FIG.

17-21

FIG. 17-22

Multiple Pipe Slug Catcher

Example Line Drip

IN

LE

T

GRADE

GAS FLOW

SL

OP

ED

DRIP
BELOW
LINE

V
OUAPO
TL R
ET

DRIP
VESSEL

DRIP LIQUID
DRIP
VALVE

NO

L
OUIQU
TL ID
ET

Note that this estimate is close to the HLf predicted in
Fig. 17-19 for elevation pressure drop determination. It also
coincides closely with the value of 0.16 from Fig. 17-18.
Calculate the pipeline segment liquid inventory from Eq 17- 57
IL = (7.853) (10−7) (0.14) (152.4 )2 (1200) = 3.064 m3
The pipeline segment contains 3.064 cubic m of liquid at any
instant.

Liquid Slugging
Purpose of Separators — The slug flow regime is frequently encountered for pipe sizes and flow rates used in process and transmission piping. Liquid slugging introduces an
additional design and operational difficulty as liquid and vapor must generally be separated at the downstream end of the
two-phase flow line. The downstream separator serves both as
a liquid-vapor disengaging device and as a surge vessel to absorb the fluctuating liquid flow rates caused by slugging. In
order to size the separator or slug catcher, the length of the
incoming slugs must be determined. Slug length calculation
methods are not well developed, and there is large uncertainty
in slug length determination.
Mechanisms of Slug Generation — Liquid slug lengths
are difficult to determine in part because there are at least
four identifiable mechanisms for liquid slug generation. Slugs
can form as the result of wave formation at the liquid-gas interface in a stratified flow. When the liquid waves grow large
enough to bridge the entire pipe diameter, the stratified flow
pattern breaks down and a slug flow is formed.
Slugs can also form due to terrain effects. Liquid collects at
a sag in the pipeline and blocks the gas flow. The pressure in
this blocked gas rises until it blows the accumulated liquid in
the sag out as a slug. Changes in pipeline inlet flow rate can
also cause slugs. When the inlet flow rate increases, the liquid
inventory in the pipeline decreases, and the excess liquid
forms a slug or series of slugs. Finally, pigging can cause very
large liquid slugs as the entire liquid inventory of the line is
swept ahead of the pig. Of the four mechanisms described,
wave growth normally produces the shortest slugs, followed
in length by terrain generated slugs. Methods for calculating

wave induced slugs were described by Greskovich and
Shrier22, and by Brill et al.23 A preliminary scheme for calculating terrain generated slugs was reported by Schmidt.24
Analytical methods for determining inlet flow rate generated
slugs were given by Cunliffe,25 and a method of analyzing pigging dynamics was given by McDonald and Baker.26
Slug Catchers — Slug catchers are devices at the downstream end or other intermediate points of a pipeline to absorb
the fluctuating liquid inlet flow rates through liquid level fluctuation. Slug catchers may be either a vessel or constructed of
pipe. All size specifications discussed in Section 7 to provide
residence time for vapor-liquid disengagement also apply to
vessels used as slug catchers. In addition, sufficient volume
must be provided for liquid level fluctuation. Particularly for
high pressure service, vessel separators may require very
thick walls.
In order to avoid thick wall vessels, slug catchers are frequently made of pipe. Lengths of line pipe tens or hundreds of
feet long are used as long, slender horizontal separators. The
pipe is generally inclined from one to ten degrees and banks
of these slightly inclined pipes are frequently manifolded together. Pipe type slug catchers are frequently less expensive
than vessel type slug catchers of the same capacity due to thinner wall requirements of smaller diameter pipe. The manifold
nature of multiple pipe slug catchers also makes possible the
later addition of additional capacity by laying more parallel
pipes. A schematic of a multiple pipe (harp) slug catcher appears in Fig. 17-21. Different pipe inclinations and different
manifolding arrangements are favored by different designers.
An example of a line drip catcher is shown in Fig. 17-22. A
drip vessel is connected to the incoming pipeline and often laid
beneath it. A flow line from the drip vessel is used to blow the
liquids out to a storage or surge vessel as they accumulate.
Pigging — Pipelines are pigged for several reasons. If water
is present in the line, it must be removed periodically in order to
minimize corrosion. This water accumulates in sags in the pipeline, and these low spots are particularly susceptible to corrosion.
Pipelines are also pigged to improve pressure drop-flow rate performance. Water or hydrocarbon liquids that settle in sags in the
pipeline constitute partial blockages that increase pressure drop.

17-21

114A and Par.116A Temp.8 standard for comprehensive code description.” use the following: Pi = Where Pi S′′ do t F′′ = = = = = 2 S′′ t (F′′) (E′′) (T′′) do Design pressure.40 Complete details are covered in Par. 17-25. Table 841.80 Div 2 . 841. E′′ = Longitudinal joint factor. ERW = 0. use the following: To determine allowable internal working pressures for piping outside of refineries and other processing facilities in accordance with ANSI B31. etc. 17-27.900 230 0. and mechanical.3) is used to determine the allowable pressure limits for piping inside refineries and other processing facilities.3 publication for full description of the code. 17-23 for the calculation method.867 For intermediate temperatures. 17-24 PIPE AND FLANGE DATA Working Pressures Transmission Lines The Petroleum Refinery Piping Code (ANSI B31.Pigging can remove these liquids and improve pipeline efficiency. t = pressure design thickness. A tabular compilation of maximum allowable working pressures computed according to ANSI B31.000 150 0.933 200 0. The table of allowable stresses.8 appears in Fig. mm. 17-23 Working Pressures Refinery Piping To determine allowable internal working pressure for straight sections of pipe in accordance with ANSI B31. Petroleum Refinery Piping”. satisfying requirements for pressure. is extracted from ANSI B31.7 for 540°C and above Div 2 . Fig. mm c = the sum of the mechanical allowances (thread depth and groove depth). The required downstream slug catcher size must take into account pigging frequency. 17-24 for the calculation method.000. and erosion allowances.4 up to and including 480°C 0. °C Factor T′′ 120 or less 1. Table 841. mm Pi = internal design pressure. kPa (ga) Specified minimum yield strength. public or private land.85 Y′ = coefficient having values for ferritic steels as follows: 0.8-1992. API-5L 0. 840. The very large slugs swept ahead of the pig may overwhelm inadequately sized downstream facilities. Refer to Fig.3 appears in Fig. interpolate for derating factor.2 (see note) Location Class F′′ 1 Div 1 .50 Div 4 .80 0.5 for 510°C 0. corrosion. mm Construction type design factor. (The minimum thickness for the pipe selected. For piping outside of refineries and other processing facilities.60 T′′ = Temperature derating factor.60 Div 3 . kPa (ga) do = outside diameter of pipe.72 tm = t + c t = Pido 2(S′E′ + PiY′) or Pi = 2 tS′E′ do − 2 tY′ where: tm = minimum required thickness. 17-28 provides pressure ratings for steel flanges and flanged fittings. Even worse. Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping. The designer is strongly urged to consult the latest ANSI B31. considering manufacturer’s minus tolerance. 17-26. kPa E′ = longitudinal weld joint factor: Seamless = 1. Operational hazards are associated with pigging. Fig. A tabular compilation of maximum allowable working pressures calculated according to ANSI B31.3. proximity to roads. Table 841. a separate code applies for determining allowable presFIG. ANSI B31. the pig may become stuck in the line and require an expensive shutdown for location and removal. FIG. “Code of Pressure Piping.8. sure limits. By pigging at frequent intervals. Note: Factor reflecting location of line. Refer to Fig.967 175 0. kPa Nominal outside diameter.0 is used for seamless and welded pipe except for the following: Fusion Welded A 134 and A 139 Spiral Welded A 211 Furnace Butt Welded ASTM-A53. mm S′ = allowable stresses.80 0. and erosion allowances. 17-22 .115A Normally a factor of 1.3. Pigging can also be used as a means of limiting the required slug catcher size. mm Nominal wall thickness. “Code for Pressure Piping. corrosion. Pigs may also occasionally be destroyed in the pipeline and the resulting debris may damage downstream fittings or equipment. and the maximum slug size can be limited. liquid inventory buildup in a pipeline can be reduced. shall not be less than tm). The designer is encouraged to refer to the latest ANSI B31.

17-25 17-23 Allowable Stresses in Tension for Materials (1) (Excerpted from ANSI B31. A-1B) . Appendix A.FIG. Tables A-1.3a-1985.

09 6.99 30.05 3.43 27.33 13.43 5.70 15.17 21.52 160 21.53 11.5 304.50 28.8 196 15.5 438.22 14.23 10.94 1.26 4.88 3.2 150 777 4.35 3. 17-24 .3 192 676 2.31 11.51 4.88 24.77 25.5 50 874 7.20 20.94 1.4 26.81 6.99 39.5 2 165 10.11 43.7 247.72 31.5 77.97 1 1-1/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 X80 2.33 12.43 27.12 5.73 22.97 9.7 431.50 X80 3.14 9.01 12.31 4.12 32.60 36.20 S40 2.20 4.4 48.93 2.75 62.15 18.86 8.59 12.56 13.24 6.D.3 5 989 27.20 10 94. Sch.31 8.33 13.75 65.51 4.86 7.69 14.88 25.05 7.51 24.43 5.76 S40 11.13 30.51 25.7 29 460 12.55 6.39 21.57 XX 9.4 393.11 22.2 268 048 4.1 1 140 19.15 19.71 5.34 43.15 6.3 257.1 154.7 584.57 5.37 23.05 2.12 4.90 3.34 40.7 2.59 23.4 596.00 3.43 28.88 54.98 27.20 12.77 25.6 23 950 24.2 1 145 43.13 10.07 21.12 6.60 60. Weight of pipe kg/meter O.84 14.6 558 14.36 X80 7.1 18 639 8.45 39.26 273.60 20.57 12.37 6.5 489.54 2.49 5.16 17.19 X30 155.57 5.77 25.36 11.0 907 30.60 16.12 41.1 23 520 25.60 17.32 34.86 12.73 3.06 17.5 87.31 8.31 8.52 S20 141.23 10.22 3.6 97.84 1.43 28.37 27.4 342.1 80.43 5.58 8.34 43.31 4.5% of the wall thickness shown above to recognize mill wall tolerance of 12.5 49.25 S40 4.6 88 959 5.99 41.2 182 65.81 6.79 9.43 25.69 9.7 32 275 7.3 160 7.25 X80 64.13 32.93 2.05 S40 60.43 28.35 8.90 2.04 5. grade B seamless pipe—Petroleum Refinery Piping Code for Pressure Piping ANSI B31.98 6. 17-26 Design Properties and Allowable Working Pressures for Piping ASTM A106.66 30.43 26.88 3.7 13 633 25.57 14.9 20.71 12.49 10 62.23 10.34 2.2 27.35 3.05 6.43 5.23 3.12 S40 5.86 12.27 21.9 355.88 25.22 14.93 23.6 73.80 23.79 2.69 15.99 29.80 23.51 24.26 3.57 15.5 155 179 2.12 6. 17-23 using a reduction in tm to 87.9 18.71 12.69 19.57 8.46 2.77 24.30 7.94 1. mm I D mm (d) Flow area mm2 –29 to 38 93 149 204 260 316 371 1/2 S40 1.66 6.2 85 634 7.51 25.9 613 49.19 S40 28.6 215.3 2.63 15.63 3.0 187 767 3.85 49.12 6.21 2.12 10.72 6.9 52.86 12.22 14.60 36.4 117 841 4.60 36.81 7.86 12.1 38.81 7.86 4.35 3.57 15. No.94 1.73 160 4.72 31.59 8.15 19.2 202.62 6.2 X 139.3 8 213 9.16 16.25 2.02 1. Mpa (ga).16 17.9 344 13.53 11.34 43.08 160 238.30 11.92 23.4 444.35 3.31 11.28 7.95 9.77 S30 93.60 2.92 9.47 12.2 7 417 15.73 160 67.7 48 169 10. mm Wall thk.05 7.04 6. Allowable working pressures for temperatures (in °C) not to exceed.85 49.58 8.9 92 347 3.4 457.1 5 034 36.45 3.81 4.85 47.9 114.80 22.94 160 33.93 9.86 4.22 4.33 S40 123.59 19.88 25.05 X 97.57 7.7 330.6 3 489 28.69 15.3-1984—Corrosion allowance = 0.92 22.50 14.38 9.99 33.3 219.10 5.04 6.13 10.45 39.48 6.46 XX 27.1 323.81 X60 81.99 30.51 25.44 160 172.79 26.75 65.4 2 680 41.4 495.1 XX 107.8 146 438 6.50 14.25 7.57 15.7 40.51 25.07 21.79 5.3 168.9 36 610 25.86 4.16 17.5 336.9 279 829 1.31 7.54 11.86 4.08 3.44 26.93 2.22 13.13 10.96 37.92 9.75 6.0 102.05 10 54.17 2.45 37.60 2.22 160 111.19 6.50 13.83 13.3 16 817 14.60 2.57 15.51 24.72 508.88 3.59 4.24 4.57 7.29 21.7 298.46 9.80 33.43 27.5 69 957 8.45 10 70.46 11.56 12.57 7.56 10.50 14.05 7.49 20.86 24.2 58.3 88.60 2.36 XX 79.88 3.90 9.8 72 966 6.68 1.60 11.94 22.8 1 442 31.31 10.5 24.22 3.42 9.5%.59 31.45 39.29 26.51 12.51 X80 5.11 12.13 32.51 24.5 590.22 3.21 14.60 34.13 9.57 S20 117.49 35.27 21.9 4 769 11.05 Nom pipe size in.23 9.81 6.7 381.9 1 313 11.59 8.1 34.77 S30 81.55 12.43 5.81 7.11 22.72 29.92 23.99 30.34 2.22 14.41 5.77 2.75 65.63 XX 41.43 12.17 XX 13.99 41.FIG.7 4 261 17.33 13.2 131.1 66.53 11.19 X80 22.43 7.86 X80 42.54 18.0 173.80 23.55 4.4 20.46 22.92 23.12 7.53 11.6 182 921 5.60 17.3 464 23.13 32.16 160 11.31 11.3 1 905 17.10 8.81 7.81 25.85 3/4 S40 1.4 12 151 32.68 8.5 387.57 5.8 15.7 337 39.51 23.2 174.14 56.33 X80 15.57 5.59 8.0 146.28 34.30 5.14 11.51 25.1 38.8 279 23.1 15.04 9.7 42.31 4.44 6.6 273 907 3.69 4.3 254.66 X 187.2 51 956 25.69 15.57 7.68 36.51 24.10 16.6 Note: The above allowable working pressures are calculated from Fig.53 10.7 121 736 2.81 6.0 609.85 49.76 8.72 13.65 S40 16.99 41.40 10 78.35 3.51 25.69 26.7 472.67 S 105.61 11.15 19.66 3.93 2.89 5.40 9.59 8.54 XX 5.60 17.0 114 009 6.7 193.92 9.9 124.61 X 107.35 22.34 2.30 5.26 S 73.31 4.51 4.38 8.34 2.92 9.72 31.6 406.51 S40 42.04 6.

6 6.4 7.3 6.7 5.9 3.0 6.5 29.8 15.7 11.1 13.3 14.7 20.2 16.40 GR.5 5.1 13.5 6.2 20.8 8.0 8.7 7.9 13.6 8.0 12.0 11.8 7.6 8.1 26.4 6.4 10.7 12.1 16.6 Type C.1 4.4 7.9 13.1 6.1 7.1 11.2 9.4 8.1 11.4 15.5 31.2 15.7 17.5 5.2 14.3 8.0 6.0 10.9 10.1 13. mm Construction Type Design Factors Type A.2 10.0 31.9 5.1 24.2 10.2 358.2 9.7 4.4 5.6 14.2 9.0 10.0 24.3 11.0 8.5 5.9 7.0 6.2 4.3 16.9 6.1 5.1 13.8 7.1 11.7 10.6 6.9 20.6 5.9 29.2 8.1 (STD) 12 323.2 24.1 7.7 317.6 6.4 20.5 11.7 9.8 11.1 12.6 4.8 8.9 16.8 241.2 5.8 3.6 8.6 13.6 13.8 13.6 12.7 16.0 6.4 14.6 6.1 21.8 15.7 10.2 358.6 9.3 9.2 6.4 16.4 16.5 9.7 6.2 4.5 5.6 17.7 10.0 14.5 5.1 7.1 12.2 7.5 6.7 8.9 8.1 12.1 16.8 8.3 21.1 9.2 5.7 7.1 7.7 6. F = 0.8 10.7 23.9 11.B 241.7 7.0 17.7 16.6 10.2 11.9 10.7 10.3 20.3 14.8 12.1 22.5 7.2 16.2 19.6 12.4 11.3 13.5 17.8 16.8 9.4 5.9 9.4 13.0 17.8 17.2 23.6 12.3 11.2 4.1 5.8 8.2 24.8 7.5 16.8 5.3 10.5 5.5 6.7 15.2 13.3 4.9 12.7 7.6 413.7 24.4 Type D.2 9.1 5.3 10.9 (STD) 4 114.6 26.6 6.5 12.3 4.1 8.8 33.5 4.B 289.5 9.7 7.0 13.2 11.4 18.6 5.6 7.4 4.4 14.0 5.3 27.5 15.8 15.4 8.4 GR.8 12.2 29.0 6.2 9.0 11.0 28. F = 0.0 9.1 21.2 9.3 9.5 4.6 18.2 9.2 5.9 6.0 13.5 3.0 11.8 8.9 18.6 6.3 18.1 15.5 8.2 358.6 5.1 5.4 10.8 9.4 10.5 6.0 4.7 14.4 14.9 7.4 16.6 6.6 14.8 12.6 12.3 11.4 4.2 7.9 9.3 3.1 5.1 18.8 12.2 7.4 18.7 6.2 4.8 7.7 9.2 5.4 19.D.4 11.0 4.6 4.8 12.1 12.4 19.1 7.4 12.6 4.0 7.6 11.6 13.1 11.1 10.7 17.0 9.6 15.7 22.6 12.5 10.8-1982 Carbon Steel and High Yield Strength Pipe (Values apply to A106.8 15.2 6.7 317.8 14.8 11.4 9.3 6.4 13. F = 0.2 12.5 10.2 8.9 8.1 6.9 6.1 9.7 12.4 12.7 17.2 3.2 14.3 10.9 13.4 10.0 5.0 9.6 3.0 2.1 8.0 8.2 5.3 7.2 6.6 13.2 17.0 13.6 21.4 7.1 8.7 7.8 13.3 21.5 9.3 8.0 6. 17-27 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Code for Pressure Piping ANSI B31.5 18.6 413.7 9.8 11.2 25.7 23.1 7.9 20.9 5.9 7.8 4.5 17.0 10.2 6.8 3.3 13.3 11.9 8.5 6.7 4.8 8.4 7.9 14.5 7.9 11.0 15.7 20.0 8.8 9.2 11.1 11.7 23.6 19.3 21.3 10.2 9.4 16.9 14.0 12.4 6.2 5.5 13.5 6.2 17.3 6.8 10.2 9.6 6.9 12.8 14.5 11.9 5.2 13.5 7.0 6.0 9.9 16.9 14.6 4.2 9.5 14.1 15.1 317.1 16.0 11. O.5 9.9 10.3 4.1 (STD) 10 273.7 12.7 8.3 9.5 16.4 8.8 15.8 7.6 6.9 20.9 10.7 4.5 13.7 7.5 9.5 12.1 17.1 6.0 6.0 14.0 7.4 4.7 18.8 10.1 15.2 4.6 9.3 12.2 12.6 16.1 7.6 6.4 13.6 19.7 19.1 12.6 6.6 7.7 6.5 18.0 5.2 11.8 8.9 12.7 16.4 8.7 11.0 5.8 10.3 7.8 3.6 13.2 8.8 13.2 8.2 11.8 .2 13.50 GR.2 12.4 7.6 8.3 7.7 317.5 4.2 9.8 7.3 10.9 16.8 7.0 9.5 9.1 5.3 19.1 4.9 13.9 11.6 5.2 10.5 16.6 14.3 9.2 5.2 6.7 13.9 7.2 11.5 7.8 15.3 11.1 11.2 12.6 9.5 10.5 17.6 6.0 6.5 10.0 12.4 4.9 14.4 9.8 7.3 10.0 4.3 13.1 12.0 10.1 * Type A construction also applicable to "Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Code.7 9.2 7.8 10.8 8.7 5.2 10.7 17.4 22.6 5.2 9.0 9.2 6.3 3 88.1 19.1 15.4 17.6 19.6 7.6 7.6 6. mm Wall Thk.0 5.9 13.9 7.9 12.9 8.8 5.8 12.4 10.9 4.2 6.6 7.0 10.6 10.7 20.7 5.0 18.7 18.8 12.5 18.9 12.2 8.0 358.0 4.4 24.2 8.7 26.7 6.8 20.8 27.1 15.0 20.9 31.1 9.4 8.2 6.1 5.6 16.2 6.4 10. API 5L and API 5LX pipe having the same specified minimum yield strength as shown) Allowable Working Pressures up to 120°C.1 8.B 289.0 5.2 23.0 9.2 10.1 4.B 289.8 5.9 14.4 5.2 10.2 413.4 8.2 26.3 20.5 6.4 10.0 14.0 16.3 6.8 10.7 10.4 7.8 241.5 11.8 8.8 5.5 9.0 14.9 15.9 9.7 4.7 8.4 7.2 9.8 5.9 11.0 6.7 11.1 11.0 11.4 7.4 7.8 12.2 19.2 6.8 4.0 5.0 13.6 24.9 11.3 16.2 13.4-1979 17-25 12.9 13.4 17.3 (STD) 8 219.5 5.3 6.FIG.8 9.7 26.5 14.6 21.2 11.8 8.9 22.1 19.2 22.5 6.9 (STD) 3.2 8.7 6.1 9.7 16.3 11.2 7.1 12.1 9.3 10.9 10.7 7.1 14.3 9.4 10.8 6.4 8. in MPa (ga) Nom Pipe Size in.6 16.1 18.1 8.3 3.5 8.7 21.9 20.6 25.7 4.7 20.2 12.0 7.2 9.2 11.1 13.7 8.5 8.2 15.9 5.1 6.4 6.7 5.7 8.2 6.0 9.9 6.9 5.2 14.2 18.9 8.5 16.0 8.5 13.9 18.2 20.5 9.3 9.7 16.5 4.1 6.4 19.0 7.7 6.5 8.4 8.4 16.3 8.0 5.5 11.5 8.4 9.5 11.3 6.9 15.2 5.8 9.2 9.9 23.7 6.3 14.8 18.4 8.6 22.4 9.6 8.4 7.1 5.8 5.1 19.3 7.1 9.8 4.4 7.3 5.0 14.3 11.6 16.3 18.1 14.9 8.6 3.9 13.6 11.4 13.3 19. F = 0.6 3.7 21.4 3.4 6.3 21.8 10.7 24.4 7.6 7.0 4.5 9.8 20.0 4.7 8.2 7.7 10.6 13.2 6.7 5.4 24.1 12.5 12.8 11.1 10.4 21.5 14.8 7.5 15.7 8.9 29.8 11.5 9.2 8.9 15.3 10.4 9.7 10.6 7.2 5.2 26.2 12.6 11.5 18.4 16.3 7.3 (STD) 6 168.6 6.0 9.4 7.8 28.72* GR.5 17.1 9.8 241." ANSI B31.1 10.8 28.4 7.6 413.2 16.1 14.7 9.9 9.5 10.5 6.4 15.2 10.6 5.1 24.6 21.2 13.6 7.1 10.6 11.2 9.1 17.7 6.0 28.3 8.0 10.4 5.4 2 (STD) 60.8 11.7 11.8 14.1 17.3 11.8 13.0 9.5 11.5 12.4 4.6 9.5 24.3 22.4 13.8 4.5 16.4 9.6 10.9 22.9 14.4 7.4 15.2 13.1 26.2 13.8 5.2 8.2 21.7 6.4 14.7 8.4 8.1 17.1 14.8 13.8 10.7 23.7 10.5 8.9 10.8 9.3 8.4 3.6 4.0 4.2 34.1 7.9 12.2 17.1 11.3 15.2 15.2 12.1 5.7 12.6 289.7 6.8 5.7 8.0 12.4 5.8 14.0 7.5 6.1 19.7 8.6 10.1 8.5 8.8 15.3 6.3 5.7 10.60 22.5 15.7 Type B.6 7.4 14.5 18.8 7.1 3.1 7.1 18.7 9.8 8.3 6.

2 8.2 4.8 12.2 3.6 12.2 4.6 10.6 2.0 11.6 8.9 4.0 11.3 12.8 6.8 4.6 5.1 4.8 5.2 9.8 13.4 14.9 358.2 5.1 7.5 5.7 9.9 3.7 4.3 13.0 9.7 6.1 9.0 12.5 7.FIG.9 13.2 7.4 3.1 9.8 8.1 6.3 7.2 7.1 8.7 2.3 16.9 11.0 5.9 5.1 8.3 12.9 16.5 (STD) 9.5 16.2 5.9 12.9 8.9 13.0 4.8 3.0 3.9 6.7 3.9 5.7 9.2 2.0 6.3 4.6 6.4 16 406.6 8.0 5.0 5.3 7.9 5.9 4.2 12.3 4.2 358.0 3.9 3.5 2.3 7.2 8.0 6.3 5.1 7.2 3.3 8.9 5.4 3.1 11.0 9.9 4.7 4.3 11.3 2.9 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.5 8.5 5.6 413.0 10.9 3.0 ANSI B31.7 7.2 8.6 17.4 6.5 2.0 10.0 7.2 9.3 7.3 4.3 15.2 4.7 4.0 5.4 6.9 15.2 358.0 6.0 7.2 30 11.1 7.6 4.2 7.6 10.6 4.5 7.6 9.5 3.2 4.5 4.1 4.9 8.6 6.8 4.2 4.1 4.3 6.2 2.3 7.4 4.9 7.9 13.6 3.6 6.6 9.9 6.9 19.5 6.9 9.9 4.7 11.2 14.3 3.8 6.4 6.4 289.2 7.8 8.6 14.1 10.0 7.7 4.6 4.4 9.4 8.8 241.B 289.0 7.0 4.1 9.0 3.5 4. F = 0.2 7.7 7.8 5.3 9.2 3.7 3.3 4.1 10.1 5.5 7.6 5.7 4.3 5.7 4.5 3.5 5.3 4.1 3.2 7.6 3.6 6.3 3.6 6. in MPa (ga) Nom Pipe Size in.0 8.3 4.5 4.9 3.0 6.6 9.3 13.2 6.2 (STD) 9.4 10.2 6.8 7.5 7.4-1979 1.5 5.3 10.5 7.6 6.3 5.1 7.6 7.1 18.3 4.0 7.2 317.8 6.9 6.4 6.0 4.5 7.9 3.5 7.8 5.6 9.0 4.3 11.9 6.9 15.2 5.6 4.0 13.9 9.9 8.1 4.2 9.7 3.9 3.0 6.1 4.4 8.6 4.9 4.9 3.9 4.1 4.8 9.0 3.2 3.5 7.8 9.2 6.8 5.7 11.2 5.3 4.5 3.6 4.8 6.9 10.6 4.0 8.9 8.0 11.3 4.1 19.B 413.1 6.3 9.7 9.0 7.5 5.7 5.5 5.8 4.6 4.8 3.5 4.8 5.3 6.9 2.7 2.3 5.0 14.5 11.4 5.0 6.4 5.6 8.0 413.7 6.5 9.1 10.7 8.0 11.2 3.1 10.5 6.6 6.3 13.9 10.1 3.4 6.5 4.9 11.6 4.3 3.7 5.2 6.6 9.1 6.1 5.4 Type D.4 7.1 6.1 14.9 5. O.3 4.6 5.2 10.5 7.9 13.0 11.5 6.7 3.6 3.0 14.6 8.8 5.5 4.5 14.3 358.1 10.1 8.0 6.2 19.6 8.6 7.6 13.7 7.5 5.9 4.9 13.7 5.3 4.2 5.1 7.9 4.1 8.6 6.9 5.2 6.6 3.7 11.9 4.4 10.0 6.9 6.6 4.1 4.6 4.5 5.2 2.9 3.9 13.1 8.0 4.8 6.9 5.0 8.8 3.8 5.4 10.8 4.2 6.1 7.8 762.1 9.6 5.5 5.4 6.6 9.0 6.2 5.1 5.7 5.8 11.7 8.5 5.7 6.3 7.0 14.5 7.4 5.3 3.6 2.9 17.9 4.9 6.1 11.5 9.2 5.6 2.1 3.0 7.9 8.4 8.2 2.1 9.4 3.0 3.7 7.3 2.4 9.4 8.0 6.4 11.2 5.7 8.9 11.3 3.8 7.0 10.8 4.4 4.1 5.5 8.4 12.8 12.D.7 3.7 3.3 3.0 2.7 6.5 5.8 8.7 8.2 3.8 9.3 3.4 3.9 4.7 10.9 5.4 3.7 3.5 6.4 6.9 9.1 3.7 10.1 3.1 4.7 10.0 4.0 7.5 7.1 4.3 .6 9.5 5.B 241.7 4.3 3.9 7.3 12.6 3.0 2.5 15.1 3.5 4.5 4.1 5.4 3.1 10.2 3.1 4.1 6.2 3.5 9.8 10.0 7.9 5.0 3.8 6.1 5.6 (STD) 9.6 4.6 6.4 6.6 6.3 15.5 5. F = 0.5 4.8 3.4 4.9 8.8 7.9 11.4 3.0 11. F = 0.4 4.0 5.1 4.7 4.0 4.5 4.0 9.1 7.0 4.9 3.1 6.6 4.3 7.5 7.3 7.9 5.2 413.4 6.7 7.5 6.0 11.4 9.1 4.5 2. F = 0.9 9.0 7.4 15.6 4.6 10.4 6.5 * Type A construction also applicable to "Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Code.0 9.6 9.4 5.9 5.9 10.8 12.4 14.4 6. 17-27 (Cont’d.0 10.9 4.0 4.0 6.4 4.5 4.9 5.0 8.6 5.5 5.3 3.9 7.1 10.0 15.7 6.6 6.7 7.9 19.8 317.2 5.2 4.5 7.6 6.3 3.0 7.1 11.2 4.5 4.2 8.3 3.1 8.8 4.3 4.4 12.4 8.7 5.5 10.4 3.2 4.2 5.0 3.3 16.4 5.4 11.9 4.7 10.0 3.0 3.8 6.1 7.9 7.7 6.2 6.1 5.7 7.3 241.6 7.0 3.0 5.7 5.) Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Allowable Working Pressures up to 120°C.3 6.2 5.0 5.4 2.8 7.4 6.3 10.5 9.2 7.4 3.0 10.2 5.6 6.8 20.7 7.3 4.5 5.3 3.9 9.3 7.2 8.5 5.5 5.5 26 10.3 10.5 4.4 5.4 3.0 8.4 6.0 3.5 7.1 18.5 7.1 4.2 8.3 10.5 4.5 4." Notes: Type C.6 6.8 6.8 7.4 3.9 7.2 4.0 (STD) 9.4 15.8 4.9 8.3 7.3 6.4 3.8 4.2 5.4 11.2 13.2 23.8 7.8 5.8 3.5 8.6 7.1 13.2 3.2 8.3 6.8 19.2 4.5 7.3 7.7 5.1 10.0 7.0 5.2 5.2 7.3 4.7 11.2 6.7 6.6 3.5 6.1 6.7 5.9 7.9 9.2 4.4 5.9 6.3 4.1 6.5 4.9 24 609.5 6.3 9.7 317.0 6.0 8.8 5.5 7.9 4.5 5.5 9.4 15.1 4.4 3.2 14.2 4.7 4.6 5.1 2.3 5.6 5.0 12.3 6.4 5.4 8.0 10.1 2.40 GR.2 4.9 11.1 18.3 3.2 6.1 7.1 16.3 7.0 5.60 GR.8 9.1 18.1 3.7 9.5 12.9 6.2 8.3 4.2 3.B 289.1 4.7 317.0 7.2 8.6 3.4 15.6 3.5 7.6 6.4 12.2 7.2 5.0 6.9 9.8 5.4 6.1 7.0 13.72* Type B.2 5.0 3.7 5.7 4.1 9.9 7.0 2.5 9.0 6.2 5.2 5.1 12.7 12.0 14.8 7.8 12.3 6.5 5.5 4.4 9.3 8.7 7.9 19.4 22.7 4.3 7.0 4.8 3.50 GR.2 3.0 6.1 8.5 9. mm Wall Thk.0 5.7 2.5 6.7 10. mm Construction Type Design Factors Type A.7 7.3 6.9 11.6 6.9 4.2 10.1 3.0 4.9 6.8 241.8 7.2 6.9 5.8 4.5 5.9 8.2 5.4 3.8 7.4 2.6 4.8 6.5 10.0 5.4 12.4 9.0 4.6 2.7 7.6 660.8 289.1 8.6 5.3 16.4 4.3 4.2 3.8 6.4 2.8 12.0 7.0 4.5 16.8 3.4 4.0 5.1 8.9 5.1 10.8 8.3 6.0 7.6 6.3 8.2 8.7 10.4 5.0 6.7 4.7 5.6 8.8 3.0 4.6 5.4 2.9 7.6 6.0 5.3 5.7 8.8 7.5 5.7 9.8 4.5 7.2 3.5 7.1 8.8 11.3 12.4 5.8 9.4 10.8 4.4 4.8 5.1 20 508.4 8.3 8.9 14.0 4.0 4.9 11.8 7.9 5.8 2.3 11.4 12.4 9.9 5.9 12.6 10.7 6.3 6.9 11.0 10.8 3.2 8.4 6.6 5.6 16. See Fig 17-24 17-26 GR.0 7.3 4.3 5.0 6.6 4.1 9.0 4.8 12.0 5.3 17.6 10.5 10.7 2.4 6.8 5.1 10.8 3.9 6.7 7.5 7.4 (STD) 9.5 4.9 14.0 5.4 6.9 15.9 6.3 2.7 7.6 5.5 5.1 4.8 6.4 2.2 3.0 3.3 7.7 9.4 4.5 8.3 12.8 7.5 6.0 9.4 6.1 5.1 3. All dimensions are as shown 2.9 5.6 3.9 9.9 4.5 6.1 7.1 9.6 10.0 7.0 7.0 8.1 8.4 7.8 5.8 6.

55 23.86 1.28 3.48 6.97 4. the carbide phase of carbon steel may be converted to graphite Only killed steel shall be used above 455°C At temperatures over 540°C. 17-28 Pressure-Temperature Ratings for Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings from ANSI B16. A537−C1.97 1.28 7.62 37.83 20.52 17.97 1.52 18. use only when the carbon content is 0.86 36.38 5.41 1.66 2.86 0.28 7.21 15.38 11.38 5.45 1.93 9.55 3.86 2.52 5.62 22.03 4.07 14.24 12.69 3.38 28.55 0.41 0.10 10.41 10.38 30.79 1.59 13.59 2.72 15.66 6.24 15.45 2.79 22.24 1.04 percent or higher For temperatures above 540°C.45 4.52 4.86 4.59 1.14 5.76 5.86 18.72 3.66 34.21 6.62 3.90 11.10 23.41 0.66 9.17 22.83 2.31 0.41 18.03 3.38 1.97  A182−F304 (5).14 8.79 2.21 9.17 6.03 8.24 3.45 0.69 1. A351−CF8 (5)  A351−CF3  24.48 0.10 11.59 13.00 0.45 5.31 4.45 0.48 10.93 4.17 0.76 6.31 5.59 0.24 8.76 1.5-1981 CLASS 150 300 Material Group 1.48 2.52 4.31 11.97 0.03 3.93 1.72 3.62 1.14 3.59 0.10 12.76 0.48 25.93 7.72 0.62 17.38 1.24 0.97 0.31 13.59 3.34 4.72 5.79 1.14 3.72 9.79 1.00 0.83 6.69 3.62 5.34 Material Group 2.1  See Notes (a) (h) (a) (g) (d) Pressures are in MPa (ga) –29 to 38 93 149 204 260 316 343 371 399 427 454 482 510 538 1.28 38.28 1.52 1.07 8.69 3.1 –29 to 38 93 149 204 260 316 371 427 454 482 510 538 566 593 621 649 677 704 732 760 788 816 Notes: 400 (a) (d) (f) (g) (h) 1.34 1.31 13.07 (Type 304) 4.28 6.97 13.24 0.72 21.34 27.45 0.38 5.45 18.34 8.03 10.55 5.55 2.24 0.93 9.83 2.41 1. A182−F304H   A240−304 (5)(6).21 2.69 18.14 1.41 13.83 5.38 4.28 1.79 2.34 14.90 1.69 2.90 12.14 1.14 6.90 4.55 5.83 3.86 6.17 0. use only if the material is heat treated by heating it to a temperature of at least 1040°C and quenching in water or rapidly cooling by other means 17-27 .93 8.31 9.21 16.1 600 (Carbon Steel) °C 900 1500 2500  A105 (1)(3).34 0.03 25.83 1.48 30.31 3.38 permissible but not recommended for prolonged use above 425°C not to be used over 343°C not to be used over 425°C not to be used over 455°C not to be used over 540°C Additional Notes: (1) (3) (5) (6) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above about 800°F (425°C).10 4.66 1.76 0.14 1.66 8.55 7.79 2.55 2.86 23.90 13.31 4.21 23.07 21.79 3.00 2.38 34.86 3.41 8.41 20.66 0.72 2.66 3.76 8.07 0.69 2. A216−WCB (1).03 5.03 7.38 1.FIG.34 0.24 2.34 22.83 — — (f) 41.34 0.34 6.86 31.59 8. A515−70 (1)   A516−70 (1)  A350−LF2.79 11.17 0.55 42.72 0.97 14.69 2.14 1.97 0.97 5.97 2.17 4.21 9.52 30.76 0.86 0.55 0.14 0.17 0.76 0.62 0.72 14.66 4.79 2.86 6.59 0.62 3.52 3.55 2.52 5.03 5.41 7.

Cunliffe. Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. Darcy.. No. 1922. G. 13. Sabin Crocker. pp. “Steady Flow in Gas Pipelines. 11. and Ovid Baker.. September. Mem. 1. Aziz. Cdn. 3. and James P. Orin. 25.. and R. 132-141. 22. 1930. et al. 39-48.. Moye Wicks. Liquid Holdup and Pressure Losses Occurring During Continuous TwoPhase Flow in Horizontal Pipelines” J. Flow Calculations in Pipelining. March 10. Flanigan. Tech. II. 19" from the Department of Chemical Engineering. 1976. Second Edition. Addison-Wesley. and Adam L. 1978. 4. Vol. “Fluid Mechanics” by N. Taitel. “Flow of Fluids through Valves.” Oil & Gas Journal.E. June 1967. “Fluid Flow.G.P. Eaton. p.REFERENCES larity Analysis” AIChE Journal. “Mechanics of Engineering” by J. An Approach through Simi- 6. Brill.N. Richardson of Foreman-Richardson-Baird. 22. 1974. R. “Experimental Research on the Flow of Water in Pipes” by H.” by the Crane Co.. Jan. June 22. Pet. 100-108. 3. 5. Pet. “The Prediction of Flow Patterns. 1981. Pergamon Press. Chapter 14. III. February. 1960. “Condensate Flow in Wet Gas Lines can be predicted” Oil and Gas Journal. and Distribution Piping Systems. “Slug Frequency in Horizontal Gas-Liquid Slug Flow” Ind. 1872 (translated from German). 127.” API Pipeline report. T. Young. Dale.” 1943. 317-318.3. Pipes and Channels” by N.W. Dukler. 10. 15. J. Multiphase Flow. pp. 1939. Vol. No. Leach & W. January 1964. 1970. 18. J. AIME. Eugene J.W. “Gas-Liquid Flow in Pipelines. 1985 (AGA Report #3)(GPA 8185-85) (ANSI/API 2530). 1944. 1964 27. Vol. Ann Arbor Science. June 5. 1. F. Oliphant.. pp. Fittings and Pipe.” American Gas Association. Tech. 2. “Pressure Drop in Wells Producing Oil and Gas” J.” J.. 19. Mass. “Production of Natural Gas. Manual of Petroleum Measurement. Yehuda. July. Two-Component Flow in Pipes” Chemical Engineering Progress. 11. 4. Trans ASME 66. “Contribution No. 17-28 . 1. Brill. “Frictional Pressure Drop in Two-Phase Flow: B. A. Fogarasi. Vol. Martinelli. AIME. IGT Technical Report 10. Weymouth. 9. 7. Chicago. AIME. 17. 2. H. “Effect of Uphill Flow on Pressure Drop in Design of Two-Phase Gathering Systems” Oil and Gas Journal.8. The Petroleum Engineer. 606-617.3. 23. Imp. “How a Computer is Applied to a Specific Problem in Pipeline Design. May 1973. p.” Report of USGS. 15. Baker. 829-838. Inst. June 1967. 1858. Govier. 1960. et al. January 1949. 24. 1902. DeNevers. 44-51. Vol. 38-48. pp. Lockhart. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Alvis E. Michigan. Zelmir. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow” by L. pp. and James P. 28. T. F.E. Pet. 1979. 16. Civil Engineers. Cheremisinoff.R. 6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Piping Handbook. Dukler.. James P. 8.S. 1972. “Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Two-Phase.. No. Greskovich. pp. Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.. Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids. Aziz. “A Model for Predicting Flow Regime Transitions in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Gas-Liquid Flow” AIChE Journal. Shrier. 47-55. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.. pp.F.. and M.M. Redmond.A. ANSI/ASME B31. Brill. “Turbulent Flow in Pipes with Particular Reference to the Transition Region Between the Smooth and Rough Pipe Law. 29. July-Sept 1972. Weisbach.F. pp. 34. p. No. 1. 184. “Fluid Flow and Friction in Pipelines. G. Process Develop. McAdams & Seltzer. 1945. pp.. 1945. 12. Pumps. Chem. and A. “A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes” Trans. “Flow of Fluids Through Commercial Pipelines. Heltzel. C. October 1970. W. 537-553. Vol.. Inst. Schmidt.. 141 (in French). 410. “Suggested Formula for Calculating Capacity of Products Pipe Lines. October 30. K. Tech. Gas Transmission ANSI/ASME B31.” Oil & Gas Journal. 45. R. 1979. “Digital Simulation of Crude Oil Pipelines.R. Wilson. R. Van Nostrand. pp. Chicago. pp. J. Wilson & McAdams. Sci. Cleveland. Gregory. 1965. et al. Eng. Inc. Vol.. 815-828. O. May 2.G. June 29. and R. 2. “Experimental Study of Severe Slugging in a Two-Phase Flow Pipeline-Riser System” SPE 8306 AIME. 26. “Analysis of Two-Phase Tests in Large Diameter Prudhoe Bay Flowlines” SPE 8305.C. Mandhane. “Multiphase Flow in Pipelines” Oil and Gas Journal. 1. Technical Paper No. Reading. “Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops in Vertical Pipe” J. June 15. and July 6. 10. McDonald.” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 20. Moody. London. 5. Acad.W. 1988. Fr. Colebrook. Aude. Orkiszewski. 1912. 21. Beggs.R. Ben A. T. Ann Arbor. 14. and K. AIME. 1958. “A Flow Pattern Map for Gas-Liquid Flow in Horizontal Pipes” Int. Design Manual” AGA-API Project NX-28.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful