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[,ongmanGrouPUK Limited' Burnt llttill, Harlotr' Hotrsc' Lort-gntan 655.'1f.1/20 2JE. England lltc Ihrottgltotrt vorld' Companics i,ri ,.tttoriored ,OLongman GrouPUK Limited 19E8 publication no f,tt ,lioir,t resert'ed; part o.fthis storedin a relrteral syslern' nnt"be reproduced' tttcut,ts, el.ectronic. in .[orntor b1'..artt' u,l'|,routrritted an.v or recordtng' ottter)t'tsc' photocopring' ntechanit'al, o-[ ,,ri,iri,t the'prior u'r'iircnperrnissiort thc Ptrblisher's' 1988 First published 1993 impression Sixth Data in British Library Cataloguing Publication Bvme,Donn, 1929-Teaching writing skiils'-Newed'teachers)' handlooks for language fi""g*it i. Eriglishlanguage-Writing-Stud.v and teaching I. Title 808',.042',07 PE1404

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Catalogingin Publication Data Library of Congress Bvrne.Donn. 1929writrng skills' Teaching teachers) language frong*i" handbooksfor and index' , . inclulesbibliographies and i. englittt language--Study teaching-Foreign an c.-.Studv d tanguage-Rhetori t. Engiistr" ,p;;kd and exercises ;;;;hl;;. i. rnltitt' tanluale-c-omposition I' --StuOy-unO teaching' Title' II' !erle^s,^ 87-4238 808','042 pE1128.A28938 i988 l-5 ISBN 0-582-7465 (Pbk.) PublishersPte Ltd Producedby Longman Singapore Printed in SingaPore Acknowledgements to reproduce We are gratefulto the following for permission coplrighl illustrativematerial: Series' PLC fbr page 39 (top) (TakenAom the Foundation (Taken Cassell for page24 t4tririnsI by Louise wooitj;'iollins Publishers r,rsiitn gooi{'t bv Vincent' Foll and Cripweli; rt"^?nrh, page 58 (Taken from wr.iting in Macmillan PubiishersLi-it.o io. ';;;i;;i;t pages Thomas Ne6ol and SonsLimited for Anita Pincas; Reprinted bv page 94; i4rl Functr pruii.utlo"t Limited for ;;";;; 122' 2l unlt.oF.aiuie synalcate'Inc for pages and oitrti*i"t oi



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5 Learning write:mothertongue to andforeignlanguage situations compared 1.2 The stateof the art 3.6 Writingfor fun Discussion/Exercises/References iii s H L!--- l-_ I-L: t-- tL: H l-_ l.1 Understanding how the written language functions 2.3 Sentence linkingandsequencing activities 5 . !-: f--- L.3 The role of guidance 3. .1 What is writing? 1.3 Speech writing and 1.I f r f f F Contents Preface 1 The nature and purposeof writing 1.2 The reseurces the writtenlanguage of Discussion/Exercises/References 3 Generalprinciplesfor teachingwriting 3.2 What do we write? 1.1 Approaches teaching to writing 3.4 Sentence linkingactivities 4.5 Communication activities 5.2 Reinforcement activities 5.6 Why teachwriting? Discussion/Exercises/References 2 Learningto use the resources the written language of 2.1 Somebasic considerations 4.5 Communication activities 4. 4 R e p r o d u c t i oe x e r c i s e s n 5.6 Writingfor fun Discussion/Exercises/Refere nces 5 Developing kills s 5. E L.1 The importance demonstrating of progress 5.4 The needs the learners of Discussion/Exercises/Refere nces 4 Writing in the early stages 4.4 Why writing is difficult 1. 5 U LLl-r E L. L: L: f-.3 Reinforcement activities 4. L.2 Copyingasa writing acrivity 4.

1 The needs the lear ner s shapes 12.3 Skillsequences activities for as 8.1 Somegener al 1 .inter mediate ar 9 . 2 W r i t i n ga c t i v i t i e s Discussion/Exercises/References E E t E a I I j 1 2 T e achingthe Englishscr iPt of 1 2.1 Reasons teaching iting I 1 .2 Com Pr ehension (r.2 Remedial procedures 9.6 C o ntextsfor wr iting: the use of texts 6 .L Errorsandmistakes correction and student 1. 2 P r o j e cw o r k 8 .1 The textascontext activities 6 .2 Letter script for L2.0.3 Note.2 The role of the teacher examples som e m 7 .taking sum m ar ising and re rcises/Refences DiscussioniExe 7 C o ntextsfor wr iting: the use of visualm ater ial consider ations 7 .3 Freewriting:somesuggested nces Discussion/Exercises/Refere E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E ts 1 0 Correctingwritten work 10.4 Simulations a framework rvriting Discussion/Exercises/References level Writing at the post.3 Procedures teaching Discussion/Exercises/References j t i devices Cohesive Appendix: BibliographY T I I lndex lv I I .1 Pr oblem eas approach work: the valueof a functional 9.1 The impor tance integrating t 8 .3 The useof visual ater ial: Discussion/Exercises/References In tegr atedskills skills of 8 .2Teacher 10:3 Correction Procedures ere rcises/Ref nces D iscussion/Exe for 1 1 Wr iting activities childr en wr for 1 1.

in 1976. The substance thisbook is based of on. fun' activities H lLLJ tr !--L!- H L- H Lt-_-.teacher-training courses.The numberof examples beenexpanded of has throughout. written work and teaching Correcting havenow beenexpanded chapters.Montreal. writing and a little more cohesion coherence.a spellbackin the classroom. of of whichI taughtat Concordia students 'Course317'on 'Composition' obligedme to givemy viewson teaching University. be can writingprogramme.In particular. However. now havea chapter theirown. alsoseehow writing is used of but of for the purpose communication. kindsof showhow both guided exercises develop to particular skillsandcommunication tasks involving freeexpression. LLf- H L- 1-: H H H H r l_ H l_ tr H tr l_ r=<- u . highlighted evenin the firstedition. The book hasbeenextensively revised ensure to that it reflects current practice.L tr L' l- Preface The mainpurpose thisbookin its revised of editionremains unchanged: to various writingactivities. through their growingmastery the writtenlanguage. methodological Integrated skills.The 'writingfor camedirectlyout of that experience. series seminars teaching A of on writing which I had to givein Latin Americain the earlyseventies me set whilethe interestand encouragement the thinkingaboutthe subject. and with adolescents children. the activities the Writingfor/un sections in shouldprovea usefulandflexible additionfor any teaching situation. mademe appreciate onceagainwhat every to teacherknows:that it is not enough do the'right' things. seminars givenoverthe lastfifteen and lectures years. built up into a coherent Throughsucha programme is it intendedthat the learners shouldnot only makesystematic progress. thereis a completely handwriting into and on new chapter teaching children.so that the book canbe usedfor resource material.

perhaps theyform a coherent havebeenput in orderandlinkedtogether.then. But writingis clearly flat surface just of is The symbols. nhen rvearewritingfor ourselvs5 lrtlr occitsions on But. Sometimes nor neitheran easy a spontaneous usually 'mood'or havea clearandperhaps needto pressing if easily. tr l_ l__ 11 rl_l_ B--J E l--_ l_- that or s1'rnbols: is.professional thatit is rvriters amongthem but mostpeople writingcomes activitv. a methods composing text.horvever. produc a sequence sentences unrelated ways. 5 Iof and Thenature purpose writing t-l-- t-- u -.Noticc'for of versions a textbefore aresatisfied several page2. the Writinginvolves writing a reader. mayevenrvrite are notes.wouldagree -. letters combinations of Whenwe rvrite.The sequence may be very in particularorderand linkedtogetlter certain of only trvoor threesentences but. of graphic conventions.asin inventories saidto be lists. symbols we although again canbe to andwordshaveto be arranged form sentences. whichrelate letters makingmarkson a symbols: writingcanbe saidto be the actof formingthese muchmorethantheproduction of somekind. drafting practices making common \\'e with the result. of Not a greatdealis knownaboutindividual .We reread We andrevising. his corrected modified draftof the textt'rtt and how the rvriter example.we usegraphic rve On to thesounds makewhenwe speak. itemssuchasshopping or we As a rule. do not writejustbnesentence evena numberof arranged a in of We e sentences.Other them.-J L T L H 1. asa ruieit requires express 'think out' our sentences consider waysof combining and arranging various and to rvhatwe haverl rittenasa stimulus furtherwriting.1 What is writing? t-: !--- l-- t-f 1-1 !-. onelevel. form words. for The reason thisis thatwe are for lnto our of of encoding a message somekind: that is. the Reading language. we translate thoughts of or involves decoding interpretation thismcssaqe. exceDt those tr !-: . we arein the right mentaleffort:we someconscious but something. because theway the short..I -^-J L- tr u r l- L=. 'writing'if we aremerely of makinglistsof words. asspeech morethanthe production sounds. sentences whole.They form lvhatwe maycalla'text'. to to according certain haveto be arranged.

the Note.2 What do we write? we It is helpfulto keepin mind someof the manyuses are likely to makeof level.the readeris someonewho ls present. examinationsl A comparison between speech writingshould some and helpusto understand of the difficulties experience we whenwe write. tllllF F F ts F EF E- 1. if we and will of u'echange job).For example.the amount writingwe do regularly our gooddealof time writing a life. (things haveto do or wantothers do. It is LE L^ by the organisation hie hei*c'mctc+ a n o t h e r personnecef of our sentences into a text. ) of the kind that arestill a featureof many etc.or questionnaires) occasionally writeformalletters (for example.lt. sendmessages Most of ushaveto fill in anda few of uskeepdiaries.ere{6i€re ninety cases of polio occurri'ig / '-(rh. mightspend relateto our professional Some etc. to write letters friends. insurance (especially for applications formsfrom time to time .arelikelyto spend timewritingpoetry (My daily or fiction. it does takeinto that not E- tEl-- !F . . like our shopping we of something We and we of andto keeprecords things wantto remember.- 1.f that we are able (or Ci=essc t'hea+ c o n n e c t i o n c o u l d b e s h o w n hope to be able) to A communicate with successfully tlrct with particular Iots of the vaccine6 our reader through the medium of M writing. w e h a v et o ensurethat what we 4{2. For others will onlybe an occasional letters.ti}. activity. instructions. any Few of us. Apart from this. is why we normally choosethis particular not physicall./ understoodwithout lf ' e{ v. neverwrite 'compositions' the we routine. a personal to list). this reports.And.v And rather than the more common one of speech. This is the ^49days@ reasonfor the care we have to take f+dtb€€tl hfilee'lre*c with writing. outside classroom. channelof communication present.mostof ususewritingto makea note on writing. t..W G T E A C H I N GR I T I N S K I L L S r: ttl!- shoppinglist may h:tvebeenfor this purpose.The tableon the nextpage highlights maindifferences.This. into a ad received the Cutter vaccine. after all.for example. .r* L^n"^ any further help from us. -Fr !!:f.rA write can be T-h.however.her completein itself. coherentwhole which is as explicit as possibleand In seventy-one of these cases *..tf.on the otherhand.and in somecitses may not even be known to our readeris not because u s .My favourite pastime.3 Spe e c h n d a writing 2 I- .

J !-- U !-:. .n t e n d e do i t b e u n d e r s t o o dm m e d i a t e l vl . . i n t o n a t i o np i t c h . and Althoughwritingis clearly muchmoredependent how effectively on we usethe linguistic resources the language of (see1.4. wouldbe wroneto it conclude that all the advantages on the sideof speech. i f not.some the disadvantagescommunicating of of through the writtenmediumareoffset.1-1L- 3 Readernot necessarily known to writer 4 No immediateeedback ossible. u H e s i t a t i o na n d p a u s e s o m m o n s c a n d u s u a l l y o m er e d u n d a n c y s and repetition 7 Rangeof devices(stress. the otherhandwe do not normally on haveto write quickly:we can rewrite and reviseour sentences until we are satisfied that we haveexpressed 'our meaning.2). Sentence oundaries learly b c indicated l-l- LL- . are While it is tru! that in writingwe havethe taskof organising sentences our carefully asto make so our meaning explicit possible as as withoutthe helpof feedback from the reader.- tL LJ. body movements a n d g e s t u r e s l s ou s e df o r t h i s a pu rpose WRITING 1 Creates own contextand its t h e r e f o r e a st o b e f u l l y e x p l i c i t h l-1-: H 2 Reader ot present ndno n a interaction ossible p 1-. t roles p 3 U s u a l l y e r s o na d d r e s s e ds i soecif ic 4 l m m e d i a t e f e e d b a c ki v e na n d g expected ( a ) v e r b a l :q u e s t i o n sc o m m e n t s . then.the reader in a moreprivileged is position thanthe listenerto someextent:he canreadat his own paceand rereadasoften ashe likes. 5 W r i t i n gi s p e r m a n e n tC a n b e .- H l- account certainsituations whichthe spokenlanguage used.n d l i n k e d c a a n d o r g a n i s e do f o r m a t e x t t lV l_ L L t- D e v i c e so h e l p c o n v e ym e a n i n g t . rereadas often as necessarv and at own soeed 6 Sentences expected be to c a r e f u l l y o n s t r u c t e d . . m u r m u r sg r u n t s .g. r+ r--. p e e d ) t oh e l p . listenerexpected interact to S e n t e n c e o f t e ni n c o m p l e t e n d s a sometimes ngrammatical. ' fhatth i ng over th ere'I 2 S p e a k e a n d l i s t e n e r ( sn r i) c o n t a c t I n t e r a ca n d e x c h a n q e .suchas in is telephoning lecturing. (b) non-verbal:facial expressions 5 S p e e c h s t r a n s i t o r yI.a- 1! T H EN A T U R E N D P U R P O SO FW R I T I N G A E H l-l-. a r e p u n c t u a t i o nc a p i t a l s n d a ( u n d e r l i n i n g f o re m p h a s i s ) . s c o n v e ym e a n i n g . Equally.In thisway. p f Writer may try to anticipate reader'seactions nd r a incorporate them into text t- t-1- l-=. !--- SPEECH 1 Takesplacein a context. a c i a l F expressions. which often makesreferences clear(e.

a s o r to f m u s i c afl l a v o u rt h a t w e o E r .-althoughtheseinevitablyoverlapto F s o m ee x t e n t . thought : t.NI I TEACH NG \^JRiTI G SKILLS F F why writing is a difficult activityfor most we can norvbegin to understand F p e o p l e .. h a r d l yr e a l i s e c'ld A j u s t d r o p p e do u t o f t l r e t h a d! ( L a u g n s .Someof these ts below: u'hichhasbeen transcribed conversation E -t E E p i a n o 'l s t h a t h o w y o u t P e t e y o u c o m p o s e dh i s p i e c ea t t h e . Because o o structure r to connecting ur o a t t e n t i o ne i t h e rt o o r q a n i s i n g u r s e n t e n c e of the latter is maintainedthrough the process to sentences: some F "it.w e l l .4.iurct. f n u O i n i n t r ol ' d l ' ' f i u u t . t^he in specialcircumstances. on we uselunguug"and to gettingfeedback when and the fact that we are required t<. we As we haveseen.f through a process. 1. without the possibilityof interaction write on our feedback. c t u a l l y o i o n . W e s h a l l l o o k a t e rvriti'g under three headings by irr" irour"rns which are caused F psychological'Iinguisticand. Speechisthenaturalandnormalmediumofcommunicationforusinmost c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d a c c u s t o m s u s b o t h t o h a v i n g S o m e o n e p h y s i c a l l ythe s e n t E pre of somekind. Psychological problems F E 1A1 Linguistic problems F except o..r l w r i t t e nt h i s u n t i l I 'r r p i a n p .expand p e o p l e r e a c t t o w h a t w e s a y ' I n c o m p l e t e a n d e v e n u n g r a m m a theasampleofc e s -F tic lutteran featuresare illustratedin usuallypassunnoticed. F other hand.t o t l t ' ' i t ' p a ' t i c u l a ru m b e y'o u k n .We repeat.backtrack.I^" ::l :.a l w a y s l' t m a y k n o w 'w o r k i n gf r o m w t h e f u t u r e . .h o w d i d Y o us t a r t t h e n ? a . wantto. we have little time to pay is speech normallyspontaneous' going. dependingonhow interaction.4 WhYw r i t i n g i s difficult 1 1. o . ..wehavetocom p. w 'r ' w e ' ' ' E r f o l l o w e dw h e r em y f i n g e i st o o k m e ' .w e d e c i d e d n n r a n d 'e r m ' j u s t .O n eo i t h o s et h i n g st h a t skvI . ! .U p t o t h i s p o i n t .but at the moment I r. . i J . u t tn o o d l i n g pianol p i a n ow i t h t h i s ' ' ' l s o u n do f F F t F -+ I E L at of range devices our disposal ."*. . w normallY ork? b e t h a t T i g f ' ] c h a n g et n A l w a y s . ur" linkedtogether structure E on own' can the textwe produce be interpreted its 1.y o u do write at the witfr syntn'uritttt. open ! we features: haveto t ""p the chamelof communicati<ln of absence these t h r o u g h o u r o w n e f f o r t s a n d t o e n s u r e ' b o t h t h r o u g h o usequencecl' e n t e n r c h o i c e o fthai ! s and andby the way our senten.4.ex T :" . W e a l s o a p p e a r t o s p e a k w i t h o u t m u c h c o n s c i o u are of r t o r which s e f f o aboutmatters we and generally talk becau.initselfmakestheactofwritingdifficult. interactionand' is oral communication sustained participantshelp to keep it such as a lecture. t .nt ald so on.ognitiu. W e l l . is essentiallya solitary activity or the benefit of own. . e a l l y ' a a n dd o o d l i n g t t h e i . h e n t f e l m o r ei n t o .J Cognitive probierns A much of our i spend to We growup learnrng speakandin normalcircumstances ! t i m e d o i n g i t .Inwr iting. b o t h i n t h e m o t h e r t o n g u e a n d i n a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g. " p t f o r .. . alsohavea considerable to h e l p g e to u rmeaningacr oSS. Writing. e r m .

however. should assume the abilityto writein the Nor we that mothertongue canbe transferred the foreignlanguage.thereare importantdifferences.asforeignlanguage teachers. other lessons in (history. particularly the learnine in situation. of to and to avoid makingothers. or perhaps usedat all. to 1. generally between ages five and seven.partlybecause the natureof the taskandpartly of because.in fact. We should assume. subject course culturalvariations.o. and is Most children learnto writein theirmothertongueat school. simply do not enjoy writing. Thev may haveto learna new scriptbut writing itselfwill not be a new experience for them. not however. although mostcultures ability to write carries in the prestige.I -l_ T H EN A T U R E N D P U R P O SO F W R I T I N G A E E Lf !- t-H L- !-- interestor relevantto us socially professionally.) whichinvolvesomeform of relatedand purposeful written work. On they are requiredto makeregularuseof it. Most childrenwill of is of course havebeenexposed it to somedegree to throughbeingreadto aloud. is for Most childrenacquire this new skill fairly laboriously. attention now drawnto these. perhaps on by circumstances. etc.g.writingis a taskwhichis often imposed us.on the other hand is learnedthrougha process instructiorz: have to masterthe written form of we of the language to learncertainstructures and which are lessusedin speech. of school. We alsohaveto learnhow to organise ideasin sucha way that they our can be understood a readerwho is not presentand perhaps a readerwho by by is not known to us. adequate least their social at to needs. In the light of this. Finally. both in classes devotedto writing practiceand. geography. without drawingany distinction between writing in the mothertongueand writing in a foreignlanguage. ableto be makecertainassumptions. writing itself.5 Learning to write: mother tongue and foreign language situations compared So fa'rwe havelookedat writing in general. useit only occasionally-for or specialised purposes (e.Many children.in whichcase writing will not . to some although _5 t-l- t-L L: f L L 11 i: FL t_ r ff tr r l- l- U I L-J tr I. Clearly. Certaintypesof writing.it may alsocause a problemin termsof content what to say.tendto cause them difficulty.Beingat a lossfor ideasis a familiar experience mostof us whenwe are obligedto write. or Writing. They are alsolikely to havehad a fairly wide experience written of language throughreading their mothertongue.Most of our students alreadybe familiarwith the process will of writing. Very few childrensucceed becoming in reallyproficientat writing and manycease to usethis skill oncetheyleaveschool.we should. this time they havea well-developed the of By command the spoken of language. thattheyalready or skills possess necessary the organisational for writingeffectively. astheir education progresses.They may alsobe at an age in when they canlearnthroughreadingand perhaps written language has the cometo havesomepsychological valuefor them asa form of supportwhen learning something new. the other hand.muni.however. but their experience the writtenlanguage still very limited.and should not . not only hasa psychological This effect.particularly thosewhichinvolveprojectioninto adult-type roles.ution in not writing.fillingin forms). but whichare importantfor effective. a totallynew experience mostof them.figurevery prominently the foreignlanguage in programme. unless theyarevery young.l_ . that theyareproficient writingin their at mothertongue. haslittle valuefor them asa form of social out it interaction.

the learners.J _l : >-J IJ :-r -J :l -l t-J F-J F-r _l l-r -l I-. ease evidence with sometangible to (b) Written work serves providethe learners likely to be a true It in that they aremakingprogress the language. it' in we to acquire. through contact language = J -l : I-a : = l-l . provide them u. than relyingon a singie skills' integrate that effectively for are manyopportunities activities as serving a breakfrom activities.ith writing activities J : : : : : : : : : : : 1.feel more secure throughoral practice thor.To resolvethis problem it language going to will be necessary strike some sort of balancewhich preventsthem from beyond their linguistic attainmentin the foreign languageand yet will still which satisfythem on an intellectuallevel. orientedtowards of stages a course tn ttreearly. even if we delaythe introductionof writing for some disposal will have at their which the learners (see4. *riting will be very limited impossibleto introduce any meaningfulform of writing practice' At thesame time.l I : F. One very significantfactor which affectswriting in the foreign language time is classroom that. purposes: pedagoglcal a serves variety of. only because andrelaxed. often seems take place(that is. who do not learneasily For to if they are allowed readandwrite in the language. they feel more at if writing is likely to be an aid to retention.it increases amountof At and students teacherl). F-r :l I .6 Why teach writ in g ? how withoutlearning language a to it Clearly is possible learnto speak foreign eventhe majorityof them.un"g"fiom no interest at all to a firm belief in its value to them as learners. It is alsopossible was frustratingor writing in their own language write and of practising unrewarding. us of andpractice someform of writing enables to (a) The introduction especially Somelearners.J F. levelthere Evenat an elementary mediumalone. thesame work that canbe setout of class.1).r IJ -_J F. but practice.so limited that it might seemto make it io.. is not need' a it satisfiespsychological but indexof their attainment. perhaps to wriie in iiand for manyof our students. considerable we is The situation not sovery differentin the mothertongue. easilybecomeliterate in their own language ieopte who are highly literatein of previousexperience learningto that the students' nnoiher. andneeds.aS havealready capacity' for except thoseof uswho usewritingin someprofessional Seen.S W TEACHING RITING KILLS J l- J to global transfer. Because.being more mature than they were when they learned to of write in their mother tongue. writingis a skillwhichis both limitedin valueand difficult therefore. providefor differentliarning styles alone. suchstudents. onceagain throughmorethan one medium. alsothe onefor whichtheywill havethe leastuse. are conscious the limitations which the foreign of on imposes the expression their ideas.as with readingability. shouldbe very clearaboutour purpose teaching writing oral proficiency. varietyin classroom (d) Writing provides time for both a orat*ori (andis therefore quieterandmorerelaxed the time. evenafter writing will be the skill in whichthey arenot only leastproficient. the amountof language . to (c) Exposure the foreignlanguage to appears be more effective if especially skillsareproperlyintegrated.At for their attitudestowardslearningto write in a foreign may at we language. are rarely in a positionto make any assumptions all: these .

In addition. tr tr I- .In some cases. Specific needs canalsobe met because can writing practice to someextentbe individualised. writtentestmay evenbe a of appropriate: example.t d o e sn o t i m p l y t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s a v en o t a seenthe written [orm. the sametime. (or of a do you agreethat writing is worth teaching pedagogical on grounds alone? It wassaidin 1. At this level.we canidentifyand concentrate value.the relevance whichshould on formsof writing whichhavea proctical of to be easilyapparent the learners.the integrate more effectively it itselfwill alsoprovidecontexts learning through written language for .L l- T H EN A T U R E N D P U R P O SO FW R I T I N G A E tr !-- H !--- (e) Writingis oftenneeded formaland informal.andwritingactivities maybe related these. situation so complex Clearly. progress the intermediate to As the learners stages language of learning. usesome to form of writtentest. factors the pedagogical we canprovidefor writtenwork on a more extensive scaleand in particular with other skills(seeChapter8). this neednot imply that writing hasto be an unsatisfying evenrigidly controlled or aclivity(see 3. in addition.--_1 D i s c u ssi o n Whichof the differences between speech writing. But on this to answers. orientationwe are not in a positionto predictwhichstudents likely to have are needfor writing asone of the outcomes their course. the is that thereis no onesetof although applies the teaching otherskillstoo. Theseconsiderations strongly suggest that. for makingnotes whilelistening.aspart of we aural-oral an integrated skillsapproach language to learning. however.3).listedin the tableon and page3. do you think areespecially important whenteaching writing? From yourown experience teaching learning) foreignlanguage. while we shouldstill concentrate on skillsin the earlystages. of pedagogicalgrounds it rvould alone that writingis a skillworth seem in developing the foreignlanguage.1thatrvedo not know muchaboutindividual of methods a composing text.It canalsobe taughtin sucha way that it prepares the learners more realistic for formsof writing at a later stage. reading to At writingmay become goalin both hereandat the post-intermediatelevel. for Althoughin general oral abilityshould measured be throughoral tests. whichwe havenotedabovestill applybut. problemis how to do thisin sucha way Our see that the learners thepurpose writingand makemeasurable of progress throughthe performance realistic relevant of and tasks. course. l_ H tr l_ tr tr l_ Exercises *This term is usedhere and elsewhere refer to languagewhich is presentedand practisedorally to h ( f o r e x a m p l e .Although at this stage writing activitieswill be largelya reinforcement language of learnedorally* .testing.t h r o u g hd i a l o g u e s n d r e l a t e da c t i v i t i e s )I. a programmes whichdo not havea specific itself Althoughin language . asthe amountof time we haveat by such and our disposal the number students of thereare in the class. of a moststudents will haveto do someform of writtenexamination and this will increase their motivationto learnto write well. practice in we areoftenobliged circumstances. canmakegooduseof writing. H !-- tr H !-L' rF< H L- H t-H l-_ L !-- t-L!!l_ |.Note dorvn you do whenyou arewriting someof the things andcompare themwith a friend.

The transcript spoken ModernResearcher Show(i985). Reiead 1. of 2 Weproduce a sequence sentences . 4-19 andY Zamel(1981 pages (198a) S (1982).97 v _1 1 l< != _1 - v !F !< -1 F F 1 < F 1 F 1 F _1 I .in whichDavidFreeman from the DavidFreernan comes musicians' professional interviews F TeachingWriting.S T E A C H I NW R I T I N G K I L L S G !a .4.1 14 1 !_1 !4 1 I z 'All references to booksand articles listedin the Bibliographyon page153 are ll- v . 2) in thoughtpatterns differentways organise whichlanguages bn tne waysin in Patterns InterCulturalThought seeR B Kaplanin K Croft (1980): CulturalEducation. 33-6' pages (1972) valueof writingseeC Bratt Paulston On the pedagogical writingseeM Sharwoodviewof the valueof teaching For a more extreme I'7 6)pages -19.1 and make a list of someof the linking devices them as follows: Make a list of the thingsyou usewriting for' Arrange P _1 l= _1 PEIISONAL PftOFEs5IONAL i I l F -1 F -1 lz _1 I i _1 F your list with a friend.91 : Paralanguag . i(rashen in see features D Abercrombie J Laver and S Hutcheson bn paralinguistic e (1. Smith(1. ' linked togetherin certairtways' ts _1 4 used.2in of Write out a version theconversation stYle' normalwritten Prose References* from J BarzunandHF Gtaff' The The correcteddraft on page2 comes Englishon page4 of (1970).Smith (1975): On writingseeJ Brittonin A Davies and 1983). Compare in betweenthe two speakers 1.

But the two skills canandshould developed close be in In trueunderstanding a text.1 Understanding how the written language functions s-: g E L: r E f --^ L-1 tr f !. +f l. the longrun. r -JJ f . anycase.In extent.- LL- H I --. both cases awareness how for In an of functions a communication as language system only be taughtthrough can exposure the language throughactivities to adequate and which leadto an whichthe language of understanding the devices employs. I. Reading mayof coursebe a goalin its own right and in any case islikely to be a more important one thanwriting. appears be an essential it to pre-condition. the needto getthemto examine textat a muchdeeper level.This is appreciation an important steptorvards effective writing.depends an appreciation the devices on topic of whichthe writer has in his employed orderto convey meaning throughthe mediumof writing. of although itselfit will not produce in goodwriters. For this reason.1 Lg Learning usethe resources to of the writtenlanguage g r_H g g L: t-.- 2.:- One of our major tasks to familiarise learners is fhe with the devices that are needed effective for communication through mediumof writing. reading will play an extremely importantpart in the development writingabilitybecause. typeof activity This superficial may be a useful for kindsof oraipractice. it doesnot significantlv the expedient certain but help to how learners understand the rvriteris getting meaning his across.In time it is hoped that theyrvillbeginto do thismoreor iess intuitively.anytypeof text collaboration. the this is not unlikethe taskwe havein teaching appropriate of stress the use and intonation oralcommunication.t_ L tr LH L llL. this it To develop understandingis not enough focusattention those to on whichthe reader easily can retrieve bitsof information from the text at a levelof understanding. of from an informalletterto the formalexposition somehighlyfactual ranging of . of Two examples horvtextscanbe dealtwith for thispurpose qiven are on the nextpage. doesnot contribute We to efficiency. Of is exposure themoreimportant. the two. and in greatly reading therefore.

bofute lw lerft the' nni I lu4. + < l=- Y*-r.ho|"/? Cf 614nst I trL. to speaAirig l-rim to reasonsfor n. ratherthzrn on thephone).fiLe c/z/ / Sa.. lnot -/rt the srz.d fi-krccl . F !.arethe kindsof thingwe cando in orderto getthe learners is approach A communication? possible of look at thisletterasa piece personal here. = 10 =l- .rrte . yaLt-' -A*-rte vna/|-1/oLLm+s -E!!.s ta.LL.ritirtg him.1. u.W G T E A C H I N GR I T I N S K I L L S E _< 2./Vl ihe. _1 !.t /'h s&1-e.{<ty. h'o'ytc yot+'L/' w't't'd.pond. Nae != to What.{44g kiil+ vtLe rn'o'n'L. ccL{. a/l"h'.st o/ts. Sor-ry I rtra-sn"t ab'lc to .cr.then..-i\re.ud . o-re4u'"lg .qct ttr qatr !_1 P .T h e t e x t i s a p i e c eo f p e r s o n a l that he had his communication:the u'riter knou'S readerand u'e may assume directly (for example.t cL -'a. m4 'lfi4.b-e.ng .-1 l- !.e'7s'r'*"ToL I ""Leec/e'd 7n! rc.tr rLL4.erL. cottTd'n't TefrLs4.nril'h' &'U etre+tizng.arvlo{ hl nrwtted to i.t I q"t &'p /'t.i/n'q. F F Fr '^t-to. !_1 !1 !.an7. Fu x/fl.'/t.an.. 92 M ou.r'gr-ol s futmu ryoLL . th.{m h"5 tlr&4.r /O /987 2c.t'd Roa<l Lcvr{.rnt !_1 NWIO 3YE Octobc. outlined F !.'S tr Lco.ws4.4 her Ho/tu tt see ynt' srt-.r"o r+. F lEEEz AnoL'aften fhet I n a's b. rt"vr+r Tehrrvar"t'.h.e e4re4l.dg/ Foiy [asf to c-o-t'vt( a't't'd' -j u. tot nt e<A e&.rhrTLs %"gar/eo/'.*r/ q fu*.. ?t ry bol4.e</r:'Lo plwrte gsw'. I ^mi at't He h'a"rdlust firr'. !../ to Ca'nncl'a ..r Personal communicatiot-t s u T h e f i r s te x a m p l e ' e s h a l l e x a r n i nie a l e t t e r .

. point or tne activity it The is to demonstrate understanding writer'scommunicative that the purpos. I j u s tc o u l d n 'g e tt h r o u g h . Mike. we want them to appreciate thisis not speech that writtend. (c) How doesthe writerestablish maintaincontactwith hisreader? and Herewe cangetthe students look bothat the language general to in andat particularexpressions draw their attentionto the waysin which to he does this. why didn'tyou phone? N l c x : W e l l .could I? andI know you needeimy record. .. .horvever informalthe stylemay be and horvever muchit reflects certainfeatures of conversational English.. I'm terriblvsorryI couldn'tgetto your party . . --.I-l E H I{ +.could I? andI hopeyou. L.l l1 r_ r - a: ll. .event[ough it is hypothetical. thentheyhaveidintinio ttreoverall communicative purpose the letter.t to refuse. If they canrecognise Nick is apologising givinghis reasons excuses!) that and (or for not doingsomething.own..t able) and partly throughappealing his readerdirectly with: well. in vou see. in of it but othercontexts maybe harderto elucidate. couldn'tand ellipsis: sorry I wasn.In thiscase is fairlyobvious. we wantthe students decide to why Nick is writingto Mike. then? Nrcx: well. -1 r- E t l. Irrrp: Yeah . Irrre: Sowhathappened.I've got thisfriencl Teheran. I of: couldn't refuse.s? why doeshe mentionthat he had sucha boringevening himself? is throughquestions It of this kind that w: canbeginto get the students understand to why the writerwrotecertain things andexpressed themin a certain way.which reflects certainfeatures conversational of English(for example. part the (b) How doesthe writerachievehispurpose? Here we getthestudents consider to someof the waysin whichthe writer doesthis. just at the lastminute._L-1 L---1 L- r r = --i T . un essential of understanding text. while we wouldnot expect find a greatmanvsamples to withinthe context an informalletter of suchasthis(thethird sentence provicles bestexample.ll understand. I couldn. reinforce point. L= r_ r_!-: -. useof the contracted formssuchaswasn't.and. (d) what typicalfeaturesof written English are therein the text? Herewe will getthe students look at features to suchaslinkingdevices. the which. . .H a_ L E A B N I N G O U S ET H ER E S O U R C E S T H EW R I T T E N A N G U A G E T OF L (a) Whatis the writer'spurpose? That is.. t . how doeshe apologi.ri'ell.I d i d t r y .i.1 t=l-4 +=l_f---a Ll_ --J L= L:_ i: IJ L.we mightgetthemto To this transform letterinto a conversation. underline differences will the between two mediums the of communication. . .t: 7t_ I tr 1-. sentence structure inter-sentence and structure. In this letterit is donepartly throughthe informalstyle.(etc. in and the phonerangand. . conversation A between Nick andMike mighthavegone something this: like Nrcr: Look.se? How doeshe try to assure Mike that he intended cometo hispartyi Ho* doeshe assure to him that he tried to get in touchwith him? whar is the significance well. For example. the with cohesion throughthe useof the pronoun andthe structure the sentence he of itself). I rvas just aboutto leave fact .

unlikeNick' the writerdoesnot go to for into the reasons hisnot going the party' l- lf- 2. he The of on information rhesubject electricity.1.suchas this: I re g re t th a t I was unable to attend the par ty to w h i ch yo u so kindly invited me._f- !!I- !}ll-. accept my sincere aPologies. -< t. hispurpose.T h i sk i n do f e l e c t r i c i tiy o f t e n wh t. to mind.o r e x a m p l ew i l l n o t m a k ea l i g h t . the text in7. If whatsortof person to by therefore.f thathe hassome we However. it is not addressed a personknown to the writer' l s E l e c t r i c i tiy t h e m o s tu s e f u f o r m o f e n e r g yt h e r ei s . tryingto getthestudents identify basic some the we examine text.2 Non-personai communication For our secondexample. * F r o m T h e S a m p s o n o u ' G r e a tW o r l d E n c .i t i s c o n v e n i e n t ' .l t i s c a l l e d t a t i c l e c t r i c i t y ' ic s t a t i o n a r yl.. due to Flease ci rcu msta n ce s beyond-my contr ol. F F-i l-r I-.'i s m e l l A b o v ea l l . communicative facts.l I-r _l -l -l l-l I-t I-t l-r I-r -J r-r I-J t2 -t -l l-r . inform him of somebasic we intention. andthatthisis relevant thewayhe writes.we findthatthewriteris presenting then.the writeris not addressing sorto. readerin thisis. who knowslittle someone is in whomhe keeps mindthroughout. I-a i from the onein2.W G T E A C H I N GR I T I N S K I L L s N F !!- to Finally.We basic these aboutpresenting he to considerhow goes of way.1. n e f f e c t T h e e l e c t r i c i tiy a b a t t e r yf. a n d i t h a sn o b y T h e e l e c t r i c i tp r o d u c e d y n a t u r e l i g h t n i n g i s a d i f f e r e n t l r k i n do f e l e c t r i c i tfy o m t h a tw h i c hf l o w st h r o u g ha n e l e c t r i ci g h t a i b. in the We mightalsoaskthemto consider circumstanceswhichsucha notemighthavebeenwrittenandwhy.on the basis their in themto consider. mightthengetthe students the established writer's Having factsto the reader. -!_I- _=. a general couldbeginby inviting like do whatwe normally in a situation thiswhenwe wantto get experience. mustassume knownto him personally. least anyone noted. We mightbegin. i s c l e a n o u s e produce.r.1. reader is addressing. w b a b u l bg l o w u n t i lb u l ba n db a t t e r y r el i n k e d y w i r e st h r o u g h h i c h c called urrent s y t h e e i e c t r i c i t c a nf l o w . we might get the students comparethis letter with a formal note of apology.l t i s e a s yt o t i d cta nb et r a n s m i t t eo v e rl o n gd i s t a n c e st. presumably goal.v c l o p a e d i1 9 7 5 ) ' (a L I l-i I r-r I _J :J . t y o u rj e r s e yT h i sw i l l c h a r g e h e c o m bw i t h o combonihe sleeve f o a s t a t i ce l e c t r i c i t y .* Unlike to i.As we have verydifferent This kind of textis clearly not at in anyone particular. e l e c t r i c i t yH ew i r e ' c h a n n e l ' t h r o u g h i c hi t f l o w si s k n o w na s t h e i c i r c ut .t i s e a s yt o d e m o n s t r a t e l e c t r o s t a t a t t r a c t i o nR u ba .u'e shalllook at a pieceof expositorywriting.e c a u s et e x e r t s f o r c ew h i c h i s e s b u l b .n d i t w i l l n o w p i c ku p s m a l lp i e c e s f p a p e r .is to his and or nothingaboutthesubject. t o f l o w i n o r d e rt o h a v ea n y y T h e o t h e rk i n do f e l e c t r i c i tn e e d s .

new termsand how do we do it? How importantis it to define 1-. thevarious are . We canthen movefrom the general experience the students an of to of someusefulquestions askwould examination the text itself.Here.whileothers whichthe ivriterhasused. effectively to communicate devices to Finally. are These devices structure outlined above.At this stage to be: . a example. chose do wasto dealfirstwith one type of electricity the each with examples. the with the language it that enables writer through together with hisreader. of and third is the way but whathe deliberate: writermighthavegoneaboutit in a different to and then with another.How importantis it to sequence variouspieces information?(What the of pieces information jumbledup?) for if of happens. the realise organisational we in detailin2.however.L L l)-J- LEARNING USETHERESOURCES THEWRITTEN TO OF LANGUAGE U != LH U l- who is unfamiliar someinformation a person to across with the subiect.How hasthe writersequenced information? his one of (How hashe Hai he separated piece information from another? doneit?) (How do these or Hashe madeanycomparisons contrasts? helpthe reader the matter?) to understand subject (Horvhashe doneit?) any Hashe defined terms? U L!-- L.2.in Our examination the text along to that the structuring the second paragraphs quite particular. mightnotethe variety examined greater his to of waysin whichthe writer presents examples the reader. questions askthe students wouldbe: to Someuseful .2. that the text hasan identifiable rvhich is realised.we cangetthe students look at someof the linguistic to Some these of serve unifythe text.How doesit helpto compare andcontrasl certainitems? giving examples? What is the purposeof. Pura3: He provides concrete IJ L f l- f-" tl_ l_B E L L -a tr L Lr l_ . contrasting two kindsandsupporting We candraw attentionto the overallstructure the text throughsome of analysis. l-la u L Ltr L U these of linesshould helpthe students see. Purul: He uses series supporting to a to Paru2: He makes directappeal the reader carryout a simple experiment. a of statements. example. example: For sort of diagrammatic Paral: Introductorystatement aboutthe valueof electricity Supporting statements examples its value as of contrasted with the second Para2: First typeof electricity Definition term of Example typeof electricity Para3: Second Example Delinition terms of not to breakdown thisrvillhelpthe students appreciate only like Evena simple but structttre alsothat it is this structure.

language because relationships occurin thespoken also thel' of the of (theimmediacy the listener. Each capacity writing in somekind of institutional writingskillsand of bothin terms developing type oTwritinghasits ownvalue.riting. giventhe problems expressing through of examination howwe communicate explicit that some it wouldseem to it serves In part writingis an indispensable of theprogramme' particular.rtublirh sub-types: in situations those whichhasbeendrawn between distinction But the basic in he someone knowsandthose whichhe is whichthe writeris addressing . For constructions.rite practice' up backed by appropriate language to exposure thervritten adequate the mediumof writing' through oneself of But. of types sentence Thus. for the learners PersonallY.Ei -z -) Ei _/ >d -) t-r fr. possibility interaction). Thiskind of .you don'toftenhearit in speech is quitecommonin ilrit ryp.ith hisreader. contact and maintain devices. the levelof phonology but independent interrelated the Both thespoken. butthey may commonin writing)aremoretypicalof the rvrittenlanguage.2 of The resources the written language q -ltd ) - . the channel for wheretheyareessential the construction areless frequent thanin u.2 2. . thathe hasto establislt and that his to thathe ltas organise material v. we shallalsowantto analysis. y _4 + __-1 _1 F I. of our refine two types writingand Lateron. ongoing we In the"pro"grarn. . this and of Whenwe speak the u. clauses suchasnon-restrictive structure. I q 4 >l E. of immediate distance. clauses.n.sis textsalong pretend We cannot through This effectively.r Lnvt rllru _-E suchas Theotltar devices his alsonotehorvireunifies textthrough We should form ir kind of . example: parenthetic has speech its ownwavof handling .ior thispurpose. grammar linguistic on can draw the same ratherthan on lesources lexis. L. takethe example non-restrictive occurin speech.is a fundamental one.sis textsalong of stages at of difficulty different levels out carried at different activity. andthroughthe useof the pronoun .i 4l . shouldnot be the takento imply that we candraw anysharpdividingline between language in used writing. canonlybe achieved to the studenti learnto u.but the extentto whichthey drawon Some as speech the languaee the two channels: largelyto the natureof othersrelates at contact a writingasthe wayof making communication.Rather. logicalandgramn"tatical he doesthisthroughtheuseof certain kindsof writing a haveto examine greatmanydifferent We shallof course wouldbe an lines these of that andit is assumed the analt.certain quite is whichis rarelyheardin speech.we havetwo and usedin speech the language and at forms. in graphology. two different and its of resources thelanguage. of of the nature but.the earlystages shallhaveto usethe students'mother the they otherrvise maymiss finerpointsof the tongu. textsandsoon' narrative reports. electricitt' ttent of *'ith repetition the keylexical alternated itsef enable linesrvillb. of to However. -t+ 4 . ..1 E F- F) Fd . of clause writing.rittenlanguage its resources. . (for example:Thistypeof clause. to awarethatanypieceof writingis an attempt communicate makeihe students in a that something: thewriter has goalor purpose mind. kindsof letters" different .y these of thatanall.J >1 Pedagogical implications _v ts y P 1 F P Fz tz . logical to used express and devices those mostsentence-linking Similarly.and writtenforms mediums.i .embodied.

g .. Responsibility ensurin an adequate for g masterv spelling of should divided be between teacher the learner: is the teacher's the and it responsibility provide to guidance key areas. is clear. may haveto usea differentkind of modal we construction whichdoesnot depend intonation.andmostof usareoblieed consult to a dictionary from time to time.on a phonemic level.accounts thehighi:rfrequency certain his for of structures.- +-.since English spelling by no means is unsvstematic muchhelpcanbe givenin and phonemesin Englishand trventy-six lettersof the alphabet. speech: in John didit. a writingprogramme. however.while we do not wantto-encourase the learners be indifferent to towards spelling.I I_.together with the time the writer hasfor organising text. adopttoo in to prescriptive attitude an towards spelling. in (a) Spelling Nlastery the writing system of includes ability to spell. Similarly. punctuation and other devices which the written language makes of in orderto convey use patterns meaning.mistakes pronunciation of greatly afiect intelligibility. In the writtenform of the language. is of native and non-native speakers alike.but in writingwe canhelpour reader usingan alternative by construction suchas: It wasJohnwho did it. It is inappropriate.English spelling not standardised the eighteenth was until century anymore than. therefore. n and ng) while some are to s v m t r o l s l od o u b l cd u r v ( c . g U Lr-{ I-{.1 LEARNING USETHERESOURCES THEWRITTEN TO OF LANGUAGE L_-I . in throughrules. the because English relationship in the between soundandsymbolis a complex one. then.2.- Theseincludespelling. therefore. is clear.] .l_ -]tf- tr r_I . r e p r e s c n bs t h t h c r i l a n dl i l p h o n c m e s ) i c to *There are forty-four L---f .- r_r_-_ r_ l--t- of a textwhichhasto be understood withoutfurtherhelpfrom thewriter. L: u I-- f 2. Thusin speech utterance an suchas: Johnmay go.* spelling a problemfor manyusers the language. L_U D. Thistendsto be encouraged by \ the factthatwritingis opento inspection is usedin tests and and examinations. In the orthographics)'stt-m' lettc-rs combinecl form different symbols(e. shouldacknowledge we that mis-spelling rarelyinterferes with communication in fact. In general.In writing.thereis greater reliance the on structural elements aloneandthis. example: on For Thereis a possibility that Johnwill go.g. of Thissection is not intendedto providea spelling punctuation or guidebut ratherto assess the valueof thesefeatures part of the resources the written form of the as of language therefore and their relativeimportance a writing programme.-J tr u L_- r ------ L- tr L-i: H l-- u r-_L- 15 tr ..1 Graphological resources tr L_ r=.However. canbe saidthatour purpose selecting it in certain typesof sentence structure ratherthan othersund in makinggreateruseof linkingandotherdevices determined the needto makeihe meaning is by of the text asexplicitaspossible.

sentenceand paragraphboundariesare not marked.the conventions although known as punctuationare fairly well established. extendingeven into ltz Attitudes.The result -ts that can be done treat punctuationas something learnersare inclinedto 'extra' rather than as an essential part of the writing and as an mechanically -ts system. valueof punctuation needstobe demonstrated-!l. So-.e. of this is that the is areaswhere variationin usage tolerated.at the close)and because expects t-d of this symbol l with a questionmark.d whetherit placesa strainon the readerin any -) might ask them to consider *uy. J are areasof difficulty for most of us.tend to be fairly prescriptive.it is precisely at the start and a full stop. Thesewill not be relevantto all our >J the students.r We should also admit that there and this should be freely acknowledged.d ' task to consulta dictionarvfor guidancc this way.J The cornrnunicatit. redundantin most cases. we can besthelp the studentsif we In the area provide them with guidancethat is not too rigidly prescriptive.where recourse a dictionaryis the only solution' >-a of punctuation. we for or a . the spellingefficiency the and this againemphasises importanceof readinc amount of exposure) writing abilitY. These conventionstell him that E the line after the last sentence i to the writer intendsthis set of sentences be taken together. Lu -J -. or -!'J to boundaries be marked (with a capitalletter to questions he Someequivalentdevice.but at leastthev shouldbe awarethat a headingenables ) t6 = T = . includethe useof headings.On the other . with devices I the extentto which they are used' variationboth in how they are usedand . such as the use of hyphensin Fto compoundnouns. I 'too long'. for : >z example.-J Fl (c) Other graphologicalresources : which form part of the wide rangeof devices Other graphological resources footnotes.On the other hand.J l-r great there is suchaScommasand semi-colons. ) to harmln telling our students usethem sparingly.e sentence the because readerexpects For example. On the whole. hand. devices P to punctuationhasneverbeen standardised the sameextent as spelling. availableto us in the writing system = tablesof contentsand indexes. rvhileit is the learner's to bv This habit rvill be greatlyencouraged dran'ingattentiorl mistakes them (seeChapter10). FJ conventions that these *uy b. however. it an = would be wrong to deny the learners expedientsuchas underlining sincethis is the equivalent emphasis. marked to level. rather thancorrectirlg is and irnproventent likely to relateto reading(i. in developing (b\ Purtctuatiot"t !z _-1 >. normally by findingthe openingsentence -' I left blank. punctuation devicesadmittedly call for a cautioususe (for >-r I and here there is no marks and dashes) the useof exclamation example.and at the Sametime encouragethem to considerthe effect on the reader if. eventhough the presence signalled be cannotbe igncired.at a higher FJ the rest of indentedand for him.then. the readerexpects have paragraphs Similarly.) in of italicisation Print.) insteadof criticising sentence a paragraph being >. Likewise.J ---1 j1 _1 _:4 v lr __1 _-1 governingthe use of the visual Except in a few areas.W G T E A C H I N GR I T I N S K I L L S E -. therefore. phrasisthat call for special words or .

we may. while.2. the a between Throughthe useof however writer hassignalled difference the the part of the librarywhichcontains booksthat canbe borrowed(and wheresomebooksarestored section. This section sucha way that they fulfil the writer'scommunicative is of intendedto providea brief survey theseresources. It is throughdevices is his to organise ideasand to help his readerfollow him from one sentence to another.2 Rhetorical resources which are neededin writing in order This term is usedto refer to all the devices producea text in whichthe sentences organised into a coherent to are whole. lastof all. r 1- . In additionthereis a reference section over 6.second(ly). and areon the shelves) the reference separately. whatis more. example. In addition. . . (to the above): For example continue sequence volumes. for enumeration (in etc.2.l. to suchas/urthermore.2how important This helpsthe readerto follow ideasso that the text hasa clearstructure.). . comparison. difficblt the writer'sthought.). but the co-ordinaror or by usinghowever. togetherwith examples. LJ t-l__ L. finally. more detailed A list. . and to shelves are only available the publicon request. The appropriate of one are tellsthe readerthat two sentences intendedto be taken of thesedevices For together. for grammatical suchasthose. ( a ) Logical devices l_ r--< H t-: H Lr--J which indicatemeaningrelationships are Logicaldevices wordsor phrases or These include thoseof addition. between withinsentences. L: L. it would be extremely without the appropriate of devices use the to organise contenteffectively (first(ly).2).L ..-4tt' l-- L E A R N I N GO U S ET H ER E S O U R C E SFT H EW R I T T E N A N G U A G E T O L tr !--H !--- writer to givehis readersomeadvance noticeof what to expect. are srammaticalandlexical. etc.: I-: t-. for example.000 of however. . .000 of loan. these devices in presenting are in We haveseen 2.while a him to extracta supplementary pieceof informationfrom footnoteenables the text andstillmakeit accessible the reader. LJ tr l: L. use addition. use in besides. suchasthesethat the.writer able looked atin2. this through of Similarlywith the relationship contrast: may be signalled yet.) and for summarising short. to Lt--H H H ILr--_-a 2. certain 17 !. result. addition(to .etc.in purpose.on theotherhand.exemplification so on (someof thesewe havealready and contrast. devices ( b ) Grammatical by of for Equallyimportant the cohesion a text arethe linksestablished whichsignal devices. .etc.000 section over 6. example: bookswhichcanbe takenout on The publiclibraryhas21. t-.on thewhole.J tr L. in thefirst place. are but other devices available u's.thereis a reference volumes. the co-ordinator To express and.In certaintypesof text. not kept on the are Many of the booksin this section. is Rhetoricaldevices lookedat hereunderthree headingslogical. givenin the Appendix. L. moreover.

. the I )-z v lJ -1 -1 )1 -1 -1 I. i8 Iu -1 I-.1. l-. 1970 Johnworkedin the librarvbetween library.It is not a device. by appreciated non-nativeusersof the language.suchas a demonstrativeadjectiveor pronoun or an by means article. combmentioned theprevious linkedthrougha are Finally.however.G (or bv betrveen sentences meansof.we shouldnotethat sentences frequently a by word or phrase order:for example.J I ]-t I F -1 La v 1 -1 )-l 1 and 1975. . Go to the relerence need. indfriE6ilon. F o r example: -E= -F tz . . to the Here the use of. relationships s T h e r e a r e s e v e r a il n s t a n c eo f t h i st y p e o f l i n k i n gi n t h e t e x t i n 2 . . P v F v > . of thebooks In thetextin 2. together may also be effected Back referencebinding two sentences of. Go to the reference youwill findthe booksyou need.Many In addition. there is a reference F -> v v .l\J ll ..in (a) abovewe had: sectionof over 6.For example. with the whole of the preceding Tftls links the secondsentence for Compare. can be transmittedover lone distances through the use of is Here the link betweenthe sentences established the pronominal form it. -1 one.F is whereyou will find the booksyou I Ld I I lz the sentence: Here the link throughthists only with part of the preceding section reference use the an of The text in 2.-J . Rub with staticelectricity. . I . The examinationof almost any text will reveal that together and giving this is an extremely common way of binding sentences whosevalue is immediately a text cohesion. Elefiricitf is the mostusefulform of energv (etc.2alsoprovides example the anaphoric of. F . >z . . 2 .a deictic.2wehad: .7.). 'willcharse comb the with staticelectricitv. I-. placing word or phrase of change in in the front position the sentence: library. thereis.back referettce anaphora). . signals the readerthat the writer is referringto the in sentence.000volumes. example: sectlon.however.

----- (c) Lexicaldevices Almostanytextdisplays greatdealof cohesion a lexical a on level.whereas. oral work will havefocused For mainiyon a masteryof sentence structure. of The logical devices mayalsopresent problems a conceptual on level. the mostpart. so evenif the learnersare familiar with someof thesedevic"s. Another commondeviceis the useof a synonymous word or phrase.3. alsothe different but shades meanins of between one item andanother. This is L- r L. and in t_-_ H g L< L< tr l-Lr- 2. At the same time.in the text in2.To someextentthismightbe felt to be inevitable.however.for example. The useof adverbial wordsand phiases the in front positionin the sentence (referred on page1g)will probablyrequire to specialteaching. Key itemsare alsorepeated differentforms: in thus.2 we havenot only electricity alsoelectricand but electrostatic.Their at in introduction into thewritingprogramme mustbe gradual andsystematic.- The pedagogical problems arefacedwith in this areaare clearly we considerable. since theyarenot allfreelyinterchangeable. Analysisof textscancontribute significantly the learners' to understanding of thesedevices. anycase. doesnot it seemfeasible evendesirable try to dealwith thesedifferentkindsof or to linkingdevices separately.r. probrem rookedat asainin 3. it.-There is obviously considerable danger. particular. thetabletherewasa book misht be the on appropriate form in a writtensequence sentences.it is oftena problemto get the learners use:There In to wasa book on thetable. natureof the mediumcalls In as the for a differentkind of organisation.both an extensive understandihg oftheseresources considerable and practice usingthem in appropriate in formsof written expression. that. how the useof the pronominalforms and other substitution devices contribute the cohesion a text (in theirmothertongue to of the subject pronominal formssuchashe. the firstexample (a) abovewe havebooksin the in in first sentence volumes the second. For instance.they will still have to learnhow to usethemin writing. the form of a list). whichin itselfis a formidablelearningtask.occursimultaneously a text andsince in sentenies intended be \ to takentogether commonly display morethanone linkingfeature.L )-4 I: LEARNING USETHERESOURCES THEWRITTEN TO OF LANGUAGE 1l_ l_ l_ l_ l.The learners haveto understand only the semantic not differences between one typeof device andanother.for example.z although is alsoreplaced ir to give it by grammatical cohesion._ L_ -L: L_ L' E f L-l L_ l_ r 4 L L kt Ha L1 l_ L l-. therefore.I.3 Pedagogical implications t--t-. oralwork. since the devices logical.2.she. muchmore rigorousthan in speech. we haveseen.The writingprogramme requires.theymay evenbe optional elements sentence in structure).. nevertheless but thisis anothersignificant way in whichsentences linked together. sinceon the wholethis will havebeendiscourage dfoi orat production. might note that manystudents simply In we are noT aware. r---! r9 L tr . therefore.with little or no attentionbeingpaid to the way in whichsentences linked or are sequenced. exposing stirdents too many in the to of these devices onetime (for example. often repeated: are erectriii| occurs ten timesin the textinz. are Key words. a[ grammatical and lexical.

fo seri ousdi scrc-mrt tot@fe IIows.your experience teaching(or learning)a foreign language.' Fd .1 D is c us s i o n a to ) Wtry is it important to trv to get students understand writer's 1 Do you agreethat readingis an importantfitctor in leachingrvriting? ? communicative PurPose to Do you agreethat it is necessar)I pay atteutionto spellingand punctuation? do you of i.J Pearce (1975) E Abbott and see rules.< .g. and see 3 On punctuation.a considerable As you are doubtless to the in havejoined together an effortto pelsuade university ban they areentirelyright in their aim' I smokingin the classrooms. of by has backreference beenindicated means a circle In the firstparagraph. Otherlinkingdevices waY. from think that the rhetoricaldevices reading)or need to be taughts1'stematicalll'r Exercises 2 RepeatExercise on page 8. and G Thornton(1972) in 2 Ontp"lling.I would hopethat it is possible achieve by an appeal for andto concern othersratherthanby regulation' reason and in by Smokingis prohibited City by-laws theatres in hallsused wheretheremay be a fire filmsaswell aslaboratories for showing it Elsewhere. n 2 ^F F y H = ) 2 2 / 2 (1 e7e). R Quirk (1912) For moreextensive ( and C o n n e cri oa n dM A K Halliday R Hasan 1916) .ro*. R A Close SpoienondWritt..L1 how Mike.lFurtFe medicaI authorit i es express onljlof those on of aboutthe effect smoking the healthlnot theirconcern inhalethe contribution who who smokelU[falsolthose mustinvoluntarily to of the smokers the atmosPhere.F References of comprehension a text. seeJ Pealce P Doughty.< 2 v y E . on is and grammatical lexical based the description logical.For spelling (1975).o. in you to maintain'No Smoking' the asking I am therefore roomswhereyou teach.2. Sentence see of treatments cohesion. A Tadrosin The divisioninto (1980) andV Horn (1972).W G T E A C H I N GR I T I N S K I L L S E EEFz F F.-' F. hazard.) FJ -l FJ -t ) Lr -l _1 F-r -l = . Chapter betweenNick and of (d) you havethe beginning a conversation Ln2. D L Bouchardand L J Spaventa givenby Tadros.Mark the andan u.believe to this to However. is up to your own goodsense. listed in2. seeA Daviesand of 1 On the importance teaching and Reading in H G Widdowson J P B Allen andS Pit Corder(1974) Writing.2 2 ^EF 2 2 ) E. Readthe followingtext carefullY: of is pe-rople. which you first attempted after reading 1. Suggest it mightcontinue. R Quirk et al (1972) R A Close see of 4 On ihe rhetoricalresources the writtenlanguage. 20 v 2 ) v ..z.a source for Srfoking$hiclmay be a pleasure some S mo ki n g .classrooms seminar is for your interest their healthandwell-being very importantto a large numberof our students.2 could be picked up (e. numberof our students aware. text in the same F '-' _z F EF F tr -t .This proof of and auditoria. restof the havebeenboxed.

AXD T} Tr{.- L- u r L_ u r L_ I-< principles General for teaching writing ----I--{ L trg* f*"q. lL-- r g L- I r r u r u r 1['C. gt6HT.1 Approachesto teaching writing Attemptsto teachrvriting since time whenstudents the weremerelygivena topicof somekind and asked produce 'composition' to a withoutfurtherhelp .. atl I Focuson accuracy 21 L-rd u II . XINE I{UNOREDNI}IEIY.atd :j uvt Io &*uP' I.4!.OuJ0R05 60 | @ 1986 Unrled Feature Syndrcate..tnc L . 5lx. OI(8. Somekey approaches examined are below.r --I \ 3.'subject rigorous'correction') not unnaturally and cometo be regarded a major as . FNE.1. 5EVEH..-< r l__ L_ tr q r u l_4 l-=. JHRE€.. '{i.0.=L . Mistakes showup in rvritten rvork(especiallv since to thisis usualli.t 3 &L'f$art^*i g +1arf4"1. l .L . FOdR.{l tr u u tr U r ---.haveusually focused some particular on problematical aspect thervriting of situation.

s h e a p p r o a c h e d h es m i l e d 7 ) a n d a i d ' s. worrying asquicklyaspossible feel thiswaystudents downon paper. F .h a i r e d .developing (withor withoutcues) paragraphs from topicsentences * H 22 E .ln ideas thingis to getone's important 'exercises' somekind.3 Focuson text E unit of as T-his approach of stresses importance the paragraph the basic the how to students teach writtenexpression is therefore mainlyconcernedto and F constructandorganiSeparagraphs.u'anted.Mostof uswriteless E a b o u tso me th i n s'Afluenc1' . . . a --' u J Ld -- ^v .canbe a useful a antidote. thev of doing writirtg. of was approach verymucha product the audioThiscontrolled-to-free andformal learning on period.l r e e l e d o e sw i t h a n u m b r e l l ai . e l l . S t u d e n t s r e t a u g h th o w t o u ' r i t ea n d c o m b i n ev a r i o u ss e n t c n c e gil'e them thc like typesand manipulationexercises the one belorvarc usedtc-r sentences.Many students we attention certain to i G theyfeelinhibited reason and because theydo not u'riteenough for the same to well if we areobligett write rvhen theirpick up a pen.iE !z -z Ld _1 Id I t b m t p r o b l e m . A a himoutside ' H e l l o H o wa r ey o u ? ' .per hapschannelledintos om ethi ngl i P keeping diary.y o u n g . n ( 5 ) i n h i g h .although werecarefully schemes Many such correctness. of experience u'riting connected f w ( ' A ( 1 )m a n ( 2 ) w a l k e d3 )d o w nt h e s t r e e tA ( 4 )g i r l ( 5 ) w a s a i t i n g o r ( s ( 6 )s h o p .u'ithout The aboutmakingmistakes.it drau's haveu. suih us' . a p i n kh a t sh .w i t h s u n g l a s s e s ( 3 ) r a p i d l yh u r r i e d l y m p a t i e n t l y i.2 on Focus fluency and to encollrages stlldents writeasmuchaspossible this In contrast. gooddealof guidance for 6pportunities self-expression. (6) chemist's.d r e s s e d w h ( 2 ) w i t h a b e a r d i. approach .I t w a s a s s u m e dh a t s t u d e n t s a d em i s t a k e s e c a u s eh c y w e r e herve approachcs allowedto rvriterl'hatr/ro. andtheycannot some but allowed and with larrguage content.singly P combination. ( 7 ) p l e a s a n t l y ._2 lr tq are and is of the Gradually amount control reduced the students asked (in theydo not haveto think above choice the example meaningful exercise givena theyma1'be At makemistakes).1).ItuSeSavarietyoftechniques.appr oach. P -.xperience fr AlthoughthisapproachdoesnotSolVeSon}eoftheprrrblemswhich Y (see thevcometo writein a foreignlanguage 4.n a b l a c k a t .writingparallel paragraphs.a r k . on ideas howto guide manyuseful they longerfashionable.1.formingparagraphs from jumbledsentences.1. P e.y F 3. >a ---. a stilllaterstage. ( 1 ) t a l l .with its emphisis step-by-step lingual no out thought and. merely not that theyareactually writingis an enjoyable to write what theywant writeandconsequently ts _ .t t r a c t i v e l yn a f r i e n d l ym a n n e r i. g r o c e r ' sb i c Y c l e .and accuracy-oriented of the thereforestressed importance control in order to eliminatethem from a w r i t t e n w o r k .s k i n n e d d . produced fr !' --/ '= ts -.hen students write badl'v' points needto keepin mind.G T E A C H I NW R I T I N S K I L L S G .J . ( 4 ) p r e t t y f a i r . writing. 3.

Both listening reading and materialhave related activities (see6. In spiteof these.advances. with its emphasis task-oriented on activities that involve.wherepossible. exchange informationand the free useof the of language. as No lessinteresting significant someof the 'sideeffects' the and are of communicative approach.this approach doesnot solvespecific problems whichstudents havewhenhandling rvrittenlanguage. many of whichleadto incidental writingof a naturalkind. the . In however. aswe haveseen..1). on page24 show. the of althoughin practiceboth teachers and textbookwritersdealwith the classroom situationpragmatically and thereforeretaina gooddealof controlled practice. LH f !- 3.g. general. does the it motivatethem to write and shows how writins is a form of communication.Many of these activities involvean element 'fun'. suchasusingthe notesto write a report. without undueconcern mistakes. etc.3.2 The state of the art u L' E !-lL. .. practice on in most teachers and textbookwritershavedrawnon morethan one and havecombinedand modifiedthem to suit their purpose.Learners encouraged interact are to andthe activities required thisoften for involve writing(e. .*u*iI. they canwrite to one anotherin the classroom usewriting in roleplaysituations. or Although. for Receptive skillsare alsogiven and students exposed a wide rangeof spokenand more prominence are to written language. gooddealof recommended A writing practicedirectly reflects main concerns this approach. like fluency writing. Althoughsomewriting schemes programmes and havetendedto rely largelyor exclusively one or other of theseapproaches.we normallyhavea reason writing and we for write to or for somebodyThesearefactors . expression. attentionis paid to motivationand thereis usually someroom for selfiven at the lowerlevels. rvriting neglected skillsarestillrelatively in manycourses. example: For . .The factual nature muchreading of and listening material also is useful related for writingactivities.7. Yet it is easyto devise teaching and practising situations which allow to for students write purposefully: example.Students moreopportunities read(andalsoto readmoreinteresting get to writtentexts)andthiskind of exposure the written andnaturally to language beneficialto is writing. quizzes.4 Focuson purpose IL: l-- In real life.{ L .Students encouraged work together pairsandgroups are to in andto share writingtasks. LEr U =- l-l =a' l_ r l_ trL l-. This in turn canleadon to furtherwriting. Objectives rarelyspeltout asclearly theyarefor oral are as LJ ll-!-' L L t-< 3.L k-i l- P GENEBAL RINCIPLES R EACHING RITING FO T W ll--- identifies triesto overcome Onceagainthis approach and one of the central problems writing: gettingstudents express in to themselves effectively a level at the beyond sentence. which haveoften beenneglected in writing. suchasnote-taking.questionnaires. however. l|_r 1-J-. sothatstudents of oftenenjoywriting(without perhaps realising it). In recentyearsclassroom methodology beenheavilyinfluenced the has by communicative approach. Thisremoves feeling isolation the whichbothers of many learners.).

Cal^ *4. t*'"o TtnTot*'r* .s w i t h o r a l g r o u p so f s t u d e n t s .--f.i."'' uu1 !?t.' .J I I-a t-/ l-.o. a \ \ .l{t.. La o qoodt.: *ffiry* -. a'*k 2 \\'hat is Jorrrrrloit.I t i s l i k e l l ' . r i r t e n b i l i t y .111p.Sunc. i| Ir >z .**.*^ dll're v' * t-. J II ]1 I-. lt'llt. ' .. 't'^o ''t JoJo"* ^ o @J. r n . v i l l a l u ' a v s e n e c e s s l l r v .. 5WL " t 'i""""" : .. f i c i c n t i J w r i t i n g . Y . wc q' " - wr'l stus A = \\'rite votrr o*'n holrdal' postcard )a i *t ..T h i s .^ triq h u& stt/1. F </ E. w h e n t r y i n gt o m e e tt h e i n d i v i c i u an e e d s f c e r t a i n I ts -lJ j v F F y -1 )1 irt lhis lt. ' . 5* JP's*.r- --1 I-a j L .: Ms E Qtshtm 27 ftu*lMd Ren Hoilou UF Esso* CMtq bgbferm l- E1 l- Fr {. u t ' r l h l q u e s l i o n s : I \\'hlt is Steve doing'? at F = z Hfu M*!.ifi.l. o l w o r k .s ..r.t h e r e f o r e t h a t n t a n yt e a c h e r s r v i r l e e dt o l o o k t f w a v so f s u p p l e m e n t i n t h ei r c o u r s c b o o k is t h c t ' \ \ ' a n t h ei r s t u d e n t so b c c o t ' n e g a b r p r ...t'ouattl ^ !)i.tg'/ 3 \\'hrrt tlo tht'r' do t'r't'rv dar"l 4 W h a t i . r l l r l.tpJs.r: lrt: \\ lto js jt Iirr. S r r n S e b r r s t i a nI i k e ? r*ry ?ffitnnuN ''*Xj.j. .5P4t1^ lnnn Nitha lovet't1 TwrALl "a'{or}onh bpp/'h Y!:. l r-/ L (or H'i: .' . dd .d I tlf f w o r k a n d t h e r ei s a n o v e r a l ll a c ko f g u i d a n c eo r t h e s v s t e m a t i c l e v e l o p n l e n t for l . i n a n v c a s e .r F I Read and write P 24th rltLl J R e a d S t e v e ' sc a r d t o h i s m o t h e r .W G T E A C H I N GR I T I N S K I L L S _v r'r. . : IIr ^lA LA ]r F- ..

in relation sentence etc. there justification attemptirlg separate is no apparent for to features the written of whichgo naturally together. it canbe prior activity such or of situation. On a linguistic the and guidance. With the text asour basicformat for practice. can we grammatical all devices logical. Ii- L: L: tr L- H 1t--_ l-__ l-DJ tr l_ g l_ E lE' with whichthe students facedin learning are In viewof the manydifficulties principle guidingthemin the how to write a foreignlanguage.ratherthansomeotherunit suchas earlystages) our basic we or the sentence eventhe paragraph.L ---rt 1= GENERAPRINCIPLES R EACHINWRITING L FO T G t-- r r. throughwritingbecause they are mostcommonlyusedin writing bestpractised (see4.whichthe learners not at to overwhelm themwith too manydifficulties anyonetime (see 2.2. whichmay be necessary thisdoesnot rule out somesortof sentence of types compound of andcomplex for the masterv certain sentence structure. teachwithinits framervork the rhetorical While we mustbe careful needto master. of In stretches discourse. rvhich w . by of one way of helping students. seean advertisement a job. aspartof a natural for can A lvritingactil'ity. tryingto eliminate mistakes).particularly relation the various theyhavewhen w r i t i n g( s e e1.we should we in to problems givethem.As in reallife. and lexical.vriting a change materials 25 l_ l-_ tr . therefore providing is practice.then. and We involves . orderto find our contexts rvritten opportunities integrating effectively for work. to meaningful the students thereby vvithin whichtheycanpractise.Whileit is convenient. U ---l tr l_i l-J Ir .4). evenin the early stages.andsometimes a various of controlling we canlightlydismiss. consider morecarefully what kind of guidance should Rather. n .3 The roleof g u i d a nce H l_ l_ !--- u l_. w w h i c hi n v o l v e s r i t i r t gA l t h o u g hp e r h a p s . example. as to ratherthanasa rvorthwhile learning it is treated a compendium the lesson activity itself. ct for The text provides settirtg sentence combination.is onewavof helping learners: makingwritingtasks the by practice a specific purpose by to instead asking morerealistic. paragraph construction. relating of them In for to writesimplyfor the sakeof rvriting. usfngthetextasour basic While formotfor practice. to completion. canmakewritingactivities muchmore for and increase theirmotivation writewell. 4 ) . talk aboutit andperhaps We phoneup about example.3).speuking lisrening. This. language and for By using texts(letters reports.6(d)). level. example. we haveacknowledged 1. thisway they canseenot only why they are lo-nger to ryritingbut alsolvrite in a manner appropriate thecommttnicative of the goal text. example evendialogues the in practice as format.since aim is to develop our their abilityto writea text. e c a n n o c o m p l e t e liy t e g r a t e t (see rvithcrut raclical rvithotheractivities in clesign r.we do not needto buildinto the writingprogramme step-by-step a whichwill take the learners easystages in from sentence practice approach to the productionof a text. doesnot meanthat it cannot sequence learning of activities. thendecide applyfor the job to it. for We for the consequence a certain whichinvolves rentlirtg. in (see as rvorkashomework andwhilewritingmay not come to be ableto setrvritten this takeits place very highon the listof priorities. we shallalsoneedto explore it activities involvinq only reading alsospeaking not and with otherclassroom but Writingtendsto getrelegated the levelof exercises to partlvbecause listening. derivein a naturalrvay from some asil conversation something read. is not one has (for in someextentbeenmisapplied example. fundamental of waystowards masterv writingskills. evenif the principle to what theywrite.--r--- 3.

imply tight control over what the learnerswrite. seems for writing freely. properly used (seeChapter 7) of frameworkfor writing activities different kinds providesa more open-ended writing activitiesthan is at different levels.suchas diagramsand tables.whereasin speech.texts (read are effectivefor developing note-taking:they nct only lead or heard) provide the right sort of contextfor on to meaningfulwriting tasksbut alsoprovide a model for the kind of writing expected. expression. corlect and rewrite. then.indeedshouldnot .the learners to oral work.Variety is important.as we do for oral work. our approach organisational are valuablefor developing rvhichare usingthoseforms of guidance shouldbe as eclecticas possible.3). often assumed. This is essential the are constantlyaskedto perform get sakeof interest:the learners bored if they factor is that certaintechniques type of task. appropriate to different kinds of writing at different levelsof attainment.as they do with to write: on the contrary. will also ensurethat thev become learnersrather lhan leaners.is that guidanceneed not emphasis.on the other hand. But sinceno approachto teaching which will take them smoothlyfrom writing under writing hasyet been devised to reasonable provide someopportunities it control to free expression. One thing that needsspecial .in writing too. But anothersignificant the same particularwritin-e skiils.but it is lesssuitedfor elementary Particularkinds of visualmaterial. are inclinedto be more tolerant. If .ell.In this \\'aV can hope to overcomeSoffle the writing tasks. stressthat we for goalsand needs. skills. : : : : : : : : I El :l : : : : t-a I-/ -l 2 tr -J J ' Ei : I : ts F l-/ 2 _/ ' F l-r z E-r I-r 4 ts t-/ f-.b1'extending contexts to work.at the varioustechniques each appropriate to specific need a v.Visual material.we acceptthat errorsin speech not only inevitablebut are also a then we shouldacceptthat they will occur.For example. is that free expression the solution to learning This is far from suggesting have needof guidance. This will not it are only enableus to seewhetherthe students making any real progress.but this is a situationwhich we must accept. for are example. Perhapsit is largely out attitudetowards theseerrors that is wrong: because they occur in writing. natural part of learninga language. through simplerole-playactivities. we feel that they must be corrected.Clearly. provide a meaningfulsettingfor of we as writing activities u. there is much \\1e u'hichwe have set up for oral the for activities: example. errorswill occur. As in speech. They must alsobe encouraged look criticallyat what they write and taught to draft.holerangeof techniques.as in oral work. they will when we provide opportunitiesfor free never learn this skill. 26 l-r I-r . this stagewe shallonly we and procedures can use. even in the early stages. haveu'ith role projectionfor rvhichthe learners difficulties in So far we have looked at guidance terms of u'hat kind of framework linguisticand contextual \ /e can provide in order to make writing tasks more purposefulrather than in termsof the actualsupportwe can give the in students order to ensurethat thev completetheir taskswith reasonable with an explorationof Sincethe major part of this book is concerned success. we it perhapsbecause is more transient. however. and to some extent shouldbe allowedto occur.W T E A C H I N G R I T I N GS K I L L 5 J J can do to relateit more effectivelyto other classrclom 8. Unlessthe learnersare giveri opportunitiesto write what theywant to write.

Sincethe spoken and written formsof the language not the sameand sincewriting is a are different way of communicating from speech.so within the frameworkof a text whichhasa definitecommunicative that the learners thepurpose what they are writing. form acceptable (e) Teachthelearners how to writedifferentkinds of texts. Most writing practice shouldfrom the startaim to teachthosedevices the of (as written language identifiedin2. at leastin any significant form. theextentthat these to to canbe identified a in writingprogramme. The learners see of must alsobe givenopportunities practise to organising their ideasto paragraphs.2. whetheror not it is addressed a to reader. therefore.canwrite reasonably well in their mothertongueand havealso acquiredsomeproficiency the spokenlanguage. letters. should. toJhe writtenform of the language itselfis not sufficient.4 The needsof the learners In this section someof the mainissues Chapters are reviewed.2) which are needed write various to typesof text. especially the learners if are mature. Exposure by The learners alsohaveto be madeawareof how we communicate throughthe written mediumand how thisdiffersfrom speech.it follows that writing skills requirespecialteaching too.both in But . of We work on the principlethat oral ability requires firm foundationin a listening and that the lattermustbe on a broaderbasis than speaking.they need In to be shownthat anypieceof writing.throughappropriate listeningand speaking techniques throughappropriate and formsof practice. example. the learners If haveonly seen dialogues their textbooks in and narrativeprosein their readers.wherever be goal.it is not enough try to teachthem to 'neutral' general purpose a kind of As form of writtenexpression. particular. 1-3 of They are now presented the form of guidelines a writing programme. The practice thesedevices of possible. would not be relevant theirneeds.hasa communicative specific purpose. in for (a) Teachthe learners how to write.how the resources the written language usedto fulfil this of are purpose.haveto be taught. oral skills. they cannotbe expected produce to other varieties the written language of appropriate. H !-- 1-- H l-f l-- f L!-L r---d Ll_ g E l-t_ r V u LtI 27 r^ l-: .or for to reports. (b) Provideadequate and relevant experience the writtenlanguage. Similarly. (d) Teachthe learners how to writetexts. Many of them. involves the ability to organise into sentences a coherent wholeor text. The ability to write is all too often assumed. in tr H H L f- H f- t-.ad: PRINCIPLES TEACHING GENERAL FOR WRITING H I- !--- 3. They needto understand. havealready seenthat writing. ' ''' W.L t: >.by establishing maintaining and contactwith the readerin order to getone's'message' across. in any case. thesame At time.writing hasto be preceded and accompanied wide exposure by to appropriate modelsof writtenlanguage. (c) Showthe learners how thewrittenlanguage of functions as a system communication. cannotbe expected masterall the differentvarieties the The learners to of written form of the language.

Thisaspect furtherdeveloped 4.formalor informal.< - ts -1 .in termsof developing We framework. suchasstories. (f) Make writing tasks they do not because lackrealityfor the learners All too oftenwritingtasks They are thattheyarewritingto or for somebody.it canbe interpreted the writingprogramme a varietyof Fz ts -. on depending *'hat theyarewritingaboutand siyle. (g) Integrate 'Cinderella' the four skills(at leastat the lower of Writing tendsto be the unit andused to andis oftenrelegated the endof the teaching levels) wantto write. should see so onto or from the useof otherskills. expository for the reportmightprovide setting some and realistic relevant. thatthe learners writingasa real activity.provided writing. mustalsorecognise is.1 1 F.This does creative of noi rule out the possibility otherkindsof writing (for example. to Thisis unlikely makethe learners mainlyfor homework. in is in suggested 3. givethemthe feeling who reacts of for as donesolely a form of exercise the benefit the teacher. activity(however letterwriting is For example. to formatsare appropriate certainlevels. narrative. at of although course a fairly low level). it Likewise. simplybeing for writingtasks: example. mustalso (d)) is onlypartof (see formatfor practice basic attemptto identifythoseformsof writingwhicharemostlikely to be of types personal suchasvarious needs.z v y J/ z 28 . and (h) Usea varietyof techniques practice formatstypeof getboredwith the same the because learners Thisis important and techniques some worthyl). a of withinthewidercontext a text. thiskind of taskdoesnot out to asked write a paragraph of context. aswe haveSeen. in this be ableto present to the reader an and rvhomtheyareaddressing.For example. of of because the nature the arise Also. We havealready in in broadly.< Fz u -4 -1 z 1 I.our goalshould be to teach and expository soon) but ratherto seethat these descriptive.3.3)the importance guidance how.5).5 and5. that writingactivities leadnaturally introduce we Wherepossible. to relevant the learnerS' (formal communication and'institutional' (notes. lettermay arepractised whi the so i n vo l ve me 'nar r ation' ( see letterin2.1) or ' descr iption" l ea writing. such a letteror a report. might as themto thinkof rvriting communication.Althoughit cannot said appropriate havein thisarea the rvhich learners manvof the difficulties ttratttrisis easy. it because permitsthe learners for suitable usein the earlystages especially within a new formsof the language to makesomeuseof the spoken writing that.I.we cannotbe surehow effective suPPort' (i) ProvideapproPriate and of noted(in 3. for the motivation thiskind of work canbe established' writing with other skilk. encourage as kindsof writing(such different not be noted. letters) communication them (as for contexts practising classroom andto establish reports) letters.T E A C H I N GW H I I I N ( j b K I L L S E -1 an to at extent least be ableto select approprlate theyhaveto some speech. to be as form.Also. The useof textsasthe reader! to themmorelike a judgethana genuine We the solution. technique anysingle skills.d _1 I'z I _1 -1 U -1 I_1 I4 < I- -< < I- II J1 I -1 I JJ I I- f< 1 )1 -1 fI f< I f.

that writing tasksaregenerally imposed and that the learners may not have eitherthe relevant whenthisinvolves ideas. Do you agree with thisproposal? 3 From your own experience teaching learning)the written form of a of (or foreignlanguage. however. But we needto surrender role as'judges'. canhopeto makewritinga more into we rewarding activityfor them. heavilyweighted favourof readingand writing skills.both in termsof attainment and satisfaction. (c) The learners'efforts needto be viewedsympathetically.perhaps a a naturalinclination. Thereseems reason no why. you agree do thatfreeexpression.the useof techniques and procedures whichhaveprovedvaluable oral work. suchaspair and for group work. or be sufficiently stimulated the tasksto think of them. to on mainlybecause.not only in a foreignlanguage.it is therefor us to readand reread. needto be examined within the contextof the writing programme. (b) The learners haveto be setrealistic tasks. should for we remember. well aswritingunder as control. l: H -1 lL-l I l-i . with the help of a programme which takes the learners'problems account. The by problemis furthercompounded their havingto work on their own. to Thereis always greattemptation.should a feature thewritingprogramme. Do you agree with these viewpoints? l_l-l 29 L-l q . andviewwhat the learners write asattempts.1do you think is mostimportant? in whv? L.It hasbeenargued thatguidance shouldbe tempered with opportunities freeexpression. however. communicate.we cannotexpect in too high a levelof proficiency. by Clearlythereare manysolutions this problemand they needto be to exploredin a ffexible way. be of evenin the early stages? 4 In the guidelines a writingprogramme 3.4why arethe following for in points emphasised? (a) The learners haveto be exposed differentvarieties the written form to of of the language. concentrate what is wrongin a pieceof writing.-1 l_ r |1 LI are Q What reasons givenfor takingthe text asthe basicformat for practice? .we should perhaps look not so muchat what the learnershave but failed to achieve ratherat what they haveactually succeeded doing. our except whenwritingis being testedor examined.---1 Discussion 1 which of the approaches described 3. we havealready as noted. Exceptin specialised programmes.writing at needbe a solitary activitv.L --t l-- r rJl GENEBAL RINCIPLES R EACHINWRITING P FO T G L r L-LLl-{ r r--r--{ r- ways. however inadequate.But if we are to be truly readers ratherthan judges. in tr u L_ L- tr F l-: r f t-: tr !!. in the classroom least. somecontribution their on part. In particular. (j) Be sympathetic! we haveconsidered lengththe manyproblemsinvolvedin writing and at theseare freelyacknowledged prevailwhen we write in our mother to tongue.

are In consider whether textbook F.1. seeC Bratt Paulston Also A Raimes andM Sharwood Smithin D L Bouchard (1980) andL J Spaventa andW Slager TheArt of TESOL in (1982). all the exercises this book Composition Exercises Not in are manipulative.< .< __< t-€ _< :_< 11 -1 ts . J D Bolton and L Peterson (Nelson). F. followingcourses of the weresurveyed for writing activities: Abbs andI Freebairn B (various Strategies levels) . The controlled writingexercise page22 comes on from DH Spencer Guided (Longman1967).MPalmerandD Byrne Track(Longman). M Vincent et al Timefor EnglishCourse English(Collins)andN WhitneyCheckpoint English(OUP).J I 30 L- _J -I ) v . For surveys teaching of writing.andin particular useof guidedwriting. any for EH Rewritethe exercise 3.Other accounts teaching of writingmaybe foundin G Broughtonet al (1978) (1983).< the writertends relyon a limitedrange exercise to of typesandwhether gives . AxbeyJourneys (Longman).F -1 * _1 !_< -r.. CarmichaelWay Breakaway J Ahead (Penguin).' - I References ts . the (1912). and J HarmerMeridian(Longman1985) bottom.. M PalmerandD Byrne Track(Longman 1982) centreleft.' ll he the learners opportunities freeexpression. BlundellVisa S (OUP). particular.-1 z lr ) .< from the itemsprovided.1 -1 =_1 F _z _-4 .d i Examine anytextbook your ownchoosing seewhatkindsof guided of to writingexercises provided. Ellis andP Elhs Counterpoint M (Nelson). (Longman). For the purpose writingthischapter. a description the 'fluency'approach andA Raimes For of seeBriere(1966).J Exercises F. R O'Neill Kernel(Longman). The illustrative materialon page24comes from M vincent et al Timefor English(CollinsELT 1984) top.J CarmichaelWay Ahead(Penguin 1985) centreright.: r.1sothat a meaninsful in choice to be made has F._z . HarmerMeridian J (Longman). Swanand M C Walters TheCambridge (CUP).B HartleyandP Viney Streamline English(OUP).1 I-i _1 _-z ---4 .

However.we shouldfail to whichthe learners satisfyneeds havein the earlystages whichcanbe met and writing: reinforcement materiallearnedorally.6). until the learners havea muchgreatercommand of the language. u L-u u -l-- * In the earlystages a language of course.g.5).This is a situationwhichwe have with the one in the mothertongueclassroom.l Writingin the early stages f tr E u --{ L_ q r.-- L- tr q E g L_ ---L- u rr-.if we adoptedthis solution.1 Some basic considerations q L-' L--f L--< H r -1 H L: u u H u =-g u l. In any case. it is possible introduce smallnumberof itemsneeded to a specifically for *The first75-90 hours approximately firstyearof a secondary or the school course.but by and largewe may assume to that at this levelpatterns typicalof the spokenlanguage havebeenselected and that theseare presented contexts in designed promoteoral fluency. has J1 tr . The weighting. favourof dialogue narrative/descriptive texts.rcugh of the classroom increased and contact with the language throughwork that can (seei .L -. the form of a plateauon whichwritten work couldbe much in more easilybased.at a middleschool level) wherethefocus beenmainlyon oralskills. alreadycontrasted when the (see1. the principalfactorwhich affects both the quantityandthe kind of writing that canbe doneis the smallamountof language that the learners haveat their disposal language which to a large extentthey haveacquired orally and to a lesser degreethroughreading.We to shouldalsoremember that the actualinput of language likely to be fairly is are slow: the students learninghow to understand how to makethemselves and throughthe spoken understood medium.--. Theseare goodreasons introducing be doneout of class for writing and it would be wrongto ignorethem. of at leastin any significant form. althoughwe haveto work mainly within the limitsof language whichhasbeenlearnedfor oral purposes. in or type may vary from one coursebook another. learners go to school first One solution thisproblem to wouldbe to delaythe introduction writing.varietyof activityin th. some In countries is common schoolchildren havehadsome it for to orevious instruction the lansuage in (e.-- f 4.

we canandshould --1 will avoidmanipulative procedures whichdo not encourage learners think : the to aboutwhattheywriteandwhichin anycase not helpthemto understand -_1 do * how the writtenlanguage We functions. . the boardor overhead = on projector. is suggested we should dialogue it that use writingasthe I main typeof activity. . -a --we cannotaffordto neglect Although othertypesof writing activityin the classroom situation.suchasthe useof certainconnectiver : -1 LJ '-- JL ]-/ .throughthemediumof writing.1 4.r The main features of the rvriting programme !d Althoughmostwritingat thisstage be undercontrol. mustalsointroduce activities which.SJ F' writtenwork.simplyto enjoywriting. at F u -1 -. These enable to makewritingactivities will us moreinteresting -J and alsopavethewayfor moreeffective writingpractice a laterstage.'exercises'to practise these devices be will LG embedded withinthe contexts letters.-: F asto meetthe needs vourparticular of students. letter-u. . important of An point to noteis that I the students alsobe learning will --J something throughwriting:for new exampleithe Iayout a letter._1 For the mostpart.someof the devices needed linking and sequencing sentences.1 The followinggoals suggested: are k (a) Writingactit'ities should satisfy immediate needs providing the learners Ld by with opportunities handling.2 tul the learners withpatterns language of typicalof the writtenmedium:in particular. beginning familiarise to . 1 for Ld For this purpose. Our at however. it provides context reinforcing practising a for and sentence structurek andto some extent aliows themto be creative. the endfor manystudents in enjoyment mayproveto = be the mostmotivating factor. f.the language usedcanto a largeextentbe based ffd on what the learners havealready learned orally. E 41'.then. F You will needto getthe nght balance between these varioustypesof activitySo .1. language for whichtheyhavelearned orally. demonstrate writingcanbe used the purpose that for of Id communication.3 The role of the teacher F (a) Decide how to present activity the class. the earlystages.-a however simple.ritirzg offersa formatwhichhasmanyadvantages.4). Thisis a typeof textwhichthe students familiar are --1 with. _4 If the lettersareinformal. objectives thisstage..modes address certain of of and opening and --1 = closing formulas.4. equallyimportant.1 - (b) Writingactivities shouldalsobeforward-lookingb1. --. the to i 'For example.'' After selectingthe appropriate (see for examples): writingactivity 4. will help to do a certainamountof in it writing with thestudents. wherethe in -= --_ students learning are something new. mustnecessarily be --1 = modest.but at the sametime we _1 F canintroduce smallnumber linkingandsequencing a of devices (see 4.r For thispurpose.This is especially usefulfor the typeof activitydescribed 4. (c) Writingactivities should also givethelearners opportunities communicatert to throughwriting and.

theirwrittenwork in theirbooksis an important arrange on no imposing sortof organisation their to be casual.L ---t E l-r---r r r_ r!-- : WRITING THEEARLY IN STAGES it an or the layoutof a letter(etc). In anycase. into appropriate on arranged a file. pairsor in smallgroups. alsoprovides opportunity and so on. work whichhas mightcontain another for whichcanbe used oral activities. u g tr l-: LL--r .- u L. although write. writtenwork. the whichdemonstrate communicative writing JJ l- l_-:. to it In on an individualbasis. Students tendto getmoreinvolved which isolation in an activityif they are allowedto talk aboutit togetherratherthansit in may be begunin pairsor in groupsbut concluded Someactivities silence. the earlystages would seemappropriate exceptwhen feedback allow manyof the tasksto be donecollaboratively is on individualprogress needed.This helpsto train them to look at written one another's evaluate and work ciitically.for example. writingis boundto seemless and leafsheets writtenwork should doneon loose be perhaps. (see. work and to to their completed However. for purposes if one.In particular. out an for providing.go throughthe wholetask exactly this orally because will leavethe activitywithout any elementof challenge in and reduceinterest the actualwriting task. (d) Decideon correction the everything students to or It is not essential evendesirable examine will manystudents want to havetheir work lookedat.I). permanent for theywrite maybe needed reference progress thisskill. also 1.-----1 +l-L. for procedure writing activities in as This shouldbe regarded a standard (andlaterwhenintroducing any new type of activity). H >=.3 The organisation of written work to we of In the course the writingpro_qramme shallbe askingthe students carry havemore Someof thesewill of course variouskindsof activities.whileotherthings in therefore. or moreexercise material of of onebook or onesection a book mightconsist reference example. On a reasons certainchoices for answers. example. askedto maketheir own a class basis and the students on discussed corrections. (b) Preparethestudents orally. Do not. however. combination sentence of structure. are the students allowed purposeful.>-- i i L)--1 t-_ LLaa-1 r . indexof the iearners' valuethanothers.whichhasbeendivided For booksmay be usedfor thispurpose.througha numberof workedexamples.- H II tt-: l_- !-L)--l-i l-. what theyhaveto do.2.theycanbe asked exchange efforts. in An activitymay be doneindividually.4.1. the earlystages that the students know Make sure. and sentence valueof writing(for example. we notedin 1. example. one Alternatively. a mastery sentence beendoneto develop of for whilea third onemightbe reserved pieces sequencing. ( c ) Decidehow thewritingtaskshouldbe carriedout. will help them to view their own work in the Work canalsoof coursebe in sameway at a later stage the course. sections. will help to reducethe feelingof on Collaboration a task. 4. The question. procedures. how their of 4. alternative to discuss that simplelevelwe canthusbeginto demonstrate writing is a thinking process.asreaders. Ideally.

is alsoan areawhereit canbe usefulfor them It problems. including lists. - !f- f- a1 4. suchasclothes. andbathroom. furniture. it doesnot appearin to something to the textbook)or is not available them rntheform in whichthey havecopied together certaindatawhichis distributed various in it (i.In thisway.is not often One maywell wonderwhetherthis activity just a wayof fillingin a littletime in the lesson. example.-.2 as Copying a writing activity it is because is sometimes of Somediscussion the valueof copying necessary will be the This of course presented the first stage a writingprogramme. of to write in the names the roomson their plan.furniture. them (b) Ask them to dictateto you a list of items. copyaddresses.canbepresented the learners a meaningful particularly we cangetthemto seeit asa wayof makinga recordof if whichis not otherwise available them (i.that they havedonethe copyingto some purpose. etc. throughsome to in lessons their textbook). neednot be a pointless activity.Write these the board. timesof as numbers well asotherbitsof usefulinformationor trains. on Yet copying new. as in level haveproblems the graphological (thatis.F whichthe suggested 4. if they at case the learners if or symbols how to write from left to right).e.But the noveltywill soonwearoff just routine. bedroom Ask rooms:kitchen. quite and can of The students be asked make to often makecopies songs poems. Most of uswouldagree. sitting-room. helpsto teachspelling to reinforce to write wordsandsentences the boardand askour students on sometimes At the beginning the course. various is the kindsof learning Vocabulary an areawhichgives students spelling. of etc. copying heldto be valuable is Equallycommonly.e.). For we or sentence structure. they havebrought We mustalsodemonstrate them. of An example meaningful copying I- rI< f- l- I I- l- r- 34 f< t- .furnitureand somesmaller vase flowers.then. whichincludes following (a) Ask the students drawa planof a house to the dining-room. the to serve introduce learners the to certainnoveltyvalue.all the material in copies the activities of produceis accessible for futureuseor reference.askingthe students to tell you how to spellthem. of their own copies thistypeof materialin a special to as activity.andcanof course written form of what hasbeenlearned orally. to havereference .Furthermore. real life.Let ustake one suchset copying task. copytends getlostin a jumbleof notes to the learners .2. activityeitherat the time or later.telephone we materialfor whichwe think we mayhavea futureuse. both students !!=tI l4 4.like readingaloud. Copying. on found in anyof theserooms.The following of the compilation a list of itemsasa purposeful are steps suggested.For example.telephone.5). we frequently we the in orderto havea recordof them:for example.in the form of lexicalsets. because it however.whichcouldbe objects(suchaslamps. what will thenbecome onemoreclassroom andcopying madein the same way.Besides.that copying of the basis our own experience tryingto learnsomething of in copythingsdown is an aid to retention. an activitymay havea of such copythem down.and seehow we canpresent food. notebook. This haveto learnnew graphic is aspect dealtwith in Chapter12.1.

Now that the students havemadetheir reference list. r --< --d u LL_ 1-: lg L-44 4. Turkey.months. to (a) Puttinga listof wordsin alphaberical order { g L-- (b) Puttinga listof wordsin their coruect sequence For example.L ---t LEJ WRITING THEEARLY IN STAGES LL-J tr Lr r_-I --. England.perhaps at somelater stage.g. which might be only one of manytopic areas dealtwith in the sameor in a similarway. Egypt. Each list should containitemswhichmight be foundin that .chair). An item may of course appear morethanonelist (e.Each fisl shouldappearunderits appropriate heading (e. of numbers. sitting-room.. the Which countries not are there? 1-. (e) Ask the students compare to their listswith thoseof other students the in class.whichthey shouldbe encouraged keepup to on to date by addingnew itemsastheylearnthem.). . (a)-(c)) in sincethe students not actually do haveto contribute the text.on a roughpieceof pup"i.kitchen.1mainlyinvolvecopying(e.--1J (d) Doingpuzzles For example. etc.).2.2. t-l_r-J 35 L_ r . India. Peru.g. Although the aclivitywas primarily a copying one.decidewhichitemsto includemoie than onceand also to put them into alphabetical order. Complete crossword.one to for eachroom of their house. they should alsobe givenan opportunityto useit: eitherin a writing activity. (c) Putting words in categories For example.we may of course alsoallow them to includeitems which were not on the board. Thus.Spain. hereare the names f 1l countries: o Brazil. France. arranging list a of wordsunderheadinss: r 1llH t. Greece.- kL: u (c) Ask the students usethe list on the boardto compilefive lists. listsof thiskind are usefulfor certaintypesof language gamewhichinvolvevocabulary repetition(suchasvariations ^I on: wentto themarketand I bought.g. in an oral activityfor whichreference suctralist might or to be calledfor.2 Othercopying activities Notice that someof the activities 4.oom. in (d) Ask the students put the itemsin eachlist in alphabetical to brder and to copy theselistsinto their exercise books. days the week. .Portugal.what the students havecompiled their exercise in booksis a small reference section furniture. For example.it alsoinvolvedthinking:they had to divide up the list on the board.Italy. L L-.

ueafer shlrf 1uercoa. The actual in r r e l a t et o a n y p a r t i c u l a c o u r s c ' d I a n g u a g e s e di n t h e e x a m p l e s o e sn o t u I _f- 36 F L .alsoinvolve to contribute the text. A : Mv n a me 's B: EI- I I< :- v I I -k I _f- I -r< _fI L- *Theseand all other examples the book are intendedto illustratetypesof actit'iry.) through a game' vocabularvsets(e.).t pul.occupations. hat. n: Whichone? a : T h e b i g b n e.1 --1 _- + - .The first studentto hearall hiswordsreadout callsout BINGO! ts . from a listof iumbledsentences the whicharenot in thecorrectorder. board(e. (c) hammer/h lnearlwindow.t glpres shoes overcoA. Then readout the wordsfrom the list lrr anyorder. 3 Reinforcement activities 4.etc. of Some thefollowing boringactivity! haveto do the copyingl students not actually writing.for clothes: iacket. etc. Usethese below: dialogue At Clarkson's you there I've neverseen Do Youlike it? takemYcar I usually Mine'sJennie Bob. to complete Sentences. colours.Ask the students shirt.Please.with the helPof suggestions 12-16itemson the from the class.4 (e) Playing Bingo way of revising copyingand is an excellent This involvesselective clothes.lover hat tockS Write. socks.S W TEACHING RITING KILLS SJ frG >.1 writing Dialogue are orallyin the earlystages learned language Variouswaysof reinforcing below:* suggested with thehelp of keywords (a) Writingparalleldialogues Readthisdialogue: e: Giveme thatbook. n: Here you are! a: ThanksverYmuch to keywords writesimilardiaiogues: Now usethese (a) umbrellaired/behind/armchair toP (b) box/small/on of/cuPboard etc._1 __1 5!--_v = - needneverbe a be it suggestionsshould clearthatcopying Fromthese dialogue particularly activities. to copyanywordsfrom the list.g.on thetable. eavy choosing a (b) Completing dialogue. ts 14 _1 A's list ll B ' lis t t) J jacker tocks l earr' t.3.g. 4.

occu.:. H e i s a t a l l m a n y w i t h b r o w n e y e sa n d b r o w n h a i r . These maybe verbalasin the first example belowor visualasin the second.Besides.n". Lo/ou. P e t e rS m i r h i s t h i r t y ..rr Address /51 e"nfu-- t21 Fraz9 L L L-- 37 E tI . Narne r l_ tr r---J 5 Writea aboutJane Creen.-----' /-^r. however.arron cotour of eyes tddress J . last B: R: It's not bad. ' Height -.* \- 6"To.-za ? 7 Age-r-1 H l. (a) tr l_ L Read and write A 'l Read this. I B: .nn. which theyhave to complete with ideasof their own.. then copy and complete the information. to the and alsoto limit the number itemsto (say) of eight. cannow go to work by bus.. ^fi". u LL-: Lt--2.2 Parallel writing For this type of activitythe students givena modeltext of somekind and are are asked writea similar to textwith thehelpof cues.3.n i n e e a r so l d . rr.asin (b).. It helps number firstitem... !-!-. perhaps cangiveme a lift! you The students mayalsobe asked write a continuation the dialosue. r]--li^ or hair ll- it-" :'.our OccuPation or hair/Ew- u*::ry:'?i or coro. to of (c) Puttingsentences order to form a dialogue in Instead providing dialogue of a frame.H e i s a b u s i n e s s m a n f r o m E n g l a n db u t h e l i v e si n A m e r i c a .. (d) Providethestudents with a dialogue frame.t- I . I B: U H tH e: Well.{{{o. all the sentences are jumbledup. similar to (b).::""".- t- H H L* Lt_ )--1 )-1 4. it's a big place andI onlystarted week. The text may recycle itemsof spokenor writtenlanguage canbe usedasan introductionto organising and ideasin the form of a paragraph.L )--a l_ W R I T I N GN T H EE A R L Y T A G E S I S t-= l-" a: Wheredo you work? B: !-_- e: Really? work theretoo. e: Do you?Well.

3 Dictation as a reinforcement activity The purposeof this short sectionis to indicatewhere dictation belongsin a writing programme.in order to make any headway.1 It is Srvitzerland in Europe. althoughlesswriting is involved. sothat (etc. / n ' e s t Srvitzerland 7 nrillion .but. as therefore.meanwhile. sincea dictation should be basedon languagewith which the studentsare alreadyfamiliar through other contexts of (that is. in the form of an incompletetext. it can be a useful as an alternativereinforcementactivity.afterthat.of however. moreover..in fact.it will be number of linking devicesand to practise to necessary introduce a selected thesethrough writing. a result. However. alternativeapproachto the'conventional' dictation is to provide the studentswith an outline. so when. Linkers on course. I f- I tI -f-_1 J6 fr z v I .G 14 4.) Conjunctions although.thus adding to the realismof the activity.3. should not havewith this type of exercise The difficultieswhich students An be underestimated. Our goal through this type of activity is to begin to familiarisethe studentswith which are usedin composinga text. A basickil at this stagemight consistof the following: v I- 1 f< I < f- < :< k 4 a1 -1 . it is essentially re-presentation known languageitems). They can then begin the cohesivedevices which they havelearnedorally to form an acceptable to combine structures in sequence writing.finally Sequencers then. because involveslisteningand the ability to transform what is heard into its written form. Texts ugedfor dictation may also be in the form of notesand short letters.^\trstriil' thcsentltcs: SWITZERLAND {tttro c l n o r t h :G e r m a n yi t t r c C z e c h o s l o v a k/i a a s t : r H u n g a r y/ s o u t i r :\ ' u g o s l a v i i a n d I t a l y .German or _-1 I F -a a.next. French. Clearly it differsfrom the reinforcementactivities it describedabove. This permits a more natural form of delivery. u _4 ts .4 S e n t e n c ei n k i n g l activities f4 r< -rI f4 Co-ordinators and.About 5j and thel' speal< million peoplelive in Switzerland Italian. theotherhand.i= S W TEACHING RITING KILLS y V (b) Readabout Sn'itzerland: llsc a) Nolv lvrite abotrt. or.J _1 4. first.until.etc. Austria in the east. standsbetn'een Germanyin the north. For this purpose.ltall' in the south and Francein the rvest.' Certnan / _4 V b) Now write about Yotlr or\rncountr\'.. which they filIin from what they hear read aloud.

oTkkt4g fwAtr.l t"-""*"1 Shedoesn'thke lootba]l He hkes brg crtres f---: r . I work rn a bank. for i Dea. (a) TYyand join theseparrsof sentences correctly to make one sentenceeach trmeuse hneslike thrs: Mary lkes tennrs. . alsoserveto introduce the studentto suchpointsasthe layoutof a letter... .tisl/. sfu tet/' .this does not preclude someinitial practice the purpose familiarising students for of the with linkingsentences. etc.therefore."d to hearing lron yil.g WRITING THEEARLY IN STAGES L-- +--_ H l-L-- some procedures practising for theseare suggested below.. . ldan't h"earra. . tiu back of r thihoi'se. qou aom"niia tdmz. .d*r 3v I . .. =-r--- tr l_ l-_' L-l . .-. !rq... in the firstexample as below.t.t Lsvery u..^i// cot"z try i tr . ..i. .t ru46 trorvL is a't-thz frw.t .rning suitablelinking wordsor phrases a given list. / Li*c m. ll--l_ Lr-- i= g g l_ rJ l-. . (b) Thestudents complete short text. is for It important.. . shz ca*it skep/".different modesof address and salutation..the send'sy-ttrlur best wisfus.--j r l-r-J t. . .Although this shouldnormallybe donewithin the contextof a text. from a For example: completetheletterbelow. yttyrs. /a+n sedwLq qcl..1 --1 G{ r The students then haveto write four truesentences aboutthemselves. Noticethat'exercises' like these. suchasa letter.. Al. 99NorthRaaA BLw4ey )ctobsr7 19.Lr/rr/ tpu addrtrs.ot'ruw house. Examples of theseshouldbe written up on the boardand the students askedto copytheminto their notebooks reference. . example).-tno1 be/'rcon is a.Ati ittz best. to incorporate rangeof such a features whichwill be usefulto the students whenthey themselves asked write are to letters(ascommunication tasks...in the form of a compiete text. Of coptrse nit/< its souia. usesuilablewordsor phrases from this box: although and also because and but by the way however so so that that that Ll-. I g o o n h o h d a yr n w l n r e r I hke my lob L-LL_ F f=g g l-r--{ E l-h. ytu. I work rn slunmer Tony hvesin London.rTom. /aot: l.r1'4 vwise a. Writzsswt. irt Lrruar a' marn rrrld .

1 P F irrsrt qo to n^e {ra<t 6f fhz c'dass fLw44 L. ..okOsa. clea/rtbLa. t1.Bvthewav.. for device practising out. For example: 1 !F E v P * -_1 --1 -1 -1 _-& Ta'fre//ou/r e4z. it is nevertheless activities The activities of that writing can be usedfor the purpose communication.. F o r e x a m p l e : I _1 P . .t7-ihe sahz'rh'imd sw fho I P I k blaekboad.. I P v y P 1 _1 to of to be Theymayalso asked u'ritea sequence instructions be itemssuchasFirst.rcisz batk ^" .Someexamples givenbelow..insertingcluttses serttences a (. simplein form and limited in are which we set up for this purpose necessarily towardslearninghow to motivatethe students scopebut they will serveto are throughu'riting.14 40 v -1 _1 -'_u _k )1 .t. -F )z _!__. .) Thestudents frorn u juntbled listof itents(see(b) page34) in the correctplaces. Thisis a useful carried N e x t .5 C o m m u n i c a t i o n to reinforceoral work and rvhilethe foundationfor writing skillsis still being importantto showthe students Iaid (asindicatedin 4.hichother students the class(or the teacher!)haveto carry out.tcpboa'rd. because .1.so....2). A f t e r t h a t. . .. ' o u t l i n e ' f o rt h e s e c o n d a r a g r a p hn t h e l e t t e ra b o v e i p .E S W TEACHING RITING KILLS -1 - artd complete text bt. Aftur thh..rd Pt^f tt (rvLftP of th" c.But . 4. are while rvritingactivities still to a largeextentserving Throughoutthis stage. themselves express in (a) Thestudents write instmctionsv. .1 although However. F o r e x a m p l et h e as could be presented follows: v J Ir . .Hr..and -v = !- that. hn/d 6eorqe's harn"d..1 Go a4'rd.

tr L_ L- r .--1 G{ E L- Wha's ycLWfr'uowrtfusmgetr? r u g r-< l.. lted.d PS lt's a brg lrt ot+lrry! Activitiesalongtheselinesare particularly usefulfor practising structures itemsof vocabuiary and whichhaverecentlybeentaughtfor oral purposes.y . ( b ) Thestudents writeto one anotherto askfor information.a plcfllyz oJ a Trroh.b-{g /..in the form of by to a noteor shortletter.ra.ryi4.J --J These instructions be givento anyone the class perform. Ayun I .This enables activity go at a of the to muchfaster pace whichis partof thefun! ( c ) Ask thestltdents writeshort messages one anotherin theform of a note to to or short letter.tt.A tTL a bo'x.L -1 L_ I. a.i! ? 41 ll_ r--^ i: .r M*rq. may in to Alternatively.f: Yqwrt Ft.esd'ag u rL-- tr !--_ L_ f r-{ D-{ Drw.re L L: l_ >--- Y'otrrs. ti's wmrri*Q a.kq/l lf. For example: Dra. ---- The student who getsoneof these requests simplywrite the can information the same on piece paper..--{ WRITING THEEARLY IN STAGES LL_ rF-{ g r-.fl^d.i ti. theymaybe addressed someone name. W l+e.ro/+monfh ^K/rx r4orL born in? J rLr--- g g lg 1.Yh.For examole: L- Dearr Anm. l_ c- otid yow qowr I Lihe -tury Taow cLress.

.-= S W TEACHING RITING KILLS -v 'messages'must answered the students whom they are to by be These For addressed.L Li.unj l'a-sies fu Eert wisl'tes.Yculd I4nI.ry v _1 F _1 mustbe answered. Yturrs. l. I'afus.nA' UotLfn''futu n'ote.i. some whichinvolve to to (d) Ask thestudents writeshortletters oneanother form of roleplay.kL to corrte to Ynq 9 7 lt" parrft/ 'starrtsaw'5a't<urda'q Juurle r-4 IJ _4 _f4 =J arn'd.t wao. y -4 11 _1 F :- fiaa. invitations As with the'messages'in these to or the can person whomtheyareaddressed accept invitation decline to say he the If come. to invitations a party.givinghisreasons. .The to givingor asking directions get to for to activitymay be extended include house. .? Will youplecse asa guide.For example: the board b r i n g. examPle: --1 _1 F -r4 Dearr A'ruc.l I li. .together oneanother theymaysend For example. p b-"tg s. I bou"qh't Uu. ? F -_1 F -1 = =1 = :1 . Tha. may language be written on items. he accepts invitation. mirc/+ ohpf uf oas'L ? yourrs.ur --J <t F --1 fhz d"'issd.Relevant to with a request bringcertain Wouldyou like to . should or whetherhe canbringall the itemsrequested only someof them.ry roundthe a This activitycanquicklygenerate flow of correspondence class. ffre F -1 = _4 ---1 Ma._1 l_1 F Deart' FreQ. somebody's +L A' F z _k z lJ -J IJ -/ --) L-) -l H . Sovng v-&@T--oLs.x.kl qsur' n"e'u/Sweatetr Hou. wW qau-p{"easzlf taou.The (c). o'"o{-oc'h of "ryM oan avvte.' . fry Poppy. .

workingin pairs.they get the opportunityto express themselves imaginatively. the mostpart theywill be writing thingsFor conventional questionnaires.write questionnaires whichthey canuseto interviewone or moreother students the class.6 Writing for fun L_ tr g 1l_l_r-{ r---lf.*tplat/ thz guitar alutagr goes to btd early attd a pister has o ffiher likes qeng frT walhs it intereited irL tcih4ce can topicsand evenparticularitemsof Questionnaires focuson specific language.in pairsor smallgroups.L )-t ll_..-{ The activities this section not intendedto help developthe learners' in are . Usuallytheywill be workingtogether. This neednot makethe activitylessenjoyable.dog? H L__ L H L_ H !--H LLL L L. ( b ) Writing quizzes enjoy writing questions. programmes. Students usuallyenjoy these activities because they seethe point of doingthem. example which they cando for with. something and thiswill involvetalkingaswell aswriting. the form of a shortquiz.because a rule theywill not be writing a text in a skills composition as sense. GROUPS WRITE QUIZZES GROUPS XCHANGE E Q U I Z Z E SA N D W R I T EA N S \ \ ' E R S GROUPS CHECK ANSWERS l_ l---- L E-J tr l_ L L l_ L' way theycanwritequizzes or whichinvolveremembering In the same +J I . puzzles. (a) Writing questionnaires preferably The students. in Noticethe varioustypesof questionnaire. and alsobecause a smallway. E L l_ gou Hove got a. evenat this elementary in level.t WRITING THEEARLY IN STAGES l-ll_- 4. like thosein the previous section. on a text they Students in just read(asan alternative 'comprehension have to questions'in the work in smallgroups thisand thenexchange bookl). l--- F/TVD 5O'IFOUE WHO: NAME ca.Theyshould for their quizzes with another group.

t5 f-r fr 7.rtisl't'? 2 1 W/nt does 5 05 rn-ean'? { frcmoe? 2 Whal. lf i.O World.artns.b -. to to whichthel'give otherstudents answer' like these.< l-. /f nn's te'rt. somekind of code..*.u'ritea TV/radio Programmeto cover a entertainment' evening's possible Each studentthen makeshis own which copy of the Programme. L l- fr .30QuLz r.0 Ne.ves thl sga .skaL efr'lh I 'secret for messages' one anotherin can way.ts 8.orking The students.2 -1 -. partnerwhat Yousawor listened o e to thePrevious vening r to u'hichProgrammes agreeing evening.J -1 . ? : WH IS IT? AT i. can be usedfor Pairwork suchastellingYour activities.whichother students y = -4 I I : y F -1 -1 -1 lOCK ENOC ELEV rt4EAT MEAN OSET CANTOUCO l4 I !- 1 ].io Sci. ' k form of revision!)or _r4 _u y F -4 _v -1 _u _u I Haa otd' r. /t loos not Laae alty bonzs.J (d) Writing programmes working in grouPs The students. watchor listento that 44 R 60 1 TV ChnnneL 6. 6. to sharetheir ideas.o'/"or'*s? (.ence: Tl+eSan 6./( It Li. langu.sB/K'k7 2 Ca4L Pen ng sPea-/e SPa.agedo rhz! speak h+ ?r*zil I Whal s fhe cafr'hl 3 Ca4'Lbi'rcLs see c. u.of Dre orfs 8.) Writing Puzzles writeoneor morepuzzles or individually in pairs. studeirts write In the Same haveto interpret.]:- I I TEACHINGWHI I IN(J>I\ILLD F (a unitsin the coursebook useful looking for informationgivenin previous 'general n o i l l e d g e q u i z z e s .A/s Report Sporls lrr f- 1 L-.

t (( z L l_ )--- Tlrrru fu unvfcthpd.---- !:-- Y\O Sol. Whenall LL-_ o!% A futrvtorvw'rfh.L a-1 !- W R I T I N GN T H EE A R L Y T A G E S I S L- ( e ) Writingjumbled texts L-!--LL- The students work in pairsor smallgroupsto write a dialogue a four-to or five-sentence storysequence.n a t i o n a l i t yo b .re writesa role description for in one other specific student the class.we givethem a to description the role we want them to play. n a m e .d" OotY\g vYv r-tlo-t so \') \ .when we want students do a roleplayactivity. l-- the questionshave been answered.r-p-.Incidentally. itemsto be included j.r. t s A/ . pictures Give the students (maleor femalefaces) a as stimulusand a list of the (e. the studentsunfold the sheetof paper and read their mvstervstorv TV. \n #e u./L c. interests. Yawr hobbizs are or beengiven! (g) Wririrtgmystervstories the For thisactivity students aregivena series questions of w h i c ht h e ym u s ta n s w eirn order.rrhutsba. Afterthot he slept! (0 Writing role descriptions 7r"u'*":*w' l-r-_J r r_g L-< )--1 -t-----t l_ l_ l_ .s o{4t2//r'g his \ tr l_ H l_ -.). .g. whichthey then cut up into separate sentences giveto another and pair or groupto put together. However. g e . a Yowa'reMarytAom t"L&h.a.rnz Ls features for someunusual 8 ill a4rd fu i.d's rua.t//.by \N0s \op of \he on Ynourfra . etc. - I tr .ot </drrt. a When the first studenthas answered question.evenat an of elementary levelthe students write simplerole descriptions one can for another.tlree.rrct5 eta. the students usuallywrite in Yo.re all qr.15 L L: l- .. folds his he the paperoverso that the next cannot whathe has see student written(andso on). I tr u r L_ --1 t vlr(. For example:Who was theperson?Wherewasslhe? Whatwasslhedoing?Whatdid slhesay? Whatdid slhedo after that?Eachstudentthen takesit in turnsto answer question. This is important it because addsto the fun: Thsya. Yw a.s o tazL theyhavechosen the partner dri4v.r[s.--1 Lr-< H g r----al Normally. they involvelittle useof cohesive devices.Eachstudent /hh.

m. you canalsowork with thestudents writeto your also (e.. (i) Writing abourpictures This is an activitYesPeciallY intended to stimulatethe imagination and self will The students expression." His an wants icecream.J -1 ]-z .. 7 Writing in class -v v v -1 .. They may like to continuewriting about their characterfrom time to time.1. Then get them to write down their ideas. Tntpnv Art The studentsmay of coursebe askedto keep real diartes at this stageor but they will not want and should perhapsslightlylater on in the course.Ask them to talk about their Pictureand to decidewhat the situationis about.. u 1 I _u _1 F .For bubbles speech you of Instead pictures. - y -_1 .how theycanuse cometo seehow theycancommunicate In and writingpurposefully howit formsa naturalpart of certainactivities.r- v y _u PIARY THE PRIME MINISTER'5 frouoi/l / a+nntt wetl todayl s/tlp wdd la.1 I 4.strualct. )-1 v I I want a- thencompare Theyshould connection. requireno justification time.Thisshould couldeventakeup a fair amountof are the generally students alsotalking. mother Some to are in The activities the lasttwo sections intended be donein class. " So buys onebutit issmall.you canalsowrite and students getthemto writeto you for the activities a-1 -v I _u 1 ].you should themon a taskor joiningin an activity in 4. not Ueaskedto showtheseto one another.*.He aboutthisonethe students example. worryingtoo muchaboutsentence group.5. Wtrot about a b*nh.. bad' &rza+n- y _v z _v _v fhzVedf{z frffi I a. with eithercollaborating additiontoihis. of with those another their ideas drawnon the board. writing the imaginarVdiary for a famouspersonof their choiceor for a fictitious they will be willing to shareand will very likely chaiacteris something shouldwork in pairsor groups The students stimulatetheir imaginations.g.the importantthing because writing:they towards attitudes students' of is that activities thiskind change throughwriting. he says: . st'/-19 ttryl+ g lao+t Ukz4EeeaVtzl lrkemzl A?rd Affi?riaa!_My ary-q @W v v _v _v - . (althoughthis is an activitythey could equallywell do on their own).However. canuse mightwrite:A boy is in a shop.On the other hand. ..F= T E A C H I N GW H I l l N U > K l L L r _v diaries (h) Writirtg imaginar.. a need a picture showing situationthat is likelY to different suggest interpretations.t'r' l L..J a-z u -1 _k 46 r-< .without H I had a.

For writingin the earlystages. you of to do think enoughattentionwaspaid to activities: (a) to practise linking sentences sequencing and ideas.3.2 1a n d9 1 .-1 Reread 4.). H tq H S-TREET based thismao. 1 For examples writingactivities the earlystages T Hedge(1983a). (c) to showhow writingcanbe enjoyable? What is your view of the valueof dictationasa writing activity? Fxamineany coursebook seewhat provisionit makesfor the presentation to and practice linkingdevices the earlystages. Devisea parallelwriting activity. A Pincas and Examples writing activities thischapterhavebeentakenfrom of in (4. Suggest writing activity.- tlLJL4 l_--- q i ]. (b) to showhow you cancommunicate throughwriting. etc. quizzes.You will alsogetopportunities checktheir to work informallywhile the activityis still freshin their minds. on -Tsil. in for similarto t h e o n ei n 4 .-_{ l--.6. H l. 2 d ) a n d4 . l--. a to be usedin the early whichcouldbe stages.1. What advice wouldyou givea fellowteacher (or intendingteacher) aboutsetting writing activities the earlystages? up in From your own experience.1 0 1 .I.-1 tr --1 H Lr_ H l_ L---4 -1J ___l -t L- I .2 J Harmer:Meridian(Longman 1985) (a)).l !--- Exercises L: .2. usein the earlystages. of in see (1982b) L Woods(1986). 3 .1and4.)(1983)._4 Devisean activity whichcouldbe usedin the earlystages let the learners to enjoywriting. you agreethat copyingis an aid to retention do in language learning? From your own experience learning write in a foreignlanguage.> o R o A D N E R D -rArroN s 1- I H . of in Examineanycoursebook seewhat provisionit makesfor meaningful to copying. 2 .2. -. Devisean exercise linkingsentences. References of On the importance getting learners evaluate another's the to one writing seeC Brumfitin S Holden(ed.This is very differentfrom the typicalteacher role of correcting homeworkl Discussion r f-- I-- tr tL. G Abbott and P Wingard(1981) see Ch.4(a)) andM Palmer 1982) D Byrne: Track(Longman and ( 1 . 2 b ) ) .for usein the earlystages.L Woods:Writing I (Cassell i986)(1. i . ( ( 1'7 l-: l_. similarto those in4.L at4A !r--l WRITING THEEARLY IN STAGES l_ l_ l=< tr l_l_ questionnaires. 4( b ) . -1 tt.3. pages J Harmer(1983) 65-75 P Hubbardet al (1983) pages 61-71and ( ) A P i n c a s1 9 8 2 ap a g e s 8 .

level.and partly because dialoguewriting may of be one of the requirements the examination. 2 = _u 48 -1 --1 .1 The importance of demonstrating progress that.1. -1. being that the learners'are At the ru-.At this stage. it althoughit shouldnot be abandonedaltogether. which the learnerscan usefor a continually expandingrange of tasks. we need to make the activitiesas varied aspossible.partly because is one which they can use themselves to way of getting the students write material . ii-e./ y _E = skills Developing -4 - y u y _v v 5. in The basickit.The and third yearsofa secondary the 6 with Chapters and 7 on the useof texts in suggestions this ihapter mustbe readin conjunction and visualmaterial. suggested 4. we can now begin to make format for reinforcement sincethis providesa convenientand greateruse of informal letter-writing. however.However.it shouldnot lose direction and momentum. texts in their coursebookor through supplementary therefore. This meansthat the writing programmemust be carefullyplanned to develop a masteryof new skills. as the main practiceat this level.4 shouldbe expandedto incorporate. (b) The writing programme should be designedto include a greaterrange of the of resources the written language.At the sametime. v y -r4 F 1 --1 5.J F = -J !z / !4 ) .for oral work.for *90-225 hoursor approximatelv second schoolcourse.* it is essential to At the post-elementary intermediate whatever the scopeof the writing programme. monolithic approachwhich relieson a limited rangeof exercise (a) The writing programme should continue to provide opportunitiesfor reinforcing languagelearnedorally. = -1 _v = _u -1 --1 .J 1. material learnedorally and of courseby appropriateway of re-presenting this stagethe learnersare alreadyfamiliar with this type of writing. for example.1 The main features of the writing programme y v y y .avoiding a types.we may assume either through the type of exposedto a greateramount of written language redding. sincewriting will still be guided to a lirge extent. the amount of dialoguewriting shouldbe graduallyreduced.

1.1 tr l_ l--1 l- tr !- 5. certain For activities. to: (a) Get the right balance writing activities. the in learners alsogivenopportunities free expression. the same and At time. we mustlook for freshwaysof presenting to the learners. writinghasalmost outlived usefulness a writingactivityand. l_ J--1 l-. are for Thesewill to someextentinvolvegreater reliance roleplaytechniques. the sametime.2 Reinforcement activities H l_ l_ l_ l_ 4 )----Z The needto provideopportunities practising for what hasbeenlearnedorally continues throughout stage. the procedures suggested in2. (c) Gattgecarefullytheamottntof guidancerequired. exemplification. on 5.1. It is likelythat the amount oralpreparation manywritingactivities of for cannow be reduced.2 The role of the teacher It hasbeenemphasised thisis a delicate that and crucialstageof the writing programme. 'cues' At thisstage theyshould learnto respond to whichstimulate their imaginations leavethemrelativelyor completely but free to decide what they actually write and how theyorganise their ideas. is especially It important. (d) Therangeof communication tasks should be extended.2)andtheirabilityto usethese. (see etc. to it 49 . especially whenthestudents approach time whentheywill the haveto do a publicwrittenexamination.As at the previousstage the programme. both a widerrange conjunctions of usedin compound and complex sentence structures otherlinkingdevices.alongside guidedwriting activities the suggested 5. (b) Ensurethat thetypeof writing activiry* theformats usedto practisethese and are sfficiently variedso that thestudents not get bored.4. (. we mustincrease learners' the awareness rhetorical of devices suchas comparison contrast. The amount individual of writingmay alsobe increased. this although increasing of textsotherthan the use dialogues now makes possible introduce it to writingactivities whicharebased moredirectly a reading on text (see Chapter As we havenoted. shouldnow beginto introducea certainamountof we institutional-type writing. f t--_ H tr__ l_ r--< ---1 L_ L.3.2-5.thiscomponent will teach themsomething new throughwritingand willthereforeincrease their interestand motivation. do Practice materials may haveto be selected adapted and from a varietvof sources.dialogue 6). it hasbeensuggested pair andgroupwork will stillbe extremely that valuable. it At is importantto extendsystematically sentence the linking and sequencing component the programme of described 5.suchasformal lettersand reports. Ll_ a< -<a l_ tr H )_. For this purpose. of with regardto dialogue For example.if rve its as continue useit. writing.L At4A t-!L- DEVELOPING ILLS SK H f-< l_l-- r r--J I - example. this shouldbe reduced considerably unless is an examination it requirement. No real progress be in will madeunless this is done.) Theamountof control over whatthe learners writeshould be reduced. and definition. of when the students wereintroduced to writing informalletters. Thus. however. therefore.

r Dialoguewriting (a) Thestudents gittena ntodeldialogue.togetllerv'itlt cues.-. A s ka b o u tA ' s h e a l t h .. Read this dialogue: e : W h a t ' su p . a . -u 4 r-J _g / -IJ 50 -H u i .. M i k e ? s: I don't know what to do this evening. ( E n q u i r e b o u t B ' s w i s h e s ) A: B: Don't know.?)* afterHow about . . J T4 -. all right.J -1 I u IJ P e r s u a dA . . . A y n G i v e o u rp h o n e u m b e r . a l l r i g h t .whichfocuses offeringadvice. .1:it is guidedratherthan from the cuesprovided. -lng form must usethe modify the form of the cues(for example.. This task is much freer than the one in 4. chooseany of these dialosues: go for a walk go and see(Jane) sit and readthe paper help me cook the supper write someletters gameof cards have a go and watchtelevision help me washthe car (b) The studentsare given an incompletedialogue. Completethis dialogue: g d .3. rr.perhaps.the.forv'ritirtg are parallel versiorts. hou'aboutcomingto the cinemau'ith me? like a much betterideal B: Hm. /ftcl sounds ideas(or useonesof vour own) to v'ritesimilar Nov.ith instructionsfor completing it. i t s h o u l d e k ep t i n m i n dt h a t t h e l a n g u a g u s e di n t h e e x a m p l e d o e sn o t r e l a t e s 4 e b r t o a n vp a r t i c u l ac o u r s e . . n: Oh.v .4 _E )4 H _rl u u I - -r4 r-r I4 . Go to the cinema. . * A s f o r C h a p t e r . e Confirm rrangements a a n de n dc o n v e r s a t i o n . .In the can controlledand the students select alsohave to the students on examplebelou'. . . t h a t ' sn o t m u c hf u n .. S a yw h o y o u a r e .Theyaregiven an outline or'map' (c) The students write the complete of the dialogue. Thesedo not specifythe actual words to be used. . togetheru. u'hy don't you go to the club. then? B : O h . u r. . y T e l lB a b o u t o u rh e a l t h .4 14 u -. dialogue. ( S u g e s t o i n gs o m e t h i n g ) A: . . but none of the actual words to be used. i s i t ? e: Well. (Object to thisidea) A: B : O h ..L e t ' s of Now write (2) similar dialogues vour own. .. If that'swhat you reallywant to do.2. . F _r4 5.t h e n . a: Well. . .J - / t qivenbelow are classified activities for The suggestions reinforcement to of according the t1'pe n'ritinqinvolved. A s kw h o i s s p e a k i n g .

2. the his who speaks Mr B on the phone. trying to decidewhatto have. excuse)._4 !--" DEVELOPING ILLS SK H !-_: H H -1 Anotherpossibility to givethe students is a'scenario'... eitherin pairsor in smallgroups.eachproduce theirown finalversion.when theytranslate scenarios dialogue the into form. !---!-: l--l_- r Lr --< l - l--_< L: l_ ----- t-- r 1-1 a-l lL'}JJ Ll_ l_ l-: LL=-L=1 =-1 lL' 5.2 Writing notesand Ietters l. etc. specific (a letters a functionsuchasmakin_q apology an complaint. can Thus. . ..? Whydon'twe.overall. possible formsof expression be discussed..? I wonderwhat . write the conversation have.Mr A getsout of the lift on the wrong floor.? That's(rather). leastfor the initialstage at whenvarious of the activity.Both the dialogue 'scenarios' directthe students towardscertainuses language..when he enters building...the students'talk over'the dialogue together. who is now ratherlate.L . Haveyouever. when he getsthere. (b) For activities to (d).For we a we example. g i: l-lL =--J the By thisstage students alreadl'familiar are with writinginformalletters. What shallwehaveto . Thislooks.makes excuses his and explains whathappened. givingdirections. (d) Thestudents writea dialogue w-hich settingis definedand some the for suggestions givenfor thelanguage be used.Mr A. . .he announces arrivalto the receptionist. andat the same timeshowhorvsuchtasks rvillrequire verydifferent uses of language different on occasions in particular and how these depend the on relationship between *'riterancl person is acldressins.The receptionist to then tellsMr A how to get to Mr B's office. in It 'maps'and'scenarios' shouldbe notedthat bothdialogue canbe usedat differentlevelsof language attainmgnt.. You are looking at the menu. Let'sask. You may usethese you phrases: Howabout.if theylvish.. the the he 51 r- r u .. it is suggested the students that shouldbe allowed to collaborate. canteach newrvays beginning ending of and letters. work out a rough version and then. Mr A hasan appointment with Mr B in a big officeblock. at the but sametime requirethem to think of the actualwords whichwill fit the situation. He meetsan employee. It may be felt that thisis rathera long way round to get the students to write a dialogue remember this stage are lookingfor waysof but at we 'maps'and providingguidance withoutcontrol.. thus of and preventthe productionof ramblingand often trivial dialogues. canalso we seethat the students givensystematic are opportunities practise to writing whichhave.. an sending congratulations. but therearevarious things cando to givethisactivitv newslant.. they can alsowrite somenarrative commentary the form of stagedirections. depending the sophistication on of the taskinvolved. who offersto takehim to Mr B's office. are to For example: You are in a restaurant with a friend.

togethet'h)ith ore for v)rititl7parallel versiotls.*i ir^t qo-'sol it.Thta/'sn I thin^cs l.ho wantsadviceabout a holiday: . Atfu ./. . ont 6rc a'qfu. l( got /'ts4'Ld .. foirna1. or (b) The studentsare given an incompletetext. .q fir.gt f ! r* yy. outsidethe town/geta room with a good view/makea booking as early as possible.1.-) in ettli^ei I *hsclute/q h. has adsfor (lli) Write a letterto a friend who wantsadviceabout how to learn (a foreign language). o a qwifetikl.I I F-J fTEACHINGWRII ING 5KILL5 l< I I cues (a) Thestutlents giverlo tnodeltext. 0t wel'L. suchas the -ing form..a/r. vai tu4"d ue'rl Lnt*esfzd' at .fu . You are introducing yourself to a penfriend.. . . 2 .aAl. . .c}t6rrt'ic to l6dle ot'iifiyout (i) [Jsethese notesto write a letterto a friend v. n'ordo / .. ahowtrrlt/se/f 0* nf ne lfuw /'d' ti'lto to tillqolt son^erhi*r'q ftu. 1( a ) . l'tttwf.. It is an extract from a letter. . (ii) Usethese notesto write a letterto a friend who wantsadviceabout how to find a newjob: a try to get a job with a new firm/do not go to an agency/buy paper which jobs/..(f @//rs1l ln fi'{ yot'L Jh.tc//tl v -k )-1 'I . Cn clizdrhorrLwnd'.J r'J -) r-J -) I 52 L-) -l H . o m T h i s i s s i m i l a rt o 5 . . Read thefollox'ing. with suggestions instructions about how to completeit.g/ot'LoLtkad' rrty a'drice a.s./do not stavin the town itself/finda quiet hotel just go to .bou. secan'd- v y _rJ --frf ' _f'-a -u _u v F F . Completethis letter with to reference vour own likesand dislikes. Mahz i. This activity can be particularlyusefulfor practisingspecificitems of below.t -_rd 2 That rulnrllds mz.' Eut aoitt qo A. -.fiarnrs"tD' s tLt/re tiwt {hure rffi'tunq wanq wfr. ov' .fl'Ltf.oi'toq-tnost fufuen 'l alrlwgh lw 6/ . nl.i^/d gilt a rue.t tE Tru to qst mr fi'orn sc// his-carrVrhmteh't.etc- bryag a c. as in the example language. ld I ld I -l l v I Uca/l'Jdn'rL.. T h e c u e s a v b e p h a s e d u t s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s For example: producetheir ou'n versions.-. .'hz d.. .f - gf"t/tose b{. l.b L.vefine-!)k'.

I hza'rqotu are oh.>1 l_- L>-1 l-- . Arl -^'4 f-od. --g L: =-.why you boughta verv largebottle .drn n faq e'.Let-wrafuat i't 6s sowt-a-tpoit.e bq l_ e. the themeof to whichis assumed relateto a topic exploredthrougha in lesson the coursebook.---. ---J Gd Yo*o.whereyou sawthe advertisement what the advertisement and claimed (e.whatyou bought(inventa suitable name) .ge fkt /f"r-l/rvbg -rc'urn / ltt'kLe. r l_ L{ Dea.b L- r r-J tlu ond q thz m.be q 1-: l--Lr--{ I hu4 a'rza. The notesin this are example within the frameworkof a letter. we{L.how it affected your skin . B"O 1--LLLL_ l_ L_ =--L}<a L-a -. For to the students may be asked write a shortreply to Bob's letter based on cueslike the following: in Writeback to saythatyott are interested Bob'sproposal but askfor more informationaboutthefollowing points: .. l*ue A.ue nryg-ain-/ W@ da.whatotherexpenses there? are .rug thu /&t.*tet. / "f cot ut (.(?h. a./pe fh%ea'r-fou.ot. a/ t+: tlA. Completethis letter. l-_---- LLl_ .U-e.what the doctorsaid .ttgerne. For example: lotion afterseeing You boughta bottleof perfumeor after-shave an advertisement it. Usethenotesto write and third thesecond paragraphs.rJarh. example.is it easyto find parkingnearthe flat? .'t't a qol't' 6rxz tt '1rr4?r41'rri and..--3 -t---J 1=- L_ l-L--L.ort'4+n4 aowr jab shorcty.L --d t-Ll-r---- DEVELOPING ILLS SK complete (c) Thestudents a text by expanding notes.Arod It all ^rrTlu rut vezry qan-ca'n '/a4aw & whaflfio Likz hgr<. la.g.how muchis the rent? ..Write a letterto thefirm for which madetheprodttct. Theyaregivenguidance the content (d) Thestudents for to but notfor thelanguage be ttsed.why youwantyourmoneyback 53 .tlwre'S 6fi2 qt1at.L ur? At f.-J in Activitieslike thosesuggested (b) and (c) lend themselves to well within the contextalready related writing tasks established. It gaveyou a skin complaint. bat enzpar'torL is luuirtT a.k f ne.n boa"--ows f ov.nls as fulows.'l lw..goodfor the skin) .saying: ./ shprc alL exa'nf'k o"atns*//".J.who are the otherpeoplein the flat? writethecomplete text.what arrangements therefor havingguests? are .

complete (a) . ' . . a n d a s a r u l e ( h e ) i s a l s o . (he) is also . caoita l- l- l- l- 4 Nationality f- 5 Religion l- 7 Education l- B H o w l o n g h a v e y o u b e e n l e a r n i n gE n g l i s h ? l- 9 Wheredid you learnit? l- E 1 0 H a v ey o u e v e rv i s i t e d n g l a n d ? 11 l { s o .thestudents fornts similar to this one. . .s i m i l a r o t h e o n e i n ( a ) . . .4s a prelininary step.L o n d o nW ' 1. . .usingthese choice: careless clever hard working kind lazY nice rude sillY I- t- rI rrr. and sometimes The informationfor reportsmay alsobe derivedfrom completed t f o r m s .suchasbikes.6s h o u l db e c o m p l e t e d n e letters.together are for versiotts. i C o mp l e te t w i th a details bout yo urse l f. i P l e a s w r i t e l e g i b l y ." .buthe neverputs his tools very good at repairing away afterwards. s . guidance of ideas. ( N a r r l ai ) v e r y .O f f i c e : 2 9 B o l s o v eS t r e e t .(he) canbe . 5 f- t- A penfriend h a g e n c y a ss e n t y o u t h i sf o r m . . rt- 54 tt- . or adjectives othersof your own Now writesintilar reports. g i v e d e t a i l s rl- and hobbies of 12 fuief statement interests a f} 1 3 R e a s o n { so r w a n t i n g p e n f r i e n d r o 1 4 D e t a i l s f t y p e o f p e n f i e n dr e q u i r e d l- t'a- f- with cues writingparallel (b) The students givena model text. For example. l t e m s1 . . . .he is things.1fr TEACHINGWRII INU 5KILL5 l'I- Writine short rpnr)l'tq to ma)'alsobe givena guidedintroduction writing reports. r R e g . Read thisshort reportl Alan is very practical.but he is a/sorather untidy. F o r e x a m p l e .l- The studentsmay alsobe given outlinesand askedto write reports on For example: in other students the class. On the other hand.For The students and shouldfocuschieflvon the organisation orderlypresentation this.

.r. after are one. s h e h a s t a k e n a j o b an o f f i c e .r '. . Finallv.Suggestions activities on ior aregivenbelow. Janetis gaining experience through present job. the kit Thismay be doneby drawing systematically theitemsin theAppendix.to familiarise the students with a wider rangeof linking devicisfrom the expanded basic kit. . shewants improveher French .:. identifiing advantages disadvantages) askedto write a parallel and are L' LE lL- 1l-_ f '. . how to dealwith people. ._-Z L L l_ l_ r_-. andby expanding basic of linkingdevices.choosing from a moreextensive is givenbelow. Janetis onty iuit over is sixteen.? .r.. '.g. thevmav be asked serect to from a listwhichis more extensive thanthe number itemsomittedfrom the text.'- - Yz2. languages an essential are qualification an air hostess. . . we canusethis typeof exercise variouspurposes.ri.thev of may be askedto sttppl. .... Look at the details these of two beaches. . A D V A N T A G E S DISADVANTAGES b e au t i f u l easy to get to very rougn sea small beach focusedpractice(e. . s h e . .-:-. .ay using a suitable linking wordsor phrases.'. examplerrom ttre An second stage (i. .v their ovvntinking devices. . list) usesuitablelinking devices the from the box to complete textbelow: also although and and because but but also for for the moment however incidentally in particular in thisway instead meanwhile not only on the otherhand since therefore too >--1 b-a f--{t L: LL---1 1-: l_ l_ ...rJf.t '"i . .1 1=l- Janetwest'ssister an air hostess a famous is for international airline. . .___1 . .)r1. quitea lot aboutthe places onedavhopes she to visit. to andSpanish.4 ll_r--_- DEVELOPING ILLS SK tr r------ (c) Thestudents givena modertextand. write a reportaboutwhichbeach would be suitable a newhotel. (a) Thestudents complete short.e. for First. . . sheis stilltoo young: the minimumagefor an air hostess twenty.. . ''1-. . . .:'' - long sandy beach caimsea ratherflat no main road r L--< 12 r1: l_ LL_ l_ =--4 It hasbeensuggested thiscomponent the writing programme that of shouldbe extended and strengthened varyingthe formatsfor prictice to include by formal letters(for this the students must be givenappropriate models)and reports. . the her officewhereshe worksis atravelagency.. .. for .i.L ).'.3 Sentencelinking and sequencing activities 2 i/. .ti:-: Sunset Beach ' -'*. sheis learning.---J += ).' ffi2. Janetwantsto become one . After this.. rJse for althoughandbecause. . .. foreign ..7: 5.. . a t t e n d s e v e n i n g in classes. . l_ ... .

'she'in placeof 'Janet' v.f . . if the students of the this ri'hether affects meaning the text consider they' should version. . i s s t i l l t o oy o u n g :. is onlyjust oversixteen. A t t h em o m e n t . in formeda dialogue thisway. . international.For example: to be asked supply Use t4)a)t thatthey so in suitable sentences anv.3. Join these form a sequence. B u t i n s t e a d o. . . . . . . . jump from high they For the thingsvou seeon the screen._l E ld jI --z j. wheretheywrotetheirown texts. J a n e t w a n t s t b e c o m e . it sequencing. . o twentvand . that emphasised thereneedbe no oneCorrect in an choose item whichdid not appear the original that. The work of stuntmen . grammar and linksthrough othersemantic consider with the following mightbe presented of firstparagraph the textabove itemsomitted. and to the srammatical lexical contribute sequence. . . whichyou see a s . . as whichwouldappear partof a muchlongerlist.'1 tE-< 'b outline' v. . form texts -1 -. and4.in u'hatu'a. So is What is important version. t h e y . 2 Janet how to dealwith people. job' her through present experience is 1 Janet gaining worksin a travelagency. s u c h w h i c h.theydo not fall onto hard groundbut onto empty buildings. and if so.areoneswhich of cohesion the text. . mustnot become to to getthe students thinkaboutsentence 1 -1 _1 1 ( d ) Thestudents from a listof jumbled sentences.airline. .. .1 I . All the itemsomitted.v.6 the See4. . example.For example.a I I S T E A C H I NW R I T I N G K I L L S G lz j tasks pairsor in small in to lnav Againthe students be asked do these be It possibilities. to textsto get the students \\'e At this stage mav alsouseincomplete the lexis. . with a mattress.here appropriate. should the that theycandiscuss various groups.1 - 56 I v I .she. . is 3 Janet learning she quitea lot aboutthe places one dayhopesto 4 Janetis learning visit. . However.1(c). and for is sister an air hostess a famous JanetWest's . . Thencontplete textbelowso that thesameideasare in expressed a differentw'a\': do They actually mostof to Thereare two sides the work of stuntmen. .ithintheframeworkof a related rex'ritetexts Thestudents For example: the Readthis text. is for an air hostess Janet' one. \L/ -1 F - ts --1 -1 - ts -__4 -_1 - ts __1 -_11 -1 -_4 ---1 - l- . o n t oc a r d b o a r d b o x e s t h e m. to it.u'here students is of Whilethe purpose thisactivity (e). covered boxes cardboard do .theminimumage. They actually almost. so sentences thatThsy combine ( b ) Thestudents form an acceptable may or may eitherbe provided the students to The linkingdevices be used theirown. t o o .

I l I 57 q H -L I . be Look at themap. expository use textswith a clearopening'topic' sentence. l_r-_-{ r L_ I-._1 I A I G c t o f f t h e b u sa r T h e G r e e n l a n . . Elm Lane.--1 :- L -.--J >-- ----- l-: Ll_ =--1 L_ t--a 1-. Narrative textsusuallv havea fairlytransparent sequence and therefore provide goodstarting a point.--1 Number 7 is on thelefr. l I T u r n r r s h r i n t o F i r t r e eL a n e . with the map in the activitybelow. FINsTOCK ['l:i".t I ol tPl €lePhorB la zl (t . Go over the bridge.You canprovidesome framework reference. r_l_- r rL- V/alk around the pond to Hazelbank Road.John livesat 7..As a final of as stage. What directionsmusthegive to hisfriends?Put these instructions theripht in order. Number themI to 7. t: H LLLLLLLLLr-d L1 =-1 =--1 L1 =--4 .He'shavinga party.L 1-" a)-- DEVELOPING ILLS SK l_ Lr--- r L_- LLr--r-_- just a puzzle. Turn right into Elm Lane . Walk alongunril 1'ouget to the library. otherwise the firstsentence should indicated.

r-. o l d g r e yb u i l d i n g s . ideasare organised This may be done in a guidedform at the start. Changethe punctuation. "". For example: to Usethesesentences write a paragraph about thepygmies. and add any necessar)' order They can move easilf in the forest and they are not afraid of it place The forest in the centreof Africa is a dangerous well knou'the forest Pygmies they are verYsmall because A big pygmy is onlYlm 40cmtall there but the pygmiesare haPPY which specificallydirect their attentiotl to the way (e) The studentsdo exercises in a text. l a r g ee x p e n s i v e I r i s v e r y d i f f e r e n tf r o r nt h e W e s t E n d .* ro*'nl I ora I I V I 11 I tz I l- i-"'. s h o p sa n d l o v e l yg r e e n Its old name was Londiniunr.- u .aFI ---4 S W TEACHING RITING KILLS __1 which shows how the ideasin the text can The students be givena diagram havealreadv below. U s e t h e s e a s e n t e n c ets w r i t e a p a r a g r a p h b o u t L o n d o n w i t h t h e s a m ep l a n ' o Edinburgh 1 1 I - *. a r s L o n d o n h a s m a n y s h o p s . For example: I V I -fI f4 1 a1 -1 f- 1 f-4 -1 f-r -1 fl I ft 58 -1 f. parks.u"'*l Fi.the students For havebeenorganised. ro*n *. of the boldman.. togetherwith examplesof the kind are of text which the students requiredto write.l b L l- d e f s s m a l ln a r r o ws t r e e t a n d T h e E a s t E n d h a sa l o t o f c h a r m . c L o n d o n i s E n g l a n d ' s a p i t a lc i t Y . with the help of in information presented tabularform. _1 --1 _1 l i H e r e i s a p l a n o f t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p hn E x e r c i s e. Thismeanshe t I ff- i -1 1 fz I a1 1 to can Sentences be broken dorvninto clauses draw further attention to the logicalstructureof a text. the activitv seena paralleltext.n. e s t a u r a n ta n d t h e a l r e s n d o f i e r sa lot to visirors.

example: 1 2 3 4 Livingin a big city Owninga car Working in an office Beinsa housewife 59 l----- L" -. ll-. it is probably betterto liveon your own! are The students thengiventopics whichcanbe writtenaboutwithina For similarframework. By taxi. tr g L F l_ L-d Destination Alternatives Timefor I Vzhour 10mins 5 mins 7+hour I alrport sportsground motor show theatre hospital port coach tube taxi on foot bus boat z taxi bus tube taxi on foot bus L--{ =-1 *Useanysuitable periodof time You cango to the airporteitherby coachor by taxi. This may be shownthrough diagram. theother .is to (0 Thestudents writetextsbased a model that hasa clearlogical on develooment.--1 r_ L_ l_ l_ L-. is alsocheaper.L ---J !-_ !--_ L-_ -1 DEVELOPING ILLS SK r_l_- Study the two texts. Then write similar textsof your own. Thereare two waysof gettingtd the sportsground:eitherby tube or by bus.it takes only ten minutes. to form part of a letter telling someone how to get to a place.on the otherhand. to go by tube. then. takes least it at half an hour. while if you go by bus. it All in all. suggest second I the possibility.it may takeyou over twentyminutes. If you go by coach.My advice you.--l-. ----a =_-J .you maynot havemuchprivacy and. which are based on information given in the table. For that reason. example: a For TOPIC r r-l_ !. ----L" ---- L- r=--. onething.you do not haveto For do all the housework yourself Besides.moreover.-{ L_ L_ l-.-1 a Sharing flat hascertain advantages.-1 Flatsharing 2 ADVANTACES D I SADVANTAGES =-z ---J 1_ 2_ CONCLUSION =---1 .By tube it only takesten minutes.1 4 L" =-Z U . maybe noisy. it On hand.on the other hand.

trytLss b44f/unratl u alsobe more challenging. With thistypeof writing maY activity. b u t t h e i m P o r t a ntth i n g .a 1 k -1 .."utty appreciate etc.E S TEACHINWRITING KILLS G v v F -1 _1 --_1 ---1 5..the students / rtfr.e/ rfuose h44et they are askedto Produce ptue a.rg fhn4nrd toseelng | Yo/+ as of coursemakemistakes. -_-1 - v -1 -_-1 : v v v I I I -1 = ..Theyshould. a dictation someu'hat u. it focuses of transformation u'hatis heardinto its writtenform.I- v v I L -1 . .1 -.here and the listening careful alsoinvolves of activity this Like dictation. -u v r< I !:.a-"5.k L as to and You shouldalsoencourage help the students find penfriends a way of conductall From time to time you can also practice. the firstinstance on a much 6t rir. tinguag. maywrite key reading.This and notes typeof activity.). from the point of view of PSDoTitfo lotel motivation. (+d"!) tf y* *ry _r< I k I =.lrd t r'n<) Yaw ccr..k v 1 I shouldmatchthe activities that communication it At thisstage.. with freeoral expression. on wordsandphrases the board. (+ cot44. tt. so that in on devices frameworkof linking wordsand sequencing aroundwhichthe text canbe a structural'skeleton' effectwe givethe students 'reproduced'.5.rtt more something TheYmust substantial.. u'riteto wherethe students can one anotherin the class still be usedprovidedthat m2. lesson requests. moreextensive comparedwith the modest messages tasksof sending (see4. (+e*act tot. instructions. they artificialexercise.In eithercase'we thusensure We may alsowrite a just a testof memorY.. we Alternatively. that the students Theseresemble to of instead beingasked take thisdown readalourlto them. in thisway.4 Reproduction exercises haveto iistento a text whichis in dictations. theymayfill in with their own failsthem' their memorvof the original u.hich makes by segment segment. is important 5. our own We to relates another. type much However.5 throughthe written form themselves to Commu n i c a t i o n growingu6itityof the Iearners express be in therefore. that the activitydoesnot become the board.is to that writing is demonstrate a purposefulactivitY. activities scale. r< 1l lz -1 -v -1 fr 60 I f-. communication extending throughthe mediumof writingso that the students entirely or part oith. . (usuall-v threeor more)before text a numberof times listento the complete theyareaskedtou'rite.however. how one of meaning a text andin particular the more on grasping overall 'rules'for this activity. canalsomake sentence to maybe allowed makebrief notesduringthe final the students For example.Thei'arethenrequiredto'reproduce'thetextthey words but as haveheardasaccurately possible. of to remind the students someof the main ideas. in whatis involved givingandreceiving . < tn .. az .However.

5. Theycando this anonymously theyprefer. They are interviewed a memberof the agency by and fill in the form. . Their immediate taskis to devise form on which they canrecord a information aboutthe houses flatswhichtheir'clients' givethem or will whentheycometo seethem.L ).-.-1 !--L l_r---J DEVELOPING ILLS SK r L t In the activities below.whichis intendedto indicatetypicalactivities ratherthan to be exhaustive. They shouldalsofind a namefor their agency. on the basis of which a final description their houseis worked out. that the wholeclass readthem.moreuseis now madeof roleplay. Thesedescriptions of are then written up and displayed. makingsure that no one getshisown letter.J t-l-: L .It may be the housethey actuallylive in or an imaginary one. be D i v i d et h ec l a s sn t og r o u p se a c h e p r e s e n t i n g N e w sD e s k ' . list The of suggestions below. l_-. at Insteadof estate agencies.J l_- Ask eachstudent the class write two or threeitemsof news(realor in to imaginary). These replies should thenbe givento the students who wroteto the column. Eachitem should be morethanabout50-60 rvords not long andduplicate copies should madeof eachitem. Tell the students theotherhalf of the class in that they arepeople who wantto selltheirhouses to buy another. asking helpwith a personal for problem. . The 'clients'then choose whichagency they want to go to. Sub-divide half into threeor four groups. The activitymay be repeated a later stagewith the rolesreversed.il 1-LL.Distribute letters the amongthe groups. although to not the exclusion other activities of wherethe students write as themselves. ( b ) TheMagazineAdvice ColLtmn 'advice Write the names a number magazine of of columns'on board.---J t)-.--z l_ tr I I -t I 1-. and Each of them shouldwrite somenotesdescribing housethey want the to sell.--J H ]. one depending the sizeof the class. if Dividethe class into smallgroups. canbe r'ead thosewho want to and by buy a house. eachone representing staffof the an advice column. the Theseshouldbe discussed the class that they know what kind of rvith so 'problems' eachone deals with. l_- q r--{ 5. o r et h u no n e ' d e s k ' w i l l g etth es a m e t e m )a n da s ke a c h m i 61 L -. frequentlyinvolves someform of collaboration the writins in task.--J !).andaskthemto write replies these to letters.1 ( a ) TheEstate Agency Roleplay activities Divide the class into two.. so can (c) TheNewsDesk 1--- H L I l_- r l_r-- fl-: LLLl- r-J f-. on Tell eachof thesegroupsthat they represent estate an agency. i r a' Distribute itemsof nervs the amongthe various (because desks the-va r ei n d u p l i c a t e . Alternatively. secondhand firmscanbe usedasan car alternative setting.They shouldalsohavesomeideaof the housethey would like to buy. both the letters andreplies may be writtenup asrvall sheets. Then askall the students the class write to one of the advice in to columns.

in these a with two or more other students. Divide the class to the Then distribute letters products. a numberof these for advertising These write their replies. '. Eachgroupshould report.After eachgroup has precautions ask up its list of rulesand regulations. eachof thesefirms and ask into groupsrepresenting Divide the class a them to write their replies.starting protestagainst .safety (fire. publicprotestor a notice collaboration or the against proposal. (d) Joh vacaltcics --z _u -1 -4 'job vacancies' fiveor sixbig firmsand askeach in a Distribute list of jobs (giving for to student write a letterof application one of these d p e r s o n a l e t a i l sr. on abouteitherthe productor the ad to the and to write a letterof complaint firm concerned. etc.) for a holidaycamp. -_-1 _H v v _1 v -1 _1 ts . suchasa new certainbuilding.e a lo r i m a g i n a r y ) . a groupor club.what they proposeto do. . pullingdown a a facilityof somekind. or tenniscourts:by wideninga street. in then announce.they shouldsuggest dateand time beenfilled.< a4 4 _f1 - y - _1 v _1 -v I -'1 1 -v 1 -v --1 -v . a eachrepresentingbig firm responsible into groups.-) fG I I y T E A C H I N GW H I I I N U s K I L L 5 v group to edit their iternsso as to producea ne\\'sbulletin. and firmsandaskthemto discuss the appropriate u'howrotethe letterof complaint.At leasttwo groupsshouldwork on the sametask their notices. the form of a press is Each studentin the class then invitedto respondto one or more of by for proposals: example. so that they cancompare ( h ) Rulesand regulations into groupsand askeachgroupto draw up a list of rules Divide the class to and regulations controla certainsituation:for example.. them to compare finisheddrawing thesewith thoseof other groups. be sentto the person should (f) Campaigns on andaskeachgroupto decide someaction into groups Dividethe class by theywouldtaketo improvetheirtown:for example. has for an interviewor saythat the vacancy already ( e ) Complaints - v -4 _1 ---z v v y - -1 -1 a from magazines varietyof adsfor well-knownproductsand paste Select one of theseads to in Ask eachstudent the class choose these to cards. a starting pop for example.by providing swimmingpool. writing to the press. raisingfundsfor . .Ask eachgroupto draw up a market research Divide the class shouldthenuseone of product.by writing.etc. hygiene. etc. Eachstudent for questionnaire a certain in otherstudents the class' to questionnaires interview these OL v -1 1 -v -1 -v I -H -4 La . Divide the class . which can then b e r e a da l o u dt o t h e c l a s s . by writing to for calling a meeting protest with the proposal' concerned lettersto the persons anonymous (g) Notices Ask eachto drawup a noticeon a giventopic: into groups. etc.In these.V (i ) Market research into groups.

These should pinnedon the class be noticeboard or circulated round the class a folder. students in the maybe asked reporton new to records on filmsthevhaveseen. reportmay be The by places interest. r L_ r . (b\ Publicinterviews who is rvillingto be interviewed cometo the front of the Ask a student to him aboutsomeexperience.Similarly. (c) Private interviews Ask eachstudentin the class intervierv to anotherstudentaboutsome whichhe hashad. accompanied a mapshorving location various the of of etc.L_ r---iJ DEVELOPING ILLS SK 5. Each the student should alsomakehisown copyof the description. themto compare into ask notesandto an various compile account whatrvas of saidby combining ideas. these shouldbe readaloudand compared. (d) Book reports Ask each student writea reporton a book he hasread.6.sportsfacilities of . Dividethe class Giveeachgroupthe taskof describing one feature theirtown. Thenform newgroups. representative each the original of and askthemto write a full reporton theirtorvnbased these on descriptions. experience Eachstudent should then write a rough version from his notesand showthis to the personhe interviewed beforewritingup the finalversion.--t r-{ 63 L-- U ---t g .. Ask the otherstudents question to pleasant unpleasant whichhe hashad.goodplaces eatat . thereis If library. Whenthe groups havefinished writingtheirversions. class. to etc. makingsurethat theycontain least at one from groups.--- .localindustries. .L -t f --_L_ L---.g.The noticeboard in may alsobe usedas the location someof the activities for in suggested 5.and to makenotes.jokes. various The references be shouldthen rvith cclmpared one another._-al I--l ---r G-- L_ L_ L_ rt-_- r r=---L a_r-r__- --r -- r 1_r rr{ --t --t l-L_ r-r-- L_ f --L_ --L_ -./oticeboard Ask the students writeadsor notices things to rvhich for theywouldlike to sellor to buy.If thereis a class to library.the book reports no class maybe circulated in amongthe students the class a folder.2 Reportwriting activities (a) Ourtown into groups.andto makenotes. Foiexample: of .e.5. graffiti.{ f_-----t -1 r L_u u u r u -4 -=-- --t .or simply'hello'messages otherstudents the class. or (e) l.entertainment facilities writetheirdescription sucha way that the Eachgroupshould in feature described sounds attractive someone to visiting town.he should choose book from thisandplacethe reporthe has a writteninside bookfor theguidance prospective the of readers.places interest . 'problems'. to in (f) References Ask eachstudent the class request leasttwo otherstudents write in to at to him a character reference. or Dividethe students groups.

. S c H o o L in pairsor smallgroups. to whencompleted. They mustalso and askthemto edit the various rvallsheets. their sussested (b) Writing clues crosswords for .vanother O c I R c U S group)like the one here.t you suggest Can money? for problems oneor more otherpairsor groups to Theythensendthese solutions. (theschoolcaught I vou becarne Ministertomorrow' you had to live withoutwater a monthI . should displayed the clther be ---J IJ IJ --/ I I - 5. It's a very of €.role descriptions also(d) (see usingquestionnaires quizzes.9.is especially jumbledtexts.6 Writingfor fun for suggested fun writingin Chapter We cango on usingmanyof the activities horv to to it 4. These the crossu'ord G A R A G E canbe literal. .000)at once. . P A R K They then haveto writethe t3l L I B R A R Y 'clues' (whichvou rvould F A c T o R Y normalli'begivento comPlete puzzle).imaginarl'diaries u'ritingaboutpictures just a few we morethan writingaboutpictures particular canbeginto expect in sentences ideasiotteddou'n.ould fire 1'oudo if . o o I ]-1 .1 -.A place wheretheytry hard to teachyou things. It's like a kind of prison. These u'illbe arranged the u'allsheet.tn z o o \:-/ givena crossword puzzle (perhaps madeup b. .-1 I -k I o F -1 F _1 o I _u v I -1 l1 -1 _u -1 _u 64 1 _z ]-1 .4 _1 :- working For thisthe students. and (a) Posing problems u'orking pairsor smallgroups.s. In factit is important do thisbecause demonstrates the students in as muchmorethev cangetout of an activity their proficiency the language importantto go on it increases.-1 =1 rJ L-a }-r r. . You go therewhent-ouare (six)andyou are After that.allsheet for rvallsheet itemsof Ask eachstudent writea contribution a class to into threeorfour Dividethe class neu. it is usuallvdifficult to geta job .g. and bubbles. . place wheretheytry to teach unpleasant 'free'whenyou are (sixteen). .these for students read. itemsof generalinterest. of Alternatively. on decide hou. . suchas: Prime Whatw. For and speech and below).rs geningor ntaking Weneed(f 1. Amongstthe activities suggested.the 'clues'canconsist a series sentenceS. . or amusing. class groups contributions.for school: \:-/ H o T E L You go thereto study.J ) >t >r -l I I I (g) C/cssu. in think up problemsituations The students. you things.e. are . .)? I for of somewa.z u . .

*./ow wont to vha.movins round the boardfirstfrom left to right..For example: for A If you havesomething eatin your bag.the role description intended a specific is for personand shouldaim to be amusing.likesd. they look at the instructions (giien in alphabetical order)to find out abouttheir move.4rh.'-p4ff" want to be a/Uz to shop quiakhl /.. on S TART r-<I r-{ r-{ U f L_ I--r I-<l f U r--r_{ I-<l B R K L X J F o H A T V V O C Z C v L .1o{t * ?.rA*.) Li*z.--- . C Unlessyou know how to ride a bike. Fot-e.nd.s frrc slwVfteepar a. on in The text involves moresentence linkingandsequencing the earlier than activity. yo*r /hth/./. workingin groups.the students. F A I N F o w M Y X H D V B S V K T P HOM L --t -J O --<ta LLl_r=-Lf fr----f ( d ) Role descriptions This is a more advanced versionof the activitydescribed 4. To play this game.r wd.ved in thz d&age u. qor+ diiln't hd. L ---t r r'r' =- You.Awnyowher a. haveto write instructions each for letterof the alphabet the board.ve M 4 a- r r--t -.. Yot+A.kz e /st { cnarryes.to tua.go forward3 squares. can write theirown instructions movingroundthe board.) 4 blgfctin' ..rna'me ls Ja<X. tVat .ve /r'rt/o/.d.. For this activitythe students.//d.h)^/o{.An..nd .when they landon a square. to B If you wentto bedbefore10o'clocklastnight.the students take it in turnsto throw a dice.-1 A goat noL (f* husba.go back2 squares.Arfk.wr . once again. L L cwol. then right to left (etc.followin! the arrows).) ( A supet'n"a...ng /.Lvnonog . . . r --{ r t -Ja .ar_{ ) E V E L O P I NS K I L L S G lr={ I_ r__{ (c) Instructions a game for L_ f f --_-f I-<l For the simple boardgame below.qSna-rohu.The firstplaverto reach'home'is the winner. go backfive squares. (/*.6 (f).but is still a relatively straightforward pieceof writing. The in students haveto produce descriptions whichcouldbe usedfor simple simulation situations (based perhaps characters the coursebook). a. r. therefore.4 65 L-41 l-_ r r.P f L: t--{ Z..

(b) "I'm not surprised."Now he wantsto seethe fiIm. write a description a well-known of person. -1 G R O U P S X C H A N G ES C E N A R I O S E ^1 k GROUPSWORK OUT AND \\TRITE DIALOGUE. _a _-1 GROUPS CT OUT SCENARIOS A _1 a1 (f) ItnccurateaccoLttlts The students." the mansaid. or shortstories giveto oneanother decide to how to actout."The coffee's verygood. ETC." (d) A man oncetook his elephant friendto the cinema.2. workingin groups. placeor thingor an account an eventwhichcontains of some deliberate mistakes fact. workingin groups." elephant the said." not (c) "He's readthe book.6 (e).1(c) in the whichthe1. !4 1 < F F tI I lJ -1 TWO TALL STORIES _1 Make two stories with these sentences: (a) The womanwho u'assitting behindthe elephant couldn'tsee. the (g) Jumbledstories This is similarto 4.The stories then cut are up into separate groupto sortout into the sentences givento another and two orisinalstories.k fG ( e ) Scenarios 4 u'orking groups.Thuswe havean activitv the actual whichdevelops follows: as G R O U P S I S C U S SA N D W R I T E S C E N A R I O S D t -4 -1 -1 e. Noticethat the scenario opportunities talk but doesnot giveany of for has words. (g) "Why haveyou brought thiselephant here?"sheasked.have to write two shortstories aboutfour to six sentences of each."the waitersaid. in 1 fi 1 _l1 1 1 1 --a --a - 66 1 -1 l- . The students.The groups of thenexchange whattheyhave writtenand try to detect inaccuracies.The stories canbe aboutthe same person a similar or event. (e) The waitergaveoneto him andthe elephant drankit. except that the students. (0 One day an elephant went into a caf6and askedfor a cup of coffee. rvrite'scenarios'like onein 5. in (h) "We don't seemanyelephants here.

2 Thereis a rope between two trees. 67 L. the students These or to Ask discuss writeout the related and story.-1 ---1 U) Headlines Give eachgrouponeor moreheadlines.detail. l_. orallyor in writing.The important of thingis for themto usetheir imagination.1 L.-1t i= l_l-_-l_l_ -.---J --1 .-J.He is walkingfrom left to right.Give onesuchpictureto eachgroupand askthe students work in pairsto work out a description one or more to of pieces.-1 1--LL-. . 3 Draw a manon the rope.J --1 ---J lI--l t.---1 l-r--J L _t-. u lL_ ).L I 1. l_ -. workingin groups. are The groups thenexchange instructions try to drawone another's and pictures. etc. . oneon the left of the pictureandthe otheron the right.----1 l_-- DEVELOPING ILLS SK L: L: -. They mustdecidehow muchdetailfheywant to include(theycanof course change their pictureat thisstage) they mustmakesurethat their but instructions clear. Ideas mr)re itre important thanformallycorrect lf languaee. Whentheyhave writtenout theirdescriptions.L_ L_ -/-.but not too much. Theyshould look at oneanother's not pieces. . l_l_-. For example.--J .Whentheyhavedescribed.Theythenwork out the stepby stepinstructions for drawing these. a finalstage As theychecktheirpictures against original the ones. . the picture: for 1 Draw two trees.--1 (h) Jigsawwriting Cut up anysuitable picture: should it havea clearoverallstructure and some. thoseshown the nextpage.--z .He is wearing a hat andhe hasa stickin his handand . haveto drawa simple mapor picturelike the onesbelow. theycancheck thisagainst visual.It is aboutfour feet from the the ground.At thislevel(andfor the purpose of thisactivity) students the should be asked try to writea newspaper not to account the story.-11 --1i L]---Ji Lr-_J r_J l_- L_ LL_ L.the complete picture. the (i) Instructions drawinga map or picture for The students. . should they put awaytheirpieces try to and work out what the pictureasa wholelookslike from what they have written.. like on canbe invented takenfrom realnewspapers.

e y c r . a l .J a book titlescanalsobe usedto stimulate similar R e a l o rimaginary activity. 1 ]-1 I t }J DIE JOO-AIVD HEALTHIIR rl |/ . l f a l l g r o u p s a ' e t h e s a m e the across clltss' Versions crinalsoconlpare V v. (a) dialogue be iUi rorn.fl? !r_1 1l fd .-1 Y Vl vou cilll cc)lllpare h o g .1 V I j.. [4Rs J U ST cnEr v -1 FRIENDS v. r i g i . t h e h e a d l i n c c 0 l 1 es f r r l t t t a r e a l l l e \ \ ' s p a p e r .It sometimes .f A.ififfiffi. tormalletteru'ritingshould introduced' Give reasons. ry._ l'_ i 68 i rr l I .il1 I f- I- I- I i r- Dis cu s s i o n that: with the suggestion or Saywhetheryou agree disagree be writingshould continued. I V I (k) Graffiti may fromtimeto time:thisactivity like Moststudents to writeon walls themto be morecreative! encourage graffiti.. .Iike those of someexamples imaginative Give the students below. rr_ r.i= . Atcw is everyvvhere iurr.For example: 1 .rs il[r'ffi)k hand at writing in Then askthem (individuallv. ]4 y h e a d l i n e s 'o u h t h c i r' e r s i r ) ' \ \ ' i t ht h e. pairsor groups)to try their or a location' an helpsto suggest event their own graffiti._1 tteogrqpn).

5 .-1 writingseeA Pincas On guided (1982a) pages I0Z-9 andS Holden(ed) ( 1 9 8 3p a g e s 9 .L-1 l--1 r)--z ---1 ll_. ) 4 For the technique interviewing class N coe in S Holden(ed) of the see (1983).5and5.-1 LLl_-.5. Devise exercise an similar the onein 5. wantsto improveher Frenchand In she Spanish because foreignlanguages an importantqualification an air are for hostess. 3( c ) . a J For writtencommunicative activities J Harmer(1983) see pages 132-140. similar the finalone in 5.5and5.1 r--J t_ r--J I ' Devise otherexercises similar thosein 5. Also L Wineron conducting lesson a through writing. palmerand M D Byrne TrackJ (Longman 1983)5.---. Now completethe exercise the end of 5.' --LLL. However.similarto one in on 5 . 2 .3(d)firstexample. 3 ( a ) .But shealsoattends evening classes.---1 Lr_-__-1 In whatwaysdo manyof the writingtasks proposed thischapter in involvea muchcloser integration thanat earlier stages with otherlanguage activities in the classroom? vou agree Do with thisdevelopment? Many of the activities proposed thischapter in wouldinvolvemoreclass time beingspenton writing. are to write an exercise.I(a).3 (a): text JanetWest'ssister an air hostess a famousinternational is for airlineand Janetwantsto become onetoo. For the officesheworksin is a travelagency.3 (a) to practise at grammatical and lexical cohesion.2.2. to This is the complete for 5. Devisea rewritingactivitv. of (or a suggest otheractivities similar thoseproposed 5.givethe exercise a friend for checking.3(d)second example. this way sheis learning In not only how to dealwith peoplebut alsoquite a lot aboutthe places one she day hopesto visit.5 7 .2. LLL_ LL.6arelikelyto resultin the students in makingmistakes. After you havejumbled to up the items.J r---ill --1 --<tl ---/t }J ---1 References r---J --_4 L. 4 For writingactivities thislevelseeT Hedge(1983a at and 1983b). particular. is For the momentshehastakena 16bin an office.) 5. Juppand T J M i l n e ( 1 9 8 0 ) .6.2.2(b) and ( c ) . 69 L -. MeanwhileJanetis gainingexperience throughher present job. J H a r m e r l t e r i d i a nL o n g m a n 9 8 55 .2so that the cuesarephased to out and the students asked writethe finaltext unaided. Many of the activities 5.based the text in 4 above. Doesthisworryyou? Exercises l-LL_ -.--l_Ll-=r__J -. and (i) andA pincas (g) writingin English (ivlacmillan 1 1982) 5.L - ---.I for practising to dialogue writing at the post-elementary level.( ca n d( e ) .3 (d). 3 ( c ) : ) i ( 1 ) T HedgePento Paper (Nelson 1983) 5. s a ) Examples writingactivities thischapter of in havebeentakenfrom: D Byrne Functional Comprehen^slon (Longman 1986 newed.sheis still too young:the minimum agefor an air hostess twentyandJanetis only just over slrteen.Jt Lr_J DEVELOPING ILLS SK !-: aa._-1 l>--J r t-: .Do you think that thiswouldnecessarily a wrong be way of using class time?Givereasons. AP i n c a ( 1 9 8 2 b n d 1 9 8 2 ca n dL W o o d s( 1 9 8 6 ) . From vour own experience teaching learning) foreignlanguaee.6(b). to for L.

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to Texts- read or listened - offer a naturalcontextfor a wide rangeof and reactby making a note, We often read or hear something activities. writing might equallywell be However.our response for eximple. or writing a letter. oral and itrir t inO of linked reaction.with a variety of skills taking place, will be skills in Chapter 8. This chapterwill be more dealt with under Integrated the important, though often neglected,skills of notenarrowly concernedwith taking and summarising.First, however,we willlook briefly at various types of comprehensionactivity. sincethis can also be a useful and effectiveway of p r o r i d i n gw r i t i n gp r a c t i c e .





way of providing Comprehensioneierciseson a text are a weli-established 6.2 various kinds, and it is not the purposeof this sectionto Co m p r e h e n s i o n writing practiceof can be in examini the wide range of possibilities this area. Many such exercises activities


I -1

are whetherstatements on done orally: for example.questions a text, deciding lseconveniertr ask for theseto be done in writing but to true or false, etc. It ma1' in this is not intrinsicto the task. On the other hand, there are certainsituations rvhich it rs appropriateto chooseu'riting as the medium of response. require the studentsto This is particularly the caseu'hereexercises examine the meaningof the text very carefully: for example,if they are asked in evidence the text to support certain to decideu,hetherthere is sufficient like areimplied by the text. In cases statementsor whether certain statements they are this the studentscannot be expectedto respondquickly because in probably having to examinethe meaningof severalsentences order to find the answers. of Getting the studentsto write out answers this kind is also a way of them to usewriting for activitieswhich require thought and encouraging precision- precisionwhich perhapscan only be attained after several on can collaborate the precluded: students attempts.Oral work is not of course follow-up' thesetasksand there can be somewhole class

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Sometypes comprehension may alsocallfor the production of task of two or moresentences: is. a shorttextof somekind. This,for that e.xample, ,igh, be the typeof re-writing exercise suggested 5.3 (c) or drscussron in type questions whichcallfor the learner owt't s' responses certain to ideas expressed in the text.Exercises the latterkind areespecially of valuable because irr.v allowthe writtenmediumto be used the .*pr.rrion of personal for opinion within a context provided the text. by Another typeof rewriting exercise frequently usedis the guidedsummary, illustrated 6.2-1 in below.Thiscanbe a useiulpreparation summary for writing based moreextensive on texts(see 6.3.Z). 6'2'1 Guidedsummary writing:an example Sometypes guided of summary rvriting verymuchmorecontrolled are thanthe one below'For example, siudents giventhe actual the are sentences be used to in the summary merely and haveto link thlse with appropriate connecting wordsand phrases, whichare alsoprovided.Althougirthis givesthe students practice continuous in writing,it doesnot teachsummarising skills, rvhich must involvesomeform of note-taking. Noticein the example beiowguidancefir the summary providedthroughquestions the texi, to which is on it is suggested that the answers shouldbe in note form. Today,air traveris far saferthan drivinga car on a busy motorway. But thereis a danger that growseveryyear.Airlinersget laigerand laiger. Somecancarr.y 300 And -over passengers. the air itseribecori., nror. uiJ more crowded.If one giantairlinercrashed into anotherin mid_air. 600 livescould be lost. From the momentan airrinertakesoff to the momentit lands,every movementis watched radarscreens. trafficcontrollers on Air tell the pil,ot exactlywhen to turn, whento climb and when to comedown. The air trafficcontrollers arounda busvairport like London-Heathrow may handle 2500planes day.Not all of themactually a landat the airport.Any prane that fliesnearthe airportcomes underthe ordersof the controllers there. Even a smallmistake theirpart couldcause disaster. on a Recentlysucha disaster almosthappened. Two largejets rvere flying towardsthe airport.one wascarrying69 puss.ngers and had comefrom Toronto. The.other wascarrying176passlng..riro* chicago.An air trafficcontrollernoticedon his radaricreenihut the two planes weretoo close eachother.He ordered to one to turn to the rightandto climb.But he madea mistake. orderecr wrongprane Jo this. He the to So,instead of turningawayfrom the second plane,tne nist planeturnecr torvards it. Fifteenseconds laterit flewdirectry front oi tt. second in plane.They avoided eachotherby thesmallest of a second. part The distance between themwasless thanthatof a larseswimming pool.Thisis an example the of danger that grows evervyear. Describethe disa.ster olntosthoppened.write oneparagraphof about thut eighty words. Answerthese questiorts note irt pomts; fonn to getyoLtr 1) What werethe tu'oplanes doincat the time,/ 2) Wherehadthevcorne from'l 3) What did an air trafticconrroller ancl tlo rvhvJ 71

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-1) What was the result'l -5) What \\'asnarro\\'lvavoided'l to This type of activitvis a usefulfirst stepin gettingstudents make notes u'ith. lt doesnot. of course,shou'themhow to ivhichthey will do something make notes.which is a problemrvervill now look at.

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6.3 and Note-taking summarising

to and summarising* writing tasksat of The relevance the skillsof note-taking thel' are a commonfeatureof many writing this level shouldnou' be apparent: u'hichrelatein somewav to what we haveread or heard.sincewe activities them in someother often make a note of certainideasand then re-present that and it is essential form. These.then. are importantskillsfor the learners 'classroom' that they are artificial not be left rviththe impression thev shoulcl valueexceptfor the purposeof passing practical which are of little activities. to according certain and this too only if they are executed examinations. Yet this is how thel'are to formulas.This appliesparticularlv summarising. are the and practised: students askedto take noteswith commonlvpresented in purposein mind and to u'ritesummaries a wav u'hichinvolves no specific both distortionand contortion.lt is not deniedthat there is an important in (or elementof control and discipline at leastself-discipline) theseactivities, meaningfulactivities bur the purposeof this can bestbe broughthome through applied. mechanically rather than by procedures alsobe clearthat theseare skillsthat cannotbe fully developed It should until the learnershave reacheda certainproficiencyin the language,althoughit basis. them on areceptive will be arguedthat u'e can and shouldfirst present look like in relation what notesand summaries s areshon,n That is. the learner to an original text. There are alsosimple taskswhich the learnerscan be asked to perform before thev carrv out activitieson a more extensivescale. just hou,difficulttheseskillsare, evenfor the nativeuserof To appreciate what is involvedin them. With u'e the language. would do well to consider for note-taking. example.we haveto be ableto identify key items in a text. much more and clearl.v test of comprehension itself a searching which is in when at leastwe have the difficult if u,e are listeningrather than reading, the opportunityto scrutinise text at leisure.We aisohaveto be able to reduce theseitems in a way that is at leastsufficientto allow us to retrieve or compress callsfor a good abbreviation The task of meaningful their originalmeanin-q. these works. Likewisethe ability to re-present knowledgeof how the language text. with an key ideasin sucha wav that thev constitute acceptable than is much closerto advanced and appropriatesentence-linking sequencing. the guidedwriting. While it mav be true that, when we are summarising' text 'content' of what we write. in many respects is more it u'ith the provides us elses thoughtsthan to of Oifncultto operateu'ithin the constraints someone produceour own.





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r< *For convenience, note-takingis usedto refer to the activityboth of making noteson a text which that noteread and of takingnoteson a text which hasbeenheard.It is acknou'ledged has been is taking is itsella form of suLmarising.Hou'ever,summarising usedhere to refer to the activitl' of to n ,e-priseuti,tg ,ho.t.r versionof thCoriginaltext. althoughnot according any set prcscription. such as usinea given number of q'ords.





e. sclz.--1 --1 -'1 6. example.tuls By comparing possible of notes canaskthe students identify two we sets to rvhatinformation beenpreserved both andwhatotherinformation has in each writer hasincluded omitted.uqhters '*-fhis can [re hcgtrnat an cltrlic'rstagcilnd prlctisctl l r t r n tt i r n c t ( ) l i r n e r r sl p r c p l r r l t i ( ) n { ) r I n ( ) r c i c \ l ( ' n \ i \L 'r r ( ) l c .L )_a l_l_ l - FORWRITING: CONTEXTS THEUSEOFTEXTS L-{ tr_ l_ i: r_ l_ r_--1 ---J -. thatwe canalsousenumerals symbols.who wasbornon December is 6. in thiscase.For example: l_ ---L l_ -. thereare no magic although formulas. f We may alsousefullycontrast one setof noteswith another.articles auxiliary and connectives. wife'snameis Jovce. is since note-taking to someextenta personal activity.wi./n-an. .We canalsoexamine or someof the devices which havebeenused. His Thevhavethreechildren: onesonand two daughters. e l- ---1 -.1 Note-taking It hasbeensuggested the initialphase note-taking* that of shouldconsist mainlyof showing learners the what notes look like andof demonstrating that. the notes for and how by takingthe firstsvllable the rvord)andwhether of otheronesarepossible (for for school).1 =-J 2 da.---J !-. v n r and.perhaps moreimportant.ilh borrclgtl I Unchtr worritd.1 --1 -4 ---<J econdaty --4 -1 -. therearea number wavsof reducing text to notes that a of so ideas it arenot lost. secondary) discuss thiswasmade(i. It will alsohelpstudents be shorvn to different waysof setting notes out. canpresentboth a text and a setof to how notes we notesandexamine horvthe writerarnvedat his notes.especiallv you arereading longtext.1957.-J ---2 -.l2.We should in the fundamental start. whichthereis only one example of of in (sec.-41 l-L--{ L--' l-. examination evenshortsets notes the of of like these reveals thatwe canomit pronouns. I J Jh.t/ . .For if a n b e x a m p l ew h e r e o h nS m i t h ' a s o r n . JohnSmith.fec. LL_ Ll_ .therefore. a secondary school teacher.For example.h em o d e l b e l o rd o e s o t c o m m i t h e mt o a n vp a r t i c u l ao r d e r . F o r e x a m p l et.l i l k i n r c t i irt i c s .thril/. canalsobegin and and We to look at the question abbreviations.t h e n a m eo f t h es c h o oh e t e a c h eis a n d . showing by relate a text.3.t c . verbs.' L_ l_ ---z l_ l_ )-z l_ l-l_ l_-L l_l_ lLt- Ja* frurl4 Btrn : b. allou's additional related information be to addedin at the rightpoint. J l n t h e s u b i e c t s ..For example. :g -1 =--1 -__1 / -'.scho4 tqa'ohtr WLJA t)yu I son Z earyh.

c.and this is Mani' gamesand gamelikeactivities their real importance. usenotes:talk.l\...d 74 -1 f-d z . ---1 -1 )-2 B . be carriedout with fairly long texts.D. that notes:for example.too.' Students than simplymaking a stringof notes. and consider a v'ith the students possibleset of notes.1 -u y -1 u lv I f . of aspects the text and to both in order to focustheir attentionon specific ensurethat they keep their notesshort.comparenotes v. to put thesein the order in u'hichthe1.we ma1.The activities of the studentson page75 show how it is possibleto focus the attention of particularaspects a text (in this case. ) r-J --l I ) IJ -_z u. u.bracketwords or phrases Finally.the useof to chartsobligesstudents be concise. c. 1.ill be found useful:this is a variationon Describe draw. involvekeepingnotes. Lz B. Instead of trying to drau' a picture which for someonedescribes them without their being ableto seeit.one for readingfollowed by a related to). individually or in coliaboration.\\'ecan underlinekev items. are one for listening more enjoyable it because is intrinsically enjov this kind of activitl.is to ask to the students identifl'the main ideasin a text.They can then either compare notes and subsequentl. . . can be omitted.rhich the pointsthey needto make a note of. u'hen*'e first askthe students take notes.]a - .J v.-z 1 f. and ask them dealtwith in the text.< 1 I Usually the studentsfeel more comfortable making notesas a first stage(rather than being askedto try to draw the picture straightoff) and. .. of course.carry out one of the following tasks: .i' or write -1 a-{ I a-J I ]1 I ].'are they may be askedto identifl.it is helpful. drar.Equally important.a s kq u e s t i o n s a n d m a k en o t e s L ).we in can give them a list of the main ideas. Subsequently. D .to givethem somesort of framework on u'ithin which to u'ork.v.we can work out possible contractions. r.themain ideasfor themselves. D .the activitv doesgive them an immediate use for the notesthey have made. . c . write a descriptionof the picture B. in the form of a chartto be completed. draw the picture. For example. _1 - U . the students make notesas they listen.describethe picture orally.as a first step. -1 ).1 a-a r.1 I )1 I .One home to the students anotherway of bringin-q and activityin particularu.1.however. -1l .presented random order.itv. l i s t e n .1 . I L A U H I N UW H I I I N U b K I L L 5 -1 --t rz ---1 t s o t l n a d d i t i o nt o a s k i n g h e s t u d e n t so e x a m i n e e t s f n o t e sa l o n gt h e s e and discuss how we might arrive at a set of take a numberof texts lines. tl- u . to Another usefulactir. to At this stage.

--1 3 Listen and answer: NIr Smith wants to go to Scotland.--J r-_J l_ r-< --4 L_ l_ .-1 l_ L.1 ). There are plenty of travel bargains. The travel agent tells him differenLways of travelling._/ l_ r-J 5 Complete this table: WAYS OF TRAVELLING TO SCOTLAND (for one person) quickest cheapest BYAIR The fastest way to travel. There are several flights from London every day. and it's cheap to travel around in. Horv doesNIr Smith decide to go to Scotland? Why? BY CAB It only ta l_ Ll_ aL---. so he goes to a travel agency. and regular services from many European citi€s. T h e m o d e r n . What agent tell him? Listen to again and complete this how long it takes does the travel the conversation table: BY COA M L coaches run every day from How long? traln r-=-J other big cities. . You can enioy a good meal during your journey. meals 2 How would you travel if you wanted to do these things? ar watch a film on the journey b) take your car to Scotiand without driving it c) get to Scotland as quickly as possible l_ )-4 l_ L.-4 t-: H 1l_ .L E l_ r__{ FOR THEUSEoF TEXTS CONTEXTS WRITING: L r-J l_ r r-_d -. 't-1 1-: L H- 75 L L L- L . L- tr l_ l-l-_ 4 .J 4 Mr Smith wants to know to get to Scotland. Start your holiday f resh and relaxed.# LAN Bea overnight Scotland is different._. h i g h speedtrains are quiet.r 1 Use information in the text to complete this table. Or you can travel overnight.They are You q'Cnwatch films fast and during the irr you can sleepin overnight se J-1 Lr---J plane coach a p l e a s u r ei n i t s e l f . l_ . It's easy to get to. It's exciting. most comfortable L . comfortable and air-conditioned. put a questionmark.Take your car on the train with you. If there is no information.

2.hichhasbeenu ritten to be published for which the fitted into half a column or less.It wiil fuither enableus to demonstrate information.Another factoris lhe purpose summarvhasbeenu.in particular. settingthem a readinggoal in reflects summarv.This encourages at number of sentences their disposal' what variouskinds of we As with note-taking..zl2 ' -1 u 6. 6.as in the main icleas the text. is purposeful way. we ma1' - ---2 v.is a long u'avfrom summarising it is traditionally the but therewoulclseemlittle point in practising in practised the classroom. will alsoenableus to different differentkinds of material.ritten:it may'be intendedto provide a record of some hand.short texts(like the one in 6. alsocompare.1 I r-: 1 I 1 Lz I f-r -1 l'-a 1 I-.both spokenand written. --. and of very althoughin a summarised that. like those activities wa. it is hoped. report on a meeting. may haveto be in a ne\\'spaper meetingu.J -a-. 1) .s both by the purposein making the summary ideas. Becauseat the start tt is setting iairll. --1 .in rvhichcasebrevitvwill not be the main concern'On the other a guidefor is corrcisenesslikely to be importantif it is intendedto serveas who doesnot haveiime to read the originaltext or who wishesto find someone out u'hetherit is worth reading' as All this.ratherthan as a special.which asksthem to decidewhetherthe summaryaccurately of with examples notes. oral or written.' v are trainingaloncthcselinesu'ill ensurethat the students Sy'stematic sametime' we can also At preparedfornote-taking' the adequately e thepracticalt'alueof note-takilg:for example.One factorrvhichdetermines length u'riter of the summarised rvhichthe a summaryis the actualamountof space A at his disposal. activities. of course.is bestviewedas a skill which is realised and on of writing' Reports speeches \\.1 -1 f-r 76 I.thev u.riting. -1 u r. v."ru*d.77? of articlesand svrtopses of ntintttis of meetingsare summaries:so are obstracts at may be quite lengthydocuments: summaries books.2 Summarising versionof a text rvhichhas been read or a SunmarisinC producinC shortened throughdifferentkinds of heard.edo this is affected and the amount of spaceat our disposal' Through note-takingwe have alreadyto a large extent laid the foundations the main for summarising. the form of a bv o.. lengths. no more than a few iines.At one end of the scale.1).we haveto be carefulto avoid of taskswhich rl ould involvethe compression materialwhich is unrealistic Hou'et'er. the studentsmaY be askedto give a already succinctlyexpressed. must alsosftowthe students of versions a text look like.v realistic to we ititt ut all unless can relateit in some above.: .z rz 1 I - I 1t I -1 I I< I-1 _1 lz -1 tu --t -. This can be done in a number of ways' summarised study of texts(which is we may reiatethis activityto the intensive For example. in a givennumberof sentences to the students make the best useof the number of words. event.ill be ableto seethat note-taking a this activity.A more flexibleview of sunmary u'ritingwill not only make it described work with it a more purposefulactiyityfor the students.o61*on activityaithis stage). ratherthan a set .Lr f-1 v -v S T E A C H I NW R I T I N G K I L L S G .how u.by making sure demonstrat for this skill when rvegivethem instructions exercise that the students which they haveto carrv out at a later date' In includinghomeu'ork.to be read and studiedbv versionhas length' u'hile a report on a ma\Ihaveno prescribed thosewho were not present.fo. - . -1 ]-1 r-r . of the the other. through activitiessuch as identifying to convenient work rvith points in a text ir.the main essentiai to concerned preserve versionwe are alwa).3.1 1 -v v.

How thisis donemustof course . Eachstudent mavbe asked rvritea comprehensive to description of the property wishes sell.--J H aaJ l=.l-l_ L- l_ l-' L 11 t--Z two or threesummaries different of lengths. L=---a u . . Thevhave. together with the layoutfor the pageof a newspaper shown as in the diagram. But to demonstrate thepractical'applicationsummarising shall fullv of rve probably haveto relv mainlvon activities rvhich invo. students._1 | r=J I . R4@ &e@sprnqNumber 1-: L_ )--J 77 l-.5.For example.. whichmight i n v o l v e i t h e r x p a n s i oo r e e n reduction. to 'articles' of different kindssuch asnewsreports.For example. may be asked listento two to reports a townor on an accident.lve someform of roleplay. he to is preferably rvorking pairsor smallsroups. listening If facilities are available. However. somedialogues wherethe speakers aredealing with a well-defined theme.-4 a.L 4 Ll_ r=_J L--Z CONTEXTS FORWRITING: THEUSEoF TEXTS r l_ r Lr f___{ L-1 !-tr-J 1v-i L-i i I | L-i L-i L-1 L-i L-i L-l L-i l_i ]1 .or asked write.and in how the lengthof the summarised versions mayaffectboth whatis included and how it is expressed. suchasmakingplans. the divided into two halves.---J .-'l L-i r . communication in of the task 5. 5 .andto modifythem as necessary. letters t o t h ee d i t o r . A s e l e c t i oo f t h e s es g i v e n o n i t eachgroupof students. the in They maythenbe asked writesummarised to versions whattheyhaveheard of andsubsequently compare to these asto identifythe similarities so and differences. F o r e x a m p l et. practical the valueof summarising only be fully brought can homeif we work with fairly' longtexts.h e ' e s t a t e g e n c v ' a c t i v is v g g e s t en 5 . rvithin limits the laid down.-4 .lut.2(d) mav be reformulated that theywrite 'blurbs'for the booksrvhich so thevhaveread. lendthemselves well to reporting activities throu-sh rvhich summarising be practised. that the students decide so can to whatextentthe essential ideas theoriginal of havebeenretained each.is a form of summarv.therefore. book andfilm reviews. can Incjeed the taskof writinga notice. on broadly samebut differing details.f o r w h i c ht h e e lengthis not specified. mav be moreuseful work with textsrvhich it to areheard ratherthanread. 1( a ) i s w e l l s u i t e do a tu id t thispurpose. of Theymay be asked write abstracts to of chapters bookstheyhaveread. fits of for of Similarly students the mav be given. socialevents. t c . based whatthe speakers on havesaid. Their taskis to f i t t h e s e i e c eo f w r i t i n g n t o p s o the page. 'edit' in sucha way that the in to description into a givenamount space the purpose advertising. with a special communicative purpose.--4 i | L-a I . to the levelandinterests the students.In someclasses.rvhich thensivento otherstudents. to consider bothwhereto place their articles.

do 2 From your reading of. * r.: co -!.1 .It \i . f. __v 1 - Discussion 1 Make a list of the thingsyou use note-takingand summarisingfor' Arrange with a theseunder two headings: frequent andoccasional.2 would be for teaching summary writing? =1 _v -1 .3. you agreethat summarywriting is an important and valuableactivitY? 3 How effectivedo 1'outhink the final activity in 6. 1 . What difficultiesdid you have? y <a _1 _-1 f-f '7. The requirementsof examinations in a realistic in shouldbe usedin a much more limitedway.D o suitablefor this type of text than conventionalforms of you think it is more note-taking? 4 Find a suitablepicture and try out the Describeand note in 6.3. i m 3 M a k e n o t e so n t h e t e x t i n 6 .- --1 -u -v v -1 1 -rz y 1 v -r.-fd References 1 The texr on pageTlcomes from R o'Neill: Flight (Longman 1973).Compareyour list friend. the skill of summarising may demandthat this skill way.-1 . material on page75 comesfrom M Palmer and D Byrne 4 The illustrative Tracki (1983). _v.1 --' -1 _k tx 1 -.J _v ].k -4 l.3.6.1 _u Exercises levelto seewhat attemptis made to 1 Examineany textbookat an appropriate wellpresented? and summarywriting. Are the activities practisenote-taking in 2 Do the exercise 6 . 2 Onnote-taking seeJB Heaton in S Holden (ed) (1977)Keep it short and JB Heaton (I975) pages18-28. 3 .ities and developed may be practised see simulations.1 with some friends.-t . 2 . 1 .2. suchas makingsummaries the traditional sense. see 3 On summarising M Donley (1975).4).1.but these this skillin the need not be allowedto distortthe rvaywe teachand practise classroom.for rvhich thepurposemav not be at all apparent.2.u s i n gt h e d i a g r a m o d e l s h o w n n 6 .. 8.W T E A C H I N G R I T I N GS K I L L S alongtheselines(and aisowithin the broadercontextof Through actii.

\tent language 79 .e. T Typesof visual material l-.. As placein the programme.---t --<.J G.r-<ra L_ LLLLLLL-. includes single (a) Pictorial:this category and includematerialsuchasgraphs (b) Plans. whatneeds supplement ratherthan needguidance lel'el.J r-. is used.particularly'in can the to cletermine somee.----J u .-. which to favourably tasks generally respond no thisreason doubtthe learners the the otherhand.---a r..except no and narrative descriptive taskscouldbe saidto take the form of tellinga story. On to relate somekind of visual from the useof visualmaterialkind of writing activitywhichoften results 'composition'with specific goalin mind. a kind that hasno communicative skills.-' L L l_ l-=J provides muchmoreopen-ended a visualmaterial By its vervnature Lt. I. a tendsto be accorded special in particular writing to earlystages. and charts in words).--rl 7.2 doesof course content The visual practice thantexts. -----J framework and an visualmateriaioffers dttractive stimulating At firstglance.--J r-J --J L--Lr-{ for Contexts writing: the useof visualmaterial L-.diagrams: diagrams a (i.it is clear that narrative of lenditselfto the practice writingfor writing's can that visualmaterial easily whichwill not contribute valueand of sake.maps. at material the post-elementary of types visual from different be derived trvo We maydividevisualmaterialinto maincategories: picturesandpicturesequences.wherethe Iearners its useat a moreadvanced The main it controiandwherethe contexts offerscanbe morefully exploited.Partof the problemat least of to significantly the development rvriting used:for the most is visual material generally at to seems be the level which composition' when'picture of part.1 Somegeneral considerations r. for language abuse framelvork ancl Theuse o f v i s u a lm a t e r i a l r-r the rvhich be used.-J l_----<t l_ --J 7.thisis at a fairlyearlystage the course.--J 1-= l_ . usedin the canbeappropriately visual material rvehaveseen.__{ r l_u .J r-. T . is consideration particular but otherformsof practice.---- U l - u r-_.theycontainTSgltres perhaps few items. chapterwill be to identifythe kindsof writing activitywhichcan of concern this levei.suchasheadings.Jt -.L -' :__J r_LLLLr--{t r---I r.if we consider context.andfor if especially someform of pictureSequence for writingpractice.LLl_ f.

On the contrar!'.On the this tvpe of writing u'ill not benefitcomposition singlesentences. is unlikely that the complementary differentbut perhaps narrationor description.it might be described a kind of commentaryon rvhatcan be are seenin the picture.Thus. and incorrect inappropriate failing to that they shouldresultfrom the learners concern. n o t h e r a r.ill interpretthe visualcontentin a There is the risk that the learners dangers. Now he is gettingon the bns. I/ie special rcspecls. for example. Writing tasks.the learners invited to produce For example John is at the bus stop.fferertt\ pes o.v goals. the o. sequencing them to write in a encourage in practice(assuggested Chapter4) ratherthan to to u'av which is inappropriate the rvrittenform of the language. createmore problemsthan it solves.ontuge thisi.[ edt.a l t h o u g h r e n h e r cu ' e r r r cn o t t i c d t o u n \ is t : to f i t e n t s . is.'es express given appropriate and the learners therefore.u'hichwiildeal with the themefrom a p a r t i c u l a r n g l eo r r i e r v P o i n t . f- f- tr r< 7. ri -/ -/ -1 _u ---/ l- -/ z fr I.it ma-v unlessit is properl-uto do the following: therefore. the verv fact that visualmaterialis open-ended u. *'ithin the limits of the ianguage themselr. usingthe Present sequences rhe He is w. asone of its they know. essential.f x'ritirtg.2 Theroleof the teacher Visual material clearlv hasgreat potential as an 4jd to develgpingwriting skills and can provide both contextsand stimulationfor a variety of activitiesbut. permits. Even if errorsare not our main expression.the writing task shouldhavea clearlydefined form (a letter. l u I f v i s u a lm a t e r i a l i s s e da t t o o e l e m e n t a n ' ae v e l . best.aiting. mav of coursebe givena choiceor be askedto work on The students It activities. Although it might be arguedthat the learnerswill of from rvritingsequences this kind rather than producing get more satisfaction skills. . surelr'. etc. etc.This the u'avthan their proficiencl.it might evento someextentbe harmfulbecause linking and that thel'can u'riteu'ithoutthe useof appropriate to believe forms of much betterto usealternative It devices.).J l- f- f- -. writing task u'ill call for anv form of straight which is an aspectu'hich may be exploredthrough oral preparation for writing.it is undesirable thet' haveacquired:both oral and make full and proper useof the language can how the.fmateriulat differentlevels and alsofor di.rl f- -z -/ z l e l c x i c a l r e a . a report. it allowsthe learners contrary.It is used. horl'eve \\e are frec ttl exploitthe matcrialaswe u'ish. l< f- I r< l- l- I- lr t- rr 8t) Lr l-.sthatve con rtse sentepiecco.haveto be rerv carefulll'defined for preparation thenl.aim to shorvthe learners u'rittenpracticemust. hasits On the other hand.for bus. an (a) Identify and de_fine appropriate writing task which relatesto the theme of the visualmaterial.'in language more sophisticated in lvhichin turn results mav involvesomeforn of mentaltranslation. at shouldbe anticipated the oral difficulties language As far as possible.i t a l s ot e n d st o u'hichis remotefrom u'ritingin any real et encourage form of u ritten expression as At sense. Continuous. a (b) Identify the lenguagewhich the learnerswill needin order to carrv out the task. The bus is corttingand John is gctingto get on it.

1 Usinga map to practise paragraph construction The following activity based a simple is on map like the oneshownbelow. the writingactivitymustneve. because learners the haveto decidehow to restructure and select from the language practised theoral preparation at stage. for The classroom preparation stage a delicate is one. l--{ r-r- r L_ u .__f. of otherwise thereis no challenge in the activitv.As wasnotedin (b) above. ---J ---.4t bLUE. if through supplementary exercises. necessary.. which may be drawnon the boardor reproduced a transparency useon on for r -.it will generally necessary In be actually writeout a version the writingtaskto seewhatlanguage to of it entails. 7. the writingtaskinvolves If dealing with the themepresented from a different angle viewpoint.4 T R l--.l_t]--- -1 H ARf3OU R --1 -1 N E V R D FilG H H A RB o u q L E N A L r-. .3 The use of visual m a t e r i a l :s o m e examples This section contains someexamples how visualmaterialmay be exploitedat of the post-elementary levelfor differentkindsof writing task. wantto ensure we thatthe learners havethe necessary language for the tasktheyareset. (c) Decidehow to preparethelearners the writing task.-=---a ----J 1_. orderto do this. problemis largely or the resolved.-- l-----L L_ r u --r _{ I<a tt.r_ r_r-_{r C O N T E X T F o R W R I T I N GT H EU S Eo F V I S U A L A T E R I A L S : M --_I--- preparation stage andfurtherexplored. Rny l_l_f --f l_l_--.l-" -J STRT6T t---1 ----t =--- R D l_- u u D_J 81 r.l_.At the same time.l_ --a I-_<a r-.J.be simplya replica the oralpreparation.4 f l_L_ -L---- ?al /.

ce7/t _ftth rz I a-z -]1 - downa The information written on the cardsis obtainedby breaking of For example. _v _v -1 _u Thn fu..the description the eachof theseplaces.J .1 -1 6f fu.e rna/r/2. bttik Tlu Libra.rt CLryttral noa"d iS th.m on -1 z -1 a-4 Thc suaerm.--t - Lr t-r -z 82 L{ .ardesf s e// s a// ki'ryut/ s -1 ta1 1 4.J 4ra -1 _u ) _u 1 to in the overheadprojector. one rhw4 shou/ (//l Pa/arce Ciz<r'mn' I a. 1.t. v.J 1 )-a 6fr ln. they are askedto work together. -.q.c. paragraphdescribing as follows: market runs \. Trvo examples suchcardsare givenbelow.ry t4/c7s i44 1935..or pair of students. if Each student.1 1 -1 Thl marrkp't Ls aPen f^on'L tt 2 p. a4uL Ne++' -u : L -1 beh'v<-e. -1 Fred Ca.It hasbeenfouncleffective gettingthe students they have to In can be organised./t' Ls aLso tf fh.-.e Palarz Cune. explorewaysin rvhicha paragraph and of sequencing certainsentences and considerboth the necessar)' possible differentwaysof linking thesesentences. particulztr.m(z ta.t r"- L 4.is a pieceof informationabout three of the places given a card which contains of shownon the map. lfl .ul'dim'q '/n _u Hwrbourr llcad t?o-dd.4 =1 IJ v ]1.e^.

J.L )--. Thursdays. l_ ll_ lr--J . shouldbe notedthat cards haveto be modifiedin someway. on The informationwhichappears ten differentcardsis asfollows: CentralRoad andNew Roadis the in 1 The building HarbourRoadbetween market. example.m. Themarketwasbuilt in 1875 However. 7 Meat is now soldin the supermarket. is themarket. p. text might continue:Themarket sells fsh.3.-<a r-<| r l_ tL r-<a r--Jl l_ L L_ L L ll_ }:JT ar--L L.m.m. haveto be interpreted V i s u a l s e q u e n c e s implicitinthe situations. 9 The marketis openfrom 8 a. do calledfor.m. on most of the statements the Noticethatwe are continues.asin the original It The say-.After that. 2 The marketwasbuilt in 1875. On the the to not concerned reconstruct originaltext in its exact acceptable to consider to it contrary.or with lr (that is to This may be either with which.Only one student of openingsentence the is This statement clearlythe the restof the class.4 l_ a- THEUSEOFVISUAL FORWRITING: MATERIAL CONTEXTS u r---J 1- r lr l.but that is now soldin the supermarket. on Saturdays.---J 1l. . pointsto.m. andfrom 8 a. are invitedasto how it shouldbe linked to the preceding suggestions version.-. of And so the construction theparagraph form.---J .it cannot pieceof informationis: on in foilow on from the first sentence the form in whichit appears the cardand sentence.I r--J L-J L4 r r---J )----J 1_-J l_ L lr---J 1---. It usedto whichwasbuilt in 1875. are The students then invitedto identifya buildingwhich the teacher informs to is'able do this and he therefore suchasthe market. . 8 a. 3 The marketsellsfish. buitding.m. is far moreimportant get thestudents the For alternatives. and in progress to write up the descriptions to easier do if theyareworkingin pairs. Sincethe students not know what is on one another's that the mostsuitable are suggestions likely to be madeuntil it is agreed several .until5 p. l)J t)--J .to 5 and Thursdays Fridays. The marketsells 5 6 The marketusedto sellmeat.the students be asked makenoteswhilethe activity They will find this afterwards. wherethe dialogue 7. description the firstplacemay be written up on the of The completed is to can board. sells market. on Tuesdays.It wasbuilt in 1875). Another pieceof informationwhichmight relateto this is then paragraph._ 11_ )----J is on of Visualsequences the kind depicted page84. to 2 p.2 There ratherthandescribed. 8 The marketis openon Tuesdays. The marketis openfrom sellmeat. on weekdays' 10 The marketis openfrom 8 a. maybe'extracted': element for the production aretwo mainwaysin whichthe dialogue of dialogues 6J t.to 2 p. Fridaysand Saturdays. vegetables.---a L--J a--1 r----{ CentralRoad and New Roadis the The buildingin Harbour Roadbetween and It fish.m' on Saturdays. 4 The marketsells fruit.vegetables fruit. cards. It also not market sells onlyfish but alsofruit and or sells fruit anclvegetabies even:The vegetables.

rse?) him' reluctantto go. (ll'ftr'?Vlhatis he doing? So shehasto persuade ) various are (What does. t h e \ \ o n x l n .1 f- l. to needit?) Sheasksher husband go and (lVlry' does she wanrssomesusar. fi 84 f-- fr .- Ii.lr{ J ) / I I W S TEACHING RITING KILLS -lr . 1l L -z _E -/ _E l- lr fr f- f- t- rrlr fd 14 f- f- fi _. (What v'ordsdoessher.F o r e r a n r p l e i.?) fo p o s s i b i l i t i e s r ea c hl i n eo f d i a l o g u e .te The students then invitedto suggest sa1.J r t ( a ) 1 .n P i c t u r e .sl. at the starther husbandis Perhaps get it.u ' h o mu ' e u ' i l l c a l lM r s B l r l l .h e t L l d e n tl sl i t r b e l i r s ta s k e ctlo s a \ u h i t l t h c Vt h i l l k t h e p i c t u r c s t r c s A a b o u t .-r r< -f.

For Picture it is suggested one or moremodeldialogues to relevant language practise to firstbe built up with the helpof the class.l ls a l t c o f f e e . the B: Now? I wasiustreading paper' MR Or: for mind goingto the grocer's me? B: MRS Would. . Thus. the belorv.r th. and the students teacher responses. u 1l-: .but forgettingthe rvants Ball orderingthe thingshe aboutthe news(E). the exampie giveher husband's takesthe partof Mrs Ball. but .rrcx: Oh.e. .v? .andher husband.__Jl Ll_L_ -.___Z l-:-_ tt lj € U --.vou want? B: What do You IuR ' B M R S : W e l l .2 -g rt r-r-J g ll- Lt_ -- t-t_ !{ u-. .1 r-_J f -.in G andH. maybe similarly The nextthreepictures (c)' Mr weather and aboutgardening the a example.I n e e d s o m e o t h . on TV') a (But I'm watching footballmatch W e l l .1 L-T )-<4 theycanselect cometo writeup their dialogues. dialogue A to whichrelates Pictures andB.Finally.to these of The purpose producing task' theirrvriting willneedfor the rvhich students the rehearse tariguage to be theyshould encouraged theirdialogues. r --1 r.Cross left. MAN: Is it a longwa.o r e x a m P l e : Canyou go andgetme some? B: MRS I needsomesugar. road.---J lj -L .L --1 L-. Canyou tellme the way to the station? NIAN:Excuse and ou. PictureF involves sugar(D) and a conversation and is thereforean importantpicturewhich asling'forand givingdirections below).--1 I r-_---af L_ L_ L_ L_ u --1 )-. got to go into town' B: NtR I'll B: IVIRS Yes.' H e r e ' s a l i s t ' ( I d o n ' tn e e da l i s t ! ) for alternatives both several to maybe asked suggest The students F s p e a k e r s .__{ L_ L_ L_ ---l_r. WhentheycomJto o'riteup v t p r o d u c e e r vd i f f e r e nv e r s i o n s ' maY in pictures the sequence aboutinclividual $'ritten The dialogues 85 l_ .----J aL----/. abouthalfa mile' is be it dialogues. . mightstartwith for asking andgiving dialogue: simple me. i n t h a tc a s eI' ' l l g o l ) .i f y o ud o n ' tg o . r: s: r: s: r: s: please? and Will you go to the grocer's getsomesugar. r t h i n g s a s w. the only to find that he hasforgotten sugarl should that F. should emphasised. a very we For directions. example. rvhois angrybecause husband conversation who triesto makeexcuses takensucha longtime. In exchange.whenthe students ones that from the differentsuggestions havebeengivenor producesimilar for themselves' for to exploited produce. we havethe depth(see be should explJitedln has her N{is betrveen Ball.I c a n ' tm a k ea c a k e ' ( O h .--- l_ L_ -.go asfar asthe nervsagent's thenturn s: rvrR Yes.--{ r-_{ M : C O N T E X T F O R R I T I N GT H EU S EO FV I S U A L A T E R I A L S W the maybe cuedby providing firstlineof the the (b) Alternatively.l ' v e r u n o u t o f s u g a r ' ' I've go thisafternoon. shortconversation from the grocer. N o w .

3 .diarl.realistic I _1.2 and monstersfor the set example.S e e4 .speculation: to Get the students give their own ideasabout the people and ( w h o t h e y a r e . rrrns (calilngher husband): Jackt. s letterwriring: Similar to the previousactivity. husband-wife below. enuies:The studentswrite up an accountof what happenedfrom the Notice that this involves viewpointof one of the peoplein the sequence.r 1 b 1 fd 4 !l- - t< F td 1 *\'? -. 3 for Otheruses visual sequences like Whateverthe final outcomein rvriting.3.z'((').. w h e r et h e ya r e .3. selective monsterl .She.$i a. They can alsowrite s c e n a r i o ( s e e5 . 4. dividedinto scenes 'stage This is bestdone asgroup work.6 (d). above.notes:The studentsshould make a note of anv important ideaswhich come up during oralu'ork. M R SB : J A C K I ---/ . if you do not wish to bore the personyou are selective summarising! writing to .r) *J v -_-/ ---/ ILAUHIN(J WI{I III\b SKILLJ ts rt _/ and with to be further elaborated form a shortplay. For example: . . Again the activity will involve reporting and. 6 ( e ) ) . appearto be). ) . The directions'. k 1 14 will be: Somekey writing activities .finds any sugar.2 andthe shorterone belowfor a rangeof oral activities in preparefor u. appropriate that this can be done in fairly simplelanguage: examplebelou'shows that she doesnot have I Scene Mrs Ball is cooking in the kitchen.you can usevisualsequences the both to one in I .rittenu'ork and to involvethe students the material(u'hichwe however attractiveit may must never assumetobe intrinsicallymotivating. ) For N{ostpicture setswill stimulatesome kind of discussion. M RB : B u t I u a n t e dt o ) v -1 zl 7.-1 _J v -zl k I MRB (cominginto thekitchen):Yes.e t c . .role descriptions: The studentswrite rolecardsfor one another if they are See goingto act out the sequence.don't forget the diary of the For the sequence reporting. 6 ( i ) .6 (t) and 5. n Thereis no artsv'er.and dramatisation'. all of the sequence (Seebelow for relatedwriting activities. thesetting Get the studentsto work out how they would roleplal.Could )'ou go to the shop and get me B: some? (etc. -4 1 I f4 I 1 I 86 f- . discussion: for relationships 7 . presentpeople shown in the picturesand how they would act out some or . What is it? MRS Oh ! I'r'e run out of sucar.

reports etc.it has_ereat potentialfor formalrvriting tasks.. Wherever possible. ):This will depend the content the sequence. 3 . fact.3.d j-1 r-l If for anyreason cannot incomplete you use you sequences. canaskthe students contintte story.paragraph completion). picture beenchosen thispurpose shorv A single has for to that. in Noneof thisprecludes morebasic oral work (question answer.thereis evensomeadvantage in In u s i n g s i n g l e i c t u r eb e c a u sie i s m o r eo p e n .properly just aseffective providing context thistypeof exploited. 3 . etc. 8 h ) . transparency). on of The couldwriteonefor the one above. whichmay be necessary certain with classes. It for of suchasone between two cyclists betrveen lorry-driver the motor-cyclist an the or the and if accident narrowly is averted. Thestudents in what fill happened between. 4 Techniques for presenting visual sequences Muchwill depend theform in whichthisis available on (book. in (b) Showthemiddletwopicrures.you should welcome opportunity getting students rhe of the to contribute ideas. 5 Usingvisual material report for writing trtrtrtr trtrtrtr trtrtrtr trtrtrtr j--z g L r--- t.)andmorebasic writtenwork (sentence linking.- )_-- L_ l-L_ coNTEXTSFoR WRITING: THEUSEoF VISUALMATERIAL - r r-r-- L_ L_ (articles._.l_L l-l_ 1_ . of those or For an. couldbe exploited the production dialogues. ( s s.5. r r-r-<- L1_ L_ L_ . 7. unless wantto givethemthe taskof you exactdescription (whichcanbe a challenging activityif it is presented the in rightway). 87 Ll-.e n d e dh eo u t c o m ea n a c c i d e n t p . Reportwritinghasbeenchosen demonstrate to that. for letter-writing.display chart. students For example: rur. alsohow muchyou wantthe students and themselves to contribute ideas. Here are somewaysof presenting four-picture a sequence asto so stimulate students' the imaginations: (a) Showthefirst and lastpicture. 3 . if visualmaterial used is at the post-elementary level. Theyarecertainly likelyto enjoyit more thanif theyare allowed describe to onlywhattheycansee.-L_ r-J r-{ r-J r--{ r-l ---J }J 1l-a-rJ g 1rtl_ L_ L_ LL r. The stLtdents decidewhathappened before. lo the F o r t h eu s eo f j u m b l e d e q u e n c es e e7 . example. a t t: .L r_{ r. 7.ToNSTER lHAr cAME LUNCHI ro Reportwritingis discussed detailin 7. The students decide whathappened after that. and true-false statements.-1 tL->/1 L I I .r' involved the incident in mightrvritea letteraboutit at somesubsequent date. (c) Showthelastpictureonly. (d) Showthefirst picrureon[y. canbe it in a for rvriting activity picture as sequences. Thestudents supplythe beginning and theend.I.=g a u L L1--- The pictureon page88 couldof course usedfor a varietyof writing be activities.

At the oral preparationstage.careless driving (for example:.in connectionwith an insuranceclaim) For this. the eventswe can actually the or by a policemaninvestigating accident.peopleget killcd/injured.fast driving . We might begin.1 1 lz 1 t . to 1 f< f.etc.F- v ITAUHINU WHI IIN(l 5I\ILLS v o r [ I n e a r a C c i d e n t .comingin the opposite attentionis distracted direction.a lorry approachinga sharpbend in the road. .1 1 r4 -1 14 I I v 4 I Lr z f{ 8B I fd I lr a . Featuresof accidents . -_-1 -1 ---1 fv v v -1 -_1 e. presentation shouldalsoaim to arousethe interestof the Our classroom the themeand at the sametime to help them with someof the in students they wiil needin the report. .mechanical defects .pedestrians can road accidents be given or usedto describe Examplesof the language elicited.vehicles peopleover/knockpeopledown damaged/run collide/get . _-1 -1 41. talking as the-V bv a planethat is landing.i s n o t a c l u a l l v r / l r t l l t a n d \ \ ' c c a n t h c r e f ( ) r e c l c c i d c l i r r o u r s e l v e su ' h a t f o r m i t n r i c h t t a k e . 1 Jz. prejudicingthe writing task./taken hospital. u'e might set as a are report of somekind. -Q u -1 a1 I On the assumptionthat an accidentdid take place.are likelv to be referredto in someway in the report but not order. . . 1 1 )1. .rvithout language someof the thingsthat referringto the pictureat all. Causesof accidents .for example.- f- . in necessarily their chronological theseeventswithout any risk of to we can get the students describe therefore. two cyclists seein the picture whose overtakethe lorry and two men on a motor-cycle.weatherconditions . bir discussing necessarily Thesecan be listedon the board: causeaccidents.-f4 l- -1 la -1 . Other possibilities reports u'ritingtask a newspaper made by the lorry-driver (for example. v.

CYCLIST KILLED ON AIRPORT ROAD --J L Lr r -<l u -- . . p u r a g r u p h o r g a n i s a t i o n . but version.on several afterconsidering thispoint thatwe .to.vou town. t h e o u badly e o f t tcom hitsthe tree.luch the languaee hich the stuclents of n'pical ttreuseof functions in particulrtr ' s r v r i t i n g .rvhileearlierinthischapter(7. u c ha s r e P t l r t su i l l involve 89 formalnpes of . actually of thiskind.throughtryingto avoidthe motoi-cyclists.Forexample. this way' noneof the time theywill haveio makequiteslgnificant is of challenge the writingactivity lost' /.rrtc t g t iI j 198 193-i l9E7 L_- r r--t ---t for rvillncccl certain n of N. to your house *tr". canworkoutontheboardwiththemoneaccolntoftheaccidentandaskthe tousedifferentfactsintheirversion. The collisionoccurred milesfromtheairport. at the same of the rehearsed to students usesomeof the language In changes.O U U I-I -rl u u -J -.J l- t h e o n e b e l o w ( s e e E x e r c i s e s .r helpwith writingreports If the studen.un i. a variety theremaybe morethanonervayof .J. describingaroomoradvisingaroute-butatleastitwillbeclearifthe across' havegotthe information students GREEN FO r POPULATION \ND ENlPLOYI"'iE. .Accordingtothedriverofthelorry. example. happened' what suggestions.3(d)). r -J --l u u u - -<l - --I r=J W e c a n t h e n r e l a t e t h e s e i t e m s t o w h a t i s s h o w n i n t h e p i c t u r e a nisd e c i d e w It d at events' of the outcome these onesapply.whichwas ' two cyclists ' ' travellingtowardsthe airportat the time' the I n t h e v e r s i o n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a r e a s k e d t o w r i t e . it .t to decide. K-^\ i loclrllr cnllllor ccl t c()nl lll Lt c r\ retiretl ntplIovccl r.NT RSTAN-|ON r r_ --t =-- L-- L -J ---t ary. For to students write preciselt.d fo. -4 L--4 L- L ---t .3. . u u u L-u . T h e S a m e m a t e r i a l c a n b e uhow to tget t e seda ala someone a suchasrvriting letterto advise for freerwritingactlvities.1)amapwasu g u ' o .. to meet.wemightbeginbydec onasuitableheadlineandshowingthatthisisfollowedbyanimportantp of information.t -l l-Lr r --l r -/l --! LLU r-.hentheycollidedwit afternoon' yesterday motor cycleon the roadto Winton Airport probablyuseinformation We canthen showthat at thispoint we would by provided the picture'For example: neara sharpbendin the road abouttwo .rl onecyclistwaskilledandanotherbadlyinjuredw. 1 ) p l a n s o f r o o m s a n encourages a dbuilding whichwill of activities can and train timetables be ur.or mightapplyclepending."o iurttt.andis kiiledor picturemightbe that the driverof the lotry Thiswill still allowthe injured.t --! -J Using diagrammatic materials writing and canbe usedfor controlled guided how maps seen we havealready (seea. like with graphs together These..3(b)and5. P a g e g . in o. . thenwe n.l_ -1 L L L LL L THEUSEOFVISUALMATERIAL FORWRITING: CONTEXTS ---J rr --{ r...


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and contrastinq. the u'rittertlanguage. suchas deltniltg.cort'lparing exemplifying(etc.). The practiceof these(see9.2) can help to give a new slant to the programme and enableus to cover old ground in a new way. Visual can materialin the form of plansand diagran-rs be very usefulfor this purpose. of belou'showshow the diagrammaticrepresentation a town The example neededfor writing a text which can be usedto introducesomeof the language of classification data and also to structurea parallel involvesthe systematic * to writing task for the students carry out. The diasram below showsthe structureof a town calledBrunton.










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we With the helpof the diagram canelicitfrom the into whichthe town is divided the students threemainareas This mai'be to andu'here theylie in relation one another. questions. example: How manypartsdoes donebv asking For thetov,n are into? Whatarethey?Where they?With the fall of description $'e helpof thisinformation cangivea general is paragraph. Somekey language Bruntonin our opening indicated italics. in estate. Brunton/alls intothreemainparts:the industrial . sector The the residen area andthe commercial ttal . on the residential arealiesbetw,een industrialestate thenorth sectoron thesouth. the side of. town and the commercial






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how onepart of the town may As a nextstep.\\'emightshowthe students area.This is partly the For described. exampie, residential be systematicail,v are but throughthe diagram, the students alsoinvitedto make some structured we questions, canbuiid up Againusingappropriate for suggestions themselves. as a description follows: The residential areaconsists a of. fownerciaL housingestateand a park. Theformer is of madeup of two maint,vpes buildings: tect2r and biocksof.flats. The detached houses latterhassomeexcellent facilities. Theseincludea footbaliground,a N swimmingpool. a tenniscourtand a f/owsr*rg playground. children's lwdustrial

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placefor a numberof reasons: (a) Ads: These a mustoccupy special - thereis a widevarietyof them; theyarewidely(andfreely)available: - students to respond them. suchasjobs, or If you arecollecting makingads,coverkey areas food,carsand schools. language holidays, for things sale. accommodation, - but alsoinclude yourcollection adsthat areparticularly any in clothes strikingandmemorable. rvill Wiiting activities normallyinvolvesomeroleplaysuchaswriting with holidayaccommodation) in for more information(e.-e. connection writing in (e.g.for a job or for a place a school); makingan application (e , of letters complaint .g aboutfood ads) etc. TV festivals, andradio theatres, for For (b) Programmes.. example. cinemaS, for canbe used (see+.0(d), wherethe students madetheirown).These or shortreports' makingnotesor writing rvhich involve activities planning for the (e.g.suggesting programme a davout)' letters for rvriting 9I -












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in for of 'fun' writingactivities earlier has Visualmaterial beenused a number 4.6 4.6 for See, example. (d) TV/radioprogrammes: (f) rolecard chapters. whichis (an for and pictures: (i) pictures interpretation speculation activity 4.6 makeprogress with theirwriting);5.6 (h) jigsaw valuable students as especially (i) instructions drawine picture a map. for a or writingand5.5 be are Someotheractivities suggested lorv.The firstthreeinvoivethe use objectsuchasa pieceof (usually showing single a of smallpicturecuecards . . f u r n i t u r e a n i t e mo f c l o t h i n ga n a n i m a ie t c . ) . , (a) Picturelinking to from u'orking eroups. given(or areallowed choose in are The students. u'hich theyhaveto make pictures. around threeto four a largernumber) so connection. the not should haveanyobvious up a story.The objects to are students encouraeed be imaeinalil'g andevenabsurdl (b) Losrandfound is Eachstudent giventrvocards ( e . g .a d o ga n da p a i ro f s h o e s ) to oneof these rvritea anduses he noticeaboutsomething has lostandthe otherto \\'ritea he noticeaboutsomethin-e has are found.The cards then and redistributed the notices respond readout. The students b y s a y i n g ' T h a t m i n e ! 'o r ' I ' v e 's g o ti t ! ' (c) Desert Islandmessoges haveplayed After the students the DesertIslandgame(thatis. theyare whentheyimagine andhave marooned an island on h t o d e c i d e o u t h e r u i l t u s e( 3 ) clock. suchasa hammer. objects to mirror),theycanbe asked w r i t em e s s a g eo p u t i n t oa ts bottleandthrowinto the sea. to They canalsobe asked write part of the time their diaryfor they areon the island.



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3.se who try to identifythe people(or places)' other groups. A ( a q A r by pasting plctur( c u t f r o m a r a (made Give eachstudenta postcard askthem to senda or magazine travelbiochureonto a pieceof card)and do elsein the clasi(thismay includeyou!). tt lng. l- . what. to 2 With reference the activitydescribed or the supermarket to the one of the market. ttr.--z L =--- l-L=---J H- 1_ L H.Examineany set choosingandseewhetheritcouldbesuccessfullyexploitedatamore level.f the person(e'g' who shouldof course to living.(he)doesfor a the make"up liie story.)... or this aslhemselves in the role of a famousperson .3'1. descriptions then passed a prec.t they compare fi.J LJ )11 L_ LLrU LL L tU r-- Discussion .of anotherplace(for example.tur" (orallyor in writing.forexample'acarora hotelandaskthemtowriteanexaggeratedadvertisementforit.nr"ry level.1 Eachgroupisgivenapictureofafamousperson(orplace)andhastowr round the are of description it. (i) Postcards ^ .L -4 LL_ l - THEUSEOFVISUALMATERIAL FORWRITING: CONTEXTS r.actor. on the"wtrote.n.---J of usingvisualmaterial and I What aresomeof the advantages disadvantages as a frameworkfor writingpractice? at the postit that. (f) Life story known) and hasto Eachgroupis givena pictureof a face(not anyone (he) is. . whichcanbe cinema) and thendivideup the text into statements the Palace on (as sitedon the students'cards shown page82)' 93 1-/ )--1 Exercises . They may ro message someone singer.--J L_ l_=-1 of description the to usethesenotesto work together build up a complete the actualpicture' with *iti. L<J >J r L. is betterto usevisualmaterial 2 Doyou agree Give reasons' level? elementarY form is intended .+ ^ ^ ^ .picturecomposition' in materialavailable published 1 Most of materialof your own for useat a fairly .i. ( e ) Who is it? LLLL_ L_ Lr*d r. then put The students or pair thenwriiesdownwhat their pictureshows.iuo.--- u .4). what the and usetheir noiesto try to work out awaytheir pictures information' is sequence aboutby exchanging complete (i) Ads Giveeachgroupofstudentsapictureshowing. advanced similar inl.g. i ^ ^ . write a description.nt.1 -.picture. in thegroup hasone. that havehappened (him))' The students as aim io be asimaginative possible' bubbles or work in pairsor gloupsto write captions speech The students pictures' or for cartoons other suitable r{ (g) Cartoons r-d L---1 l_ L l_ -' l_ LL_ r-J (h) Jigsawstories r-{a Giveeachgroupacutuppicturecompositionsequence(see7. (e.--J -. politician .so Eachstudent or eachstudent pair of .

These compositit-rn for that mightbe needed anyone of the Suggest kind of preparation reports. -u -1 .3. -1.the picturesequence 7.6' 5 Suggest in with a friend andtry out one or more of the activities 7. writingactivity for someuses the graphin7.JBHeaton(1975). Hill (1978).3. R and 1985). D Byrne (1987) through Composition picture in7. and L (1976). JB Heaton(i966). see materialimaginatively picturecomposition for For techniques exploiting A PictureComposition: FreshLook.Can you 6 Work alongtheselines? other activities suggest References see of For examples visualmaterialfor writing activities. Knight(1986). Fleming (1981).J I l'{ 1 -1 94 r{ . booksthat containusefulvisualmaterialare:T Hedge Other composition (1982b 1982c) and A (1983a.8. GuidedComposition -v u 1 1 a1 _1 Ld _1 _u -1 fz -1 _k 1 v -1 v -1 )-J I I I _1 _u v -1 fz L I -L.3.. sequence.a anypieceof visualmaterialand showhow it couldbe usedfor a report Select in alongthe linessuggested 7.3.3'3is from M Palmer Pictures 3 andin Exercise from G Fleming and D Byrne Track3 (Longman1983) (Hodderand Stoughton 1975). Markstein D Grunbaum LA D Byrne B J B H e a t o n( 1 9 8 6 ) . D y r n e( i 9 8 8 ) . v v _u u %-* ]-J 1 ]-J W u -1 v. Ridout(1975). r-J -1 l.f- ra I ]1 -=--S TEACHINWRITING KILLS G -l = -- ptcture couldbe seton the following u'hich tasks Identifysomervriting or letters be should in theform of dialogues.5is from JB HeatonBeginning The in (LongmanI975). t t h e s ea s k s . R C D Byrne(I967).5. (1975). Pincas 1983b L Woods(1986).

6( g ) a n d n ir i s i writing instructions pictures for and mapsin 5. fact.-- e S sc t r t t t p a r p i c t u r c s : t l l k ) ( S sc o m p a r e i c t u r s p e l-------t --t Lllll-. a c t i v i t i eis 5 . a l k a n d d r a u t r.6 (i).------_-t --ta r__.-_-- L' ---L_ --. s c e n a rwo i t i n g n 5 . See for example.- u -1 . 6( e ) .J --L 8. just prac'tise (noticehorv in manv of the rictivities not it is laneuage 95 .--t >--. d r a r va n d r v r i t e r_ LL_----l----- S I e x c h a n c e isn s t r u c t i o n t v i t h s S2 S se x c h a n q en s t r u c t i o n sv i t h i r group anclther u r--z rcadsand drarvs S sr e a c l .- u -11 Lr-.-L_ r--J -41 . j u m b l e d t o r i e sn 5 .-1 r*_ LL---LL_ .L )t u u r__r---- LLL_ L.you want to increase the amount of skill integrationin vour daily .- u --- lntegrated skills 1_ --.and this is worthrvhilebecause allows the learnersto aselanguage teaching it rraturall.-<- If . roleplay and in . The key factorwith many activities how you get the students work: pair and groupwork offer many is to moreopportunities integrating for skills.v. therefore. is a or INDIVIDUAL WORK and rv'rites S I clrarvs PAIR/GROUP ORK W S st a l k .6 (a) and (b). The activity drawing picture a map. questionnaires quizzes 4 . 1 .asthe simple analysis belowshows. 5 .l*_--.1 The importance of integrating skills The needto integrate skillsin language learninghasalreadvbeenstressed and in manyrespects is not a newfeatureof the writing programme. this In manyof the communication activities and 'fun' writing activities Chapters in 4 and 5 integrated talkingandwriting (andsometimes reading)in a naturalway.

activities discussed -L L L l4 L 8. . _L. that in and involvingthe students it. equallvtheproducl.though in for wouldavoidonethat resulted. (filling questionnaires.some but the the activities students Writingmay kind of document u'illqivethema greatdealof satisfaction. the sametime it students to educationalfront develop: will helpthemon a broader .a.2. D I S C U S S I O N -l- s -r-l- 3 A P R E L I } 1 ] \ .whentalkingandreading)./ I . 96 La ]r .v we \\'hen writingup the prolect. collaborating. the intermediate rvorkyou do with \\'ant increase amount flue r-rcy the of to vou rvillprobablv skills in and your students threerval's whichyou cando thisthroughintegrated are belou'.communication back. the outcome writingwill always in but English. 2 work Project so defined because takes manyforms. drawing projectin itself. it doesnot breakdown. and in ensuring stages: You mav like to foliowthese D E P R E S N T A T I O NA S . k l- l- li l- f< rrr-l- l- -l- 8.research whenreadingl skills: u'hendiscussing. \ R Y C ' i l \ ' I T I E SA N D D I S C U S S I O N -r- s A C T I V I II E S -1- O PROCESSiNG F MATER]ALS -rf-r PRODUCTION _L. this For manvclasses mavbe enough.1 a Organising project (since there are no 'rules'for Although this is largelya matterof commonsense haveto be carefullyplanrred that doesnot havea setform). and skills: wheninterviewing reporting .(For our purpose and at the finalstage notes) plansor maps. At level.It it work cannot neatlv be Project (through andreading)it often interviewing usually involves someresearch I (although is not essential) it almost and goingout of the classroom this involves a l w a y sn v o l v e d i s c u s s i o n .?--T E A C H I N GW R I T I N GS K I L L S lr I4 -drnte) InakesureYouusepair andgroupwork for usedto getsornctlting i a a r c a d i n g n du r i t i r t s c t i \ t i e s .however.g. example. making in takeplaceat both stages: alongthe u. projects something the in role is crucialespecially presenting project The teacher's and sustained.. social skills: will for Sometimes projectu'orkthe students haveto usethe mothertongue be in (e.) this couldbe a legitimate it that projectwork shouldgivethe classroom is important In the language At for use opportunities language anddevelopment.-S{ 4 --.is clearlvimportantbecause haveto undertake. i s of out The process carrying the project.

I r L-J INTEGRATED SKILLS l= t- E ttr. and the when this hasbeenagreed interviewing' If *oit on the main activities.il to their research date o-n At somepoint thelroups will haveto report back that this what tieir frnalproductwililook like.1.rpt Sodal a'tPe([s .n'/.iLt t\_J l.op"nup'atopic'Onewayistogetthemtomakeachart whichwill involvetalkingand in simlar to the on. /.rfuislng somemain aspects it stage. only. length(sixteen certain thinking aboutthe actual They *ititraue to do some of summarising.J . work distributedamongthe groups'.may work on all aspects r . readingn1ut.n. couldue decided limit or extend available of for (opportunities going. utA . For example.gin questionnaires socialbehaviour). ftralu.If they are askedto work amount certain haveto do a ihey rvillprobably pages).aca/l'/nlortad .od. (for example.(e. opportunities research of etc.---J t.g :Td. is Food.Ygt . the or whetherin English the mothertongue)' (as reading some. a chartmight look if *riting..1.riul. If theseinvolve writing' precise aridthis involves will haveto be devised.un U. fupenn'atrkots . \ ./aofi//r" t_ L.) oriimply the interests the students. what they haveread' and to mustbe prepared summarlse re-present students alsotranilatingfrom the mothertongueinto English' . the topicfor ihe project like this: tlleats and tiws tt-.r.At this point the Scope the This may dependon its scope.-L-- at the start is to show one of the thingsyou may haveto do with the students thestudentshowto.". this involves the student./trry Oncilt .Ineithercasenote-tutlngwillbeinvolved(perhapstogetherwithsome for project shouldbe agreed: of initial reading). to it example.CLLSttTrts 'dryitrt'k- ttttttttllt-/ r Ch*.ets r -Stnal. It is assumed and alsoto agree of text andillustration' or will be a brochure bookletof somekind. shouldbe enoughto establish At the presentation and into groupsto discuss developthem' The and then dividethe students or simultaneously on one particularaspect grorrp../'ts hibulton' =-sh.a. abouteatinghabits. 97 tI t-^ t-4 I . which will be attractive and then haveto do a gooddealof writing up The studentt*ltt anotherclass).3. sfrelt mat*. consisting to enoughfor someone want to read.attitudes. ur./slwPs rs.":::". -rifarolns f ale a..d for note-taking 6. of *ltttln the constraints a editingof their material.J tt--1 tt-1 t-<1 t- i= 4.part+es .out the classroom.Ot0rt C01.*^i"fy will.

time .eating habits . (crosswords.across trip an S a h a r ae t c .ill throughout be important mainlyasa Your involvement be should The students of groupactivity.g. in Food.plastic.olving . as consultant.apartfrom providing framework integrating e i a u'riting motivatinacti\t\ .reviews.2. classioom and that (b) Projects couldbe donemainlythroughreading(in and out of class) sharingof knowledge couldbe donemainlyin thisway' section. to rely on themselves). haveto provide you situations may actually material. medium to you unless haveaccess English interest of educational projectin the Englishlanguage of the newspapers. for otherforms wherethey canfind relevant to encouraged askfor your advice(for example. whichwouldbe primarily visits. but u.perhaps reading offices. of uses materials clothes )-J v 1 I _r v 1 u _-1 r-< _1 l-a _lz l: l- LI lr r< 1 I I family andfriends that (c) Projects couldbedonemainlythroughintervievving . I planning realor imaginary (d) Projects int.whichinvolves and and aboutthe historyof nervspapers magazines) writing materialfor a Items and .. advantage this in to is that it hassomething offer everyone the class. that the end-product .money transport paper'etc') (e.lr -t- -z -v -t S T E A C H I NW R I T I N G K I L L S G -e 2 All doeslook attractive. fz -/ a. creative are to be included articles. but inevitably (a) 'Newsmag' over the whole of the school extending This is a longterm project.leisure into subdivided sportandhobbies) (perhaps habits TV viewing habits shopping JI _< _k -1 _f-.In someclass referencL on it) and for your helpwith their English(depending their level and the extent for The to whichyou *unt ih. to ne\\'spaper (e.anal1..will nrake skills for a inir . _u -u -1 -v -1 _v -I ]-J 1 t 8.2 for Suggestions projects underheadings grouped belowhavebeenroughly for The suggestions projects thel'overlaP.g.developing 5'5'2 (a)) in facilities one'stown (see .sed theprevious are: Someothertopics . . responsibility the final be productmustof course their own.special topicareas puzzles.ads. (e'g' sport)and jokes).developing imaginarY island an the planning imaginary to the moon. researching visits year.J ) rJ I I .a combination a class newspaper magazine' of hybridproduct features fun writing. so of presentation theirmaterial. omit the outside Evenif 1'ou illustrations.l r-a --J I _k 98 r.downthe Amazon.

a secondhand One of thosebig ones. Well. thereareonly two of us. centre. recreation . H L L L L L L 93- 99 --. * onenearthe bookshop. Well. (We may of course couldgo on . shop? nearthe record rve :eNe: OK. to l. ' ' . a marvellous canshare .h e r e ' s o m e a p e r .it canprovidea model activities leveland. know.whichwasthe reason notice askedto write a second the notesweremade. we only needaboutsix people. areplanning to go on holiday Bill. theycosta lot .Theyarein Jane's and they Australian. house.- I .itaintogether muchof thecountry. mustbe ableto drive..1 Oral work leading to guidedwriting r f<r L r-< l'<r L1_ r k LL L L r L r f<a L L I. task. rrNr: But. a n da p e n .I ' l l m a k et h en o t e s ' can't CK. Oncethe mechanism this incidentally. andbesides.J. JANE: .hasnot seen flat abouttheirplans. After all. BrLL: Yes. s t e n I ' l l p u t a n o t i c e p o n t h eb o a r da t c o l l e g e . . me. I suppose oughtto makesomenotes.And we wantpeople in hostels. B I L L : N o ./. goingto campand stay life. .** Janemakesnotes. Bill.Well. in it is not difficultto setup a chainof activities this way. way to seethe country It's expenses. . t o o e x p e n s i v e . We order that they often we an aS useSkills and whenwe requirethem.definitelv luxuries! ' ' B i l l w o r k s i n a c o l l c g c ' b o o k s h oa n c l a n er r o r k si n a r e c o r ds h o p . . .and makea note poirtts. way at a post-elementary skillsin a realistic for integrating for for providenaturalcontexts writing. conversation 'characters'. They are then with performsimultaneously the which the students why shownhow thesenoteswereusedto write a notice. etc. in staying hostels . maytalk aboutit to someone ring up or write a we (for a 'chain'of simplyforgetaboutit!) This letter aboutit. school. andfour more. planning idealtown.We BILL: Look. rve're Haveyou got that down? no BrLL: Yes.lcnts d. And whataboutthat newsagent'S There's Theyhaveadsin the window. are talking . his and I Bitt Hatlida. it's veryexpensive.however.Jane Stokes.'. for provides setting a note-taking the a In thisexample. who is an because together. first. f<a L t 4.3 Sk i l l s e qu e n ce s r---< r . .vott andI BrLL: d o n ' tw a n tt o d r i v ea l l t h et i m e l who like a simple rANE:. .Theywantto travelround Br. :eNs: You meanbuy one? one. I don'twantto go by train.--J club.But why don't we hire a car? vou BILL: Hm.---1 f-< 8. is understood. ' ' But we you'vegivenme an idealPerhaps couldgeta van.--H l-_ l-l_ l-r-J r-. hasto be abieto drive. .t.After a]rl. See ad in the paper or job or a holiday). stttr.and aresubsequently way' in Thus all four skillsarepractised a fully integrated themselves. You.Listen. : e N E :R i g h t . For example.d not skillsin anysetorder. but u Li . of tlteirnportant p . Bitt ttndJunecontinue talk. Andyou can'tdrive!. . p J '*'Thc l hr'ltr thc convcrsatitln hich itlllorvs. camping. then.andonl Importantly.L 1-- L L L t_ l_ l_ l _ INTEGRATED SKILLS - r. girlfriend.certainly in the In reallife we do not uselanguage --+ in appear textbooks: listen--+Speak read--+write. Put how do weltnd four people? an ad in the paper? :eNe: Mm.shopping an ground.

Her telephonenuntber at the record shop is 874 9192and her number at honte is 675 3245. Lr z f-r I fr f-r l-r I JUNIOR ACCOUNTS CLERK to work for Eastern Bus Co.flseao*- r. . about f2*5each. 1 6 . HNP. a n d a n o t h e rt h i n g .Plus expenses. .the studentsthemselves 1a Terry Barnes.VE? cAN YOUcooKT / AM TRrING To oScAN/sE A FOUK W'EFK TR|P ROUN? BR|TAIAI IN A YAN PLACES FOR rcUR lNOBF PEOPLE ./ * TMALL cHABcE'.Apply in writing. . What about age? JANE: .G d . He seesfheseads inlhe H o l f o r dN e w s . u 2 : u 2 2 u 2 u.We've got quite a few notes. -I z u u / Y)u! Y. . . Hou.2. . f25 and shareall expenses. .lege &od{*IeP 8. the sequenceopens with a reading activitv.I a n g n ! Y e s . Right. Holford 7997 Ext. do JANE: . P r e v . Holford. . What else? . the sequence. then. . I ' m n o t g o i n gt o d o i t a l l ! tsrLL: Should be able to cook.2 to Reading leading freewriting In this example. It includes guided as well as free speakingand u'riting tasks. ves.r [--.rnNE:Shallu'e tell them about the costof the trip? BrLL: Mm. 5 day wk. Prev. S I I O R T H A N DT Y P I S T f. 9-5.low write the notice v'hich Jane Stokestook to the nen'sagert's. . u'rite out the noticefor the board at college.l'tich on the collegenoticeboardIlle follov. Trafalgar Tobacco Co. any nationality. And I'11 the one for the neu'sagent's . .u! ARE rou /SEnqEEP /8 AND 25? cA// yoq DR.a teenager*. A S S T . Billpur up 2 This is the notice w. at the end of decide what happens. p r o s p e c t s for right person. t h e y o u g h t t o s h a r et h e c o o k i n g t o o . not essential. . .30.-. L A B .u! Y?u! ew Y.4 Hatli'da'<t d. e x p .about . people.ing day. Typing an advantage. Let's sar'. . 2a l.2 1 . eighteento twenty-five?And not all Englishl :eNr: Or Australian! So . d e s i r a b l e . 100 3r. then. -/ 2 _E o r n n r : i . BILL: Good point. . i'11 .-- IJ T S T E A C H I NW R I T I N G K I L L S G ) u. That shouldencourase B r L L : . . D o v o u t h i n k t h a t ' sa l l ? :eNs: Can't think of anl.thingelse.z rz -1 r: -1 l-z Lr l- -/ ]]lz coNrAcr : B. -/ }r I I I . Personnel Manager.exp. It should be noted that. BrLL: OK.3. . .T ANY NATIONALITYlELCOME ! x No LuxUR/Esf X 'HARE ALL FYPE^/'E.so he decides to lookfor a new one.is getting tired of his job at Holford Natural Products. f-r *The students have backgroundinformation about Terrv from another part of the stor)' f. 5. eighteento twenty-five.

h a t ' sr i g h t . s Who's sPeaking.' m r i n g i n g aboutthat vacancY You advertised N i n T h e H o l f o r d e w s .--z S. July 10 I Clerkt am lTiting !hich ic a-DPlY frr in the .rou have iaa any prevtous exPelience of accc'J:s vheiner You cal zt i:-e toElrehensive' ii you rec-uire one' class teache: 'ioli::C lj:r T llehrp-n. f w S E C R E T A R YW e l l . m y n a m e ' sB a r n e sI.::licrC Juicr llevs. secretarY. Dazn's S. LL L 2 e Thisis the letter which Terrygot f rom Mr Bus Company' Davis.c'c ci T:e . !a:nes.n o w ? f o r a l a ba s s i s t a n t ? t Y e s . | tsf{l{ Y .do vie'uher. TERRY: GoodbYe. L a-< l_ l_ r--d l-< I r. 5 EY S E C R E T A R x t:e n s i o n . Listento his conversationwith the secretarY. .'. .----- l_ L L L L l-<t f<a 1 a Terry first rings up the Trafalgar Tobacco Company. GoodbYe.L on Friday JuLy 21 at lO'lO' this' confirn C o u ) .but that he must applYin writing' Suggest what they actuallysaid to each other' 2t.C. very sorry' that v O h . .l ' m a f r a i d e ' v ea l r e a d Yi l l e d : I'm vacancy. dy o u o l e a s e t e l e p h o n e r y 9 e c ! e t a r y a n d Yours sincereLY' .11 seld i'ou a referen:e r< icurs fai::fui1. Accouts E L Ll_ l_ l_ l-d ?'-s 'd'/":Lrsed . Please? T E R R Y : O h ..< l --- r u r f< l_ r. old lilov sau: You are voril:6 . M r P l a t t ' . Complete this letter which Terry writes to the EasternBus ComPanY. the manager of the Eastern JUl. sECRETARY: 1c Terry next rings up the EasternBus.ho. .' Wasit S E C R E T A R Y : W h i c ho n e w a s t h a t . .t-L I INTEGRATED SKILLS L L r.w e l l .t h a n k s e r y m u c h . Davis.vhere l'y icr:e: You a:e Hhat iob You. v. r |<a LJ 7 Earna+ T. i0i .ompany' He is totd bv the secretarythat theiob is still available.y fo Dear Mr Barnest thank you for your letter you to cone for sn interyier of iuly lO' I should }lke L L L L L L L L 4. .

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He Terry phonesMr Davis'secretarY. explains he is ringingand confirmsthat he can why come. Suggestwhat Terryand the secretarY said to each other. Terry is being interviewedby Mr Davis. Suggest what Terrysaid. S , : M RD A V r sR i g h t T e r r y " i t d o w n .T e l lm e a s o m e t h i n g b o u tY o u r s e l f .
TERRY: M F D A V I S : A n d h o w l o n gh a v e o ub e e ni n Y o u r Y


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TERRY: M R D A V I S : O h!
| trnn T . MR DAVIS:


l ' m s u r p i ' i s ey o u w a n t t o l e a v e , d then. W e l l ,l ' v e h a d a w o r d w i t h T o m t N e w m a n .B u t I ' d l i k et o s P e a ko y o u r p r e s e n e m p l o y e r sl.s t h a t a l l t rig ht? v W e l l ,t h a n k s e r vm u c hf o r c o m i n g \ a l o n g . { e ' l l l e tY o uk n o ws o m e t i m e n e x tw e e k .



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3e Mr Davis finatly decidesto offerTerry the iob' This is the letter he wrcte. July J0 :



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I am pleased to be able to offer Jr:nior Accounts Cferk at a. starting W o u l d .y o u p l e a s e c o n f i r n that this

you the job of salary of t100 a veek'


acceptable' to start?


Can you also }et us know vhen you would be free Yours sincerely,

S. Da,<n a



3c Write Terry's replY,accepting or declining the
job. 4a The fottowing week, Terry meets Carol Davis, a girl he was at school with. She is the daughter of Sam Davis.Terry tells Carol what he has been doing recently.Suggestwhat he said. 4a Afterwards, Terry realisesthat he'quite likes' Carol. He decides to write to her. Write the letter which he sendsher. 4c Write Carol's reply.










I N T E G R A T ES K I L L S D -


8.4 S i m u l a t i o n sa s a framework for writing activities




so and proposed discussed far haveinvolvedan Many of the writingactivities the to are That is to say,the students asked assume parts elementof roleplay. l -5'-5'and 8'3)' The useof (See, example' for of differentcharacters. furtherboth by us enables to takethiskind of rvorka stage simulations the work in.which learners language for providinga framework integrated 'input' of the datafrom which the writing activities itr"*r"tu-"s providea larger to the situation'to are derivedand by allowingthem,wherethis is appropriate This latter featurehasan obvious setting. within a defined be themselves who sharecertain when we areworkingwith groupsof learners advantage with a and skillsandinterests who arelearning foreignlanguage professi6nal throughthe rvillbe increased motivation ihe.e p.i*arily in view.since however' groups, with non-specialist knowledge. of utilisation their specialist to haveto continue rely we or whetheradults aiolescents, shallprobably a certainamountof we although maybe ableto introduce largelyon roleplay, For reactto the task asthemselves' simulation,wherethe learners rol"e example,inthesimulationdescribedin8..l.2below,somestudentsina will be asked while others can class playthe part of teenagers, ,..ondury school what is more importantis the purpose' to take on adultroles.For our present whichthey are askedto carryout generate extentto which the activities At this level' simulations meaningfuland relevantopportunities.for-rvriting' the form of a well-defined would siem to be ideal,p.&laing guidanie,in as to in the classroom' setting.which getsasneir to reai life as\\'ecanhope the executing writingtasks' well ai motivationfor


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if especially we of a simulation' While caremustbe takenwith the construction this neednot be writingtasks, to naturally certain that it leads want to ensure will the task.By definition. simulation involvethe viewedasa complex uld the contextwithin problemor setof problemt: of discussion a specific a mustbe clearlydefinedfor the learners'To do this in which this takesplace skills' we must the language naturalway and, no lessimportant,to activateall information' amountof background with an adequate provide the learners in desciibed 8.4.2,theproblemto be discussed Thus,in the simulation for criticised failingto to relates the Holford Arts centre,whichhasbeen to In programme' addition, p,""io. the publicwith the rightkind of cultural of ih. to interJst the situation, C.ntt" is alsoaccused of add an element spicy ,undeiirable the premis"t. T: to happenings' take placeon allowingcertain as invited speakers well asmembersof the a settingis publicmeeting,at whl;h throughwhat they tt trr.r. proUiems. is left to the participants' public discuss Thusthe speakers issues' on to saywithin the limitsof theirroles, decide these for providethe raw substance the writingactiviries. thlmselves Toestablishthesetting,thereisacertainamountofbackground both to be of whichconsists material by devised thJteacher, infor:marion, is teacher the by contrived the to listened andread.The othercomponent ' throughrole cards This is done, of specification the rolesof the participants. the role to be plaved, line to i"p"nding on the or whicheitherdefine suggest, or eitheron the role cards We ma1:also. be followedby eachpartlJpant. of with certainitems oraltrieling, hetptrrelearners througha preliminary they langrrigewhich canusein the discussion' from most a in described 8.4.2is perhaps little different The simulation




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a to structured create i'arietyof writingtasks. it because hasbeendeliberatelr, q'e o.f opens, havetx'o kirtds the u,hen publicdiscussion At the start, meeting.Someof thesehave at Thereare thoseu'hoq.reck the performers. whileothers direction. a roles.to givethe discussioncertain defined clearly is that the outcome by no thus involvement, ensuring havea moreopen-ended view to reportingthe rvitha predict;ble.Thereare alsothoservho/lsrerr means the the theyrepresent press, For angles. example, various p.o.""iings from in who speak the discussion those However. groups. iadio andiertainpressure ;recvcled' various ways that theytoo havea writingtask So in aresubsequently the since purpose of is to perform.This.to someextent, a question expediency' sizeof an average for in e is of itre simulation to inr,olv ever))one the class, which in thirty hasbeenassumed, someform of writinsactivity' 8.4.2 of An example a the simulation: Holford Arts Centre informarion (a) Background maPof Holford. (i) This is a street

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Anglia Guides' (ii) Thisis an entr\) theEast in
H o l f o r d P o p u l a t i o n :6 0 , 0 9 0 C a m b r i d g e6 2 L o n d o n 10 3 A pleasantmarket town situatedon the River H o l t . M a i n l y a g r i c u l t u r a G o o d w a l k i n gc o u n l r y l. P l a c e so f h i s t o r t ci n t e r e s t :H o l t o n A b b e y ( 1 1 2 2 ) a n d S t . J o h n ' s C h u r c h ( 1 2 3 7 ) O t h e r p l a c e st o s e e a r e t h e n e w S h o p p i n g C e n t r e( 1 9 6 9 ) a n d t h e H o l f o r d A r t s C e n t r e ( . f o u n d e di n 1 9 7 5 ) l n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d e : c o s m e t i c s ,t o b a c c o a n d l i g h t e n g in e e r n g . i H o t e l s H o l f o r d r m s , a r d e n o t e a n dP e n r i d gI n n . e A M H l Restaurants HolfordArmsandThe CountryKrtchen.

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not for a moment. TED: But there's muchgoingon. Some evensaythat there roo ii muchmoneyaroundin Holford andnot enough culture. T h i s l a s t c r i t i c i s mi s s t r a n r e in viewof the fact that Holloid has a flourishing Arts Centre. . . And. t h a s a l r e a d ys i v e n i Holford several fine oro-ductions. yes. . a for example. for start. .I'll be coming alongto that all right. rED: Well. orN: Well. personally. Like many other towns in this part of the country. T E D :H m . .. .7z INTEGRATED ILLS SK E - $D fhis is an extract from an articleon Holford which appearedinThe CambridseGazette. r v e l l . There are new factories and officesas well as a fine shopping c e n t r e . Holtbrd has begun to spreadout into the surrounding countryside. And the facilities so muchbetter. It has also made a documentary on the theme of racial integration which was well receivedat a national film f e s t i v a l . . Same D.I wasgladto escape from the place ! rED: Still. .After all. I 105 r r r l-- tt- i- i= t--d t- t- r r - L tI r . all theseindustries a has . As for all t h i st a l ka b o u t. 'on Holford is the move'. oex: That'sexactly whatI mean!It's not just a bigger andbetter dramaticsociety.l a r g e l y o n t h e initiative of a few dedicated i n d i v i d u a l s .w h i c h w a s b u i l t i n 1 9 6 9 . in neN: Sorry?No. lvlr Graves? After all those years London. there aren'tso many are townsthat havea shopping centrelike ours. including Pintei's The Caretaker. they do lotsof otherthingsdown there .. .don't seethe pointof it.you certainly should to find out moreabouttheplace try whileyou'rethere. S e t u p i n 1 9 7 5 . .. . is there?Don't you find it rather not dull? DAN:But there's lot goingon! Justtakethe Arts Centre.lN: Yes..But at least people haveplentyof work these days. i u s tt h i n ki t ' sa l o t o f . that has attracted quite a lot of attentionlately! oeN: Mm. I don't thinkpeople understand whatthey'retrvingto do there.aren't to on you? rED: Oh yes. rvehavea I perfectly gooddramatic society already.you mustfindit allchanged . Industry has brought prosperity to Holford.it certainly changed . . After all. . rED: Somepeople it isn'tbetter! say DAN: . s oI ' v e h e a r d ! orr: I suppose vou'recoming thismeeting Fridaynight. with the laree new housing estate on the iorth side of the town. rED: Yes. . younglocalfarmer. then. . although m a n y p e o p l ea r g u e t h a t i t h a s already begun to spoil the essential character of the town. E E l- tttt- r E (iv) This is a conversation between Dan Graves. cantakea look at the place the I at time. just whattheydo anddon't do..seniorreporter onThe Holford News. .I like listening a to goodargument! Besides.and TedRaines. .I mean. a TED: Are you sorryyou camebackto live in Holford.

Holford Amateur DramaticSociety J TAYLoR: Youth WelfareOfficer M plArr: studentat Holford Polytechnic K FosrER: student Holford Polytechnic at All of thesehavewell defined roles.there are five adult rolesandfiveteenage roles.In addition. L BARoN: reporteron TheHolford News r JENKS: reporteron TheCambridge Gazette J WISEMAN: reporterfor EastAnglia Radio w TRAILL: representing Holford Comprehensive Schoolmagazine r sMIrH: representing Holford Amateur DramaticSociety J srorr: Youth Freedom Movement PB L A K E : S e c r e t a rtv t h em e e t i n s o u u 1 r: }J -1 z -1 rz r-< f-J 1 r< f- l_1 U v J4 J.-1 if-d . is in to the director theArts Centre. fu n c l 6 6 . go thereto misbehave is bv u'ho various\\'avs. in As explained 8.-1 (v) Tltis is rlte rtotir:einvitittgpeople to a public tneetingat the Holford Arts Centre.4.' -/ IJ r-J -/ 106 r-d -/ -/ I I l- I I I I ..This is alsoa way of ensuring on maximumclass involvement. thissimulation beenstructured asto include in i. The provision reporters for (that is. f ) l r r i s ( C ' h l r i r n t u)n H ]-J -1 .representing publicpresent the meeting. the at The numbercanbe increased reduced or according the sizeof the class. IIOI-F-ORDAR'I'SCE\I-RE .i ( ) p n t u U \ I I t l r o s c i n t c r c s t c t li n t l i s c r r s s r r trh c u c t i r i t i e so l ' l h c g C C n t r cl t r c c 0 r t i i l r l l .\ p u [ . Holford Comprehensive c s porrERToN: Secretary. is is It anticipated thiswill centre t\\ o mainissues: that on (i) that the Centredoes giveHolfordthe rightsortof 'cultural' not programme. e r l t r t t F r i d a r . l r cc c t i n g r i l l l r c h c l r il i t l l t c c c n t r .z -J 1 I I . thosewho will listenduring the discussion rnakenotes)is asfollows. involving both l i s t e n i n a n dr e a d i n s n dp e r h a p a l s oi n c l u d i n s o m er e l a t e d r a l w o r k . has so 'speakers' and'reporters'.irr t ri t c t i t ( ) i l t l c l t ( l S . chance explain of a to u'hattheirwork is about. (ii) that the Centre frequented teenagers. speakers The (see'Role cards'below) as are follows: couNCrLLoR DAvrs:Chairman the meeting sAI{ of T cRoss: Directorof the Arts Centre K RIXoN: Principal.a lot of publiccriticism expected.4 -1 -u r. The publicmeeting intended the firstinstance giveTony Cross.4 -1 (b) Briefitrg After the presentation the backsround of information. to These rolesaremoreopen-ended.At the same time.r-J I- I I I ) LJ I ) T E A C H I N GW R I T I N GS K I L L S . g s a o the students readvto be briefed are aboutthe problemto be discussed and the various rolesthevhaveto play.Two students and shareeachrole and collaborate afteru'ards the writing task.

o f t h e p u b l i co n i t . t h e C e n t r e f o re x a m p l e y o u m a y r e a da n ) y l a n o n y m o u s e t t e r o u h a v ej u s t r e c e i v e db u t i s n o t r u t hi n t h e m ' t m a i n t a i n h a tt h e r e Membersof thepublic L_ L.|i.. full.-ot". t#k t:1.4 L )--! L . l-J L-il LJ 9: L1 1--J l--J }J ffi'.Referto a c c u s a t i o nw h i c h h a v eb e e nm a d ea g a i n s t s ( . ll-J L LLLL' L1_ l_ LLL.tl l-4 ff****i.tprove or disaPP :l: besoen.-J t: >4 K FOSTER a Y o u a r e a m e m b e ro f t h e A r t s C e n t r e n d o n e Likemany other supporters' of its strongest you have-been studentsaitf..examPles' o"' u-J {[:.'. t o d e c i d ep o l i c y Y o u a l s o a s b e l i e v e o m e o f t h e s t o r i e s b o u tw h a t g o e s t y c o n i n t h e C e n t r e : o u r t e e n a g e h i l d r e na l k a b o u ti t a l l t h e t i m e ."'#.""" P poPular IaYS' 11 ---1 }J }J . i O t " t o d o a l o t o f t h i n g st h r o u g ht h e C e n t r e w w h i c h o t h e r w i s e o u l d n o t h a v eb e e n p o s s i b l eG i v es o m ee x a m p l e sl'f y o u w i s h ' .li$i. a n d t o r e f e rt o m a i n t a s ki s t o e x p l a i ni t s w o r k s s o m e o f i t s a c h i e v e m e n ts i n c ei t w a s s e t u p ' t .*l." eotytechnic.tl*.L j-4 L L L 3_J INTEGRATED SKILLS r L r r-J (c) Rolecards also rolesto the students formspart of the briefing the Assigning various of section the only a cross belowillustrate The session.11t1. M BRIDGES o O n t h e w h o l e y o u a p p r o v e f t h e A r t sC e n t r e a n d t h i n kt h a t i t d o e sg o o d w o r k ' H o w e v e r . y o u d o n o t l i k et h e w a y t h e d i r e c t o r u n st h e \ C e n t r e :h e i s t o o a u t o c r a t i c '" o ut h i n kt h a t b e a c o m m i t t e ew i t h m e m b e r s . l / fiffiffH#fffi the t:I:lJ'?|s admiration Y?'1"r ror S JAMES l r Y o u a r e a t e e n a g e w h o r e c e n t l ye f tH o l f o r d t Y C o m o r e h e n s i v e ..ugffr'liFHiti*. role descriptions which are givenin exceptfor the reporters. :'*l llxj:l*lY: ... D o t h i s c o n c i s e l yY o u s h o u l ds t r e s s h a t playsis only part of the Centre's putting on with work Jnd that you are not in competition the Amateur DramaticSociety. some e u o u * u y a l s od i s s o c i a t y o u r s e l f r o m w h i c h h a v eb e e nd o n et h e r e ' of thethings r07 L . t h e r es h o u l d .x'iild T CROSS your As Directorof the HolfordArts Centre. L tL L L..* """i0 i.-1 L ll--r< l_. 'lo *^ ii:t:".-1 =4t v.]'".*#ffit"td xl.o u b e l i e v e h a t t h e C e n t r e d o e s l i t t l et o h e l pp e o p l eo f y o u r a g e a n d y o u w o u l d l i k et o s e e m o r e m o n e ys p e n to n o i m p r o v i n gt h e f a c i l i t i e s f t h e Y o u t hC l u b .#+r*Tt*"''Jlin soel!' . partsplayedby the students. Main speakers r-.::l i:*rj:: ro"'::l i.

t y o u r m a i n t a s ki s t o w r i t ea n a c c o u n o f t h e M m e e t i n gf o r n e x tw e e k ' se d i t i o n . i t o w h o m a c o p yo f t h e s c h o o lm a g a z i n es sent. o u a r e v e r y a m b i t i o u sa n d y o u w o u l d l i k et o b e . your main t a s ki s t o p r o d u c e s h o r ta c c o u n t f t h e a o m e e t i n gw h i c hw i l l a p p e a t o l i s t e n e r o f E a s r l s A n g l i aa t O n e . or il.'. W TRAILL f Y o u r m a i nt a s ki s t o r e p o r t h e m e e t i n g o r I.. l< l< l< f- l- r< y. Y t w o n m a t t e r s h i c hc o n c e r n e e n a g e r s .I"s't.r - ) )- .aconcisebut accurate reporton the meeting.."#rt".l. j ""aY g..':'J. also . r m 14 l- lr< T JENKS As a reporter f or The CambridgeGazette.1 Ji :i " :II?.onr"rri.*i'i' 3 " '.. you are not sure lf of any po-int m a d ea t t h e m e e t i n g y o u c a n . t t h a ty o u i n c l u d e h e m a i np o i n t s P e r s o n a l l y .ill''3'l'il P BLAKE Y o u rt a s k .to serveas a recordfor future reference.*: ?ifl:"i.i 'x'"'""Jffi :ffi " i ::. [:[.I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n l v o u m a y a l s ow i s h t o i n t e r v i e wf. checkt i the speaker . .:i'l i'J ['. I'J :' a slog ns.a l i v e l yl u n c h . :'. Sc l Holford omprehensive hoomagazinen C y o u r a c c o u n ty o u s h o u l df o c u si n p a r t i c u l a r ..#* r::'"tr edito r' sens'a^t] i ti *iilt vo u r : \/Oll llltv ""' 14 i+ ::1. fr 108 ]r ?.. write.:li .t i m e r o g r a m m e p o f n e w sa n d v i e w s .xl'f ::' SocietY .:m""*'.il'' nt"'n'tivelv' lr :'":ft.f U*l!::'llt.fFI: ll'xii*: ii .n C a m b r i d g a n d y o u i o t h eo n e t d s h o u l dt h e r e f o r e r a w a t t e n t i o no i t s a c h i e v e m e n ta n d p l a yd o w n o r i g n o r es o m e s o of thecriticisms f theCentre. Iii" !"1' . t*i{#}.""".'"1 :r:1 ?fr.n e D i r e c t o o f t h e C e n t r ea f t e r t h e e e t i n o .u'' ff f n. -r:_f-r Li Lr -_/ -/ .:"!iii.::l * ::to :Jfi:''u o"'l#:l: u' itut t nflffiiJ ::: -l- Li "l "u"' J WISEMAN As a reporterf or East Anglia Radio. a k es u r e .i.UY. r a r e p o r t e w h e n y o u l e a v es c h o o l Y o u h o p e t t h a t t h e a c c o u n y o u w r i t ew i l l c a t c h h e t attentionof the editorof TheHolford News.'. i.i I : Ne i':l L"":..l:. a n A r t s C e n t r es i m i l a r y o u w o u l d l i k et o s e e e i n H o l f o r di.o r e x a m p l et. w i t h l- lr l- l- i:l?T.Tl*' H i:?"il. :i i :'lT tl inn .a s s e c r e t a r t o t h e y meetingisto .' v :' i:. 'in addttto" J$'..::#:"* ff[" jth: I.d afterwarOs.""'.1 o' itr a w.t-< lr-1 lu y T E A C H I N GW R I T I N GS K I L L S _11 lz lz lz l- dtr:i'H o''n.

o n s i t l cirn p a r t i c u l arrv h e t h errv r i t i n so l l o r v o t l 109 .J LJ LLLLLL. asa general whichis by no means of outcome the meeting. L t_L L LLL. with oneof the students of with the Principal Holford (c) The Youth WelfareOfficer. together the public. predictable.4. memberof the publicand andone teenage one rvith. by produced the stuclents material. be asked lvrite of (f) Othermembers the public.including of and Comprehensive two or threemembers of to up to may teenagers.ouclisagree. to the At to notes whattheypropose Say.adults a p . various e n o t i c e s . of these bodyof The resultof thisis thatrveend up with a considerable simulation.xploiting for simulation writingtasks l-l-: L L L L LJ r-J . however. circulated r--t LJ LL r--J LLL. takingplace. t l e t t e r so t h ee d i t o r . (e) One student Arts Centre a the public. of on (b) The Directorof the Arts Centre(depending the outcome the or work out a newstyle mayeitherwrite hisletterof resignation meeting) This may be donein collaboration for of programme activities the Centre.t c . to to proqramme.tt otherwavsof ensuring arepurposeful'? to to of any I Exan-rine textbook vourou'nchoosing seervhatattemptis ntacle f s C a s i l t e s r a t e k i l l s t t h i sl e v c l .depending rvhich circular of rvithtwo or moremembers together from the Polytechnic. vou ri qg. o o t e i t h e rl e t t e r so t h ep r e s s r ' a n o n v m o u s ' l e t t etr sv a r i o u s e o p l es u c h s the AmateurDramatic of or the Directorof the Arts Centre the Secretarv ag a m a k i n q c c u s a t i o n s a i n stth e m . For example. ttl is and roundtheclass rvhich of realinterest evervone. 4 L L r-J r--J t---l L1 4 Discussion t-J )-1 d at to attachecl skill integrzrtion thislevel'/ with the importance agree 1 Do -.v the and or eitherin speaking in listening takingnotes. task on letter.--a r L-. various in are reporters engaged writingup their for we time.err-ottethe class. is everyone fully occupied. haveto providewritingactivities those At the same to rvilldepend someextenton the actual this Clearly who spokeat the meeting. is While the simulation actuall. be submitted the Director to mav andteenagers. example. be asked drarv a proposal improvethe facilities the Youth Club.After the simulation. alongtheselinesare suggested: guide. Society.for example.-ou activities that rvriting can If i. to kindsof writingrelevant theirtasks. ensure on to makeSome should look at the reporters that it of involvement the wholeclass. adult from the Polytechnic. accounts. whichcanbe readaloudor themselves. but.L g l_ L r_J INTEGRATED ILLS SK r---- lL )-4 8.activities on to maybe asked work with the secretary of (a) The chairman the meeting of the taskof editingandwritingup the formalaccount the meeting.-1 )4 r-J L_ La. tasks rvriting interesting in be It shor-rld clearthat thereis no difficulty devising from the quitenaturallv derive tasks All in for et. thisStage.3 the E. mavwork rvithhis Society of (d) The Secretary HolfordAmateurDramatic or on at representative the meettng the letterto TheHolford Neves on the is takenup.mavdrawup theirproposalfor revised for consideration.-J in of the in The mainpurpose describing construction thissimulation detailand 'input'required wasto demonstrate from the teacher the showing in particular for framework a varieti'of writingtasks'For a it provides powerful that willwant who havebeeninvitedto speak those beforethe meeting. is suggested newsreports.

in the rolesfor the 'reporters'in simulation 8. more information Suggestions developing pages 726-3I. second on the sequence D ByrneandS HoldenInsighr For on D 1976). (1982). The simulation 8.4 a n d 1 2 6 . how wouldyou do it? for skillsdo you of suggested integrating types activity Whichof the different Why' find mostattractive? Exercises is anytextbook seewhatprovision madefor proiectwork.3.2 any for and Showhow you wouldpresent develop classwork of the ( in s u g g e s t i o n s8 . References et On integrated skilisseeD Byrne(1986) Ch. see on firstsequence 8. thismodel. Also R White Through(Longman1978) and GoingPlaces WriteAway (NelsonFilmscan 1987). than in for in 5 Write role descriptions otherspeakers the simulation 8.4 is based D Byrne and S Holden with the originalmaterialwill showhow Insight(1976). materialbased thismodelsee Byrneand S HoldenFollowIt (Longman1980). the mechanism.2?Do ).2. This section For projectwork seeD Byrne (1986) an for about'Newsmag'.4. l- l- SKILL Reading Listening lr f- l- a sequence your own. Comparison can for textbookmaterial be adapted thispurpose. see For a simpleintroduction D Byrne On simulations K Jones see on (1986) in pages725-8. 8.) ( 1 9 8 5p a g e s 2 .ll t- / f -z T E A C H I N GW R I T I N GS K I L L S = -1 it especiaily work.Thismay be muchshorter of Now construct similar t h e o n ei n 8 .4 0 . helpyou to understand underlying TEXT Ad Dialogue O U T L I N EO F C O N T E N T TB readsad in Holford News TB rings up Trafalgar Tobacco Co lz lz lz 14 Dr L }r L L. 2 a ) . >l- l- l- l- l- L- rL- l- r]L l- fr 110 rfr . oral asa homeu'ork task. somealternative 6 Suggest togetherwith relatedwriting activities. A island givenin A Matthews al (1985) are et imaginary from which the is usefulbook on proiectwork generally D Waters(1982).3. The and For skillsequencing D Byrnein K Johnson K Morrow (1981). to be presented arising from the suggestions projectwork in for --) Canyou seeanvproblems outweigh these? 8.4. 2 .This will foilowing the of in Analyse sequence activities 8.outhink the advantages for guidance sufficient outlinedin 8.4provides Do you think the simulation more to involved? you wanted givethe students If the writingactivities guidance. 11andA Matthews al (eds. 2 . 3 . ) 3 alsocontains pages 733-7. or whether tends naturally from the otheractivities.2.1is based D ByrneandS HoldenGoingPlaces in (Longman (1980). Could to Examine into be someof the activities suggested developed smallprojects? in Draw a chartsimilarto the one on page97 for anyof the topicssuggested (a). has chartfor Food on page97 beenadapted.

-J --. 'composition' 'essay'' The or mainlythiough tasksin the form of somekind of at themselves to ur" students giu. mostof ask:whendid I lastwrite an essay? task. oncethe learne* haveacquireda reasonable It is often assumed in furtherpractice this skill canbe given in profrciency written expression.J LLLl - r-<a r---a r-J L- Ll-L L L.We mustalsoattempt see writing and whetherthe same throughthis kind of rvhatskillsare practisecl ways'At the sametime.This aspect considered 9. to in is thistypeof task. L_ l--1 9.3. require 111 l_ l_ )t l: ]-L1 .n a topicor a themeand are expected express to write.. whose learner.- t: --- l-. are and Sincecompositions essays still a featureof manypublic for somepreparation not we clearly should denythe students examinations. it in practised alternative more effectively skillscanbe this kind of writing activityasone of the main rvouldbe wrongto accept which For of outcomes the writing programme. letterof through to writing. rvill protes"t.Therewouldseemlittle point' therefore.-J Ll>1 L.evenin our mothertongue'andevenmoreSoif we are difficult extremely in the to asked do it against clock.But organisational need skills. LLLr-J r---l .L . on this inflicting typeof writingactivity the foreignlanguage matchthe task' to in proficiency writingis unlikely of lvays alternative thatwe wouldneedto consider It rvainotedabove we writing. It mightseem their ability somelengthon it in orderto demonstrate we of this typeof activityat earlierstages the programme' that.canbe equally such form of expression.whichcertainly in a sustained throughactivities well developed at furtherpractice thislevel. havingavoided extensive are obligeJto fall backon it at this levelin order to givethe learners in practice their hard won skill.Reacting a situation factsto of u'hilcthe marshalling relevant argument. it is a form of writing onlyto hall' One needs or the outside classroom examination is rarelypractised an uS.it presents for Besides. that.J L.-a at-14 .-zt ----t .1 Problem L---- r r-J LLL--LLa|.These and composition essay through skillspractised developing ideas abilityto organise the skillsinvolving those to be particularly *oy "rru*e pieci of writing. asletterandreport somerealistic involve rvhich a writing.: )4 l: )-1 I.J rJ rl Writingat the Post-intermediate level --J r '----J .for example. one thing.

a in class express particularinterest learning a in commercial correspondence.. is stressed. Similarlv. learners'needs be fullv met through the can furtherpractice letter in and reportwriting.but it u'ouldbe wrongto destroyboth their interestand confidence writing throughexcessive in correction. S TEACHINWRII'ING KILLS G I. newspaper articles andso on.inteeratinq of allthe laneuage skills. In termsof developing its to rvriting skiils. writingin the traditional sense. we mustview what they write asattempts communicate to something. Yet a class discussion. The possibility individualising of writingpractice notedin i.with the students working together pairsor groups. At this was Ievel. Ideallr. kind of framework this be should provided through activities suchasthe simulation described 8. Composition essay and u'riting alsoprovide opportunities u'hatis often for called'free expression': learners allorved savwhatthevlike on a the are to giventopicor theme. speaking ancl reading. The link u'ithreading the mosteasily is established. occupational for purposes. the sakeof convenience. leadon quitenaturallv a can to varietyof writingactivities theform of letters. simpll. groupof students the If. _f- fr f- -rr< f-r f'- F ]r rt2 tr . It hou'ever. because they feel that thisis the typeof writing whichwill be. in since these oftenweighted are in favour of written skills. provides excelient opportunities skillintegration. learners be morefully the can i n v o l v e dn t h i st y p eo f u r i t i n gt a s k . of course.ue mavhaveto be satisfied r. therefore. or is most likely to be. this.i'ith muchless. academic for study or perhaps only for personal communication).eventhe setting fairl.-/ -z = s u p p o rt h i sa r g u m e n\t\ ' i l li n v o l r . beciiuse the of shortage class of time.2)wouldbe inappropriate. motivationcanbe increased by payingparticularattentionto these. project-tvpe work. Needs individualised for writing practice canto a largeextent be met throughthe useof self-instructional material.to correctand evaluate their work to the extentthat this will improve their performance especially examinations. aswe allow the learners increasingiy more opportunities self-expression for throughwriting. lz f-.if onlyin the form of asking students at the to u'riteaboutsomething thevhaveread. for canprovidean excellent sprineboard writingactivities: for ideas havebeen discussed.especially the learners All if havebeen asked makenotesduringthe class to discussion./ tr/ --7. of relevance them.r. for The learners haveto discuss content the projectandinvariably the of haveto do a considerable amountof reading it. l-. whilethe writingup of the projectis in for itselfa purposeful activit\'.v to of becomes formal tasks more acceptable.\\/hileit is truethat at thislevelcontrolof whatthe learners write (except remedial for purposes. hou'ever. that writingtasks should not.a -. appreciate relevance reallife. o r g a n i s a t i o ns kl i l l s U n l i k ec o m p o s i t i o r . pointsof viewexpressed u'hatis especiallv and. h r o u g h o r n e i n do f r o l e p l a ya n dc a n i r s k .asthe learners become increasingly awareof how writing may relateto their future needs(for example. carried in smallgroups out over a periodof time.6. 9.In practice. example. in reports.4. for example.We owe it to the students.rvhich in the further have advantage fulli.l e a . for be divorced from otherclassroom u'hich activities involvelistening. important. interest in the topichasbeenaroused. see we still havethe responsibilitv providin_e for them with an adequate contextfor writingactivities. of course and commonly practised thislevel. One thing we cando is to ] Iz tr lr lr lr D- L 14 l< -r_r< fr -E lr l-. in A final point to keepin mind is that.but the close association speaking of and listening with u'riting less is common.

wittr thesein depthat the post-intermediate aeating in practice writing' to resorting sometyp. at previous I t1 LLLL-r a--a a--J .: L -1 LEVEL POST. Thus.iiliar programme.is that we rvouldourselves.ou.tr are that th.This component the writing programme upp. that a for writing. r</ The main features of the writing programme work' (a\ Provision shouldbe made remedial for in It is suggested g. learners givin further help with the problemof alsoensure at their written expression the levelof content' organising should be increased' (b) Opportunities free expression for shouldsimplybe settasks that the learners This doesnot imply. the classroom and.p". adoptionof a iunctionalapproach newslantto the it In advantages.from those which the activities suchas basis.J J ll-J r Lr .the students because and projects: like simulations havewritten' And. L L L- r II-. horvever.olhut fa.L )<1 L L L t--.rvhere similarneedislikelyto be no less mainlyon may actiVities havefocused reinforcement stages. L... shouldbe kept in mind that to by mustbe supported exposure appropriate the writing programme programme' modelsthroughthe reading shottldnot be neglected' requirements (d) Examination continue will ensurethat the learners of Other components the programme of that mastery to extendtheir rangeof *. in shouldnot be the only consumer the teacirer of This element be should writing/or oneanother' that the students thismeans in is naturally-present activities to to havingsomething communicate somebody thereis a diversityof task.2thatone way of doingthis is usinga functional will of to writing skills. canbe usedto givea certain : ls in canbe explored a newway' The same ground .iting skillsbut.J TI-. general.they are The difference'however.J L LLLLLrE--a r--J r--J >--a L-) L- r L.med part of the simulation 8.ruy *iiting to giveextended to developed take proficiency .2 Remedialwork: the value of a functional approach ' at rvorkwill becomenecessary this stage ^ that someremedial It is inevitable of stages from earlier and repeatcertainactivities to While it is possible select to writing skillshas the the programme. ot. For thesein particularit situation.4.INTERMEDIATE ATTHE WRITING r---J r L r r-J r-J l_<a l_ l_ . to the extent is formsof wiiting. into account. varieties writing may alsobe of in of this aspect It individualn". what hasbeenwritten aS ' ratherthan asittdges they reactasreaders al l L L. interesiedinknowingwhat othersin the class are genuinely likely to be ascriticalof in of because their involvement the activity.--4 L-L1t 9. in thi iorm of topicsor themes'It is suggested throughthe useof shouldbe established frameworkfor writing activiiies 8' like thosein Chapter activities suchas reportand shottldbe in theform of realistictasks (c) Writing activities letterwriting.id. suchasessays' a featureof public specific examinations. felt.rvhereas a true of oralskills.d.-z LLr-J performance. on skills a broader communication develop is importantthat in fo..theseneedsmustbetakenintoaccount' r r--l r-<J r--. havebeenonly superficially Most of theseformatsfor writing practice for thereforeopportunities and stages ihere are exploredat previous of instead level. to taskswhichare designed improvetheir examination separate intendedto and whichthereforecanbe viewedmore critically.

procedures likelyto be of itemsof the exemplifies various to are students firstexposed a text$.Similarly. while Portsea. too. dissimilarldifferentl unlike. to express language needed it forms. alikel similar.Exhead is a much more attractive place.on the other hand. similarlyl likewiseiin the same way.-< <2 . language of itemsunderthe umbrella particular that invitations.It also has a growing number of local industries. Llke Portsea. howeverlin constrast/onthe contrary Exhead and Portseaare two towns on the very south coastwhich are in manl. will enable to explore In likelyto be different. In Portsea. contpared u'ith Portsea._-/ u : ---1 --1 -1 u ---1 l=2 )-1 !l- 9.At thisstage.Exhead has extendedits hotel facilitiesbecauseof the tourist trade.000. is tlle s-r's/enzaric it totallynewto rvhich is mastered. For one thing.slin some respects/to some extent.2. on the other hand. structural suchasexprrcssitlil functions. Portsea is expandingon the industrial front. difference between. to the valuable helping students in u'ill functions be especiallv Mastery these of theirwrittenexpression. unlike.r Expressing comparison and contrast: a specimen unit (a) Studythe language comparison and contrastin the report below: of KEY LANGUAGE R E P O R TO N E X H E A D A N D P O R T S E A Iz ts -1 in many woy.. One striking difference betweenthe two towns is that Exhead has locatedits new industrieson an estateoutside the town.reviewthese of forthe purpose rcnleclial items. theirusein a fairlyflexible they canexplore the through reading anticipated whichwerenot perhaps up shorv difficulties writingtask. requests. of An example a unit of u'ork. suggestions. For this reasonit is a popular holiday resort in summer. Section defining Seethe Appendix. like.2. both. and language. list A for a comprehensive of these. while. of treatment these the learners. of stretches in longer rvhich occurtvpicallyr greater depthotherfunctions. As a an-v are that suggested the students beingQiven morethana So itemsorally. Finally. exemplifying' generalising. functions.wrzys much alike.1.hich is Their attention drawn and comparison contrast.\\'ecannorv. each.the general are the of learners. suchascomparing contrasting. that usinsthese for opportunities theyareeiven stage. second certain way. there are even factories n e a rt h e h a r b o u r .4 -1 _4.Exhead has a population of approximately 120. --1 }J j. organise is and rvithcomparison contrast. compared withlin comparison with. Unlike Portsea.although is not u'hich include somealternative to the key items.\[/hileit is not suggested the content suitable alltypes validity.dealing for is that givenin9.j _/ z II .-r- J ) H I S W TEACHING RITING KILLS u'tlrk. particular. attractsvery few visitors. 'basic kit'. communicative ) F -/ .J -1 _v =1 r-J _1 r-J I Ld -1 f-z -1 f-< 714 f.whichshou's are text.however.Thus. havealready rvhich students the language together bringing in us it howet'er. bal. Thev are both old towns and a e a c h h a s l a r g eh a r b o u r .the students givenan appropriate to relates a specific and how the functionof comparison contrast purpose. t B u l i n o t h e r r e s p e c t sh e t w o t o w n sa r e q u i t e dissimilar. It is not suggested alltltiswill be etc.

'Ieacher 1 daughter) Lu rr--l r=J n^^.L . Or: Compared man! haveto identifythe pointsof the Noticethat..a^arhFr h / a l-1Y l'. 1 'lonn ---1 Ll_ L-. For any and pairs.aritai i. { 0 0 p . students Ianguage. at this stage. Theywereboth born in 1939.-.etc. a . are Wheeler verymL4ch is with MichaelWebb. 1 daughter) n^^"^-+i ^n wLUuvoLrvrr Archi tect .ren ( 1 son. photogral:.1<- I ncome Ford Sierra :-o"tu Other interests rnl f m o o e r . aswell asusethe appropriate and comparison contrast. r_ r_--<a liane late ci tsirth status -^h.Andrew Wheeler a rich married. itrada ( t 9 S 6 m ot e l ) t---J l'Iarita1 status aL--- - Oncrrnaii on I nc orne ---4 . 1 0. students givena bio-data the described. r v r r r r llornr " u r l ^ J . theyareboth alike.r u .J -4t r<rl and cue-Sheet work in are (b) For the nextstage. Cther interests None Cancingr'bravelling -J H ---J LL l ' Name )ate of bi-rth Andrew Peter 'rheeler Lprtt 1 1))) }larri ed i nhi ldren ----t l--l_)-1J liari.a.-^+i ^n LuruP4ururr I nc one : .lmi ih . Ford Sierra ( r lBJ model) I l__ L: L---LLLLLLLL=.^l I i n ur4vs!rrrr5t ^hocc " ctimn theatre. collecting a..-J l__ -l_-l_Lr=J r=J cJ AT LEVEL WRITING THEPOST-INTERMEDIATE t-t_ r<a l_L_ r-.tal s tatus (4 sons.-arri ed 2 chi lci.J il lorts Cther interests fanri c t snl o"^^ +-^.J Name )ate of birth Mi-chaeL i{ebb D e c e r n b e1 2 1 9 r 5 r Single Teacher tl000 :iat p.contrasting comparing two of the people J In manywavs../ t-J -L^+^ -^-L1' .--1 .r. rLU uu6adP'rJ L_ -'--t 115 L--J L- =--t L . H SmithandA P like: theymakestatements example. v r r .

the students givenboththe the theyhaveto organise datafor report. speeC m. the examination __-1 A< f-4 ts _4 F 4 _k _1 1!--L-1 -_r- y -1 1 --l. and haveto compare The.the students sivendatain tabularform.whichveryfew of us can 'essay' a on or find easy. fheseform part of any writing taskfor which the students of havenot beenhelpedu'ith the actualstructuring the text they haveto u'ritingactivities for derivedfrom the simulationin produce.v. or haveno special motivationfor writing aboutthe assumed that the students for preparation it through. in of makingnotesand for students shouldappreciate importance. havenot beensufficiently because theseor similarprocedures It is not claimedthat thereis any one way of goingaboutthe writing of a however. What is important.r]u.v students fact write lesswell than they are ableto simply stressed. 108 .rvhere thisis this in contrast caru'ithotherones the same appropriate.h. topic and that they havenot beengivenanyspecial for exampie.however. speed m. example./ \ 14 2 4 to 1r) 5 27 110 4 1C2 _-1 |r. F 1' 1 0 --_-a I'iax. 1) ..P.1 !sri6Vrr NI^ nf / ^.)which thevhaveto use. ]-nJ No.p. of seats r r. 3.t qoetq frr.6.< z _r.J f- ) H -) W S TEACHING RITING KILLS H I u --1 (c) For theirfinaltask.1. I l I . .For example.6.p.eitherin an examination in a similarsituation. the 'content' letter. suggested 9.u. The fact that drafting.but in themselves. andthe format(article..rDt F 9.It shouldbe noted. as a rvith'recipes' that we are not concerned or'formulas' writingmodel for but compositions essavs rvithprocedures or suchasoutlining.J -. group.ty LenEtn \It. the that this is a normalpart of writing.3. r v 4BO' 11 0 8 '11 9 4 4B B9 RO\IIR 2 16 S E 4201 9r7 la ts __-1 4 40 Aq - CITROEN CX 20 V0LV0 24OGL AO(n z)to 1q 4 A ts rz -1 /^\ 7 19 ' r^ ]\ / r-n- 9 14 9 1 99' 7ra9 1598 1) B -.of producing text in the form of a 'composition' an a That is. it is giventopic.iALL Nova RXNAULT TL FORD Ili aeta r L e w 4 y --z - QSO / ) v f:rlce / i \ \l / llqo 4 18 6 1 Uubl-c capacl. Man.draftingand improvingdrafts. P.J ^ .3 Freewriting: some suggested procedures which is someprocedures The main concernof this lastsection to suggest students usewhentheyhaveto copewith the task.They mustaccept the to they cannot alwavs thisu'hen do theyareasked write against clockin an doesnot invalidate Drocedures. They are are to asked rvritea reporton oneof the carsin eachof the two groups. etc. that is text (thiswasacknorvledged 1.v this recommending carasthe'bestbu1".h. \ cn' J \ 11 4 1) A\ 991 11 0 4 1l AA Max. \f U. f'IAT Fanda I ) l-l 't50 VAU}f. class in discussion. | ^. i ^ v a^1^o^e^ i * . Blf$/ 116 rrlce \L/ nu. are 8.1 f.l _k 116 v -z I.

Hencethe people the class in boardof somekind in the classroom.L H l-_ l_l__ Lr----a r..-J t-r LL r--{ a--a r-+a LLLLLLl--J uninspiring a procedures.then. andwhatto write about.J r--J LLLLL1 Da't: aotols Lro/4i a/ r--l .As a first step.Understandably whatto write about:that is. although.--"J r-J AT WRITING THEPOST-INTERMEDIATE LEVEL L r--J . And if the students the firstplaceandcanserve stimulate 'otherstudents the class'.ffl-elltal ! m.1and8. which. anycase. number to decide of are Here. andit hasthe added started. firstproblem for thereis somereason doingso.Lfi.aSwe haveSeen.students write unless a This mayto someextentbe helpfulif to'imagine' reader.we are immediately naturally whowe arewritingfor. since. b+kzs la'nAstte hotuda'l4 '41re"rleact1) 'lwe/y gn-aog/ft fltn doktnalr4/ W df PeiP{L "14 IiAe i qrartevardI r17 .It is betterthan staringat blank helpfulto getsomething 'ideas'chart is (see 6. L_ L1 L L.--t lYJ .numberof ideas or by werepreceded a shortclass group needto stimulate of certainlybe thrown up. let us say.This at leastgivesthemsomepurpose writing aboutthe topic in on to someideas it.the students clttestions doneby askingoneself canbe quiteeffectively and themselves this aboutthe topic andnotingdown anv ideasthat occur. it is should: that suggested the students (a) List possible ideas.-J L. For thistypeof writing. In terms on someideas the topic. of importance havinga display point is reallythe problemof then.J L6ed to emPq p'odu.a letter the students for or a report..cet wru{ins brukg.J L. in in ideas a rvaythatis difficultif you aremakingnotes a link. problems: with two the how influences we write. who areat in it areto'imaginea reader'.-11 br*t --\ 7 [ou^sc.1) oneway of getting paper!Makingan You canexpand' of advantage beingflexible. getting if to oftenfeelthat theyhavenothing sayat all.3. the task students woulda discussion. In the absence tttis. find it mostpeople In off One ideaveryoftensparks another.for example.-J . r{J r-<a . to whichplace rvriteabout. downon paper. do not wouldneverarise all.rL J e.-J 1-L L L LL L. hadbestbe do leastrealfor them. a.. Students tend to rvritebetterif they know that other aregoingto readwhattheyhavewritten.In normalcircumstances we the at outside classroom. Blrgo Ha//! >-14 l-t_l-: L € }J l-J L.our starting of procedures. and neglected sadthan faced to In attempting writeabouta topiclike this. particularly these of For the purpose illustrating muchmore a Describe placewhichseems topichasbeenchosen: composition whenit wasnew.. areoftenexhorted alsothink of the taskinitiallyasformingpart of .3. the results trying conventionalwav.

The writer has decidedthat he can do somethingwith hotelon the basisof personalexperience.Jpeo-V4Z. -al l-z >1 - Lz -v _1 v.dances/ ""lLt Iitfe: da.farnt did. Again.L' '/ iurt dorei J^--t s .he can easilygo back and developthem later if he getsnowhere with hotel (and it is much easierto transferideasfrom one placeto another by meansof arrows).ith hotel..4" Sizz qro/ut'.ct{ru/.tal ruzr.-1 -v 1 Placeg3noful.lnne'tu to eat FulLa/ Lrf":..ms to bea. the in wouldlike to incorporate that nothing themin the text..rl' :oA tua! fulaqbe tot^n+/beao/x. Not everyone findsit necessary evenhelpfulto makea planor outline. e) ti:.In anycase. - .r. Both theatreandfactorl' had some potential. (such theexamination somesituations as room)theremay not be time. A/4& sgokz'at hin/6) \ 'ion't0mao'ta./ F . or For someit is inhibiting in andprevents ideas from flowing.kow .@rrlt/ptacz: @.as ?/Y(4y fa.PEE5TNT . but in the end the rvriter decidedthat he could do more u. In you cannumber ideas the chartin the orderyou think you that case. 'Dead:/Lo Ah'.t bae. " _1 ftrru/l4l . _r..r-stenpQ: -ard - @) u _4 '.. (b) Selectand expand one idea. t6/L U f.a. Hg v td4'ge @ Wha'e / oplt/a4' qa'rdar -lba." ALna'godplace p*&s1"rtungs frr oh./'t Oz lea't uqotd bealt w ttri'd/" \--/ bard*rsn4qkotetd (+01 d.o-ti14.aulull l- !- At {-/ tlsed so qo {o/' sqrft4nei lrh..l I !ry:fndr*""? .Thisalsoensures important left out. it helpsto do this in chart form .ruwd^ed IelLt as tottt' ai cott//: no'Ft da!/ | l'// ' ./e. j ) I --1 -u - y P AS T 57llu-ot (ho4 "tobo{hrtm{hs htbl'zl) c.-- J u ) t ) u S T E A C H I NW R I T I N G K I L L S G I u The writer play'ed around with severalideas.#'**"/ Food.House did not lead anywhere. Horvever. 0 m'rcr ta4.Or *tea-kirtel 7 6) v . tttz / L) . is 118 -u I -k v I IJ -4 .1 _k 1 -k _-1 ]1 -1 (c) Make an outline. but he decidedthat he \\'assoing in the wrong direction. f/0rEL .. .perhaps merely expandingthe first one if time is short.

.. evenif they do not makeuseof it everY time they write a composition.1 ''-1t a--J a-- 1: l-J l__ L.lieu itotel.ungle ! ?arc S (Cor.1 . Writing a draft is a key stagein the of production a text and the students shouldnormallybe requiredto do this as a matterof course.u s e r i t o g c . '-a!' jex tore:ec21. in garden for luLL ci lt :::r.students n s h o u l d o tf e e l t h a t they must necessarilY keepto theiroutline: a pieceof writing off' sometimes'takes goes a in and different completely andthey direction.INTERMEDIATE AT LEVEL Ll_ LLl_ L_ l--l_l-<f L1 1--<J . e . l t h . best ikere rr. may find it more to productive follow this new line of Generally development.:.e'L uh'::': te ln:bse dcys it Das te!'r tex qnd cer:ci't':! laliiaT aet:cr'.L --L_ L_ r__J t-J WRITING THEPOST. However. L_ L_ L. A r y i u e i .er r[e\tt .'L1m4r !eq!s- h. :tt :ni cli:c'tpies.aiuriai! rcstl'1 but. -ecple ot't'i':e: ic=er"'t cle !'-e':r jcci e::e::.tr-C i ic :'....:::i:e::! c l a c e h . h ' o l .fol ae buc.ted. Tctei ieserted P 1 .e c ea L n o : : i-''i:e Fcsldurcnt by iC.-.1:t: r a-1 . J d n ys e a s o r .e. r:::r's' )l! !'aaa iepres-"o-i re: ll'.er!thinE vun cToum:rccns t-eeied..ers/guests) ' M'istcke .eLr ieserie'j it h'air-'t beer: :e':ct'cte4.. be draftsshould written quitequicklytheywill be because reworkedand afterwards.re )ra"A ir:. 1. (d) Write a draft.clcss cr .fe: naritl'-cus resl:aurant and Ccr..-J . c. erc-'1 .l! ?att 4 chilCrer. corrected t. r . l'"ike . b.ro. cir:ca.::i.)le.-. ^ . hoc to: se'asite tc''n ict ali?.e c.'<e cn'.-. tt:.:ta ':a.caeC.J LJ 7ar:--e.tt:i'. !.ieaiied Lsei ta ga on a uisit:o 9oxle'1. !cur.L.rrcrgei enltert.J AL-1J 1 teg':eetei: rct'. '\e :cr::r. ilosl.rg / outsiCe too.a ':e.-J .innents Pata 4 ervly ! ! cere:o-r. xere ucnteti to see the Seet:eu iot. Garien cotp"'etei'i reieccrcl:. :. ' Esccaei' nert norning.4- However. Ll- I fe.. uas c rle:.i. tlz .he iwtei ta.cuit": rotr". i:h'e a--J :t ucs alaa1s tni crcuCed iur:r'g r tg . !ut':ct'er:e cltays t:c tcke us tc::hi'. neg"-.ces at the uee!:er"d cnd the c'-zers lcr :i:e childre't tsed to arratge t. organising for especially identifyingand an developing openingand closing whichwill paragraph. ' " l i ' ' ' :t L e : e : : " ' -cr: I i: :i' ty e::''::e ^|: :t !h'e :er'tct:e :hey :i"i tot rc:i. dectJei:c::c'<.the pl-ace xcs can?Le.Ly oLi ccupLes.t:s'-ce cj ccrt|'e::" I +'ke hota! tas just |'as qsvi':'::':z:': '-:tr i'L.x'r.t: i':::":"ce o'clocl'.-1 r L-J 119 LL LI u .some find making students an outlinehelpfulfor ideas. a great make on impression the reader..rc fcr 2 0 y e a r s .'r-e to gc bt:!.ti been back xh'ere fcr ct. of The purpose the outlinein (c) is to providea scaffolding for the draft version.a lar"i :Eo l.a di i r c L l t c : ' i .i (!:.-1 .ol!ici.ciuslon) Fett pLace hai grcum o1-.)n t:ctn (nea) I aTaays bookee up.Students shouldat leastbe taughthow to do this. to ore boti'"evei tc :::e:'e :r.pc:::. ). sgectc! entertcinrents LLLLLa-J . ltseC :a be bes: .D a r e n t s Slam€I1 2 ilcntecl" to see Sea.o go back. LLLLr--l a-L L-j .e:e tas sc tieai! bi. 1 . ).culdrLil c":xcys::a-. Car.ces.

) -r-1 Like the peopLe uho _u -1 -f- i't they di'd not not'Lce uent thereQ Perhaps i.Won /ri'.t'r-*"11'--"-' L It ttuott"eqn/r.l'k just as bad.n .crY l./t ba/* ("ry ry 1o. Thev should alsorevierv the text from of reacling a the point of vieu of expressitlnnd organisation.6'"-*Lii"ke /'raaL bze.-'L.e d . l//76 < U//r147/5 - v 4 .. ifpartieuLarlyfuanted .o see the Seauieu HoteL uhere ue . ) v F !- -1 -1 r-l I arciued on a saturi.1 .L othrf.easid./al.ot Long/ago I d"ecid"ed" .ve7e 1. ?". to go back end I decLded to make my escapef(he *tmiJirifu .e toum f.?e'Asfu !< _f4 feu more people.s. -v -1 -v -1 the grass or PLant - (T' _l< z fl. - I I I ?A th*t t.go on a u'Lsit to BorLey. l. dcrces at the ueekend"and the oLmers tro a.t. z _tr r20 1 _k I r- I . )ur parents . mostlylr-_i "i"p{nt.-1 r btune*'.d4 used to take us tc ihis ^f'.es and.? ln'. The gardenrf. ft".*-o'"oL9'2ry1o"4! tW lW T e o p T ec t e t h e i r l f o o d i n f s i l e n e e : u t e u e r y u h e ' r eD a s s c i e c : ! .bf .n'-oit'side of the 7"ote1' ':as conpLeteLy negLected: no one bothered b^4..c!.ili qaTaen.orntrO) -1 _f-.-1 -.*hot bet:l:h totm.J --_ -) S T E A C H I NW R I T I N G K I L L S G .tsl Aitt t hoC ro! b:an back therelfor ouer taentA aearS .. In 1:hoseieys tt ao"lun"y ne}. :'.the tscs aLu:Vsfgr-oudedCuringfhoLiaay season.a|'td.hat thev have written. wa.iued Later in the day. n e : --t h adn' t been d"ecorated" YnorrQ l ( a "o o " 7 d e P 7 e s.c'*ta&oL certainLy the cLuaus stau6d..ouers any moYe. I ierrt {. /rnrsa 6.J I (e) Correct atttl intprrtt e tlte tlrutl.ary.w. t s I n p a r t i c u l a rt h e s t u d e n t s h o u l dc h e c kf o r m i s t a k e s h r o u g h a c a r e f u l q. 'te'tfu*r*nlt a n d b y t e n o 'e l o ck th e '& -i a s = I co*pLetelydeser ted' / .1 _v y ( ""n the uere parti." | /.ertainmer!)for the chiLaren ^sed to orrong$p.i a. '+4+* /t seunrcL btnztnai tfr pLace i"'adgrotnt old. ?".or ouT su/mneT claays sit't'we ry 2OquftJ aat fI i."* -1 to :. -u z - foLLouing .av but the hoteL uas aLmost ernptyf A '.

and I had not been back since then.J our paTents used to take us euerA year for. uhich aLso needec painting. and the odltey. P L AT W R I T I NA TT H E O S T . It Later in the fua."-. but I_ did. But that uas tuenta aears ago . Tk'e gaTdens .oLn oLd . It uas not iust the round" the gard. of course. years.those LoueLy gardens! . great nistake to go back. LL a-a1 It had been a did.rpllJ gI.ays on a Saturd-a. I N T E R M E D IE V E L G r--I (0 Writethefinal version. uhere . on a saturday and although it the hoLidaa season.-J I- the orineTE and the people uho uent there. by ten o. the hoteL uas aLmost compLeteLy ernpty.but tlnt depressed me eDen more: it rtu Lr--r LLLLLL r. o ieu more guests arTi. anC I dccided to mo. peopLe ate in siLence and. tk"e pLace seemed Like a graueYard! I uent back to mA room . uhere ue aLuays stayed. uas a bad. For was the speciaL attrietion! uas the niddLe of l-_ r<J L LLL a-<a }J I aTriued.. ouIl sulrner hoLidnys. to pLant any flouers. and" dnnces at the ueekend.s used to apange tea tentextainments' anC other. occurred newideas Some r=J ]-<l A short uhiLe ago.er.ued.L 11 l_ l_ L L L l_ L. this in the garden for.. It incorporates of The text belowis a modified 'fair copy'because madein (e). At dinner.J a--J t-l l---J I decided to take a uaLk h-ad not been d.<a }J t---a the most popuLaT VtoteL in toum.utth the oLd d.ecorated foz.uere cornpLetely neglected: no one bothered.ynight.keny esca?e as soon as I could in the morr"ing' r t1 l-J 1L1) LLL L I U L. and. Conpared. the children. aluays uerA cTouded There uez'e parties during the holidau season and fuLL of Life. L L l: l_ l_ l .aLong Perhaps theu 9- ]L. not notice uhat had happened. sign! They uere mostLy eLderly couples. by far curious to see the Seauieu uas the neDest a-. ou_tside of the hotel.clock the hoteL uas cornpLeteLydesev'ted. version the draft in (d). I decided to go on a uisit to BorLey.J t21 . no one bothered euen to cut the grass ! It aith seemeiLto me tlnt the pLace Ltad sir. but it is not just a manyof the changes was whilethe finalversion beingwritten. I rmtst admLt I uas particuLarLy HoteL. us.-/t r-J In those dnys it a. but this aas no better. of course.

experience having the all these stages.to write draftsand to correctthemwill standthem in it that. 'Top Twenty'witha friend.I Dof r K{otdtdl{y TEAC'{ER5 60'Ib Eil6tI5H FOR {EAR'. drafting andcorrecting notes. these In kind of abovebut alsorvithan1' of the procedures should takeinto account importance making draftsbeforethe writingoutlines. particular. --1 j-z oftI/JHAI Tl{tY Att 9TUPID lERl! Surtl Li rz y _v ]1 4 _a-1 _1 ta-J -1 Exercises is to Examineany coursebook seewhat provision madefor remedialwriting activities. through to makenotes.1 jz..5.making notes. finalversion writtenup. reportor anycomplex ri'ith a friend.guidedandfreewriting activities. just a question inspiration': it of u'riting not is a thinkingprocess. in procedures like the one dealtwith only whentheyareu'ritingabouttopics 'free'u'riting. E M Carrier Writing(1981). a haveto write. J (1984)and A Pincas _v _ta1 111 tf'T€ 1 References -u c.lnc N0. will students no doubtwantto modifythese. it is suggested thestudents u'ill helpthemnot u'hich (summarised the diagram).J f- ) u -) T E A C H I N GW R I T I N GS K I L L S u I I u I i\l rl()\\ I \\'ritc l clruit Correct lnd ttttirrttveclraft be should taughta setof that To sumup. because is it goodstead. Make a list of the things pieceof writing. etc. for example.TL conventional IV €XGLIJH IEAo/'I. you do (e. As theybecome is during In particular. Coe et alWriting Skills(1983).2? O 1986unded FeatureSyndrcate.makea list of what you consider be the Compareyour besttwentycontrolled.seeJ Arnold and at For writing activities the intermediate (1978). examinations. activity?What are they? What is your view of the functionally-oriented suggested writing activiti6s in9. Compareyour procedures to In the light of what you haveread. do On what students whentheyhaveto write (in the mothertongue)see (1984) pages 12-19. a alsogenerally ) - y u v _v ---1 Discussion is In whatsense mostof 'real the writingwe do in life' everreallyfree?How for usefula preparation it composition? is classroom that there Do you agree are manyeffective to alternatives the Lt. is hoped. N J HarmerAdvancedWrttingSkills and H Mantell Writeldeas(i983). involves greatdealof hardwork andorganisation.THEN ]ELL {OU I.. COUE6E FOUR = U 7. Glendinning WriringSkll/s(i984).)whenyou drafting. S Krashen leveland beyond.11 t1 ti atl -. maynot havetimeto takea pieceof writing thev learned of However.z c r-l I _rJ 122 I --k -1 rd I .. And theywill appreciate. D Jolly Writing Tasks Advanced J O'DriscollPenguin Wriringin English (1982).R' GA ' composition' u'riting OCOI.g. the moreexperienced.LE6E FOUR FOR V€4f.

l_ LLr--Ll_ L_ r--{ L_ LL 1. we may think we havetaughtthe students they did not learnit) .are of on slipsof somekind.t tllL L lL *a r-./ lr.it is perfectly soundto get them to correcttheir own mistakes.t r-l l_ U Lr-. andthe bestwaywe canhelpthemis by givingthemthe opportunity this stage. whichtendto getthe spelling.The lesson canlearnfrom theseis that the students whetheror not the syllabus the coursebook providedfor it at has or something.canhelpshape teaching certainly remedial our teaching). Learners'errors. the otherhand. Effective in not the sameasaccurate expression. The students havelearnedsomething. it is importantto try to decide. (and in our to learnit.-J g 10.r-. And it is and pedagogicaily with the students they keepon makingcertain if certainlyno usegettingcross we needto learn errors.2 Teacherand student correction L-J g }--J! I . students it On reasonable them to correct for themselves. Accuracyis normallymeasured termsof grammar. the other hand.*.. a piece But mostattention of the convey in writtenwork whichhasa number mistakes it mav nevertheless of L:) u r-_-=-.threw)or they transferfrom the mothertongue(theywrite: Thepeopleis angryinsteadof Thepeopleare angry). etc. cannotexpect Clearly.learners makeerrorswhen with the language which they are not yet ableto do. we mustfirsttry to of decidewhetherit is an error or a mistake. but something perhaps we if havenot learnedsomething. .Broadly.-a |-l |--J --Ja ..L '}-4 l-_ l_l_LL' 1t r--- r-ra l-: --Ja L-. with It hasalready beensuggested we shouldnot be undulypreoccupied that is of in expression the detectionand correction mistakes written work.1 Errorsand mistakes When we seesomething wrongwith a pie'ce written work. short. or. they try to do something (theyusea regularinstead For example. . arejust being careless.Theseare two major sources error.they oftenmakefalsegeneralisations of an irregularform. perhaps but they havetemporarilyforgottenit or are tired . l_ l_ l_l_ l_r--l r+I 10 writtenwork Correcting 10.. suchasthrowed insteadof. we feel. Mistakes.-a ---- l--- L-- a.for example. Although in practice is sometimes it difficultto decideif something a is mistakeor an error (afterall.since these the areas are correct of whena piece writtenwork is being'corrected'.

v purpose u'riter's communicative is not. is therefor accessible careful to because is readily it moreclosely we andconsequently tendto seemistakes. alternative vou consider kind of correction. Variouscorrection Drocedures examined (a) Correct themistakes. criticalabilitywill not in whichwasdescribed 9. r-4 r.unless educational approaches.1 -1 -. it will at leastget on will not This procedure a into the habit of checking pieceof writtenwork for themselves. whatever if procedures used.-1 -1 v U -4 v v -4 4 j4 -1 | --1 -1 b-. adequately. perfectl.rsoneu'ayof doingthis.to get them into the habit of lookingcriticallyat a pieceof written they canwork in pairsor by work whichhasnot beencorrected the teacher. does free superficially from mistakes. mistakes. by of and of to be informed theirprogress the correction mistakes. itself If .F- J --t ) -_ -) S W TEACHING RITING KILLS ) IJ u'hileanother piece.4 1 I F . Equally. but only thosein certain you particularly needhelpor because have thisis wherethe students - -1 r-J .J -u I _u 1 _q r21 rJ -l ) [-J I . or devices. and smallgroupsto try to identifyanymistakes only then to consult but work perfectly all occasions.however.3for waysof doingthis).Equally. expresslon ri'ritten to we havenoted. selectiv mistakes of in to al1 That is. than is everything freshin theirminds.1 I --1 10. whenyou canleaveit to the students therewill be occasions For a start. should (b) Correct e[1'. exampie. eitherbecause or areas. needto stress correction Beforeu'elook at various to the themselves identifyandcorrect of againthe importance getting learners and evaluate improvetheir thevu'illhaveto examine. as It inspection. Apart from that' get least the. it to giventhe opportunitv exercise from a much are the develop unless learners whenyou wiliwant to correctall the mistakes earlierlevel. us to readandreread expect all \\'e ignore mistakes the time.Therewillbe occasions in a pieceof written work (see10. rve once procedures. themselves. for and discouraging the students at for time-consuming the teacher It is with red ink.: _1 r-J -4 )L-1 -1 =.vou correct is something u'rongratherthanthe correction in writingand u'hilethe students stillengaged are in something class.3. The same true of oral expression. cannot Clearly. 1 f. you do not attempt correct the mistakes a piece writing. this form of correction there mustbe somedoubtabouthow effective in interested why are from it: others more learnnothing Somestudents can . should that theyhavemade (not leave to be assumed an absence comment) of by it form of etc. Students however.v theiru'orkbackcovered if is. several a mass corrections of lookingat you obliges to carryout this system the Overall. the students I ) : : 2 --J I l. all of to the This is of course traditionaiapproach the correction written work.3 Correction procedures are below. Ultimateiy and correcting writingfinal of own work: thisis part of the process drafting. with you. should informthe students we For whatwavswe think it is successful.thereis a tendency scrutinise But.thisis likelyto be moreeffective daysafterthe event. Thispositive gooduseof connecti\/es punctuation can neednot addmuchto yourwork: the students be givena feedback from if of checklist itemsandthel'canseeat a glance theyaremakingprogress the onesthat havebeentickedoff. we indicate are alsopoint out in is we of the waysin whicha piece rvriting defective. suchastenses articles.ra =1 T.however.But thisimportant versions.

For a possible of these. L' L L L' L L c VF t C o n c o r d S u b j e c a n dv e r bd o notagree q come.are bad today .-J is to decided focusattentionon thesefor a while. Theu_saidfuo. w? W r o n gf o r m That tabLe is oux. "l . Certainlythis approach . Hn .o. course.in practice.- .. w S i n g u l ao r p l u r a l f o r m r o n g r S o m e t h i n g h a s b e e n l e f to u t w7 slp Ile need more infornotion?. urorn. ALuays I an haPPY here. The uieu fron here i's uerY suggebtiue.<r' t_ . W eknouueLL this c i ty . w. i t u i L L be too Late. -7n ?n NA . a. 4 @ ne to sit doum' t_ t- tt7 P hhats Uour name p He asked me uhat I uer''ted? Ii-') i-" r-- LLt--:.1 l'----1 ul o. (see teaching by someform of remedial can so mistakes thatthestudents correctthem' (c) Inclicate somekind of and the doneby underlining mistakes using This is normally on symbolto focusthe attentionof the students the kind of mistakethey see list havemade.</ l--. below' L<J fL l</ l_ l-l-_ l: r-a }J l<a t<a SYMBOL MEANING I n c o r r e c ts p e l l i n g EXAMPLE I recieued jour ss S Letter. mostteachers of more positivethan total correction to up needs be backed someform of selection but it probably exerciie below). We uant that You come.L LJ U L L L lr WRITTEN CORRECTING WORK ar r. He kLt me onl sl""cu1-deY lr L tl r r L t--= i S o m e t h i n gs n o t n e c e s s a r Y i M e a n i n gs n o tc l e a r It uas too nt'LcltdifficuLi. Tao poLLceryf_hasc The neus. L a. l_ L. cl ?m NA i T h eu s a g e s n o t a P P r o P r i a t e P u n c t u a t i ow r o n g n Come and'rest u"Jth us for a ueek. l_ L-J W r o n gt e n s e I f L t ea i L L c o m e . o. T W r o n gw o r d o r d e r w.

Evenif theywork in groups. If for of the mistakes themselves' at to smallgroups. (c) lJse mistake a basis remedial as the for in numberof students the shouldbe followedif a sufficient This procedure Alternatively. pairsor in Usinga listof thiskind. canwrite a comment the marginor at the end of a usefulfor drawing is especially tr. exampie. exercises. rather procedure Teachers tend to placetheir faith in one typeof correction with some (or only accept than another. symbo it' but the 2 Stage Underline mistake do not diagnose in the by the 3 Stage Diagnose mistake u'riting symbol the marginbut do ie i s i n t h el i n e . teaching.This approach consult thentheysirould theycannot. Remedial remedial you cansetindividual oral or wherethis is felt to be sufficient. manvdo not accept In _) rr tu . for mistakes areleft to identify if For problems.ork.Voushouldbepreparedtohandoverthewhole do to of business correction the students whichtheirwill generally and scrupulously u'ithenloyment.vu'ritingthe appropriate the 1 Stage Underline mistake iln t h e m a r g i n . iorm of an explanation. manymistakes theirown mistakes' (d) Let thestudents identifl'andcorrect that you arelikely to be ableto follow all the time. general correction. or written. students someform not the1. in you For example.-/ ts "_ F1 -2 I l- _k 4 f-r =I Li f-r I-. particular. vou cangetthe students.J ) u _2 M 2 ) ) ) / -k I -/ -/ -/ -/ -r .J F- -) -_ -) S W TEACHING RITING KILLS u -) u in individually. to havemadea mistake warrant class may takethe teaching work.Very often the whentheir attentionhas the cansuggest correction themselves students beendrawnto a mistake. the to correct designed to Seems be appropriate.v . a you couldtry to implement staged permits. theyaremakingandis therefore the kind of mistakes of themmoreaware to You do not needof course beinglearned. doesnot solve In all indiCate the mistakes. - t26 . practice.should that to to This may be usedasan aiternative (b) and (c) above. likelyto resultin something the all it however. This is not a procedure occasiona]l1. ma-V bother.This procedure pieceof wlritten in mistakes a particularareaand when you are able attentionto recurrent in class. identify leastmost makes certainly you. t n o ts h o u ' g ' h e r mistake)' in 4 Stage Put a cross the margin(for each how but linewith a mistake do not indicate each against 5 Stage Put a cross thereare. to look at students'work vou abouta mistake' consult (b) Indicate thestudents the. ihemselves. situation If your teaching theirown work' to the for approach getting students correct it anddiagnose b.whichever mistake. are: whentheymakemistakes you cando to helpstudents Otherthings (a) Explaina mistake.-/ I-3 F . of confirmation be needed thiscouldtakeup a lot of class a largeclass.hou'ever. time in and may..

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In however, although is it procedures. general, self-correction misgiving) to correctwritten work so that opportunities importantto givethe students that one approach so is it attitude, doesnot seem a self-critical they develop be usedall the time and you shouldtherefore superiorthat it can intiinsically of your students' to draw on the variousapproaches suit the needs




is errorsand mistakes madebetween 1 Do you think that the distinction important? think that d: (or of 2 From your own experience teaching learning)' Io" Give your reasons' is effective? of correction written work detailedteacher 3Inmediumtolargesizedclasses(i.e.over30students),whatproblems work? to you seein getting-students correcttheir own




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. o s R F o r u s e f u l q e n e r ac u i d a n c e n c o r r e c t i o n r - e J W i n g f i e l d( 1 9 7 - l ) F o r l Y'ritt(ll studentcorrectionseeCJ Brumfit in S Holden (1983)Corrcctirrq work. The ideasin this chapterowe a good deal to thesetrvo articles.Seealso p R W h i t e ( 1 9 8 0 )p a g e s1 0 6 - 9 a n d . l H a r m e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) a g e s1 , 1 0 - 1 . For correctionsymbolsseeJ Willis (1981)pages112-3 and L Dangerfieldin A Matthews et al (eds) (1985)pages195-8.





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Aboywrote a poem
NICHOI.AS CTIAPIVTAN a A b o yu ' r o t e p o e m . f I t w a sf r o m h o n r e w o r kr o m c l a s s , L I ew r o t ca b o u tc l i f f ' t o p s , A n d h o wt l r cu i n d s r i r s s l H e j u s tl c t i t I t o * ' f r o m h i sh e a dt o h i sp e n , * B u t h i ss p c l l i n g ' a sb a d , " C , d o t h i sa g a i n l " A b o y w r o t ea p o e m , o A n d t h o r r g h t f h i sn r a r k . il A n d t h i st i m eh ec h c c k e r t A n d w r o t eo f t h e d : r r k . a H e c h a n g e d n dc o r r e c t e r l . G a v ei t i n t h en e x td a y , He got "B+ Good effort" a n dt h r e wi t a w a y .



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NicholasChapmanis 12 and attends School,Kendal, QueenKatherine Cumbria. in Published the TimesEducational 1 S u p p l e m e n t6 . 8 . 8 5 .




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for Writingactivities children
11.1 for Reasons writing teaching
7-8 yearsold' who The agegroupwe havein mind hereis that of gupilsi9.".trt Sincechildrenat this ageare school. reclntly startedelementary have,Jnly tongue,we good at learningorally and arestill learningto write in their mother justifywhy we shouldwant to teachthem to write i""d to explainand perhaps just givingthem a few apartfrom perhaps at in anotherlanguage this stage, Won't ii just be yet anotherlearningburdenfor routinecopyingexercises. them?If iiweri, thenit mightbe betterto keepwritingto an absolute whenwe look at minimum.But it doesnot liaveto be a burden,aswe shallsee in if especially we k-eep mind the many the varioustypesof activityproposed, ' writing at this age Someof theseapplyto it good reasoni .r. arefor teaching to peculiar children' are however, A l-.u.n.r,of all ages. number,




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(a)Childrenusuallyenjol,writing.Thisispartlybecausetheyhaveonly like copyingstill startedto write in their mothertongue.Even activities value. noveltY havea certain ' This is one^ to (b) Most childrenexpect be taughtto write (and readof course) they seeit aspart of of the thingsyouhaveto do rvhenyou go to schooland a learning language' a breakfrom oral (c) children,like olderstudents but evenmoreso,need

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work.Theyenjoytalking.ofcourse.buttheysoongettired,evenifyo providea very important Writing activities activiiies. keepchanging'ttLe afterwhichthey quietl) period-foithem in the lesson, quiet (or relatively usuallyreturntooralrvorkrefreshedandlessrestless. whichis to an children opportunity work at theirownpace. (d) writing gives ' ' thattherecanbe very big differences u.ru ,.iJ*ing for them.Remember theirmotorskillsarestilldeveloping' at learners thisagebecause betrveen rvhich up clears difficttlties sometimes (e) Access the rvrittenlanguage to



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This is sometimes and encourage sort out difficulties than the writing activityitself. -. n Childre like and needto havea recordof manyof the thingsthey do in the theyhavesung. especially providedthe pupilsgetplenty of why this shouldhappen There is no reason for opportunities hearingandusingEnglishand if writing is treatedasan of we of extension oral work. of In short. E . ) II ) -J I ) ) / / --/ : -/ / -u z : -I- !EE=: -1 .you cango andwork with environment. t t b e l o w ) . one and is a longgapbetu'een lesson the a to are if For example. You should forgetthattheyleadverybusylives. They usually too. of providethemwith records things poems anddialogues. shouldnot try to teachaspects the to be expected understand at whichlearners this agecannot written language linking they aretoo youngto do sentence and copewith.2. and they classroom of dialogues havepractised songs quickly. that (except the few instances thesecanbe turnedinto a kind of in activities than game)andthe kind of textstheywritearemorelikelyto be imaginative their that the pupilsarestill learninghow to organise coherent.Homework. (a) Give thepupils plent. to particularly practice. themindividually least more important them. First.Remember in ideas theirmothertongue. For example.' of opportunities copying.who areStillgetting Whentheyarewriting. of copies songs.v./ r. providean opportunity personal Writing activities for usedto the of for very important learners thisage.of course.rvritingmustnot impair oral fluency.1(i) as it to (theyareverylikel.in and outofschool! that writing canprovide. in to (b) Give thepupils adequate opportunities useorally learnedlanguage writing. Childrenneed but when they heartheir childrenutter a few wordsin a foreignlanguage (even that they are makingprogress are usuallymore convinced they in evidence the form of perhaps they are not) if theyhavetangible if expect homeworkto be in the form of writing written work. h i su ' i l l h e l p o k e e pt h e mi n t o u c hw i t h t h e l a n g u a g e 1I. for and with the written language shouldalso This willhelp them feel at ease e.g. haveu'henlearning children of theyarenot evenaware themthemselves.theywill needa fair amount controlled 1 : --! Id _f{ fd fd _1 fr -1 f-. classroom (at with those who needandwantthisattention). are Parents usuallypleased to somethirtg showtheirparents. theymayneed. somesortof homework through especially need next. 1 1 .-t z f-r I< 130 f-.J -) S T E A C H I NW R I T I N G K I L L S G y y ) -) y (f) (g) (h) (i) they Sometimes cannottell you about orall.listsof words. Secondly.theyforget theylearn although because. Two things write is that they lvill shouldbe kept in mind. children asked illustrate song(see not be a burden. because difficulties these This againis contacr.v be heardsinging to themselves theydraw!)as well asbeingenjovable. contact Childrenneedtheextrolanguage if Thisis essential there activity. 11 Someguidelines for teaching writing to children childrenof this ageto for for The main purpose goinginto the reasons teaching helpus to seehow we shouldgo aboutit. Again thisis important not quicklytoo.

material to be cut out and has togetherthis and other looseleaf a folder will be usefulfor keeping material. At thisagetheyhaveplentyof imagination theyshould and be to encouraged useit. (d) Work with thepupils wherever possible. Rememberthat manypupilsarejust whichmay lastfor years. however. asa rule.7..4).but not. This is the mostimportantprovision.U 9- V .. They may alsoneedonefor projectwork suchasmakinqan illustrated dictionary.mostworkbooks children to makethistypeof for try and activityinteresting enjoyable.-_-r.2 Writing activities a-t L--z -^ tI . will normally makinguseof be Seealso4.3 and 11. Sometimes.--a r---r-<- FOR ACTIVITIES CHILDREN WRITING key reinforce structures vocabulary. and This neednot andshouldnot be boring.You musttry. (f) Encourage pupils to be creative. With all of them writing will providean opportunity get to know them a little better to personally. class whichis an activitythe learners particularly enjoyat thisage.--L- r L=L-- LLL L a-. practice Thesehavebeendivided some rvriting but thereis inevitably with sentences creative and practice groups. therefore. L L L LLL a' a-- 11.2. 71.: b fa-.g. of This canbe donemainlyby gettingthe pupilsto write to one anotherin (see17.e. (e) Make surethatthepupils beginto seewritingasa means communication. providea breakfor the pupils. for Writing activities the teacher! Somepupilswill actually needyour help. be to whichtheyshould encouraged iilustrate. Thisin itselfwill helpto keeptogether good a dealof theirwrittenwork. kind of exercise The book theyuse(i. into four groups copying.L r-J l_-l-l_ LL_ LLl-LLr-. with words.(In fact. between lines) the may alsobe important writing.Pupils will the distance for books:onefor vocabulary needat leasttwo exercise listsand relatedactivities (e.2..2 The organisation of writtenwork .-L: L L' LL-rL-t 9L-f--. they must not be left feelingthat theyhavefailed. Slowerpupilsshouldasfar aspossible always giventhe opportunityto be finishan activityin someform (that is.r. As a rule at thisageit is betterto askpupilsto work with exercise books (ratherthana folderfor everything). ensure to that theygetasmuchfun out of writingastheydo f r o mo t h e ra c t i v i t i e s . the controlled This shouldbalance and language-focused activities suggested in (b).3 At thisagethepupils workbooks activity or books. of songs andpoems.otherwise theymaybeginto getdiscouraged).) (c) Provideactivities which thepupils can do at their own speed. Somepupilswill finishan activity veryquickly(andcallout for attention!). L.r- L Lrlt L: . (g) Make writing activities enjoyable. these between overlap 131 r--L4 a--t )-ala f. You shouldbe prepared extendthe activity(by someform of parallel to writing) or havean extraactivityready(whichneednot be a written one).Word Bingo)andthe otherfor copies dialogues.1.It would be a pity if they startingon a programme were turnedoff at this earlyagethroughboredomor failure.

.:. Join tire dots ond circle the number.". peopiein a group. with reading This combines ChildrenenjoYthe writing. ) ) ) -H -/ - -1 -u -/ :/ .J I-r donkey tree I Lr black blue brown green orange red I & fi 1 f- l- r3z l< l-r .u ( b ) Finding rhe word that is different The pupilsare givensetsof 4-5 wordslike thosein the diagram and are askedto find andwrite out the word that is different.objectsin a Scene' individualobjects.J -/ I: z I.' "-:=t:t\ .1 Copfing (a) Joirtingup dorstoform v'ords can activity be Thisverybasic in useful the earlystages.F- J y ) -) S TEACHINWRITING KILLS G v -) 11. partly to givethe PuPils in practice formingthe letters' it More thanthat. lorry Pig tractor woman u -/ I.G-tt 6 u -) IJ ) -4 u -. however. of asPect this problem-solving activity. the illusion givesthe pupils the that they are Producing It for themselves. for example. crosswordpuzzles can The puzzles be more as extensive the PuPils Progress. is of words an course activitythey are familiarwith throughPuzzle booksthat containhidden in objects pictures.. '.j ._'.2. rJ -/ -/ cat banat'ta daq l'torse I.J -z l-t --r -z l-J _/ I-r (c) Labelling items For this the pupilsusewordslistedfor them in a box to identifyand label. etc. bird cat cow house puzzles (d) Completingcrossh)ord words The pupilsuseor select simPle from a list to comPlete like these.

--d [.twver otfvlbft dolphinU f p o g s c b r i g i o 10 huwe isetfcrd 11 lgrikldi L2 lsqkneoo bubbles (f) Filling in speech with by bubbles matchingthe sentences the The pupilshaveto fill in speech form a sequence. using or individually in groups. s t omp t--- er lb r--al L_ L: >1. )--r. r-J .g.) and at a laterstage clothes.Era qE{GD *l'-. The pupilscanalsomaketheir instruction.-L^ LJ ( anoLknow Where s a-J i..L --- l-Ll*Lr--J a. heard. words.animals." r. if the pictures The activityis more interesting situation. P- LL. L--. boxes suchasan may form a sentence.The wordsmaybelongto a set(e. wordswhichtheyhavebeengiven. . .a- LL LL-.f t J ond circle the wc zmr Thenwrite them. LL LLLL.4.t 9- E LtL.ook+ l.:te.--a a---L<il W R I T I N G C T I V I T I EF O R H I L D R E N A S C L: l_ L L L Ll--- (e) Finding words 'hidden'in The pupilshaveto find andwrite out wordswhich havebeen like the onebelow.u "oL:99 ". working own wordboxes. L. rR..3. etc. 6 (rocweoxi gc0. L L. .D or (g) Forming dialogues stories from ittmbled sentences a Thismakes goodpairworkor groupactivity See4. the on andcanbe based something pupilshavealready IJJ L 4.t ---.a/ V. L .1(c) for thisactivity. >-) aE.

carefulthat this doesnot present ) r-l u - ) I -/ / a b/'a<'h ha. think of and spell)the wordstheyneed. givenpicture placednextto or clues(perhaps souares to linkedto the relevant be filledin). You canalsoplay'phrase for problems slowcopiers.however. (a) Completing crosswords ( T h i si s s i m i l a t o 1 1 .. helps constant whichwordsto writeon the boardandthenhearyou the pupilscantell 1'ou bingo'withthe pupils.2 Word activities the in For the activities this section pupilshaveto provide(i. (i. It revision.but be readthemout. any and songs poems of The pupilsmaketheirown copies dialogues. -v ----l Tr- 1 Tlrcdlf be $vr 9t .e. fn s bolf .e. . See vocabularv needto be keptfreshin their mindsthrough sets because because as with pronunciation well asspelling.n bottles ing onthewolI Jtand 1r.ord bingo at for activitv learners thislevel Thisis a lie-v 4.Y -1 :J I .l r[vtiP-onggrcgnbottle lcciAe*cllylf olls .rroll.2. les Eiy"fre.They be may. Most pupils is This theirown illustrations.etc. 1d ) r exceptthat the pupilsarenot givenany of the words. -z -z -/ ( i ) Making copiesof songs.tr) y -) S W TEACHING FITING KILLS J u -) u -) ( h ) Playingv. ---1 -k _ft< < -k -1 -k v _-1 -k I -1 F I F 134 I . 2 . andprovidd for in material) a booksetaside thispurpose key reference activity.t a bk42 Pu1.3(e) for thisactiviti'. whenillustrating exhibita gooddealof imagination - y --1 z -4 z F 1 !- Fiveetdr'bottlc siond q ortthe.2.stcMin{ onthenall. again a veryimportant of material thiskind.

L-'- ! hv r'9Y! M!:' H3 135 v- 1-.L r-a l - LLL Ll--ir FO C A WRITING CTIVITIES R HILDREN a--a t-<- l-: l-Ll-LL L4 (b) Labellingitems that the pupilshaveto providethe 1 to This is similar 11.J L--. L* LLprt L-- tL. whichtheyhaveheard(etc.. . (c) Making lists be the For example. .).wnts (s)alt qsnake r-J (1) n pa. . . . . L: L: L: lg r-.things theywouldlike to eat.. . V. the pupilsput in the missing poems or songs' by accompanied a picturesequence stories havepractised.The textscanbe dialogues That is. Tl.J I twtld ti. .Theycanalsobe asked drawor complete pictures to maybe asked labelitemsin a zooor fridgewhichthey they For example.animals they would like to see (or haveaspets)(etc.4 L L'tD L. .1 4 LV- . havedrawn. the to words. (c). S a l l yg o e sr o u n dt h e " .) their They canthen comPare with a friend. choices items (d) Classifying The pupilshaveto identifYand (the in then arrange categories haveto wiil normallY headings be providedor at leastworked beforehand) out with the class that theycanseein a things plcture. (e) Completingtexts they words. on a SaturdaY. .l a-. except needed. 1_ L: LLL9z V.S h e ' s o t a bottlein her hand. S a l l yg o e sr o u n dt h e .countries thevwouldlike to visit.. g h A g i r l i sg o i n g o m e . example: Thereis a boatin the Picture. .2. r: U (0 L: 1: L €Le.-3 L: L: -LJ] a -I L.urrva/re frlrd b{at.rrot f--.o h'atrc ( t) n t?na/l d"g 1aa (z) t*o elzpl. pupilsmaY askedto compilelistsof: . andriddles S a l l yg o e sr o u n dt h e .r- or sentences texts Correcting bv Theseshouldbe accompanied a pictureso that the pupilsarecorrecting For of mistakes fact(not grammar).ke .. ' . ' .

J tt4ne u u - -/ -/ -/ -z I I l whentheymay needto keepa important duringa game Thisis particularly theyhaveseen(if won or whichanimals thel'have recordof whatobjects themto a zooor a safaripark). they canbe askedto write canthen practise (5-6 sentences) whichwill givethem some shortnarrativesequences practice basicsentence in linking(and. gamedown. l-.2.J ) ll -) S W TEACHING RITING KILLS -) IJ y (g) Making u'ords The pupilsaregivenone long word and. after that). one actuall. the Thisis like 11. writingis involved. -rfr f-. examDle.-.Later on.e. so) and sequencing ffirst. (b) Completing bubbles speech (f). notes) asnot to slotl'the so the othernraking / : -/ - F We/oaye seen{hzseanhxals l- -E 1r. L< _f- 1 36 l. the pupilshavea modeland haveto write one or more parallel whichthey versions. Most workbooks belowwill you may needto supplement this. (h) Making notes _) COMPIT/T/ON IJ Pet notz C-oTYLC y -/ ) I I. This is particularly usefulif the pupilswrite dialogues with one another. for (c) Wrilingsentence sequences usingthe same Thisis a device getting pupilsto writesentences for the structure.workingin pairsor see smallgroups. then. how manvne\\' wordstheycanmakefrom it.2.-r .but sometimes pupilsshould work in pairs(i.v-'pla-ving.In anycase suggestions the but of help you to seeif the workbookhasleft out anyusefulareas activity.1 except thatthe pupilsnow haveto supply sentences thernselves. r. Usuallythe itemsto be the gametakes phrases haveto be writtendown. for repetition). (a) Writingparallel texts That is. (in an-v childrenenjoy pradtice needbe boring case most manipulative provide goodactivities thiskind of practice.3 Sentenceactivities is key itemsof structure(often of The purpose theseactivities to reinforce why thiskind of Thereis no reason together with a gooddealof vocabulary). For thevusethe davs the weekto write about of _E F ts z -1 :-E l'- f-.If much notedarewords. like Theysometimes to look to try to find throughbooks words(andthis is a goodu'avof in getting theminterested class readers).but.

L.NIanyactivities a records to This is similar keeping the in of recorcl the form of a list. pronominal V got ?afenl's a f{6eope?ro{esso.It canbe a useful one to use The pupilscanof course suchquestionnaires question practice.--- v9z (0 Makingnotes whileplaying game.a L. I ' r n g o t n g f o g o s w l m m t n g.4. He's7of big pier. and incidentally belowthe pupilsalsopractise Notice that in the examples reference. go +t 3in9 L L Ll. )-2t Lrl a.afdevis'ion -a V V r Lrl V. l'n loing fo V . L. l/.J Althoughthis a or from theircoursebook..For example.ndg .-LLl L L. example. another. lf's w i. a*) E). He's1of a cdf and a dog. (andcanbe used repetitionof a structure abouta topic. *z qttestionnaires (e) Completing for that For this the pupilswork with questionnaires havebeenprepared question someverybasic wayof disguising them.in sentence theycanfindin a pictLrre. L.L jJ. the differences to pupilscanbe asked writedown. L L L.lu b Ch'rv1q( 9o h /t's Ttn'sd*Y. or pictures the numberof mistakes tetweentrvo >-' L-- La- . V. to qo ro Wq-"mazYt! I t ' sr q i n i n g . L. somekind involvekeeping form. L L. room for imagination! involves /'4 /tt //londr/'q. 4 g L--t L-- (d) Compiling information whichprovide For this activitythe pupilshaveto write somesentences in or aboutone of the characters the coursebook for information. La--J A S C W R I T I N G C T I V I T I EF O R H I L D R E N r Lr t: r ./Ut *z 6 ! g" to kGnal''/ /ike/ It3 W"n44r%d&. L. L. It often involves to just for that purpose) maybe donewith reference a picture. He'salso gof d monstecl qof Pr-ofessor Patenl's a qfamoPhonz He's also gof.-l-. r r Ll L r L. themselves perhaps character thereis always repetition.

address. in ask abouta character the coursebook. personal data(names. You one another! enjoytesting thel'are because Also. wheninterviewing. linkingpracticesentence canbe used someelementary for activity I .J IJ ) / / IJ -/ IJ U ^z H in |ve gof a Tel<vistion ry bedtoorrt.r Oclr./ Writing questio aires that the pupilshaveto rvritethe to except Thisis similar (e) above Younglearners as questionnaires u'ell.Seea.one of a numberof picturecardswhich another pupilhasin front of him)I -.f f-t (i) Writing notes in is See4. and shouldsit down to do this so that they write neatly. etc. t't s a-funUda'| //A fr/^tv1^'^'(? cdG@ l+t>'l'o4s- .6(a) and (b) for details.wheiethisactivitv described detail. -k g --1 F D eot At'ttto.^ [ih{t camels ? Yot t!' Nior' v rJ / 2 r-J I 138 ) !. the questions theyneedtime to record and slowerat writingthanadolescents adults.6^'tA &W.That is.got a naLto A v "lanrt. answers preferably (h) Recor ding p ersonal inf ormatiort and like Younglearners talkingandu'ritingaboutthemselves theyrvill family age. r-a _1 - v -k --1 --1N1 fn! r.de I cs W frnatwtk wI.2.il.'oo*r?" Hciasu Jtu-r !-1 -k Pi t\ gru".askfor something (e. Do qo. I l-a -l l-J .a practice .*uttet UkLVwsea.)or makelistsof theirpossessions likesand dislikes.5. it getsthemto write quickly.--) II -) y J u ) S W TEACHING RITING KILLS (s\ nn \.For sentence and answering sending canget a lot of writing practice writing)the pupilscan: (see. themselves.g.however. that theycananswer check must.J --1 u / "be/.tk also goYa l6i' oF bool<5 lof of fols 'tft\ tn I'veqoJ-a rabbff but fne ga.-J _J -l }J .askfor somepersonal information. //ue .\.11 @)for morecreative . details.Thusin five minutesthey learners because notes. write down veryhappily The or etc. qla4 a I. I aa-t k)<zsrv"*-s-5 anal I d-d.&.":t -[e@/*g. the pupilswrite This is a key activityfor young to one another(andto you) in class.

o( a*<. example: For t-. *yo. Yor. 9z V a-1- (d) Making up stories 4.-- LLL --ana WRITING ACTIVITIES CHILDREN FOR Ll--- 11.geyes ft G^ ol la nq leefh stn4-lhsrets . For Gca. t 139 l-- V LJJ 9- )1.-.Thonkyo. Let pupilswork togetherin pairsor smallgroupswhereverpossible.jT. LLL L 4 U. tL. l-. LL. -t\l ! L: .however.. b . Vi r r L1 Ll v. La V htz i.cqn\of You ( i ke. . See11.- t-' 11 L: .A 66annof cl-i. lr--. whichtheyshouldalsocut up for another simplestories g r o u pt o p i e c e o g e t h e r .. Yo. (a) Writing notes (i).6 Seefor example (e).r.e/^. ch). lot| .fr^l"y7bln. willingto showyou theirwork and to ask'CanI saythis?'. which they shouldthen cut up and giveto groupto piecetogether. You canstartby askingthe pupilsto write short dialogues. Yor+t6al Cu& vT%' Ytu Yoq ere q caf.2.so that fewermistakes occurthanmightbe expected.. hosb. r lW ' (b) Writing aboutpictures pictures See4. rvithtwo speakers. l-of DOtd.n "furt anol ?o. theyarealways Unlike manyolderlearners. 5l <.g< H*Ffy l'rr-o. b Go Vhe-futof Dr"act{ussrwwt . (c) Writing rolecards See4. L L.--.4 Creativewriting activities Pupilsat this ageneedplentyof opportunities uselanguage to imaginatively.2.givethem tasksthat will require longersequences.The pupilscanasksomeone of to from the coursebook an animal! or be a character r L9.STord ov.'. L-t v FeidoY DearEleno. Please olrsw W a picfure o? Dem. another Then let themtry their handat very (5-6 sentences).?ta 3.. L.6 (f) for a description this activity.-.Choose that will the pupilsto usefantasy and rehearse ideaorally first so that the encourage the they understand kind of thing you want. lt hqs a vef/ lonqlaif . €qf q lo( qna qr? verS {aL. #orns.L r-_J r-. /n" wrz arle'1\ta rto^. L L: L. v . )or. L..r.3 For this activity. d. L lL L.*"A V a ry\ontfer. Pupilscanalsodraw pictures for one anotherto write about.6 (i) for the basicideabehindthis activity.t i\ t vno$h.

u'nd.8(c) for the basicidea.- : lf's a very qcrod book.childrenveryoftenlike to like wouldactually or things The pupilscanalsowrite be thingsso the activit)'can authentic.rl t*rn-pirfitn<'s I VJre't/rL fh^ts ba*.+r*'Fws gloa.The pupilswill happilyenterinto writing places: moon.3.t's.Wlw AsCon'x f)(:t/m ?.a the from other Strange messages etc.k vnfi\ftt L- b- doavt.aflw bt'q frrs+L. You cangivethe pupilssmallpicture (i. example.lr-l I RULE5 FoRouR PLAYPARK L- I 6e happy! I 2 Mqke l6rof noiset 3 b- Do nof brinq your moartter o?-'fAther! b- (0 Writing book reports of the See5. I fArqmt a. Whenthe pupilshavereached stage usingclass .3. L.rt"ooCo*.- 140 L .at'rng th:'i^ l. = :. the balloon. AlL t*rz stottl th r1. I lltu)e a lrt af ftenda Oft'g . middleof the desert.The reportsshouldbe pastedat the back of the sentence book for other puPilsto read. L. exchange or for for rulesand regulations their classroom. I oarit fi'/r^irrW L. I an. for a club or park.5. I tike'if.1 F_ ll- S W TEACHING RITING KILLS L- ( e ) Writing nottces for cards thisactivityor See7.Gt verl tn[orc*fing.fa'rfu*! #envd t'sJo. BvI it ls sqd.or evenlookingthroughthem. = (g) Writing messages See7. = Dgatr M unu a'fi'e Da'd'.o/r the.they canbe asked write 2-3 to readers 'reports'on them. the bottom of the sea. qw.t. He irs L r..2(d).bolJ.t'a'l lt ts t'uft' lvn'<' a'v'aLZhene uft m.theymaypreferto write aboutthingsthey let themusetheirown ideas theyhave). b- i. lf-fs qboufo 9t(I anq .8(b). recreation l- -l- l- L- I l@fte te/h' qlA bcrk s.e.

l_ l_ FOR ACTIVITIES CHILDREN WRITING form (see7. someone's homework.they will needan exercise onesout of or book.Theyshould interest 1 .Theycandrawtheirown pictures cut suitable keepa recordof all or even is The magazines. vllt/ r L r r r l' whenit is Don't forgetto get your pupilsto sendbirthdaymessages of The preparation the card canbe done as birthday. Draw a pictureand write a message. r Lr Lt_ l: L code. Pz LLL >-.theymay like to maketheir own copy). L. L-)1. JI HT DO'N WDMOCYI/T XJHZ PMYVT KGZVNZ NVO OJ HT KVMOT TJ PMN.3'8(j)) andthey can Writingmessages alsobe donein postcard canalsobe writtenin code.I I f-. L l' l|' l- r l- l. Make a birthdaycardfor a friend. V- v) at projectfor learners this ageis to get them to One usefuland enjoyable The pupilscanwork on their own or maketheir own picturedictionaries. in groups(evenif theywork in groups. intention not to getthemto -on1' of the wordstheyhavelearntbut only to write aboutitemsthat abouttheirwords(not writesentences them. Writeoutthecomplete C=X E=Z A:V B:W D:Y like Thenwritemessages this. HJ IYVT YZVMIDXF.For the dictionary.l 1 ttl l-.so asto help one another. aJ4 of Returns theDoYl MonyHoppy BtrthdoY! AVervHoppV (h) Projectwork ! to HoppyBrrthdoy You f VeryBestWrshesor yourBirthdoy! L: L = 1 L L L" Lat. .

7(f) hasbeenadapted ( ( is i l l u s t r a t i o n n 1 1. for adapted be in8.< -l1 _I _r< _r< t42 F lr .the The illustrations from Kaleidoscope.2. D ByrneRoundabout M Igguldenet al and relatedWorkbooks(ModernEnglishPublications).2whichcouldbe adapted childrenand them.Both the jokesandriddles for and captions balloons pictures. of writing activities.4 s of for otheractivities each the four sectionI7 . l5 & lt*vvtv'n': t Y " t t r f v L '' rv'.2caneasily suggested Many of the projects younger learners. e. 4@ ) Workbooks.I (a) and (e) are ftom Samon Radio321. 2a ) a n d( f ) .g' little stories. one of work out how you u'oulddevelop andS Holden(ed) to younglearners writeseeo Dunn (1934) on teaching F I- l- ld k 1 14 Exercises I lz I l- f- -r- References < -f- (1e80). Book Resource see io. Ror"tty liu-e's irr. 2 . rn5 €a"fd'In. v 1 l-1 - l- Discussion to or Do you think it is eithernecessary desirable teachyounglealnersto write in a foreignlanguage? writing earlyon in the for Would you givechildrenopportunities creative to courseor would you restrictthem (for example) copyingand activities? reinforcement would do to makesurethat childrenreallyenjoy What are the things1'ou writing? written work is that children's How ilportant do. 2 .v e.).'' aAffit io*rrsr rRonng.vouthink it is to ensure neatandtidy? is to course seewhat provision madefor writing Examineany children'S (a) Is activities. 2 . will provideu fo. 1 ( c )a n d( d ) .1.ung. (etc.2.tle- b -1 aa u H 1 (see wallsheet 5'5'2 (g))' which makinga class Most pupilsalsoenjo. 3i ) a n d 1 1' 2 . 7 7 .2.-11 . -. 1 1 . Nowfor English(Nelson)l K 321(Longman).y -v E -4 I S T E A C H I NW R I T I N G K I L L S G 1 and definitions) from time to time eo back and add to what they have rvritten. 2 Suggest a for in J Make a list of the projects 8.2.:u.ut for a numberof writing activities. over a schoolyear shouldbe spread dictionaryandthe $'allsheet picture course)' e'g' on a summer the iunless pupilsareworkingintensively. e E -1. --E lnrt is'a vsrAold' robhit . are from theRoundabout _f. ! (MacMillan)andSnap Kaleidoscope in IL}.2. ---1 -1. there a workbook?If so.I'he illustrationin71.1. Johnson sam on Rqdio (Heinemann). arethe u'ritingactivities interesting (b) useful? . u .

orderof which of the English the question teaching letters of has Instead. I+J L-rrr 1: L: Ll k)) 1-.L L.a decision to be madewhether andcapitals). will needto inform yourselfof the learners' 'problem areas' notedbelow. Thisis not just a of haveto learnthe shapes the newsymbols. for is mainlyirrelevant teaching practice.somedecision to be purposes. L -. example.-- L- r L-1-ta-t) -L. Arab students not to those of North Indian of scripts the employs of the Devanagari one nativelanguage the of aspect mastering new scriptis not to be This languages). physical underestimated. DJt Laaa' Ll r r r V) a-) 1-. L- r L1. smallletters or together whetherto teachfirstthe small of teachbothsets symbols andthenthe capitals. (a) The students the alphabet.needto be contrasted. letters that is.from mayhaveto learnto writein a newdirection: (c) The students of left to rightinstead from rightto left.and O. no lessimportant.This will only applyto certain whose but to (for groups learners example.Essentially English relation whilethe and downwards. the lettersA. and. may be derivedfrom the letter C . upwards sittingon the line andextending 'hang'fromthe lineabove' for in s-vmbols the Devanagariscripts. (that loweranduppercase (b) The students of haveto learntwo sets symbols: to has Again. on the otherhand. example. Ll-lr r. are Fourpossible difficulty. of of mayhaveto learnthe position the symbols the scriptin (d) The students as scriptmay be viewed the to the ruledlines.r-' l- L r L- Lt-L-- r 3 v/ LL >z V/ t4 . is. features account btter A. In order to be ableto do this effectively areas of you sympathetically.1 L. l: l: a_r Ll-l: fJ- 12 script the Teaching English 12.1 The needsof the learners doei not usethe Latin scriptwill haveto be whosenativelanguage All students you needed writingEnglish. takinginto togetherfor effective to groupthe symbols takenhow the For and whichallowcomparison contrast.In somecircumstances may for taughtthe symbols of alsowant to improvethe handwriting thosewho alreadyusethe Latin script.

children. requireconcentrated the For out for the1.2 LettershaPes we of the of For the purpose teaching shapes the newsymbols.3 Procedures for teaching script will At the start. the ageof the learners.R. u . d the o group:o.You will also can comparison be madebetween of needto draw attentionto the positioning the right forearmon the desk. p .za -a 1 )z .W.andthe flexiblemovements the wristto produceantisomething givestudents lot of difficulty. ) 6 f.Q.J 8 S.p lFId . miswritingor confusing 1 ).r 7 c.at of like 80". f .L 6 T. 1 2 3 4 5 i. t thec group:c. m .Z -1r numerals suchastheseis usefulif you want to do remedialwork of Awareness groupings are you may find that somestudents consistently (for example.for (see on notes sources).K. symbols.e.You must a whichsometimes motions.t-/ -d v.While it is assumed longer overa much be should spread programme theywill script.s. s l t h e/ g r o u p : .w. this purpose.-4 V 12.l.M. provide themselves of class.of course. a will Younglearners alsobenefit gooddealfrom in suggested i 1.b u. p ( + . can guidance.m.A.d. Two'warm up' activities these to be prepared demonstrate be noted: I Z f4 .y(+?and!) n. v 5 6 7 8 the r group:r.1.V.B 5 D. for the lower has Another approach eightgroups. S W TEACHING RITING KILLS E Adult learners be Anotherkey factoru.-4 and are Capitals taughtseparately are dividedinto the followingnine groups: -a 1 C. and own language to notesomeof the essential this andwriting in English. b j t h e7 g r o u p : . havebeenproposed Variousgroupings letters below. a.t v.4 !-_4 f.1 )1 by eachidentified a letter. needto identify taughttogether. to that activities givethemthe opportunity play.moststudents needto be madeawareof someof the writing the Englishscriptandwriting in their between importantdifferences in to if For nativelanguage. language theirnative havemastered that theywill already and not all their motor skilis difficulties handwriting probablystill havesome as Hencethe needfor copyingactivities will be equallywell developed.ill.1 Ir -_1 f.d 144 I fr .J IT -. h . punctuation with integrated are taughttogether. x .o 8 a. w n t h en g r o u p : .H 3 U.O.q. shown example. in certainareas somesymbols).1 l- r . i .E 2 N. clockwise shouldalso points.G 9 Y. practice. case 1 2 3 4 e t h ee g r o u p : . they are asked write something their a broad movements. practice. k . period.2. y : t h ez g r o u p z . a n d.Upperandlowercase as ten proposes groups.F 7 l. needsome certainly almost -14 v ." 10 z (+ numerals) -4 f-1 E -1 -z .X 4 P. E ..andtheywill handwriting kind of workbook.h k . and conveniently u'hichcanbe effectively groupsof letters One.L-/ E fLzA - -1 12. (andwill probablv need)to learnmorequicklvandwill therefore rvillwant giventhe right u'hichto a largeextent.g 9 j.

This helpsthem to concentrate the way a as to go on practising long astheylike.and then demonstrate firstof all.r) L lL-t L a-. 72. t" l_. anycase'a You attention.1 Somebasic for procedures script teaching L clearand carefullymademodelsto follow.J/ .whatever ageof the students. l-. g on to preferto get their students draw thesepatterns blank Many teachers as paper. movements to who are accustomed writing ones. can yourself The students makelargemovements . r-t) '{ t* b L.Rhythmic below: as letters.drawnby script. you.with the to the arrowsindicating directions be followed.n"bp LLtU. tracingthe to the helps. them letter is formedand enables For this activitydraw a largeversionof the letter on the board.) -r. or circles how letterformationin the air canbe belowshows The example presented a fun-likeway for children: in tl ri il' f' i:' T' L.- Jl u L: f' aJ) rLJ) ffi vwxz L- L: rt ffi W w hlam.-)I taJl TEACHING THEENGLISH SCRIPT L-Ll -.They are particularly draw rhythmicpatterns who arehavingto learnto write from left to right importantfor students the linesacross pageis a useful (for whom evendrawinghorizontal of patterns canrelateto someof the basicshapes the activity).suchas climbingup and down mountains.45 r r L a'-r) .y rJ -l r r t' r r ]--.Students makingsmaller gradually of to make a series strokes from left to right canbe helpedby beingasked whichstarton the left and movetowardsthe right.) f j s (b) Writing in air cLcd. in the examPle Ll rt r-Jl rajl a. (a) Give thestudents In Draw theseon the boardif a workbookis not available.-Dl (a) Rhythmicpatterns shapes the English of usedto someof the characteristic To get the students needed makingthem.3.For childrenthe activitycanbe presented a game..eqo o1. practise It generally on of shape the lettersin the air. you can askthem to for scriptand the movements like thoseshownbelow. will helpto concentrate modelonthe board.L a-l L-. to be mustalways prepared demonstrate 1.

to to decide how earlyin the course introduce the firstplace. 1 u 1 --/ 1 )-/ ) f</ --J -_l lr-J of carefulattentionis the actualpositioning the A matterwhich rpquires line. and R.it would seembetterto separate teaching capitals to s1'mbols. :l :l :l I.J -) I. as withinthe limitsof an additional to students practise shownbelow. as the lettersvery earlyon. r In whichneedto be considered.J 146 -_J -J -l !. therearesomeotherfactors In addition. permitsthe kind of groupingaccording shape This lower case from the example paget44.we shallneed of makingthe shapes to Shouldwe get the students practise writing practice. of 1 u 1 u ) ]1 ( d ) Get the studentsto practisethe new lettersin combinatiort tvith previously Iearned ones. preferblank paper. or shouldu'eu'aituntil theyarefamiliarwith the symbols 1 I-.At the startit willprobablyhelpthe on symbols the lowerhorizontal ruledor dottedline.g andG).arguethat anyruledlinesat the startmakeit more Someteachers.It alsotakesinto account on asshownin the second counterpart letterand its uppercase between lower case a many differences (for example. however.J H = ]1 _) IJ -) --J L-a-Lg. and they therefore of the On the whole. phrasesand short sentences.hich (tlrcre may be morethanonestroke). the to it difficultfor the students write well because restricts sizeof their script.J F- v -) S TEACHINWRITING KILLS G E -) ) u eachletteris made (b) Sftowthestudents n'here beginthestrokes to from u. IJ Il-- :l --J -_J I-r -_l IJ -) I.-{ L-{ = . evenbeforetheycanread.perhaps a breakfrom through oral work. For examole: ) --1 -) 'f rI 6 1 u ) -) IJ -) H (c) Get the studentsto practiseseveralspecimens eachletter. Thesemay be simply patternsof lettersor words.

from ly'ew materialin i2. althoughthis doesnot rule out a certainamountof practiceashomework. the agefactoris introductionof this until are relevant:youngerlearners probablybesttaughtthe printedform first.3.mightwell be givencyclostyled to material. themselves envisage Discussion -z 1 Which wouldyou prefer? letterstogetheror separately. as own handwriting a model?Would you be 2 How importantis the teacher's yoursto helpyour students? to prepared change have(or might have)with that your students 1 lvtakea list of any difficulties scriPt. the English (capitals lowercase) and alphabet of of some the letters the English 2 Choose to needed form them.- T E A C H I N G H EE N G L I S H C R I P T T S - - - recognition practice? someform of reading Althoughthereis clearly one no on to answer thisquestion. adult into account: of needs the learners sincethis is the only form they can lessthancursive. for of youngerlearners.thereis no greatharm in introducing the other of modifiedcursive. to be practised.1are Otherillustrations I+/ -z Exercises Jz -) References . instructionin both readingand needto haveaccelerated may actually students literatein the foreignlanguage quicklyas as writing in order to become possible. and lower case (a) to teachcapitals (b) to teacha print scriptfirstor a modifiedcursive. Give your reasons. in 12. be intolerantof anything using.t- -t- *t )-z . afteran introduction the so copying appropriate containing to they continue work on their own out of class.Do we writing from the Startor do we delaythe teachthem someform of cursive they havelearnedto print? Again. the otherhand.3 (a) comes The illustrative from It'sFttnto Write. sheets on Adult students. example. items We mustalsodecidewhatkind of scriptwe are goingto teach. In makinga decision. the whole. wouldseema goodideato introduce a it essentiallykind of drawing problems actually to makingthe symbols of as the students the mechanical enjoy this kind of activity.the Handwriting EnglishscriptareJ Bright and R Piggott for Someusefulmaterials teaching Handwriting(CUP I976). is second from BH Seward (CUP 1976). Handwriting Nelson books. On from the starta kind of hand.3(b) and 12. out the strokes andwork and scriptareGK Pullum(1971) the on articles teaching English Two useful (1972). whichis exercise.while adult Youngerlearners soonaspossible. beingtaughtthe symbols in shouldbe carefullysupervised class.if thereis time for thisactivity.. ^fhe wherethe students are paceof that part of the writingprogramme The work will relateto the agelevelof the learners. that. a kind rvhichis easyto write and easyto readandwhich we to veryclose theprintedform. D Cobb It'sFun to Write(Longman1984) and P Smithand A InglisNew Handwriting(Collins1983) R PhilpotEngtish The firstand lastbooksmentioned (Nelson 1981). BH Seward on The first groupof symbols page144is from J Bright and R Piggott (1972). in theform of teachers' guidance detailed provide NelsonHandwriting. haveto takethe stands would probably for students. example.

it The housefaces The childrendo not like one another.l :l -/ = .In comparison is more like a holiday! The doctoradvised him to giveup smoking.J I devlces Appendix: Cohesive _/ -/ U . alphabetical (a) Addition again also and andthen besides equally further (more) (to in addition .It is intended serve a checklist to as of features rhetorical of be in itemswhichshouldgradually learned the course a writing programme treatments. logicalconnectors of are order. ) y I u ) )-/ ) I-.2. shehasnot beenfor months.Moreover.they often quarreland startto fight. seemed On to it moreconvenient subsume these itemsunderoneheadins. .) Contrast and concession* besides naturally but nevertheless however of course in contrast on the contrary instead on the other hand l I-/ F-1 y )-J --) I I -l H I I -. F-. --J I-a IJ 148 . Similarly.For more complete al (1972)and HallidayandHasan(1976). (for and e: . Quirk et see goingup to the intermediate level. -l _) y ) -J -l F-. thewhole.In fact. !l Examples: north. him (.-/ -r I ) U U -/ .J I still whereas while yet :J :l --J I-. A Logicaldevices the listedbeloware givenin For ease reference.my present I usedto work fifteenhoursa day.herecommended to eat muchlessandtakeplentyof exercise. suchason thecontrary. (b) Comparison witfr compared in the sameway similarly rvith likewise in comparison Examples: job with that. FJ -__ I. -) _l * Some these oi itemsimplybothcontrast concession exampl however)whileothers. is ratherdamp. Shehardlyevergoesto the theatre.2.aremoreclearlyconcerned with contrastive relationships between sentences. so it nevergetsthe sun. l-..) indeed in fact moreover too whatis more 2 2 ) H _/ -. .however..A/so.on lhe otherhand. Someexamples alsoprovided.) = _/ H list reference of the of is The purpose this appendix to providea more extensive discussed in2.

You mustget somemore petrol. hasto look afterthe hnancial he side of the business. (0 Inference ifnot.) of for example for instance let us (takethe case . as hc burntthem.cation as(evidence . in Secondly. *'/lilchis nc\t onc to.a lot of peoplebelieve in that the number13is unluckv. will not haveenoughto get we us to the nexttown.L) \ .In thatcase. . l a s t ) )t ) ( ) n t ( ) [ r r t ' (t l r r r ) t t finally next 1 t o ( [ r g { i 11 1 i 1 h .) of Examples: Most countriesdo not grow enoughfood for their needs Let us takethe . . Thus. to contacts.On top of that. is alsofond of buyingexpensive She jewellery.he hasbeenasked buildup outside .AppENDtX: COHESTVE DEVTCES g. To beginwith. Otherwise..k to overa year. soonashe got a chance. c . .Nevertlteless. L t r49 L. His firstnoveltook him onlv a fe*' n'ecks u ritc.J +) [J4 suchas thus to showwhat (I mean) rz -l 4 r--2. it for the involved lot of money. . the Instead. a- Examples: He did not showanyone papers. . otherwise then in (that)case that implies Examples: He left the countrythe sameday. short. case the United Kingdom. in the (first)place morc inrprlrtlnt thcrr Examples: His job involves number things. is stilla verv to she attractive girl.sheis extremely In extravagant. . La . a too (e) Exemplifi.. Therewereseveral goodreasons changing plan.it needed manypeople. Finally.r..he is responsiblc sencral for administration the office. I L- l- (g) Summary L La in all in short on the whole in brief in conclusion to sum up Examples: a Shespends lot of moneyon clothes. of Most peoplearesuperstitious someway.. : g_ (d) Enumeratiott f i r s t ( l y ( s e c o n d ( l ve . . a of Firsr. . musthavehad his he passport with him. Sheis not asprettyassheused be.

( i ) Result accordingly for that reason hence asa result of the consequentl. is now being expensive.v (consequence)that is .J -) y -) S W TEACHING RITING KILLS y y --l The pricetoo is very The caris not newbut it is in goodcondition.aftera greatdealof effort.blockingmostmain roads.In other . . The film hasa veryunusualplot. . result.he managed closed few inches. reduced. To are photography excellent.no one hastakenhis advice probablethat he will not be inclinedto help on this occasion' (j) Reformulation in other words that is (to saY) to put it more (simPlY) rather Examples: on Towardsthe end of the partyhe got up and danced the table.trafficconditions . you shouldnot miss. indicating as groupof devices.To expenditure monev. andthe fire hasfinallybeenbrought are of the . instead at thesame For numberof bracketed itemsshows. the This relationships. !150 y - . in theend.it wasa wasteof time and involved. On reasonable thev. then therefore thus -/ -' v _J )-/ y P ts - ts -/ - y -2 F ts ts ts F -/ =1 4 ) *That is.hole.we mayhave'.Ithink it is quitea goodbargain.Several .it is very In the past.4sa Seven havebeenchaotic..J I I I u _-/ )-/ -/ u IJ I (h) Time" I I after(a while) afterwards at first at last time) at (thesame Examples: before(thattime) finally in the end meanwhile next (then) since so far then (uPto) (then) I _J firmly At He tried to openone of the smallwindows. swn up. first it remained to openit a but. ' .he made Most peoplefelt that the projectwasnot worthwhilein proportionto the it amountof time it would taketo complete and equallythe financial put it moresimply. menare undercontrol. of inches snowfell duringthe night. stillmissingMeanv. timelatthatmoment. that of. .hile causes the explosion stillbeing investigated. fool of himself a complete words. Examples: that it wastoo on to Most peoplewere opposed the scheme the grounds canbe to re-examined seeif costs it Accordingllt. very seriouslyHence. and Both the acting with plentyof action. this is a film --/ l. example. is a veryopen-ended temporal at time.

* backto thelibrary. AI tltat l t l r n eh i s D a r e n t si v e d i n L o n d o n .Better a (l) Transition 4 --r'l Lt asfar as .2. with (reference) . shouldhaverealised wasa bad timefor a visit. mistake. J-- *. asfar dsmoneyis concerned. on John and Marlt are.2(b) of therearefurtherexamples the devices In this section and2.A P P E N D IC O H E S I V E V I C E S X: DE (k) Replacement again (better) still alternatively on theotherhand Examples: I t i s v e r yl i k e l yt h a tw e s h a l l g o v c a r . c n h o u s h t i s a l o r r g r i r c . For example:John was born jrtsr beforethe war. . needs provedto be a to In the end. is concerned now toturnto. 1 <. he would be usefulin case (nounphrases timeand of adverbials (b) Useof pronominal forms to replace place) He left thefollowingday. wasalsoa greatadministrator.. discuss matter.. .e r . mostof the details the proposal We canleave consideration.It costa lot of money.incidentally. . that rhls We We calledon themsoonafterbreakfast. with him.2. b t i d l b e c a u sw e s h a l n e e d o m e e a n s f t r a n s p o rrtrh i l c\ \ ' cl r r cr h c r c . He thoughtthatthese shoes to He decided takesomeheavy wentwalking. u. . Lt 7- *Noun phrasesare alsoused as replacives.1 IJL 9z i I . Theirfriendsarevery envious.Thrs.WhenI gotthere. ---z Jz D L. e s m o we Alternatively.He knew thenthathe wasnot comingback.lfoundit to I decided takemy books wasclosed.. Napoleon a t Johnbough a newcar.we couldevenorganisc dcnronstrittion. mightfly out andhirc a cartvhcnrrc urrivc. nounphrases (a) Useof pronominalforms to replace He wasa greatsoldier. he decided sellhis car.- B Grammatical and lexicallinking devices referredto in2. g .eoing holidayto Brazil. *) l'T.2 f. I f t h i n g s e ta n yw o r s ew e m i g h th a v et o a r r a n s e p u b l i cn r c c r i n r ( ) a s the s/i//. to incidentally Examples: of until the nextmectinc. . this careful Now.2(c). asfor.1 -z 2 1-2.. ") I \ s'J *) J--2.but it goes lot betterthan his old one.

previously something example: Thisis what you shoulddo. You shouldbe veryfrank. b -. E -1 V -1 . (i) Useof parallelstructures possible that it will fail. students Some 1l John hasjust resigned. of experience acting.-1 -. u'asquiteunexpected.14 or clauses selttetlces (c) {Jse pronominal of forms to replace Iftis an work all night iustbefore exan"L.Thatcalculatorhas useful.Thelatterhad neverevenbeenon the stage (e) Repetition key words of As are Theseparticulartrain services not usedvery muchby commuters.this. Only theformer hashad any real before. noun Former andlatterareusedto referbackto one of two previous phrases. formsall referbackto the above pronominal Noticethat in the examples They may alsorefer forward. ls equally It ispossible -_-4 U 4 E --1 v .2 )1 I f==:F -!!1 1 ---.commuters (f) (lseof synonymsto avoid repetition When they were firstproduced.)to referbackto a previous (d) Useof determiners phrase shopin North Streetlastnight. they Thesecarswere firstmadein 1972. noun (the.z '1. from mostbig department and a screwdriver to Largecarsand lorriesare not advised usethis route.4 S W TEACHING RITING KILLS . rule. Thethieves broke into a jeweller's Thieves througha smallbackwindow. My adviceis asfollows. a rendto travelmuchearlier.a saw stores. 1r that the plan will succeed. You canget a hammer. Be veryfrank. werenot vervpopular. to interested hear your ideas. should (h) Useof relatedwordforms were madelate last so peoplehavebeenarrested far.etc. enteredtheshop provedvery I boughta pocketcalatlatorlast}'ear. John and Tombothtook part in the play. or implying whole-part part-wholerelationship (g) Useof a construction You will needto take someroolswith you.-) . < F -1 4 < F t52 l< l- .that. I shallbe let on If you haveany thoughts the subject. is a sreatmistake.Thesevehicles takethe otherroad. The arrests Seven night. please me know.For mentioned.

R Teaching WrittenEnglish ( H e i n e m a n1 9 8 0 ) n wrLLrs. T H O R N T O N . cRuNsnuN{.itr Enelish Rrtoks s. (ed) Problems of and Learnins Lunguage (Heineman1975) n l rroNLEY.e x and HASAN. p a and coRDER. Research. Brace and World 1970) BoucHARD.H . Focus on the Classroom o ( M o d e r n E n g l i s hP u b l i c a t i o n s 1988) BYRNE.J R 'Five Ways of i: i_' a' (' a' L? i: r 'a: 'li" R. s T lteorv und . L and o What's the Story?(Longman 1981) MATTnEWS. Write Ideas(Longman 1981) H. P .s (eds) J Communication in Faceto Face I nteractio (Penguin 1972) n MARKSTETN.and senutn. WriteNow (Longman n 197s) sEwARD. The David Freeman Sftow (Modern English Publications1985) g and v. B LAvER. I and SPAVENTA. Writing Skil/s(Cambridge Press 1983) University cnorr.S .] ) PINcAS. Writing. t In a l. r and cAMIBELL.R a A ReferenceGrammar for Studentsof English (Longman andwHEeLen. senatt. Writing2 (Cassell1986) x KRrsuEN. and rvroRRow. Ady'uncetl t Writing Ski//s(Penguin l9tl. Teaching Oral English D (new edition) (Longman 1986) BYRNE. PrimarySchoolProjects o (Heinemann 1982) wHIrE. W t h e E S O L C l a s s r o o m(' T E S O L 6 Quurterlv :l l97l) PiirLpor. L E E C H . Simulations in Language K Teac hing (CambridgeUniversity Press1982) rupp. t A Grammar of Contemporary English (Longman t972) RATITES.l9S-l) il' i: i: 'a. Prttgressive D PiL'ture Compositions (Longman 1967) BYRNE.t 'a. ?'eat'lrirrq . rHoRNroN.o Developing English wirh Young Learners (Macmillan 19g. I (eds) At the C halkface(Arnold 1985) o'DRrscoLL. o LJ (eds) A TEFL Anthology selected articles from English Teaching Forum (1980) 'Quantity BRTERE.L A Writingfora Purpose (Oxford University Press1978) Hor-oeN.r and NITLNE.rxtrLl.1pp licutiorts (Pcrgarnon. N (eds) s n Teaching English as a Second Language(McGraw Hill 1972) ALLEN.J ( N { a c m i l l u n9 8 2 b . R . D Writing lasks (Cambridge University Press198. B Compositionthrouglt J P ictLtresLongman 1966) ( HEAroN.Techniques Teaching s for Writing (OxfordUniversity Prcss le83) RrDour.1) JoNES.1) FLEMTNc. lt and e. FLAVELL.'A Noteon M "Writingversus (English Speech"' Language achingJo urna! Te XXXI:11976) sMrrH. ' C o n n e c t i v e is n Elementary Composition'(English L ang ttage T each i ng XXYI:2 1972) H U B B A R D .t 'Prccis Writing: a Dealing with Errorsin Written Composition' nglis Language (E h Teaching Journai XXIX:1 i975) wooDs. H n The Modern Researcher(Harcourt. eeence. Writing (Hodder and u S t o u g h t o n1 9 8 1 ) ct-osE. le16) H. r (eds) r s The Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics 3 (Oxford University Press 1974) ARNoLD. G i: and sveRwrr. 'Writing:The Process v of Discovering (TESO Meaning' L 16 Quarterly 1981) zAilrEL. Writingand theWriter F (Heinemann 1982) sMrrH.t Writing1 (Cassell 1986) zAMEL. 'The Composing v Process of Advanced ESL Students: Six Case Histories' (TESO Quarterly L 1 71 9 8 3 ) TheArt of TESOLSelected Articles from English Teaching Forum(1982) I s-l . BRUMFIT. r before Quality in SecondLanguageComposition' (LanguageLearning 16:3.r Englisltll'rittnt ( M a c m i l l a nl g f i h ) pINcAS. p 'lndian Scriptsand the c T e a c h e ro f E n g l i s h '( E n g l i s h Language TeachingXXV:l l97l) Q U I R K .l) P A U L S T oc B ' T e a c h i n g r i t i n c i n N. RYcRoFr.t r97 s) t --t tr l* L- D coBB.c Communicative Methodology in Language Teaching (Cambridge University Press 1984) BYRNE. New Nelson P e.e The Teaching of English as an I nternational Language (Collins Rehabilitation' ( E nglis Language h T each i n g J o ur nal XXIX:3 1975) DOUcHry.4 1966) BROUGHTON.ritins ( C o l l i n sl g t t . . lustWritet (Macmillan D 1988) cARRTER. B Writingthrouglt J Pictures (Longman 1986) HEDGE. The Practiceof English t Lan guage Teachi ng (Longman 1983) HEAroN. C. J O N E S .lNcenrrrro..rand wrNGanD.s (ed) SecondSelections from Modern Englbh Teacher (Longman 1983) 'Using H o R N \.(eds) r x Communication in the Classroom ( L o n g m a n1 9 8 1 ) roLLY. ATraining n Coursefor ?'EFL (Oxford Universitv Press1983) JoHNSoN.e. L1 -l il' TJ il' -]. Writing. G. It'sFun To Write(Longman 1984) n andenNest.s (ed) EngLish Specific for P urp oses (Modern English Publications1977) Hor-oeN. HILL.H 'Teaching B Cursive Writingto EFL Students' (English Language Teaching XXVI:2 1972) sHARwooD-sMrrH.\RrvlER.s (ed) TeachingChildren ( \ l o d e r n E n g l i s hP u b l i c a t i o n s 1980) HoI-oeN.Vord(Nelson 1983b) HrLL. lt R Cohesion in English (Longman 1e81) ALLEN. Teaching English as a Foreign Language (Routledge and Kegan Paul 1978) BRUMFrr. G R E E N B A U M . tt GLENDTNNINc. Guided Composition o revisedby H J S Taylor (Hodder and Stoughton1975) D FREEMAN. Pen to Paper (Nelson r 1983a) HEDcE. 1 . and HurcsesoN.l_.i B Beginning Composirion through Pictures(Loneman 197J) HEAroN. and rNcr-ls.1) wArERS.r and e.N. t: r_: ill ili EIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography 'Teaching ABBorr.r Advanced I Writing Skl//s (Longman 1978) B A R z u Nt. Basic Writing J Skillsin English (Heinemann 1980) KNtcFrr.n Errg/ull Hund*. rI r_: )f t. p and prNces. c t 9 f t 3 ) l puLLUlv{. e coE. t Exploring Language (Arnold 1972) DUNN. x (ed) Readings English on (Winthrop Language asa Second 1980) e oevres.e English Spelling to Adult Beginners' English Language TeachingJ ournal XXXIII:21979 ABBorr. a n d c n e r r . Teaching t Englishthrough (Longman English 1981) W T N G F T E L D . o.ALLIDAY. H andw riting (Nelson198.

o m p a r eu i t h u r i t i n g .guidelines 130-1 .) 2 .9 1.f o r f u n .4 0 .3 Note-writing see Orthography Spelling uriting 55-9. learning to u'rite 5 N o t e .at post-elemen'rary 5-5-9 level 10 Simulations 3-9 g 99 Skillsequencinactivities -102 2 c d S p e e c h .programme for .t a k i n7 3 .personal 10-12 purpose 9-14 Communicative 70-2 Comprehension writing21-2 Controlled 34 Copying .alternatives 111-13 to Fun writingactivities 43-6.visual cues 87-9 for exercises 60 Reproduction (see activities also Role-playing 61-2.p r a c t i c o f 3 8 .i n e a r l y t a g e3 8 .7 1 .activities postat level60-4 elementary .useof visual for material teaching 19-93 .d i a g r a m8 9 .grammatical 17-18 -lexical 19 .9 e Communication .visual cues 83-6 for 38 Dictation .maps 1-3 8 .teaching 143-7 .9 1 .4 0 .useof role-play teaching 61-2.6 .in earlystages 40-2 .123-7 . .activities . 9 9 ._1 = .reasons -30 129 27 1-2.3 Spellin15-16 g writing71-8 Summary Texts .2 .48 f.reportu'riting 87-9 . 5 8 8 9 .for w r e m e d i a l o r k1 1 3 .reinforcement activities 3 6 . 6J-R q7-? -l >.9 1 .aspractice format25.communicalive 23-4 teaching .6. 3 .3 .evaluation 34 of 123-7 Correction .6 g 40-2.in earlystages 32 .5 5 .6 .at post-elementarv level 5 1 . 1 3 .12-I 6 Mistakes N{other tongue.controlled 21-2 -correction of. 6 0 .716-22 Errorsandmistakes 123 writing111-13.non-personal 12-14 .) .recent 21-3 in irends teaching .) H H -l Index to Approaches teaching writing21-3 \A'riting to teaching Children. of defined role 25-6 G u i d e d r i t i n ge x a m p l e sf w .1 9.at intermediate level113 . 21-2.or .6 6 1 .99-109 Simulations) of Script.guided.1 0 2 !-1 -1 _k -1 -r4 154 F r< I .7 . devices Cohesive 148-1-s2 .8 3.2 . Coherence 10-14.communicative purpose 9-14 .guidelines teaching 27-9 for .graphological 15 resources -17 .9 2 .rhetorical 17-19 resources -J -) H .dicto-comp 60 Drafting1.reasons teaching 6-7 for .4 0 s s .63-4 .-- J J v .techniques presenting 87 for .in earll'stages 36-.8 .activities l3I-12 .9 .9 9 .procedures 1-j 11 a i S e n t e n cl en k i n g n ds e q u e n c i n g . of 148-52 .nature 1-2 of .-4 P F * _2 .procedures 124-7 writing Dialogue . 132-4 34 .10 .at post-elementarv 48-9 level . Essay 116-22 .useandabuse 79-80 of Writing .reasons 32.s c q u c n c eo r d i a l o g uw r i t i n g fs e 83-6 . needs 27-29 of Letter\\'riting .r o l eo f t e a c h e8 0 .paragraph organisation 81-3 . .useof simulations teaching for i03-9 .2 I v v P a- --1 ts - v t-F 1 Reportwriting54.uses 2 of Writtenlanguage .8 Parallel work 96-9 Project Punctuation 16 for 9 importance u'riting Reading.-z --1 v o G u i d e l i n efs r t e a c h i n g writing2T -29 Handwritin143-7 g Integrated skills9-5-109 Learners.29.problems 4-5 in . 51.1 r . activities Reinforcement .1 .5 0 . examples 36-40. 2 7 C o h e s i o1 7 n 17-19.picture 83-7 sequences . of 7 1 .a -l L ' _) .1 01 0 9 2.fun writing92-3 . o 3 6 . .32 analvcis nf 10-14 P --1 F -1 I .< -1 Functional writing. 1 1 3 .1 .compared with speech 3 2.foreign with compared language 5 t motherongue -6 .49-59. 81-3 Paragraph *'riting37.6 Guidance. 8 9 .logical 17 . for 99-109 . 0 .rhetorical features 17-19.at post-elementary 49-55 level Kemedlal worx llJ-0 VisuamaterialT9-93 l .9 9* r 0 2 .1 6 s .activities earlvstages in 40-2 .3 .

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