Key To Transliteration & Pronunciation of Sanskrit Letters A a but, up Aa ā calm, father # $ % i sit, fill, lily ī beet, feel u put, full

, bush 'œ ì sing, monkey, puncture c! c chunk, chum Dœ ch catch him j! j john, jump p! p spin, punish

)œ ph loophole, sphere b! b bin, but

É! bh abhor m! m much, mud y! y young, loyal r! l! v! r drama, rub l luck v avert, verb

H! jh hedgehog, jhaj |! ï bunch, sinje qœ ö start, term

^ ū pool, fool, tool \ å rhythm, Christmas § è \-elongated @ e tape, prey

Qœ öh anthill fœ ò dart, double Fœ òh godhead, adhere [! ë under, hunting t! t path

@e ai high, I Aae o toe, go, store AaE au loud, out kœ k skate, come, seek o! kh blockhead, khaki g! g gate, girl "! gh loghut, aghast

z! ś shove, shirt 1 ;! s! hœ ñ bushel, sharp s so, servant h hum, her

w! th thunder, third dœ d that

A< à glum 2 A> ù ah 3 ¤ ÿ

x! dh breathe n! n numb, nut

1. This has no equivalent in English. It is a palatal.

2. This is called anusvāra, a nasal, derived either from a m! or a n! independent, but incapable of being above the line 3. This is called visarga. The word visarga literally means letting out the breath from the mouth. It is

pronounced without a vowel preceding it. Hence, it is shown above with A although its form is only a dot

pronounced as an aspirated sound. Like the anusvāra, the visarga is incapable of being independently after the vowel preceding it Note: The sign ! below the consonants indicates that it is a mere consonant without a vowel

uttered. Hence, it is written for convenience as A> although its form for writing purposes is only two dots (>)

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