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Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics


Tom Heinzl

atom2006 27-11-2006
with: O. Schrder (UoP science + computing, Tbingen) o u B. Liesfeld, K.-U. Amthor, H. Schwrer and A. Wipf (FSU Jena) o R. Sauerbrey, FZ Dresden-Rossendorf
Tom Heinzl Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

Outline

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

1. Introduction
QED basic vertex (interaction):
e e e+

direct on-shell pair production (PP), e + e , forbidden by energy-momentum conservation hence, add external e.m. (photon) eld: e.g. laser
Tom Heinzl Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

eective/dressed electron lines (propagators)

absorption/emission of n laser photons L (- - -) PP via multi-photon BreitWheeler: + n L e + e

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

multi-photon Breit-Wheeler PP:


e n L

observed by SLAC E-144


(Bula et al., 96, Burke et al., 97)

. . .

NL Compton: e + nL e + multi-photon Breit-Wheeler: + nL e + e nL from Terawatt laser n = O(10)

= probe photon (29 GeV)

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

relevant scale: critical electric eld Ec


energy gain of electron traversing distance of one Compton wave length e : eEc e = me c 2 Ec =
2 me c 3 e

1.3 1018 V/m

eld required for substantial amount of PP , c relativity quantum mechanics: QED NB: critical intensity Ic 4 1029 W/cm2

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

Keldysh parameter
me E Ec

characterises laser background (BG) with 4-momentum (, K) measures importance of multi-photon interactions

laser facilities (overview)


XFEL I /Ic 1010 2 103 XFEL (goal) 102 10
Tom Heinzl

VULCAN POLARIS 108 50

ELI 104 5 103

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

Two regimes:
1
low intensity high BG frequency low-order perturbation theory standard QED regime

1
high intensity low BG frequency multi-photon (high-order) processes important new QED regime realised by high-power optical lasers!

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

2. Vacuum Polarisation
Optical Theorem

l.h.s.: total (Breit-Wheeler) PP probability r.h.s.: (Im of) vacuum polarisation modied by laser eld
Tom Heinzl Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

central object: (vacuum) polarisation tensor


[A] = + +...

describes both modied light propagation and PP (via Im) low-energy limit (, 0) = Heisenberg-Euler for special BGs exact one-loop results available

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

simplest case: crossed elds (CF) (Narozhniy 1969, Ritus 1972)


E = B = const, E B (frozen plane wave) BG Lorentz invariants vanish: only two remaining invariants: k 2 = 2 (1 n)2
B k (probe) K (BG) E z
1 2 2 (E

B 2) = 0 = E B

b 2 = 2 (1 n cos )2 I , n = index of refraction henceforth: head-on, i.e. z = , k =

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

3. Vacuum Birefringence
Two small parameters:

TH, R. Sauerbrey, A. Wipf et al., Opt. Commun. 267, 318 (2006)

dimensionless probe frequency: /me dimensionless eld strength: E /Ec X-ray probe ( 5 keV) and ultra-high power laser (I = 1026 W/cm2 ):
Tom Heinzl

102 .
Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

Parameter Range (schematic):

100

standard QED ( = 0 )

SLAC exp.
10

strong-field QED
1

Heisenberg-Euler regime
1

presently attainable (all optical)

NB: for CF known in whole range (integral rep.)


Tom Heinzl Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

Theory (CF):
Determine relevant eigenvalues of as functions of invariants k 2 , b 2 (Narozhniy 1969, Ritus 1972) : two nontrivial dispersion relations: k 2 (k 2 , b 2 ) = 0 birefringence! solution: two indices of refraction (Toll 1952) n 1 + ( , ) = 1 + (11 3) 45
2

+ O( 4 2 )

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

Experiment
observable: ellipticity squared, 2 (n+ n )2
B e+ e linear pol. elliptical pol.

2 = 3.2 105 POLARIS: 2 5 1011

d 2 m

45 e E d high I,

ELI: 2 107 ...104 experimental challenge!

phase retardation of e+
Tom Heinzl Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

4. Vacuum Dispersion

TH, O. Schrder, J. Phys. A 39, 11623 (2006) o

Q: How does index n depend on


small break down at order 1/

and ?

and expansions of n both asymptotic

nonperturbative analysis required:


numerical t to large-order behaviour (80 orders) resummation and Kramers-Kronig consistent with analytic asymptotics of Ritus (1972)

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook


1 x 10-4

Results: pert. expansion: normal dispersion nonperturbative resummation: Im(n ) exp(4/3 )


8 x 10-5

Re + (pert.)

current exp.
6 x 10
-5

Re + (nonpert.)

+ = n+ - 1
4 x 10-5

absorption PP Kramers-Kronig: Re(n ) shows anomalous dispersion for large


Tom Heinzl
2 x 10-5

Im + (nonpert.)

= 0.1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

Outlook
Further experiments: scattering (proposal)
no direct observation yet RAL, Astra Gemini
(Lundstrm et al., PRL 2006): o

for P = 1 PW expect 0.07 s/shot


Tom Heinzl Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

PVLAS: 104 QED signal


B

(Zavattini et al, PRL 2006)

laser BG rotating B eld if probe photon disappears: absorption: Im(n) with + = vacuum dichroism: +

result: = (3.9 0.5) 1012 rad/pass check with all-laser setup !

B gA A

Gies, Jaeckel, Ringwald, PRL 2006 Ringwald 2005

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

theory to-do list


cope with advances in laser technology explain/suggest experiments new physics within QED: precision tests of high-intensity QED new physics beyond QED (cf. PVLAS) ? in any case: particle physics w/o traditional accelerators! (Tajima, Mourou 2002)

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics

Introduction Vacuum Polarisation Vacuum Birefringence Vacuum Dispersion Outlook

Appendix: Jena Experiments

Thomson back-scattered s
(Schwoerer et al., 2006)

experimental setup

Tom Heinzl

Laser Quantum Electrodynamics