• Teachings of Lord Krishna and his wisdom have occupied a central place in Indian culture. • His gift to mankind in the form of Bhagwad Gita or the Song of Wisdom render great service to humanity. • He is the Mission Incarnate capable of actions and achievements beyond the capabilities of human beings. • He is also a Wisdom Concentrate – the true storehouse of wisdom and buddhi.
• Over five millenia ago, a massive exercise in management was undertaken with great precision and efficiency.
• Its objective was to uphold the principle of righteousness against the forces of evil.
Overt & covert management actions carried out during the 13 years of exile of the Pandavas: • • • • • • • Planning & organising for essentials Development of new weapons Training of warriors Strengths & weakness analysis of rivals Analysis of potential allies and their resources Strategy for post-exile demand & negotiations Motivation in order to minimize the impact of forest life. • Cost-benefit analysis of the active conflict
.Parva I – The Divine Song of Management Wisdom
• Set in the war-field of Kurukshetra before the commencement of the battle between good and evil.
• Arjuna is horrified and anguished at the prospect of having to fight & kill his elders. and informs his charioteer Lord Krishna that he has no energy to fight.
• Dialogue between Krishna & Arjuna. gurus and friends.
which can lead to confusion and inaction.Parva I
• Arjuna tells Krishna that he sees great evil omens.
. pleasures or even life itself. and that no good will come out of the war. • He further explains that Arjuna’s thoughts point to an inadequate understanding of right & wrong as well as the demand of the situation. He does not want victory or the kingdom.
• Krishna explains to him that he is occupying himself with the results instead of concentrating on action.
• The concern shown for men who are not worthy of it is unnecessary.
• Repentance and grief have no scope in activities of people involved in process of governance or management. • Wise people do not grieve for the living or for the dead.
• In business and governance.
• Turnover of the people involved should not change the basic character of the corporate involved. similarly.Parva I
• No one kills and no one is killed as the soul is permanent and non-destructible. inputs and participants don’t matter – what matters is the primacy of corporate interest or objective.
• Management view: Non-permanence of all goods. products and people must be accepted in order to permit more rational decision making.
• Death is inevitable for all beings that take birth in view of the need for life’s renewal – and there is no need to worry about something that is unavoidable.
Result should be left to the superior to analyse.
. innovation and cooperation. • Management view: Focus on the results diverts our attention. • Rewards of actions should not be your motive – work should be done for work’s sake. leading to minimal initiative.Parva I
• One has the right only to work or action – but never to its fruits. and the doer should be free from this avoidable stress.
• Wandering mind can lead to non-concentration and inability to focus.
. which leads to lack of righteous judgment.Parva I
• Anger and passion are the root cause of delusion. • Peace of mind and joy of work are essential for being a successful and productive corporate worker. loss of memory and intelligence.
• Jnana yoga: One knows what is to be done and why it has to be done. One believes that it is through work that his mind will be purified. but because he believes it is his duty to work. discusses. Through an intellectual understanding and acceptance of the goals and methods. not because it benefits him in any manner. The manager who pursues this route explains.
. the person commits himself to the task. and one does it with concentration and dedication. consults and encourages participation. He does work.function of body). and then obtains commitment to the decisions. While doing one’s duty.
• Karma Yoga: Doing one’s duty becomes the drive. one does not feel that it is lesser in importance or dignity than another’s.Parva I
• Two paths of spiritual discipline – Jnana-yoga (function of intellect) and Karma-yoga (path of action .
• Action is very important – nothing gets done in the absence of action.function of body).Parva I
• Two paths of spiritual discipline – Jnana-yoga (function of intellect) and Karma-yoga (path of action . Any attempt to avoid action will bring undesirable results. • Management: There is a choice between becoming a knowledge worker (specialist or technocrat) or general worker (job involves implementing planned work). • Action is better than inaction.
• Wise and learned should act without attachment. • Righteousness of conduct on the part of senior management serves as the guiding force for junior staff in work as well as in observance of ethics of work.
• The actions of a great man are an inspiration to others – whatever he does becomes a standard for others to follow.
this can greatly boost productivity. • Engaging in the work of another person.Parva I
• Howsoever humble.
• In the corporate world. irrespective of its greatness. when it is not your duty is dangerous. it is better to do one’s own duty instead of attempting to do another’s work.
• When a person is overtaken by greed or anger. These are also responsible for most corporate ills in modern times.Parva I
• Two negative human traits which lead people to wrong-doing are greed and anger.
. • The fire of desire is insatiable – a constant enemy of the wise. which are born out of the nature of passion. his faculties of logical thinking are rendered ineffective or non-functional.
He manifests himself in human form. or the rule of law. • In management terminology. He is the CEO. It is his responsibility to establish Dharma. the CEO should take corrective and restorative actions.Parva I
• Whenever righteousness declines and evil and wicked assume sway. Whenever deviations from the right path are noticed.
experiencing the delights and sufferings of others as his own.Parva I
• Krishna explains to Arjuna the qualification of the most superior Yogi – the one who looks on all as his own self.
• Management Perspective: If corporate workers celebrate the success or performance of others with unbiased happiness. the forces of positive energy would amplify the performance of the entire corporate body beyond expectation.
• Krishna elaborates on the qualities he looks for in his devotees (can be compared to the qualities a CEO looks for in the employees):
– Equal mindedness in praise or blame – Contentment with what is available – Silence of spirit – Without possessiveness of ownership – And firmness of mind
it gives light and health to life. rajas scatters the mind and makes it restless and sattva gives it a higher dimension.
• Tamas causes the mind to move on a low level. the mind is composed of three basic forces called gunas (qualities) which describe the character of individuals and their thought process:
– Sattva (purity) – is pure and immaculate.Parva I
• According to Indian tradition. and exhibits attachment to happiness and joy. dullness and delusion.
– Tamas (inertia) – principle of inertia resulting in inaction.
– Rajas (passion) – the basic source of thirst and attachment which quickly binds the soul to selfish actions and their fruits.
• Tamas generates ignorance. greed. excitement. conceit. anger. those who are Rajasik remain on the middle ground. compassion. dominate. humility. It is without any stain or blemish. joy. kindness. achieve compete. enlightenment. rashness. forgiveness. fearlessness. deceit and abusiveness. • Rajas produces pride. and those engulfed by Tamas sink lower and lower. indecisiveness. love. the urge to rule. mental blindness. arrogance and lack of self-control. fear. hearlessness. forgetfulness.
• Sattva produces bliss. win and consequently jealousy.
• Those who are rooted in Sattva rise upwards. vanity. contenbment.
hatred or attachment. to be done without desire. provided he strives for it. • In Indian tradition. procrastinating and willing to cheat.
. and sad otherwise. Therefore a tamasaic person can also acquire sattvic gunas. while tamasaics relate themselves to work without concern or seriousness. • A sattvic performs his duty with enthusiasm and does not lose his sense of equanimity even if the work does not succeed. A tamasic is lazy. rajasaics seek to fulfill desires through work.Parva I
• A sattvic sees work as rewarding by itself. • Sattvic personas are likely to make more appropriate decisions than rajasics and tamasics. it is possible for any person to become anything he wishes to become. a rajasaic is happy when the results of the work are beneficial to him.
Work performance as play
• Those who enjoy their assigned work are destined to perform better. or later as a warrior or charioteer. he did with a smile and a charm. It improves work environment. and creates wider acceptance and appreciation. however difficult. reducing work tension and negativity. diminishes output and quality. whether as a child or a cowherd. should be performed with a smile on the face. and had no trace of anger. or your dislike for the person who assigns work to you.
• Everything that Lord Krishna did. enhances the impact of the work.
• Your own resistance to work. • All acts of work or karma. arrogance or agony while enacting pranks or subduing forces that came to harm him.
• There is no work that is too low or unworthy of attention. • Krishna as Arjuna’s charioteer watered and groomed the horses and maintained the chariot in battle. to earn or otherwise.Dignity of Work
• Work is the most important aspect of human life. and that should be avoided. • The thought of work as low or high lies in one’s brain only since nature has not made any such discrimination. Each person has to engage in some productive work.
. He washed the feet of his friend Sudama himself without handing over the responsibility to anyone else. It is the negative energy thought that classifies work as low.
• Commitment adherence determines the long-term dependability of a leader. • Krishna promises his aunt that he will ignore the insults or pranks of the wicked Shishupala. has great significance in human relations. and bears everything that Shishupala does until it is time for him to fulfill the prophecy of slaying Shishupala. orally or otherwise.Commitment Appreciation
• Value of commitment or to honour what one has said. and the ability of followers to abide by what is said on the other.
. on the one hand.
Effective Situation & Competition Analysis • Professional managers usually undertake a SWOT analysis prior to the launch of a project or product. • Krishna.
. during the Mahabharata war. and their magnitudes. took precise analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of his adversaries. including the source of their invincibility and means of circumventing the same. prior to the launch of a project. • Need for managers to be systematic and thorough in advance analysis and assessment of negative and positive factors. product or service if the desired success is to be ensured.
• False prestige should not be allowed to stand in the way. and assume appropriate line of action. They assume full responsibility for uncommon decisions taken under challenging situations. it must be taken without fear of criticism.
• If a difficult decision becomes necessary under challenging situations. Long-term effects of the decision are more important than immediate perception by people.Respect for Reality
• Great leaders have a unique capacity for quick and correct assessment of reality.
• Intervention at the right time is necessary if inconvenient results are to be avoided. • Eg.
• While professional managers are expected to delegate part of their responsibilities to others. he responded to her plea by making her sari so long that she could not be disrobed.
. of strategic intervention by Krishna: when Draupadi was being disrobed by Duryodhana and no one came to her rescue. they have do intervene or render help if there are signs of deviation.
but his manner should generate wide and enthusiastic acceptance. • An efficient facilitator must be capable not only of providing the corrective inputs. He also persuaded them to accept 50% of the unproductive kingdom offered to them without displeasure.
. • When Vidura came to Panchala on behalf of Dhritarashtra asking the Pandavas to return to Hastinapura. de-bottlenecking or the task of facilitation is important.An Efficient Facilitating Agent
• Role of problem-solving. Krishna facilitated their decision to return despite their reluctance to do so.
planned and guided the battle of Kurukshetra etc. acquired knowledge of science and arts. • Krishna simultaneously destroyed demons and asuras.Multi-tasking expert
• Only managers gifted with extraordinary capabilities and superior time management can practice this technique successfully. and the availability of significant works to serve as raw material for this task to be operative. rebuilt a kingdom of righteousness at Mathura.
. built an empire at Dwarka. • Two essentials for multi-tasking – an inbuilt capacity in the worker to handle multiple tasks.
He freed the earth of evil sources (for which he had taken the human form) through outsourcing. outsourcing entails acquiring goods or services – produced primarily to meet the requirements of a client – the production of which will be costly and cumbersome at home.Outsourcing
• An integral part of globalization. to slaughter the evil forces supporting Duryodhana. • Outsourcing is ultimately beneficial both to the outsourcer and the outsourced.
. • Lord Krishna’s greatest act of outsourcing was during the Mahabharata when he motivated and enabled the Pandavas – the invincible celestial warriors.
where junior participants do not hesitate to connect or request for help. and mutual pleasure is felt in serving or being served. a leader must put all the people working with him in a comfort zone by establishing a good rapport with them. and the achievement of goals.
• Intense rapport is a situation of intensive interaction. independent of time and space.
• In order to be successful. Krishna’s treatment of his childhood friend Sudama. This will lead to an environment of positivism and cooperation.
• It is human nature to conflict and criticize – only its manifestation and degree differs.Internal Conflict Management
• Conflicts are an inevitable and inherent part of any organization. supervised delegation.
• Lord Krishna practiced Madhura technology to handle the huge Yadava clan. Such conflicts can cause considerable damage if not handled carefully. non-material motivation.
. as per participants involved and the intensity of their interactions. and management of mind as means of superior control. This entailed leading by example. active appreciation of virtue and merit.
• Lord Krishna suggests that there should be only constructive and measured expression of anger (righteous indignation). evil or incorrect. and from delusion loss of memory. initiative and innovation. the person perishes.” • Anger manifestation cause performance disturbance in the corporate environment. It leads to negative energy.Anger Management
• According to Bhagavad Gita: “From anger comes delusion. and has the subtle impact of generating silent resistance to suggestion. From loss of memory comes the ruin of discriminative power. and from ruin of discrimination. cooperation.
. in support of what is correct and opposition of what is wicked.
• A good corporate professional should be able to quickly spot talent in a subordinate and enable the same to grow to superior levels as per the need of the situation.
• For instance. valued. promoted and managed.
• Talent must be recognised. respected. brought on board. trusted. Lord Krishna recognised the talent of Arjuna and used his talent to its full potential.
. soil conditions and availability of food and fodder. • Lord Krishna selected the timing of the battle of Kurukshetra in right relation to season. • Time makes the Circle of Life and keeps everything in perpetual motion. • Time and timing are important for any human venture.Time Management
• The wheel of time always moves and is never static.