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A Z Awad 1
Abstract: Detention ponds system may contribute to improve agricultural drainage water quality before entering into fresh surface waterways. The main principle of the treatment process is to capture naturally substances commonly considered to be pollutants. These include nutrients, toxicants and pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Pradikow, Heinersdorf, Dunnewiese ponds have been planned in 2005 as research sites for agricultural drainage water treatment in Germany. The three ponds have been created by the institute of Landscape Hydrology at Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany under the EU-water frame work directive (WFD) principles in order to: - Analyze and verify the impacts of the ponds on the agricultural drainage water quality parameters. - Select potential design criteria of the detention ponds in the small water sheds. - Steer the planning and the installation of the pilot work. - Investigate the treatment processes. - Generalize the expertise of location selection, design and operation measures to other Locations in Germany where such ponds are appropriate. - Provide a decision support for the design criteria and the operation of the system. Finally a summary of conclusions and useful recommendations concerned the Detention ponds systems are highlighted.
Key words: ZALF, WFD, DSS
Assistant Professor, Irrigation and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of Engineering Ain Shams University.
Inlet structure: The ponds inlet structures have been designed to minimize the velocity of the water entering the pond. Velocity of water slows down and the areas following the inlet structures serve as the first sedimentation part for coarse solid particles of the incoming water. Turbulence can mix the pond water and resuspend sediments and pollutants. After the inlet structure is constructed and installed in the pond. a data logger is installed inside a pipe closed to the upstream of the inlet structure.The mechanism of the treatment processes. Dunne Wiese. groundwater. Study different required measures in order to get the ponds applicable in Egypt with respect to water quantity losses.Introduction: Detention ponds system may contribute to improve agricultural drainage water quality before entering into fresh surface waterways. . The water comes to the ponds through either a subsurface pipe such as prdikow and Dünne Wiese or a ditch such as Heinersdorf. 2 . . The concentrations of the pollutants in the water flowing into the pond are critical to the size of the pond and to predict its removal performance.The structural design of different ponds elements. These include nutrients. water salinity. . DSS and institutional setting. Investigate and study the research project of three detention ponds at ZALF including: . soils and geology. Heinsdorf). The amount and timing of the water that passes through the pond is the first item in the design plan. Structural design of the ponds elements: Conditions that should be evaluated when designing a pond include climate. The main objectives of this paper are to: 1. In the following different characteristics of three ponds ( Pradikow. The main principle of the treatment process is to capture naturally substances commonly considered to be pollutants. A rainfall gauge has been installed at the inlet weir of Dünne Wiese pond to measure the volume of the rainfall.The vegetation as a primary portion in the purification processes. geography. 2. rainfall and runoff water and environmental impacts. The ponds were created either in natural depression such as Dunne Wiese and Heinersdorf or by constructing embankments around the area planned to trap the water such as Pradikow. toxicants and pathogenic bacteria and viruses.Different methods and devices used in ZALF to evaluate the three ponds performance.
The equation of the four weirs is similar because the weirs are the same size. The purpose of embankments is to regulate and contain water within specific flow paths. the other inflow of Prädikw pond and the outflow of Henersdorf pond. The pressure of the water is transformed afterwards to water height (H) and the water discharge is calculated by the weir equation Q = a * H^ b.Determining the eight water discharger for the eight water volumes by dividing each water volume (V) by the time (t) which was constant.For each level. Detention pond embankments should be providing an adequate freeboard to prevent flow releases.The main function of that data logger is to collect the water temperatures and levels hourly. in controlling water level. The following steps that have been done to estimate the weirs equation: . the equation of the weirs (2. 3 .to program the date logger inside the pipe to measure the data on regular times. Embankment freeboards should be sufficiently adequate to prevent overtopping during storm events. The lower end of the data logger reaches the water by a temperature sensor to measure the water temperature and pressure sensor to measure the water pressure. i. .to collect the data and transform these data to the computer to be analyzed.Changing the water level (H) several times after setting the manufactured weir in the flow flume in the hydrology lab. 3. There are five weirs used. Similarly. The main functions of the data logger controller: . The pervious steps were to estimate the equation of the weir (1) installed at the location of one Prädikw inflow. They are used at the inflow and the outflow of Dünne Wiese pond. Calibration method to estimate the equations of the weirs used in the three ponds: The calibration method has been used at ZALF-Institute of Landscape Hydrology to derive the equations of the inflow and outflow weirs that have been manufactured at the institute. Outlet structures are sensitive to accumulation of debris.Determining the (Q measured) are known. 4 and 5) has been estimated. so final filtering of algae biomass ha been included to prevent the logging. Design of the detention ponds embankments: General design of the detention ponds embankments: Embankments design is based on hydraulic and geotechnical considerations. Connecting the data logger which is already installed inside a pipe with the data logger controller to take the data. Outlet structure: The outlet structure controls the rate of discharge from the pond. the water volume (V) is determined eight times taking into consideration that the time to measure each water volume (t) is constant. weekly or monthly. Pond outlet design is important in avoiding potential dead zones. four of them are the same size and the same equation. daily. Embankment freeboards should also consider berm soil consolidation.e. the equation of the weir is determined using the regression method. for avoiding blocking and for monitoring flow and water quality. Prädikw outflow weir has not been manufactured at ZALF and the equation was known. . . .
45 0. Part2.20 .60 0. Both check of overturning and check of slope stability are not included in the tables and they have to be checked. Soil Weight KN/m3 Y 18 19 18 19 11 Fiction angle ∅ 32.00 5.Since the main purpose of the project is to generalize the expertise to other locations. They have been collected from DIN 1055. By using these tables that have been created through this master thesis and proved at ZALF-institute of Landscape Hydrology.50 m Upper embankment width = k = 2.0 m The required main characteristics of different soils for the embankments design: There are many soils characteristics that are needed for the design of the embankments. Creating these tables was based on many literatures. the dimensions of any pond embankments can be chosen directly after just determining the soil type and the water level. Assumption: 123H=H max = the top level of the outflow weir Freeboard =0. the friction angle.0.00 7.00 Sand Mix Silt Clay Peat 4 . The main characteristics for different soil that might be needed are: • The soil density. • The static factor and consolidation ratio have been collected from (Werner. the shear resistance. the slope.75 0.5 20 15 Slope S 3:2 3:4 1:1 1:1 1:1 Shear Resistance KN/m2 Cu 0 0 30 75 20 Static Factor K 0.00 6. The height of the embankment = the height of the water level in any pond + the freeboard.75 Consolidation Ratio % P 5. 1969) Table 1 : Specific weight.50 10.50 0. it is important to set design tables showing the different characteristics for all soils types. static factor and consolidation ratio for different types of soil. the friction angle and the shear resistance. embankments' dimensions for each soil type with different heights and checks of safety for each soil type. All the soils and all the water levels are included in these tables.5 35 27.
2) Table (2): The bearing capacity for different heights and embankment widths for different soils.0 0 12.50 7. from (table 3.00 Lehm 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Clay 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Peat 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sand 198 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 Bearing capacity KN/m2 Mix 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 Silt 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 Clay 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 Peat 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 (m) 5 .50 4.00 5.50 5.50 11.75 3.00 9.0 0 Mix 2. Min embankment width = 2+2 x S x H S = slope.5 0 14.75 6.The minimum width and the for different soils heights: embankment bearing capacity and different Figure (1): Min embankment width Bearing Capacity for different soils and different heights can be calculated according to DIN 154 depending on minimum embankment width. Min embankment width Height of the embankment (m) Sand 3.00 6.25 8.20 8.25 5.
00 Friction resistance for different soils and different heights: 6 .00 72 44.50 9 9.00 3. 1969).00 Vertical Stress on the embankment bottom Sand Mix Slit Clay Peat 9 9.00 1. Consolidation ratio (table 3.00 11.50 45 47.50 27 27.00 2. after (Werner. The vertical stresses on the embankment bottom = specific weight (t) x height of the embankment (H d).00 33.50 54 57. Figure (2): The vertical shear stresses on the embankment The value of the vertical stress should be always less than the bearing capacity shown in the pervious table.00 45 47.00 36 36.50 36 38.The vertical stress on the embankment bottom: The value of the vertical stress should be always less than the bearing capacity shown in the pervious table.50 38.00 22.00 63 66.50 1. Table (3): the vertical stresses on the embankment bottom Height of the embankment Hd 0.50 63 66.00 44. 1969).50 2.50 5.50 27.2).50 18 19.00 16.00 54 57.00 27 28.50 4. The vertical stresses on the embankment bottom = specific weight (t) x height of the embankment (H d).00 18 19. after (Werner.50 72 76.50 3.
after ( Werner. after (Werner.5 x S H2) ∅ = Friction angle (table 4. after (Werner 1996) Wn = thenatureal moisture = 30 – 70 % G = the specific gravity = 2.2) • for cohesive soils such as clay. P = the consolidation ratio (table 3. 1996) Figure (5): The consolidation height. 1969).5 x S x H2) Wv = the weight of the water above the embankment bottom = Yw x 0. The shear stresses taking consolidation into consideration: The shear stress on the bottom area of the embankment = η = 3E0 / (K+2 x S x h).434 x Cc) x (Dh/h). friction resistance =Tmax = (G+Wv) tan ∅ which G = the weight of the embankment = Y (2 x H + 0.93 Wn. 1996) Figure (4): The shear on the embankment bottom. Tmax = Cu x 1 Cu = shear resistance (table 3.2) Tmax should be less than Fh Fh =the horizontal water stress = Yw x g x h2/2 Figure (3): The friction resistance Tmax. silt. Pond size: 7 .2) Dh = consolidation or settlement height =P x h .7 Cc = the compression index = 0. E0 = static pressure = K0 x h2 x Y/2 K0 = static pressure Factor ( table 3.• for sand and mixed soils. Peat. after (Werner.2) The increase of the value of the shear stress due to this settlement by this equation: D η / η = 1+ (Wn x G/0.
In the end of the vegetation period. . . Vegetation: Planting: Planting in the three ponds is not required because natural vegetation establishment can be relied upon except on Pradikow where there is vegetation that has been planted on the embankments in order to: . However.The maximum point in the summer. The gross water use in the mid-1990s was about 60 300 Million m3 per year. of which 51 500 million m3 or 85 percent was extracted for irrigation purposes. . Several forms of vegetations in the three ponds are desirable.In the beginning of the vegetation period. Vegetation types and intensities: The water continues to a shallow area through a dense vegetation zone. The size of the ponds depends also on the water quantity coming from the subsurface drainage or the surface drainage system. Pradikow detention pond has been designed to contain a maximum water level depth of 0. Egypt is extremely dependent on the River Nile. except for a very small strip along the coast of the Mediterranean. The analysis of vegetation biomass taken is being done by the central lab. they provide diversity of food sources and consequently increase diversity of aquatic organism. which has been formed of natural vegetation. . since they are a form of physical habitat.Bind the soil within its roots.A good relative size of the wetland is a precondition for planning. it is permissible for the water level to drop below the maximum depth during extended dry periods. Vegetation biomass analysis: Both the vegetation density and the concentrations of different contaminants captured by the vegetation are calculated by taking the vegetation biomass in 1 m2 at different locations in three ponds three times a year: .Provide stabilization.Provide frictional resistance to waves. The country hardly has any other fresh water resources. . Fossil groundwater is available is parts of the Western and Eastern Deserts and the Sinai.82 m. Then this biomass is dried in the lab and weighted to know how much the vegetation density is.Recommendations to get the detention ponds system applicable in Egypt: Water scarcity in Egypt and the agricultural increasing demand: Egypt covers a very arid region situated between the Sahara and Arabian deserts. Rainfall is very rare. The Ministry of Water 8 . The vegetation in the three ponds has a sufficient density high enough to be productive and capable of retaining organic material and it is not so dense that it inhibits water circulation.
5 BCM by the year 2017.1 shows the existing agricultural areas colored by green and the potential areas by 2017 colored by red. other than agriculture. reuse pumping stations pump drainage water into irrigation canals where it mixes with fresh water for further downstream use. Figure 5. alternatives for this type of reuse have to be found. Various reuse pumping stations in the Nile Delta and Fayoum convey drainage water back into the irrigation canal system and the Nile River. Drainage water offers to the farmer a more reliable water supply independent of the regular irrigation water rotations. except for a number of pumping stations in the Northern Delta. The projected total water demand cannot be met by developing new water resources. The agricultural drainage water reuse for irrigation in Egypt: The drainage water flowing from the Delta to the sea represents part of the irrigation water that is in excess of crop evapotranspiration in addition to canal tail water losses. When poor and good quality water is mixed. The drainage water from agriculture is collected and transported by an extensive drainage network. Mixing of this water with canal water in a number of cases threatened other water users that are located downstream of the mixing points. To cope with increasing shortage of irrigation water. For this reason a number of main drain reuse stations had to be closed in the past as shown in (figure 5.Resources and Irrigation (MWRI) expects irrigation demand to increase to 61 500 million m3 per year by 2025(DRI). Agricultural drainage water is readily available to farmers who suffer shortages of fresh water supplies. this may affect possible downstream users. A major problem experienced is the deteriorating water quality in many drains that are polluted. To bring these pumping stations into operation again. The impacts of the water quality deterioration on the drainage water reuse quantity: Although reuse of water in the downstream part of the system is considered very effective to reduce the losses. The present water management system strongly depends on the reuse of drainage water. The drainage system is largely by gravity flow. The drains are located at the tail ends of irrigation canals. The preferred Egyptian conditions for detention ponds: The detention ponds are more appropriate for the agricultural drainage water treatment in Egypt for many reasons: 9 . possible negative impacts should be considered. This amount is expected to increase up to 9. the reuse of agricultural drainage water became a policy to augment Egypt's limited fixed freshwater resources and to close the gap between supply and demand.5 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) of drainage water are being reused after mixing with fresh water. In the 1980s. large efforts to reduce the pollution loads would be necessary.6). Increased reuse of drainage water obviously also requires that pollution levels in the drainage water are controlled. Therefore. Currently about 5.
. 1995) and (Fritioff. with well designed ponds. Due to determining the certain functions of the waterway (drinking. 4The highly significance of the agricultural drainage water purification in Egypt which is reused more than once. Drainage water reuse is the most promising and economically attractive option to make more water available for agriculture. 1996). nutrients' removal could be more than 70% ( Hillbricht . 6Although the potential positive results of the drainage water treatment are less in the detention ponds than in the conventional waste water treatment methods in terms of water quality. II. 1996). 2Detention ponds are attractive to communities with limited budgets as they are low-cost (usually least-cost). (Gonzalez-Davila et al.1The warm climate in Egypt is more favorable for the detention ponds performance for many reasons: . agricultural drainage water is considered the most important. (Mautsoe and Beckett. Since the agricultural use in Egypt is about 85% form all the water use. 1995. etc.. The agricultural drainage water is less polluted than the domestic and industrial drainage water. 1999). As mentioned in (section 5.1). 2001). (Marchner. natural (low –tech/no-tech).). the vegetation growth process is complete within one growing season.High temperature improves the purification performance as has been proved in many studies such as (Gonzalez-Davila et al. 1995). 3The only energy required is direct solar energy which is available in Egypt most of the year. nutrients' removal of 50% . but for cold climate two or more seasons may be required.At low temperatures. fishing.All plant species are suitable for warm climate but for cold temperature there are some species that die below the water line.70% is difficult to achieve. swimming. Hence agricultural drainage water purification is necessary. (Mautsoe and Beckett. irrigation. drainage. At higher temperature. .In warm climates. the policy of the reuse of drainage water in Egypt is to pump the drainage water to the locations where there is no drinking water intakes in the downstream. 1995). but the measure of the detention ponds could be easily chosen in Egypt for many reasons: I. navigation. 1996). especially that the water quality deterioration limits the drainage water reuse quantity. 5It is essential for the long-term sustainability that simple efficient technologies such as detention ponds are always considered.. low-maintenance which means that these systems are relatively easy to construct and operate. Mautsoe and Beckett. 10 . Increased reuse of drainage water obviously also requires that pollution levels in the drainage water are controlled. . (Marschner.
the pond embankments design for any pond.The key factor of the purification processes is. . etc) and biological (type and intensity of vegetation) characteristics. whatever the soil type or the water level is. . 8.The planned increasing amount of the reused drainage water from 5.From the preliminary investigations of the Egypt conditions impacts on the detention ponds.The loads of the sulfate (SO4) and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the values of the red ox potential (E0) are equal along the soil and water column. iron (Fe) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4N) loads are completely concentrated in the bottom soil of the three ponds and no loads are found along the water column.Therefore the detention ponds could be applicable in Egypt to improve the agricultural drainage water coming from the field drains (subsurface drains or open drains) before entering the collector drains. to force water to flow through a longer course.5 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) recently up to 9.In case of silt and peat. beside temperature. 5. because after this value the water force (Fh) is greater than the friction resistance (T max).Both check of overturning and check of slope stability of the pond embankment are not included in the design tables.5 l/s (Q inflow – Q outflow) in the three ponds without taking rainfall amount into consideration. etc) chemical (sorption properties of sediments. pond size. the detention time.The nitrate-nitrogen (No3-N) load is completely concentrated in the water of the three ponds and no load is found in the soil bottom. Conclusion and recommendations: 1. it can be concluded that: -All the soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP).From the general design tables of the bond embankments for all soil types and different water levels.From measuring and analyzing different parameters. 3. matters’ loads etc. it can be concluded that: . . and in detail the reaction time for chemical and biological processes. 6.The nutrients retention ranges for N and P from 2 to 99% depending on physical (inflow quantity.The water quantity losses range from 0 to 1. .6 BCM by the year 2017 in Egypt leads subsequently to more potential water quality deterioration.By using these tables. it can be concluded that the warm climate would improve the purification 11 .5 m. 7. water depth. 2. the height of the embankment by any way should not be greater than 2. The only solution to face these problems is to purify this drainage water before the reuse. temperature. 4.Dense and extensive wetland vegetation will act slow water velocity. ph. and act to retain it longer in the basin and subsequently enhance the treatment processes. water velocity. water salinity problems. can be easily chosen.
. National Water Resources Plan for Egypt.maintenance and the only energy required is direct solar energy which is available most of the year. agriculture Department..A. L. DRURY. Freshwater biology 39 (4):663-679. SAND-JENSEN.R.. Ambio 23(6):378-386. N. 12 ..The ponds would be sustainable solution for drainage water treatment in Egypt for being low-cost. WELACKY.. J. 121:283-288. (1998) kinetics and modeling of dissolved phosphorus export from a tile-drained agricultural watershed. H.. increase the nutrients’ removal to be more than 70%. Agricultural Drainage water management in Arid and SemiArid Areas(1997). and enable all plant species to grow.W. HILLBRICHT-ILKOWSKA. UUSI-KÄMPPÄ. (1998): Influence of submerged macrophytes on sediment composition and near-bed flow in lowland streams. DAVID. May. J. Irrig. (1994): modeling the effects of wetlands on regional nitrogen transport.F. (1999): Shallow lakes in lowland river systems: Role in transport and transformations of nutrients and in biological diversity. D. (2000): bufferzones and constructed wetlands as filters for agricultural phosphorus. H.. D. Environ.. Mahmoud Abu-zeid. (1995): Drainage and water quality in Great lakes and Cornblet states. C. Facing the Challenge. R. L.performance. Water Research Center(WRC). GAYNOR. Cairo. Drain. N..B. environ. (1996): influence of controlled drainage-sub-irrigation on surface and tile drainage nitrate loss. S. M. OLOYA. UUSITALO. 25: 317-324. 27: 1009-1017. J. KOVACIC. TANNER. S. J. increase the vegetation growth. Journal of environmental quality 29 (1): 151-158. XUE. BROWN. C. KANWAR. Qual. FAUSEY. O. J. W... T. References: ARHEIMER. BELCHER. JANSSON. 9.E.B. 2003. H. C. BRASKERUD. R. Hydrobiologia 409: 349358. FAQ. B.. But the water losses would be very high within the pond. Major Policies and programs for Irrigation Drainage and Water Resources Development in Egypt. Y. Qual. K. WITTGERN . SYVERSEN. low. natural. Eng.. T. Cairo (Egypt). GENTRY.A. B.
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