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CDMA & IS-95

CDMA & IS-95

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Published by Naresh Rawat

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Published by: Naresh Rawat on Nov 16, 2011
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Sections

  • CDMA Basics & IS-95 System
  • CDMA Basics
  • What is CDMA?
  • Understanding Spread Spectrum
  • Direct Sequence Spreading
  • DS-SS Transmitter
  • DS-SS Receiver
  • Interference Rejection In SS
  • Properties Of Orthogonal Codes
  • Hadamard Matrices
  • Walsh Codes
  • Using Walsh Code For Spreading
  • Using Walsh Code For Spreading (Contd.)
  • Using Walsh Code For Spreading & Multiaccess
  • Using Walsh Code For Modulation
  • Using Walsh Code For Modulation (Contd.)
  • Modulation Scheme
  • Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code
  • Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code (Contd.)
  • Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code (Contd.)
  • Other Spreading Codes
  • PN Sequences
  • MLSR Sequence Generator
  • 3-stage MLSR Sequence Generator
  • Generating PN Sequence With Offset
  • Autocorrelation Function Of PN Sequence
  • Near-Far Problem
  • Near-Far Problem (Contd.)
  • Rake Receiver Principles
  • Rake Receiver Principles (Contd.)
  • Power Control On Reverse Link
  • Power Control
  • Handoffs In IS-95 CDMA
  • Micro Vs Macro Diversity
  • Micro Vs Macro Diversity (Contd.)
  • Handoffs In IS-95 CDMA (Contd.)
  • Soft Handoff Architecture
  • Handoff Example
  • Handoff Example (Contd.)
  • Recap Of CDMA
  • Advantages of CDMA
  • IS-95 System
  • Overview Of IS-95 System
  • Overview Of IS-95 System (Contd.)
  • Is-95 Network Architecture
  • Logical Channels In Is-95 System
  • Forward And Reverse Channels
  • Forward Link Channel Arrangement
  • General Transmission Scheme - Forward
  • Pilot Channel
  • Modulation Structure Of Pilot Channel
  • Station Specific PN Short Codes & Offsets
  • Synchronisation Channel
  • Modulation Structure Of Synchronisation Channel
  • Paging Channel
  • Paging Channel (Contd.)
  • Modulation Structure Of Paging Channel
  • Slotted Operation Of Paging Channel
  • Forward Traffic Channel
  • Modulation Structure Of Forward Traffic Channel
  • Modulation Structure of Access Channel
  • Modulation Structure of Reverse Traffic Channel
  • Closed Loop Power Control in Reverse Link
  • Closed Loop Power Control in Reverse Link (Contd.)
  • Position Of Power Control Bits
  • Generating Long Code
  • Operation Of Data Burst Randomizer
  • Forward And Reverse – Key Differences
  • Forward And Reverse– Key Differences (Contd.)
  • Forward / Reverse Traffic Channel Payload
  • Blank And Burst & Dim And Burst
  • Transmission Formats (Full Rate)
  • General Transmission Scheme - Reverse
  • Reverse Link Channel Arrangement
  • IS-95 – Key Facts
  • IS-95 Evolution To IS-95B
  • Forward Traffic Channel Arrangement In IS-95B
  • Reverse Traffic Channel Arrangement In IS-95B

Pulsetone Industries 1

A Maheswaran
Pulsetone Industries
magi@mageeacademy.com

CDMA Basics & IS-95 System
Pulsetone Industries 2
CDMA Basics
Pulsetone Industries 3
What is CDMA?
 CDMA is Code Division Multiple Access
 Also called Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
(DS-SS)
 Belongs to broader communication systems
called Spread Spectrum
 This is a wideband system having many
advantages
 Immune to narrow band interferences
 Exploits multipath propagation
 Better handover due to soft handover
 Increased capacity (users / sq km / MHz)
Pulsetone Industries 4
Understanding Spread Spectrum
 Normally RF bandwidth is conserved
 In spread spectrum communication bandwidth is
deliberately increased
 Evolved out of military communication
• In avoiding detection and jamming
• For preventing eavesdropping
 There are 2 types of Spread Spectrum
 Freq. Hopped SS (FH-SS) – Carrier frequency is
changed periodically Bandwidth remains the same
 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS) –
Suitable for data transmission & original data
spread manifold (say 8 to 1024 times) - This will
be our focus
Pulsetone Industries 5
Direct Sequence Spreading
 Here, the binary message bit sequence is
multiplied (Ex-Ored) with a bipolar (binary) code
(chip) sequence
 If L chips multiply every bit, then the BW of the
message seq. increases L times
 Usually we choose L of the form L = 2
k
 The Coding (or Spreading) Gain of the system is
3k dB
T
c
T
b
Pulsetone Industries 6
DS-SS Transmitter
Spread Spectrum
Transmitter

R
Information
Transmitted
Signal
freq.
W
Processing Gain = W/R >> 1
Spreading
Code
freq.
Pulsetone Industries 7
DS-SS Receiver
Information
freq.
Spread Spectrum
Receiver

R
Received
Signal
Despreading
Code
freq. W
Pulsetone Industries 8
Interference Rejection In SS
Frequency Frequency
Spectral
Density
Spectral
Density
Interfering
signal
Desired
signal
Desired
signal
Interfering
signal
a) At the SS receiver input b) Correlator output after
despreading
Proc.
Gain
Pulsetone Industries 9
 DS-SS techniques useful for multi access purpose
 Same wide band used by different users
 Spread sequences (or codes) of users to be different
and mutually orthogonal
 This is called Code Division Multi Access
• Orthogonal codes ensure signals do not interfere
with each other
 Code used for despreading at the receiver has to be
exactly the same
• Otherwise decorrelation occurs
• Orthogonal codes need to generated by simple
process
Using DS-SS For Multiple Access
Pulsetone Industries 10
 Spreading gain allows weaker signals to be
received without errors
 Being a wide band signal, this is immune to
multipath fading and narrow band interference
 Many orthogonal codes are available
Walsh Codes
PN Sequence – Long codes
PN Sequence – Short codes
 Orthogonal codes allow efficient means of
sharing a given RF spectrum by different users
Using DS-SS For Multiple Access
Pulsetone Industries 11
Properties Of Orthogonal Codes
 Orthogonal property
 Two codes C
1
& C
2
having a periodicity over T are
orthogonal, if and only if
¿ C
1
* C
2
= 0 (over the period T)
 Walsh codes derived from Hadamard matrixes have good
properties for use as orthogonal codes
 Hadamard matrices are square matrices with n x n binary
elements
 All rows of this matrixes are mutually orthogonal, (if we
consider an agreement as having a weight of +1 and
disagreement as having a weight of –1)
Pulsetone Industries 12
Hadamard Matrices
0 0
0 1
H
2
=
0
H
1
=
A 2
n
x 2
n
Hadamard Matrix can be generated by
following the recursive procedure
H
4
=
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
H
2N
=
H
N

H
N

H
N

H
N

All 2N rows of matrix are mutually
orthogonal
H
2N

Pulsetone Industries 13
Walsh Codes
 The rows of Hadamard matrix are used as code
words and these are called Walsh codes
 Walsh codes are extensively used in CDMA systems
both for spreading and modulation
 In IS-95 system, 64 x 64 Walsh codes are used for
spreading on forward link and for modulation on
reverse link
• When it is used for spreading, the spreading
factor is 64
• When it is used for modulation, the spreading
factor is (64 / 6) since 6 bits will be represented
by 64 chips
Pulsetone Industries 14
Using Walsh Code For Spreading
Walsh Code
Generator (W
i
)
1.2288 Mcps
+
Traffic data
of
i
th user
(data rate of
19.2 kbps)
Output after
spreading
In every symbol time (1 bit), we have 64 Walsh chips W
i
or inversion of W
i
being sent depending upon whether the
bit is 0 or 1
Pulsetone Industries 15
Using Walsh Code For Spreading (Contd.)
Though Walsh codes have excellent properties by
way of orthogonality, the transmitter and receiver
need to have a perfectly synchronised copies –
otherwise orthogonality is not guaranteed






If {0 0 1 1} is used as code word, then this can
result in {0 1 1 0}. Hence Walsh code is used for
spreading on forward link where perfect
synchronisation can be assured
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
Pulsetone Industries 16
Walsh
Code


Chip
# 1


Chip
# 2



Chip
# 4

Chip
# 5


Chip
# 6




W
0


1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

W
1


1

-1

1

-1

1

-1

1

-1

W
2


1

1

-1

-1

1

1

-1

-1

W
3


1

-1

-1

1

1

-1

-1

1

W
4


1

1

1

1

-1

-1

-1

-1

W
5


1

-1

1

-1

-1

1

-1

1

W
6


1

1

-1

-1

-1

-1

1

1

W
7


1

-1

-1

1

-1

1

1

-1

Chip
# 3
Chip
# 7
Chip
# 8
Pulsetone Industries 17
Using Walsh Code For Spreading & Multiaccess
 For demonstrating CDMA (using DS-SS
techniques for multi access purpose) we will do
the following:
Spreading
(User1)
Spreading
(User2)
Despreading
(User2)
Despreading
(User1)
User1
Data
(0101)
User2
Data
(0011)
W
1

W
5
W
1

W
5
Decoded
User1 Data
(0101)
Decoded
User2 Data
(0011)
Code Division
Multiplexed
Output
Pulsetone Industries 18
User1 Data 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
W
1
1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1
Output1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1
User2 Data
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
W
5
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
Output2 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
Sum 2 -2 2 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 2 -2 2
W
1
1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1
Product 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 -2 -2 -2
Total
¿ = +8 ¿ = -8
User1 Data (+8/8 = +1 >0) 0 (-8/8 = -1 <0) 1
W
5
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
Product 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2
Total
¿ = +8 ¿ = +8
User2 Data (+8/8 = +1 >0) 0 (+8/8 = +1 >0) 0
Pulsetone Industries 19
User1 Data 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
W
1
1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1
Output1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1
User2 Data -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
W
5
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
Output2 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1
Sum 0 0 0 0 2 -2 2 -2 -2 2 -2 2 0 0 0 0
W
1
1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1
Product 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 -2 -2 -2 -2 0 0 0 0
Total
¿ = +8 ¿ = -8
User1 Data
(+8/8 = +1 >0) 0 (-8/8 = -1 <0) 1
W
5
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
Product 0 0 0 0 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 0 0 0 0
Total
¿ = -8 ¿ = -8
User2 Data
(-8/8 = -1 <0) 1 (-8/8 = -1 <0) 1
Pulsetone Industries 20
Using Walsh Code For Modulation
Walsh code is used in reverse traffic channel of IS-
95 for modulating user traffic data
In everys symbol time (6 bits), we send chips of a
particular Walsh code depending upon the 6 bit
combination
Modulator
using
Walsh Code
Traffic data
of
i
th user
(data rate of
28.8 kbps)
Output after
Modulation
(307.2 kcps)
Symbol
Generator
4.8 ksps (6
bits / symbol)
Pulsetone Industries 21
Using Walsh Code For Modulation (Contd.)
 This improves reception at the base station –
detecting forward link is more difficult due to Near-
Far problem and non-coherent detection
 Modulation using orthogonal Walsh codes enhances
the decision making algorithm at the receiver and
is computationally efficient
 We can view this Walsh modulation as a form of
block error correcting code with (n,k) = (64,6)
with d
min
= 32 (in fact the distance between any
code word is 32)
Pulsetone Industries 22
Using Walsh Code For Modulation
Data rate
k bits per sec
Rate k/3 symbols per
sec (3 bits / Symbol)
Modulation
Using Walsh
Codes
Serial to
Parallel
Converter
Modulated output
(k*8/3 chips per sec)
{W
0
,

W
1
,

W
2
,

W
3
,
W
4
,

W
5
,

W
6
, W
7
}
Pulsetone Industries 23
Modulation Scheme
Symbol Bits Walsh code
chosen for
modulation
D
2
D
1
D
0

0 0 0 W
0
0 0 1 W
1
0 1 0 W
2
0 1 1 W
3
1 0 0 W
4
1 0 1 W
5
1 1 0 W
6
1 1 1 W
7
Pulsetone Industries 24
Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code
 Bit Sequence to be transmitted (101011001110)
 Converting to symbols with 3 bits / symbol
 [101 011 001 110]
 Modulating with Walsh codes as per table yields
 {W
5
W
3
W
1
W
6
}
 Corresponding chips are
• {1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1
1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1
1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1}
Pulsetone Industries 25
Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code (Contd.)
Correlation
Receiver
Correlation
Receiver
Correlation
Receiver
Correlation
Receiver
Correlation
Receiver
Correlation
Receiver
Correlation
Receiver
Correlation
Receiver
Threshold
Decision
Maker
W
0

W
2

W
4

W
6

W
7

W
1

W
3

W
5

Received
Chips
Decoded
Symbol
Pulsetone Industries 26
Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code
(Contd.)
 Demodulation is done by correlating the received
chips with various Walsh chips and finding the
match with maximum likelihood decoding
 Taking the chips in the first symbol {1-11-1-11-
11} and doing this for W
0

1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
¿ = 0 (Minimum matching)
• For W
1
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1
1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
¿ = 0 (Minimum matching)
Pulsetone Industries 27
Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code
(Contd.)
 For W
2

1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1
1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1
¿ = 0 (Minimum matching)
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1
1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1
¿ = 0 (Minimum matching)
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1
¿ = 0 (Minimum matching)
•For W
3

•For W
4

Pulsetone Industries 28
Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code
(Contd.)
 For W
5

1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
¿ = 8 (Maximum matching)
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1
1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1
¿ = 0 (Minimum matching)
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1
1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1
¿ = 0 (Minimum matching)
•For W
6

•For W
7

Pulsetone Industries 29
Other Spreading Codes
 CDMA systems use multiple spreading, each
spreading serving a different purpose
 So we need many classes of spreading codes
 User specific codes: A large number of mobiles
need to be allotted spreading codes and these
have to be administered & synchronised
 Station Specific codes: On the forward link we
need to spread the combined signal to have a
station specific spreading to provide isolation
between transmissions of different base stations
 Scrambling codes: Not all Walsh codes
generate wide band signals (like W
0
) we need to
scramble the data so that the resulting signal is
truly wideband
Pulsetone Industries 30
Properties Of Spreading Code
 Desired Randomness Properties
 P1: Balance Property
• Relative frequencies of occurrence of 1‟s and
0‟s should be 1/2
 P2: Run Length Property
• Run lengths of 1‟s and 0‟s are as expected in
a coin-flipping experiment
• 1/2 of all run lengths are unity,
• 1/4 of the run lengths are 2,
• 1/8 of the run lengths are 3, and so on
 P3: Delay and Add Property
• Equal number of agreements and
disagreements between a sequence and its
shifted version
Pulsetone Industries 31
PN Sequences
 Psuedo-random Noise (PN) Sequences
 A deterministically generated sequence that
`nearly‟ satisfies properties P1 to P3 , within
extremely small discrepancies
 Maximum Length Shift Register (MLSR)
generated sequences
 Are PN sequences which nearly satisfy P1 to
P3
 Also called as m-sequence, where m is the
number of shift registers used to generate the
sequence
 Period of an m-sequence P, is given by
1 2 ÷ =
m
P
Pulsetone Industries 32
MLSR Sequence Generator
Generating Function, G(D), is given by
[G(D) is the generated sequence]
Characteristic polynomial, f(D), is given by
[ƒ(D) gives the tap connections of Seq Gen]
D: Delay
operator
¿
=
÷ =
r
i
i
i
D c D f
1
1 ) (
¿
·
=
=
0
) (
n
n
n
D a D G
¿
=
÷
=
r
i
i n i n
a c a
1
1
c
2
c
r
c
D D D
r n
a
÷
2 ÷ n
a
1 ÷ n
a
No connection
Connection
¹
´
¦
=
, 1
, 0
i
c
Pulsetone Industries 33
3-stage MLSR Sequence Generator
+
D
D D
Sequence No

X
0


X
1


X
2


0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

2

0

1

0

3

1

0

1

4

1

1

0

5

1

1

1

6

0

1

1

7

0

0

1

PN Sequence
Output
Clock
Pulsetone Industries 34
Generating PN Sequence With Offset
Initial State

Output Sequence

0 0 1

1 0 0 1 0 1 1

1 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 1 1

0 1 0

0 1 0 1 1 1 0

1 0 1

1 0 1 1 1 0 0

1 1 0

0 1 1 1 0 0 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 0 0 1 0

0 1 1

1 1 0 0 1 0 1

PN Sequences
with known
offset can be
generated by
starting with an
Initial State
(seed)
PN codes are
generated
unique to
mobiles by
using ESN as
seed at both MS
and BS
Pulsetone Industries 35
Autocorrelation Function Of PN Sequence
0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0
0
1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
1 PN Period = N Tc
Binary
PN Seq.
Tc
1 1 1
1/N
Tc
Tc
ACF
c T s t
For large N, 0
1
÷
N
t
t
Pulsetone Industries 36
Near-Far Problem
 CDMA base station receives signals from all mobile
stations
 All of them transmit on the same wideband
channel with only channelisation codes / PN long
codes to discriminate the signals
 If we assume that all of them transmit with same
power
• The signal from far off mobile will be
comparatively weaker than the signal from a
near by mobile
• This has to be detected in the presence of a
stronger signal from a nearby mobile
Pulsetone Industries 37
Near-Far Problem (Contd.)
 This problem is called “Near-Far” Problem and this
problem gets further compounded by fading and
other short term variations that take place due to
the channel
 Solution is to tightly control the power transmitted
by all mobiles so that they are seen with equal
power at the base station
• This is done by closed loop power control
whereby the mobiles are asked to vary power
continuously to meet the target
Pulsetone Industries 38
Rake Receiver Principles
 Multipath creates ISI (inter symbol interference)
problem in conventional data transmission
 However, in the case of CDMA the chip rate
being much is handled differently by
constructively combining the multipath
signals to improve signal to noise ratio
 This is done in RAKE receiver where a
separate correlator (called RAKE finger) is
assigned for each multipath signal
 Typically MS has 4 RAKE fingers and out of
these 3 are used for combining signals and 1
is used as a searcher
Pulsetone Industries 39
Rake Receiver Principles (Contd.)
DEMOD
Code
Generator
Input
Data
MOD
t
2

t
3

t
1
a
1

¿ a
2

a`
3

a
3

a`
2


1

¿
+
+
+
+
Output
data
c(t-t
1
)

c(t-t
3
)

c(t-t
2
)

RAKE
receiver
Multipath channel
Pulsetone Industries 40
Rake Receiver Principles (Contd.)
 RAKE fingers are used in the Mobile Rx for
combining multipath components
 3 fingers for tracking and demodulating
upto 3 different multipath signals of Forward
channel
 1 searcher for searching and estimating
signal strength on different pilots, coarse
timing of different multipaths
• to select desired (strongest) base station in
idle mode
• to provide hypothesis testing and coarse
timing estimation
• to generate pilot strength information
messages during traffic mode to enable
Handoff
Pulsetone Industries 41
Power Control On Reverse Link
Transmitter
Receiver
Gain
Duplexer
Open Loop Power
Control
Transmitter
Receiver
Gain
Duplexer
Transmitter
Receiver
Duplexer
Base Station
Mobile Station
Closed Loop Power
Control
Control path for closed
loop power control
Pulsetone Industries 42
Power Control
 To combat the effect of fading, shadowing and
distance losses
 Transmit only the minimum required power to
achieve a target link performance (e.g., FER)
 Minimizes interference
 Increases battery life
 Forward Link Power Control
 To send enough power to reach users at cell
edge
 Reverse Link Power Control is very critical
 To overcome “near-far” problem in DS-CDMA
Pulsetone Industries 43
Handoffs In IS-95 CDMA
 Types of Handoff
 Soft Handoff
• Mobile commences communication with a
new BS without interrupting communication
with old BS
• same frequency assignment between old and
new BS
• provides different site selection diversity
 Softer handoff
• Handoffs between sectors in a cell
 CDMA-to-CDMA Hard Handoff
• Mobile transmits between two base stations
with different frequency assignment
Pulsetone Industries 44
Micro Vs Macro Diversity
 Diversity principles are used to improve RF signal
quality
 This is based on the fact that statistical
properties of two or more paths will be
uncorrelated
• When one path is experiencing deep fade, the
other one is unlikely to experience deep fade
 In space diversity we may receive through 2
antennas separated in space and combine the
signals to improve the performance
 We call this Micro Diversity
• RAKE receiver combining mulipaths from the
same BS can also be called some form of
micro diversity
Pulsetone Industries 45
Micro Vs Macro Diversity (Contd.)
 What we do during soft hand off is Macro Diversity,
where 2 or more BSs are beaming the same signal
toward the same MS
 The received signals are combined in RAKE
receiver
 Resulting signal will be much better than any
individual one
 Transmission by MS is received by all BSs and the
best signal received is selected at the BSC / MSC
 Macro diversity is a boon in CDMA system
Pulsetone Industries 46
Handoffs In IS-95 CDMA (Contd.)
 Basis for Handoff
 MS does measurements on Pilot channels on
serving base station + other base stations
• Search finger in RAKE receiver helps Ms
• Information about neighbouring PN offsets
provided by BS in System_Parameter helps
 MS classifies the Pilots into 4 categories
• Active Set
• Candidate Set
• Neighbour Set
• Remaining Set
 These sets are dynamically updated based
upon the measurements
Pulsetone Industries 47
Handoffs In IS-95 CDMA (Contd.)
 Pilot Sets
 Active Set
• Pilots associated with Forward Link traffic
channels assigned to the mobile in soft
handoff
 Candidate Set
• Pilots that are not in Active Set but are
received by the mobile with sufficient
strength
 Neighbour Set
• Pilots not in Active or Candidate Set but are
likely candidates for handoff
 Remaining Set
• Set in the current system on current freq
assignment, excluding the above 3 sets
Pulsetone Industries 48
Soft Handoff Architecture
Mobile
BSC
BSC
BTS BTS
BTS
New Link
Old Link
MSC
To other switch
Energy measurements are made at
the mobile
Frame Selection:
MSC selects the bit stream with
lower error rate
BTS
Pulsetone Industries 49
Micro Vs Macro Diversity (Contd.)
Time or Distance
E
C
/I
t
Pilot 1
Pilot 2
Active Set
Total E
C
/I
t

Dynamic Soft
Handoff Region
Pulsetone Industries 50
Handoff Example
Time
Pilot
Strength
(1)
T_ADD
T_DROP
(2) (3)
(4) (5) (6) (7)
Neighbour
Set
Candidate
Set
Active Set
T_TDROP
Neighbour
Set
Pulsetone Industries 51
Handoff Example (Contd.)
(1) Pilot strength exceeds T_ADD. Mobile sends a
Pilot Strength Measurement Message
(PSMM) to base station and transfers pilot to the
Candidate Set
(2) Base station sends a Handoff Direction
Message (HDM)
(3) Mobile transfers pilot to Active Set and sends
Handoff Completion Message (HCM)
(4) Pilot strength drops below T_DROP. Mobile
starts handoff drop timer
(5) Handoff drop timer expires. Mobile sends a
PSMM
(6) Base station sends a HDM
(7) Mobile moves pilot from Active Set to Neighbour
Set and sends a HCM
Pulsetone Industries 52
Recap Of CDMA
 Being a wideband system, this is immune to
multipath propagation
 RAKE receiver exploits multipath to improve
reception
 No frequency planning is required since the same
frequency can be used in nearby cell also
 Offers advantage of soft capacity and soft handoff
 Suffers form “Near-Far” problem
 Tight closed loop power control is required to
overcome this problem
 Offers more capacity than FDMA or TDMA systems
Pulsetone Industries 53
Advantages of CDMA
 In mobile environment multi path propagation is a
serious issue resulting in ISI
 Multi path is not resolvable in narrow band
systems where symbol time is comparable to
multi path delay
• GSM has symbol time of 3.69 µsec vis-à-vis
delay spreads of 3-8 µsec
 CDMA is a wideband system (IS-95 symbol time is
about 0.8 µsec, much smaller than multi path
delay)
 Multi path can be resolved and constructively
combined using RAKE receivers
 Thus we are able to exploit the multi path
propagation for improving the signal to noise
ratio
Pulsetone Industries 54
IS-95 System
Pulsetone Industries 55
Overview Of IS-95 System
 IS-95 is a proprietary design by Qualcomm
 Developed to overcome capacity issues in AMPS
 Network architecture greatly influenced by GSM
 Meant for supporting circuit mode voice services
 Has been enhanced for supporting data services
 DS-SS on both Forward and Reverse links
 Universal frequency reuse requiring no frequency
planning
 64 Walsh Codes used supporting a theoretical
maximum of 64 active users
 Channel of 1.25 MHz wide (1.2288 Mcps chip rate)
Pulsetone Industries 56
Overview Of IS-95 System (Contd.)
 Fast power control to combat Near-Far problem
 RAKE receiver to take advantage of multipath
 Soft handoff making use of macro diversity
 Qualcomm 9600 bps Code Excited Linear Predictive
(QCELP) speech coder with a variable data rate from
9600 bps to 1200 bps is used
 CDMA system is interference limited with soft capacity
 Interference reduction is a dominant theme
Variable rate coding for reducing the duty cycle
Closed loop power control
Pulsetone Industries 57
Is-95 Network Architecture
U
m

MS
BTS BSC
A
bis

MSC A
TR-45 / 46 Reference Model
HLR VLR
AC EIR
C B
H
F
D
MSC
E
Other
VLR
G
PSPDN
PSTN
ISDN
PLMN
M
i
D
i
A
i

P
i
IWF
AUX OS
L X
O
WPT2
TAP
WPT1
WPT0
TE2
TE2
TE1
R
m

S
m

S
m

Pulsetone Industries 58
Logical Channels In Is-95 System
Control Channels
Forward Reverse
Pilot Sync Paging
Access
Dim &
Burst
Traffic Channels
Speech or Data Associated Signaling
Full Rate
1/2 Rate 1/4 Rate
1/8 Rate
Blank &
Burst
Power Control
(Forward)
Pulsetone Industries 59
Forward And Reverse Channels
 Forward Channels (making up a total of max 64)
 1 Pilot Channel
 1 Synchronisation Channel
 Upto 7 Paging Channels
 Traffic Channels
 Reverse Channels
 Access Channels called Random Access
Channels
 Traffic Channels
Pulsetone Industries 60
Forward Link Channel Arrangement


. . . . . . . . . .
Forward CDMA Link (1.2288 MHz
channel transmitted by base station
Pilot
Sync
W
0

W
7

W
8

W
63

W
32
W
1

PCH#1 PCH#7
Code#1
Code#N
Code#P
Code#55
Code#M
FTCH
FTCH with multiple code channel
Fundamental
Code Channel
Mobile Power
Control Subchannel
Pulsetone Industries 61
General Transmission Scheme - Forward
 Data rate ranges from 1200 to 9600 bps
 This rate is made upto 19200 bps by rate ½ coding
and repetition of 8 to 1
 This data is spread to a channel chip rate of
1.2288 Mcps using combination of techniques
 Each IS-95 channel occupies 1.25 MHz of spectrum
 Channel chip rate is 1.2288 Mchips/s
 64 orthogonal Walsh functions are used in forward
channel for spreading purpose
Pulsetone Industries 62
Pilot Channel
 Pilot channel is the first channel mobile looks for
 Its power level is kept 4 to 6 dB above traffic
channels
 Provides phase reference for coherent
demodulation
 Allows pilot strength measurement for handoff
 This is carried on Code Channel 0 (uses W
0
)
 Results in transmitting the station PN sequence
with a length of 32,768 {(2
15
-1) PN Sequence
plus a „0‟}
• Corresponds to a period of 26.667 msec
 All base stations use the same PN sequence, with
unique offsets in increments of 64 chips
 Base stations are identified by their unique offset
Pulsetone Industries 63
Modulation Structure Of Pilot Channel
1.2288 Mcps
I-Chl Pilot
PN Seq
Q-Chl Pilot
PN Seq
Balanced
QPSK
Pilot takes 15-20% of total Tx power
Walsh Function 0
(all zeros)
all zeros
Pulsetone Industries 64
Station Specific PN Short Codes & Offsets
32,768 Chips
Short
code 0
Short
code i
Short
code I+1
Short
code k
Short
code 0
64
Chips
64 Chips
Short
code 511
64 Chips
…………………………………………………………………….
1 Chip
Short
code 1
Pulsetone Industries 65
Synchronisation Channel
 This always operates at a fixed data rate of 1200 bps
 After rate ½ convolutional coding and repetition (of
2) the date rate becomes 4800 bps
 This gets spread by Code Channel 32 (W
32
) operating
at 1.2288 Mcps
 Sync Channel message has the following information
 System Identification (SID), Network Identification
(NID), Pilot short PN sequence offset index
(PILOT_PN), Long Code State, System time,
Paging channel data rate (4.8 or 9.6 kbps), etc.
Pulsetone Industries 66
Modulation Structure Of Synchronisation
Channel
Convolutional
Encoder
and Repetition
r =1/2, K = 9
Sync.
Data
Block
Inter-leave
1.2288 Mcps
4.8 Kbps
Walsh
Code 32
I-Chl Pilot
PN Seq
Q-Chl Pilot
PN Seq

1.2Kbps
Balanced
QPSK
4.8 Kbps
Sync. Channel typically has about 10%
of the Tx power of the Pilot
Pulsetone Industries 67
Paging Channel
 Paging channel is used to transmit control
information at either 4.8 or 9.6 kbps
 The format is similar to that of Sync channel
message
 8 bit length indicator, 2-1146 bits long data, 30
bit CRC
 Paging message can use synchronised capsules
that end on a half frame boundary or
unsynchronised capsules that can end
anywhere
• Synchronised capsules use padding bits to
reach the nearest half frame boundary
• Synchronised paging messages carry
multiple of 48 bits (4.8 kbps) and 96 bits
(9.6 kbps)
Pulsetone Industries 68
Paging Channel (Contd.)
 Eight paging channel half-frames are combined to
forma a paging channel slot of length 80 msec
(384 bits at 4800 bps and 768 bits at 9600 bps)
 Type of messages carried by paging channel
include
System parameter message
Access parameter message
Neighbour list message
CDMA carrier list message
Slotted page / Page message
Order messages
Channel assignment messages
Authentication challenge message
Pulsetone Industries 69
Modulation Structure Of Paging Channel
Convolutional
Encoder
(and Repetition
for 4.8 kbps)
r =1/2, K = 9
Paging
Data
Block
Inter-leave
1.2288 Mcps
19.2Kbps
Walsh
Code p (1-7)
I-Chl Pilot
PN Seq
Q-Chl Pilot
PN Seq

9.6Kbps
4.8Kbps
Balanced
QPSK
19.2 Kbps
Totally, the Paging Channels have about
75% of the Tx power of the Pilot
Long Code
generator
Decimator
Long code mask
for p
th
paging
channel
1.2288 Mcps
Scrambling
Code -- 19.2Kcps
Pulsetone Industries 70
Slotted Operation Of Paging Channel
I=0, T=2 =1; PGSLOT = Slot number 6 out of every 16 slots
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 2047 0
1 Slot Cycle 1.28
Seconds
80 ms
Mobile in
Nonactive State
Mobile in
Nonactive State
Paging Channel
Slot
Reacquisition
Time
8 Paging Channel
Half- Frame
Pulsetone Industries 71
Forward Traffic Channel
 This channel is used for carrying user traffic
 Data rates are 9600, 4800, 2400 and 1200 with
lower data rates being associated with low voice
activity
 Convolutional coding, symbol repetition and block
interleaving make the data rate 19.2 kbps
 Scrambling of user data is achieved using long
code generated with mobile‟s ESN as long code
mask and used for scrambling user data after a
decimator block
 Power control subchannel @ 800 bps is added by
stealing the scrambled bits
 Walsh code W
i
(for the ith channel) spreads this
rate to 1.2288 Mcps
Pulsetone Industries 72
Modulation Structure Of Forward Traffic
Channel
Convolutional
Encoder
and Repetition
r =1/2, K = 9
User data
(Taffic)
Block
Interleaver
(24x16)
Long Code
generator
Decimator
Decimator

M
U
X

Long code
for i
th
user
1.2288 Mcps
1.2288 Mcps
19.2 kbps
Power
Control
Bit
800 Hz
Walsh
Code i
(use 1/64x24)
Scrambling
(use 1/64)
I-Chl Pilot
PN Seq
Q-Chl Pilot
PN Seq
9600 bps
4800 bps
2400 bps
1200 bps
Balanced
QPSK
(Short Code of BS;
2
15
-1=26.67msecs)
Pulsetone Industries 73
Access Channel
 Access channel is used by the mobile to transmit
control information like call origination and response
to paging
 Data rate is 4800 bps
 Each access channel is identified by a distinct long
code sequence having an access number, a paging
channel number associated with the access
channel and other system data
 Types of access channel messages are
 Registration message, Order message, Origination
messages, Page response message,
Authentication challenge response message and
so on
Pulsetone Industries 74
Modulation Structure of Access Channel
Convolutional
Encoder
and Repetition
r =1/3, K = 9


Block
Interleaver
32x18


Long Code
generator
Long code Mask of
Access Channel
1.2288 Mcps
Pilot PN
Seq I Chl
4800 bps
28.8 Kbps
64-ary
Orthogonal
Modulator
Pilot PN
Seq Q Chl
Data
burst
randomizer
Code
symbol
Walsh
chip
307.2 Kcps
{ 28.8 (64/6) }
D
1/2 chip
delay
Modulator
Offset
QPSK
Pulsetone Industries 75
Reverse Traffic Channel
 This channel is used for carrying user traffic
 Data rates are 9600, 4800, 2400 and 1200 with
lower data rates being associated with low voice
activity
 Convolutional coding (rate 1/3), symbol repetition
and block interleaving make the data rate 28.8
kbps
 Interleaved data at 28.8 kbps is modulated using
Walsh code with 6 bits being used as symbol to
select one of 64 Walsh codes to get modulated data
at 307.2 ksps
 PN long code generated using user‟s ESN as seed is
used for taking out the repeated data and for
spreading this 4-fold to 1.2288 msps
 Finally the Pilot PN code is used for scrambling
Pulsetone Industries 76
Modulation Structure of Reverse Traffic Channel
Convolutional
Encoder
and Repetition
r =1/3, K = 9


Block
Interleaver
32x18


Long Code
generator
Long code Mask
for user i
1.2288 Mcps
Pilot PN
Seq I Chl
9600 bps
4800 bps
2400 bps
1200 bps
28.8 Kbps
64-ary
Orthogonal
Modulator
Pilot PN
Seq Q Chl
Data
burst
randomizer
Code
symbol
Walsh
chip
307.2 Kcps
{ 28.8 (64/6) }
D
1/2 chip
delay
Modulator
Offset
QPSK
Pulsetone Industries 77
Power Control
 Types of Power Control
 Open Loop Power Control
 Closed Loop Power Control – based on feedback
 Open Loop Power Control (on forward link)
 Channel state on the forward link is estimated by
mobile
 Reverse link transmit power made proportional to
forward link channel loss
 Works well if forward link and reverse link are
highly correlated
• which is generally true for slowly varying
distance and shadow losses
• but not true with fast multipath Rayleigh
fading
Pulsetone Industries 78
Closed Loop Power Control in Reverse Link
 Reverse link subjected to
 Inner Loop Power control – for overcoming Near-
Far problem
• Control bits are punctured into the traffic data
stream
• Closed loop power control step size is +/- 1 dB
• Errors on account of power control bits recovered by
error decoding
 Outer Loop Power control – for maintaining
performance of individual links
• Done by means of messages
• Takes somewhat longer time to effect changes
 Both open (outer) and closed (inner) loops drive the
transmit power to ensure a target FER of 1-2 %
Pulsetone Industries 79
 Base station measures the received Eb/Io
 Compares it with the `Target Eb/Io‟ and
generates power UP/DOWN command
 Sends UP/DOWN command to mobile asking it to
increase or decrease the transmit power
 PC rate must be fast enough (approx 10 times the
max Doppler BW) to track multipath fading
 At 900 MHz Carrier frequency and 120 km/h
mobile speed, Doppler = 100 Hz
 In IS-95A, closed loop power control is
operated at 800 Hz update rate
 Propagation and processing delays are critical to
loop performance
Closed Loop Power Control in Reverse Link
(Contd.)
Pulsetone Industries 80
Position Of Power Control Bits
20 21 22 23 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 131415 16 17 18 19 2021 22 23 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 Frame (20 ms) consists of
16 Power Control Groups
1.25
msec
1.25 msec = 24 scrambled
traffic data bits
Power Control Bit
repeated twice
20212223
0 0 1 1
The values of these 4 bits determine the
location of power control bit in the subsequent
frame (1100 equals 12 and hence this starts
at bit position 12)
Pulsetone Industries 81
Generating Long Code
110001111
(9 bits)
Access Channel
Number
Paging Channel
Number (3 bits)
Base Station
Identification (16 bits)
Pilot Offset of
Forward Channel
(9 bits)
(5 bits) (16 bits) (9 bits)
Access Channel
Reverse Traffic Channel
1100011000
(10 bits)
Permuted ESN (32 bits)
Permuted ESN = (E0, E31, E22, E13, E4, E26, E17, E8, E30,
E21, E12, E3, E25, E16, E7, E29, E20, E11, E2, E24, E15, E6,
E28, E19, E10, E1, E23, E14, E5, E27, E18, E9)
(3 bits)
Pulsetone Industries 82
Operation Of Data Burst Randomizer
Data Burst
Randomiser
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
14
Operating at 2.4 kbps
PCG Bits
transmitted
1.25 msec
(1 PCG)
Operating at 2.4 kbps
20 msec (16 PCGs)
Pulsetone Industries 83
Forward And Reverse – Key Differences
Forward Reverse
Synchronous CDM – Walsh
codes provide channelisation
Asynchronous CDMA – Long
codes provide channelisation
Short code provides
scrambling code, helps in
identifying a BS and also
provides pilot channel for
timing recovery
Short codes provide
scrambling code and helps in
identifying BS
Data rate made up to 19.2
kbps by repeating
Data rate made up to 28.8
kbps by repeating and the
extra bits are removed by
randomiser
Walsh codes provide
orthogonal spreading –
unique for each channel
Walsh codes enablle 64-ary
orthogonal modulation
Pulsetone Industries 84
Forward And Reverse– Key Differences (Contd.)
Forward Reverse
Rate ½ Convolutional
coding is used for error
control
More robust rate 1/3 rate
Convolutional coding is
used for error control
Simple open loop power
control used
Open loop power control
as well as closed inner
loop and closed outer
loop power controls are
used
QPSK modulation is used Balanced OQPSK is used
to get a tighter control of
spectrum
Pulsetone Industries 85
Forward / Reverse Traffic Channel Payload
171 bits
0
F=12 T=8
80 bits F=8 T=8
40 bits
T=8
T=8
16 bits
48 bits (20 msec)
96 bits (20 msec)
24 bits (20 msec)
192 bits (20 msec)
F – Frame Quality Indicator
bits (CRC bits)
T – Tail bits (all zeros)
Pulsetone Industries 86
Blank And Burst & Dim And Burst
Signaling / Secondary Traffic Bits (168)
1
Primary traffic bits (80)
Primary traffic
Bits (40)
Primary
traffic (16 bits)
172 bits
0/1
1
1 0/1
0/1
11
00
01
1 0/1 10
Signaling / Secondary
Traffic Bits (88)
Signaling / Secondary
Traffic Bits (128)
Signaling / Secondary
Traffic Bits (152)
- MM bit (1) - TT bit (1)
- TM bits (2)
BB –
Blank &
Burst
Format
DB –
Dim &
Burst
Formats
MM – Mixed Mode TT – Traffic Type TM – Traffic Mode
Pulsetone Industries 87
Transmission Formats (Full Rate)
MM
Bit
TT
Bit
TM Bits Voice Bits
(Primary)
Data Bits
(Secondary)
Signaling
Bits
0

-

-

-

171

-

-

1

0

1

1

-

-

168

1

1

1

1

-

168

-

1

0

0

0

80

-

88

1

1

0

0

80

88

-

1

0

0

1

40

-

128

1

1

0

1

40

128

-

1

0

1

0

16

-

152

1

1

1

0

16

152

-

Pulsetone Industries 88
General Transmission Scheme - Reverse
 Data rate ranges from 1200 to 9600 bps
 This rate is made upto 19200 bps by rate 1/3
coding and repetition of 8 to 1
 64 orthogonal Walsh codes are used in
modulation
 This data is spread to a channel chip rate of
1.2288 Mcps using user specific long code PN-
sequence and (BS specific) Pilot PN short code
sequence
 Each IS-95 channel occupies 1.25 MHz of
spectrum
 Channel chip rate is 1.2288 Mchips/s
 Traffic channels power control is as per base
station command
Pulsetone Industries 89
Reverse Link Channel Arrangement


. . . . . . . . .
Reverse CDMA Link (1.23 MHz
channel received by base station
. .
Access
Channel
(PCH1)
Access
Channel
(PCH1)
Access
Channel
(PCHN)
Traffic
Channel
# 1
Traffic
Channel
# T
Addressed by Long Code PN
Fundamental
Code Channel
Pulsetone Industries 90
IS-95 – Key Facts
 CDMA/FDD based technology
 No need for frequency planning
 Walsh codes used in forward link for channelisation
and in reverse for modulation
 Supporting voice coding at 9.6 (4.8, 2.4, 1.2) kbps
 Channel spacing of 1.25 MHz
 Per user gross rate of 19.2 kbps
 Power control in reverse and forward link for
interfere reduction
 Soft handoff improves handoff efficiency
 Hard handoff (make before break) not supported
 Offered at least three fold spectral efficiency
Pulsetone Industries 91
IS-95 Evolution To IS-95B
 Voice quality in IS-95 was not adequate
 Data rates in IS-95A was enhanced to 14.4, 7.2, 3.6 &
1.8 kbps (called Rate Set 1 or RS1) in addition to IS-95
rates of 9.6, 4.8, 2.4 & 1.2 kbps (Rate Set 2 or RS2)
 Main idea was to support QCELP-13
 IS-95B defined forward and reverse traffic channels
having 1 fundamental code channel and up to 7
supplementary channels
 Data rates of up to 76.8 kbps in RS1 (8 x14.4) or
115.2 kbps in RS2 (8 x 14.4) can be supported
 Data Inter Working Function (IWF) was defined for
supporting packet data using these traffic channels
 Inter frequency hard handoff supported in addition to
soft handoff leading to better interworking
Pulsetone Industries 92
Forward Traffic Channel Arrangement In IS-95B


. . . . . . . . . .
Forward CDMA Link (1.2288 MHz
channel transmitted by base station
Pilot
Sync
W
0

W
7

W
8

W
63

W
32
W
1

PCH#1 PCH#7
Code#1
Code#N
Code#P
Code#55
Code#M
FTCH
FTCH with multiple code channel
Fundamental
Code Channel
Mobile Power
Control Subchannel
Supplementary
Code Channel
Pulsetone Industries 93
Reverse Traffic Channel Arrangement In IS-95B


. . . . . . . . .
Reverse CDMA Link (1.23 MHz
channel received by base station
. .
Access
Channel
(PCH1)
Access
Channel
(PCH1)
Access
Channel
(PCHN)
Traffic
Channel
# 1
Traffic
Channel
# T
Addressed by Long Code PN
Fundamental
Code Channel
Supplementary
Code Channel
Supplementary
Code Channel
. . . .

CDMA Basics

Pulsetone Industries

2

What is CDMA?

CDMA is Code Division Multiple Access

Also called Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS) Belongs to broader communication systems called Spread Spectrum

This is a wideband system having many advantages
   

Immune to narrow band interferences Exploits multipath propagation Better handover due to soft handover Increased capacity (users / sq km / MHz)
Pulsetone Industries 3

Hopped SS (FH-SS) – Carrier frequency is changed periodically Bandwidth remains the same  Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS) – Suitable for data transmission & original data spread manifold (say 8 to 1024 times) .Understanding Spread Spectrum   Normally RF bandwidth is conserved In spread spectrum communication bandwidth is deliberately increased  Evolved out of military communication • In avoiding detection and jamming • For preventing eavesdropping  There are 2 types of Spread Spectrum  Freq.This will be our focus Pulsetone Industries 4 .

the binary message bit sequence is multiplied (Ex-Ored) with a bipolar (binary) code (chip) sequence If L chips multiply every bit. then the BW of the message seq.Direct Sequence Spreading  Here. increases L times Usually we choose L of the form L = 2k    The Coding (or Spreading) Gain of the system is 3k dB Tb Tc Pulsetone Industries 5 .

Transmitted Signal R Spreading Code W freq.DS-SS Transmitter Information Spread Spectrum Transmitter freq. Processing Gain = W/R >> 1 Pulsetone Industries 6 .

DS-SS Receiver Received Signal Spread Spectrum Receiver Information R W freq. Despreading Code Pulsetone Industries 7 . freq.

Interference Rejection In SS

Spectral Density

Interfering signal

Spectral Density

Desired signal
Proc. Gain

Desired signal

Interfering signal

Frequency

Frequency

a) At the SS receiver input

b) Correlator output after despreading

Pulsetone Industries

8

Using DS-SS For Multiple Access

DS-SS techniques useful for multi access purpose  Same wide band used by different users  Spread sequences (or codes) of users to be different and mutually orthogonal  This is called Code Division Multi Access • Orthogonal codes ensure signals do not interfere with each other  Code used for despreading at the receiver has to be exactly the same • Otherwise decorrelation occurs • Orthogonal codes need to generated by simple process
Pulsetone Industries 9

Using DS-SS For Multiple Access

Spreading gain allows weaker signals to be received without errors Being a wide band signal, this is immune to multipath fading and narrow band interference Many orthogonal codes are available Walsh Codes PN Sequence – Long codes

PN Sequence – Short codes

Orthogonal codes allow efficient means of sharing a given RF spectrum by different users
Pulsetone Industries 10

(if we consider an agreement as having a weight of +1 and disagreement as having a weight of –1) Pulsetone Industries 11 . if and only if  C1 * C2 = 0 (over the period T)  Walsh codes derived from Hadamard matrixes have good properties for use as orthogonal codes  Hadamard matrices are square matrices with n x n binary elements  All rows of this matrixes are mutually orthogonal.Properties Of Orthogonal Codes  Orthogonal property  Two codes C1 & C2 having a periodicity over T are orthogonal.

Hadamard Matrices A 2n x 2n Hadamard Matrix can be generated by following the recursive procedure 0 0 0 0 00 0 1 0 1 H1 = 0 H2 = 0 1 H4 = 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 HN HN H2N = HN HN H2N are mutually 12 All 2N rows of matrix orthogonal Pulsetone Industries .

the spreading factor is (64 / 6) since 6 bits will be represented by 64 chips Pulsetone Industries 13 . the spreading factor is 64 • When it is used for modulation.Walsh Codes  The rows of Hadamard matrix are used as code words and these are called Walsh codes Walsh codes are extensively used in CDMA systems both for spreading and modulation   In IS-95 system. 64 x 64 Walsh codes are used for spreading on forward link and for modulation on reverse link • When it is used for spreading.

we have 64 Walsh chips Wi or inversion of Wi being sent depending upon whether the bit is 0 or 1 Pulsetone Industries 14 .Using Walsh Code For Spreading Traffic data of ith user (data rate of 19.2288 Mcps In every symbol time (1 bit).2 kbps) + Output after spreading Walsh Code Generator (Wi ) 1.

then this can result in {0 1 1 0}. Hence Walsh code is used for spreading on forward link where perfect synchronisation can be assured Pulsetone Industries 15 . the transmitter and receiver need to have a perfectly synchronised copies – otherwise orthogonality is not guaranteed 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 If {0 0 1 1} is used as code word.Using Walsh Code For Spreading (Contd.) Though Walsh codes have excellent properties by way of orthogonality.

Walsh Code Chip #1 1 1 1 Chip #2 1 -1 1 Chip #3 1 1 -1 Chip #4 1 -1 -1 Chip #5 1 1 1 Chip #6 1 -1 1 Chip #7 1 1 -1 Chip #8 1 -1 -1 W0 W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 16 Pulsetone Industries .

Using Walsh Code For Spreading & Multiaccess  For demonstrating CDMA (using DS-SS techniques for multi access purpose) we will do the following: Spreading (User1) Despreading (User1) Decoded User1 Data (0101) User1 Data (0101) W1 W1 User2 Data (0011) Spreading (User2) W5 Code Division Multiplexed Output Despreading (User2) Decoded User2 Data (0011) W5 17 Pulsetone Industries .

User1 Data W1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 Output1 User2 Data 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 -1 -1 -2 -1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 -1 -1 -2 -1 2 1 -1 -1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 -1 0 1 -1 -1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 -1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 -1 -1 0 -1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 -1 -1 0 -1 0 1 -1 -1 -2 1 -2 1 1 1 2 -1 -2 1 -1 -1 -2 1 -2 1 1 1 2 -1 -2 W5 Output2 Sum W1 Product Total User1 Data  = +8 (+8/8 = +1 >0) 0  = -8 (-8/8 = -1 <0) 1 W5 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 Product Total User2 Data 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2  = +8 (+8/8 = +1 >0) 0 Pulsetone Industries  = +8 (+8/8 = +1 >0) 0 18 .

User1 Data W1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 Output1 User2 Data 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 W5 Output2 Sum W1 1 -1 0 1 -1 1 0 -1 1 -1 0 1 -1 1 0 -1 -1 1 2 1 1 -1 -2 -1 -1 1 2 1 1 -1 -2 -1 1 -1 -2 1 -1 1 2 -1 1 -1 -2 1 -1 1 2 -1 -1 1 0 1 1 -1 0 -1 -1 1 0 1 1 -1 0 -1 Product Total User1 Data 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 -2 -2 -2 -2 0 0 0 0  = +8 (+8/8 = +1 >0) 0  = -8 (-8/8 = -1 <0) 1 W5 Product Total User2 Data 1 0 -1 0 1 0 -1 0 -1 1 -1 -2 1 1 -1 -2 1 -1 -1 0 1 0 -1 0 1 0 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2  = -8 (-8/8 = -1 <0) 1 Pulsetone Industries  = -8 (-8/8 = -1 <0) 1 19 .

2 kcps) 4.Using Walsh Code For Modulation Walsh code is used in reverse traffic channel of IS95 for modulating user traffic data Traffic data of ith user (data rate of 28.8 ksps (6 bits / symbol) In everys symbol time (6 bits).8 kbps) Modulator using Walsh Code Symbol Generator Output after Modulation (307. we send chips of a particular Walsh code depending upon the 6 bit combination Pulsetone Industries 20 .

Using Walsh Code For Modulation (Contd.k) = (64.6) with dmin = 32 (in fact the distance between any code word is 32) Pulsetone Industries 21 .)  This improves reception at the base station – detecting forward link is more difficult due to NearFar problem and non-coherent detection Modulation using orthogonal Walsh codes enhances the decision making algorithm at the receiver and is computationally efficient   We can view this Walsh modulation as a form of block error correcting code with (n.

W6. W4. W5 .Using Walsh Code For Modulation Serial to Parallel Converter Modulation Using Walsh Codes Modulated output (k*8/3 chips per sec) Data rate k bits per sec Rate k/3 symbols per sec (3 bits / Symbol) {W0. W7} Pulsetone Industries 22 . W1. W3. W2.

Modulation Scheme Symbol Bits D2 0 D1 0 D0 0 Walsh code chosen for modulation W0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Pulsetone Industries W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 23 .

Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code   Bit Sequence to be transmitted (101011001110) Converting to symbols with 3 bits / symbol  [101 011 001 110] {W5 W3 W1 W6} Corresponding chips are • {1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1} Pulsetone Industries 24  Modulating with Walsh codes as per table yields   .

) Correlation Receiver W1 Correlation Receiver W0 W2 Correlation Receiver Correlation Receiver W3 Correlation Receiver Received Chips W4 Threshold Decision Maker Decoded Symbol W5 Correlation Receiver Correlation Receiver W6 W7 Correlation Receiver Pulsetone Industries 25 .Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code (Contd.

)   Demodulation is done by correlating the received chips with various Walsh chips and finding the match with maximum likelihood decoding Taking the chips in the first symbol {1-11-1-1111} and doing this for W0 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1  = 0 (Minimum matching) • For W1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 26  = 0 (Minimum matching) Pulsetone Industries .Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code (Contd.

Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code (Contd.)  For W2 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1  = 0 (Minimum matching) •For W3 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1  = 0 (Minimum matching) •For W4 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 27  = 0 (Minimum matching) Pulsetone Industries .

Illustrating Modulation Using Walsh Code (Contd.)  For W5 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1  = 8 (Maximum matching) •For W6 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1  = 0 (Minimum matching) •For W7 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 28  = 0 (Minimum matching) Pulsetone Industries .

Other Spreading Codes   CDMA systems use multiple spreading. each spreading serving a different purpose So we need many classes of spreading codes  User specific codes: A large number of mobiles need to be allotted spreading codes and these have to be administered & synchronised  Station Specific codes: On the forward link we need to spread the combined signal to have a station specific spreading to provide isolation between transmissions of different base stations  Scrambling codes: Not all Walsh codes generate wide band signals (like W0) we need to scramble the data so that the resulting signal is truly wideband Pulsetone Industries 29 .

and so on P3: Delay and Add Property • Equal number of agreements and disagreements between a sequence and its shifted version Pulsetone Industries 30   .Properties Of Spreading Code  Desired Randomness Properties  P1: Balance Property • Relative frequencies of occurrence of 1‟s and 0‟s should be 1/2 P2: Run Length Property • Run lengths of 1‟s and 0‟s are as expected in a coin-flipping experiment • 1/2 of all run lengths are unity. • 1/8 of the run lengths are 3. • 1/4 of the run lengths are 2.

is given by P  2m  1 Pulsetone Industries 31 . where m is the number of shift registers used to generate the sequence  Period of an m-sequence P.PN Sequences   Psuedo-random Noise (PN) Sequences  A deterministically generated sequence that `nearly‟ satisfies properties P1 to P3 . within extremely small discrepancies Maximum Length Shift Register (MLSR) generated sequences  Are PN sequences which nearly satisfy P1 to P3  Also called as m-sequence.

f(D). G(D). Generating Function. is given by G ( D )  [G(D) is the generated sequence] an D n  n 0  Characteristic polynomial.MLSR Sequence Generator an   ci an i i 1 r a n 1 D D an  2 D an  r D: Delay operator c1 c2 cr 0. No connection ci   Connection 1. is given by f ( D )  1  [ƒ(D) gives the tap connections of Seq Gen] Pulsetone Industries c D i 1 i r i 32 .

3-stage MLSR Sequence Generator D Clock Sequence No 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 X0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 D D PN Sequence Output + X1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 Pulsetone Industries X2 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 33 .

Generating PN Sequence With Offset PN Sequences with known offset can be generated by starting with an Initial State (seed) PN codes are generated unique to mobiles by using ESN as seed at both MS and BS Initial State 001 100 010 101 110 111 011 Output Sequence 1001011 0010111 0101110 1011100 0111001 1110010 1100101 Pulsetone Industries 34 .

Autocorrelation Function Of PN Sequence 1 PN Period = N Tc 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Binary PN Seq. 1 0 N  Pulsetone Industries 35 . Tc   Tc 1 1 1  1/N ACF Tc Tc For large N.

Near-Far Problem  CDMA base station receives signals from all mobile stations  All of them transmit on the same wideband channel with only channelisation codes / PN long codes to discriminate the signals If we assume that all of them transmit with same power • The signal from far off mobile will be comparatively weaker than the signal from a near by mobile • This has to be detected in the presence of a stronger signal from a nearby mobile Pulsetone Industries 36  .

)  This problem is called “Near-Far” Problem and this problem gets further compounded by fading and other short term variations that take place due to the channel Solution is to tightly control the power transmitted by all mobiles so that they are seen with equal power at the base station • This is done by closed loop power control whereby the mobiles are asked to vary power continuously to meet the target  Pulsetone Industries 37 .Near-Far Problem (Contd.

Rake Receiver Principles  Multipath creates ISI (inter symbol interference) problem in conventional data transmission  However. in the case of CDMA the chip rate being much is handled differently by constructively combining the multipath signals to improve signal to noise ratio  This is done in RAKE receiver where a separate correlator (called RAKE finger) is assigned for each multipath signal  Typically MS has 4 RAKE fingers and out of these 3 are used for combining signals and 1 is used as a searcher Pulsetone Industries 38 .

Rake Receiver Principles (Contd.) 1 a1 Input + Data Code Generator MOD 2 3 a2 a3  Multipath channel + DEMOD c(t-1) a´1 RAKE receiver + a`2 c(t-2) a`3 + c(t-3) Pulsetone Industries  Output data 39 .

coarse timing of different multipaths • to select desired (strongest) base station in idle mode • to provide hypothesis testing and coarse timing estimation • to generate pilot strength information messages during traffic mode to enable Handoff Pulsetone Industries 40 .Rake Receiver Principles (Contd.)  RAKE fingers are used in the Mobile Rx for combining multipath components  3 fingers for tracking and demodulating upto 3 different multipath signals of Forward channel  1 searcher for searching and estimating signal strength on different pilots.

Power Control On Reverse Link
Gain

Transmitter Duplexer Receiver

Open Loop Power Control

Mobile Station

Closed Loop Power Control

Base Station

Gain

Transmitter Duplexer Receiver Duplexer Control path for closed loop power Industries control Pulsetone

Receiver

Transmitter
41

Power Control
 

To combat the effect of fading, shadowing and distance losses Transmit only the minimum required power to achieve a target link performance (e.g., FER)  Minimizes interference  Increases battery life Forward Link Power Control  To send enough power to reach users at cell edge Reverse Link Power Control is very critical  To overcome “near-far” problem in DS-CDMA

Pulsetone Industries

42

Handoffs In IS-95 CDMA

Types of Handoff  Soft Handoff • Mobile commences communication with a new BS without interrupting communication with old BS • same frequency assignment between old and new BS • provides different site selection diversity  Softer handoff • Handoffs between sectors in a cell  CDMA-to-CDMA Hard Handoff • Mobile transmits between two base stations with different frequency assignment
Pulsetone Industries 43

the other one is unlikely to experience deep fade  In space diversity we may receive through 2 antennas separated in space and combine the signals to improve the performance  We call this Micro Diversity • RAKE receiver combining mulipaths from the same BS can also be called some form of micro diversity Pulsetone Industries 44 .Micro Vs Macro Diversity  Diversity principles are used to improve RF signal quality  This is based on the fact that statistical properties of two or more paths will be uncorrelated • When one path is experiencing deep fade.

Micro Vs Macro Diversity (Contd.)  What we do during soft hand off is Macro Diversity. where 2 or more BSs are beaming the same signal toward the same MS  The received signals are combined in RAKE receiver Resulting signal will be much better than any individual one   Transmission by MS is received by all BSs and the best signal received is selected at the BSC / MSC Macro diversity is a boon in CDMA system Pulsetone Industries 45  .

Handoffs In IS-95 CDMA (Contd.)  Basis for Handoff  MS does measurements on Pilot channels on serving base station + other base stations • Search finger in RAKE receiver helps Ms • Information about neighbouring PN offsets provided by BS in System_Parameter helps  MS classifies the Pilots into 4 categories • Active Set • Candidate Set • Neighbour Set • Remaining Set  These sets are dynamically updated based upon the measurements Pulsetone Industries 46 .

Handoffs In IS-95 CDMA (Contd.)  Pilot Sets  Active Set • Pilots associated with Forward Link traffic channels assigned to the mobile in soft handoff  Candidate Set • Pilots that are not in Active Set but are received by the mobile with sufficient strength  Neighbour Set • Pilots not in Active or Candidate Set but are likely candidates for handoff  Remaining Set • Set in the current system on current freq assignment. excluding the above 3 sets Pulsetone Industries 47 .

Soft Handoff Architecture Frame Selection: MSC selects the bit stream with lower error rate To other switch MSC BSC BSC BTS BTS Old Link New Link BTS BTS Mobile Energy measurements are made at the mobile Pulsetone Industries 48 .

Micro Vs Macro Diversity (Contd.) Active Set Total EC/It EC/It Pilot 2 Pilot 1 Dynamic Soft Handoff Region Time or Distance Pulsetone Industries 49 .

Handoff Example Pilot Strength T_ADD T_DROP (1) (2) (3) Neighbour Candidate Active Set Set Set (4) (5) (6) (7) Neighbour Set Time T_TDROP Pulsetone Industries 50 .

) (1) Pilot strength exceeds T_ADD.Handoff Example (Contd. Mobile sends a Pilot Strength Measurement Message (PSMM) to base station and transfers pilot to the Candidate Set (2) Base station sends a Handoff Direction Message (HDM) (3) Mobile transfers pilot to Active Set and sends Handoff Completion Message (HCM) (4) Pilot strength drops below T_DROP. Mobile starts handoff drop timer (5) Handoff drop timer expires. Mobile sends a PSMM (6) Base station sends a HDM (7) Mobile moves pilot from Active Set to Neighbour Set and sends a HCM Pulsetone Industries 51 .

this is immune to multipath propagation  RAKE receiver exploits multipath to improve reception No frequency planning is required since the same frequency can be used in nearby cell also Offers advantage of soft capacity and soft handoff Suffers form “Near-Far” problem     Tight closed loop power control is required to overcome this problem Pulsetone Industries 52  Offers more capacity than FDMA or TDMA systems .Recap Of CDMA  Being a wideband system.

8 sec. much smaller than multi path delay)  Multi path can be resolved and constructively combined using RAKE receivers  Thus we are able to exploit the multi path propagation for improving the signal to noise ratio Pulsetone Industries 53 .69 sec vis-à-vis delay spreads of 3-8 sec CDMA is a wideband system (IS-95 symbol time is about 0.Advantages of CDMA   In mobile environment multi path propagation is a serious issue resulting in ISI  Multi path is not resolvable in narrow band systems where symbol time is comparable to multi path delay • GSM has symbol time of 3.

IS-95 System Pulsetone Industries 54 .

25 MHz wide (1.Overview Of IS-95 System  IS-95 is a proprietary design by Qualcomm  Developed to overcome capacity issues in AMPS   Network architecture greatly influenced by GSM Meant for supporting circuit mode voice services  Has been enhanced for supporting data services   DS-SS on both Forward and Reverse links Universal frequency reuse requiring no frequency planning  64 Walsh Codes used supporting a theoretical maximum of 64 active users  Channel of 1.2288 Mcps chip rate) Pulsetone Industries 55 .

Overview Of IS-95 System (Contd.)     Fast power control to combat Near-Far problem RAKE receiver to take advantage of multipath Soft handoff making use of macro diversity Qualcomm 9600 bps Code Excited Linear Predictive (QCELP) speech coder with a variable data rate from 9600 bps to 1200 bps is used  CDMA system is interference limited with soft capacity  Interference reduction is a dominant theme Variable rate coding for reducing the duty cycle Closed loop power control Pulsetone Industries 56 .

Is-95 Network Architecture OS WPT0 AUX IWF PSPDN O TE1 Sm WPT1 TE2 Sm TAP TE2 Rm WPT2 X L MSC Pi PSTN Ai Um BTS Abis BSC E MSC A F Di Mi C B ISDN PLMN MS HLRD VLR H TR-45 / 46 Reference Model EIR AC Pulsetone Industries G Other VLR 57 .

Logical Channels In Is-95 System Control Channels Forward Reverse Access Pilot Sync Paging Traffic Channels Speech or Data Associated Signaling Full Rate 1/2 Rate 1/4 Rate 1/8 Rate Blank & Burst Dim & Burst Power Control (Forward) 58 Pulsetone Industries .

Forward And Reverse Channels   Forward Channels (making up a total of max 64)  1 Pilot Channel  1 Synchronisation Channel  Upto 7 Paging Channels  Traffic Channels Reverse Channels  Access Channels called Random Access Channels  Traffic Channels Pulsetone Industries 59 .

. Code#N . W63 PCH#1 Code#M FTCH Code#P FTCH with multiple code channel Fundamental Code Channel Mobile Power Control Subchannel Pulsetone Industries 60 .2288 MHz channel transmitted by base station Sync W0 W32 W1 Pilot . Code#55 . . . .Forward Link Channel Arrangement Forward CDMA Link (1. Code#1 W7 W8 PCH#7 . . .

Forward   Data rate ranges from 1200 to 9600 bps This rate is made upto 19200 bps by rate ½ coding and repetition of 8 to 1 This data is spread to a channel chip rate of 1.25 MHz of spectrum    Channel chip rate is 1.2288 Mcps using combination of techniques Each IS-95 channel occupies 1.2288 Mchips/s  64 orthogonal Walsh functions are used in forward channel for spreading purpose Pulsetone Industries 61 .General Transmission Scheme .

667 msec  All base stations use the same PN sequence.768 {(215-1) PN Sequence plus a „0‟} • Corresponds to a period of 26. with unique offsets in increments of 64 chips  Base stations are identified by their unique offset Pulsetone Industries 62 .Pilot Channel    Pilot channel is the first channel mobile looks for Its power level is kept 4 to 6 dB above traffic channels  Provides phase reference for coherent demodulation  Allows pilot strength measurement for handoff This is carried on Code Channel 0 (uses W0)  Results in transmitting the station PN sequence with a length of 32.

2288 Mcps Balanced QPSK Walsh Function 0 (all zeros) I-Chl Pilot PN Seq Q-Chl Pilot PN Seq Pilot takes 15-20% of total Tx power Pulsetone Industries 63 .Modulation Structure Of Pilot Channel all zeros 1.

1 Chip 64 Chips 64 Chips 64 Chips Pulsetone Industries 64 .768 Chips …………………………………………………………………….Station Specific PN Short Codes & Offsets Short Short code 0 code 1 Short Short code i code I+1 Short code k Short code 511 Short code 0 32.

Long Code State. Pilot short PN sequence offset index (PILOT_PN). System time.8 or 9. Pulsetone Industries 65 .Synchronisation Channel   This always operates at a fixed data rate of 1200 bps After rate ½ convolutional coding and repetition (of 2) the date rate becomes 4800 bps This gets spread by Code Channel 32 (W32) operating at 1. etc. Paging channel data rate (4. Network Identification (NID).6 kbps).2288 Mcps   Sync Channel message has the following information  System Identification (SID).

8 Kbps Block Inter-leave 4.8 Kbps 1. Data 4. Channel typically has about 10% of the Tx power of the Pilot Q-Chl Pilot PN Seq Pulsetone Industries 66 . K = 9 Sync.2288 Mcps Balanced QPSK I-Chl Pilot PN Seq Sync.Modulation Structure Of Synchronisation Channel Walsh Code 32 Convolutional Encoder 1.2Kbps and Repetition r =1/2.

6 kbps) Pulsetone Industries 67 .6 kbps  The format is similar to that of Sync channel message  8 bit length indicator.8 or 9.Paging Channel  Paging channel is used to transmit control information at either 4.8 kbps) and 96 bits (9. 2-1146 bits long data. 30 bit CRC  Paging message can use synchronised capsules that end on a half frame boundary or unsynchronised capsules that can end anywhere • Synchronised capsules use padding bits to reach the nearest half frame boundary • Synchronised paging messages carry multiple of 48 bits (4.

)   Eight paging channel half-frames are combined to forma a paging channel slot of length 80 msec (384 bits at 4800 bps and 768 bits at 9600 bps) Type of messages carried by paging channel include System parameter message Access parameter message Neighbour list message CDMA carrier list message Slotted page / Page message Order messages Channel assignment messages Authentication challenge message Pulsetone Industries 68 .Paging Channel (Contd.

8 kbps) 4.2288 Mcps I-Chl Pilot PN Seq Q-Chl Pilot PN Seq Totally.Modulation Structure Of Paging Channel Walsh Code p (1-7) Convolutional 19.2 Kbps Encoder Block (and Repetition Inter-leave 9.2288 Mcps Scrambling Code -. the Paging Channels have about 75% of the Tx power of the Pilot Pulsetone Industries 69 .2Kbps 1.2Kcps Balanced QPSK Decimator Long code mask for pth paging channel 1.6Kbps for 4.19.8Kbps r =1/2. K = 9 Long Code generator Paging Data 19.

Frame 80 ms I=0. PGSLOT = Slot number 6 out of every 16 slots Pulsetone Industries 70 Mobile in Nonactive State . T=2 =1.Slotted Operation Of Paging Channel 1 Slot Cycle 1.28 Seconds 2047 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Paging Channel Slot Mobile in Reacquisition Nonactive State Time 8 Paging Channel Half.

4800.Forward Traffic Channel  This channel is used for carrying user traffic  Data rates are 9600. 2400 and 1200 with lower data rates being associated with low voice activity  Convolutional coding. symbol repetition and block interleaving make the data rate 19.2288 Mcps Pulsetone Industries 71 .2 kbps  Scrambling of user data is achieved using long code generated with mobile‟s ESN as long code mask and used for scrambling user data after a decimator block  Power control subchannel @ 800 bps is added by stealing the scrambled bits  Walsh code Wi (for the ith channel) spreads this rate to 1.

Modulation Structure Of Forward Traffic Channel Power Control Bit M U X Walsh Code i 1.67msecs) Pulsetone Industries 72 . K = 9 1200 bps Block Interleaver (24x16) 19. 215-1=26.2288 Mcps User data (Taffic) Convolutional Encoder 9600 bps and Repetition 4800 bps 2400 bps r =1/2.2288 Mcps I-Chl Pilot PN Seq Q-Chl Pilot PN Seq Long code for ith user (Short Code of BS.2 kbps Scrambling (use 1/64) Long Code generator Decimator Balanced QPSK 800 Hz (use 1/64x24) Decimator 1.

Access Channel  Access channel is used by the mobile to transmit control information like call origination and response to paging   Data rate is 4800 bps Each access channel is identified by a distinct long code sequence having an access number. Page response message. Origination messages. a paging channel number associated with the access channel and other system data  Types of access channel messages are  Registration message. Order message. Authentication challenge response message and so on Pulsetone Industries 73 .

Modulation Structure of Access Channel Long code Mask of Long Code Access Channel generator 4800 bps Convolutional Encoder and Repetition r =1/3. K = 9 1.2288 Mcps Code symbol Block Interleaver 32x18 28.8 Kbps Walsh chip Data burst randomizer Offset QPSK 64-ary Orthogonal Modulator Pilot PN Seq Q Chl Pilot PN Seq I Chl D 1/2 chip delay 307.2 Kcps { 28.8 (64/6) } Modulator Pulsetone Industries 74 .

8 kbps Interleaved data at 28. 4800.2288 msps Finally the Pilot PN code is used for scrambling Pulsetone Industries 75 .2 ksps PN long code generated using user‟s ESN as seed is used for taking out the repeated data and for spreading this 4-fold to 1.Reverse Traffic Channel       This channel is used for carrying user traffic Data rates are 9600. symbol repetition and block interleaving make the data rate 28. 2400 and 1200 with lower data rates being associated with low voice activity Convolutional coding (rate 1/3).8 kbps is modulated using Walsh code with 6 bits being used as symbol to select one of 64 Walsh codes to get modulated data at 307.

8 (64/6) } Modulator Pulsetone Industries 76 .2 Kcps { 28.8 Kbps Walsh chip Data burst randomizer Offset QPSK Encoder and Repetition r =1/3.Modulation Structure of Reverse Traffic Channel Long code Mask for user i Long Code generator 1. K = 9 64-ary Orthogonal Modulator Pilot PN Seq Q Chl Pilot PN Seq I Chl D 1/2 chip delay 307.2288 Mcps 9600 bps 4800 bps 2400 bps 1200 bps Convolutional Code symbol Block Interleaver 32x18 28.

Power Control   Types of Power Control  Open Loop Power Control  Closed Loop Power Control – based on feedback Open Loop Power Control (on forward link)  Channel state on the forward link is estimated by mobile  Reverse link transmit power made proportional to forward link channel loss  Works well if forward link and reverse link are highly correlated • which is generally true for slowly varying distance and shadow losses • but not true with fast multipath Rayleigh fading Pulsetone Industries 77 .

1 dB • Errors on account of power control bits recovered by error decoding  Outer Loop Power control – for maintaining performance of individual links • Done by means of messages • Takes somewhat longer time to effect changes  Both open (outer) and closed (inner) loops drive the transmit power to ensure a target FER of 1-2 % Pulsetone Industries 78 .Closed Loop Power Control in Reverse Link  Reverse link subjected to  Inner Loop Power control – for overcoming NearFar problem • Control bits are punctured into the traffic data stream • Closed loop power control step size is +/.

)      Base station measures the received Eb/Io Compares it with the `Target Eb/Io‟ and generates power UP/DOWN command Sends UP/DOWN command to mobile asking it to increase or decrease the transmit power PC rate must be fast enough (approx 10 times the max Doppler BW) to track multipath fading  At 900 MHz Carrier frequency and 120 km/h mobile speed. Doppler = 100 Hz  In IS-95A.Closed Loop Power Control in Reverse Link (Contd. closed loop power control is operated at 800 Hz update rate Propagation and processing delays are critical to loop performance Pulsetone Industries 79 .

Position Of Power Control Bits 1.25 msec 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 Frame (20 ms) consists of 16 Power Control Groups 1.25 msec = 24 scrambled traffic data bits Power Control Bit repeated twice 20 21 22 23 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 131415 16 17 18 19 2021 22 23 0 1 2 3 20212223 0 0 1 1 The values of these 4 bits determine the location of power control bit in the subsequent frame (1100 equals 12 and hence this starts at bit position 12) Pulsetone Industries 80 .

E16. E13. E3. E24. E2. E14. E31. E18. E20. E4. E28. E30. E7. E12. E26. E27. E17. E15. E11.Generating Long Code Access Channel Access Channel Number 110001111 (5 bits) (3 bits) (9 bits) Paging Channel Number (3 bits) Base Station Identification (16 bits) (16 bits) (9 bits) Pilot Offset of Forward Channel (9 bits) Reverse Traffic Channel 1100011000 (10 bits) Permuted ESN (32 bits) Permuted ESN = (E0. E19. E9) Pulsetone Industries 81 . E29. E25. E21. E23. E10. E22. E6. E8. E1. E5.

4 kbps 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 PCG Bits transmitted Pulsetone Industries 82 .25 msec (1 PCG) Data Burst Randomiser Operating at 2.Operation Of Data Burst Randomizer 20 msec (16 PCGs) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1.

8 kbps by repeating and the extra bits are removed by randomiser Walsh codes enablle 64-ary orthogonal modulation Pulsetone Industries 83 Walsh codes provide orthogonal spreading – unique for each channel .Forward And Reverse – Key Differences Forward Synchronous CDM – Walsh codes provide channelisation Short code provides scrambling code.2 kbps by repeating Reverse Asynchronous CDMA – Long codes provide channelisation Short codes provide scrambling code and helps in identifying BS Data rate made up to 28. helps in identifying a BS and also provides pilot channel for timing recovery Data rate made up to 19.

Forward And Reverse– Key Differences (Contd.) Forward Rate ½ Convolutional coding is used for error control Simple open loop power control used Reverse More robust rate 1/3 rate Convolutional coding is used for error control Open loop power control as well as closed inner loop and closed outer loop power controls are used Balanced OQPSK is used to get a tighter control of spectrum 84 QPSK modulation is used Pulsetone Industries .

Forward / Reverse Traffic Channel Payload 0 171 bits F=12 T=8 192 bits (20 msec) 80 bits F=8 T=8 96 bits (20 msec) T – Tail bits (all zeros) 40 bits T=8 48 bits (20 msec) 16 bits T=8 24 bits (20 msec) F – Frame Quality Indicator bits (CRC bits) Pulsetone Industries 85 .

TT bit (1) .MM bit (1) 1 0/1 11 .Blank And Burst & Dim And Burst .TM bits (2) Signaling / Secondary Traffic Bits (168) 172 bits Primary traffic bits (80) Signaling / Secondary Traffic Bits (88) BB – Blank & Burst Format 1 0/1 00 1 0/1 01 Primary traffic Bits (40) Signaling / Secondary Traffic Bits (128) DB – Dim & Burst Formats Primary 1 0/1 10 traffic (16 bits) Signaling / Secondary Traffic Bits (152) MM – Mixed Mode TT – Traffic Type TM – Traffic Mode Pulsetone Industries 86 .

Transmission Formats (Full Rate) MM Bit 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TT Bit 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 TM Bits Voice Bits (Primary) 171 80 80 40 40 16 16 Data Bits (Secondary) 168 88 128 152 Signaling Bits 168 88 128 152 87 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Pulsetone Industries .

General Transmission Scheme .2288 Mchips/s  Traffic channels power control is as per base station command Pulsetone Industries 88 .2288 Mcps using user specific long code PNsequence and (BS specific) Pilot PN short code sequence Each IS-95 channel occupies 1.Reverse   Data rate ranges from 1200 to 9600 bps  This rate is made upto 19200 bps by rate 1/3 coding and repetition of 8 to 1  64 orthogonal Walsh codes are used in modulation  This data is spread to a channel chip rate of 1.25 MHz of spectrum  Channel chip rate is 1.

23 MHz channel received by base station Access Channel (PCH1) .Reverse Link Channel Arrangement Reverse CDMA Link (1.. Fundamental Code Channel Addressed by Long Code PN Pulsetone Industries 89 . Traffic Channel #1 . . . Traffic Channel #T . . .. Access Channel (PCH1) . Access Channel (PCHN) .

2 kbps Power control in reverse and forward link for interfere reduction      Soft handoff improves handoff efficiency  Hard handoff (make before break) not supported Pulsetone Industries 90  Offered at least three fold spectral efficiency .6 (4.4. 1. 2.IS-95 – Key Facts    CDMA/FDD based technology No need for frequency planning Walsh codes used in forward link for channelisation and in reverse for modulation Supporting voice coding at 9.25 MHz Per user gross rate of 19.8.2) kbps Channel spacing of 1.

4.4) can be supported Data Inter Working Function (IWF) was defined for supporting packet data using these traffic channels Inter frequency hard handoff supported in addition to soft handoff leading to better interworking Pulsetone Industries 91 . 2. 3.6 & 1.2 kbps (Rate Set 2 or RS2)  Main idea was to support QCELP-13 IS-95B defined forward and reverse traffic channels having 1 fundamental code channel and up to 7 supplementary channels  Data rates of up to 76.4 & 1.2 kbps in RS2 (8 x 14.8 kbps (called Rate Set 1 or RS1) in addition to IS-95 rates of 9.8 kbps in RS1 (8 x14.4.4) or 115.2.IS-95 Evolution To IS-95B      Voice quality in IS-95 was not adequate Data rates in IS-95A was enhanced to 14.8. 7.6.

. Code#1 W7 W8 PCH#7 . . . Code#N .2288 MHz channel transmitted by base station Sync W0 W32 W1 Pilot .Forward Traffic Channel Arrangement In IS-95B Forward CDMA Link (1. . W63 PCH#1 Code#M FTCH Code#P FTCH with multiple code channel Fundamental Code Channel Supplementary Mobile Power Code Channel Control Subchannel Pulsetone Industries 92 . Code#55 . . .

Fundamental Code Channel ..Reverse Traffic Channel Arrangement In IS-95B Reverse CDMA Link (1. Access Channel (PCH1) . Traffic Channel #1 . . . . . Supplementary Code Channel Addressed by Long Code PN Pulsetone Industries 93 . Traffic Channel #T .. . Supplementary Code Channel .23 MHz channel received by base station Access Channel (PCH1) . . Access Channel (PCHN) .

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