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# Sin and cos as complex functions

Recall the identities for sin and cos in terms of e: ej + ej cos = 2 ej ej sin = 2j

We can nd sin and cos of pure imaginaries by writing = j e + e = cosh cos(j) = 2 e e 1 sin(j) = = sinh = j sinh 2j j Now cos z and sin z come from addition formulae cos z = cos(x + jy) = cos x cos(jy) sin x sin(jy) = cos x cosh y j sin x sinh y sin z = sin(x + jy) = sin x cos(jy) + cos x sin(jy) = sin x cosh y + j cos x sinh y

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## Solving equations with sin and cos

Example: cos(z) = 2 Write z = x + jy We know that cos z = cos x cosh y j sin x sinh y ; hence cos x cosh y j sin x sinh y = 2 And so, equating real and imaginary parts cos x cosh y = 2, sin x sinh y = 0

Second equation gives either sin x = 0 or sinh y = 0 x = n cos(n) cosh y = 2 (1)n cosh y = 2 y = cosh1 2 (for n even) y = 0 cos x = 2 And hence, for all n Z z = x + jy = 2n + j cosh1 2

## MMpl (EMAT10004) 2009-10

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Complex logarithm
Final example is nding w = log z Write z in polar form: r = |z|, = Arg(z), n Z, w in Cartesian form z = r ej(+2n) , By the denition of log w = log z z = ew r ej(+2n) = ex+jy = ex ejy w = x + jy

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## Complex powers, and a curiosity

Using log and e we can calculate one complex number raised to the power of another z1 z2 = ez2 log z1 For example, nd j j j j = ej log j First nd log j : log j = log(|j|) + j (Arg(j) + 2n) = log 1 + j So now we have that + 2n = j + 2n 2 2

+ 2n 2 A real number! (or rather, an innite number of real numbers. . . ) j j = ej log j = exp

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