAN.g. CAN'T OR WILL/WON'T BE ABLE TO AND A MAIN VERB. Karen: Terry: Karen: Terry: Hello. g. Of course I _______ d_______! I can't walk yet. Karen: Terry: Karen: Oh! _______ you d_______ ? There's a dance at the club next weekend. You ought to write and thank him/her. _______ I g_______ to the dance without you? 46 . _______ I? Oh. _______ I w_______ my name on your plaster? You _______ if you like. someone could say to you. _______ my girl-friend c_______ to see me this evening? Yes. b. e. ought to Look at these sentences: He's too fat. not a hotel.g. and this means "It is your duty to write" Ought to is something that a doctor often says to a patient. e. e. Terry is talking to the doctor. and this means that the doctor strongly recommends the patient to take more exercise. and you ought not to smoke. He ought to visit his old mother more often. Terry is talking to his girl-friend Karen. Terry. _______ I g_______ downstairs and watch the football match on TV? No. I'm sorry you _______ . but warns him that smoking is bad for him. If you have received a present by post. EXERCISES 1. You ought to take more exercise. When _______ I w_______ ? I don't know yet. I _______ t_______ you when we take the plaster off. Terry: Doctor: Terry: Doctor: Terry: Doctor: Terry: Doctor: Terry: Doctor: ________ I t_______ the radio on? Yes. This is a hospital. You ought to go means "It's your duty to go" or "I strongly recommend you to go" Note that it does not mean "You are obliged to go". He ought to eat less. she _______ . Ought goes with to and an infinitive.

you _______ be right. You say this flat is not insured? Well. Adam: Well. it isn't. You _______ get married quite soon. Mr Pryor. If you're only going to Mexico City. I _______ h_______ him with my crutch. is it? On the other hand. Mr Pryor: Adam: Mr Pryor: You _______ be sorry if you don't.Terry: With Johnny Bradshaw? No. CHOOSE MIGHT (NOT) IF YOU THINK THE POSSIBILITY IS MORE REMOTE. You're selfish. actually. _______ to get a visa? Oh yes. I travel a lot in my job. so I'd like to talk to you about our policies. no. Adam: Mr Pryor But I'm not married. Karen: That's not fair. an insurance salesman. but it's better to be safe than sorry. sir. They _______ even break in today. _______ I? 2. your wife and children _______ be left in difficult circumstances. I represent the Beacon Insurance Company. but it's not very likely. PUT THE CORRECT FORM OF NEED AND THE APPROPRIATE PRONOUN IN THESE SENTENCES: A: B: A: B: A: B: I want to go to Mexico. What _______ to do before I go? You _______ to book your airplane ticket. I'd rather make an appointment to see you. I forgot that. Karen. knocks on Adam's door one morning. Adam: Mr Pryor: Well. because the doctor says I _______ w_______ on my crutches. you _______ to take something for malaria if you're going to the coast. For instance. Terry: All right. Good heavens: Thieves _______ break in while you're out. You say I _______ d_______ because you've got a broken leg. _______ to take any special medicines? Well. I'm not insured. Of course. I _______. Ah. You _______ to buy some summer clothes. You _______ even meet the lady on your way to work this morning. you _______ be sorry about that one day. 3. Mr Pryor: Good morning. they _______ . sir. trying to sell insurance. COMPLETE THESE SENTENCES WITH MAY (NOT) OR MIGHT (NOT). But I _______ g_______ too. sir. I'd better take your telephone number. You _______ g_______ to the dance. you _______ . 47 . so I _______ be at the office when you ring. you _______ to. You _______ to get some travellers’ cheques. You _______ be fully insured. I _______ miss my train if I stand here talking to you. and if Johnny Bradshaw dances too close. So I _______ t_______ you to the dance and w_______ you dancing. Adam: Mr Pryor: Well. But you're still young. well.

USE MUST AND THE WORDS IN BRACKETS TO MAKE A SENTENCE. 4. Why didn't you go to the club on Monday? 2. 2. Before she left the house in the morning.4. 5. We don't need any potatoes this week. The ashtrays in Colin’s house are always full of cigarette ends.. Why didn't you go to the club on Thursday? 5. e. 4. Brian has a good job. There were four dirty glasses on the table. ABOUT EACH OF THESE SENTENCES: e. He's got a big house and an expensive car. g. AND MAKE ANY OTHER NECESSARY CHANGES: 1. Doreen was not there. 5. e. Flora plays tennis very well. (win… matches) 5. And please don't invite your friends in or use the telephone. The whiskey bottle was empty." When Mrs Cooper came home. (meet… people) 8.) 3. Why didn't you go to the club on Tuesday? 3. 2. Why didn't you go to the club on yesterday? 48 . His firm is very pleased with him. 7. Eric spends every evening in the pub. Why didn't you go to the club on Wednesday? 4. READ THE FOLLOWING AND MAKE SENTENCES. He translates for people of different countries. There were some telephone numbers written down next to the telephone. Why didn't you go to the club on Friday? 6. (sell… cars) 7. AS IN THE EXAMPLE. We don't need to phone Mick until tomorrow. Ingrid goes to cocktail parties every week. Julian's car is very big and old. LOOK AT THE DIARY IN EXERCISE 3: It is now Sunday 28 April. USING MUST HAVE AS IN THE EXAMPLE BELOW: Mrs Cooper has a new cleaning lady. Harry is a car salesman. Dora wears different clothes every day. One of the records was scratched. but the house was in a mess. 1. Gordon is a translator in the United Nations. We don't need to buy any potatoes this week. Mrs Cooper told Doreen: "You mustn't smoke. and you have done all the things that are in the diary. (speak… languages) 6. Doreen had done everything she wasn't allowed to do. A: Why didn't you go to the club on Sunday? B: Because I had to write letters to Pat and Jean.g. REWRITE THESE SENTENCES CHANGING DON'T NEED TO OR DOESN'T NEED TO INTO NEEDN'T. 3. (have… clothes. (use… petrol) 6. 1.g. (drink… beer) 4. Joan doesn't need any new winter clothes. She must have smoked a lot of cigarettes. 3. Answer in the same way: 1. (earn… money) He must earn a lot of money. A friend asks you why you didn't go to the club last week. play any records or open the drinks cupboard. Bob doesn't need to bring both his guitars. (smoke… cigarettes) 2.

he _______ . 3. Tom likes shooting. 9. Mary is preparing for exams. 3. 6. LOOK AT THE PASSAGE AND TIMETABLE BELOW: Some young people want to see some of the European Games. We _______ . PUT OUGHT OR OUGHT TO IN THE FOLLOWING AND COMPLETE EACH SENTENCE WITH ONE OF THE SUGGESTIONS BELOW: a eat so much b smoke so much c go and see her d pay me back e disturb f eat more 1.8. Tina likes running and jumping. He really _______ . so should she go on Saturday? No. 49 . using the information above: 1. 5. so should he go on Sunday? Yes. Tom is too fat. He _______ . This is the timetable for the games: EUROPEAN GAMES MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY Running Boxing Shooting THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY Swimming Jumping Diving Fred likes diving. Ann likes running and swimming. so should he go on Tuesday? No. Complete the following. He _______ . he _______ . 6. _______ . Beryl likes boxing. He _______ . he should. Bill likes swimming and diving. so should he go on Friday? Yes. so should he go on Wednesday? _______ . We _______ . 4. so should he go on Tuesday? Yes. You _______ . she shouldn't. 5. 2. so should he go on Thursday? No. so should he go on Monday and Friday? _______ . She should go on Friday. _______ . 4. Sara likes jumping. You are too thin. I lent John £5 two months ago. but they want to go on the days when there is something they really like. 2. He has a very bad cough. Jill is in hospital. Jim likes jumping. so he _______ .

Someone promised me a bicycle if I passed my examination. Somebody told them to wait outside. Somebody has left the gate open. She will look after the little girl. I told him never to come here again. She promised him a book Nobody has slept in that room for years. 50 . Nobody can do it. People speak well of him. A car ran over our dog. You must work for success.Passive Voice (regular and idiomatic) She showed them the new baby Someone asked him a very difficult question We must look into this matter. Nobody has answered my question properly. Somebody has brought this child up very badly. People play football all over the world. They told her to be quick. Nobody has made any mistakes. Somebody must do something for these poor men People will simply laugh at you for your trouble. A guide pointed out the Pyramids to me.

as in the example: e. but the others haven’t given me theirs y e t . yet. Mrs Mills has already filled hers in. but she hasn’t given it to me y e t . and the tenses of the verbs. I’ve reminded him several times. She's already filled it in. Do they still live here? Well.) Already is used in affirmative statements to state that something has happened (Mrs Mills has already filled in his form) and sometimes in questions to express surprise. but he no longer lives there/ doesn’t live there any more/longer. Still indicates that a situation is continuing as it was before. She (fill) it in. Mr Jones is no longer here. the usual form is not… any longer. (Mr Cooper has been reminded several times. like wait. from the local government offices.g. has called to collect some forms left at a guest house. one of them doesn’t. Have they all filled the forms in? Well.… not… longer any more/ Negative questions. (Mrs Bryant still lives there. A (answer) you Aunt Mary's letter? B Yes. the residents had to fill them in. Margaret. Here's the form.… still not… No.… already… Yes… still… Answer (negative) No. not…any more Study the conversation in the example below and note the use and the word order of these adverbs. I haven't had time.still. she hasn’t left the guest house. Here's the form. using these adverbs. A (work) you at the Town Hall? 51 . Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets and the most suitable form. Still… not is a strong form of not… yet.… not… yet. I (not post) it. such as: Doesn't he live here any more/longer suggest surprise. Mr Cooper and Mrs Bryant are still here. and not used so much in conversation. no longer. Have they filled their forms y e t ? Well. 2.… no longer… No. The answer is likely to be negative. (Mr Jones used to live in the residence.) No longer is more formal. I think Mrs Bryant’s already filled hers in. He left on Sunday. I’ll ask her when she comes home from work. (Mrs Bryant hasn’t come home yet) No longer (not… any more) indicates that a situation has stopped continuing. It is used to ask whether an action has happened before the time of speaking or state that it has not. there were four residents. But I know that Mr Cooper hasn’t filled his in yet. (Have you already finished that long book?) Yet is normally found in questions and negative forms. already. repeating previous information. so he doesn't live here any more. I (write) to her. but he still hasn’t done anything) Use the table of sequences given here as a guide in doing the exercise that follows: Question … yet? … still? Answer (affirmative) Yes. With verbs indicating time passing. but he still hasn’t done anything about it. She is speaking to landlady. No. Mrs Barker: Margaret Mrs Barker Margaret Mrs Barker Margaret Mrs Barker Now. A (post) the letter? B No. 1.

I (not wait). 3.g. I expect he played football after school and (be) on his way. I (catch) the same bus.B No. 4. The 8 o'clock train hasn't come.g. My little boy is only four. is. Well. but he has already started school. but here was no answer.g. not yet. You (not need ) to worry. but they (not finish) 4. A Jimmy (not come) home. Your friends are in the hall. A It's a quarter past five and Jimmy (not come) home. Here he comes. A Has Mrs Jones arrived yet? B No. 2. With simple verbs. Has the boss come back? 5. A (not fill in) the workmen that hole in the road? B No. but she already speaks good Spanish. It goes after am .g. or it will get cold. It's only 10 o'clock but they've prepared lunch. A (travel) you to the centre of town? B Oh. Mrs Jones hasn't arrived yet. I'm getting worried. Mum. Put already or y e t in the correct place in the sentences below: 1. is) and the participle (e. already goes between the auxiliary (e. I (not work) there I've got a new job. e. e. waiting). e. are. already goes before the verb. Yet usually goes at the end of the sentence. I(ring) the school. Lucy has only been in Spain for two months. With compound verbs (auxiliary verb + participle). has. He usually gets home at half past four. they 've been working there for three days. and it is normally found only in questions and negative statements (compare already). was and were. My mother has bought all the Christmas presents. 5. Mum. Haven't you written those letters? 6. Mrs Jones has already arrived. Already. written. My new office is near the Town Hall.g. yes. 52 . I (can't stand) this. I suppose everyone (go) home. We normally use already in positive statements (compare y e t ). Already and yet mean "before now". Mrs Jones is already here. 3. It's a quarter to five. e. it left two hours ago. Those boys are already making trouble. I'll give you your tea.g. B Don't worry. and I (make) the tea. yet. still Already and yet Look at these sentences: A Has the plane left y e t ? B Yes. B (looking out of the window) It's all right.

53 .g. I didn't read the newspaper this morning. It is still raining. She ____________ a good player.g. He _______________ a good photographer. Still says that something is the same as before. With simple verbs. 4. She ________________ very well.g. and they __________________ like it. e. He hasn't moved. Sheila didn't work hard at school. and I still haven't read it. Alan was a good photographer. Nothing has changed. 2. With compound verbs (auxiliary + participle) still goes between the auxiliary (i s . Still usually goes after am . are) and the participle (raining. 2. Still goes before a negative auxiliary (don't. He still lives there. e. Complete these sentences with still and a suitable negative auxiliary: e. Five years ago Olive was interested in Jazz. was. Years ago Chris painted very well. he still lives there. I still haven't seen her. 3. Kay was a good chess player when she was young. He _____________ cowboy films. Years ago Kim liked cowboy films. Kay couldn't ski well last winter. When he was a boy. 4. hasn't). e. She is still ill. she is still interested in Jazz. and she _________________ work hard. He hasn't changed. and she _________________ ski well. He hasn't changed. She hasn't changed. Sam still can't type. Complete the sentences in the same way as the examples above: 1. 3. I didn't see the exhibition last month. When they were young the children didn't like the dark. sitting). b Look at these sentences: He still doesn't play.g. Nothing has changed. is. were. a r e . and in fact I _________________ seen it.Still a Look at these sentences: Ten years ago Charlie was living in Bristol . 1. still goes before the verb.

They lived in small houses. Look at that new housing estate. He says to his wife: When I was a boy. (The implication is that I do not study every night now).g. where that supermarket is now. 2. People didn’t live in flats in this town. Complete the sentences below. 1. There wasn’t much traffic then. There weren’t any factories. (statement of present situation). 4. 8. I used to study (= I studied) every night. I don’t go out very much. Didn’t use to is accepted as an alternative form in the negative. be used to a used to. used not to Used to is a past form used in contrast to the present to express what we habitually did in the past but do not do any more. The farmers came in from their farms every week to sell their produce there. but only for a repeated action. Replace the Past Simple tense (in italic type) in these sentences with a form of used to. I played football twice a week. There was a field there. but now it’s a bingo hall. We went to the cinema every Saturday morning. When I was a boy I used to play football twice a week. There is no present form. I bought bread at a baker’s shop on that corner. but now it’s a big store. Would normally occurs with past meaning when a situation has already been established by previous narrative and the speaker talks about repeated actions within the situation. as in the example: e. Used to is always followed by the infinitive. I used to play at school. They’ve built a lot of flats. (The implication is that now I go out quite often). would. 3. And there weren’t any traffic lights or zebra crossings. The streets are full of cars now. Look at the example: When I was a boy. 5. A lot of things have changed in the past thirty years. We played football on it. I used to play football at least twice a week. Look at these examples: When I was at school. and questions can be made either in the form Used you to live in London? or Did you use to live in London?. For habitual actions in the present we use the Present Simple tense.used to. using a form of used to to introduce the topic and would/wouldn’t in the sentences that follow in each question: 54 . I didn’t use to/used not to go out very much. either. 7.too. but whenever my friends and I had nothing to do in the evenings. And they worked on the land. 6. although the former is now increasingly less common. we would go to the park. b used to and would Would is often used in similar circumstances to used to. It is most commonly used in the main clause of a sentence when the subordinate clause begins with whenever or every time. Tom Green has just returned to the small town where he was born. I study every night. (would) choose teams and (would) have a friendly game. There was a market in the centre of town.

I ____________ working in my father’s shop. I ____________ meet my friends half an hour before the programme started and we ____________make sure we were at the front of the queue. 2. The old lion ____________ be in a circus. I ____________ (not) travelling several miles to work. Look at these examples: I don’t mind getting up early. These young lions were born in Africa and they ____________ )not) being in cages. so he ____________ seeing people staring at him. 5. he wasn’t used to washing his clothes.1. never present time. I often played tennis. Used to always talks about past time. but he doesn’t like living in a cage. I’ve been doing it for years. and whenever the villain appeared they ____________ boo. used to. 3. either. I’m used to it. I’m used to getting up early. Before I got this job. I ____________ it. But by the time I've been doing the job for a few months. Everyone ____________ cheer every time the hero came on. 3. It can be used in all tenses of be in the appropriate forms. used to Compare these sentences: I used to play tennis. and we ____________ live over the shop. They ____________ show special films for children. I ____________ write my own letters because I ____________ (not) have a secretary to take them down from dictation. When I first worked in an office. He ____________ live in the mountains. 2. (indicating that he was not accustomed to doing it but not necessarily that he does it now) Complete these sentences with an appropriate form of used to or be used to: 1. c used to and be used to Be used to (= be accustomed to) is followed by a noun or gerund. These sentences are very similar in meaning. The farmers ____________ come to market every Wednesday. 4. He ____________ walking long distances. They ____________ drive into town with their lorries full of produce and ____________ unload them in the market square. The new managing director is good at marketing speeches. where there were no buses. because his mother had always done it for him. He ____________ appearing in public. but I don't play now. 55 . I ____________ go to the cinema on Saturday mornings. because he ____________ be an actor. with be used to in a past context: His mother used to wash his clothes when he was a boy. Compare the past form. (indicating that she does not do it now) When he left home.

__________________________________________________________________ 10.Used to does not talk about one time in the past. But look at these sentences: I often go to Indian restaurants. __________________________________________________________________ 6. Ron smoked cigarettes when he was a young man. but about something that happened a lot or continued for a long time. (Used to is not possible. __________________________________________________________________ 8. __________________________________________________________________ 4. Years ago I swam almost every day. __________________________________________________________________ 9.) Ten years ago he visited Italy. Now Ron almost always smokes a pipe. because he did not visit Italy again and again. My brother played Bridge a lot when he was at university. Now Larry often writes short stories. I liked jazz a lot when I was a teenager. __________________________________________________________________ 56 . __________________________________________________________________ 5. Last summer my uncle and aunt went to Greece. because the sentence is in the present. ________________________________________________________________ 3.) Rewrite these sentences with used to only if the meaning remains the same: 1. My mother once met the King when she was a little girl. My cousins spent every summer in the country until they were about 18. but only once in the past. (Used to is not possible. __________________________________________________________________ 7. __________________________________________________________________ 2. Ray very often works late.

: You can’t speak to the Headmaster at the moment. (permission) Can I speak to you for a moment? (asking for permission) Could I speak to you for a moment? (tentative way. we use be able where an infinitive or perfect form is required. Possibility/permission (may can also be used but it is more formal) Ex. Informal requests Ex. strong probability —can’t is in this case the opposite of must. Since can and could lack infinitive and participle forms. polite form) 3. 2. Impossibility/denial of permission. Ex. (= it’s impossible.Modals 2 can/could may/might must ought to shall/should will/would need dare CAN/COULD (synonymous verb phrase—be able to/be unable to) 1. I haven’t been able to go to the bank yet. achievement ( = manage. you are not allowed to. succeed) Ex. She can swim well. ( = logical conclusion. capacity. I have been unable to go to the bank yet.: She can speak Chinese.) 4. (possibility) You can speak with the headmaster for just a few minutes.: Your teacher will be able to help you.: You can find it in the dictionary.: Can I see your list? Can I have the dictionary for a few minutes? MAY/MIGHT (synonymous verb phrase: be allowed to / be permitted to) 1. Asking for permission more formal than can 57 .) For all that I know he can’t be more than fifty. strong probability/logical conclusion (expressed in the negative) Ex. Ability.

It may be found in a good store possibility You may might speak to the prisoner just for a few minutes permission Might expresses the tentative way in requests suggestions or recommendations. (I’ve got no sure indication that he is. but you cannot go direct. Note this: The opposite of may is expressed in three different ways according to the speaker’s predominant feelings: may not — denial of permission: You may stay in the library all day long but you may not bring food with you. Probability mixed with doubt or uncertainty Ex. He may be ill. prohibition: You may take all kinds of books with you but the encylopaedias mustn't be removed from the shelves. May cannot (colloquial) — indicates what is not possible: You may go by train. tentative way) 2.Ex. 58 . it is a mere probability) If I ask him he may refuse. mustn't — stronger than simple denial of permission. Ex.: He didn’t come to school. May I speak to you for a moment? (might polite form.: She will be allowed to come She has been allowed to visit him for the time being 3. Possibility/permission (more formal than can) Ex. be permitted to where an infinitive or perfect form is required. Since may/might lack infinitive and participle forms we use be allowed to.

MUST (synonymous verb phrase: need. 59 . have to) 1. 2. You shouldn’t be so rude.: You will have to see the film tomorrow I’m having to do the washing up I’ve had to clear up the table No one likes having to pay taxes 3.: For all that I know he must be married For all that I know he cant be married See 13 cant as the negative form of must In many situations where must lacks the necessary forms we use forms of have to Ex. You ought to try this number. Logical conclusion.: You must be back before midnight Cars mustn’t be parked here You mustn’t = you aren’t to You mustn’t use my phone without asking You are not to use my phone without asking SHOULD/OUGHT TO (used in the same way as must) 1. Must is the most usual verb in spoken English for orders and prohibitions Ex. Should I go? I think you should. You ought not to be so rude.— necessity for non action = You needn’t say anything about it = You aren’t to say anything about it 2. strong probability (almost certainty) Ex. Obligation. — necessity You must not say anything about it. Probability what is regarded as probable or may reasonably be expected) Ex. ought to fill) — obligation I must buy a new pair of shoes.: Applicants must fill a form (= should fill. Advice and recommendation/moral obligation and duty Ex. You should respect your elders.: There should be a lot of people at the meeting There ought to be a lot of people at the meeting.: You should try this number. Ought I to go? I think you ought to. necessity Ex. You ought to respect your elders.

: I will help you if you need I will do as I like I will never speak to him again I will punish you if you do that again 3. Should is also often used in “that” clauses after adjectives expressing emotions such as pleasure. require. Shall/should in the 2nd and 3rd persons are used to express promises and threats Ex. etc.: You shall get the car next week He was told he should be punished if he behaved badly 5. Ex. 2. intend. surprise. Ex.Ought to appears to be stronger and more emphatic than should. Shall and will can express “pure future”.: Shall I open the window? (=Do you want me to open the window?) Shall we begin? (=Do you want us to begin?) Shall the postman wait? (= Do you want the postman to wait?) 60 .: Will you participate in the competition? Yes.: It’s incredible that they should live here! SHALL/SHOULD — WILL/WOULD 1. l will (= do you want to participate?) 4. decide. Note: will is very often used in place of shall with the first person pronoun. Will/would in the 2nd and 3rd persons interrogative ask about the other person’s willingness Ex. Shall I/shall we/shall he are used to ask about the wishes of the person to whom the question is put. Should is often used in a “that” clause after verbs like suggest. etc. Will can be used in the 1st person to indicate the speakers willingness or determination Ex.

Ex.: How dare you speak to me so rudely She daren’t leave the car in the street during the night 2. didn’t need to) Ex. need he? He must start at once. Daren’t is used for present past and future time.: You shall study further! (= I want you to study further. Ex. Need you go yet Yes I must. When it is used as a modal auxiliary it has no past tense form but it may be used with present infinitives Ex. As a modal it occurs chiefly in the negative and in the interrogative and is frequent after how. It can be used both as a regular verb and as a modal auxiliary. Where needn’t lacks the necessary verb forms we use negative forms of have to and need to (didn’t have to. It expresses absence of obligation or necessity corresponding to the affirmative must and remains unchanged in Reported Speech Ex.: He needn’t start yet. Ex.: I met him but I daren’t tell him the news. Shall/shan’t are used in the 2nd and 3rd persons to indicate the speaker’s determination concerning the person spoken about.6. I insist on your studying further) You shan’t go so early NEED 1. As a modal auxiliary it occurs chiefly in the negative and interrogative You may say: Need she cry? or does she need to cry? She needn’t cry or she doesn’t need to cry 2. 3.: You needn’t have hurried 4. mustn’t he? He said he needn’t start yet. It may be used both as a regular verb and as a modal auxiliary. 61 .: They didn’t need to go They didn’t have to go DARE 1.

......... you. 19.... 12..I borrow your car? Yes.. You..... Your work needs revision if I............... Teachers.... It is their have some more cake? like me to drive you to the airport? your homework carefully. able to help students in their difficulties.................I ask a favour of you? 22............ Students... 3.... Students........... ill. 11.get into the car because I had forgotten the for it..... He............. Ask the policeman over there.......escape.. 4.see quite well what the children are doing.give up consuming sugar? They say it is so prejudicial...... Lets go for a swim....... Food and lodging are not do a bit of overtime it for you if you like. 8....we go swimming? 15. I’m not deaf.....go into hospital if I were you. 9............................ 6.............Exercícios be back early this evening? 7....... 13.speak so loud..I use your phone? 18......... You..... Insert the adequate modal verbs (negative forms may be necessary) Sometimes more than one form is correct 1.... Do you think I............he joking.. Yesterday he had a strong headache.. I think he. 2....................... She. 62 .............say so... 10...we? 16..... I... you.............. 14...... The police recognized him and so able to help you.......... 24....I borrow your diamond bracelet? No.. 23 ...... .... You.....smoke in the corridors. 21..... 20...............

........... Everything’s all right............I suggest a different approach.......... 35. 28.........I help me the money at once...... mother? 27...not come true 37.say anything about it.................. 63 .. He was very independent and..... 47......... How.... 44........ He... I...... You............ That’s top 36.. 49.. 33...I speak to you for a moment? 46.. It is forbidden.... 38...26.... You.......I go for a swim this afternoon..... 53........ 48........go there at once he Its quite urgent............... Why hasn’t he arrived yet? beat your wife? 43. drink so heavily? It won't do you any very nasty when he is hungry after your long as I wanted...... Madam? 51........ Keep me a seat.....rain before evening. We have been here for a long time now......... getting on for ten o'clock 41....... It's getting late. How.... 50...... Take an umbrella.....park here between 8 a m and 6 p m...... I need it 34.leave now.have missed the train 45... You...leave work earlier this morning if you want to.....face the reality of facts... It. 42...............never ask for help.......... Dreams... Have a cup of tea..... You.. 32...... 39........ You........... He said he.... 40......... 29............cost a lot these speak to your parents like that? alarmed............. You.. It..... Food... Why didn’t he come to the office today? ill I don’t know he.. You............come to school on Monday as there is a teacher's strike 30......

........ Jane hasn’t come yet......... mind opening the window? 59... Lets start now. controlled. 68............ 72... How did you know there was a fire? I.. The book is not the one I ordered. Leave it..have been some confusion. He had few patients.. but he has got lots of other compensations 63............ 73.... He..... We are rather late.... It doesn’t work... When do you think she...... We are confident the disease................smell it. 76...... 62......... You’d enjoy it..we? 56.......say I don’t like borrowing money from my parents but I'll have to go to my that prize. . you are getting tired.. I’m not very keen on violent films.......... 78. please? 75........ to help you with the luggage....... Excuse me.............. 70.. 57.................... wait for me! for him was to make him comfortable.... Here..have left twenty minutes ago.... that book. Oh... 55....... You......have gone far because she didn’t have much money...have met somebody I know her....... The walls are getting dirty.. All I.... 60...... 64........ to go out somewhere and so I called....... I......have seen you yesterday... The meeting...we afford to have them painted? They say it's very expensive........need extra vitamins.... It will be too late after that 58. I'll do my best.......say.. I.... 69........... There....... 79.... I...sit for hours in front of the box motionless and silent 61...... We.....register within the next fifteen days... it later..... tell me the way to the men’s medical ward? he quiet. It occurred to me that doing something a moment....... Poor eaters.. 74....... 71........... The doctor... 81....... 64 ....have finished by now.......have gone? 77....... badly paid...54. 80. My little brother loves watching television.. She.........

.hardly believe his eyes when he saw that the car had disappeared 84.......82.still avert the disaster............. Some of them get even likely depressed when they think of the problem..... They fear that fruit and vegetables sprayed with chemicals......... Not all teenagers are able to choose a career all by themselves....... They are precious symbols of other times. B.. 65 ..... 2. Children don’t have to be rude to get what they want.. You................ The firm is likely to lend me the money I need... 9O.. In some schools students are obliged to wear uniforms......have apologized for what you a law against demolishing nice old buildings like that.. 88.ask? 87.have risen considerably but they haven't kept pace with the cost of living. 6. 1... How much did you pay for your new car if I... He thought he.... 10........ 86..have been there yesterday... Kids are forbidden to watch television till late in the evening... 5... How have you got the courage to say such things? 7..... Old-age pensions..have some poisonous effect upon people.. 3.. any more work for the rest of the holidays as he had already made a reasonable amount of money. 89. Rewrite the following sentences inserting the adequate modal verb in the place of the underlined phrase and make the necessary transformations.. Things are getting dark but patience and determination.. David Bowie recorded lots of LPs and he has surely made a fortune.. He. 8. 83. You. Your presence was indispensable 85.. 9....... 4........ Andy Pansor certainly is a very competent worker.. Most people aren’t able to find valid alternatives for television...

The workers are ordered to leave the entrance unhindered. 16.11. 13. It's likely that he will be invited. 26. We are not required to follow all the instructions. They’d better retire and rest. 14. I am determined to set up an investment company whatever happens. The questions were so difficult that it was impossible for me to answer them in time 25. 12. Don’t you want to stay for the session? 18. Women are not allowed to intervene in the debate. 27. Ask her where you are to keep your clothes 28. I intend to authorize the students access to my private library. I wish you’d be more tolerant with the children. Is he free to choose the most rewarding job? 24. 19. Am I allowed to take the day off? 22. 66 . Visitors are prohibited from using the passengers lounge. You’re always to knock before opening the classroom door. Are you likely to be back in time for the concert? 17. Do you mind my bringing a friend with me to your birthday party? 20. 15. 23. They sang as a band in unknown pubs before they succeeded in making a fortune. 21.

37. Disasters like that are likely to happen in those circumstances. I insist on your staying with us. 44. I forbid you the use of my computer because you can damage it. 39. 33. 32. Mothers have the duty to look after their children’s needs. Do you think you have the possibility of fixing it up? 35. Britain is to add 4 commercial channels to serve ethnic minorities' cultural interests. 67 . Is there any need for me to take my car or are there enough cars? 40. 30. 36. 42. Viewers are required to fill a form and send it to the direct-broadcasting-satellite. 41. She has probably hurt herself because she began working out too soon after her daughter's birth. There’s a possibility of their reaching Mars soon. Many young musicians don’t have the nerve to give live concerts.29. 34. Most service companies are forced to raise wages because there are more jobs than workers. Do you think it’s my duty to send them a visiting card? 43. You are to write your complete name and address at the top of the application form. 45. Children are obliged to attend school till the age of 16. 38. It is not necessary for parents to give too many orders to be obeyed. You are not allowed to bring children in. 31.

46. They knew about the crisis ahead of time and so had the possibility of having avoided it. Economic conditions are expected to deteriorate and cause social unrest. They are probably trying to conceal the athlete's situation once it would obviously mean a disadvantage. job training and a pension plan. 51. 58. National support Is difficult to sustain in such unfavourable conditions 54. The advantage of not having to confront the workers antagonism has to be pondered as well. Is it possible for them to send unmanned rockets to space stations in earth orbit? 50. Tourists are invading the nature reserve and so the area's irreplaceable fauna is likely to be endangered. In order to attract new employees some firms are obliged to offer incentives such as free trips. His domineering role is all too likely to arouse animosity over time. The Guggenheim art gallery is not expected to reopen to the public until 1992. 47. 60. The climatic conditions have been excellent so they expect to have a bumper crop. They are now likely to have found the right place to exhibit the collection. 61. 57. A consensus is taking shape that he is to be deterred from further aggression. Employers had better raise wages otherwise they will have to confront severe agitation. 52. 56. 48. 62. It is impossible for you to fool all the people all the time. Do Olympic athletes need to be given extra financial support? 59. Perhaps they are looking for supplemental income. 55. 68 . 49. 53.

A manned trip to Mars now appears to be just a matter of time. 69 . Some business owners are forced to turn away customers because it is impossible for them to find the workers they need.63. 64.

(not ‘all . .The man I wanted to see was away on holiday.’) .I gave her all the money (that) I had.Where are the eggs that were in the fridge? (or ‘which were`) In these sentences who and that are subjects of the verbs in the relative clauses: the man lives next door. do you know the girl? -Tom is talking to lost them Have you found the keys that you lost? When who or that are objects of the verb in the relative clause.wasn't very comfortable. (= the thing that happened) 70 .Have you found the keys you lost? (but not ‘Have you found the keys you lost them?’) . Study the position of the preposition in these sentences.The girl Gerry is going to marry is American (= the girl who/that Gerry is going to marry…) . (but not ‘The man I wanted to see him was away on holiday.Everything (that) he said was true.The dress Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well. (or ‘that lives’) .was away on holiday.) in relative clauses. Do you know the girl (who/that) Tom is talking to? the bed .I won’t tell anyone what happened. what I had’) What = the thing(s) that: . (not ‘everything what he said’) .clauses with or without who/that a) Look again at these examples from Unit 88: .. have you found the keys? .The man who lives next door is very friendly.The girl (who/that) he fell in love with left him after a few weeks.Is there anything I can do? (= is there anything that I can do?) b) There are often prepositions (in/at/with etc.I wanted to see him . The man who (or that) I wanted to see was away on holiday.I slept in it last night . you can leave them out: . .Did you hear what I said? (= the words that I said) . (= the dress that Am bought) ..The man (who/that) I sat next to on the plane talked all the time. You cannot leave out who or that in these sentences. Sometimes who and that are objects of the verbs: the man .Relative clauses . The bed (that) I slept in last night wasn’t very comfortable. the eggs were in the fridge. c) You cannot use what instead of that: .Are these the books (that) you have been looking for? .

....... This is an awful film........................... has been married twice before............................ 1 enjoy my job because I like the people .... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 She gives her children everything .............are usually very funny..... 71 .... Complete these sentences........................ The man brackets... Complete each one with a relative clause............couldn’t come....... Who was that girl ............... I wasn’t interested in the things ..... Examples: Did you hear what I said? Everything (that) he said was true........was shut when we got there.....understands me........................... we met her yesterday we wanted to visit it Tom tells them Tom recommended it we had it for dinner you lost them Ann is wearing it the police arrested him I invited them to the party 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Have you found the keys you lost? I like the dress ...... Why do you blame me for everything ........? The flight ........................ All .. If it is possible to write that or leave it out......... ...........................goes wrong? I won’t be able to do very much but I'll do the best .... Most of the people ... The museum .............. I say? I don’t agree with .................... The stories .............. This time you have to make a relative clause with a not in very good condition....The sentences in this exercise are not complete..... you want and I'll try to help you..................... The party ........was fully booked.. The man ..................... you were with her last night they were talking about them we wanted to travel on it I am living in it she is married to him I applied for it I slept in it I work with them we went to it 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The bed I slept in was too soft... Use the sentences in the box to make your relative clauses..... We stayed at a hotel............. The fish .I can..... write (that) ................................ I’ve got is a pound. Why do you always disagree with everything ............................................................... I’ve ever seen....has now been released...................... Tell me .......... I didn’t get the job ......... It’s the worst ... The house ................... I can’t lend you any money.. who or what.......... Nora is the only person ..was really delicious........wasn’t very enjoyable... I didn’t like that woman ................ where necessary with that.they want............ you’ve just said................

What’s the name of the girl whose car you borrowed? (you borrowed her car) ..) that something happened: .The man (who/that) I wanted to see .The girl (who/that) he fell in love with .The other day I met someone whose brother I went to school with.): ..The girl with whom he fell in love left him after a few weeks.we stayed there — wasn't very clean. (I went to school with his brother) b) Whom is possible instead of who (for people) when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause (like the sentences in Unit 89): . We use whose mostly for people: . . In spoken English we normally prefer who or that (or you can leave them out . whom and where a) Whose We use whose in relative clauses instead of his/her/their: we saw some people .I haven’t seen them since the year (that) they got married.. (or ‘the town (that) I was born in’) . (her husband is dead) . .their car had broken down We saw some people whose car had broken down. . The hotel where we staved wasn't very clean. e) You can say the reason why something happens or the reason that something happens. (I wanted to see him) You can also use whom with a preposition (to/from/with whom etc.Relative clauses .The last time (that) I saw her. For whom see also Units 91 and 92.see Unit 89): .I would like to live in a country where there is plenty of sunshine. c) Where You can use where in a relative clause to talk about places: the hotel .The reason (why/that) I’m phoning you is to invite you to a party.A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. she looked very well. You can also leave out why and that: .Do you still remember the day (that) we first met? .whose.The man whom I wanted to see was away on holiday.. 72 .I recently went back to the town where I was born. (he fell in love with her) But we do not often use whom. d) We use that (or we leave it out) when we say the day / the year / the time (etc.


You were on holiday with a friend of yours. You met some people who had some bad experiences during their holiday. You met: 1 2 3 4 5 some people / their car broke down a man / his wife became ill and was taken to hospital a woman / her husband was arrested by the police a girl / her passport was stolen a couple / their luggage disappeared

You can’t remember the names of these people, so you ask your friend. Make sentences with whose. 1 What was the name of the people whose car broke down? 2 What was the name of the man .......................................... 3 What ............................................................... 4 ........................................................................ 5 ........................................................................

The sentences in this exercise are not complete. You have to complete them with where .... Use the sentences in the box to make your relative clauses. I can buy postcards there she had bought it there people are buried there I was born there we spent our holidays there we can have a really good meal there

1 2 3 4 5 6

I recently went back to the town where I was born. The dress didn’t fit her, so she took it back to the shop ............... Do you know a restaurant ....................................? Is there a shop near here ....................................? The place ................................was really beautiful. A cemetery is a place ...................................................

Again you have to complete the sentences with a relative clause. Use the sentences in the box to make your relative clauses. (her) dog bit me John is staying (there) we first met (on that day) (his/her) parents are dead they haven’t got a car (for this reason) I didn’t write to you (for this reason) the Second World War ended (in that year) you telephoned (that evening)

1 Do you remember the day (that) we first met? 2 An orphan is a child ................................................... 3 The reason ......................... was that I didn’t know your address.


4 5 6 7 8

Unfortunately I wasn’t at home the evening ............................. I protested to the woman ............................................... The reason ............................... is that they can’t afford one. Do you know the name of the hotel ...................................? 1945 was the year .....................................................


Relative clauses - ‘extra information’ clauses

a) Look again at these examples: - The man who lives next door is very friendly. - Gerry works for a company that makes typewriters. - Have you found the keys (that) you lost? In these examples, the relative clauses tell us which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means: ‘The man who lives next door’ tells us which man. ‘a company that makes typewriters’ tells us what kind of company. ‘the keys (that) you lost’ tells us which keys. But not all relative clauses are like this. For example: - Tom’s father, who is 78, goes swimming every day. - The house at the end of the street, which has been empty for two years, has just been sold. In these examples the relative clauses (who is 78 and which has been empty for two years) do not tell us which person or thing the speaker means. We already know which person or thing is meant: ‘Tom’s father’ and ‘the house at the end of the street’. The relative clauses in these sentences give us extra information about the person or thing. b) In these ‘extra information’ relative clauses you have to use who for people and which for things. You cannot use that and you cannot leave out who or which. When you write clauses like this, you have to put commas (,) at the beginning and at the end of the clause. Study these examples: - Yesterday I met John, who told me he was getting married. - Mr Yates, who has worked for the same company all his life, is retiring next month. - She told me her address, which I wrote down on a piece of paper. - The strike at the car factory, which lasted ten days, is now over. Remember that we use who/which instead of he/she/it/they: - Last night we went to Ann’s party, which we enjoyed very much. (not ‘which we enjoyed it very much’) c) You can also use whose, whom and where in ‘extra information’ relative clauses: - Martin, whose mother is Spanish, speaks both Spanish and English fluently. - Mr Hogg is going to Canada, where his son has been living for five years. - My sister, whom (or who) you once met, is visiting us next week. For more information about whose, whom and where see Unit 90. See also the next unit for ‘extra information’ relative clauses.


(There are some beautiful trees in this park.. which I wrote down on a piece of paper.............. (The sea looked rather dirty.................. 15 Next week-end l’m going to Glasgow.........) The ... 5 That man over there is an artist.... (I don’t remember his name.......... She told me her address..... (Nobody had been expecting the storm......) 14 A friend of mine helped me to get a job. (Her son is a policeman.......) 13 Thank you for your letter.... Use the sentences in brackets to make your relative clauses............ (I wrote her address down on a piece of paper..Exercises In this exercise you have to write these sentences again together with a relative clause............................................) 9 We often go to visit our friends in Bristol...... (I was very happy to get your letter........... 4 John is one of my closest friends...... Examples: Tom’s father goes swimming every day......) (use whose) ............. (The postman is nearly always on time... (My sister lives in Glasgow............... .... (The moon was very bright that evening) 18 We spent a pleasant day by the lake. (His beard made him look much older.....) 7 The storm caused a lot of damage................. 3 The new stadium will be opened next month..) She showed me a photograph of her son......) (use whose) 11 Jack looks much nicer without his beard......) .......... sometimes at the end............. (We had a picnic by the lake) (use where) 76 ......) (use whose) ... ..... 1 She showed me a photograph of her son..... (The stadium holds 90.....................) 12 I went to see the doctor..) Tom's father................. who is 78..... (The doctor told me to rest for a few days... (Bristol is only 30 miles away....... Sometimes the relative clause is in the middle of the sentence...........) 8 The postman was late this morning........) (use where) 16 The population of London is now falling..) We .............. goes swimming every day. (His father is the manager of a company......) 10 Mr Edwards has gone into hospital for some tests....000 people...... (I have known John for eight years................ (Tom’s father is 78.. 6 Opposite our house there is a nice park...........) She told me her address........ (London was once the largest city in the world) 17 I looked up at the moon. 2 We decided not to swim in the sea....... (His health hasn’t been good recently.

This is Mr Carter. ( 1 sentencc ) Ann has a lot of books. They’ve got three cars. b) All of / most of etc + whom/which. Tom has a lot of friends. to whom I spoke on the phone last night. So you can say ‘to whom / with whom / about which / for which’ etc. which surprised everybody. But in spoken English we often keep the preposition after thc verh in thc relative clause. two of which they never usc. c) Which (not ‘what’) Study this example: Jim passed his driving test. ( l sentence) You can also say: none of / many of / much of / (a) few of / some of any of / half of / each of / both of / neither of / either of / one of / two of etc. who I was telling you about.The weather was very good.‘extra information’ clauses You should study Unit 91 before you study this unit. . (2 sentences) Jim passed his driving test. without which we would have got lost. (2 sentences) Ann has a lot of books. She hasn’t read most of them.Relative clauses . most of which she hasn’t read. what we hadn’t expected’) 77 .Fortunately we had a map. (not ‘. - } + whom (people) + which (things) He tried on three jackets.. All of them are married. many of whom he was at shool with. neither of whom I had seen hefore. none of which fitted him. ( 1 sentence) relative clause In this example which = the fact that he passed his driving test.. we normally use who (not ‘whom’): . Study these examples: Jack has three brothers. Two men. You cannot usc what instead of which in sentences like this: . .Mr Carter. (2 sentences) Jack has three brothers. which we hadn’t expected. all of whom are married. This surprised everybody. which l’d ncver been to hefore..Yesterday we visited the City Museum. which was a pity.: . When we do this. is vcry intercsted in our plan. calllc into my offic. (not ‘ .She couldn’t come to the party. what was a pity’) . a) Prepositions + whom/which In ‘extra information’ clauses you can use a preposition before whom (for peoplc) and which (for things)..

.......... 1 This is a photograph of our friends........... + whom/which............. is very interested in our plan.. 3 I’ve just bought some books about astronomy................ (I’m very interested in astronomy....... Jack has three brothers all of whom are married.... Now you have to make sentences with all of / most of etc.. ....... 7 The part of town where I live is very noisy at night............000 He gave haif of it to his parents 5 Ten people applied for the job....... together with a relative clause....... this means I can’t leave the country this makes it difficult to contact her this makes it difficult to sleep I thought this was very rude of them this was very nice of him this was perfectly true this was a pity She couldn’t come to the party............. 3 They said they didn’t have any money........... 5 He offered to let me stay in his house...... None of them were suitable........) The ......................... Most of them were very helpful.................. 3 I have sent him two letters. 78 . .. l They gave us a lot of information........ They gave . ........... 4 I haven’t got a passport........1 In this exercise you have to write these sentences again........ Example: Mr Carter is very interested in our plan..Exercises 92.... Now you have to complete these sentences with a relative clause.............. 6 They didn’t thank us for the meal before they left.......... 6 Tom made a number of suggestions...... Neither of them has arrived.......... Example: Jack has three brothers........) .... ...........) This is ... which was a pity 2 Jill isn’t on the phone. 4 Norman won f....................... 2 There were a lot of people at the party...... (I spoke to him on the phone last niht... Most of it was useless.......... Use the sentences in brackets to make your relative clauses...... Use the sentences in the box to make your relative clauses........ All of them are married..... ...............................20...... (We went on holiday with them...................... who I spoke to on the phone last niht. I had met only a few of them before.) Mr Carter. 2 The wedding took place last Friday............ ... (Only members of the family were invited to it.............

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