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Tenses - English Grammar Practice - Intermediate - Longman - Lg Alexander

Tenses - English Grammar Practice - Intermediate - Longman - Lg Alexander

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9 Verbs, verb tenses, imperatives

9.1 The sImple present and present progressive tenses (1)
9.1A
Study:
~

Pronunciation
1 PronuncIation

and spelling of the 3rd person, simple present \> LEG
[compare plural nouns> 2.5AJ:

9.6-7J

We pronounce ·s as lsI atter these sounds: If/ laughs; Ipl drops; /kl kicks; ItI lets. We pronounce -s as IIZI atter tzl loses; /d31 manages; lsI pesses; lSI pushes; IISI stitches, and

/ksl

mixes.

We pronounce -s as Izl after all other sounds: {oj robs; Idl edds; 19/ digs; In! runs; I'fl.! rings; after vowels: sees; alter vowel + war r: dr8WS, stirs.

/II

fills;

1m! dreems:

2 Spelling Add -5 to most verbs: work/works,drive/drives, play/plays, run/runs. Add ~es to verbs endinq in -0: do/does; -s: misses; -x: mixes; -ch/-sh: catches/pushes.

Write:

a Give the third person forms of the verbs in these sentences. b Show whether you would pronounce the third person form as lsI, Iz! or liz!
1 2 3 4 They laugh a lot. He ~ I often drop things. She We drink a lot of tea. She I often forget things. She 5 We often lose things. He 6 They manage all right. She 7 I often pass your house. He / / ./ ./

s/
/

8 I rush around a lot. She

9 I always saw the wood. She

I I II I/
I

10 I wear old clothes al home. He 11 I love sweets. She 121 often see them. He 13 They pay £30 a week ren!. He / 141 cry at sad films. She [> LEG 9.8. 9.12}

I I I I I I !

! I / I I I
I

9.18
Study:. ~

Uses of the simple present tense: 'I work/he works'

There are seven basic uses of the simple present tense [compare> 11.11 AI. We use it for: 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 Permanent truths: Summer follows spring. Gases expand when healed. 'The present period' (~ 'this is the si.tuation at present'): My sister works in a bank. Habitual actions: I get up at 7. I sometimes stay up till midnight. Future reference (for timetables, etc.): The concert begins at 7.30 next Friday evening. Observations and declarations: I hope so. It says here th8t .... I love you.. I hate him. Instructions: First you weigh the ingredients. Commentaries: Becker se.rves to Lendl.

Wri.le:

Give the correct form of Ihe simple present of each verb. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Water Atnh at 100°C. (boil) Hot air (rise) My uncle in a factory. (work) John and Sue glasses. (we8r) The children a lot of sweets. (eat) He only at weekends. (work) I always out on Saturdays. (go) She 10 London once a week. (drive) 9 She never up very early. (get) 101 occasionally meat. (eat) 11 The coach at 6 this evening. (leave) 12 The concert at 7 next Friday. (start) 13 1 Barcelona won again. (see) 14 It's not right, you (know) - I (agree) 15 Can he manage? - I so. (hope) 16 It in the paper it'll beho!. (say)

122

9.1 The simple present and present progressive tenses (1)

9.1C
Study: ~

Stative and dynamic verbs

r- LEG 9.3, App 38]

We call a few verbs like love stative because they refer to 'states'. A state has no beginning and no end. We don't 'control' it, so we don't normally use stative verbs in progressive tenses: She loves her baby more than anything. (Not 'is lovingj 2 Most verbs in English are dynamic. We can use them in two ways: - in the simple present tense to describe habits, etc. l> 9.1BJ: I often make cakes. - in the present progressive to describe deliberate actions in progress l> 9.2B]: I'm making a cake. 3 We can describe three classes of verbs: a Dynamic verbs which have simple or progressive forms (most verbs in English): I often listen to records. (simple present tense) I'm listening to a record. (present progressive tense) b Verbs which are always stative: This coat belongs to you. (simple present tense) (Not 'is belongingj c Verbs that have stative or dynamic uses: I'm weighIng myself. (a deliberate action: present progressive tense) I weigh 65 kilos. (a state) (Not 'I'm weighing 65 kilos. j 4 There are five groups of stative verbs referring to: a feelings (like, love, etc.); b thinking/believing (think, understand, etc.) c wants (want, prefer, etc.) d perception (hear, see, etc. [> 11.2B]) e being/having/owning (appear, seem, belong, etc.

l>

10.4])

Write:

Tick the sentences that are right. Cross out the verbs that are wrong and correct them. 1a 2a 3a 4a 5a 6a 7a Sa You're never ill. I envy you. v' I understand English well. _ You're knowing what I mean. _ Is he seeming unfriendly? _ I prefer fish to meat. _ Do you see that bird over there? _ Why is he smelling his coffee? _ She's weighing herself again. _ 1b 2b 3b 4b 5b 6b 7b Sb You're never ill. I'm envying you. _ I'm understanding English well. _ You know what I mean. Does he seem unfriendly? _ I'm preferring fish to meat. _ Are you seeing John tomorrow? _ Something smells strange. __ She weighs 75.5 kilos. _

9.10
Write:

Context
Put in the Simple present or the present progressive tenses. CHOMP CHAMP! ,(you sit) ..A.r:r,..I;f.1&-.~ .. comfortably? Good! 12(hope) you 3(study) ................................... this text carefully because I 4(have) news for you. The Guinness Book of Records 5(not include) records for eating any more. People who 6(try) to swallow 47 hard boiled eggs in half a minute will have to do it for pleasure and not to get into the record book. 'We 7(regard) these records as unhealthy,' said the book's editor, Mr Donald McFarlan. However, one record-holder will remain. He is Michel Lotito of Grenoble ('Monsieur Mangetout'). Since 1966, he has chomped his way through 10 bicycles, 7 TV sets and a light aircraft. He's likely to remain world champ, unless you 8(want) ................................... to challenge him, of course!

Chomp! chomp!

123

(carry) 9. (travel) 7 I'm 8 I'm 9 I'm the 9. (I/work) ? It looks awful. . (I/have) You can't believe a word he says. Write: Add -ing to the verbs in these sentences. (We/enjoy) people by asking personal questions. (She/forever/forget) treatment on my bad back for a few weeks.. not necessarily in progress at the moment of speaking: My daughter is studying English at Durham University.2 The simple present and present progressive tenses (2) 9. . (He/always/lie) the 1. (die) your case. without changing the base form: wait/waiting: Wait for me.(t/. 3 or 4 to show uses of the present progressive.9 Verbs. (She/run) ~ Write: . 2 Temporary situations/actions. (catch) of thirst. verb tenses. (Young people/become) What nowadays? (John/do) for the British cycle team. aren't you? Calm down! (You/constantly/panic) more and more politically aware these days.9A] 4 Repeated actions with adverbs like always. ~~ 124 . --+ I am beginning work. 2 If a verb ends in -e. I'm ~ 2 I'm 3 I'm the beds. 2. We use it for: 1 Actions in progress at the moment of speaking: He's working at the moment. --+ I am using a broom.11] There are four basic uses of the present progressive tense. --+ I am lying down.04. b Number the sentences 1. imperatives 9. (write) 4 I'm always things. forever: She's always helping people. omit the -e and add -ing: use/using: Use a broom. l> compare 6. (He/hurry) . Compare the unstressed final syllable: Idiffer/1differing: Begin work. 3 Planned actions (+ future adverbial reference): We're spending next winter in Australia. (you/drink) to see the boss.500 metres in the next Olympics.l. What as fast as I can. (make) a sandwich. -ie changes to -y: lie/lying: Lie down.5AJ 4 We double the last consonant of two-syllable verbs when the second syllable is stressed: beginlbeginning. (forget) 5 I'm on my coat. 3 A single vowel followed by a single consonant doubles the final consonant: sit/sitting: Sit down.2A Study: Spelling: how to add '-ing' to a verb: 'wait/waiting' l> LEG 9.. a Use the present progressive in the sentences below. (He/ride) our holiday hem very much. (He/al ays/upset) What time tomorrow? (he/arrive) to lock the front door. S -ic changes to -ick: picnic/picnicking.28 Study: Uses of the present progressive tense: 'I am working/he is working' [>LEG9. (She/still wait) to catch his train.10] ~ 1 We add -ing to most verbs. --+ I am sitting down.. (eat) a letter. l> 9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Don't rush me . --+ I am waiting for you. (put) 6 I'm abroad.

....... and (go) . I (miss) '7 you and I'll never forget you...... but I (doubt) ... When the curtain (go) up..... They (argue) 4 The house is in a mess because we've got the workmen in.. but I haven't been so lucky! I often (think) '5 of the photo of a beautiful woman which I found.. . My colleagues (always find) '4 things too . the hero and heroine (sit) ........... the electricians (rewire) the system.. The plumber (put) .. The action (take) place in Sir Don Wyatt's mansion...9....... On the back were the words: 'I (love) '6 ..... too.. It's interesting work because people (always come in) 6 and (ask) 7 me to help them.......even a £10 note. Matchsticks (be) '2 common and so (be) 13 bus tickets.... Next week we (go) ..... ...~ English at Exeter University...... . I'm on holiday at the moment and I (work) 2 in a public library.... the strangest things as bookmarks....rY!J. 9. 3 The play is set in London in 1890. .. . us some new bookshelves! 5 Dear Jane........ I (not have to) 3 get up early.......... b Say what the context for each extract could be. this marvellous weather as much as we are........12] a Use the correct present tense form. Let me explain what you have to do. Then you (file) ..20 Write: Context Put in the simple present or present progressive. the right thing.. written and/or spoken.. I'm lucky to have this job. swimming every day... in the lounge. ... who (run) straight at the central defence and (shoot) . A HOLIDAY JOB WITH A DIFFERENCE! I (study)1... I have found a rasher of bacon (uncooked!)... We (sunbathe) ... me! 6 Pym (pass) to Smith.... I (enjoy) 9 the job and (find) 10 it very amusing.2C Write: The simple present and the present progressive tenses in typical contexts l> LEG 9......... his job from what you (tell) .. and Gomez (push) it over the bar for a corner. 2 We (hope) you (enjoy) .. so I (learn) 8 a lot about different subjects......... Sorry to hear about your problem at work I (think) you (do) ...... . Note where both forms are possible.... First you (take) ~ the photos and (sort) ~ them into categories.f?!& . you..2 The simple present and present progressive tenses (2) 9........' The strangest bookmarks! 125 . People (use) 11 ..... in a new bath.. The library (open) 4 at 10 and (close) 5 at 7... snorkelling.... whether your boss really (know) .. them according to subject. and the carpenter (build) ..

We at a restaurant. I married Imrendl Not ·/mreri·. needed.14. We pronounoeit as Id/: I played /plerd/ Not' /pler-rd' *. 12 Where did you eat last night? . you know._ _. verb tenses.We usually add -ed to the base form of the verb: I play -I played. 5 I often findlhings on the beaoh. (post) I I 13 We at her. We still understand each other now. (lock) / / fi. (wait) lId! 10 1 her room on Friday. I hardly ever write letters now. She first in maths at school. 9 She is very good at figures. we always each other very well. Write: a Give the past forms of these regular verbs. make-made-made.. b Show whether you would pronounce these past forms as Idj.. counted. Write: Supply the past forms of the irregular verbs in italics.. lsI passed. Did you know her at all? 4 We always meeton Sunday. He 9. 6 Someone's always leaving toat window open.__ my letter yesterday.e one part only: keep-kept-kept._ it open this time? 7I a lot of letters when I was young. Who . (smile) I I 14 You when she saw me. 111 don't keep pets now. tasted..ular verbs always end with a -d in the simple past.-.9 Verbs. started.1 this very old bottle yesterday. 4 Verbs ending in the sounds Itl or /d/ have their past ending pronounced /Id/: added. . We do not pronounoe -ed as an extra syllable. (stop) I 15 1 of you last night. I open -I opened.rst class.5AJ.3 The simple past tense 9. (watch) / when we saw them.. (laugh) / I the sergeant's orders. (finish) / I in the bill. excited. (clean) I III We squash last night. wanted. 126 .. 1 Some irregular verbs have the same form in all parts: hit-hit-hit. but we do not always pronounce the ending in the same way. I ~ him again only yesterday. 8 They sell all kinds of rubbish now. 2 As teenagers. I opened I~.p~!ldl Not '/~'-'PQmdl '. imperatives 9.3AThepast Study: form and pronunciation of regular verbs [> LEG 9. Itfl watched. 3 A few verbs are pronounoed and spell Idl or Ill: burnediburnt> dreamed/dreamt. If I laughed. (play) / I 12 He .d/·· [compars s 2. I arrived IQralVdl Not '/:naIYIdI '. but they onoe good handmade furniture.38 Study: III Irregular past forms I> LEG 9. 2 Some chang. know-knew-known. /pl tipped.~ Joan _ . 10 I have the same oar now that I five years ago. an hour yesterday. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 We . If I wsshed. sell-sold-sold. 3 I hardly Ray's wife. 3 Some change two parts: break-brake-broken. decided..15-16. (hurry) I I to mel (lie) I I early yesterday. but I a dog when I was a boy. (travel) I I r _" She \ She I Who . (dream) j / 1611's the cakes? (burn) I I 17 I a 101 as a baby. posted. (obey) j I into the house._ . (cry) I I 18 We App 40] TV all evening . App 39J ~ Reg. cut-cut-cut. /t1 or Ild/. ride-rode-ridden. We _ Iast Sunday as usual. (include) I / the door before I left. -a 2 Verbs whioh end in the following sounds are pronounoed IV in the past: IkJ packed. shouted. t I often see Giulio.

a monster (claim) him while he was seven scaly skin.e.11J If we do not use time references (a moment ago.3 The simple past tense 9.3C Study: IE] Uses of the simple past tense: 'j worked/he worked' We use lhesimple use time references We use the past: -to describe actions which happened in the recent or distant past: past to talk about events.. the monster to trap $1 million to anyone had so Soulh knows. (i. Many people (believe) the story and the newspapers 'Llzardrnan'. a young driver from South Carolina. As everyone mayor may notexist.to describe past habit: I smoked forty cigarettes a day Hili gave up.~ as a civil servant? .2A]. (Not "The Goths had invaded") [> 9.9. actions or situations and are now finish. ree eyes and 9 ree n scaly ski n him dead or alive.. Lizardman Seventy 11 (cal~ s recently 10 . stc.l. 410.17-18] in the past so we often which happened the action happened. 2 When did you last play football? (when I was 14) holiday? (last night) 3 When did the Carters leave for their summer 4 What lime did John arrive? (at 4) 5 When did you last see 'Gone with the Wind'? (Iillthey (recently) arrived) (when she was here) 6 How long did you wail at the ahport? 7 When did Sally tell you about her engagement? 9.aq:a . hunters (set out) 9 and a local radio (offer) that thousands who (capture) much publicity monsters industryl .D.~~. like yesterday. [cornparee. It .6) .~ . (l. . (Not 'Sam has phoned") l> 9. Lizardman of people (visi~ 12 Carolina to find him.30 Write: Context Put in the correct forms of the simple past tense of the verbs in brackets. Davis. We always have to say (or imply) when (> LEG 9. (attack) 2 . driving along a lonely road.~. last summer (:> 7. The monster 5 (be) a red eyes and green.e. No one has found him yet. but they are very good for the tourist 127 . when Iwas young.OO.w.. when I was there this morning) I never met my grandfather. perhaps he died before I was born) answers to these questions using the time references (five years ago) in brackets. .) we imply them: / saw Fred in town.. ago.11.~.. Sam phoned a moment ago.~.5A] The Goths invaded Rome in A. Write: Give complete 1 How long ago did you. . car and Uump) 7 feet lall and (have) (chase) s Christopher's on the roof.ork . UZARDMAN Christopher I ~..

3 4 He 5 61t 7I _ some money...... you. ·1 /.!J!4..... Write: Use the past progressive 1 I . . 14 The BBC broadcast 4 He let me drive his car. but the shorter by when: We were having supper when the phone rang_ at the same lime: While I was reading.. .ses 9. hit/hit.~ - 'v'-'~ refer to the present -i« "-I".0 When she was younger. _. the context or the adverbial tells us the tense: I put on a clean shirt yesterday.. . . 11 I often lei him drive my car..... the doorbell 8 9 llived in France .. when I left? (you still work) at the time you . In a few cases both references That shirt cost me £7... below. burst/ with such verbs.. put/put.... ._.... (nollisten) 2 We stayed because ourselves. Ihat·~ Study: [E) A srnal' number I~ burst.....g. just as and while. verb tenses.. cut/cut... else happened: when something Just aslWhen I was leaving. 10 I hurt my arm yesterday .. cost/cost. and they.. _..~ he said....48 Study: [E) Uses of the past progressive tense: 'I was working' There are five basic uses a! the past progressive 1 Temporary actions in progress in the past continuity tense.t.. P!Y!t.4 The simple past and past progressive ten. we.... 11 Bill and Sue before they moved. (present) '~ . We have to remember. (rain) you could lend me 128 .. with e. ale possible. (past) f put on a clean shirt every day.00 2 He often cuts himself.ke when.. all weekend. all evening? _ whether (wonder) tennis yesterday? hard all day. __ " . as. a/ways: When / worked here.• =r-.__ 6 I sellhe table every morning 5 She reads alot. what .. (constantly improve) to an interesting rang. 8 She oiten hit him 9 He shut the door with a bang ... (they play) (garden) (you Watch) 12 13 Just asl part of the story. 12 She always 7 I set the table an hour ago 9.. [> LEG 9.""".. (!......o ~'Ol Write: 00 these sentences or the past? Write 'present' or 'past'...9 Verbs... the phone rang.. _. things for other people. (present) After I. (past) He puts on a clean shirt every day..16] of irregular verbs have the same form in the present in the past: as in the past: e.. _"_ " television _ (enjoy) in the sentences ... (all day...k#.... the third person singular does not change especially He put on a clean shirt yesterday. in Spain.. all summer): It was raining all night. I was always making mistakes. beat him at tennis every day the talk yasterday 13 The BBC broadcasts __ .... These are often introduced action can be introduced 3 Actions 4 Repealed in progress actions by conjunctions li. 3 She hurt her arm.. 5 Polite inquiries: I was wondering if you could give me a litt.. (get) when I rang you? (you read) . so we I missed 1. .20] We use it for: We often use al/ to emphasize 2 Actions which were in progress I was/lvlng abroad in 1987.. _ (live) she (always do) their house..4A Irregular verbs with the same form in the present as in the past: 'put/put' [> LEG 9. r :' .. Joan was playing the piano. imperatives 9.•M.g.

••.. when she (notice) 17•. We use the past progressive to set the scene at the beginning of the story.. He was working in a bank and travelling to London every day...•...... past progressive and past periect [> 9.6]) for story-telling. he received a mysterious letter. when a stranger introduced himself and said he had known Tom's father.•.....•. She (drive) 2 .•.... asked Tom to go to The Crown Inn during his lunch hour. she (notice) '0 .. Note where both forms are possible...•... our District Nurse.... and was already working in France when the war began... the road without paying any attention to Mrs May..•. 9..... clearly visible in the blaze of her headlights. Through this meeting. She (stop) .4C Study: I!!I Write: The simple past and the past progressive in story-telling [> LEG 9.... which was signed.... (driv'e) '.. was a secret agent in the First World War....•••...•..... she (puJ~ 1 the pot oHthe hedgehog's head. TUG-OF-WAR WITH A HEDGEHOG Mrs May. too.•. I! (cross) a ..The stranger explained that Tom's father.•..•..•.... AI lunch time he decided 10 go to the inn.. _•••... rather sad. that the pot was hal! lull of strawberry yoghurt. A hedgehog with a tall while hat 129 .. He was just wondering if he should leave. 'A Friend'.•••.•..•. Tom was only 20 at the time and was living with his mother. When Mrs May (90)9 . (put) 00 ••... and triumphantly (continue) 21 ...9A.. After a struggle...•. as he was dealing with customers...... 3 to show their uses l> 9. . who had died when Tom was a baby . b Number the past progressive verbs 1. one night after an urgent visit to a stck patient..The letter.... like a hedgehog with a tali white hat...•.The simple past and past progressive tenses 9.....••••.. 2.•. The creature (seize) 19 it. All morning.. .~.• the hedgehog (look) 16..•••..... home at 3 a..21) We otten use past tenses (simple past....•...•..•••••.. One morning. that Ihere was a plastic yoghurt pot on the hedgehog's head... It was lull of people and Tom couldn't recognize anyone...~ .•. ••. a Circle the simple past and Ihe past progressive verbs in this story. her she would have to rescue it.. . " " its journey across the road. The poor creature had got its head stuck in the plastic pol! Her instincts as a nurse (IeJ~ " .•••••.•.... ... Tom was wondering whether he should do this. too..4B).••. .. It was addressed to 'Mr Thomas Parker' . Bill.•••••.... at the pot..•..... so she (pum 12 . Mrs May (think) 15 ........•.. close to it.. it on its head again. It (look) 7 ..•••. Tom was recruited to be a secret agent.. but the hedgehog (pu/~ 13 .. a new kind of animal.. along a deserted country lane. She (give) 111 it back to the hedgehog.....40 Write: Context Put in the simple past or past progressive.....•... THE SECRET AGENT It@iust before the Second World War.m. her car and (get out) 5 The animal (be) s ...•. when she (see) a •.

..· we were young. perfect tense. I've been Write: Supply the present perfect progressive tense of the verbs in brackets. (know) in that shop for ages! (be) 1811: . ... (not wr+te) 15 She .5A Uses of the simple present perfect tense: 'I have eaten/he has eaten' [> LEG 9. tor emphasis. countries..: ....•.) stili. this could mean 'very recently' I've watched to recent time.with references . never .. \ .381 and we often use them with since and for l> 7. before. (study) 9 How long 10 What 130 . we can say...... (met) 9. : 91 10 She her since. here since working 1987.ay.. (frere'since .. Have you passed just. 2 Actions which happened . (live) (You cry) ? (the chi. .. rain. work.::. 19 She stili 20 I my tea yet. I have never I've lived here since 1980. "vejust times. >~ . (stand) (you learn) 7 We 8 Your eyes are red Chinese? English for five years.58 Study: The present perfect progressive tense: 'I have been eating' l> 1 We use tne present to emphasize Depending Instead of saying: perfect I've typed progressive in place of the simple present throughout a period: I've been typing stopped. this may mean I'm still typing or I've just recently 2 Some verbs like learn...:: : a new car... (travel) your promise? (you forget) an elephant..like actions: already.- ~ . wait. that something has been in progress LEG 9...~.~ 8 She like this before. (not drink) my letter. Up to now (~ ... (not be) 7 I saw her in May.::~ 4 How long : :.:I.32-341 ~ perfect when we want all day. so far.( w :_.with since/for.with time references like before (now). imperatives 9...uSI fly) become) speak) to me. here for two hours.~twenty 2 Hs l. I've worked wafting . (no! see) 17 They the same car for fifteen years.. tasted papaya ..lIved here for 20 years.:. Write: Supply the simple present perfect tense of the verbs in brackets.3A] at an unspecified time in the past: your driving test? or 'at any time up to now'...ldren sleep) all afternoon? (you do) . continuity t've waited We can use them in the simple present perfect tense: here for two hours. (drive) them for many years. naturally suggest [> 7. . [> 7. (recently (ride) in from Borne. here since 1987 .... verb tenses. (dig) 6 You're out of breath ? (you run) here for twelve years.'" .. (buy) 3 5I : 7-'1~ix letters so far... eaten.9 Verbs.~:~. (visit) 11 They 12 !-Ie .: :.. lie. G.. 2 How long 3 I\ 5 She . . recently. here? (~ou wait) 6 o'clock. live.repeated/habitual at all.5 The simple present perfect and present perfect progressive 9.. all d.. sleep.... 20 cards so far. (not answer) her several times. sit. there'since to Marco since 1989..22-271 Study. (type) codscous? (you ever eat) (never quarrel) •••••••••••••••••• all over the world. <0 : :. all day.3AJ. present. But we most often use them in the progressive: I've been . yet.. (already 4 They 6 We . I'm tired..: [EJ There are two basic uses 01 the simple 1 Actions beginning I have received . We use it to describe: in the past and continuing up to the present moment: up till now. :. him on TV ssveral I've often met her .: 13 ~ 14 I i 16 Snef. a director. I .. (before). ever. t've . study. but ..with no time refsrence (Depending on context. on context. stand.

••••• in Perth last week. we are still not saying 'exactly when' l> 9.50 Study: lEI The simple past and the simple present perfect compared [> LEG 9. a book until she was 25. finished the job yesterday/an hour ago.SC Study: lEI The simple present perfect and the present perfect progressive compared [> LEG 9. (type) Your mother is still in the kitchen..J.. I (agree) " at once.. an Australian friend (suggest) 10 •••••••••••••••••••••••• a tour into 'the bush'..••.. have finished the job yesterday.••••••••• when we (be) \3 •••••••••••••••••••••••..•.9.. (the job is unfinished) I've painted this room.••••••••••........•••. (have) lunch... (never read) Iunch an hour ago. j With the present perfect. here. 1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b Write: ... 9.5 The simple present perleel and present perlee! progressive 9. (cook) I a lovely meal which )'11 be serving in a couple of minutes.~ all your letters.26.....••••••.. Australia before and I am enjoying my stay.ftr.• suddenly.•.. Doesn 'f it look good? (the Job is definitely finished) Supply the simple present perfect or the present perfect progressive.••••.• 9...... 'That's it!' my friend said as he (wave) 16•••. in the bush (be) 14 ••••••••••••••••.. I (stay) 6 at a nice hotel near a beautiful beach ...9. an Australian friend in London (teff) 2 .•.. we do not say 'exactly when': I have finished the job.:r&..... (build) We this garage ourselves and hope to finish it within the next two months.. I (swim) 8.3C]: .•..•••••••••.5E Write: Context Put in the simple present perfect. (build) 1 ...• 'You'll find out when you get Ih8r8. Supply the simple past or the simple present perfect in these pairs of sentences..._. (type) I this report since yesterday and rrn only half way through..34) The simple present perfect and the progressive forms mean different things here: I've been painting Ihis room.. Yesterday. (never read) a book in her lile.. etc. She all morning.. the present perfect progressive or the simple past THE AUSTRAUAN SALUTE Before I (visit) \ ~ Australia..•. Even if we say l have just finished the job.•••••••••••••...... After a while I (remember') 15... Write: ..5Aj...1J With the simple past we have to say or ..•....~ She is 80 and I I -.•••.•• me l'd learn 'the Australian salute'..... The first thing I (notice) 12•••••••••••••••..•. The job's done......•• every day from the tirnel (arrive) 9 ••••..... (Not .•••••••••••••....' he (say) 4 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• J (arrive) 5...••• back! I waved my righl arm 131 ..••••••••••.. Oust have) to the bank yet? (he go) to the bank at lunch time? (h8 go) 9.........•••••••••••••...•. (cook) We this garage ourselves and have just begun to use it.... II will fook good when irs finished... 1 (never visit) 7 •.••....23.. ta 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b She 1U!t...3A.•.• the conversation I had had in London before I (come) 16•••• .•.•...•.••... 'What's than' I (ask) 3..•.. as I waved my right arm to keep Ihe flies away......•.. Since then.••••••• the flies.. 'What's the "Australian salute"?' I (ask) 17•••.imply when something happenened I> 7....

6A Study: IE] Uses of the simple past perfect tense: 'I had worked' '1 When we have two past references. _. come. not now) 2 Some verbs like learn. finish) of the box.. 1 They 3I 5 We 6 When she 7 Before we 8I 9 He _ Show when both are possible. (lock. He'd been phoning every night for a month. past perfect progressi. 2 By the time we 4 After we _ . work. " . but he sU11 10 o'clock. verb tenses.ressive: She is ve..had left.29-30] we are not obliged to use the simple past perfect: After.. .39.ry tired. never see) not li..ve: She was very tired. all leave) (ring.nish) Gust clean.the party I Jim in and " __ . (t. (> LEG 9.Ielt.9 Verbs. 9. 9.1 finished work. (i. it on the phone. __ the shop as soon as I . as soon as. (simple present periect) I've been wailing for two hours . It's clear she's been crying. there. Depending on context.. atlhat moment) When /srrived. ever. by a good rest when our guests a stage play before.6 The simple past perfect and past perfect progressive tenses 9. never . lie. (::> 9. forms have the effect 01 emphasizing 'I have/had been progressive. the gates before 9f?k_ "._. 1 went home.59] .. live. Her eyes are red. by the time We often introduce that. wait. that is to describe actions: the first of two or more First the patient died.32-33J The past perfect progressive The progressive is the 'past' form of the present perfect continuity. Write: Supply the simple past or the simple past perfect. the carpel when the dog he him a letter about it. present perfect progressive: past perfect progressive: 1. It was clear she'd been crying. after.e. 1 We use them to describe actions in progress throughout a period: present perfect prog. She has been typl. We use adverbs like already. already go out) (take._ . (present perfect progessive) I'd waited for two hours before he arrived. (past perfect progressive) actions: present perfect progressive: past perfect progressIve: 4 Drawing conclusions: He's been phoning every night for a montn..32 . (then. (simple past + simple past) 2 But we often need the pas! perfect tor the event that happened first to avoid ambiguity: When I arrived. Her eyes were red.. The patient had died when the doctor arrived._ the contents . She had beentypJng all day. before I gollhere) We use the past perfect to refer to 'an earlier past'. imperatives 9. the past perfect with conjunctions like when. Then the doctor arrived. (discuss. to do the job in an hour. (ring. or had recently slopped. I " _ ~!~.ngall day. she was still typing. himself. Ann .58): I've waited for two hours. the oflice this morning. naturally We say: Or: We say: Or: 3 Repeated suggest 'continuity' I::> 7.. get) (arrive. (sImple past perfect) I'd been waiting for two hours before he arrived. check) wrile) . shake) (promise..6B Study: IE] Uses of the present and past perfect progressive: working' !> LEG 9.e. Tim to the theatre. . before. Ann ._ .!£r!:y4 . (have.

. (wait) 3 How long there? (you wait) 4I there since 6 o'clock.•.... (dig) for your call all evening.•.•................ a delicious meal..•." Mrs Williams (say) 12•.6 The simple past perfect and past periect progressive tenses Write: Supply the present perfect progressive or the past perfect progressive lenses. 1~ . Tom?' his wife asked. busy...•..'In the oven' I (put) ......... Mr Williams (have to) 10 •••. 'What's the matter. He (look) 2 •••.•. them there for safe·keeping.. (do) 6 The children their homework and by 10 o'clock they still hadn't finished..5Cj The simple past perfect can tell us that an action was completed then: When I got home..•...........•..(write) 8 They me about it every day for the pas! week. 'I know.9..•...••......•.. (do) 4 I knew she the washing because when I got in she was ready to go out.••••.•... (do) 5 By 10 o'clock the children their homework and were ready to go to bed. (cook) 2 John a beautiful meal for his guests and they all enjoyed it (prepa..•.... LEG 9. with relief as she (tish) 16 ••••••••. COOKING THE BOOKS? Old Mr Williams was very concerned.. 9... but he (not be able) ~ to lind them. the whole morning looking for their pension books.60 Write: Context Put in the past perfect simple or progressive or the simple past. I found that JIfI had painted her room..••••••••••••••• them au! 01 her apron pocket! He wasn't enioying his lunch 133 . Meanwhile............How did you know? .~ ....•..........~ 2 We 9..Your hair was covered with paint! (paint) 10 You were out of breath when you came in this morning ? (you run) 1 I was lired.. everywhere...•..•.•...and guess where I (find) 13.• . 'l'va got ~hem·. Show where both are possible..re) 3 I knew she the washing because the machine was still working when I got in.. ... with a twinkle in her eye.•. She (cook) 5 •••..••••..••. but he clearly wasn't enJoying his lunch. She (prepare) 6..••• all morning.•.•.•••....•. (do) Write: =:.. Mr Williams (always enjoy) 9 .••.••......••..•.. ~ay for the party that evening and by 8 o'clock we still weren't ready.•. his wife (be) •.•• in the oven...34] Study: IE] The past perfect progressive can tell us that an action was uncompleted then: When I got home........ followed by a lovely pie.. [cornpare » 9. his food....•.!:!44..•..... all day.•... Give alternatives where possible..•. (stand) 5 She English for five years before she visited Canada.... them!' Mr Williams suddenly remembered .. soup.' He (smile) 15 .... (rain) 71 to the firm regularly for a month before... but they stillhadn't answered .. He and his wife were pensioners and he (spend) '. which she (bake) 8 ...... I found that Jill had been painting her room. 'You've got them?' 'Yes ..... (ring) 9 I knew you ....~........ confess thai he (Jos~ " their pension books... I Jw4 . Supply the simple past perfect or the past perfect progressive.......6C The simple past perfect and past perfect progressive compared I..... She (make) 7 ••••••••..•. (study) 61t started raining last Monday and it ever since....

we weaken sha. .7A Study: lIT! Some uses of 'will' and 'shall' [> LEG 9. We also use '/I after consonants: Tom 'II be here soon. .37.threats: Just wait! YOu'lI. must. 2 In speech.601: Will you hold the door open for me.38-40. Perhaps they'll understand. but in British English. [> Chapter 11J.intentions/promises (> 9-8AJ: 1'/1 (= I will) buy you a bicycle for your birthday. _ I hope you'. When'fJ I see you? 3 Negative short forms are: 'II not.requests/invitations l> 11. 11. imperatives 9.6EJ: Shall I get your coat for you? . you. shail not): I'll not be therell won't be therell shan't be there tomorrow.regret this! . she. _ The wedding will take place next Friday.73J 1 Will and shallare 'modal verbs'. won'f(= will not) or shan't(". etc.9 Verbs. (Not 'helshelil/youlthey shallj: l!We will (1'I1!We'/I) see you tomorrow. he.We often use '/1 in place of will in speech and sometimes in writing. d Will there be a general strike? ~ I'll send you a card from Florida.23. 3 We use will and shall in many other ways.g. 2 We etten use will and shall 10 make predictions (the simple future tense): It will rain tomorrow. . apart from predicting the future: e.9A]: I'll stop and ask the way. Idon't know if Ishall see you next week.suggestions l> Il.offers {> 11.6F]: Shall we go for a swim tomorrow? . please? . Or: I sha/l!We shall see you tomorrow. so they are like csn. 2 In formal style we say what will happen lor events that have been arranged: The wedding will take place at St Andrew's on June 27th. 134 Uses of the 'wlllishall' future 1 Prediction: We invite prediction or we say what we think will happen: Who will win on Saturday? Tottenham wl/J win on Saturday.decisions (> 9.11.ll to If~lI.I expect she will.I1 come and see us again. _ a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) I) B making a formal announcement making a request stating a planned arrangement making a prediction making an invitation asking for a prediction promising/stating intention expressing future hope expressing future uncertainty threatening offerIng making a suggestion 9_78 'Will' and 'shall' to refer to the future l>LEG 9._ Tell them again.. we use will with all persons (I. we often use shall with I/We.7 The simple future tense 9. I'm sure. _ Will you wrtte to me? _ Shall I go to the post office for you? _ Shall we take a drive into the country later? _ I'll report you to the police next time. She 'II get a surprise. 11.). especially after vowels: 1'I/IHe'fI see you tomorrow.35-37) Study: [!!) Forms of 'will' and 'shall' When we are referring to the future. In American English shall and shan't with a future reference are rare. etc. _ Will you have lunch with us on Sunday? _ I'll be seeing John at 1he meeting tomorrow. 3 We use shall and will to express hopes and expectations: Ihope she'll get the job she's applied lor.. verb tenses. Write: Match the sentences on the IeI'!with the functions on the right 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A We'll have a thunderstorm tonight.

. I 3 (non have to earn a living... 135 .•...•.......... You 12 get a letter which begins.. Give alternatives where possible. do the shopping together.9.. I know it" help very much.. 'If we follow these rules I'm sure we 16. apply from the day you retire.•..•.7C Context Write: Put in suitable forms of will and shall..........•. That's easy.4 .. JIM: DON: JIM: DON: JIM: DON: JIM: DON: J..•.•• ask you why you want 10 work for them...... My wife and 16 be able to spend more time together....•... RETIREMENT I'm going to retire next week and I'm looking forward to it.••..••.•. be able to do all the things I've always wanted to do....•..•••. ••••••••. For the first time in my life I ' ..... We 7 ...• I know if I've go! the job? They" lei you know in a couple of days. pay my pension into my bank account and I 5 (non have to worry about earning money ever again....~ ...•..•••.. 2 3 4 5 6 'They look Hkesensible suggestions. 'I'm looking forward to your retirement.•. (not) watch TV all day long.. anyway! I'm sure you B ••••••••• .. lind interesting hobbies to keep us occupied. everything 9 be OK! When '0 .•.. butl expsct l ' think of something at the time..... enjoy a long and happy life together... Yes... I can't think of any just now. I explained all these plans to my wife. spend lime out of Ihehouse as well as in it. 9. You 3•••.•...... Don" worry..••••••. keep!it in mind and body.•.•••••• What time is your interview? Irs at three in the afternoon.• We" We '2 . They are.. 'I said...........' she said..•.... take care of the house togelher.' my wife answered.. I've writlen out some simple rules for us both which 9 •...•...' 'I hope we 17 " I answered. I want to earn more money. (non have to travel to work any more.. Situation: Jim is asking his friend Don for advice about a job interview.7 The simple future tense Write: Supply suitable forms of will and shall..... but you must remember that while you can retire...•..•..IM: DON: What sorts of questions do you think they ' .. They 2•.•.••••....•..!' 'M:/tqf....•••.. keep regular hours. I hope I 5 .••••.... That's what happened in my case.. have to think of some better reasons.•....•••.... 100.. 'Of course. ask? The same as they asked me.... If we follow these rules .. but I 8 be thinking of you...• We '3 We 14 •••••••••••••••••• We 15 HOUSE take turns to do the cooking and the housework.... My firm •.. We a. 'We regret to inform you .....•••. I can't. Here they are:' RULES OF THE We 10 .... I 2••..... but you can't say thaI.••.•..•.

•.•.•. ? 6 a. the future progressive..•. (write) 9 In five years' time a permanent space station the moon..2B]: We'll be spending the winter in Australia is Ihe same as: We're spending the winter in Australia.. 7 We ..•.... (drive) By this time next year.whichever Situation: Susan and her family will be setting out on holiday tomorrow MEG: SUE: MEG: SUE: So you're off on holiday tomorrow.45.W«?~ ... the house at about 6 a. to London next Monday morning...le future compared with the progressive.. You never know these days! 136 . How eXciting! What time (you/eave) \ wk«r. in a few minutes. 1 Sit down and fasten your seat belt.8A Study: iEJ Simple future 'I will work' and progressive 'I will be working' compared !> LEG 9... Where both are possible.g..• breakfast at the cafeteria...m.••. at (he airport terribly early! I... Imagine! By this time tomorrow evening you (lie) 6 .•. I'll be lying on the beach.••.! Why so early? You don't have to check in till 9. You (arrive) 3.. (sail) the Prime Minister before flying back home.k.•. see if you can 'feel' the different effect of the simp..... Write 1: Supply will + verb or will be + ·Ing.•. How long .••. the future perfect 9. then we {have) 5••.. . We (check in) as quickly as we can...p. We eff..••.•. on the beach and I (do) 7•. (meet) there? (you stay) .. Supply will + verb or wif/ be + -ing .9.. If we say 1'/1 be working on this tomorrow.know.. 3 We use the future progressive like the present progressive for planned actions l> 9. (Not "/ wiilliej 2 The progressive 'softens' the effect of will + verb and sounds more polite: When will you finish these letters? (e.•.•. I my memoirs. boss to assistant) When will you be seeing Mr White? (e..8 The simple future..m.40-41] progressive: in the near or distant lulure. but Ihe airport is very busy at this time of the year and we want to avoid the rush... assistant to boss) \I we say 1'1/ work on this tomorrow we may be stating an intention. not Folkestone..U.•. morning.g. 6 So you're stopping off in Dubai on your way to Beijing. I'm sure that's wise of you. (take off) 2 When to the bank to draw some money? (you go) 3 Do you think you 4 They 5 The President here in five years' time? (still work) from Dover.. at the airport. (see) 'feels' appropriate in this dialogue.t. especially There are three basic uses of the future We use it 10 emphasize actions that will be in progress when we imagine ourselves doing something: By this time tomorrow.. we are simply referring to future time..~ We (leave) 2 .•. {circle) a Write 2: 10 I don't think i him tonight. MEG: SUE: the ironing or something! I hope you're riqht! I hope we (not sit around) 8 .•.

.~. 137 . '.3B... too... Some bits fall back to earth. All these bits and pieces are watched by NORAD (North American Radar Defence Command).. Iwon't have retired till the year 2020.. 9.. . Perhaps we'll be watch i ng .- IE] Write:.. 9.• . like complete.. . 3 4 2 By the end of this week.9...6B] to say that what is in progress now will be in progress in Ihe future: By this time next week.._. (travel) .. These (increase) 5 .~ ... which crashed in the Northern Territories ct Canada in 1978. for work before the children get home from school. . we . sir..~ . (finish) She . . ... we use radar to 'watch' nearly 8.3B] 10show that an action will already be completed by a certain time in the future. Perhaps we Uus/ watch) '0 from some other (safe) place as it go. wait and work which naturally suggest continuity [> 7.. .....0?~ 9. Ihe future perfect 9. live. I 5 6 7 8 the new bridge by the end of the year. (wait) Do you realize that on August 15..8 The simple tuture.88 Study: The future perfect simple and the future perfect progressive tenses l> lEG 9. the earth!...000 bits of rubbish from the size of marbles to the size of basket balls flying rou nd the earth..1'. At present. rain.~ .ftyyears? (five) f hope I this report by the end of the day. ... finish and refire: Iwill have retired by the year 2020. I will have been working on this book for a year. in number by the year 2050 and (orbit) 6 the earth. (leave) We non-stop for fourteen hours before we get to Calcutta. ."bases on planets like Mars. Crashing junk could give us a bad headache..' ... . lie. (fly) They work on the great dam by the end of this decade. NORAD (have) 7 more and more rubbish to watch as the years go by.. space stations which (circle) 2 the earth and (probably circle) s . They .. In addition.. We use it with verbs which point to completion.~of:.. there are at least 30. Supply the future perfect simple or prcqresstva.. .. the tuture progressive.8C Write: Context Put in the simple future. FLYING JUNK By the middle of the 21st century we (build) 1 ••••• #!14. in this house for fi. .000 objects in space.5B.. We (establish) ..till/until I> 7 . (complete) seventeen weeks for my phone 10 be repaired.43-441 1 We often use the future perfect simple with by and not .-. Note where both are possible...like the Russian satellite C9S4. Most 01 the stuff (slay) B up there (we hope)! The sad fact is that we who are alive today (not clear up) 9 our own junk tomorrow.es round and round. the future progressive or the future perfect simple. 2 We often use the future pertect progressive with verbs like learn. the moon. (complete) Radio waves from earth ' for light years before anyone picks them up. .

....... stop and ask the way. ('" I've just decided to do this. vern lenses. [> 9.. _ out of petrol before wegellhere._ 5 ...prohibitions: .•. (give) Q •••••••••••• us a lilt. His wife is sitting beside him.. We (run) 2 . especially (> LEG 9. to be due to to refer to timetables: The plane is due to land at .formal appointrrrants/instructlons: [> LEG 9.. the night? Cardiff. He (stop) 9..98 Study: . imperatives 9..¥.•....?. . 2 Intentions: We often use going to rather than will in informal style: I'm going to practice the piano for l'lNo hours this evening..9A Study: IE] Uses of the 'going to'~future compared with 'will' There are three basic uses 01 the 'going to'·future: Predictions: We often use going to to predict the future. to the driver.. Situation: Mr Sims is driving. _•. someone Half an hour later.. at the next filling-station_ This road goes on forever..••••. Why do you ask? That's another thirty miles away. 'be due to' 1 We use to be to for: . Or: We're spending the winter in Australia. 'be about to'. I'm going to be successful one day. 9 ..~.44-46] when we can see something that is about to happen: Look out! She's go. HE: Oh good!.. l> 9.. Perhaps Not a filling-station (rain) ' _ .formal arranqarnents/outles: .... stuck..••. The car's stopping.2.~ verns. He's slowing down. You're not to tell him anything about our plans . It HE: SHE: in sight and look at those black clouds..•. 2 to be about to 3 We often use refers to the immediate Look! The race ts just future: about to start..•. HE: SHE: HE: Where (we spend) '. Three tablets are to be taken l'lNice a day. 138 .#&.) "II Write: Supply be going to or 'Il in this dialogue... walk. I (wave) 8.•.. SHE: HE: SHE: We (gel) •..•..8AJ or future progressive: 4 We use will when we decide to do something at the moment of speaking: We're lost. I (stop) J .9 'Going to' and other ways of expressing the future 9.4!Y:. Come on then.•.. 15.~ .lng fa faint... (Not 'willi Or we can describe something which we know will' take place in the future: Angus and Margaret are gOing to be married in May.•.[!1J 'am/is/are to'.•. 3 Planned actions: We use going to like the present progressive We're going to spend the winter in Australia. Look! A car's coming.. IVe booked us in at the Angel Hotel.•.28J Or: We'll be spending the winter in Australia. We (have to) _.47-48) OPEC representatives are to meet in Geneva in May...

~ meet again later today.•. sir!' Ihe co-pilot cried as the captain . (to be due to) Don't be so impatient. (to be Oust) about to) I can't talk now. _ _. smashing everything to pieces! Orlik the bull 139 . (to be Oust) aboullo) There's not much longer to wait.•.' the captain said... he reported thai it looked safe.• 4 him to a farm in Wales. going to.•.••••••••.... loose from his crate and smash his way inlo Ihe llignl cabin!.•.LEG 9... She didn't realize she _ •. 'I've just heard from Ground Cornrel. Ihe wooden crate.•••• due in ten minutes. etc... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The conference delegates ~... Their pl'ane land in ten minutes. She phone later..tQ. but I was held up in the traffic. 1 go out. She is arrive untilleatime.. 9. but it was delayed.90 Write: Context Supply suitable future forms (will.. We use was going to. (to be to) You take these new tablets four times aday. 'What (do) !~. 'I Uustcheck) s•... The train leave._be world famous before she was 20. 'Our fHghl (be) 4 ••••••..9..•.9with him.. 000 feet. grabbed Orlik's nose-ring and pulled him away . . Alternatives are possible.~..•.•••. when Jean had an accident. He didn't know he win the Nobel Prize. was to and was due to.....). 'I.9C The future-in-the-past [.. We use these forms lor: -events we couion't foresee: They didn't know they were to be reunfted len years later: . while Orlik crashed about inside the tiny plane.49-50] Study: l!!l' Sometimes we want to refer to events which were 'destined' or planned to take place in Ihe past ('the lulUre-in-the-past'). _ _ .•..9 'Going 10' and olher ways 01 expressing the future Write: Supply the correct lorms 01the verb phrases in brackets. sir?' the co-pilot asked.•. (take overys .' the co-pilot said..... ... .' Write: Supply suitable 'luture-in'lhe-past" forms..••••. _ meel them at the station at 4. (not to be due to) 9.events which were interrupted: We were just going to tesve. (to be to) They open their instructions until midnight (not to be to) You'll have to hurry._ take off at 4. Both men jumped 10 safety. THE ADVENTURES OF ORLIK The plane had been privately hired to transport Orlikfhe bull from one part of Ihe country 10 the other... 1 2 3 4 S ..... but she must have completely 10 rgotten.. _ . was about to.. She was still young.The co-pilot made an emergency landing in a field. Orllk the bull (break) 7 .' the pilot said.•.1 ~ .. ..25._ _ ... We (take of~ s from Runway Number 7: Uttle did both men know how dramatic their flight (be) " They couldn't have imagined that when they were in the air.. 'We (deliver) 2 .. We also use would for 'destiny' in story-telling: They had already reached 9.... The plane _.M . He thought his life's work was tinisheo. A few minutes later.. soon they would reach the top..

mple present tense: 'I work/he works' 1 boils 2 rises 3 works 4 wear 5 eat 6 works 7 go 8 drives 9 gets 10 eat 11 leaves 12 starts 13 see 14 know . 7a. 6b. verb tenses.88 Type 3: Verb + particle. 8 Hurry along.. 8b 1 b I envy 2b I understand 3a You know 4a Does he seem 5b I prefer 9.1 A Pronunciation and spelling 01 the 3rdperson. down' 1 b 2 h 3 j 4 e 5 m 6 f 7 q 8 a 9 c/d 10 P 11 i 12 n 13 a14 1 15k 16 c/d 17 g 8. intrasitive./ 13 He pays III 14 She cries III 7 He passes /tll a 8_8 Phrasal verbs: (Type 3.SE Context 1. is r.8A Type 3: Verb + particle.28 Uses of the present progressive tense: 'I am working/he is working' 1 I am working (1) 2 are you drinking? (1) 3 is still waiting (1) 4 is hurrying (1) 5 are constantly panicking (4) 6 are becoming (2)7 is John doing . .80 Verb + particle + preposition + object. 2 We'd better try to drive on to Calcutta before sunset. 6a.ie in 6 catch up on 7 looks down Dna face up to 9 let me in on 10 coughed up 11 cheer up 12 look forward to 9.. 3 t hurried over to Tom's as soon asl heard the news.1C Stativeand dynamic verbs The foHowing need ticks: la.. 0 Context 7 1 (-) 2 (-) 3 puts. idiomatic: 'put up with it' 1 e 2 I 3 b 4 t 5 i 6 n 7 g 8 k 9 q 10 s 11p 12j 130 14a t5r 16d 17f 18h 19 m 20 c 8. 13 Stand up. 5 Go away.. verb + particle (transitive) 8. 12 Sit up. 8a. non-idiomatic: 'walk up to the top' Possible answers 1 The lift takes a .70-9. 3b.10 Context 1 Are you Silting 2 hope 5 does not include 6 try 3 are studying 4 have 7 regard S want 9. 4 . nonidiomatic: 'hurry up' Possible answers 1 Come along. 3 Come in.Run along to the shop for me and get a loaf of bread. 14 Come down.Iong time to come down from the top floor. 10 Hurry away. a business suit on 4 (-) 5 put his shirt and tie on 6 picked the receiver up 7 (-) S (-) 9 check some fig..rogressive tenses (1) 9. 4 Come up.2A.1 8 Uses of the si.2B 8.2 The simple present and present progressive tenses (2) 9. 4b. Spelling: how to add '-lng' toa verb: 'waittwaiting' 1 making 2 eating 3 writing 4 forgetting 5 put ling 6 travelling 7 catching 8 dying 9 carrying 9. 7 Go up.intransitive. 11 Sit down. 8. 9 Hurry up.ures over 10 (-) 11 cutting expenses down 12 put the meeting off 13 writing some notes down 14 (-) 15 put down the receiver 16 (-) 17 (-) 18 (-) 19 (-) 20 had his red shorts on 9 Verbs. 2 Come away. agree 15 hope 16 says 9.8C Type 4: Verb + particle + preposition + Object. 7b./ 4 She forgets lsi 5 He loses jlu 12 He sees hI 6 She manages 117. idiomatic: 'break. S It's best to stay away from the town centre on Friday nights.Key 8.1 The simple present and present p. put up with 2 lie down 3 stay up 4 come about 5 I. imperatives 9. 15 Hurry in. 6 Go in.. simple present She rushes Ilu 1 He laughs lsi 9 She saws hi 2 She drops lsi 3 She drinks Is! 10 He wears III 11 She loves I"l. 16 Go down. verb + particle (intransitive) (Type 4. Sa. 2a.iding (2) are enjoying (1) 9 is always upsetting (4) 10 is he arriving (3) 11is forever forgetting (4) 12 am having (2) 13 is always lying (4) 14 is running (3) a 273 . 8..

15 was already working . or telephone conversation with a lriend) 5 I think .. Tom was wondering (3) 9 he decided 10 It was lull 11 He was just wondering . runs .. are Sitting . you are doing ... 6 I/We waited at the airport till/hey arrived.inding 11 use 12 are 13 are 14 are always finding 15 think 1SIove 17 miss/am missing 9.. obeyed /dl 13 hurried Id/ 14 lied /dl 15 finished IV 16 included lidl 17 locked III 18 travelled Id/ 9.. when the war began (2) 9. 'I was working' 1 was not listening 2 were enjoying 3 Were they playing 4 was gardening 5 Were you watching 6 was raining 7 was wondering 8 Were you still working 9 were living 10 was always doing 11 were constantly improving 12 Were you reading 13 was getting 9...3 The simple past tense 9.30 Context 1 Claimed 2 attacked 3 was 4 had 5 chased 6 jumped 7 beilleved 8 called 9 set out 10 offered 11 captured 12 visited 9.._.. 7 Sally told me/us about her engagement when she was here....4Alrregular verbs with the same form in the present as in the past: 'put/put' 1 past 2 present 3 past 4 past 5 present 6 present or past 7 past 8 past 9 past 10 past 11 present or past 12 past 13 present 14 past 9.3C Uses of the simple past tense: '/ worked/he worked' 1 I worked as a civil servant five years ago...you tell me (Letter to a friend or relation in reply to a phone call or a letter) 6 Pym passes . is building (Letter to..40 Conte. 4 John arrived at 4. goes up . pushes (Spoken commentary on a football match on TV or radio) 9.0find/am f. We sunbathe and go ... 2 I last played football when I was 14_ 3 The Carters left for their summer holiday last night.4C The simple past and the past progressive in story-telling 1 It was just before 2 Tom was only 20 3 (he) was living with his mother (1) 4 He was working and travelling (1) 5 He received a mysterious letter 6 It was addressed 7 .4 The simple past and past progressive tenses 9.. Bill was 14 Tom was recruited . shoots . Next week we're going (Letter or postcard from someone who is on holiday) 3 The action takes place .XI 1 was driving 2 was driving 3 saw 4 stopped 5 got out 6 was 7 looked 8 was crossing/crossed 9 went 10 noticed 11 told 12 pulled.4D 9... or burned Id/ 9 cried Idl 10 watched III 11 laughed /11 12...Key 9... I doubt ._.38 Irregular past forms 1 saw 2 understood 3 knew 61eft 7 wrote 8 sold 9 was 12 ate 4 met 5 found 10 had 11 kept 9. 48 Uses of the past progressive tense: . knows ... asked 8 as he was dealing . when a stranger introduced himself (2) 12 (The stranger) said . and sort . was signed ...3A The past form and pronunciation of regular verbs 1 waited lid! 2 cleaned Id! 3 played {d! 4 posted lidl 5 smiled /d/ 6 stopped II/ 7 dreamt IV. or dreamed /dl 8 burnt /If... are rewiring . when Tom was a baby 13 The stranger explained ...2C-9...you file (Spoken or written explanation or demonstration) 2 We hope you are enjoying ... 13 pu lied 14 pulled 151hought 16 looked/was looking 17 noticed 18 gave 19 seized 20 put 21 continued 9..2C The simple present and the present progressive tenses in typical contexts 1 you take . 5 I last saw 'Gone with the Wind' recently..... 274 .... They are arguing (Review of a play in a newspaper or on the radio) 4 The plumber is putting .20 Context t am studying 2 am working 3 don"! have to 4 opens 5 closes 6 are always coming in 7 asking 8 am learning 9 enjoy/am enjoying 1.

.. got 2 arrived .7C Context 1 shalllwWl'l1 2 shan'Uwon't/wili nnUshall not 3 shan't/won'tzwlll not/shall not 4 will 5 shan't/won't/will not/shall not 6 will (we shall.fthe context is the past) 3 have/had you been wai.6A Uses of the simple past perfect tense: 'I had worked' 1 lockedfhad locked ..6C Tl1e simple past perfect and past perfect pro.SA-9..Key 9. ked/had been lonking 3 had not been able 4 had been 5 had been cookinq 6 had prepared 7 had made 8 had baked 9 had always enjoyed/always enjoyed 10 had to. had never seen 8 had just cleaned -"_came .7 The simple future tense 9.6 The simple past perfect and past perfect progressive tenses 9. 9.gressive tense: 'I have been eating' 1 have/ve been digging 2 have ynu been waiting 3 havetve been standing 4 have you been learning 5 has/'s been studying 6 Have you been running? 7 have/'Ve been living 8 have/ve been crying 9 have the children been sleeping 10 have you been doing 9. 6 rang ..7C 9.60 Co.rfect and the present perfect progressive compared 1a j've typed lb I've been typing 2a She has/'s been conking 2b I've cooked 3a We have/ve built3b We havel've been building 9.gresslve co.f the present and past perfect pro..7A Some uses of 'will' and 'shall' 1 d 2 f 3 9 4 b 5k 6 I 7 j 8 a 11 e 12 c 9h 10 I 9.IJshallf'1I13 willl'lI/shall 14 wllll'lI/shall 15 wi nril/shall 16 wi 1I1'1i/shall 17 will/shall 9.__ hadn't finished 275 . wrote 5 had _ had aHlel! ....ntext 1 had spent 2 had 10.ting 4 had been standing 5 had been studying 6 has been raining 7 had been writing 8 have/had been ringing 9 had been painting 10 Had you been running? 9. but not 'My wife and I shalr) 7 shallfwillf'1I 8 shalilwilll'lI 9 will 10 wili/shall!'11 11 will not/won't/sban't 12 wil.0.58 The present perfect pro.5 The simp..78 'Will' and 'shall' to refer to the future 1 they'll/they will 2 They'llfThey will 3 You'il/You will 41'1111 ili/l shall 5 I wlll/i shall w 6 you will 7 won't 81'1111 wilill shall 9 everything'lIl everything will 10 When'IIJWhen willJWhen shall 11 They'llfThey will 12 You'll/You will 9. 11 had lost 12 said 13 found 14 put 15 smiled 16 fished 9.rgotten 14 have/ve ridden 15 hasl's just flown 16 has/'s recently become 17 have/'ve already spoken 18 haven't drunk 19 hasn't answered 20 haveI've met 9.5C The simple present pe.ntext 1 visited 2 told 3 asked 4 said 5 arrived 6 have been staying 7 have never visited 8 have been swimming 9 arrived 10 suggested 11 agreed 12 noticed 13 were 14 was (or infnrmally were) 15 remembered 16 came 17 asked 18 waved 9..mpared 1 had been cooklnq 2 had prepared 3 had been doing 4 had done 5 had done 6 had been dning 9.5E Co. had finished 3 rang .gging 2 have been waiting (or had been waiting i. had already gone nut 7 took .-" shook 9 promised/had promised .le present perfect and present perfect progressive 9.50 The simple past and the simple present perfect co...gressive: 'I have/had been working' 1 had been di. checked/had checked 4 discussed/had discussed .mpared 1a never read 1b has never read 2a had 2b have just had 3a Has he gnne 3b Did he go.68 Uses o.5A Uses of the simple present perfect tense: 'I haveeatenJhe has eaten' 1 bavs/ve visited 2 hasts typed 3 Have you ever eaten 4 havs/ve never quarrelled 5 haven't written 6 haven't been 7 haven't seen 8 has/'s driven 9 haveI've known 10 hasl's been 11 have/'ve bought 12 hasl's travelled 13 Have you fo.

. you make 4 Somebody turn off/ Turn off . 2 Try and lift il. the future progressive.10A Some uses of the impe.ratlve to express diffe./Try to lift it. children! 9. anybodyll Nobody listen to her! 12 Enjoy yourselves.. 3 Sit here and wait until the doctor is ready.76]) 2 will you be going (referring to future time) or will you go (intention) 3 you will still be working here ('imagining') 4 They will be sailing (planned action) or will sail (more definite) 5 The President will be meeting (planned action) or will meet (more definite) 6 will you be staying (planned action) or will you stay (more definite) 7 We will be driving (planned action) or will drive (intention) 8 will be writing (imagining) 9 will be circling (imagining) 10 will be seeing (referring to future time) or will see (intention) Write 2: 1 will you be leaving 2 we·1Ibe leaving 3 you'll arrive 4 we'U check in 5 we'll have 6 you'll be lying 7 I'll be doingS we won't be sitting around 9.rent functions 1 Do have 2 Do make 5 Do try 6 Do help 3 Do stop ' 4 Do hurry 9.108 The imperative 9..red Write 1: 1 will be taking off ('more polite') or will/ake off (arrangement [> 9.. will you? 9.8 The simple future.Key 9.10E 9.. won't you? 4 Post this letter.'.100 Double imperatl.8A-9. 9.9 'Going to' and other ways of expreSSing the luture 9. 'be due to' 1 are to 2 are to 3 are not to 4 Is (just) about to 5 I'm (just) about to 6 is due to 7 not due to/isn't due 10 9. post/You . could you? 5 Hold this bag. the future perfect 9. Meg/Meg.10 The imperative 9. won't you? 8 Take a seal. anybody/Don'! anybody turn 6 You carry/Carry .. woul.90 Context Possible answers 1 are we to do 2 We are going to/are to deliver 3 )'11 just check/'m just going to check .ves joined by 'and' Possible answers 1 Come and see us soon.S8 The future perfect ..2 Do something useful.9B 'am/is/are to'.10C The imperative with question tags Possible answers 1 Stop whistling.8A Simple future 'I will work' and progressive 'I will be working' compa.8C Context 1 will have built/will be building 2 will be cirding/will circle 3 (will) probably be circling/will probably circle 4 will have established/will be establishing 5 will have increased/will be increasing 6 will be orbiting 7 will have 8 will stay/wHi be staying 9 will not be clearing up 10 will just be watching to address particular people Possible answers 1 Enjoy yourself/yourselves 2 You try 3 You make/ MaKe . will you? .. 'be about to'.. everybody 9 Oon't move anybody/Nobody movel/Oon't anybody movel 10 John. was to 2 was going to 3 would 5 was due to 4 was about 10 9.10E Context 1 DO 2 KEEP 3 MIND 4 ASK 5 AVOID 6 COME AND ASK 7 DON'T WASTE 8 THINK! . 4 Wait and see what will happen.ng off/take off/are going to take off/will be taKing off 6 would be/was to belwas going to be 7 would/was going to break loose 8 I'll take over 9.slmple and the future perfect progressive tenses 1 will have completed 2 will/shall have been waiting 3 will/shall have been living/have lived 4 will/shall have finished 5 will have left 6 will/shall have been flying 7 will have completed 8 will have been travelling/will have travelled 9..9A Uses of the 'go. everybody 8 Everybody have/Have .jng to'4uture compared with 'will' 1 are we going to spend 2 We're going to run out of 3 I'll stop 4 We're going to get stuck 5 We'll (or We're going to) have to walK 6 someone'll 7 It's going to rain 8 I'll wave 9 He's going to stop 276 9.9C The future-in-the-past Possible answers 1. can't you? 3 Stop asking questions. can you? 7 Come in.d you? 6 Get me some stamps. somebody 5 Nobody turn/Don't .4 will belis 5 are taki. you/John. John! 7 Everybody sit down/Sil down. John 11 Don't anybody listenlOon't listen to her.

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