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Namāz of Mo’min Chapter 10 Strongly disapproved acts in namāz

Namāz of Mo’min Chapter 10 Strongly disapproved acts in namāz

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Namāz of Mo’min Chapter 10 Strongly disapproved acts in namāz (Makrooh-e taĥreemee in namāz)
Namāz of Mo’min Chapter 10 Strongly disapproved acts in namāz (Makrooh-e taĥreemee in namāz)

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Chapter 10

Strongly disapproved acts in namāz
(Mak rooh- e taĥre e mee i n namāz)

Ru l e s a n d Re g u l a t i o n s Pe r t a i n i n g t o

Namāz of Mo’min
(A c o m p re h e n s i v e g u i d e )

Chapter 10: Strongly disapproved acts

Undoubtedly, Allāh Ta‘ālā dislikes irrelevant acts (deeds) in namāz (Mūsnad Shihāb)

18

Namāz of Mo’min

Contents
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Irrelevant movements of the body parts Playing with clothing and beard Adjusting garments Finger cracking Placing hand on waist Looking here and there … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 278-279 278 278 278 278 278 279-283 279 279 280 280 280 281 281 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 285 285-285 285 285 286-286 286 286 286 288-288 288 288

2. Irrational clothing and accessories 2.1 Shawl hanging from shoulders 2.2 Folded sleeves 2.3 Topless 2.4 Reverse clothing 2.5 Unbuttoned shirt or ach'kan 2.6 Stolen or exchanged clothing 2.7 Covered hands (for men) 2.8 Covered face 2.9 Golden or silver frame spectacles 2.10 Unlawful rings 2.11 Metallic ornaments 2.12 Wristwatch with metallic belt 3. 4. 5. Back-knot of hairs Picture of living creatures Extreme urge for the call of nature

6. Irrational place 6.1 Temple 6.2 Infidel’s place 7. Without intervening object (sūtrah) 7.1 In front of tomb without sūtrah 7.2 Facing someone without sūtrah 8. Faulty system of namāz

9. Miscellaneous 9.1 Displacing stones from sajdah site 9.2 Yawning

19

Chapter 10: Strongly disapproved acts

(Qūr'ān Shareef, Soorah 11: Hood, Verse 114) And, establish şalāt (namāz) at the two ends of the day and in the early hours of the night. Indeed, pious deeds finish the evil deeds. This is an advice for the persons who understand.

20

Namāz of Mo’min

Makrooh-e taĥreemee is considered opposite to vājib. Those who indulge into makrooh-e taĥreemee acts during namāz and do not bother about it are misled and deviated. (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah- VI/119) Strongly disapproved acts are not supposed to be carried out during namāz and are disapproved for the point of being forbidden. If such acts have been committed deliberately, then namāz will have to be repeated; sajdah-e sah'v will not rectify such makrooh-e taĥreemee namāz.
 Each makrooh-e taĥreemee (strongly disapproved) deed is a

venial sin (gūnāh-e şagheerah).
 Numerous

Mo’min brethren owing to lack of religious knowledge indulge into such activities and consequently namāz becomes makrooh-e taĥreemee, leading to voidance of namāz. If so happens, it is vājib to repeat the performance of namāz. However, there are several persons who, unknowingly carry out such acts during their namāz, and subsequently their namāz turns to be null & void. Surprisingly they do not even realize that their namāz has been invalidated. Therefore all Mo’min brethren must pay attention towards these issues to save their namāz.

We will discuss strongly disapproved acts under following heads:
        Irrelevant movements of the body parts Irrational clothing and accessories Back-knot of hair Picture of living creatures Extreme urge for the call of nature Irrational place Without intervening object (sūtrah) Following faulty system of namāz

21

Chapter 10: Strongly disapproved acts
 Miscellaneous

1.

Irrelevant movements of the body parts:
     Playing with clothing and beard Adjusting garments Finger cracking Placing hand on waist Looking here and there

1.1

Playing with clothing and beard:
Issue: To play with cloths, beard or body or doing meaningless movements renders the namāz makrooh-e taĥreemee. (Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/165)

1.2

Adjusting garments:
Issue: Namāz will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if cloths (sleeve, front or back flap of shirt etc) are drawn together or trousers lifted whilst going into sajdah.1 (Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/165)

1.3

Finger cracking:
Issue: Crackle sound of finger cracking and crisscrossing the fingers of both hands during namāz is makrooh-e taĥreemee.2 (Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-I/205)

1.4

Placing hand on waist:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to place one or both hands on waist during namāz. However, hands should not be placed on waist even though one is not in namāz. (Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at)

1.5

Looking here and there:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to turn face either entirely or partially to look here and there. It is makrooh-e tanzeehee to look on either side by rotating
1.5.1
1 2

Ibid, page: 264-265 Ibid, page 263 & 265; making voluntary sounds and ‘amal-e kaŝeer are forbidden in namāz

22

Namāz of Mo’min the eyeball without turning the direction of face with no undue authentic reason. In fact it is khilāf-e avlā. (Bahāre Shari‘at - III/167, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-I/171) Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to look skywards by rotating the eyeball. (Bahār-e Shari‘atIII/167)
1.5.2 2.

Irrational clothing and accessories:
            Shawl hanging from shoulders Folded sleeves Topless Reverse clothing Unbuttoned shirt or achkan Stolen or exchanged clothing Covered hands (for men) Covered face Golden or silver frame spectacles Unlawful rings Metallic ornaments Wristwatch with metallic belt

2.1

Shawl hanging from shoulders:
Issue: It is prohibited and makrooh-e taĥreemee to keep both ends of the handkerchief, shawl, bed-sheet or quilt hanging from one or both shoulders either both ends on chest side or back side or one end on the chest side and other one on the back side. There is no harm if one end is placed on the shoulder and other one hanging. (Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Raddūl-Mūĥtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/166, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/447)

2.2

Folded sleeves:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to fold up sleeves more than half of the forearm either prior to commencement of or during namāz. (Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/166)
2.2.1

Issue: If sleeves are folded up in a way to expose the elbow then namāz tends to be makrooh-e taĥreemee and it must be repeated. Non-performer of this repeat
2.2.2

23

Chapter 10: Strongly disapproved acts namāz will be sinner. (Fat'ĥūl Qadeer, Baĥrūr-Rā’iq, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/416 & 423)
2.3

Topless:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to perform namāz topless with wearing only trouser or loincloth (lungi) even though shirt or shawl is available. (‘Ālamgeeri, Ghūnyah Shar'ĥ-e Mūnyah, Bahār-e Shari‘atIII/170)
2.3.1

Issue: Namāz will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if performed wearing only trouser. Here two aĥādeeŝ are quoted in support of this issue, which are borrowed from Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-I/158:
2.3.2

Abū Dāood and Ĥākim has recorded from Ĥažrat Buraidah that Ĥužoor-e Aqdas has strictly forbidden to perform namāz wearing only trousers (i.e. topless; no shirt or shawl above waist).
a.

In Mūsnad-e Aĥmad, Şaĥeeĥ Būkhāree Shareef and Şaĥeeĥ Mūslim Shareef it has recorded on the authority of Ĥažrat Abū Hūrairah that Ĥužoore Aqdas has narrated that:
b.

No one should perform namāz in one cloth with open shoulders.
2.4

Reverse clothing:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to perform namāz with wearing reverse clothing. Wearing reverse clothing is considered as against conformity (khilāf-e mo‘tād) as it is to go to market or before any respectable dignitary wearing reverse clothing. Then, in the court of Allāh , who is Supreme being, most Respectful and Honorable, how can one perform namāz wearing reverse clothing? (Bahār-e Shari‘at - III/170, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/438)

2.5

Unbuttoned shirt or ach'kan:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to perform namāz with unbuttoned shirt or achkan (tight long coat with full buttons in front) with no undergarment underneath resulting in chest and shoulder exposure. However, even if undergarment is dressed in but with unbuttoned shirt 24

Namāz of Mo’min or achkan namāz tends to be makrooh-e tanzeehee. (Bahār-e Shari‘at, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/447)
2.6

Stolen or exchanged clothing:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to perform namāz wearing stolen clothing. Namāz will have to be repeated.3 (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/451)
2.6.1

Issue: It is ĥarām (forbidden) to wear exchanged cloths, which is so done by washer-man (exchanged from another person’s cloths), for both man and woman. Namāz will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if performed wearing such cloths and namāz will have to be repeated. (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/417)
2.6.2 2.7

Covered hands (for men):
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to perform namāz with cloth (shawl) wrapped around upper part of the body in such a way that the hands are covered (i.e. remain unexposed). (Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/140)

2.8

Covered face:
Issue: Namāz will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if performed with covered face and nose with cloth. (Dūrre Mūkhtār, ‘Ālam-geeri, Bahār-e Shari‘at– III/167)

2.9

Golden or silver frame spectacles:
Issue: It is unlawful to wear spectacles with gold or silver frames. It is absolutely abominable to perform namāz wearing such spectacles and therefore removal of such spectacles prior to performance of namāz is must. If frame of the spectacles is made of metal other than gold or silver (for example copper alloy) in that case also removal of the spectacles is desirable prior to performance of namāz otherwise namāz will not be
3

Herewith it is to be clarified that namāz will have to be repeated after removing stolen cloths and dressed in clothing of his own earning.

25

Chapter 10: Strongly disapproved acts without abomination Ražaviyyah-III/427)
2.10

and

khilāf-e

Aula.

(Fatāvā

Unlawful rings:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to perform namāz putting on those things which are forbidden and unlawful according to Islamic jurisprudence. For example, it has been endorsed by Islamic jurisprudence for male to put on one silver ring weighing less than 4 ½ Māshah (4.38 gm) 4 including gem or precious stone. Namāz (of gents) will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if performed: Wearing more than one silver ring Wearing one silver ring weighing more than 4.38 grams iii. Wearing one silver ring with more than one gem iv. Wearing golden ring v. Wearing silver or golden chains Further, namāz will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee and will have to be repeated if: 1. Male is performing namāz wearing lady’s style clothing 2. Female is performing namāz wearing gent’s type clothing According to Fatāvā Ražaviyyah if namāz has been invalidated due to performance of namāz wearing unlawful clothing then namāz must be repeated after putting off the unlawful cloths. (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-IX (section 2)/42) i. ii.

2.11

Metallic ornaments:
Issue: Even ladies do not like to have ornaments made from metals other than silver or gold like iron, copper or
4

Māshah: 1 1 1 4

Unit of measurement Ser = 80 Tola Tola = 12 Māshah Māshah = 972.16666 Milligram ½ Māshah = 4 X 972.16666 Milligram = 4374.7499 Milligram = 4.375 Gram Say = 4.38 Gram

26

Namāz of Mo’min lead etc., therefore there is no reason for being lawful for gents to wear such ornaments. Namāz (of male and female both) will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if performed wearing ornaments made from metals like iron, copper or lead etc. (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-IX (Section 3)/14 and III/422)
2.12

Wristwatch with metallic belt:
Issue: Some people use to perform namāz, wearing wristwatch with metal belt and argue that the metal belt is a part of wristwatch. As a matter of fact, the metal belt is not and cannot be a part of wristwatch but a separate object. (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-IX (Section 3) /34) Islamic Scholars have given clarification regarding this in following manner: In true Islamic religion even silken belt for waist is considered improper, since waist belt is not a part of trouser but a separate object. Dūrr-e Mūkhtār says: In fact, silken belt for waist is makrooh Ĥāshiyah Ŧaĥŧāvee ‘Alal Mūrāqeeyūl Falāĥ says:

Factually it is a separate object It is obvious that a waist-belt alone cannot be worn. A waist-belt is incomplete in itself without trouser. Though a relation between waist-belt and trouser can be established, Islamic scholars have yet declared waistbelt a separate object. Therefore how is it possible to consider the belt of wristwatch a part of watch itself? It cannot be incorporated in the entity of watch and it has to be considered a separate object. Note: Here without going into detail author simply wish to emphasize unlawfulness of metal chain (belt) for wristwatch. One should never use it.
3.

Back-knot of hair:
27

Chapter 10: Strongly disapproved acts
3.1

3.2

Issue: For gents, it is makrooh-e taĥreemee to perform namāz with back-knot of hair. Namāz will be rendered invalid if back-knot of hair is kept tied during namāz. (Mirqat, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/166, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/417) Issue: For ladies, there is no disgust or prohibition for performance of namāz with back-knot of hair rather it is favourable. Hair is an ‘aurat part in ladies and hence it should not be exposed. If hair is kept untied or unbraided, there is possibility of exposure and therefore back-knot in ladies is favorable. (Mirqāt Shar'ĥ-e Mishkāt, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/166, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/417)

4. 4.1

Picture of living creature:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to perform namāz dressed in a cloth bearing picture of living creature. It is also unlawful to dress in cloths bearing pictures of living creatures outside namāz. Similarly namāz will be rendered invalid if performed at a place where picture (photograph, painting or embroidered picture) is mounted either on wall or roof. (Bahāre Shari‘at-III/168, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/448) Issue: If picture of living creature is hidden with other cloth or overcoat then namāz will not be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee. (Raddūl-Mūĥtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/169) Issue: Namāz will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if: 1. Picture of living creature is present exactly at the point where sajdah is to be done on the floor. 2. Picture of the living creature is present on the prayer carpet, especially at the point where sajdah is to be done. (Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/168, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/448) Issue: If picture of the living creature is present in the abject corner of the floor especially where shoes are to be removed5 or in the carpet spread in the passage where people use to trample (tread on and crush), then namāz will not be

4.2

4.3

4.4

5

Insignificant and valueless corner of the floor

28

Namāz of Mo’min rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee provided sajdah is not being done there. (Bahār-e Shari‘at)
5.

Extreme urge for the call of nature:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to perform namāz with extreme urge for the call of nature (urination, defecation or farting). It is vājib to break the namāz if intense urge for the call of nature is felt during namāz and enough time remains for that particular namāz. One should answer the call of nature first with the condition that enough time lasts to perform or repeat the namāz. Even if there are chances to miss the congregation, call of nature must be answered first. Worshiper (one who is in namāz) will be sinner if performed namāz with so intense urge for the call of nature and such namāz will be makrooh-e taĥreemee. If there are chances of exhausting the time for a particular namāz, in that case only, giving the priority of namāz timing, namāz should be performed first. (RaddūlMūĥtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/166)

6.

Irrational place:
Temple:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to perform namāz in place of worship (temple) of infidel and polytheists. These places belong to shaiŧān. Shari'‘at forbids us from entering or visiting these places. (Baĥrūr-Rā’iq, RaddūlMūĥtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/170)

6.1

6.2

Infidel’s land:
Issue: Scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence has forbidden the performance of namāz on the land of infidel. However, one can offer namāz on the land of Mūslim without permission. If standing crop is present on the 29

Chapter 10: Strongly disapproved acts Mūslim land then one can perform namāz on road, but not on the infidel’s land. Though performance of namāz on road is disgustful but it is less than that if performed in the infidel’s land. (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-VI/18)
7.

Without intervening object (sūtrah)6:
In front of tomb without sūtrah:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to offer namāz in front of a tomb without any intervening object between namāzee and the tomb. (Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, ‘Ālam-geeri, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/170, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/374)

7.1

7.2

Facing someone without sūtrah:

7.2.1

Issue: It is strictly unlawful, makrooh-e taĥreemee and sin to perform namāz facing someone’s face. Those namāzees who have started namāz facing someone will be sinner. However, if some one comes in front of a namāzee who is already offering namāz, then new entrant will be sinner. (Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/167)

7.2.2

Issue: Namāz will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee even if there is adequate distance between namāzee and the person who is in front of the namāzee. However, if an object is placed between two as an intervening object, then there is no harm. But the objective of such intervening object should be fulfilled in qiyām position too. For instance, someone comes and sits in between namāzee and the intervening object keeping his back towards namāzee, in this situation in qa‘dah the intervening object will work but when namāzee comes in the qiyām position the intervening object will not suffice and the purpose will not be fulfilled and consequently in qiyām position state of affairs will

6

Ibid, page 447-448

30

Namāz of Mo’min be disgustful and abominable. (Bahār-e Shari‘at, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/66 & 74)
8. 8.1

Faulty namāz system:
Issue: Namāz will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if any vājib is missed, for instance: a. Back is not kept straight while bowing to rūkoo‘ or making sajdah. b. Sajdah is performed without sitting properly in jalsah c. Bowing for rūkoo‘ without standing erect properly (‘Ālam-geeri, Ghūnyah Shar'ĥ-e Mūnyah, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/170)

8.2

Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee: a. To bow for rūkoo‘ prior to imām b. To make sajdah prior to imām c. To raise head from sajdah prior to imām d. To raise head and return to qaumah position prior to imām. (‘Ālam-geeri, Ghūnyah Shar'ĥ-e Mūnyah, Bahār-e Shari‘at- III/170, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/134, Al-MalfoożIII/43) Issue: Namāz will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if imām alone is at higher level of about six inches than the mūqtadee. (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/415) Issue: Namāz will be rendered invalid of those mūqtadee who before joining the row of congregation hastily say takbeer-e taĥree'mah (Allāhū-Akbar) in advance and then join the congregation. (‘Ālam-geeri, Bahār-e Shari‘atIII/170) Issue: Namāz will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if Qūr'ān Shareef is recited in other than qiyām position or qirā’at is being recited till rūkoo‘ position. (‘Ālam-geeri, Ghūnyah Shar'ĥ-e Mūnyah, Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/170, Fatāvā RažaviyyahIII/134, Al-Malfooż-III/43)

8.3

8.4

8.5

31

Chapter 10: Strongly disapproved acts
8.6

Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to place wrist on the ground whilst in sajdah. (‘Ālam-geeri, Ghūnyah Shar'ĥ-e Mūnyah, Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/170, Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/134, AlMalfooż-III/43) Issue: Namāz of Imām as well as all mūqtadees will be rendered makrooh-e taĥreemee if three mūqtadees stand in the same row that includes imām (i.e. imām and three mūqtadees in one row). In that case, it is vājib to repeat the performance of such namāz. (Fatāvā Ražaviyyah-III/323)

8.7

9.

Miscellaneous:
Displacing stones from sajdah site:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to remove or displace stones from sajdah site. However, it is permissible to do so only once if because of it sajdah could not be performed in sūnnat way7. It is favourable not to remove it unnecessarily. If sajdah cannot be performed in vājib manner8 without removing or displacing that stone, in that case it is vājib to do so even though act of removal has to be repeated more than once. (Dūrr-e Mūkhtār, Raddūl-Mūĥtār, Bahār-e Shari‘at-III/166)

9.3

9.4

Yawning:
Issue: It is makrooh-e taĥreemee to yawn intentionally. There is no harm if yawning occurs involuntarily. However, as avoidance of yawning is mūstahab during namāz, one should try his best to avoid it. 9 (Mūrāqeey-ūl Falāĥ, Bahār-e Shari‘at -III/167)

7

In sūnnat method of performing sajdah entire forehead should touch the ground. In vājib method of performing sajdah any portion of forehead should touch the ground. Ibid, page 172; How to avoid yawning

8

9

32

Namāz of Mo’min

33

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