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Presented by Ashitha T S Safna K A

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Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) is a commonly used signalling system: telephone services use commonly key strokes for options selection DTMF is mainly used by touch-tone digital telephone sets which are an alternative to rotary telephone sets IIR filters are used for DTMF tone generation and detection It is easily implemented on a DSP as small part of the tasks.

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3 .A key stroke on « 9 » will generate 2 added tones. one at 852Hz low frequency and one at 1477Hz The 2 tones are Both audible.

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 Maximum data rate for a DTMF signal is 10 digits per second For a 100 ms time duration of actual tone must be within 45 ms and 55 ms The remaining period should be quiet period   5 .

introduce a simple IIR filter for generating sinewave  6 .require intense computation 3)Recursive method. commonly set to 8KHz for telecommunications  Sine wave can be generated using 1)lookup table. Implemented by connecting 2 sine wave generator in parallel and adding output to form DTMF signal as Fs – sampling frequency.which stores sinesoidal values but memory used in this may be significant 2)Polynomial approximation.

  If impulse response of IIR filter is a desired sinewave.which is the filter output when an impulse function is used as input Output expressed in Z domain z transform of =1. so X(Z)=1 The transfer function of an IIR filter expressed as Therefore this biquard require only 2 co-efficents 7 . it is expressed as .

   This IIR filter is driven to oscillation mode by placing the poles on the unit circle We only need to store 8 set of biquard co-efficent (total 16) these frequency can calculate by subsituting freq values in equ (a)&(b) The result is summerized in table below 8 .

a1 is scaled by a factor of 2.so coefficents can’t exceed 1.  Q. Other formats can be used to extend the dynamic range.15 format is used.eg:TMS320C2XX Q.999 Fixed point processors with wider dynamic range is preffered.14 format can represent coefficients in the range -2 to 1..23 format is used in it    . As a result.This reduces filter gain.So no scaling would be required…Eg:Q1.

A DTMF generator using 2 IIR Filters connected in parallel 10 .

1.N-1. 11 .…. DFT of N samples of x(n) computed as is the twiddle factor k =0.2.   DTMF tone detector detects a valid tone pair and verifies the correct tone duration Simple approach for detecting sinewave is to perform spectral analysis using DFT If received signal is x(n).

  DTMF detector need only 8 different X(k) corresponding to the DTMF frequencies The most efficient way to calculate required X(k) is by using GOERTZEL ALGORITHM which extracts the selected frequency information For each value of k the flow graph of Goertzel filter is as follows 12 .

 Consider the property of twiddle factor Multiply both sides of equ (2) by . we have   We can relate the above DFT to bandpass filter by defining a sequence. Equ (4) is equivalent to convolution of finite duration sequence x(n)with sequence 13 .

we can say X(k)=yk(n) at time n=N-1 Therefore instead of computing DFT we can simply calculate filter output at time n=N-1 Taking Z transform of equ (5)     This filter has pole on unit circle at and N parallel filter can be used to implement N point DFT 14 . Therefore impulse response of filter is By compairing equ (3) and(4).

where N=256 And fs=8000Hz 15 . In DTMF detection . only 8 filters are needed and k can be determined as For example:-  Block diagram of Goertzel filter for DTMF detection.

thus require complex multiplication and addition Replacing complex co efficent with real co efficent can reduce the computation This is done by multiplying both sides of equ (6) by to form 16 .   The transfer func {equ(6)} reveals that the co-eficent is complex.

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Therfore 2 equ used for computaion of tone detection are equ(7) which need to be computed for n=0.2…N-1 and equ(9) which only need to computed once at time n=N-1 18 . recursive part LHS of delay element Nonrecursive part  RHS of delay element recursive computaion of yk(n) {where real co-efficents are used in feedback section}is expressed as  Complex variable present in nonrecursive part need to compute once for every N samples at time N-1 as   The complex computation can be elimated by computing a magnitude square of X(k) for tone detection It is computed as  This equation doesnot contain any complex co eficent.1.   From fig.

    Some problems on using Goertzel filter for DTMF tone detectors are 1) only approximate DTMF frequency is computed 2)high sensitive to over flow and round off noise because poles of filter are on unit circle Once Goertzel filtering is computed. the DTMF tone detector enters a tone/pause decision mode When pause detected DTMF tone detection is disabled and decoder waits for completion of pause period When tone detector must identify the DTMF tone presence and excicute tone validation tests which are 19 .

1)magnitude test– dtmf reciver operate at average range of-29dB to +1dB So larger magnitude in each band must be greater than a threshold of -29dB. tones may attunated according to sys gain. otherwise dtmf signal shouldnot detect for this test |X(k)|^2 is computed 2)twist test – because of frequency response of telephone sys. Test.to prevent some broad band noises from being detected as effective tone.larger magnitude in each group is compared to magnitude of other group 20 . Twist-difference in decibel between high and low frequency tone levels Forward twist-high frequency tone level < low frequency tone level Reverse twist-high frequency tone level > low frequency tone level 3)Frequency offset test .

if 2 freq 750Hz and 1219Hz D(m)=2+4(2-1)=6 If test fails -1 represent no detection 21 . .1.….4)tone to total energy test – to reject broad noise C1>E..C3>E C1 energy of detected tone in low frequency C2 energy of detected tone in high frequency C3=C1 +C2.intex of row freq Eg.to reject speech that has harmonics close to fk so that they might be detected as dtmf tone 6)digit decoder .C2>E.intex of colum freq R.frame intex C.if all test passes tone pair is decoded as integer between 1 and 16 Decoder implimented as D(m)=C+4(R-1) D(m). m=0. 5)2nd harmonic test ..digit detected for frame m.

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 Real -Time digital signal processing implementations. Bob H Lee 23 .applications and experiments with the TMS320C5X by Sen M Kuo.

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