You are on page 1of 13

Members: Espinosa, Aleena Estrada, Rico Miguel Limbo, Carlo Mejia, Katrina Nicole Ongsyping, Stevenson

Thunbergia
Family Acanthaceae Thunbergias (common name) Vigorous annual or perennial vines and shrubs growing to 2-8 meters tall Frequent garden escapes, becoming invasive species Mechanical parasites

Thunbergia

Typical Secondary Growth


Vascular Cambium Consists of embryonic (incompletely differentiated) cells from which more differentiated cells originate Lateral meristem Produces secondary growth in stems and roots

Typical Secondary Growth


Secondary xylem towards the pith (inner) Secondary phloem towards the epidermis (outer) Periclinal additive divisions

Typical Secondary Growth


Vascular Cambium Cells Highly vacuolated Large central vacuole Dense cytoplasm Flat, rectangular cells (in cross sections)

Modified vascular cambium


Death of the cambium

- strands of vascular cambium cease to function


Certain regions of the cambium begin to produce mostly parenchyma inside, resulting in a wavy outline of the secondary xylem, while adjacent regions of the cambium do not Unequal activity of the cambium

2. xs of Thunbergia.
Taken from Ms. Erika Alvero Bascos

1. xs of Thunbergia Taken from Ms. Erika Alvero Bascos

Modified vascular cambium


Conjunctive tissue - the patches of parenchyma - do not extend very far radially because cambium returns back to normal, producing secondary xylem - within it, small areas become mitotically active differentiate into included phloem * Included phloem - any secondary phloem located interior to secondary xylem

Modified vascular cambium


Anomalous placement of the cambium - margins of new cambial strands fuse with the older ones to continue functioning normally continuous vascular cambium persists Presence of successive cambia New cambial strands develop in outer phloem parenchyma Secondary xylem is still produced towards the inside, enclosing secondary and old(?) phloem - results in multiple layers of secondary xylem

Advantages and Modifications of Anomalous Secondary Growth


Increased stem flexibility Protects the phloem Increases storage parenchyma Reduces chances of disturbing translocation of materials to the roots Counteracts stress and strains caused by natural forces when clinging to supports Limits physical disruption of vascular tissues during twisting and bending

Advantages and Modifications of Anomalous Secondary Growth


Rapid vigorous regeneration of tissues For wound healing (i.e. after girdling) Evolution of wider vessels and sieve tubes Reduced xylem areas are compensated hydraulically Fewer cambial initials in vines Less xylem production = the vascular cambium does not expand in circumference nearly as much as trees or shrubs

References
Bio 101 Plant Morpho-anatomy Laboratory Manual Dobbins, D.R. and Fisher, J.B. (1986). Wound Responses In Girdled Stems of Lianas. Botanical Gazette 147 Ewers, F.W. and Fisher, J.B. (1990). Why Vines Have Narrow Stems: Histological Trends in Bauhinia (Fabaceae). New York: Springer. Fahn, A. (1990). Plant Anatomy, 4th Edition. Oxford: ButterworthHeineman Ltd. Fisher, J.B. and Ewers, F.W. (1992). Xylem Pathways in Liana Stems With Variant Secondary Growth. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 108 Varghese, T.M. (1987). An Introduction to the Anatomy of Angiosperms. New Delhi: Allied Publishers Limited.