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e permission of the Indian Roads Congress) 2 2 2 2 Printed at India Offset Press. 19B1(Incorporates the changes as given in detail in the last two sub-paras of introduction at page 3) November.6) November.64 (500 Copies) .1-Nov. 2004 (Incorporates uptodate Amendments) August. 1977 (Incorporates Amendment No.First published Reprinted Reprinted Second Revision Third Revision Reprinled Reprinled Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Fourth Revision Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Reprinted Fifth Revision December. 1997 March. 1994 January.1999 December. 1966 October. 2002 (Incorporates amended Fi9.oulll.2006 September. 1963 October. translated or transmilted in any form or by any means wit/.4-August 1974) July. 5 at page 23) August. 2010 2 2( 21 21 2( 21 2 2 2 2 2 2 (All Rigl7ts Reserved. 1964 Metric Units: October. 1967 November. 3-Apri11974 and No. 1962 September. 1969 March.5-October. 1976) September. 1985 September. 1971) February. 1990 January. 1974 (incorporates Amendment No. 1972 (incorporates Amendment No. New Delhi . 2000 April. 2005 April.2-Nov. 2009 (Incorporates Amendment No. 1958 May. 1972) August 1974 (incorporates Amendment No. No Part of Il7is Publication shall be reproduced.

Railings.CONTENTS Page No. Parapet and Crash Barriers Tramway loading Impact Wind Load Horizontal Forces due to Water Currents longitudinal Forces Centrifugal Forces Buoyancy Earth Pressure Temperature Deformation Stresses (for steel bridges only) Secondary Stresses Erection Stresses and Construction loads Seismic Force Ship/Barge Impact on Bridges Snow Load Vehicle Collision Loads on Bridge and Flyover Supports Indeterminate Structures and Composite Structures (i) 1 2 3 4 5 8 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 14 15 19 20 23 30 33 36 37 37 38 213 214 215 216 42 43 43 44 217 218 219 220 221 55 55 56 57 222 223 ANNEXURES . Kerb. Personnel of the Bridges Specifications and Standards Committee Introduction 2 Scope Classification Loads. Forces and Stresses Dead Load Live Loads Reduction in the Longitduinal Effect on Bridges Accommodating more than Two Traffic lanes Footway.

3. 2. 4.1. S. 8. 7. 6. 9 iI 1· .

L&T. Consulting New Delhi Consultant. Banerjee.). Ghaziabad Chairman Mumbai & Managing Director. New Delhi Executive Director (8&S). Chakraborty. MP PWD. STUP Consultants lid. Span Consultants Ministry of Engg. 7. MORT&H. RDSO. Chief Engineer. Chakraborti. Engineers & Builders Ltd.V. Director General.N. Ninan Kumar. (Co-Convenor) Sharma.. Member (T). Prof. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Banerjee. Lucknow Director and Vice-President. NHAI. Director (Engg. A. STUP Consultants LId. UP PWD. Naida Chief General Manager. Mumbai (i) .Ashok Bandyopadhyay. Ram Dr. B.R. and 9. (Retd. Arun Kumar (Member-Secretary) Director General (RO) & Sp1.B. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. NHAI (Reid. Mahesh Ghoshal.IRC:6-2010 PERSONNEL OF THE BRIDGES SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS COMMITTEE (AS ON 26TH OCTOBER. P. Secretary. Prafulla Kumar. New Delhi Managing Director. A.G. 4.C. 2009) 1. 11. T. 19. Institute for Steel Dev..V. Dr.). Naida E-in-C (Retd. S. 20. New Delhi Chief Engineer (B) S&R. A. P. Joglekar. 2. Bongirwar.).S. Bhubaneswar Joinl Director General Grow1h. (Retd. Bhasin.. C. (I) Pvt. Noida Road Transport & Highways. Gurgaon DG(RD} & AS (Retd. Alimchandani. Kand. TK C. Services (P) Ltd. 1B. 10.L. New Delhi Add1. Kolkata 17. New Delhi Director (Tech. 6. Basa. A.).). $. 13. New Delhi Ltd . Vijay Kumar. 14. Singh. 15. Mumbai ADG(B) (Retd. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways.N.)..P. B. Nirmal Jit (Convenor) Sinha.) MOST.).). Agrawal. STUP Consultants Chief Engineer. Dr. MOST. 22. 16. Dhodapkar.K. Bhopal DG(RD) & AS (Reid. New Delhi Chief Engineer (Retd. S. 12. DG(W). 21. Core). lid. Koshi. Kolkata Advisor. Gupta. 5. New Delhi Members 3. CPWD (Retd.. K..). Ministry of Road Transport & Highways.

Vijay.S. Sarita Vihar. N. Mahesh Velayutham. Puri.).L. T~ ae tin Nt T~ ar 1. Secretary Secretary General & (Deshpande. 35. New Delhi DG (W) (Retd.C. Ltd. Director & Head (Civil Engg. IRe. 29.K. L&T. New Delhi OG(RD) & SS. MORT&H.) Advisor. New Delhi DG(RD) & SS. ThE De: dis. 40. Opp. 31.).D. P.S.K..). MORT&H. Services Til COl Past Secretary General. Ashok Manjure. MORT&H. Sharma.JRC:6-2010 23. Merani.. Noida Chief Engineer (Retd. Construma Consultancy (P) Ltd. 2. Ministry of Road Transport & Hiqhways. 0. M.P. New Delhi National Highways Authority of India.B. New Delhi DG(RD) & AS (Retd. 37. Kumar. Sinha. MORT&H. IRC Director General(RD) Sp!. Dr. MORT&H. 01 ra 1.) Addl. G. New Delhi Member (Technical). New Delhi OG(RD) & SS. 34.V. Maharashtra Development Authority. Freyssinet Prestressed Concrete Ca. Tandon.). New Delhi (ii) .P.). Dr. New Delhi ConsulLing E. (Retd. Saha. M.). N. 41.K. Maharashlra C-2f2013. A-181.) Indian Roads Congress. New Delhi ChiefTechnical Advisor. President.. Yadav) V. S. V. 39.S. wa fin. 26.P. New Delhi (Indoria. B. Ltd. Chief Engineer.).v. Prof. 33. Bagish. New Delhi Corresponding Members PWD. R.P. Director. 36.Y. Narain. New Delhi Ex-Officio Members 38. N. Patankar. Tandon Consultants (P) Ltd. Principal Secretary (Retd. Mumbai J. Mumbai reJ Th an (8 TIT!" Managing Director. 3. CPWD. MORT&H.B. V.. Nirmal Jit) Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Rao. 24. Dr. Roy. 25. (Retd. Mumbai Chief Engineer (Retd. Director General (Dr. Sharan. New Delhi Executive Director. Dr.K. R..ngg.8. 32. New Delhi Bureau of Indian Standards. G. 2. Rajagopalan. P. Chennai dra (I) Pvt. D. Mukherjee. New Delhi Executive Director. A. 30. R. New Delhi Directorate General Border Roads. 2? 28. an the In ree Chief Engineer.). Ninan. (Retd. New Delhi Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. B. Vasant Kunj. Muntbai Airport 11 rn to (Singh.

222. the work of finalising the draft was pushed on vigorously by the Bridges Committee. additions and alterations made by the Bridges Specifications and Standards (SSS) Committee in their meetings held from time to time. 208. all the comments received till then on the different clauses of this Section were disposed off finally and a drafting Committee consisting of S{Shri S. B.1. Antia and S.4 and Appendix-2. . as discussed at Jaipur Session of the Indian Roads Congress in 1946. In the Bridges Committee meeting held at Bombay in August 1958. K. 207. Amendment No.9 of May 2009 incorporating changes to Clauses 202.1 and 214. 209. As approved by the BSS Committee and IRC Council in 2008. and alterations made by the BSS Committee in their meetings held from time to time. The draft of Section II for "Loads and Stresses". In the years 1957 and 1958. Nambiar.3.3. Ghosh was appointed to work in conjunction with the officers of the Roads Wing of the Ministry for finalising this Section. Note 4 of Appendix-I and 218.F.5.5. 3.7 of February 2007 relating to Sub-Clauses of 213. reprinted in 2004 with Amendment No. apart from the new Clause 222 on Seismic Force for design of bridges. Amendment NO.2. 4 and 5.8 of January 2008 relating to Sub-Clauses 214. the Amendment No. The Fourth Revision of Section II of the Code (2000 Edition) included all the amendments. This Committee at its meeting held at New Delhi in September 1958 and later through correspondences finalized Section II of the Bridge Code.IRC:6-2010 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ROAD BRIDGES 1 INTRODUCTION The brief history of the Bridge Code given in the Introduction to Section I "General Features of Desig n" generally applies to Section II also. Amendment NO. The current Fifth Revision of Section II of the Code IRC:6-2010 includes all the amendments. was considered further in a number of meetings of the Bridges Committee for finalisation.2(a).5. Joshi. 214.2 and again reprinted in 2006 with Amendment Nos. The Second Revision of Section II of the IRC:6 Code (1964 edition) included all the amendments.2 and new Clause 212 on Wind load.5 and Combination of Loads for limit state design of bridges has been introduced in Appendlx-3. which was printed in 1958 and reprinted in 1962 and 1963.6 of November 2006 relating to Sub-Clauses 218.K.K. additions and alterations made by the BSS Committee in their meetings held from time to time and was reprinted in 2002 with Amendment ~·lo1.7.7 and 218. K. The Bridges Specifications and Standards Committee and the IRC Council at various meetings approved certain amendments viz. The Executive Committee of the Indian Roads Congress approved the publication of the Third Revision in metric units in 1966.

Rajan Khsdkar. A.K. IRC Director General (RD) & Special Secretary. in the light of the comments of some members.P. D. Table 1 and deletion of Clause 213.1. A. S. S. Atop Jain. Alok. Note below Table 8. Dr. 222. R.N. V.1. 2009 at Patna approved publishing of the Fifth Revision of IRC:6. Katana. O. C.7. bt IF F 2 o t( .B. M.4. 209. G.3.B.1.202. Huda. IRC (Deshpande. Achintya Pandey. Joglekar.P.P.5. S. Chakraborti. Nirmal Jit) ((Indoria.L.K. Table 8. Dr.205. Alok Dhodapkar. Note below Clause 208.K.K. Thakkar.209.IRC:6-2010 The Bridges Specifications and Standards Committee in its meeting held on 261hOctober.9.K. Parameswaran. The Executive Committee.---~-- . and the IRC Council in its 189th meeting held on 141h November.5. pre to ~ wit an· of inv ex IR pE m sr IR e) hi al If.G.222.) (Singh. 2009 further approved certain modifications to Clause 210.2 and Note below para 8 of Appendix-3. Ex-officio Members President. S.P. The Convenor of B-2 Committee was authorized to incorporate these modifications in the draft for Fifth Revision of IRC:6.8. Sharma. G. T Convenor Co-Convenor Member-Secretary 20 thl Th. Thandavan. Mukhopadhyay.) Mukherjee.) Dr. (Mrs. MORTH Secretary General. Tamhankar. Dr. Surana. Dr. K. 222. in its meeting held on 3151 October. YS. The personnel of the Loads and Stresses Committee (B-2) is given below: Banerjee. Verma.209. Aditya Viswanathan.N. Dr. 214. Gupta. G. Lakshmy Members Bhowmick.t f( 2 lr c 2 - ----.5. Saha. S.8. 2009. S. Sharan. Vinay Heggade. M.G.S. Corresponding Members Bhattacharya. Lego.K. Dr. Kanhere.

2 Existing bridges which were not originally constructed or later strengthened to take one of the above specified I. 3 .3 Individual bridges and culverts designed to take electric tramways or other special loadings and not constructed to take any of the loadings described in Clause 201. 201 CLASSIFICATION 201. see Clause 204. and along certain specified highways. For particulars of the above four types of loading. IRC Class permanent should be may occur 70R Loading: This loading is to be normally adopted on all roads on which bridges and culverts are constructed. Loadings will be classified by giving each a number equal to that of the highest standard load class whose effects it can safely Withstand. IRC Class ALoading: This loading is to be normally adopted on all roads on which permanent bridges and culverts are constructed.C. heavier stresses under Class A Loading. IRC ClassAA Loading: This loading is to be adopted within certain municipal limits. and forms the basis for the classification of bridges. IRC Class B Loading: This loading is to be normally adopted for timber bridges. in other specified areas. This publication is meant to serve as a guide to both the design engineer and the construction engineer but compliance with the rules therein does not relieve them in any way of their responsibility for the stability and soundness of the structure designed and erected by them. Bridges designed for Class AA Loading should be checked for Class A Loading also. The design and construction of road bridges require an extensive and through knowledge of the science and technique involved and should be entrusted only to specially qualified engineers with adequate practical experience in bridge engineering and capable of ensuring careful execution of work.1 Road bridges anc' culverts shall be divided into classes according to the loadings they are designed to carry.2.1 shall be classified in the appropriate load class indicated in Clause 201.IRC:6-2010 2 SCOPE The object of the Standard Specifications and Code of Practice is to establish a common procedure for the design and construction of road bridges in India. Bridges designed for Class 70R Loading checked for Class A Loading also as under certain conditions. Annex A gives the essential data regarding the limiting loads in each bridge's class. 201. as under certain conditions. 201. heavier stresses may occur under Class A Loading. in certain existing or contemplated industrial areas.R.

if any 13) Temperature effects (see note ii) 14) Deformation effects 15) Secondary effects 16) Erection effects 17) be ac C( TI TI Sl Seismic force (see note iii) 18) Wave pressure 19) Grade effect (see note iv) NOTES: i) The snow loads may be based on actual observation area or local practices. or past records in the particular th 01 tr N 4 . FORCES AND STRESSES 202.1 The loads. forces and stresses to be considered in designing road bridges and culverts are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Dead Load Live Load Snow Load (see note i) Impact factor on vehicular live load Impact due to floating bodies or vessels as the case may be Vehicle collision load Wind load Water current Longitudinal forces caused by tractive effort of vehicles or by braking of vehicles and/or those caused byrestraint of movement of free bearings by friction or deformation G Q vc w 20 1m tile tel 20 TI' ml ar 10) Centrifugal force 11) Buoyancy 12) Earth pressure including live load surcharge.IRC:6-2010 202 LOADS. if existing.

For bridges built in grade or cross-fall. Clause 221 shall be referred for combination of snow load and live load. The wave forces shall be determined by suitable analysis considering drawing and inertia forces etc. In case of group of piles. .3 Combination of Loads and Forces and Permissible Increase in Stresses The load combination shown in Table 1 shall be adopted for working out stresses in the members. piers etc.IRC:6-2010 ii) Temperatureeffects (Fie) in this context is not the frictional force due to the movement of bearing but forces that are caused by the restraint effects. Besides temperature. 203 DEAD LOAD The dead load carried by a girder . NOTES 1) • Where Snow Load is applicable. For calculating stresses in members using working stress method of design the load combination shown in Table 1 shall be adopted. forces and stresses that can co-exist and all calculations shall tabulate distinctly the various combinations of the above loads and stresses covered by the design. effect of environment on durability shall be considered as per relevant codes. 5 .or member shall consist of the portion of the weight of the superstructure (and the fixed loads carried thereon) which is supported wholly or in part by the girder or member including its own weight. on single structural members based on rational methods or model studies. iii) iv) 202.. the bearingsshall normally be set level by varying the thickness of the plate situated between the upper face of the bearing and lower face of the beam or by any other suitable arrangement. . However. unless the unit weights have been determined by actual weighing of representative samples of the materials in question. The following unit weights of materials shall be used in determining loads. 202.2 All members shall be desiqned to sustain safely most critical combination of various loads. proximity effects shall also be considered.2. an allowance shall be made for the longitudinal and transverse components of the vertical loads on the bearings. These combinations of forces are not applicable for working out base pressure on foundations for which provision made in relevant IRe Bridge Code shall be adopted. where the bearings are required to be set parallel to the inclined grade Dr cross-fall of the superstructure. in which case the actual weights as thus determined shall be used. The load combination as shown in Annex B shall be adopted for limit state design approach as and when limit stale design method is introduced. The permissible increase of stresses in various members due to these combinations are also indicated therein.

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it is shown as 1 . due to of the structure shall also be considered.) shall be considered corresponding fraction 01 live load.5. 2.5 shown in the above Table under column Q is specified.4 Stone setts : a) b) 4) Ballast guage. The structure must also be Checked with no live load. 3) Use of fractional live load 0. overall rise or fall of temperature effects due to to the associated " the effects. as 0. maximum permissible tensile stress in Prestressed Concrete Members shall be limited to the value as per relevant Code (IRC:18). IX when 6) The load combinations repair. Q'm being a factor of live load as shown as 1.2 Brickwork Brickwork 1.. wind and/or earthquake acting independently or in combination. F. the associated live load (Q'm' Fe' F .6 2. rehabilitation (VIII and IX) relate to the construction stage of a new bridge.IRC:6-2010 2) Any load combination involving temperature.5. loose): Granite Basalt (pressed) (common) in cement in cement mortar mortar broken. if any. The reduced live load (0) is indicated as 0. Whenever a fraction of live load 0. and Fe.5 stands for the reduced live load to be considered However for F.5 shown in the above Table is applicable only when the full design live load given in Table 2 is considered.5 cm 2.6 2. since it has effects of dead load besides reduced live load.. F.4 1. the load combination Materials Weight (t/m3) 1) 2) 3) Ashlar Ashlar (granite) (sandstone) 2.) are also in this case.5 cm to 7. When the gradient effect is considered. and retrofitting.7 2. 5) Seismic effect during erection stage is reduced to half in load combination construction phase does not exceed 5 years.7 a) b) 5) 6) 1. Its effects (F. Granite Basalt (stone screened..9 7 . For shall be project-specific. 4) The gradient effect due to temperature is considered in the load combinations liB and lilB. and F. shown as 0.

the design live load shall consist of standard wheeled or tracked vehicles or trains of vehicles as illustrated in Figs.2 Within the kerb to kerb width of the roadway.2 1.6 2. 8 NO' .1 2. 1 to 3 and Annex A. are not encroached upon.4 1.2 2.7 7.R.1 Details of I.1.5 2. 204.4 1.0 1.5 1.8 204 LIVE LOADS 204. 204.6 1.3 For each standard vehicle or train. all the axles of a unit of vehicles shall be considered as acting simultaneously in a position causing maximum stresses.9 2.C.1.plain with plums) Concrete (cement-reinforced) Concrete (cement-prestressed) Concrete (lime-brick aggregate) Concrete (lime-stone aggregate) Earth (compacted) Gravel Macadam (binder premix) Macadam (rolled) Sand (loose) Sand (wet compressed) Coursed rubble stone masonry (cement mortar) Stone masonry (lime mortar) Water Wood Cast iron Wrought iron Steel (rolled or cast) 1. The trailers attached to the driving unit are not to be considered as detachable.0 0.1 For bridges classified under Clause 201. 1 to 3.8 2.4 2.2 7.1.8 2. Loadings 204.5 2. shown in Figs. the standard vehicle or train shall be assumed to travel parallel to the length of the bridge and to occupy any position which will produce maximum stresses provided lhat the minimum clearances between a vehicle and the roadway face of kerb and between two passing or crossinq vehicles.8 7.9 2.5 2.1.JRC:6-2010 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) Brickwork (common) in lime mortar Concrete (asphalt) Concrete (breeze) Concrete (cement-plain) Concrete (cement .

1) NOTES: 1) The nose to tail spacing between two successive vehicles shall not be less than 90 m.IRC:6·2010 !l1J.aiJD TRACKED VEHICLE TRACKED VEHICLE WHEELED VEHICLE Fig. Where IRC Class AA loading is specified it shall be used in place of Class 70R but nose to tail distance shall be as specified in Note No. 9 . load combinations as given in Table 2 shall be adopted.1. 2) For multi-lane bridges and culverts. 1 ClassAA Tracked and Wheeled Vehicles (Clause 204.

2 m centres.B 1.000 20.ire·P :I I I ~ I L -$--.3 m Multi-Lane Bridges More than 5.IRC:6-2010 3) 4) The maximum loads for the wheeled vehicle shall be 20 tonne for a single axle or 40 tonne for a bogie of two axles spaced not more than 1. Minimum value of C (m) NO' 0.3 1.4 6.B 2. shall be as under: Carriageway width Single .2 ~ SECTION ON P-P "H-----t~ I I . ~ ~ 0.. I I I ~ -1.7 2. Linear dimensions in metre..~$. I ~ ".4 11. ~ ~~ -----E-~ ~~ ~ PLAN DRIVING VEHICLE 20. C.3 m 5) Axle loads in tonne.1) 10 .200 '2 • 4.Lane Bridges Upto width of 5.OOO a. The minimum clearance between [he road face of the kerb and the outer edge of the wheel or track.000 1• 6.J00 J.C 6.6 6. 2 Class 'A' Train of Vehicles (Clause 204.7 Class A Train of Vehicles Fig.7 11.000 110 3..- .7 2.Tr -l--.noa 3.B 6.

2 m in metre.300 __L_L_ 0.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: 1) 2) 3) The nose to tail distance between successive trains shall not be less than 18. For single-lane and multi-lane bridges live load combinations as given in Table 2 shall be followed.300 4) The minimum clearance. Axle loads in tonne. f.2 m 5.4 m to 1. between the outer edges of passing or crossing vehicles on multi-lane bridges shall be as given below:Clear carriageway width g Uniformly increasing from 0.7 CLEAR CARRIAGEWAY WIDTH -!_j~ 0. The gro~nd contact area of the wheels shall be as under: Axle load (tonne) Ground contact area B (mm) W(mm) 11.4 6.8 250 200 150 500 380 200 --- 2.300 0. g.5 m Above 7.5 m.5 m to 7. between outer edge of the wheel and the roadway face of the kerb and the minimum clearance.300 ___j__L_ 0. Linear dimensions 11 .5 rn 5) 150 mrn for all carriageway widths 1.

200 4.6 Class B Train of Vehicles Fig.1 4.:::1 I ~t~-----~I I ~ --JY4PLAN DRIVING VEHICLE 8.1) NOTES: 1) The nose to tail distance between successive trains shall not be less than 18.t L_$ 1$_ I I I I I -+.1 1.3QO 'I 'I 1. 3 Class '8' Train of Vehicles (Clause 204.BO(} ..B 4.800 'I l' 1.6 1.1 4.5 m.! SECTION ON P-P P -t--.8 6.1 1.6 1.6 6.IRC:6-2010 I. 12 .B(}O I r "- ! I I ~ I I I .1.200 4.1 4.+~ft-----tb ='" 0 too 1.800 4.

13 ._ Clear carriageway 5.300 4) The minimum clearances.300 0. g.5 m to 7. 3) The ground contact area of the wheels shall be as under:Axle load (tonne) 6.2 Dispersion of Load through Fills of Arch Bridges The dispersion of loads through the fills above the arch shall be assumed at 45 degrees both along and perpendicular to the span in the case of arch bridges. 9 Uniformly increasing from widths f 150 mm for all carriageway Axle loads in tonne. between outer edge of the wheel and the roadway face clearance.300 _U __ .8 4.5 m 5) width O.6 Ground conlact area B (mm) 200 W(mm) 380 300 175 ri= I.4mlo1.IRC:6-2010 2) No other live load shall cover any part of the carriageway when a train of vehicles (or trains of vehicles in multi-lane bridge) is crossing the bridge.5 m Above 7. 0. T.5 The spaces on the carriageway left uncovered by the standard train of vehicles shall not be assumed as subject to any additional live load unless otherwise specified in Table 2.-- of the kerb and the minimum crossing vehicles on multi-lane bridges shall be as given below:- . belween lhe outer edges of passing or . Linear dimensions in metre.2 m .1.300 150 125 ~LCAR CARRIAGeWAY WIDTH _LL_ 0. 204.4 Vehicles in adjacent lanes shall be taken as headed in the direction producing maximum stresses.. 0.2m 1. 204.1.1 1. 204.

for every two lanes with one lane of Class A on the remaining lane OR 3 lanes of Class A.1 m m and above but less than 23.1 of IRC:5.1 m and above but less than 16. -.6 m and above but less than 20.6m -----~ 9.____ One lane of Class 70R OR two lanes of Class A --_. Table 2 Live Load Combination SI. ------- 3 __ I ---t-. The carriageway live load combination shall be considered for the design as shown in Table 2.3 m.---_.3 m _I ._One lane of Class 70R. 2 0".---~-..-. lane of CI.1 1NOTES: 1) 6 -- -- --------------- carriageway shall rr The width of IRC:5. 205 REDUCTION IN THE LONGITUDINAL EFFECT ON BRIDGES ACCOMMODATING MORE THAN TWO TRAFFIC LANES Reduction in the longitudinal effect on bridges having more than two traffic lanes due to the low probability that all lanes will be subjected to the characteristic loads simultaneously shall 14 de 20 lat ths .3 regarding use of 70R loading in place of Class AA Loading and vice-versa.1. 20 all as co frc 2) See Note 2 under Clause 204. if any._ ---_.3 Combination of Live Load I bl This Clause shall be read in conjunction with Clause 112. of lhe two-lane be 7.3 m and above but less than 9. 5} 6>J2D. 4) 13. OR one lane of Class A for each lane.IRC:6-2010 204. .----.6 m 4 5 One lane of Class 70R for every two lanes with one lane of Class A for the remaining lanes.6 m 16. A considered to occupy 2. The remaining width of carriageway shall be loaded with 500 kg/m':.__ . 2) 3) 5.5 m as per Clause 112.No ! Ca rriageway width Number of lanes for design purposes 1 Load combination 1) Less than 5.6 m and above but less than 13..1.1 m ----.

Where crowd loads are likely to occur. KERB. 15 . on bridges located near towns. In the case of combined sub-structure and foundations. The above Table is applicable for individually supported superstructure of multi-Ianed carriageway. If kerb width is less than 0. shear force and torsion in longitudinal direction. When crowd load is considered. 206. parapet and crash barriers in this section need not be considered for the design of main structural members of the bridge. no live load shall be applied in addition to the lateral load specified above. crash barrier and the deck should be adequately designed and detailed.1 For all parts of bridge floors accessible only to pedestrians and animals and for all footways the loading shall be 400 kg/m2. RAILINGS. 0. it should be ensured that the reduced longitudinal effects are not less severe than the longitudinal effect. Longitudinal effects mentioned above are bending moment. 2) 206 FOOTWAY.IRC:6-2010 be in accordance with the Table shown below: Number of lanes Reduction in longitudinal effect For two lanes For three lanes For four lanes For five or more lanes NOTES: No reduction 10% reduction 20% reduction 20% reduction 1) However. such as. the intensity of footway loading shall be increased from 400 kg/m2 to 500 kg/m2. the number of lanes supported by each of them is to be considered while working out the reduction percentage. In the case of separate sub-structure and foundations. kerb.6 m or more in width. applied horizontally at top of the kerb. railings. which are either centres of pilgrimage or where large congregational fairs are held seasonally. However. shall be designed for the above loads and for a local lateral force of 750 kg per metre. resulting from simultaneous loads on two adjacent lanes.2 Kerbs. the total number of lanes for both the carriageway is to be considered while working out the reduction percentage. 206. the bridge should also be designed for the case of entire carriageway being occupied by crowd load. the connection between kerbJrailings/papapet.6 m. PARAPET CRASH BARRIERS AND The horizontal force specified for footway.

or other members supporting the footways shall be designed for the following live loads per square metre for footway area.when crowd load is considered for design of the bridge. such as. ( 40L ~ 300) For effective spans of over 30 m.1.IRC:6-2010 206. This provision need not be made where vehicles cannot mount the footway as in the case of a footway separated from the roadway by means of an insurmountable obstacle. 206. NOTE: A foolway k.4 Each part of the footway shall be capable of carrying a wheel load of 4 tonne. the main girders. based on Sub-Clause 206. the intensity of load shall be determined according to the equation: •. P L W = the live load in kg/m2 = the effective span of the main girder.1. trusses. ii) b) P c) = pi.1 .3 In bridges designed for any of the loadings described in Clause 204.5 m but not exceeding 30 m. Th fie: ty.. the intensity of load shall be determined according to the equation: p= (p1-260+ 48 206 Cra an\.5 The PedestrianfBicycle RailingsfParapets The pedestrianfbicycle railings/parapets can be of a large variety of construction. truss or arch in m. which shall be deemed to include impact. on acc : Fol OO) L C6.~~W) where p1 = 400 kgfm2 or 500 kgfm' as the case may be. distributed over a contact area 300 mm in diameter. For effective spans of over 7. the permissible working stresses shall be increased by 25 percent to meet this provision. and = width of the footway in m 206. 400 kgfml or 500 kg/m2 as the case may be.: wh thE lat va A( in fol of 16 . The design loads for two basic types are given below:i) Type: Solid/partially filled in parapet continuously cantilevering along full length from deck level. the reduction mentioned in this clause will not be applicable. the loaded length of footway taken in each case being.erbshall be considered mountable by vehicles. such as. based on Sub-Clause 206. arches. to produce the worst effects on the member under consideration: a) For effective span of 7.5 m or less. truss or a main girder.

etc. constructed using metallic cold-rolled and/or hot-rolled sections. ii) Type: Frame type with discrete vertical posts cantilevering from the curb/deck with minimum two rows of horizontal rails (third row bring the curb itself. or curb replaced by a low level 3rc! rail). 15 kN vehicle al80 kmlh and 20" angle of impact 300 kN vehicle at 60 km/h and 20 angle of impact 0 The barriers can be of rigid type. Due to the complexities of the structural action.resist horizontal load of 150 kg/m2. A certificate from such laboratory can be the only basis of acceptance of the semi-rigid type.IRC:6-2010 Loading: Horizontal and vertical load of 150 kgfm2 acting simultaneously on the top level of the parapet. over busy railway lines. and 200 angle of impact equivalent All other bridges except bridge over railways At hazardous and high risk locations. whereas the 'rigid' concrete type suffer comparatively negligible deflection. Following are the three categories for different applications: Category P-1: Normal Containment P-2: Low Containment P-3: High Containment Application Containment for Bridges carrying expressway. The metallic type. The efficacy of the two types of barriers is established on the basis of full size tests carried out by the laboratories specializing in such testing. supported between any two horizontal rails and vertical rails should be designed to. Loading: Each horizontal railing designed for horizontal and vertical load of 150 kg/m2.6 Crash Barriers Crash barriers are designed to withstand the impact of vehicles of certain weights at certain angle while travelling at the specified speed. The filler portion. 17 . They are expected to guide the vehicle back on the road while keeping the level of damage to vehicle as well as to the barriers within acceptable limits. the value of impact force cannot be quantified. or of flexible type.or 15 kN vehicle at 110 km/h. in which case all the design details and construction details tested by the laboratcry are to be followed in toto without modifications and without changing relative strengths and positions of any of the connections and elements. suffer large dynamic deflection of the order of 0. The rails may be simply supported or continuous over the posts.9 to 1. The posts to resist horizontal load of 150 kg x spacing between posts in metres acting on top of the post. called semi-rigid type. 206. complex interchanges.2 m impact. acting simultaneously over the rail. using cast-in-situ/precast reinforced concrete panels.

the same melhod certificate. Design Resistance Types P-1 In-situJ Precast 1} Shape Jersey 2) Minimum grade of concrete of R C M-40 175 mm 15 kNm/m f' c• Table 3 Minimum j' 201 P-3 In-situ SI.5 kNm/m 11. in items 4 & 5 above. 18 ii) iii} . shown in Table 3 should be built into the section. However. No.5 kNm/m 3. distribution steel equal to 50 percent of the main reinforcement shall be provided in the respective faces.. For design purpose the crash barrier Type P-3 shall be divided into end sections extending a distance not greater than 3.75 kNm/m reinforcement adjacent to the traffic face [see note (ii)l 5) Minimum momentofresistance in horizontal plane to 22.0 rn from ends of the crash barrier and intermediate sections extending along remainder of the crash barrier.IRC:6-2010 For the rigid type of barrier.5 kN/m of joint Not applicable transverse at vertical joints between precast panels.25 kNm/m adjacent for bending 20 he 40 kNm/m with reinforcement 6) Minimum resistance outer face [see note (iill moment of anchorage of at the Not applicable base of a precast concrete panel 7) Minimum resistance reinforced shear 44 kN/m of joint 22. height Minimum 8) NOTES: i) 900 mm 900 mm 1550 mm The base of wall refers to horizontal sections of the parapet within 300 mm above the adjoining paved surface level.5 kNm/m M-40 250mm 100 kNm/m for end section and thus byAASHTO ofl FOI 3) 4) Minimum thickness wall ( at top) Minimum resistance the wall bending del moment of base at of [see note (i)] for in vertical plane with 20' sb roc 75 kNm/m for intermediate section [see note (iii)] 7. In addition to the main reinforcement. the minimum design resistance is acceptable. The minimum moments of resistance shall reduce linearly from the base of wall value to zero al top of the parapet. in absence of testing/test '. or at vertical joints made between lengths of in-situ crash barrier. Requirement of Crash Barrier P-2 In-situJ Precast W~ reh SaT Shape on traffic side to be as per IRC:5. or New (NJ) Type of 'F' Shape designated M-40 175 mm 7.

LfiJuLllu:tuJlr:U:q.". 207 TRAMWAY LOADING 207..o...1) 19 .IRC:6-2010 lv) v) .. 207. in/near townships.. 4 Average Dimension of Tramway Rolling Siock (Clause 207.3:u u'f-.1 When a road bridge carries tram lines.j J .S.~1c~. semi-rigid type of barrier.:~'m~_I~ -li ~~=~::_-. _~ ~!~~ __ ~_ _. the strength should be equivalent to that of rigid RCC type..i ~~I. For areas of low intensity of pedestrian traffic.6.2 A nose to tail sequence of the tram cars or any other sequence which produces the heaviest stresses shall be considered in the design. 1I'I:IQ~~c. such as. 206.---! I ~Tr.... I Trine·) 'flr Fig. a minimum horizontallransverse shear resistance of 135 kN/m shall be provided. rigid type of reinforced concrete crash barrier should be provided separating the vehicular traffic from the same. the live load due to the type of tram cars sketched in Fig.7 Where considerable pedestrian traffic is expected.-_E_~_::.. _-.. For any other type of rigid barrier. 4 shall be computed and shall be considered to occupy a 3 m width of roadway.n. which suffers large deflections can be adopted.:l__ _ . " If concrete barrier is used as a median divider. the steel is required to be placed on both sides. In case of P-3 In-situ type.--~=:-:~~ '~~·.j .. The design and construction details should be as per Clause 206._t. .i!LoIt.C"l T. Vehicle Barriers/Pedestrian Railing between Footpath and Carriageway .

215 Unloaded weight (tonne) 7.6 it .1 without any tram cars. this impact percentage shall be determined from the curves indicated in Fig. i) Impact factor fraction for reinforced concrete bridges 1 0.9 12.0 207.75 m track centres shall be 450 mm. followed and preceded by the appropriate standard loading specified in Clause 204.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: ~~ r. iI ROLLING STOCK WEIGHT Description Single truck (Single deck) Bogie car (Single deck) Bogie car (Double deck) Loaded weight (tonne) 9.1 together with that standard loading on the traffic lanes not occupied by the tram car lines. 1) Clearance between passing single deck bogie cars on straight tracks laid at standard 2. 2) Clearance between passing double bogie cars on straight tracks laid at standard 2. 4.75 m track centres shall be 300 mm.1). " en o o E 0.5+L ii) Impact factor fraction for steel bridges 20 . b) The appropriate standard loading specified in Clause 204.1 Provision for impact or dynamic action shall be made by an increment of the live load by an impact allowance expressed as a fraction or a percentage of the applied live load. 201 208 IMPACT 208. i Wh! 208 ThE I . The impact fraction shall be determined from the following equations which are applicable for spans between 3 m and 45 m.5.5 6+L 9 13.2 16. 208.3 Stresses shall be calculated for the following two conditions and the maximum thereof considered in the design. a) Tram loading.2 For Class A or Class B Loading In the members of any bridge desiqned either for Class A or Class B loading (vide Clause 204. 3) Linear dimensions in melre.

om:: o 3 12 15 18 21 2~ 27 Span JO in ME!Lm 33 36 39 42 45 '8 51 54 57 Fig. 5 Impact Percentage for Highway Bridges for Class A and Class B Loading (Clause 208. 25 percent for spans upto 5 m linearly reducing to 10 percent for spans of 9 m 25 percent The value of the impact percentage shall be taken as follows:- (b) For spans of 9 m or more: Tracked vehicles 2) Wheeled vehicles ii) Steel bridges 3) 4) Tracked vehicles Wheeled vehicles 208. 5 for spans in excess of 40 m. 55 50 Curve for Ccncretet 8ridgl:!s 35 30 25 20 15 10 Curve lor Steer Briages 1504 PERCENT FOR SPANS OF 45m OR MORE 8.8 PERCENT FOR SPANS OF 1I~111 OR I\i.IRC:6-2010 Where L is length in metres of the span as specified in Clause 208.4 No impact allowance shall be added to the footway loading specified in Clause 206.5 208.2) 21 . 25 percent for spans upto 12 m and in accordance with the curve in Fig.3 For Class AA Loading and Class 70R Loading a} For spans less than 9 m : 1) 2) i) for tracked vehicles for wheeled vehicles Reinforced 1) concrete bridges 10 percent upto a span of 40 rn and in accordance with the curve in Fig. 5 for spans in excess of 12 m. 10 percent for all spans 25 percent for spans upto 23 m and in accordance with the curve indicated in Fig. 5 for spans in excess of 23 m.

1. he compi percei meme meme 20B. 209. full value of the appropriate impact percentage shall be allowed. generally below the level of the top of the bed block.6 In any bridge structure where there is a filling of not less than 0. 208.5 The span length to be considered for arriving at the impact percentages specified in Clause 208. But. the impact percentage to be allowed in the design shall be assumed to be onehalf of what is specified in Clauses 208. the value of L menlioned in Clause 208. Table situate wind p b) c) For calculating the pressure on the portion of the structure more than 3 m below the bed block 22 . for the design of piers abutments and structures. the tel topogr of brid cause All stn. to act rnaxirr 208.3 shall be the effeclive span of the member under consideration". the effective overhang of the cantilever arms reduced by 25 percent for loads on the cantilever arms and the effective span between supports for loads on the main span.8 as. elc. the effective length of the suspended span for loads on lhe suspended span and the effective span between supports for load on the main span. For bridges having cantilever arms with suspended span . such as.3. 20B.1 150 rr stayec compi NOTE: "For individual members of a bridge. the appropriate impact percentage shall be multiplied by the factor given below: a) For calculating the pressure at the bottom surface of the bed block For calculating the pressure on the top 3 m of the structure below the bed block In add 0.9 cable dynan b) c) 209. a cross girder or deck slab.IRC:6-2010 208.6 m including the road crust. the effective overhang of the cantilever arm plus half the length of the suspended span for loads on the cantilever arm.5 0.5 decreasing uniformly to zero zero overtu 209.2 shown pressi. For bridges having cantilever arms without suspended spans .2 and 208.2 and 208.7 For calculating the pressure on lhe bearings and on the top surface of the bed blocks.3 shall be as follows: a) For spans simply supported or continuous or for arches the effective span on which the load is placed.2 or the spans mentioned in clause 208.

for bridges situated in plain terrain and terrain with obstructions. hangers in a bowstring girder bridge and in the design of member subjected to direct compression. percentage shall be taken the same as that applicable to the design of the corresponding member or members of the floor system which transfer loads to the tensile or compressive members in question. return period of 100 years. the height of bridge above the ground. the local topography. with a flat topography. For all other bridges including cable stayed bridges. The maximum pressure is due to gusts that cause local and transient fluctuations about the mean wind pressure. the impact as. 209. uplift and sliding due to wind shall be considered. the fetch of terrain upwind of the site location. stability against overturning. 209 WIND 209.IRC:6-2010 208.9 These Clauses on impact do not apply to the design of suspension bridges.2 The wind speed at the location of bridge shall be based on basic wind speed map as shown in Fig. 6. such such as. vibration and fatigue shall be considered.B In the design of members subjected to among other stresses. the terrain of surrounding area. The hourly mean wind speed and pressure values given in Table 4 corresponds to a basic wind speed of 33 mIs. In addition to applying the prescribed loads in the desiqn of bridge elements. direct tension. The hourly mean wind pressure shall be appropriately modified depending on the location of bridge for other 23 . All structures shall be designed forthe following wind forces. In cable suspended bridges and in other bridges where live load to dead load ratio is high. These forces shall be considered to act in such a direction that the resultant stresses in the member under consideration are maximum. suspension bridges and ribbon bridges specialist literature shall be used for computation of design wind load. 208.1 LOAD This clause is applicable to normal span bridges with individual span length up to 150 m or for bridges with height of pier up to 100 m. 209.1 The Wind pressure acting on a bridge depends on the geographical locations. such as. the dynamic effects. The intensity of wind force shall be based on hourly mean wind speed and pressure as shown in Table 4.1. horizontal dimensions and cross-section of bridge or its element under consideration. spandrel columns or walls in an open spandrel arch.

60 711.00 17.20 37:.e.60 21.80 29. If the topoqraphy (hill.40 34. P.30 312.(m/s) Up to 10 m Plain terrain P. For other values of basic wind speed as indicated in Fig.60 590.30 31. 6) Bridge situated H(m) V. 33 mtsec.90 27.00 22.) The hourly mean wind pressure at an appropriate height and terrain shall be obtained by multiplying the corresponding pressure value Forbase wind speed as indicated in Table 4 by the ralio of square of basic wind speed at the location of wind to square of base wind speed corresponding to Table 4 (i.90 412.30 454.20 26..50 28. Terrain with obstructions refers to a terrain with numerous closely spaced structures.50 230.40 392.80 24. the wind pressure shall be further increased by 20 percent as stated in Note 4. ridge escarpment or cliff) at the structure site can cause acceleration or funneling of wind.10 33.20 676. Wind Pressure (For a basic wind speed of 33 mls as shown in Fig.20 190.20 659.30 463.60 26. 6. the hourly mean wmd pressure shall be taken as 70 percent of the value calculated as slated in Note 4 and 5. (m/s) Pz (N/m') 15 20 30 50 60 70 80 90 100 H V.70 512. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 24 .20 729. basic wind speed as shown in Fig. Plain terrain refers to open terrain with no obstruction or wilh very well scattered obstructions having height up to 10 m.40 33. For construction stages. 27.20 475. forests or trees uplo 10 m in height with few isolated tall structures or terrain with large number of high closed spaced obstruction like structures.30 693..BO 433. (N/m2) in Terrain with obstructions V..90 25.80 19.20 30.00 747.50 550.50 265. trees forests etc. (i.00 34. 33 mfsec). the hourly mean wind speed shall be obtained by multiplying the corresponding wind speed value by lhe ratio of basic wind speed at the location of bridge to the value corresponding to Table 4.60 34.IRC:6-2DOII :~:.90 35. 6 and used for design Table 4 Hourly Mean Wind Speed And (see notes below Table 4).60 the average height in metres of exposed surface above the mean retarding surface (ground or bed or water level) hourly mean speed of wind in rn/s at height H horizontal wind pressure in N/m' at height H NOTES: 1) Intermediate values may be obtained by linear interpolation.e.

209. The assumed wind direction shall be perpendicular to longitudinal axis for a straight structure or to an axis chosen to maximize the wind induced effects for a structure curved in plan.3 I Design Wind Force on Superstructure g09.2). For other lype of deck cross-sections CD shall be ascertained either from wind tunnel tests or. less area of perforations in hand railing or parapet walls shall be considered. is the hourly mean wind pressure in N/m2 (see Table 4).:: 6.3.3 and acting on the area calculated as follows: a) For a deck structure: The area of the structure as seen in elevation including the floor system and railing. for similar type of structure. b) For truss structures: Appropriate area as specified in Annex C shall be taken.2 The transverse wind force on a bridge superstructure shall be estimated as specified in Clause 209. and d is the depth of windward girder. For truss girder superstructure the drag coefficients shall be derived as given in Annex D. but not more than 4. For bridge decks supported by single beam or box girder. For open and solid parapets. For highway bridges up to a span of 150 m. For deck supported by single plate girder it shall be taken as 2.1. where c is the centre to centre distance of adjacent girders. For intermediate bid ratios CD shall be interpolated. 209. For deck supported by two or more beams or box girder it shall be taken as 1.3 lf bid. if available. CD shall be taken as 1.3.3 The transverse wind force Fr (in N) shall be taken as acting at the centroids of the appropriate areas and horizontally and shall be estimated from: FT=PzxA.e bid ~ 10 shall be taken as 1. ratio of 2 and as 1. crash barriers and railings.IRC:6-2010 ~09. Aj is the solid area in m2 (see Clause 209. 27 . When the deck is supported by two or more plate girders.5 times CD for the single beam or box.50 for bid . however the value shall not be less than 1.1 The superstructure shall be designed for wind induced horizontal forces (acting in the transverse and longitudinal direction) and vertical loads acting simultaneously.3. The drag coefficient for slab bridges with width to depth ratio of cross-section. G is the gust factor and Co is the drag coefficient depending on the geometric shape of bridge deck. the solid area in normal projected elevation of the element shall be considered.3. c) For construction stages The area at all stages of construction shall be the appropriate unshielded solid area of structure.3. which are generally not sensitive to dynamic action of wind.xGxCo Iwhere. specialist literature shall be referred to. . i. for the combined structure CD shall be taken as 2(1 +c/20d).0.2. gust factor shall be taken as 2.3. P.

209.:ab.3. 209.5 for notations) on bollom soffit area shall be assumed on stabilizing cantilever arm in addition to the transverse wind effect calculated as per Clause CD shall be taken from Table 5. No allowance shall be made for shielding.¥ where Pz A3 CL is the hourly mean wind pressure in N/m2 at height H (see Table 4) is the area in plan in m2 is the lift coefficient which shall be taken as 0.8 In case of cantilever construction an upward wind pressure of P. 209.4 The longitudinal force on bridge superstructure Fl (in N) shall be taken as 25 percent and 50 percent of the transverse wind load as calculated as per Clause 209.3 with Aj taken as the solid area in normal projected elevation of each pier.3 shall also be taken in to consideration. The exposed frontal area of live load shall be the entire superstructure seen in elevation in the direction of wind as defined in clause that length producing critical response. if available. I-girder and plate girder bridges.3.7 The bridges shall not be considered to be carrying any live load when the wind speed at deck level exceeds 36 m/s.0 m above surface. For piers with cross-section dissimilar to those given in Table 5.3.3 except that CD be taken as 1.75 for normal type of ::.3.3 for beaml boxfplate girder bridges and truss girder bridges respectively.3.~i simila pier. Specialist literature shall be referred to. . multiplied by a height of 3.3.3. x CLx G Nfm2 (see Clause 209. The longitudinal wind load on live load shall be taken as 25 percent of transverse wind load as calculated above. other loads defined in clause 218.3 load shall be against shall length of the or any part of the road way G 209. for similar type of structure. CD shall be ascertained either from wind tunnel tests or.3.5 An upward or downward vertical wind load F v (in N) acting at the centroid of the appropriate areas. for all superstructures shall be derived from: . 209. if available. Both loads shall be applied simultaneously acting at 1.3.3. Areas below the top of a solid barrier shall be neglected. For other type of deck cross-sections CL shall be ascertained either from wind tunnel tests or. for 28 NiESNS .5 m above the roadway. Loads for wind directions both normal and skewed to the longitudinal centerline of the superstructure shall be considered. is the gust factor as defined in 209.4 Destqn Wind Forces on Substructure < The substructure shall be designed for wind induced loads transmitted to it from the superstructure and wind loads acting directly on the substructure. The transverse wind load per unit exposed frontal area of the live computed using the expression FT given in Clause 209.IRC:6-2010 209. ~ ':~l /. box. FT shall be computed using expression in Clause 209. In addition to the above. For piers.

8 0.3 1.1 1.2 -CJ -I -.0 2.9 0.0 1.6 0.8 0.4 1.B 0.5 0.6 1.4 1.5 0.3 1.2 ~4 0.5 0.D -D ------+ ------+ -.2 1. specialist literature shall be referred to CD shall be derived for each pier.Db WIND b -.8 0.7 O.4 1. c 1 1.< 1. without shielding.0 SQUARE OR OCTAGONAL D I I 1 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.3 CIRCLE WITH SMOOTH SURFACE HERE t V.2 1.8 0.0 1.1 1.1 0 -.9 1.7 I 2 0.4 3 0.8 2.9 0.9 1.6 0.0 2. Table 5 Drag Coefficients CD For Piers Cn FOR PIER PLAN SHAPE I HEIGHT BREADTH RATIOS OF 1 2 4 6 10 20 40 -.7 0.5 1.6 2.0 1.5 0.0 l' 2 1.9 0.6 1.3 1.1 ~ 3 2: 2 3 1 1.3 1.6 0.3 1.4 0 H 0.9 1.8 0.0 1.9 1.3 1.7 0.8 2.9 0.9 2.8 0.7 1.8 0.5 1.4 1.IRC:6-2010 similar type of structure.2 1. ~G m'/S 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.5 CIRCLE WITH SMOOTH SURFACE WHERE t V~ > 6 m~IS CIRCLE WITH ROUGH SURFACe: OR WITH PROJECTIONS 0.3 1.5 1.rl C ~/ 12 SIDE POLYGON 1.2 29 .8 0.

2 On piers parallel of the water current.50 30 . ends the angle 1.5 rib) or 0.5. CD shall be derived as for the rectangle encompassing the outer edges of pier. whichever is greater.66 ii) Circular iii) Piers with triangular included between the faces being 30° or less 0. in kg/m2 the pressure intensity is being v K the velocity calculated. For pier tapering with height. 210 HORIZONTAL 210. be calculated from the following P where = 52KI/ P intensity of pressure due to water current.. of the current at the point where and ill metre per second.5 Wind Wind Tunnel Testing tunnel testing by established procedures shall be conducted for dynamically modeling of !.50 0. including appurtenances. the value of CD derived from Table 5 shall be multiplied by (1-1. For a pier with triangular nosing. Mean values of t and b for each unit height shall be used to evaluate fib. suspension bridges elc. of the superstructure CD shall be derived for height to breadth 2) 3) 4) 209.IRC:6·2010 NOTES: 1) For rectangular piers wilh rounded corners with radius r. the intensity of pressure shall part of a road bridge safely the horizontal to the direction equation: pressure 210. having the following = a constant in Fig..t I' sensitive structures such as cable stayed.1 designed Any to sustain FORCES which DUE TO WATER CURRENTS may be submerged in running water shall be due to the force of the current. CD shall be derived for each of the unit heights into which the support has been subdivided.: . After construction ratio of 40. The overall pier height and mean breadth of each unit height shall be used to evaluate heighVbreadth. 7 i) Square values for different shapes of piers illustrated ended piers (and for the superstructure) piers or piers with semi-circular cut and ease waters.

the angle included between the faces being more than 30° but less than 60° v) -do.70 0.IRC:6-2010 iv) Piers with triangular cut and ease waters.2) 31 .50 D . the angle included between the faces being 30 degrees or less Piers with triangular cut and ease waters.45 0.50 to 0.60 to 90° vi) Piers with cut and ease waters of equilateral arcs of circles vii) Piers with arcs of the cut and ease waters intersecting al 90° 0.~ Piers with square ends Circular piers or piers with semicircular ends Piers with triangular cut and ease waters. the angle included between the faces being 60 to 90 degrees Piers with cut and ease waters of equilateral arcs of circles Piers with arcs of the cut and ease waters intersecting at 90 degrees Fig.70 to 0. the angle included between the faces being more than 30 degrees but less than 60 degrees Piers with triangular cut and ease waters.90 0.7 Shapes of Bridge Piers (Clause 210.

shall be calculated similarly taking the velocity as the component of the velocity of the current in a direction normal to the pier.)2 times the maximum mean velocity of the current. as pier: irre~ Free surface of water 211.5 To provide against possible variation of the direction of the current from the direction assumed in the design. piers intended to be parallel to the direction of current shall be designed for a variation of 20 degrees from the normal direction of current and piers originally intended to be inclined at e degree to the direction of the current shall be designed for a current direction inclined at (20±8) degrees to the length of the pier. 210. 210. the group shall be 32 211 roa ver 211 the For Cia car 211 211 21: Iyp . .7 When supports are made with two or more piles or trestle columns.6 In case of a bridge having a pucca floor or having an inerodible bed. spaced closer than three times the width of piles/columns across the direction of flow. the velocity of the current shall be resolved into two components .J. The pressure of the current.3 The value of V2 in the equation given in Clause 210. and the constant K as 1.2 shall be assumed to vary linearly from zero at the point of deepest scour to the square of the maximum velocity at the free surface of water. the effect of cross-currents shall in no case be taken as less than that of a static force due to a difference of head of 250 mm between the opposite faces of a pier..66 b) NO' 210. ~ f~ trea fi ~ "' ~1 l. allowance shall be made in the design of piers for an extra variation in the current direction of 20 degrees that is to say.~.' " ~ POINT OF DEEPEST SCOUR Square of velocity at a height where ·x· from the point of deepest -2 Scour = U2 = 2 V X H 211 any V is the maximum mean velocity.4 When the current strikes the pier at an angle. a) The pressure parallel to the pier shall be determined as indicated in Clause 210. except in the case of circular piers where the constant shall be taken as 0. L '~.. . on€i U' t~ >. 210.2 taking the velocity as the component of the velocity of the current in a direction parallel to the pier. normal to the pier and acting on the area of the side elevation of the pier. The maximum velocity for the purpose of this sub-clause shall be assumed to be .5.IRC:6-2010 parallel and the other normal to the pier.

NOTE.5.2 The braking effect on a simply supported span or a continuous unit of spans or on any other type of bridge unit shall be assumed to have the following value: a) In the case of a single lane or a two lane bridge: twenty percent of the first train load plus ten percent of the load of the succeeding trains or part thereof.1 In all road bridges.5 211. b) NGTE : The loads in this Clause shall not be increased on account of impact. distribution of horizontal forces may be carried out according to procedure given below in Clause 2·11.1 Simply Supported and Contlrruous Spans on Unyielding Supports Simply supported spans on unyielding supports 211.3 The force due to braking effect shall be assumed to act along a line parallel to the roadway and 1. horizontal forces at the bearing level in the longitudinal direction shall 33 . For spans resting on flexible supports. provision shall be made for longitudinal forces arising from any one or more of the following causes: a) b) c) Tractive effort caused through acceleration of the driving wheels. 211 LONGITUDINAL FORCES 211. 211. irrespective of the spacing of the columns.5. both parallel and normal to the pier. While transferring the force to the bearings. the braking force shall be taken as equal to twenty percent of the loads actually on the span or continuous unit of spans. Braking effect resulting from the application of the brakes to braked wheels.IRC:6-2010 treated as a solid rectangle of the same overall length and width and the value of K taken as 1. For spans resting on stiff supports.' Braking effect is invariably greater than the tractive effort.1 For a simply supported span with fixed and free bearings (other than elastomeric type) on stiff supports. then the group should be considered as a solid pier.5. 211. the train loads in one lane only being considered for the purpose of this subclause.6.1. If such piles/columns are braced. flexing of the supports and rotation of the foundations. 211.4 The distribution of longitudinal horizontal forces among bridge supports is effected by the horizontal deformation of bridges. In the case of bridges having more than two-lanes: as in (a) above for the first two lanes plus five per cent of the loads on the lanes in excess of two.25 for calculating pressures due to water currents. Where the entire first train is not on the full span. 211. and Frictional resistance offered to the movement of free bearings due to change of temperature or any other cause. the distribution may be assumed as given below in Clause 211.2 m above it. the change in the vertical reaction at the bearings should be taken into account.

span siting on identical Force at each end 211 thn the =Fh+VI 2 "0 bearings other than that due to applied forces bearing. (p (a (b d} NOTE: w whs For design of bearings.I (Rg + RJ Fh = Rg Rq iJ Applied Horizontal force Reaction at the free end due to dead load Reaction at free end due to live load Coefficient of friction at the movable bearing which shall be assumed to have the following values: i) ii} iii) For steel roller bearings For concrete roller bearings For sliding bearings: a} b) c} Steel on cast iron or steel on steel Gray cast iron Gray cast iron (Mechanite) Concrete over concrete with bitumen layer in between Teflon on stainless steel 0. The structure under the fixed bearing shall be designed to withstand the full seismic and design braking/tractive force.IRC:6-2010 be greater of the two values given below: .03 0.3 0.5 0. the corresponding forces may be taken as per relevant IRC a) b) Unbalanced dead load shall be accounted for properly.iJ (Rg + _!>_ R) 2111 1 F + iJ (R +R I 2 9 qI f. .5. Codes.2 supports NO· the bearing 2 whichever 9 is greater elastomeric bearings at each 211 211.: II (a' = = = (b :". = shear ILo rating of the elastomer of deck above = movement . In case of simply and where no bearings level shall be Fh or]JR supported small spans upto 10 m resting on unyielding are provided. horizontal force in the longitudinal direction at 211.05 \.1. 211i Free bearing iJ (Rq+Rj Fixed bearing i) or where.05 whichever is governing 0. 34 fon ma ofl v. ii) in ni Fh .3 end resting For a simply on unyielding supported supports.4 0.1.03 and 0.5.

5.iJL) +ve Fh acting in +ve direction (a) IfFh>2iJR Fn-(iJR+iJL) (b) If Fh < 2iJR iJRx Free bearing 1+L:nR Cese-ll r. 211.(iJR + iJL) (b) If Fn < 2iJL ~+(iJR-iJL) 1 + 2:nl whichever is greater iJRx where nl or nR ]JL or]JR ].1.4 The substructure and foundation shall also be designed for 10 percent variation in movement of the span on either side.1 Shear rating of a support is the horizontal force required to move the top of the support through a unit distance taking into account horizontal deformation of the bridges. 211.5. The distribution of 'applied' longitudinal horizontal forces (e. braking.IRC:6·2010 211. The structure under the fixed bearing shall be designed to withstand lhe full seismic and design braking/tractive force.respectively = the total horizontal force developed at the free bearings to the left or right of the fixed bearing respectively of tile free bearings considered to the left or right of the fixed bearings = the net horizontal force developed at anyone In seismic areas. the fixed bearing shall also be checked for full seismic force and braking! lractive force. wind etc.2 For continuous bridges with one fixed bearing or other free bearings: Fixed bearing Case·1 (iJR ..6 Simply Supported and Continuous Spans on Flexible Supports 211. flexibility of the support and rotation of the foundation.lRx NOTE: = number of free bearings to the left or right of fixed bearings.iJL) +ve Fh acling in -ve direclion (a) IfFh>2iJL Fn . +(iJR-iJL) (iJR . [.6.g. seismic.) depends solely on shear ratings of the supports and may be estimated in proportion La the ratio of individual shear ratings of a support to the sum of the shear ratings of all the supports. 35 .

8 The effects of the longitudinal forces and all other horizontal forces should be calculated upto a level where the resultant passive earth resistance of the soil below the deepest scour level (floor level in case of a bridge having pucca floor) balances these forces. 212. :i. 213 C = Centrifugal force acting normally to the traffic (1) at the point of action of the wheel loads or (2) uniformly distributed over every metre length on which a uniformly distributed load acts.2 The centrifugal force shall be determined from the following equation: WV2 C=-127R where i . The shear rating of the supports.: ..3 The centrifugal force shall be considered to act at a height of 1.2 m above the level of the carriageway.: affec 212 CENTRIFUGAL FORCES 212. and The radius of curvature in metres.) depends not only on shear ratings of the supports but also on the location of the 'zero' movement point in the deck.6. etc. 11 8 213: buoy reme 213. in tonnes. etc..IRC:6-2010 211.2 The distribution of self-induced horizontal force caused by deck movement (owing to temperature. the distribution of applied and self-induced horizontal force and the determination of the point of zero movement may be made as per recognized theory for which reference may be made to publications on the subjects.. 36 21. 211. shall be calculated in accordance with approved methods of analysis of indeterminate structures. 212. shrinkage.:. all portions of the structure affected by the centrifugal action of moving vehicles are to be proportioned to carry safely the stress induced by this action in addition to all other stress to which they may be subjected. 1. and (2) in case of a uniformly distributed live load. in tonnes.1' ·11' '. elastic shortening. 211.7 The effects of braking force on bridge structures without bearings. each wheel load being considered as acting over the ground contact length specified in Clause 204.4 No increase for impact effect shall be made on the stress due to centrifugal action.: :. arches. live load (1) in case of wheel loads. thrc 21.~ be dl t. such as.1 Where a road bridge is situated on a curve. creep. in tonnes per linear metre.. rigid frames. be W V R 212. The design speed of the vehicles using the bridge in km per hour. 212. cal sui dT) of' les de 21 bo .

the free surface being taken for the worst condition. When the member under consideration displaces water and also silt or sand. the effects of buoyancy shall also be considered assuming that the fill behind the abutments has been removed by scour. the reduction in weight shall be equal to that of the volume of the displaced water. the buoyancy effect through pore pressure may be limited to 15 percent of full buoyancy.2 m earth fill.g. the upward pressure causing the reduction in weight shall be considered as made up of two factors: i) Full hydrostatic pressure due to a depth of water equal to the difference in levels between the free surface of water and the foundation of the member under consideration.1 Structures designed to retain earth fills shall be proportioned to withstand pressure calculated in accordance with any rational theory. is located at an elevation of 0.2 To allow for full buoyancy a reduction is made in the gross weight of the member affected. Coulomb's theory shall be acceptable. e. in the following manner: a) When the member under consideration displaces water only. 214.2 Reinforced concrete approach slab with 12 mm dia 150 mm clc in each direction both at top and bottom as reinforcement in M30 grade concrete covering the entire width of 37 . a deep pier or abutment pier passing through strata of sand and sill and founded on similar material.3 In the design of submerged masonry or concrete structures. e.. and ii) Upward pressure due to the submerged weight of the silt or sand calculated in accordance with Rankine's theory for the appropriate angle of internal friction. when considered dIY.42 of the height of the wall above the base instead of 0. a shallow pier or abutment pier founded at or near the bed level.. • 213 BUOYANCY 213.1 In the design of abutments.g. especially those of submersible bridges. be designed to withstand a horizontal pressure less than that exerted by a fluid weighing 480 kg/m'. All abutments and return walls shall be designed for a live load surcharge equivalent to 1. subject to the modification that the centre of pressure exerted by the backfill. 213.33 of that height. however.4 In case of submersible bridges. No structures shall. the full buoyancy effect on the superstructure shall be taken into consideration. IRC:6-2010 212.I . b) 214 EARTH PRESSURE 214. 213.5 The overturning effect of the centrifugal force on the structure as a whole shall also be duly considered . 213.

4 The pressure of submerged soils (not provided with drainage arrangements) shall be considered as made up of two components: a) b) Pressure due to the earth calculated in accordance with the method laid down in Clause 214. 214. 2 ii) b) Differences in temperature between the top surface and other levels through the depth of the superstructure.. cause the following: a} Changes in the overall temperature of the bridge.5 m into the approach shall be provided. Minimum and maximum effective bridge temperatures would be lesser or more respectively than the corresponding minimum and maximum shade air temperatures in concrete bridges. Over a prescribed period there will be a minimum and a maximum.2 Range of Effective Bridge Temperature The Effective bridge temperature for the location of the bridge shall be estimated from the isotherms of shade air temperature given on Figs. arch. flexible pier. resulting in loads and/or load effects within the bridge due to: i) Restraint offered to the associated expansion/contraction by the form of construction (e. the unit weight of earth being reduced for buoyancy.3 All designs shall provide for the thorough drainage of backfilling materials by means of weep holes and crushed rock or gravel drains.g. referred to as temperature difference and resulting in associated loads and/or load effects within the structure. solar radiation.IRC:6-2010 the roadway. and Friction at roller or sliding bearings referred to as frictional bearing restraint. with one end resting on the structure designed to retain earth and extending for a length of not less than 3. or perforated drains.1 General Daily and seasonal fluctuations in shade air temperature. 38 appt Bas' ©G Res . 8 and 9. 215. elastomeric bearings) referred to as temperature restraint. or pipe drains. 214. elc. In determining load effects due to temperature restraint in concrete bridges the effective bridge temperature when the structure is effectively restrained shall be taken as datum in calculating the expansion up to the maximum effective bridge temperature and contraction down to the minimum effective bridge temperature. and Full hydrostatic pressure of water I i I f 61 ~ 3: 21 215 TEMPERATURE 215. or movements resulting from variations in the Provisions shall be made for stresses temperature. together with a range of effective bridge temperature. referred to as the effective bridge temperature.1. portal frame.

Showing Highest Maximum Temperature Fig.IRC:6-2010 68 68 72 76 80 84 86 92 96 68 MAP OF INDIA SHOWING HIGHEST MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ISOPLETHS'C BASED ON DATA UP TO l!Se SUPPLIED BY INDIA METROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT 32 32 28 28 24 24 20 20 16 12 8 68 72 The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance appropria te base line. Based upon Survey of India map witn permission of twelve nautical miles measured from the 01 the Surveyor General of India. 8 Chart 39 . © Government Responsibility of India Copyright lOT the correctness 1993 of internal details rests with the publishers.

IRC:6-2D10 The I follov Forn the d 1) 2) 215. I j. Fig. Responsibility for the correctness of internal details rests with the publishers.: Effec temp effec temp a re~ the r Thes surfa asse Pos h. Based upon Survey of India map with permission of the Surveyor General of India © Government of India copyright 1993. 9 Chart Showing Lowesl Minimum Temperature t I j. I 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 !: ~ t ~ h. [. The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate base line. f L ! 40 L .

10 (a) Design Temperature Differences for Concrete Bridge Decks 41 .25h -c 0.25 rn 0. = 0.3 Snowbound areas from . Conversely.15 m h.25 rn 0.3h > 010 < m rn h. _j hi"" 0. ~ 11. ~ h. So far as steel and composite decks are concerned. Fig. 8 and 9. Air shade temperatures are to be obtained from Figs.8° to.15 11. 10 (b) may be referred for assessing the effect of temperature gradient.25 m h. h. Positive and reverse temperature differences for the purpose of design of concrete bridge decks shall be assumed as shown in Fig. reverse temperature differences are such that heat is lost from the top surface of the bridge deck as a result of re-radiation and other effects. Temperature Differences Effect of temperature difference within the superstructure shall be derived from positive temperature differences which occur when conditions are such that solar radiation and other effects cause a gain in heat through the top surface of the superstructure.~ 0. 10 (a). h l J h.6° l h.10°C). ~ 0.60 Fig. ~ 02h c 0.311 0:: 0. These design provisions are applicable to concrete bridge decks with aboul50 mm wearing surface.3h < I --j h. Positive Temperatura Differences Reverse Temperature Differences 17.IRC:6-2010 The bridge temperature when the structure is effectively restrained shall be estimated as follows: Bridge location having difference between maximum and minimum air shade temperature >20"C < 20°C f---- Bridge temperature to be assumed when [he struclur e is effectively restrained Mean of maximum and minimum air shade temperature ± 10°C whichever is critical Mean of maximum and minimum air shade temperature ± 5 °C whichever is critical For metallic structures the extreme range of effective bridge temperature to be considered in the design shall be as follows: 1) 2) 215. 6.35°C to + 50°C For other areas (Maximum air shade temperature + 15°C) to (minimum air shade temperature .

T. in any member by the vertical stresses with the rigidity No other are included 216.···1~.L:/'.0 x in Stresses and Load effects 10· 6 of thermal expansion for cond /oC.2 0. NOTE: resulting from temperature not exceeding concrete to control A de durin of th..4 Properties of calculating temperature effects. of rupture may be permitted in prestressed load effects steel shall. 50 mm liLiI'iilcing I 50 mm surlaclnq I 50 mm surfacing ! -'..5 is not applicable 216 DEFORMATION 216. Sufficient cracking. 218.: indiv Exar Permissible increase in stresses and load combinations For Limit Slate Design of Bridges. ("C) 18 20. as stated under Clause 215.'! . 218: shall corn] 215.2 All steel bridges shall be designed.5 0. deformation 42 stresses may be ignored. cons in the value of two third of bridges. and erected in a manner such that the deformation deformation stresses loads stresses. 10 (b) Temperature Differences Across Sleel and Composite Section NOTE: For intermediate Material slab thickness.: 4..5 Permissible Increase Combinations Tensile stresses the modulus in stresses of non-tensioned shall load combinations. stresses In the absence of calculation. . are reduced manufactured to a minimum.4 stres 0.IRC:6-2010 .3 In prestressed girders of steel. restraint amount Increase under 215. be allowed be provided the thermal for calculating due to temperature 218.: may Fig. shall be assumed to be not less than 16 percent of the dead and live 216.<''-'. PSC and steel structures may be taken as 12..~ "'··'·1'{ '. A deformation caused combined stress by the vertical STRESSES deflection (for steel bridges stress caused only) of an open deflection in this is defined as the bending of the girder of the joints.8 217. may be interpolated.3 6. .r 217: H (m) 0.3 h (m) 217. however.1 web-girder of the girder definition. the coefficient For the purpose RCC.2 T.·.

if any.3 For reinforced concrete members. cross girders being connected away from panel points. 217.1 a) STRESSES Steel structures: Secondary stresses are additional stresses brought into play due to the eccentricity of connections. 218. 43 from the system and procedure of However. lateral wind loads on the end-posts of through girders etc.4. However. Unbalanced effect of a temporary structure. Reinforced Concrete structures: Secondary stresses are additional stresses brought into play due either to the movement of supports or to the deformations in the geometrical shape of the structure or its member.1 The effects of erection as per actual loads based on the construction programme shall be accounted for in the design. b) 217. A detailed construction procedure associated with a method statement shall be drawn up during design and considered in the design to ensure that all aspects of stability and strength of the structure are satisfied. and stresses due to the movement of supports. 218 ERECTION STRESSES AND CONSTRUCTION LOADS 218. resulting from causes. one span dislodged condition need not be considered in the case of slab bridge not provided with bearings. emanating construction. floor beam loads applied at intermediate points in a panel. each d) e) f) +. Examples: a) b) c) Loads of plant and equipment including the weight handled that might be incident on the structure during construction. 218.. This shall also include the condition of one span being completed in all respects and the adjacent span not in position. such as.3 Examples of Typical Construction Loadings are given below.IRC:6-2010 217 SECONDARY 217. the shrinkage coefficient for purposes of design may be taken as 2 X 10.2 Construction loads are those which are incident upon a structure or any of its constituent components during the construction of the structures. Loading on individual beams and/or completed deck system due to travelling of a launching truss over such beams/deck system. rigidity of end connection or loads applied at intermediate points of trusses or restrictive shrinkage of concrete floor beams. Secondary effects. individual case shall be investigated in complete detail. Thermal effects during construction due to temporary restraints.----- . if any. -~--------------~.2. All bridges shall be designated and constructed in a manner such that the secondary stresses are reduced to a minimum and they shall be allowed for in the design. and unbalanced effect of modules that may be required for cantilever segmental construction of a bridge. Temporary super-imposed loading caused by storage of construction material on a partially completed a bridge deck.

independency of component motions. i) 219· SEISMIC FORCE 219. such as. unequal gust load and for special type of construction.1 Applicability 219. and not exempted below in the category (a) and (b).1. need to include soil-structure interaction. cable stayed and suspension bridges Arch bridges having more than 50 m span Bridges having any of the special seismic resistant features such as seismic isolators. dampers etc. spatial variation of excitation.1 All bridges supported on piers. characteristics and reliability of seismic isolation and other special seismic resistant devices. are to be designed for horizontal and vertical forces as given in the following clauses. In all seismic zones. suitable methods of structural analysis in view of geometrical and structural non-linear effects. directly or through bearings.1. shall be used. The following types of bridges need not be checked for seismic effects: a) b) 219.2 Culverts and minor bridges up to 10 m span in all seismic zones Bridges in seismic zones II and III satisfying both limits of total length not exceeding 60 m and spans not exceeding 15 m Bridges more than 150 m span Bridges with piers taller than 30 m in Zones IV and V Cable supported bridges. such as. For special effects. Special investigations should include aspects such as need for site specific spectra.1. 11. given in Fig. etc. subject to the minimum values specified for relevant seismic zones. pier bents and arches. Seismic effects on partially constructed structure as per Clause 219. For all bridges located within Near Field Regions. wherever its need is established in the special investigation. special investigations should be carried out. areas covered within 10 km from the known active faults are classified as 'Near Field Regions'. The information about the active faults should be sought by bridge authorities for projects situated within 100 km of known epicenters as a part of preliminary investigations at the project preparation stage. 44 Special investigations should be carried out for the bridges of following description: a) b) c) d) e) f) 1) Notes for special investigations: 2) 3) ~-------------------------------~ . Bridges using innovative structural arrangements and materials. long span bridges specialist literature may be referred to. Site specific spectrum.lRC:6-2010 g) h) Loading due to any anticipated soil settlement.1. such as extradosed. Wind load during construction as per Clause 209. except those exempted in Clause 219.

4 prestressed concrete decks bearings and linkages horizontal cantilever structural elements for stability checks and bridges located in the near field regions of Component Motions Combination 1) The seismic forces shall be assumed to come from any horizontal direction. The design seismic force resultants (i.e.3 Components of Seismic Motion The characteristics of seismic ground motion expected at any location depend upon the magnitude of earthquake. .1. the Country is classified into four zones as shown in Fig. lone Factor (l) V IV III 11 0. depth offocus.IRC:6-2010 219. except for the following cases: a) b) c) d) e) 219. For this purpose two separate analyses shall be performed for design seismic forces acting along two orthogonal horizontal directions.24 0. 219. Two horizontal components are taken as of equal magnitude.. shear forces.3 Masonry and plain concrete arch bridges with span more than 10m shall be avoided in Zones IV and V and in near field region. axial force. Table 6 Zone Factor (Z) Zone No. bending moments.2 Seismic Zones For the purpose of determining the seismic forces. distance of epicenter and characteristics ofthe path through which the seismic wave travels. and torsion) 1 47 . The components are considered to act simultaneously. For each Zone a factor 'Z' is associated.36 0. and vertical component is taken as two third of horizontal component. The random ground motion can be resolved in three mutually perpendicular directions. the value of which is given in Table 6. 11.10 219. In zones IV and V the effects of vertical components shall be considered for all elements of the bridge.16 0. The effect of vertical component may be omitted for all elements in zones II and III. but independently and their method of combination is described in Clause 219.4.

=M~Y+O. = O. ± 0. t Bridge Plan Global X -Z axes X 2~ z I x (Local x·x and 2-Z axes) Fig.3 r2± r3 where r.= Force resultant due to full design seismic force along x direction.3Mf. and r2 are as defined above and rJ is the force resultant due to full design seismic force along the vertical direction. 12 Combination Moments of Orthogonal Seismic Forces Moments for ground motion along Z-axis for ground motion along X-axis 111.3M~\' + M~ Where.311-1.12).3M~ M: =0. M.±r2±O. ± r2 where r. r= 2 2) con Force resultant due to full design seismic force along z direction. are absolute moments about local axes. Dcsiqn Moments M.3r3 ± 0. ± 0..3 r. a) b) NO· 219 Foil ± r.3r2± 0.3r3 ±0. = 111}· +O. and M.3r.IRC:6-2010 at any cross-section of a bridge component resulting from the analyses in the two orthogonal horizontal directions shall be combined as below (Fig. the design seis!nicforce resultants at any cross section of a bridge component shall be combined as below: a) b) c) ± r. 219 The stru M. When vertical seismic forces are also considered.3r2 ± 0.± 0. + M.3r. 48 .

which are to be resisted-by the structure as a whole.0 0.1. [J "."'..0 3. g.q = A" (Dead Load + Appropriate Live Load) 49 L . shall be computed as follows: F..0 z.-. These modal forces are combined by following appropriate combinational rules to arrive at the design forces...-.5 "':... etc).n 1... .. 13 Response Spectra 219.5.'::.. . in which dynamic analysis of the structure is performed to obtain the first as well as higher modes of vibration and the forces obtained for each mode by use of response spectrum from Fig.0 .5 3.:.::. TYPE III (SOFT II (MEDIUM I (ROCK SOIL) SOIL) N -c 10 TYPE TYPE OR HARD SOIL) N:-30 -' IUJ 0- « ii: u " 1.. continuous bridges. 1) For most of the bridges.. This acceleration is applied to all parts of the bridge for calculation of forces as per Clause 219.. bridges which are curved in plan. 13 and Clause 219.:: 2.5 '" 0.5 E z 0 '" u ~ ~ 0: UJ . the first fundamental mode of vibration is calculated and the corresponding acceleration is read from Fig.. \\ \ z..o PERIOO T (Sees) Fig. .0 I- 2) ffi U 0 2. m . In this method. 0...':':-.5. " . 13.5 Analysis of bridge as a whole is carried out for global axes X and Z and effects obtained are combined Fordesign about local axes as shown.5 U u .. elastic seismic acceleration method is adequate.5.IRC:6-2010 NOTE: 219. 3.1 Elastic Response Spectrum Method: This is a general method. . suitable for more complex structural systems (e. Computation of Seismic Response Following methods are used for computation of seismic response depending upon the complexity of the structure and the input ground motion. .1 Horizontal seismic force The horizontal seismic forces acting at the centers of mass.... bridges with large difference in pier heights. Reference is made to specialist literature for the same.5 1..

0 ~ T ~ 0. Type III soil with N < 10 1-- NO' :$ Sa { 2. 30 S { 2. Damping % Factor Application 2 1.55 ~ T ~ 4. Steel and composite steel elements 5 1." 1.0 10 0.1) T = Fundamental period of the bridge (in sec.67fT In the absence of calculations of fundamental period for small bridges.67 ~ T 4.40 ~ T ~ 4.00 2H i.2 Z = Zone factor as given in Table 6 I = Importance Factor (see Clause 219.0 .00fT 0. For rocky or hard soil sites.36/ T 0.50 } 9 i. Type II soil with 10 < N::.50 } 9 NOTE: 0..) for h orizontal vibrations Fundamental time period of the bridge member is to be calculated by any rational method of analysis adopting the Modulus of Elastic ity of Concrete as per IRC: 21.50 } . The fundamental period of vibration can also be calculated by the method g iven in Annex D S/g = Average response acceleration coefficient for 5 percent damping of load resistinq elements depending upon the fundament al period of vibration T as given in Fig.4 Prestressed concrete.40 0.00 Lar Sei For medium soil sites. and taking gross un cracked section for moment of inertia.0 ~ T ~ Reinforced Concrete elements Retrofitting of old bridges with RC piers NO 50 . the multiplying factors as given below shall be used.IRC:6-2010 where Feq = seismic force to be resisted Ah horizontal seismic coefficient 219.5.00 For soft soil sites. T ~ 0.55 0.. For damping other than 5 percent offered by load resisting elements.67 0. the value of S3/g may be taken as 2. 13 which is based on the following equation s. Type I soil with N> 30 ~ r-Imf Sa { 2. Brid lOWE x (I) x (8 a/g) = = (ZJ2) non is a stru hen Appropriate live load shall be taken as per Clause 2 19.

which depend on the extent of damages. 219. and time involved in reconstruction in case of failure.1 Seismic importance factor (I) Bridges are designed to resist design basis earthquake (OBE) level. Combination of factors considered in assessing the consequences of failure and hence choice of factor '1'. minor Dr major.. depending on the consequences of their partial or complete non-availability. Importance factors are given in Table 7 for different types of bridges. iii) The vertical seismic force shall be calculated using 20 percent of live load (excluding impact factor). ii) The horizontal seismic force in the direction perpendicular to the traffic shall be calculated using 20 percent of live load (excluding impact factor). but shall be considered in the direction perpendicular to the traffic. or other higher or lower magnitude of forces. The reduced percentages of live loads are applicable only for calculating the ruaqnitude of seismic design force and are based on the assumption that only 20 percent of the live load is present over the bridge at the time of earthquake. which represents seismic importance of the structure.2 a) River bridges and f1yoversinside cities b) Bridges on National and Slate Highways c) Bridges serving traffic near ports and other centers of economic activities d) Bridges crossing railway lines 1.1.IRC:6-2010 219.5. a) b) c) d) e) Extent of disturbance to traffic and possibility of providing temporary diversion. Cost of replacement.include inter alia. The level of design force is obtained by multiplying (Z12) by factor 'I'.2 NOTE: 51 . Cost of repairs and time involved.5 a) Long bridges more than 1km length across perennial rivers and creeks b) Bridges for which alternative routes are not available NOTE. While checking for seismic effects during construction. Indirect economic loss due to its partial or full non-availability. Table 7 Importance Seismic Class Normal bridges Important bridges Factor Large critical bridges in all Seismic Zones Importance Factor 'I' Illustrative Examples 1 All bridges except those mentioned in other classes 1. the importance factor of 1 should be considered for all bridges in all zones. due to damage or failure from seismic events. Availability of alternative routes.5. Live load components i) The seismic force due to live load sha II not be considered when acting in the direction of traffic.

0 2. For values of these loads reference is made to IS 1893. Additional earth pressure forces described above need not be considered on other components such as wing walls and return walls since these elements are easily repairable at low cost. additional earth pressures due to earthquake act on the retaining portions of abutments.A R without ductile detailing 2.0 4.0 2.6 Parts seism 219. R value shall be taken as 1. hydrodynamic forces act on the submerged part of the structure and are transmitted to the foundations. or on local enquiry in the absence of such data.5 highe 219.3 3.0 4. For river bridges.5.0 2. R value specified in Table B for appropriate substructure shall be adopted.lRC:6-2010 219. 219. Table B Response Reduction Bridge Component Superstructure Substructure (i) Masonry/PCC piers.0 3. The allowable increase in permissible stresses should be as per Table 1.3 1. Reco 52 1 . The flood level for calculating hydrodynamic force and water current force is to be taken as average of yearly maximum design floods. average may preferably be based on consecutive 7 years' data.5.7 In loo: mayc sands Altern Refen 219.8 For d transr Factors R with ductile detailing N.5 Design forces for elements of structures and use of response reduction factor The forces on various members obtained froni~the elastic analysis of bridge structure are to be divided by Response Reduction Factor given in Table B before combining with other forces as per load combinations given in Table 1. When connectors and stoppers are designed to withstand seismic forces primarily.9 times the maximum scour depth.0 1. abutments (ii) RCC short plate piers where plastic hinge cannot develop in direction of length and RCC abutments (iii) RCC long piers where hinges can develop (iv) Column (v) Beams of RCC portal frames supporting bearings Bearings 219.0 Connectors and Stoppers (Reaction blocks) Those restraining dislodgement or drifting away of bridge elements.4 Hydrodynamic and earth pressure forces under seismic condition In addition to inertial forces arising from the dead load and live load. Also. These forces shall be considered in the design of bridges in zones IV and V.5.3 Water current and depth of scour NOTE The depth of scour under seismic condition to be considered for design shall be 0. 219.0 1.0 When connectors and stoppers are designed as additional safety measures in the event of failure of bearings.9 Mane 3.

To improve the performance of bridges during earthquakes.0 for masonry and pee substructure. When elastomeric bearings are used to transmit horizontalseismic forces. 53 . satisfactory testing NOTES: i) ii) iii) Those parts of the structural elements of foundations which are not in contact with soil and transferring load to it. etc. 219. special seismic devices such as Shock Transmission Units. to firm strata. are treated as part of sub-structure element. (0 prevent dislodgement of severe ground-shaking. Pier and abutment caps shall be generously dimensioned.25 times the forces transmitted to it by substructure.5 for Ree substructure and as 1. Alternatively. Base Isolation.7 Liquefaction In loose sands and poorly graded sands with little or no fines. international practices. or excessive total and differential settlements. 219. to prevent dislodgement of superstructure. the bridges in seismic zones IV and V may be specifically detailed for ductility for which IS 13920 or any other specialist literature may be referred to. 219.6 Fully Embedded Portions Parts of structure embedded in soil below scour level need not be considered to produce any seismic forces. Reference should be made to the specialist literature for analysis of liquefaction potential. Founding bridges on such sands should be avoided unless appropriate methods of compaction or stabilisation are adopted. Lead Plug. Provisions Mandatory i) ii) Recommended i) In order to mitigate the effects of earthquake forces described above.9 Ductile Detailing Provisions In zones IV and V. 14 to 16 are only indicative and suitable arrangements will have to be worked out in specific cases. "reaction blocks" (additional safely measures in the event of failure of bearings) or other types of seismic arresters shall be provided and designed for the seismic force (F. Seismic Fuse.8' Foundation [)esign For design of .iR). so as to provide sufficient margin to cover the possible higher forces transmitted by substructure arising out of its over strength. the foundations shoulo be taken deeper below liquefiable layers. The examples of seismic features shown in Figs. may be provided based on specialized literature. the vibrations due to earthquake may cause llquefaclion. the seismic loads should be taken as 1. Response reduction factor is not to be applied for calculation of displacements of elements of bridge and for bridge as a whole. the response reduction factor (R) shall be taken as 1. 219.

Where elastomeric bearings are used...e. i._ 0: ill 0: PIER CAP '" I E!:M! :il . can possibly provide high ductility leading to bvetter behaviour during earthquake. if not unsuitable otherwise. a separate system of arrester control in both directions shall be introduced to cater to seismic forces on the bearing.AL.IRC:6-2010 ii) Continuous superstructure (with fewer number of bearings and expansion joints) or integral bridges (in which the substructure or superstructure are made joint less. ill ~ ~ " " HALF PLAN OF PIER CAPP2 HAlF PLAN OF PIER CAP P3.1 FREE 1'" FR~E ELEVATION z .._ " " a.: :il .1. 14 Example of Seismic Reaction Blocks for Continuous Superstructure BEARING REACTION BLOCK Thes three Fig. . monolithic). A2 t t Fig. A.1 REStRAINED .. e w z.E FREE iii) . 15 Example of Seismic Reaction Blocks for Simply Supported Bridges 54 .

inspite of fenders being provided. AI ARIICULA TlONS WHERE: N = N1" II' l2 Ll 'II. Specialist literature may be referred for assessment of these forces. b) 221 SNOW LOAD The snow load of 900 kg/m3 where applicable on the bridge deck shall be taken in the following three conditions to be checked independently: a) b) A snow accumulation of 0. islanding. Other suitable protection measures. etc. The ship impact forces and their points of application to the piers shall be assessed on the basis of design vessels and their speeds. such as. A snow accumulation of 0.25 ITl over the deck shall be taken into consideration while designing the structure for wheeled vehicles. 16 Minimum Dimension for Support 220 SHIP/BARGE a) IMPACT ON BRIDGES The bridge portion located in navigable water (as well as other portions where possibility of vessels reaching the same exists) shall be designed for ship/barge impact.5L + 10 H mm L = SPAN IN METERS H = AVERAGE COLUMN HEIGHT IN METERS Fig. For larger ships in navigable waterways.50 m over the deck shall be taken into consideration while desiqninq the structure for tracked vehicle. can also be adopted. The design impact forces shall be established for the collision with bridge piers and pier shafts head on by the vessel bow or sideways by the vessel head. 55 . sacrificial caissons. fenders. piers shall be protected by building independently supported energy absorbing structures adjacent to the piers of sufficient capacity to absorb the energy before the vessel hits the pier. The design impact force shall atleast be 100 t acting at a height of 1 m above HTlfHFL.IRC:6-2010 LI Qjt .---~ L2 N N2" 305 + 2.v .

The effect of collision load shall also be considered on the supporting elements.-----------------~----------~~ . as well as wind or seismic load. Loads normal to the carriageway below and loads parallel to the carriageway below shall be considered to act separately and shall not be combined. 56 .1.2 Increase in Permissible Stress Sires: lndets elerns and s shall I The permissible stresses in both steel and concrete shall be increased by 50 percent and the safe bearing capacity of the founding strata increased by 25 percent when considering the effect of collision loads. the collision loads shall be considered separately for each level.2 The loads indicated in Clause 222.50 m maximum snow accumulation based on actual site observation shall be considered without live load. In case of vehicles travelling at lesser velocity.1.5 m above carriageway level At the most severe point between 1 m and 3 m above carriageway level 25 50 ---__ _j__ __ -- 222.3.3 Collision Load 222.75 and 1.3..1 The nominal loads given in Table 9 shall be considered to act horizontally as Vehicle Collision loads.2 The effect of collision load shall not be considered on abutments or on the structures separated from the edge of the carriageway by a minimum distance of 4.3. columns or the frames built in the median or in the vicinity of the carriageway supporting the superstructure shall be designed to withstand vehicle collision loads.3 protsr 222 VEHICLE COLLISION LOADS ON BRIDGE AND FLYOVER SUPPORTS 222. For multilevel carriageways. such as. the loads may be reduced in proportion to the square of the velocity but not less than 50 percent. 222.1.5 m and shall also not be combined with principal live loads on the carriageway supported by the structural members subjected to such collision loads.. foundations and bearings. 222. Supports shall be capable of resisting the main and residual load component acting simultaneously. Load normal to the \ Load parallel to the carriageway below (Ton) carriageway below (Ton} 50 100 --~----~~~~--~ Point of application on bridge support Main load component Residual load component _____ ~T At the most severe point between 0. 222. ------. Table 9 Nominal Vehicle Collision Loads on Supports of Bridges --.1 Bridge piers of wall type.IRC:6-2010 c) In case of snow accumulation exceeding 0.----------------. 222.1 General minirr 222. are assumed for vehicles plying at velocity of about 60 km/hour.

if protected with suitably designed fencing system taking into account its flexibility. 223 INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES COMPOSITE STRUCTURES AND Stresses due to creep.5 m above the carriageway level. Creep and shrinkage produce permanent stresses and hence no relaxation in permissible stresses shall be allowed. having a minimum height of 1. etc. should be considered for statically indeterminate structures or composite members consisting for steel or concrete prefabricated elements and cast-in-situ components for which specialist literature may be referred to. 57 .3 The bridge supports shall be designed for the residual load component only.3.IRC:6-2010 222. shrinkage and temperature.


it will be measured from the centre of the rear-most axle of the leading vehicle to the centre of the first axle of the following vehicle. The overall width of tyre in mm may be taken as equal to [150+(p-1) 57]. For wheeled vehicles. for the heaviest single axles-cols. This spacing will be measured from the rear-most point of ground contact of the leading vehicles to the forward-most point of ground contact of the following vehicle in case of tracked vehicles.2) HYPOTHETICAL VEHICLES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF VEHICLES AND BRIDGES (REVISED) NOTES FOR LOAD CLASSIFICATION CHART 1) The possible variations in the wheel spacings and lyre sizes. stringers (or load bearers).IRC:6-2010 AnnexA (Clause 201. (f) and (h). Tyre tread width may be taken as overall tyre width rninus 25 mm for tyres upto 225 mm width. (k). and minus 50 mm for tyres over 225 mm width. wherever the tyre sizes are not specified on the chart. Any bridge upto and including class 40 will be marked with a single class number-the highest tracked or wheel standard load class which the bridge can safely withstand. (I). where "p" represents the load on tyre in tonnes. investigated under the track. 3) The first dimension of tyre size refers to the overall width of tyre and second dimension to the rim diameter of the tyre. 2) Contact areas of tyres on the deck may be obtained from the corresponding tyre loads. tyre pressures (p) and widlh of tyre treads. 4) The spacing between successive vehicles shall not be less than 30 m. wheel axle and bogie loads shown for the various classes. (e) and (g) are given in cols. 5) The classification of the bridge shall be determined by the safe load carrying capacity ofthe weakest of all the structural members including the main girders. max. Any bridge over class 40 will be marked with a Single class number if the wheeled and tracked classes are the 61 . piers and abutments. cross bearers (or transome) bearings. (e) and (g) as for the heaviest axles. the heaviest bogie axles-col. m and also for the heaviest axles of the train vehicle of cols. the decking. (m) and (n). The same pattern of wheel arrangement may be assumed for all axles of the wheel train shown ln cols.

as described in the relevant Clauses of this Code. longitudinal forces. flexibility of the cross bearers. If a bridge is to be designed for two-lanes of traffic for any type of vehicles given in the Chart. shown in columns (e) and (g) in load-classes upto and including class 30-R. and with dual classification sign showing both T and W load classes if the T and W classes are different 6) The calculations determining the safe load carrying capacity shall also allow for the effects due to impact. etc. wind pressure.. of wheel or track for any of the hypothetical vehicles shall be the same as for Class AA vehicles. the single axle loads and bogie axle loads shall be assumed to belong to some other hypothetical vehicles and their effects worked out separately on the components of bridge deck. the clearance may be decided in each case depending upon the circu mstances. by any rational method of calculations. etc. 7) The distribution of load between the main girders of a bridge is not necessarily equal and shall be assessed from considerations of the spacing of the main girders. 1. 62 . the width of roadway and the width of the vehicles. 8) The maximum single axle loads shown in columns (f) and (h) and the bogie axle loads shown in column U) correspond to the heaviest axles of the trains. their torsional stiffness. In the case of higher load classes. when there is only one-lane of traffic moving on a bridge..IRC:6-2010 same. 9) The minimum clearance between the road face of the kerb and the outer edge .

foot path and service loads. carriageway live load such as braking. tractive and centrifugal 12) Accidental effects such as vehicle collision load. Loads to be considered while arriving at the appropriate combination for carrying out the necessary checks for the design of road bridges and culverts are as follows: 1) 2) 3) Dead Load Snow load (See note i) Superimposed dead load such as hand rail.3) COMBINATION OF LOADS FOR LIMIT STATE DESIGN 1. Surfacing or wearing coat Back Fill Weight Earth Pressure Primary and secondary effect of prestress Secondary effects such as creep. construction live loads.IRC:6-2010 Annex B (Clause 202. 13) Wind 14) Seismic Effect 15) Erection effects 16) Water Current Forces 17) Wave Pressure 18) Buoyancy 63 . Temperature including restraint and bearing forces. crash barrier. 11) Associated forces. footpath live load. 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Carriageway live load. shrinkage and settlement. barge impact and impact due to floating bodies.

sliding and uplift.3 or Table 3. For c 2.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: 4.1 or Table 3. L 5. chec] shall: in cor 7. In case of group of piles. Load limit ~ crack the d: value be LI~ ii) While working out the combinations. only one variable load shall be considered as the leading load at a time. All loads shown under Column 1 of Table 3. 4.2 strength For ( No. In case if the variable loads produce favourable effect (relievinq effect) the same shall be ignored. The equilibrium ofthe structure shall be checked against overturning. cornbmations of loads. In all other accidental situations the traffic load shall be treated as the accompanying load. Combination of loads for the verification of equilibrium and structural under ultimate state Loads are required to be combined to check the equilibrium and the structural strength under ultimate limit state. iii) For accidental combination. proximity effects shall also be considered. Combination Principles Colur factoi The following combinations: i) principles shall be followed while using these tables for arriving at the 7. It shall be ensured that the disturbing loads (overturning.. if existing 4. accidental and seismic 3. These combinations are not valid for verifying the fatigue limit state. The structural strength under ultimate limit state shall be estimated in order to avoid internal failure or excessive deformation.1 For cI Table iv) v) During construction the relevant design situation shall be taken into account. piers etc.1 For ( ColUl i) ii) The wave forces shall be determined by suitable analysis considering drawing and inertia forces etc. The snow loads may be based on actual observation or past records in the particular area or local practices. 64 . the traffic load on the upper deck of a bridge (when collision with the pier due to traffic under the bridge occurs) shall be treated as the leading load.4 shall be combined to carry out the relevant verification. sliding and uplifting) shall always be less than the stabilizing or restoring actions. on single structural members based on rational methods or model studies. The equilibrium and the structural strength shall be checked under basic. All other variable loads shall be considered as accompanying loads. For c Colul factoi 6.2 or Table 3.

2 under Table 3. 6. settlement and to estimate shrinkage and creep effects. Accidental Combination For checking the equilibrium of the structure.3 shall be adopted. shrinkage creep effects and the permanent stress in concrete.3 under Table 3. The rare combination of loads shall be used for checking the stress limit.IRC:6-2010 4. the partial safely factor for loads shown in Column No.2 For Checking the Structural Strength For checking the structural strength.1 Rare Combination For checking the stress limits. The frequent combination of loads shall be used for checking the deflection.4 under Table 3.6 or 7 under Table 3.2 shall be adopted. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column NO. 7. deflection.1 and for checking the structural strength.1 and for checking the structural strength.1 shall be adopted. 7. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No.2 shall be adopted. The quasi-permanent combination of loads shall' be used for checking the settlement. Combination of Loads for the Verification of Serviceability Limit State Loads are required to be combined to satisfy the serviceability requirements. crack width. vibration. 4. 5.4 or 5 under Table 3. vibration and crack width. Seismic Combination For checking the equilibrium of the structure.2 under Table 3. The serviceability limit state check shall be carried out in order to have control on stress. It shall be ensured that the design value obtained by using the appropriate combination shall be less than the limiting value of serviceability criterion as per the relevant code. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No. 65 .1 Basic Combination For Checking the Equilibrium For checking the equilibrium of the structure. 4. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No. the partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No.2 shall be adopted.2 or 3 under Table 3.

resistance factor and the allowable bearing pressure for these combinations shall be as per relevant code. COn!: CO[Jr: a)WI oeflm b)WI well c c) En la) L.3 Quasi-permanent Combinations For checking the crack width in RCC structures. partial safety factor for loads shown in Column No. (b) A: Live i acco.1 prest (Ref' Eartf Vari. (b)A.2 Frequent Combination For checking the deflection. 7. partial safety factor for loads shown in column no. load. (Ace. Ib)O. vibration and crack width in prestressed concrete structures. the partial safety factor for loads for 3 combinations shown in Table 3. creep effects and to estimate the permanent stress in the structure. Hydrt Buoy. (c) 0 The r.IRC:6-2010 7. 3 under Table 3.3 shall be adopted. Accil i) Vet ii) Ba ~ii)1m Seist (a) 0. Combination for Design of Foundations SJOL wetgl shrin Surf. (a)A. Pres.: Cam For checking the base pressure under foundation and to estimate the structural strength which includes the geotechnical loads.. centr live I (a)A' (b)A. The material safety factor for the soil parameters. Wine (a)A. Hydr. WaLel Wave. Pern Dear 8.4 under Table 3.3 shall be adopted. Wind lo)A.4 shall be used. settlement. 66 .

9 0.0 0.0 1.0 a a a 0 0.9 1.0 1.5 a Load 1.95 0 Load a Hydf8u/ic Loads: (Accompartying Load).0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.s 0.50 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 Partial Safety Factor for Verification Loads (1 ) Basic Combination (2) Overturning orSlidil1g or Uplift Effect Permanent Loads: Dead Load.5 1.0 1.05 0. settlement.50 1.wlal effects: i) Vehicle collision (or) ii) 8ilrge Impact (or) iii) lmpact due to flo<'lling bO~8S a - 1.35 1.0 1.0 1.0 0 1.0 Variable Loads: Carriageway Live Load.5 1. Snow load if present.05 1. creep and shrinkage effect Surfacing Prsstress and Secondary effect prestress (Refer Nole 5J Earlh pressure due to Back Fill of Equilibrium Seismic Combination (6) OvertLll'rllng or"Slidil1g or Uplift Effect Accidental Combination (4) Overturning or Sliding or Uplift Effect (3) Restoring or ResLsting Effect (5) Restoring or Resisting Effect (7) Restoring or Resisting Effect 1.0 - (<1) During Service (b) During Construclion Seismic Effect Construction Condition: Counter Weights: a) When density or self weight is well defined b) Wilen denaily or self weight is not wull defined 0) Eroclion effeels Wind (aJ Leading Load (b) Accompanying 0.8 1. tractlvo and cenlriruga~ forces} and Pedestrian Live Load (a) As Leading Load (b) As accompanying Load (c) Conslruction Live Load The.rmal Loads (a) As Leading load (b) As accompanying Wind (a) As Leading Load (oj As accornpanyinq 1.35 1.IRC:6-2010 Table 3.95 1.0 1.0 1. Water current forces Wave Pressure Hydrodynamic effect Buoyancy 1. Backfill weighl.0 1.75 02 1.0 or 1.0 1.0 1. SIDL except surfacing.15 1. associated 10805 {braking.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 0 1.0 - 67 .0 1.5 0.5 0.50 1.0 0 0 - Load o.20 1.20 ~ Live Load Surcharge effects (as accompanying load) Accidr.0 1.

a) b) v. arch and elastomeric bearings). Partial safety factor for prestress and secondary recommended in the relevant codes. frictional restraint in metallic bearings and thermal gradients. This combination however. C. the load combination B. and retrofitting. Clause 221 shall be referred for combination snow load and live load.IRC:6-2010 NOTES: 1) 2) 3) During launching the counterweight of ± 1 m for steel bridges. position shall be allowed a variation Thermal effects include restraints associated with expansion/contraction due to type of construction (Portal frame. Wind load and thermal load need not be taken simultaneously. phase shall be project E. a) b) c) l"I a) b) Li A i) ii) Hi H 'II 'II H B 68 . effect of prestress shall be as of r« DE a) b) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) s. Ac Re Pr (re Wherever Snow Load is applicable. trl p. For repair. rehabilitation specific. Seismic effect during erection stage is reduced to half when construction does not exceed 5 years. is not valid for the design of bearing and expansion joint. For Combination principles refer Para 3.

15 1.0 1.0 .0 1.0 1.0 1_50 1.0 1.0 0. Snow load if present.0 1.5 1.15 1.0 0.0 0.5 Hydraulic Loads (Accompanying Waler Current Forces Wave Pressure Hydrodynamic effecl Buoyancy Load): 1.0 10 1.0 0.0 1.0 1. 2) Back fill Weight Earth pressm-e due to Back Fill a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Load Variable Loads: Carriageway Live Load and associated loads (braking.0 0.IRC:6-2010 Table 3. 1.0 Accidental Effects: i) Vehicle Collision (or) ii) Barge Impact (or) iii) Impact due lo noating bodies Seismic Effect a) During Service b) During Construction }- - 1.0 1. traclive and cenlrifugal forces) and Pedestrian Live Load: a) Leading Load b) Accornpanyinq Load c) Constructlon Live Load Wind during service and construction a) Leading Load b) Accornpanyml.0 1.0 1.0 1.75 1.0 1. SIDL except surfacing a) Adding 10the effect of variable loads b) Relieving the effect of variable loads Surfacing: Adding to the effect of variable loads Relievi[19 Ihe effecl of variable loads Prestress and Secondary effect of prestress (refer note no.0 1.2 1.2 Partial Safety Factor for Verification of Structural Strength Ultimate Loads (1 ) Permanent Loads: Dead Load. Load Live Load Surcharge (as accompanying load) Erection effects Limit State Seismic Combination (4) Basic Combination (2) Accidental Combination ( 3) 1.0 1.0 0.0 - - - 1.50 09 1.35 0.75 0.0 1.15 1.0 0 0.2 1.50 1.2 1.15 69 .0 1.0 1.35 1.2 1.2 1.

0 1.50 0 Live load Surcharge (Accompanying Load) Hydraulic Loads (Accompanying Load): Waler CurrenL Forces Wave Pressure Buoyancy 0.0 1.80 0 0 1.6-2010 NOTES: 1) 2) For combination principles.60 0.0 0.6 0.15 1. Clause 3) Table 3.0 1. 4) Shrinkage and Creep Effecls Earth Pressure due to Back Fill Settlement Effects a) Adding Lathe permanenL loads b) Opposing the permanent loads Variable Loads: Carriageway Live Load and associated loads(braking. combination of snow load and live load.0 0.5 Wil "I! b)1 1.0 0 Pre (rei Sel Ear a] L bli Va.3 Partial Safety Factor for Verification of Serviceability Limit State Loads (1) Rare Combination (2) Frequent Compination (3) Quasi-permanent Combination Permanent Loads: Dead Load.0 1.0 0 1.6 0. refer Para 3.0 a 1. Wherever Snow Load is applicable.15 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.60 0. All trar al L 1.0 U 1.0 0. Snow load if present SIDL including surfacing Back fill Weight Prestress and Secondary effect of prestress (refer note no.0 1.2 0 hl' Tbr 1.0 1.0 0.0 1. effect of prestress shall be as 221 shall be referred for NO Partial safety factor for prestress and secondary recommended in the relevant codes.0 1.0 1.0 SIC 1.IRC.5 0. tractive and centrifugal forces) and PedesLrian Live Load a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Load Thermal Loads a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Load Wind a) Leading Load b) Accompanying Load (4) 1.15 70 .75 0.75 0.

NOTES: 1) 2) For Combination principles, refer Para 3. Thermal load includes restraints associated with expansionl contraction due to type of construction (Portal frame, arch and elastomeric bearings), frictional restraint in metallic bearings and thermal gradients. This combination however. is nol valid for the design of bearing and expansion joint. Wind and thermal loads need not be taken simultaneously. Partial safety factor for prestress and secondary recommended in the relevant codes. effect of prestress shall be as of

3) 4) 5)

Where Snow Load is applicable, Clause 221 shall be referred for combination snow load and live load. Combination for Base Pressure Combination (1) (2)
SIDL except surlacing. 135 1.75 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Table 3.4

and Design Combination (2) (3)

of Foundation Seismic I Accidental Combination (4)

Loads (1)
Permanen t Loads: Dead Load, Snow load if present, Back Fill earth filling SIDl Surfacing Prestress Effect (refer note 4) Setllement Effect Earth Pressure due to back fill a) leading load b) Accompanying Load Variable LOiids~ All carriaqeway loads and associated loads (braking, Iracflva and centrifugal) and pedestrian load a) Lnadinq Load b) Accompanying load Thermal Loads Wind a) Leading Load b) Accompanying as accompanying load

1.0 ora

1.0 ora


1.50 1.0

0.85 1.0

1.5 1.15 0.90

1.3 1.0 0.80

[0.75 if applicable) 0.2 0.5

Or 0

Load as Accompanying Load (if

1.5 0.9 1.2



0 0.2

Live Load Surcharge applicable)

Acr;;denta' Effect or Seismic Effect Seismic effect during caastructkm
Erection effects. Hydraulic Loads; Water Current Wave Pressure Hydrodynamic erlect Buoyancy: For Base Pressure Far Structural DesIgn 1.0 1.0

1.0 O~5 1.0

1.0 or 1.0 or 0


·1.0 orO 1.0 or


1.0 ora 1.00rO 1.0orO 1.0 0.15

10 015

1.0 O~15


NOTES: 1) 2) For combination principles, refer para 3.

Where two partial factors are indicated for loads, both these factors shall be considered for arriving at the severe effect. Wind and Thermal effects need not be taken simultaneously. Partial safety factor for prestress and secondary recommended in the relevant codes. effect of prestress shall be as






Wherever Snow Load is applicable, Clause 221 shall be referred for combination snow load and live load.



Seismic effect during erection stage is reduced to half when construction phase does not exceed 5 years. For repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting the load combination shall be project specific.



Ase, lhe

A-· a)

wit in'

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IRC:6-2010 Annex C (Clause 209.3.3) Wind Load Computation on Truss Bridge Superstructure

A-1.1 Superstructures without live load: The design lransverse wind load F; shall be derived separately for the areas of the windward and leeward truss girder and deck elements. Except that F r need not be derived considering the projected areas of windward parapet shielded by windward truss, or vice versa, deck shielded by the windward truss, or vice versa and leeward truss shielded by the deck. The area A, for each truss, parapet etc. shall be the solid area in normal projected elevation. The area A, for the deck shall be based on the full depth of the deck. A-1.2 Superstructures with live load: The design transverse wind load shall be derived separately for elements as specified in A-1 and also for the live load depth. The area A, for the deck, parapets, trusses etc. shall be as for the superstructure without live load. The area A, for the live load shall be derived using the appropriate live load depth. A-1.3 Drag Coefficient a) CD for All Truss Girder Superstructures

Superstructures without live load: The drag coefficient CDfor each truss and for the deck shall be derived as follows:

For a windward truss CDshall be taken from Table A-1 . For leeward truss of a superstructure with two trusses, drag coefficient shall be taken as l/CD. Values of shielding factor 1/ are given in Table A-2. The solidity ratio of the truss is the ratio of the effective area to the overall area of the truss. Where a superstructure has more than two trusses, the drag coefficient for the truss adjacent to the windward truss shall be derived as specified above. The coefficient for all other trusses shall be taken as equal to this value. For Deck Construction, the drag coefficient shall be taken as 1.1. b} Superstructure with live load: The drag coefficient CD for each truss and for the deck shall be as for the superstructure without live load. CDfor the unshielded parts of the live load shall be taken as 1.45.

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70 0. 1.8 0.1 0.0 1.0 _ .95 0.90 0.. The solidity ratio of the truss is the ratio of Ihe net area to overall area of the truss Table A-2 Shielding Factor '1 for Multiple Trusses Value of 1/ for Solidity Ratio Truss Spacing Ratio 0. I 1 .80 0.95 0.90 0.2 1.65 0..IRC:6-2010 Table A-1 Force Coefficients for Single Truss CD for Drag Coefficient Solidity Ratio (<1:» The' Built-up Sections Rounded Members of Diameter (d) Sub critical flow (dVz< 6m'/s) Supercritical flow (dV.70 1.80 NOTES: 1) 2) Linear interpolation The truss spacing between values is permilled.9 1. -- 4 5 ~-.8 1.7 1.1 .65 0.95 0.60 0.7 0.0 1.85 0.2 1.85 0.4 0.6 between values is permitted.2 0.7 ~.8 0.75 0.4 0.0 1.90 0. '= Sm'/s) 0.80 0. ratio is the distance truss.5 NOTES: 1) 2) Linear interpolation 1.45 0._.2 1.80 0.8 0.1 whei F 1.55 <1 2 3 .5 0.2 0.--. belween centers of trusses divided by depth of the windward 74 ..50 0. 1.8 direc 0.3 0. 0.3 0.1 0.95 0.60 0.70 0.0 1.1 1.0 6 I 0.-.

and the force to be applied at the top of the bearings for the earthquake in the longitudinal direction.IRC:6·2010 Annex D (Clause 219.5) The fundamental natural period T (in seconds) of pier/abutment ofthe bridge along a horizontal direction may be estimated by the following expression: T = 2. \/10~OF 75 .0 where D F Appropriate dead load of the superstructure and live load in kN Horizontal force in kN required to be applied at the centre of mass of superstructure for one mm horizontal deflection at the top of the pier/abutment for the earthquake in the transverse direction.

to this document would be periodical. etc.(The Official. 'Indian Highways' as effective and as part of the from the date specified therein) .amendments published by the IRe in its which shall be considered code/guidelines/manual.

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