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Fish Biology Ecology Theory

Fish Biology Ecology Theory

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Published by: Jose Augusto Solis Benites on Nov 15, 2011
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01/17/2015

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The primitive actinopterygians possess ganoid scales and are called
as ganoid fishes, these scales have various forms and structure. These are
heavy and have an outer layer of inorganic, enamel like material called ganoine.
The middle layer is having numerous branching tubules and contains cosmine.
The innermost layer is thick and is made up of lamella bone, isopedine. These
scales growby the addition of new layers to lower as well as upper surface.
These are usually rhomboid in shape and articulate by peg and socket joints.

The ganoid scales are well developed in the chondrostean and
holostean fishes. In Acipenser they are in the form of large, isolated, bony
scutes and are present in five longitudinal rows at places where there is greatest
wear and tear. In Lepidosteus, the scales are hard, polished, rhomboid plates
fitting edge to edge, thus forming a complete armour. The middle cosmine
layer is lost in these scales and the thickness or rigidity is reduced. The scales
of Amia are thinner and do not possess the ganoin layer and resemble typical
cycloid scales.

4.4.1.1.3. Placoid scale

Placoid scales are characteristic feature of the sharks. Placoid scales
consists of a rhombosidal basal plate and a flat trident spine. The basal plate
is fomed of a loose, calcified trabeculae material resembling bone, has a
perforation at its center and is firmly anchored in the stratum compactum of
the dermis by means of strong connective tissue fibres called the Sharpey’s
fibes. The spine is largely composed of very hard material, the dentine, which
is ramified by five canaliculi and covered by a harden layer vitodentine. The
surface of the spine appears to have numerous small plates arranged in
transverse rows in an impricate manner. The spine pierce through the stratum
laxum and epidermis and partly projects out in water. The spines of the body
scales are directed backwards and those of clasper scales are directed

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forward. The perforation of the basal plate leads to pulp cavity present in the
middle of the spine. The pulp cosists of the dentine forming Odontoblasts or
scleroblasts a small artery and vein forming a network of capillaries a nerve
fibre; and a bit of alueolar tissue. The scales are produced by the mesodermal
cells of dermis and can be replaced. The placoid scales are homologous with
the vertebrate teeth in the mode of development and nature of dentine.

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