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Chemical Formula and Nomenclature

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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Writing Chemical Formula

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Chemical Formula
 A representation of the composition of compounds. It contains:
1. The symbol and formula of elements or radicals 2. The number of atoms of each element present written as numerical subscript to the right symbol.

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Things to know in writing a Chemical Formula

1. The symbols of elements and radicals 2. Corresponding valence or oxidation numbers

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Terminologies Valence - denotes the number of electrons in the outermost energy level. - It also describes the combining power of an atom in a compound.

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Predicting Ionic Charges
Group 1A: H+ Lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions Li+ Na+ K+

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Predicting Ionic Charges
Group 2A:Loses 2 electrons to form 2+ ions Be2+ Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+

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Predicting Ionic Charges
B3+ Al3+ Ga3+ Group 3A: Loses 3 electrons to form 3+ ions

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Predicting Ionic Charges
Neither! Group 3A elements rarely form ions. Group 4A: Lose 4 electrons or gain 4 electrons?

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Predicting Ionic Charges
N3- Nitride P3- Phosphide As3- Arsenide Group 5A: Gains 3 electrons to form 3- ions

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Predicting Ionic Charges
O2- Oxide S2- Sulfide Se2- Selenide Group 6A: Gains 2 electrons to form 2- ions

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Predicting Ionic Charges
F1- Fluoride Cl1- Chloride Br1- Bromide I1- Iodide Group 7A: Gains 1 electron to form 1- ions

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Predicting Ionic Charges
Group 8A: Stable Noble gases do not form ions!

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Predicting Ionic Charges
Groups 3 - 12: Many transition elements have more than one possible oxidation state.
Iron(II) = Fe2+ Iron(III) = Fe3+

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Predicting Ionic Charges
Groups 3 - 12: Some transition elements have only one possible oxidation state.
Zinc = Zn2+ Silver = Ag+

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Terminologies Radicals – group of elements which act as one or single atom in chemical reaction and show definite valence. Example: Sulfate ion (SO4-2) Ammonium ion (NH4+1)
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Rules in Writing Chemical Formula

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Rules in Writing Chemical Formula
RULE 1 (CRISS-CROSS RULE)
 Chemical compounds are electrically charged, the total number of positive charge is equal to the number of negative charges; hence, the valence of positive entity (ion or radical) equals subscript of negative entity.  The sum of the positive and the negative valence should add up to zero.  The positive ion is written first followed by the negative.

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Example: Aluminum sulfide 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion.

Al 2 S
3+

2-

3

Not balanced!

Al S 3
The Chemical Formula

2

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Rules in Writing Chemical Formula
RULE 2 When valence number is 1, subscript is not written Example: Sodium Chloride - Na+1Cl-1

NaCl

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Rules in Writing Chemical Formula
RULE 3 When the oxidation numbers of both elements are numerically equal but greater than 1, the subscript are not also written. Example: Calcium Oxide - Ca+2O-2 Exception: Benzene - C6H6
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CaO

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Example: Magnesium carbonate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced.

Mg

2+

CO

23

They are balanced!

Mg CO3
Chemical Formula
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Example: Aluminum phosphate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced.

Al

3+

PO

34

Chemical Formula
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Al PO4

They ARE balanced!

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Rules in Writing Chemical Formula
RULE 4 All radicals take more than one (the subscript is 2 or more) must be enclosed in parenthesis (). Example: Ammonium Sulfate - NH4+1SO4-2
→(

NH4)2SO4

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Example: Barium nitrate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. Ba2+

( NO )
3

3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses Not balanced! if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Ba NO3

2

(

)2

Chemical Formula
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Example: Zinc hydroxide 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced.

Zn2+

OH- )2 (

3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses Not balanced! if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion.

Chemical Formula
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Zn ( OH ) 2

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Rules in Writing Chemical Formula
RULE 5 All subscript must be reduced to lowest terms (except for molecular or covalent compounds) Example: Tin (IV) Oxide - Sn+4O2-2

Sn2O4 → SnO2

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Rules in Writing Chemical Formula
RULE 5 All subscript must be reduced to lowest terms (except for molecular or covalent compounds) Example: Tin (IV) Oxide - Sn+4O2-2

Sn2O4 → SnO2

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Formulas of Binary Ionic Compounds Containing Metals with Variable Valence Oxidation Number or Valence

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A. Stock System
 Roman numeral indicated after the name of the metal represents the oxidation number (valence) of metal. Example: Tin (IV) Chloride - Sn+4Cl-1 Tin (II) Chloride - Sn+2Cl-1

SnCl4

SnCl2

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Example: Iron(III) chloride 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion.

Fe Cl 3
3+ Not balanced!

The Chemical Formula CHEMISTRY

Fe Cl 3

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Example: Iron(II) chloride 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion.

Fe Cl 2
2+ Not balanced!

The Chemical Formula CHEMISTRY

Fe Cl 2

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B. Classical or Conventional System
 The ic and ous ending are added to the line stem or root word of the Latin name of the metal  The ic ending indicates higher oxidation number or valence  The ous ending indicates lower oxidation number or valence

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B. Classical or Conventional System

Example: Stannic Chloride - Sn+4Cl-1

SnCl4

Stannous Chloride - Sn+2Cl-1

SnCl2

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Example: Ferric chloride 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion.

Fe Cl 3
3+ Not balanced!

The Chemical Formula CHEMISTRY

Fe Cl 3

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Example: Ferrous chloride 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion.

Fe Cl 2
2+ Not balanced!

The Chemical Formula CHEMISTRY

Fe Cl 2

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Formulas of Binary Molecular or Covalent Compounds (Containing 2 Non-metals)

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Rule 1
 The Greek prefix mentioned before the name of the non-metals are written as subscripts of the non-metals. Example: Dinitrogen Pentoxide → N2O5

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Rule 2
 If prefix is mono, it is not mentioned at the start of the name, only the second portion. Example: Phosphorous Petachloride Carbon Monoxide
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→ →

PCl5 CO

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Greek Prefixes Used in Naming Binary Molecular Compounds

Number of Atoms 1 2 3 4 5

Prefix mono di tri tetra penta

Number of Atoms 6 7 8 9 10

Prefix hexa hepta octa nona deca

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Try These
Write the chemical formula of the following Aluminum and carbonate Copper II and sulfate Silver phosphate Lead II chloride Ammonium acetate

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Answers
Al2(CO3)3 CuSO4 Ag3PO4 PbCl2 NH4C2H3O2

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Formulas of Acids

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A. Binary Acids  Solutions of compounds consisting of hydrogen and non-metal.  The name starts with hydro and the ending ic attached to the acid forming element followed by the word acid.  The formula H followed by the other nonmetal

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A. Binary Acids Example: Hydrochloric Acid - H+Cl-1 Hydrosulfuric Acid - H+S-2

HCl H 2S

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B. Ternary Acids or Oxyacids  Those containing, H, O, and acid forming element.  The names do not have prefix hydro in their name terminate in ous or ic.  IC – contains more oxygen → salt or radical ends in ate  OUS - contains less oxygen → salt or radical ends in ite
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B. Ternary Acids or Oxyacids

The formula starts with H+1 followed by the radical H+1 (NMO-) polyatomic ion

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B. Ternary Acids or Oxyacids Example: Nitric Acid - H+1 NO3-1

HNO3

Nitrous Acid - H+1 NO2-1

HNO2

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Nomenclature (Naming Compounds)

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Rules in Naming Compounds

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I. Binary Ionic Compounds Containing 2 different elements Metal and Non-metal The name ends in ide

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I. Binary Ionic Compounds
A. Binary Ionic Compounds containing a metal with fixed valence (IA and IIA metals and Al, Zn, Ag)

Name of metal + stem name of non metal + ide Example: NaF – Sodium Fluoride KI – Potassium Iodide
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I. Binary Ionic Compounds
B. Binary Ionic Compounds containing a metal with variable valence 1. Stock System – Roman numeral enclosed in the parenthesis is written immediately following the name of the metal to indicate the valence of the metal.
Name of metal (valence in Roman numeral) + stem name of non metal + ide

Example: SnF4 – Tin (IV) Flouride SnF2 – Tin (II) Flouride
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I. Binary Ionic Compounds
B. Binary Ionic Compounds containing a metal with variable valence 2. Classical (Old) Method – name of metal is modified with ending ic for higher valence and ous for lower valence. Example: SnF4 – Stannic Flouride SnF2 – Stannous Flouride
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I. Binary Ionic Compounds
Exception using ide endings – Hydroxides (OH), cyanide (CN) and ammonium (NH4) compounds are named with ide ending although they are not. Example: NH4I – Ammonium Iodide KCN – Potassium Cyanide Ca(OH)2 – Calcium hydroxide

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II. Binary Molecular Compounds
  (Containing 2 non-metals) Greek prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms. The prefix mono is dropped at the start of the name.

Greek prefix + name of the first non-metal + Greek prefix + stem of name of second non-metal + ide Example: P2O4 – Diphosphorous pentaoxide or pentoxide PCl3 – Phosphorous trichloride
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III. Binary Molecular Compounds Containing Hydrogen listed as the First Element
 They are named without using Greek numerical prefixes Hydrogen + stem of name of non-metal + ide

Example: HF – Hydrogen Fluoride HCl – Hydrogen Chloride

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IV. Binary Acids
 Water solutions of molecular compounds composed of hydrogen and another non-metal except oxygen. Hydro + stem of name of non-metal + ic ending + acid

Example: HCl (in water solution) – Hydrochloric acid HF (in water solution) – Hydroflouric acid

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V. Ternary Acids (OXY acids)
   Name end in ous or ic OUS – less oxygen IC – more oxygen Stem of name of non-metal + ic or ous ending + acid Example: H3PO4 – Phosphoric acid H2PO3 – Phosphorous acid

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V. Ternary Acids (OXY acids)
 When there are more than two oxy acids of the same element, the acid wherein the non-metal exhibits a lower valence than the ous acid uses the prefix hypo and suffix ous + the word acid The acid wherein the non-metal exhibits a higher valence than the ic acid uses the prefix per and the suffix ic + acid

Example: HClO – Hypochlourous acid HClO2 – Chlorous acid HClO3 – Chloric acid HClO4 – Perchloric acid CHEMISTRY

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VI. Ternary Compounds
 The name ends in ite for less oxygen, ate for more oxygen

Example: Al(NO3)3 – Aluminum Nitrate NaNO2 – Sodium Nitrite

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Try These
Name the following compounds
K2S CaCO3 MnCl4 HI

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ANSWERS
K2S potassium sulfide CaCO3 calcium carbonate MnCl4 manganese IV chloride HI hydroiodic acid or hydrogen iodide

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Try These
Name the following compounds
PCl3 CCl4 CO CO2

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ANSWERS
PCl3 CCl4 CO CO2 phosphorus trichloride carbon tetrachloride carbon monoxide carbon dioxide

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Empirical and Molecular Formula

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Calculating Formula Mass
Calculate the formula mass of magnesium carbonate, MgCO3.

24.31 g + 12.01 g + 3(16.00 g) = 84.32 g

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Calculating Percentage Composition
Calculate the percentage composition of magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. From previous slide:

24.31 g + 12.01 g + 3(16.00 g) = 84.32 g  24.31  Mg =   • 100 = 28.83%  84.32   12.01  C =  • 100 = 14.24%  84.32   48.00  O=  • 100 = 56.93%  84.32 
100.00
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Formulas
Empirical formula: the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound. Molecular formula: the true number of atoms of each element in the formula of a compound.  molecular formula = (empirical formula)n [n = integer]  molecular formula = C6H6 = (CH)6  empirical formula = CH

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Formulas (continued)
Formulas for ionic compounds are ALWAYS empirical (lowest whole number ratio). Examples: NaCl MgCl2 Al2(SO4)3 K2CO3

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Formulas (continued)
Formulas for molecular compounds MIGHT be empirical (lowest whole number ratio). Molecular: H2O H2O C6H12O6 CH2O C12H22O11 C12H22O11

Empirical:

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Empirical Formula Determination
1. Base calculation on 100 grams of compound. 2. Determine moles of each element in 100 grams of compound. 3. Divide each value of moles by the smallest of the values. 4. Multiply each number by an integer to obtain all whole numbers.
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Empirical Formula Determination
Adipic acid contains 49.32% C, 43.84% O, and 6.85% H by mass. What is the empirical formula of adipic acid?

( 49.32 g C ) ( 1 mol C ) = 4.107 mol C ( 12.01 g C ) ( 6.85g H ) ( 1 mol H ) = 6.78 mol H ( 1.01 g H ) ( 43.84 g O ) ( 1 mol O ) = 2.74 mol O ( 16.00 g O )
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Empirical Formula Determination (part 2)
Divide each value of moles by the smallest of the values.

4.107 mol C Carbon: = 1.50 2.74 mol O 6.78 mol H = 2.47 Hydrogen: 2.74 mol O

2.74 mol O = 1.00 Oxygen: 2.74 mol O

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Empirical Formula Determination (part 3)
Multiply each number by an integer to obtain all whole numbers. Carbon: 1.50 x 2 3 Empirical formula: Hydrogen: 2.50 x 2 5 C 3H 5O 2 Oxygen: 1.00 x 2 2

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Finding the Molecular Formula
The empirical formula for adipic acid is C3H5O2. The molecular mass of adipic acid is 146 g/mol. What is the molecular formula of adipic acid? 1. Find the formula mass of C3H5O2 3(12.01 g) + 5(1.01) + 2(16.00) = 73.08 g

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Finding the Molecular Formula
The empirical formula for adipic acid is C3H5O2. The molecular mass of adipic acid is 146 g/mol. What is the molecular formula of adipic acid? 2. Divide the molecular mass by the mass given by the emipirical formula. 3(12.01 g) + 5(1.01) + 2(16.00) = 73.08 g

146 =2 73
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Finding the Molecular Formula
The empirical formula for adipic acid is C3H5O2. The molecular mass of adipic acid is 146 g/mol. What is the molecular formula of adipic acid? 3. Multiply the empirical formula by this number to get the molecular formula. 3(12.01 g) + 5(1.01) + 2(16.00) = 73.08 g

146 =2 73

(C3H5O2) x 2 = C6H10O4
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Question or Comments?