Historical Perspective

NURSING HISTORY

PERIODS OF NURSING HISTORY
•Intuitive Period •Apprentice Period
•Educative Period •Contemporary Period

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Usually run by instinct Prehistoric  Early Christian Era NOMADS – travelers ( wander from one place to another) • Survival of the fittest • “Best for the most” – motto Sickness is due to “voodoo” Performed out: • of feeling of compassion for others • of desire to help • of wish to do good care is given by the WOMEN .

NOMADS .

TREPHINING – drilling the skull • Used to treat Psychotic patients • Psychotic patients are believed to be possessed by evil spirits. Growth of religion – most important thing that happened Growth of civilization Law of self preservation – inspire man in search of knowledge .SHAMAN – uses white magic to counteract the black magic • They are the doctors during those time.

SHAMAN A shaman is a medicine man or woman. .

TREPHINING .

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NURSING DID NOT CHANGE but there was progress in the practice of Medicine.From the mode of Nomadic life  agrarian society  gradual development of urban community life Existence of means of communication Start of scientific knowledge  more complex life  increase in health problems  demand for more nurses Nursing as a duty of SLAVES and WIVES. Care of the sick was still closely allied with superstitions. religion and magic .

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medicine. or surgical procedure BABYLONIANS .CODE OF HAMMURABI • 1st recording on the medical practice • Established the medical fees • Discouraged experimentation • Specific doctor for each disease • Right of patient to choose treatment between the use of charms.

Since work was done and performed on the dead.EGYPTIANS ART OF EMBALMING • Mummification • Removing the internal organs of the dead body • Instillation of herbs and salt to the dead • Used to enhance their knowledge of the human anatomy. they learned nothing of Philosophy “THE 250 DISEASES” • Documentation about 250 diseases and treatments .

 Teachings of MOSES • Father of sanitation  Practice the values of “Hospitality to strangers” and the “Act of Charity” – contained in the book of Genesis  LEVITICUS – 3rd book of the Old Testament • Laws controlling the spread of communicable diseases • Laws governing cleanliness • Laws on preparation of food • Purification of man and his food • The ritual of CIRCUMCISION – on the 8th day after birth HEBREW  MOSAIC LAW • Meant to keep Hebrews pure so that they may enter the sanctuary without affronting God • Meant as a survival for health and hygienic reason only .

CHINA Use of pharmacologic drugs “MATERIA MEDICA” • Book that indicates the pharmacologic drug used for treatment No knowledge on anatomy Use of wax to preserve the body of the dead Method of paper making FACTORS THAT HAMPERED THE ADVANCEMENT OF MEDICINE: • Baby boys given girl’s name • Prohibits dissecting of human body thus thwarting scientific study .

INDIA SUSHURUTO • 1st recording on the nursing practice Hampered by Taboos due to social structures and practices of animal worship Medicine men built hospitals Intuitive form of asepsis There was proficient practice of Medicine and Surgery NURSES QUALIFICATIONS: Lay Brothers. . Priest Nurses. combination of Pharmacist.

GREECE NURSES  function of untrained slaves .

HIPPOCRATES -Father of modern medicine -1st to reject the idea that diseases are caused by evil spirits .1st to apply assessment Practice medical ethics GREECE .

GREECE AESCULAPUS Father of medicine in Greek mythology .

At the apex of the staff are two wings of Hermes (Mercury) for speed.GREECE CADUCEUS • Insignia of medicine • Composed of staff of travellers intertwined with 2 serpent (the symbol of Aesculapus and his healing power). .

ROMANS Proper turnover for the sick people “If you’re strong. you’re healthy” – motto Transition from Pagan to Christianity FABIOLA • Was converted to Christian and later she converted her home to a hospital and used her wealth for the sick. 1st hospital in the Christian world .

11th century  1836 On-the-job training period

Refers to a beginner (on-the-job training). It means care performed by people who are directed by more experienced nurses Starts from the founding of Religious Orders in the 6th century through the Crusades in the 11th century (1836 – when the deaconesses School of Nursing was established in Kaiserswerth, Germany by Pastor THEODORE FLEIDNER)

There was a struggle for religious, political, and economic power

Crusades took place in order to gain religious, political, and economic power or for adventure
During the Crusade in this period, it happened as an attempt to recapture the Holy Land from the Turk who obtained and gain control of the region as a result of power struggle. Christians were divided due to several religious war and Christians were denied visit to The Holy Sepulcher.

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JOHN OF JERUSALEM (ITALIAN) • Also called as “Knights of the Hospitalers” • Established to give care .KNIGHTS OF ST.

TEUTONIC KNIGHTS (GERMAN) • Took subsequent wars in the Holy Land • Cared for the injured and established hospitals in the military camps .

LAZARUS • Care for those who suffered Leprosy. syphilis. and chronic skin diseases .KNIGHTS OF ST.

the largest School under religious auspices exclusively in US and it closed down in 1969 . They established the Alexian Brothers School of Nursing.ALEXIAN BROTHERS • A monasteric order founded in 1348.

VINCENT DE PAUL • He organized the charity group called the “La Charite” and the “Community of Sisters of Charity” composed of women dedicated in caring for the sick. orphaned. the poor.ST. . France where Florence Nightingale had her 2nd formal education in Nursing. He founded the “Sisters of Charity School of Nursing” in Paris. and the widowed.

LOUISE de GRAS • Was the 1st Superior and co-founder of the Community of Sisters of Charity .

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slaves. filthy. and hospitals . prostitutes. and opportunists) Nurses were uneducated. drunkards. ill-fed. overworked Mass exodus for nurses The American Civil War was led by Martin Luther. harsh. the war was a religious upheaval that resulted to the destruction in the unity of Christians.From 17th century – 19th century Also called the Period of Reformation until the American Civil War Hospitals were closed Nursing were the works of the least desirable people (criminals. orphanages. The conflict swept everything connected to Roman Catholicism in schools.

THEODORE FLIEDNER • (a pastor) reconstituted the Deaconesses and later be established the School of Nursing at Kaiserswerth. Germany where Florence Nightingale had her 1st formal training for 3 months as nurse .

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE • Practiced her profession during the Crimean War • “Lady with a Lamp” • From a well-known family • Went to Germany to study .

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Italy • Her SELF-APPOINTED GOAL – to change the profile of Nursing • She compiled notes of her visits to hospitals. Thomas Hospital in London England. Florence Nightingale era  Began in June 15. where 1st program for formal education of Nurses began and contributed growth of Nursing in the US • FACTORS THAT INFLUENCED DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING EDUCATION:  Social forces  Trends resulting from war  Emancipation of women  Increased educational opportunities  FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE • Mother of Modern Nursing • Lady with the Lamp • Born on May 12. 1820 in Florence. her observations of sanitation practices and entered Deaconesses School of Nursing at Kaiserswerth. . Germany for 3 months. 1860 when Florence Nightingale School of Nursing opened at St.

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE • Superintendent of the Establishment for Gentle Women during the Illness (refers to the ill governess or instructors of Nursing • disapproved restriction on admission of patient and considered this unchristian and contrary to health care. • Upgraded the practice of Nursing and made Nursing a honorable profession • Led other nurses in taking care of the wounded and sick soldiers during the Crimean War • designated as Superintendent of the Female Establishment of English General Hospital in Turkey during the Crimean War • reduced the casualties of war by 42%-2% thru her effort by improving the practice of sanitation techniques and procedure in the military barracks .

“What it is and what it is not. • Opposed central registry of nurses • Wrote Notes on Nursing. • Have decent living quarters for students and pay Nurse instructors • Correlate theories to practice • Support Nursing research and promote continuing education for nurses • Introduce teaching knowledge that disease could be eliminated by cleanliness and sanitation and Florence Nightingale likewise did not believed in the Germ Theory of Bacteriology.THE CONCEPTS OF FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE ON NURSING SCHOOL: • School of Nursing should be self-supporting not subject to the whimps of the Hospital.” • Wrote notes on hospitals .

LINDA RICHARDS – the first graduate nurse in US. Graduated in September 1. 1873. 2 NURSING ASSOCIATION / ORGANIZATIONS THAT UPGRADED NURSING PRACTICE IN US: • American Nurses Association • National League for Nursing Education .OTHER SCHOOLS OF NURSING • Bellevue Training School for Nurses – New York City • Alexian Brothers Hospital School of Nursing in US exclusively for men. It opened in 1348 and it closed down in 1969.

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Nursing is offered in College and Universities .World War II – present This refers to the period after World War I and the changes and development in the trends and practice of Nursing occurring since 1945 after World War II. Includes scientific and technological development. social changes occurring after the war.

O established by U. • Space Medicine and Aerospace Nursing • Medical equipment and machines for diagnosis and treatment • Health related laws • Primary Health Care – Nurses involvement in CHN • Utilization of computers • Technology advances such as development of disposable equipment and supplies that relieved the tedious task of Nurses. • The use of Atomic energy for diagnosis and treatment. environmental conditions. living standard. proper nutrition.N to fight diseases by providing health information.H. • Development of the expanded role of Nurses .DEVELOPMENT AND TRENDS: • W.

some were incarcerated criminals – This was reflected in the book written by Charles Dickens through the character of Sairy Gamp – who cared for the patients by stealing from them. the negative impression and image of nurses up to the contemporary period. This literary works has greatly affected social attitudes about nursing. • Women’s role was – in the home and no respectable woman should have a career Victorian Middle Class Women – were just wives to their husbands and children. no education.SOCIETAL ATTITUDES • Nursing was without organization. •Nurses were poorly educated. . physically abused them. and social status.

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EARLY BELIEFS AND PRACTICES • Beliefs About Causation of Diseases: Caused or inflicted by other person (enemy or witch) Evil spirits • Beliefs That Evil Spirits Could Be Driven Off By Person With Powers To Expel Bad Spirits: Believed in Gods of healing Word doctors – priest physicians Herbolarios – herb doctors .

witches were supposed to be the cause. gunpowder exploded from a bamboo pole close to the head of the mother to drive evil spirits .EARLY CARE OF THE SICK • HERBICHEROS – herbmen who practice witchcraft • MANGKUKULAM / MANGANGAWAY – a person suffers from disease without any identified cause and were believed bewitched by such • Difficult child birth and some diseases (PMAO) attributed to (NONO) midwives • Difficult birth.

EARLY HOSPITALS • Hospital de Indios – 1586 Franciscan Orders Hospital for the poor Filipino people • Hospital de Aguas Santas – 1590 Fray Juan Bautista Named after its location (near spring) because people believed that spring has a healing power. • San Juan de Dios Hospital – 1596 For poor people Located at Roxas Boulevard .

1899 • Dona Maria Agoncillo de Aguinaldo  2nd wife of Emilio Aguinaldo  1st president of Philippine Red Cross (Batangas Chapter) • Josephine Bracken  Helped Rizal in treating sick people .PERSONAGES • Dona Hilaria de Aguinaldo  1st wife of Emilio Aguinaldo  Established Philippine Red Cross – February 17.

1922 1st Filipino chief nurse of PGH 1st Filipino Superintendent of Nurses in the Philippines • Francisco Delgado 1st president of Filipino Nurses Association .• Melchora Aquino Took care of the wounded Katipuneros • Anastacia Giron Tupaz Founder of Filipino Nurses Association – established on October 15.

“The Filipino Nurse . “The Message” • Conchita Ruiz  Full time editor of the PNA newly named magazine.• Cesaria Tan  1st Filipino to receive Masteral Degree in Nursing abroad • Socorro Sirilan  Pioneer in Social Service at San Lazaro Hospital  Also the chief nurse • Rosa Militar  Pioneer in nursing education • Socorro Diaz  1st editor of PNA magazine called.

Produced 1st batch of Nursing graduates in 1909 – 22 nurses 1st TRAINED NURSES: • Nicasia Cada • Felipa Dela Pena • Dorotea Caldito April 1944 – 1st Nursing Board Exam at Iloilo Mission Hospital .EARLY NURSING SCHOOLS • Iloilo Mission Hospital and School of Nursing Established in 1906 under the supervision of Rose Nicolet (American) Nursing course – 3yrs.

Luke’s School of Nursing – 1907 • UST – 1946 • MCU – 1947 • Fatima – 1947 .• PGH School of Nursing – 1907 • St. Paul School of Nursing – 1907 • St.

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Licensed Vocational Nursing Program / Licensed Practical Nursing Program (LVN.LPN) REGISTERED NURSING PROGRAMS: • Community College / Associate Degree • Diploma Program • Baccalaureate Degree Program GRADUATE NURSING EDUCATION: • Master’s Degree • Doctoral Degree External Degree .

• Under supervision of RN • Prepares students how to give basic direct technical care • Graduate takes NCLEX – PN to obtain license as a practical or vocational course. vocational schools. . hospitals. or other independent health agencies.LVN / LPN Licensed Vocational Nursing Program / Licensed Practical Nursing Program (LVN.LPN) • Last for 9 – 12 months • Provide both classroom and clinical experiences • Provided by the community colleges.

REGISTERED NURSING PROGRAMS Community College / Associate Degree • • • • Arose in early 1950s 2-year program Technical nurse or bedside nurse ADN (AA or AS) Diploma Program • • • • 3-year program Hospital-based Provide rich clinical experience for nurses Associated with colleges and universities .

• BSN • Also admit RN who have diplomas or associate degrees. humanities. sciences.Baccalaureate Degree Program • Early Baccalaureate Program  5-year program (3-year diploma program in addition to 2 years of liberal arts) • Today’s Baccalaureate Degree Program  4-5-year program • Offer courses in the liberal arts. and nursing • Graduates must fulfill both the degree requirements of the college or university and the nursing program before being awarded a baccalaureate degree. • Much background • More theories .

The curriculum provides for a common two-year program to all health. series 1996. biological. social science and humanities. . . The AHSE program constitutes the general education component of all baccalaureate degrees leading to the Health profession . 59.NURSING PROGRAM  4-year basic program for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing.  The first level is focused on the study of physical.The Associate in Health Science Education (AHSE) is the two-year common course offering by the College developed in accordance with the provisions of Republic Act (RA) No. 7722 or the “Higher Education Act of 1994” and CHED order No.

The 2nd semester of 4th level is focused on the acquisition of competencies necessary in the professional practice. An emphasis is given to pathological processes and coping techniques . ecological. . epidemiological. The 2nd semester of the 3rd level examines the concept of illness particularly from the social. economic as well as cultural facets.NURSING PROGRAM  The second level provides a more intensive and deeper insight cognizant to the concept of man as a bio-psychosocial-cultural  The 1st semester of the 3rd level is concentrates on the study of maternal & childcare and basic human function as means of laying the groundwork for the 2nd semester study of the illness state of a person. cure and rehabilitation.  The 1st semester of the 4th level extends the nursing care of a sick client to include the promotion of health in prevention and control of illness and disabilities.This is with the end view of acquiring the competencies required in the care of a sick client.

At the end of the fourth level. 3) possessing necessary attitudes for his/her personal and professional growth. and 4) analyzing the legal aspect of nursing practice. leadership and management as a beginning nurse practitioner in varied settings. 2) applying results of research studies related to nursing. . demonstrate skill in basic research. the student is deemed able to deliver nursing care services utilizing the nursing process.Different settings allows students to showcase a composite set of skills such as:  1) initiating nursing actions in cases of emergency     situations where the physician is not immediately available.

series of 2008 otherwise known as “Policies and Standards for Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program”. as a course in college. 5. . may no longer be as attractive as before starting this school year. Philippine Nursing Curriculum has dramatically changed since the Commission on Higher Education’s issuance of CHED Memorandum Order (MO) No. This CHED Memo makes BSN a five-year course.Nursing Curriculum Now 5 Years  Nursing Education Update: Nursing Education the Philippines will never be the same again. Nursing.

499 hours from the previous 2.Nursing Curriculum Now 5 Years From my initial findings.632 hours.  Additional 357 hours for hospital training or Related Learning Experiences (RLEs) which will make RLEs 2.142 hours . the new Nursing Curriculum in the Philippines will effect these changes:  Instead of the usual 79 units taken up by first year nursing students. the new guidelines will require students to take up 93 units in 2.

Nursing Curriculum Now 5 Years  28 additional units or about three summers of schooling  For freshmen Nursing students. these changes have huge impacts on their family’s finances and other children’s education. the “Theoretical Foundation in Nursing” is included in the first semester. and “Fundamentals of Nursing Practice” in the second.  From a parent’s standpoint. Some parents I have interviewed said they might be forced to sacrifice the education of some of their .

it should have been in the area of communication and NOT in the the area of Related Learning Experiences because Nursing students have enough RLEs. why shouldn’t CHED include in the New Nursing Curriculum subjects that will help our Nursing students communicate better with foreigners speaking languages other than English? This is perhaps an oversight on the part of our policy makers. This is because the ultimate goal of most Filipino Nurses is to go abroad and earn more money.  . If CHED wanted to equip our Nursing students with new tools. Since this is the case. that’s just my take. they should have included in the new one some foreign language subjects (French. Norwegian or Spanish). Well. German. if CHED intended to “upgrade” or improve the existing Nursing Curriculum.Nursing Curriculum Now 5 Years  From an educator’s standpoint.

education.GRADUATE NURSING Master’s Degree • 1. and research. • MAN / MSN • PhD. administration. DNS. • All emphasized research • No specific time Doctoral Program . • Content and approach vary among doctoral programs. administration. ND • Further prepares the nurse for advanced clinical practice.5 – 2-year program EDUCATION • Encourage the development of graduate study in nursing • Major emphasis was to be research and specialization for teaching and administration • Provide specialized knowledge and skills that enable nurses to assume advanced roles in practice. education. and research.

9173 (RA 9173) . It repeals the prior RA 7164. involving Filipino nurses.NURSING LAWS AFFECTING NURSING EDUCATION . implementation of the nursing licensure examinations. otherwise known as the Philippine Nursing Act of 1991.Board of Nursing (BON) . is an act that focuses on providing more responsible Filipino nursing professionals.Republic Act No.  .also takes charge of any national issues and concerns .also known as the Philippine Nursing Act of 2002. in collaboration with the Professional Regulatory Commission (PRC).in charge of the   .

This involves passing a written examination given by the Board of Nursing.Nursing Examination and Registration  Article 4.  an individual acknowledged with good moral character.all nursing graduates must apply for a professional license before becoming eligible for nursing practice. on the same basis as the citizen of such country.  and a holder of a bachelor's degree in nursing in a duly . the applicant must be:  a citizen of the Philippines or a citizen of a country that permits Filipino nurses to practice within its territorial limits. Sections 12 to 13 and RA 9173 . To be admitted to the examination.

education or other allied medical profession  have at least 10 years of continuous education  The Commission of Higher Education (CHED) and the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) have recently released information on the top performing nursing schools in the Philippines for those interested in studying abroad to obtain their nursing education .  a registered nurse and holder of a master's degree in nursing. a member of good standing of an accredited professional organization of nurses in the Philippines.Qualifications of the Chairperson and Members of the Board  a natural born citizen and resident of the Philippines  .

 Act # 1931 – Created for the ESTABLISHMENT OF NURSING SCHOOLS in the country under the Bureau of Education in 1909. An Act Declaring the Bar and Board Examinations as “ CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS” which means that when a four year degree course graduate had passed the board examinations or the Bar examinations for lawyers they automatically become first grade civil service eligible.  Act # 1975 – An act that transferred the school of NURSING UNDER THE BUREAU OF HEALTH.  RA # 1080 – This act approved on 1954 is also known as.  Act # 2468 – An act that authorized the GRANTING OF THE TITLES of graduate in nursing and midwifery from the school of nursing of Philippine General Hospital in 1915. .

voluntary and religious organizations of all creeds. 18 – enjoins all citizens of the Philippines. mass media. schools. and implement the INTEGRATION OF FAMILY PLANNING in their curricula and to require from their graduates sufficient appropriate licensing examination . plan. midwifery and allied medical professions and social work to prepare. business and industrial enterprises to promote the concept of family welfare.  Letter of Instruction No. responsible parenthood and family planning. universities. colleges. 47 – directs all schools of medicine. General Order No. government offices. nursing.

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