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Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints

10.3 MATHEMATICS OF THE JOINT 10.3.1 BASIC EQUATIONS
Let’s return now to the first joint diagram—which we’ll use more than the second—and write some equations which will help us analyze and design tensile joints [2]. Figures 10.12 and 10.20 show a completed diagram. The central line, labeled FP could be representing either maximum or minimum residual ‘‘relaxed’’ preload. We’ll call it just FP at this point to avoid two sets of essentially identical equations. So—the diagram illustrates Fp ¼ initial preload (lb, N) LX ¼ external tension load (lb, N) DFB ¼ change in load in bolt (lb, N) DFJ ¼ change in load in joint (lb, N) DL, DL0 ¼ elongation of bolt before and after application of the external load (in., mm) DT, DT 0 ¼ compression of joint members before and after application of the external load (in., mm) LXcrit ¼ external load required to completely unload joint (lb, N) (not shown in the diagram) The spring constants or stiffness of the bolt and joint can be defined as follows: For the bolt: KB ¼ For the joint: KJ ¼ FP DT (10:9) FP ÁL (10:8)

By using trigonometry, and by recognizing similar triangles where they occur, we can now derive the following useful expressions:

∆F B LX

∆FJ FB FP FJ OB ∆L OJ ∆L ∆T ∆T

FIGURE 10.20 Completed joint diagram.